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Sample records for mean-square charge radii

  1. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Barzakh, A. E. Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2015-10-15

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  2. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2015-10-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for 189-198, 211Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  3. Changes in mean-squared charge radii and magnetic moments of Tl-184179 measured by in-source laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Andreyev, A. N.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Ferrer, R.; Fink, D. A.; Ghys, L.; Huyse, M.; Köster, U.; Lane, J.; Liberati, V.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Procter, T. J.; Rapisarda, E.; Rothe, S.; Sandhu, K.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Sjödin, A. M.; Van Beveren, C.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Veselský, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperfine structure and isotope shifts have been measured for the ground and isomeric states in the neutron-deficient isotopes Tl-184179 using the 276.9-nm transition. The experiment has been performed at the CERN-Isotope Separator On-Line facility using the in-source resonance-ionization laser spectroscopy technique. Spins for the ground states in 179,181,183Tl have been determined as I =1 /2 . Magnetic moments and changes in the nuclear mean-square charge radii have been deduced. By applying the additivity relation for magnetic moments of the odd-odd Tl nuclei the leading configuration assignments were confirmed. A deviation of magnetic moments for isomeric states in Tl,184182 from the trend of the heavier Tl nuclei is observed. The charge radii of the ground states of the isotopes Tl-184179 follow the trend for isotonic (spherical) lead nuclei. The noticeable difference in charge radii for ground and isomeric states of Tl,184183 has been observed, suggesting a larger deformation for the intruder-based 9 /2- and 10- states compared to the ground states. An unexpected growth of the isomer shift for 183Tl has been found.

  4. Changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Mezilev, K. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2013-08-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron-deficient thallium isotopes at the 276.9-nm atomic transition have been carried out at the Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data on isotope shifts and the hyperfine structure for 183-207Tl isotopes and isomers are presented. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic-moment values are deduced. It is shown that nuclear properties of Tl isotopes and isomers smoothly change at the neutron midshell and beyond without development of strong deformation in contrast to the adjacent Hg nuclei. A rather great isomer shift between I = 1/2 and I = 9/2 states for odd Tl isotopes is preserved for both sides of the previously investigated mass range. For the first time, a similar isomer shift is found for the odd-odd isotope 186Tl. The close resemblance of the charge radii isotopic behavior for the Tl and Pb ground states is demonstrated.

  5. Mean-square radii of two-component three-body systems in two spatial dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, J. H.; Bellotti, F. F.; Jensen, A. S.; Yamashita, M. T.

    2016-08-01

    We calculate root-mean-square radii for a three-body system confined to two spatial dimensions and consisting of two identical bosons (A ) and one distinguishable particle (B ). We use zero-range two-body interactions between each of the pairs, and focus thereby directly on universal properties. We solve the Faddeev equations in momentum space and express the mean-square radii in terms of first-order derivatives of the Fourier transforms of densities. The strengths of the interactions are adjusted for each set of masses to produce equal two-body bound-state energies between different pairs. The mass ratio, A =mB/mA , between particles B and A are varied from 0.01 to 100, providing a number of bound states decreasing from 8 to 2. Energies and mean-square radii of these states are analyzed for small A by use of the Born-Oppenheimer potential between the two heavy A particles. For large A the radii of the two bound states are consistent with a slightly asymmetric three-body structure. When A approaches thresholds for binding of the three-body excited states, the corresponding mean-square radii diverge inversely proportional to the deviation of the three-body energy from the two-body thresholds. The structures at these three-body thresholds correspond to bound A B dimers and one loosely bound A particle.

  6. Evaluation of Particle Numbers via Two Root Mean Square Radii in a 2-Species Bose-Einstein Condensate*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yan-Zhang; Liu, Yi-Min; Bao, Cheng-Guang

    2017-08-01

    The coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for two-species BEC have been solved analytically under the Thomas-Fermi approximation (TFA). Based on the analytical solution, two formulae are derived to relate the particle numbers NA and NB with the root mean square radii of the two kinds of atoms. Only the case that both kinds of atoms have nonzero distribution at the center of an isotropic trap is considered. In this case the TFA has been found to work nicely. Thus, the two formulae are applicable and are useful for the evaluation of NA and NB .

  7. Predictions of nuclear charge radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, M.; Lu, Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2016-12-01

    The nuclear charge radius is a fundamental property of an atomic nucleus. In this article we study the predictive power of empirical relations for experimental nuclear charge radii of neighboring nuclei and predict the unknown charge radii of 1085 nuclei based on the experimental CR2013 database within an uncertainty of 0.03 fm.

  8. Table of experimental nuclear ground state charge radii: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Angeli, I.; Marinova, K.P.

    2013-01-15

    The present table contains experimental root-mean-square (rms) nuclear charge radii R obtained by combined analysis of two types of experimental data: (i) radii changes determined from optical and, to a lesser extent, K{sub α} X-ray isotope shifts and (ii) absolute radii measured by muonic spectra and electronic scattering experiments. The table combines the results of two working groups, using respectively two different methods of evaluation, published in ADNDT earlier. It presents an updated set of rms charge radii for 909 isotopes of 92 elements from {sub 1}H to {sub 96}Cm together, when available, with the radii changes from optical isotope shifts. Compared with the last published tables of R-values from 2004 (799 ground states), many new data are added due to progress recently achieved by laser spectroscopy up to early 2011. The radii changes in isotopic chains for He, Li, Be, Ne, Sc, Mn, Y, Nb, Bi have been first obtained in the last years and several isotopic sequences have been recently extended to regions far off stability, (e.g., Ar, Mo, Sn, Te, Pb, Po)

  9. Nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-deficient francium isotopes and isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, A.; Buchinger, F.; Cheal, B.; Crawford, J. E.; Dilling, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leary, A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Mooshammer, F.; Ojeda, M. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Procter, T. J.; Tamimi, W. Al

    2015-04-01

    Collinear laser fluorescence spectroscopy has been performed on the ground and isomeric states of Fr,206204 in order to determine their spins, nuclear moments, and changes in mean-squared charge radii. A new experimental technique has been developed as part of this work which much enhances the data collection rate while maintaining the high resolution. This has permitted the extension of this study to the two isomeric states in each nucleus. The investigation of nuclear g factors and mean-squared charge radii indicates that the neutron-deficient Fr isotopes lie in a transitional region from spherical towards more collective structures.

  10. Charge radii of neon isotopes across the sd neutron shell

    SciTech Connect

    Marinova, K.; Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Kloos, S.; Kotrotsios, G.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S.; Kowalska, M.; Keim, M.; Blaum, K.; Lievens, P.; Simon, H.

    2011-09-15

    We report on the changes in mean square charge radii of unstable neon nuclei relative to the stable {sup 20}Ne, based on the measurement of optical isotope shifts. The studies were carried out using collinear laser spectroscopy on a fast beam of neutral neon atoms. High sensitivity on short-lived isotopes was achieved thanks to nonoptical detection based on optical pumping and state-selective collisional ionization, which was complemented by an accurate determination of the beam kinetic energy. The new results provide information on the structural changes in the sequence of neon isotopes all across the neutron sd shell, ranging from the proton drip line nucleus and halo candidate {sup 17}Ne up to the neutron-rich {sup 28}Ne in the vicinity of the ''island of inversion.'' Within this range the charge radius is smallest for {sup 24}Ne with N=14 corresponding to the closure of the neutron d{sub 5/2} shell, while it increases toward both neutron shell closures, N=8 and N=20. The general trend of the charge radii correlates well with the deformation effects which are known to be large for several neon isotopes. In the neutron-deficient isotopes, structural changes arise from the onset of proton-halo formation for {sup 17}Ne, shell closure in {sup 18}Ne, and clustering effects in {sup 20,21}Ne. On the neutron-rich side the transition to the island of inversion plays an important role, with the radii in the upper part of the sd shell confirming the weakening of the N=20 magic number. The results add new information to the radii systematics of light nuclei where data are scarce because of the small contribution of nuclear-size effects to the isotope shifts which are dominated by the finite-mass effect.

  11. Nuclear charge radii: density functional theory meets Bayesian neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utama, R.; Chen, Wei-Chia; Piekarewicz, J.

    2016-11-01

    The distribution of electric charge in atomic nuclei is fundamental to our understanding of the complex nuclear dynamics and a quintessential observable to validate nuclear structure models. The aim of this study is to explore a novel approach that combines sophisticated models of nuclear structure with Bayesian neural networks (BNN) to generate predictions for the charge radii of thousands of nuclei throughout the nuclear chart. A class of relativistic energy density functionals is used to provide robust predictions for nuclear charge radii. In turn, these predictions are refined through Bayesian learning for a neural network that is trained using residuals between theoretical predictions and the experimental data. Although predictions obtained with density functional theory provide a fairly good description of experiment, our results show significant improvement (better than 40%) after BNN refinement. Moreover, these improved results for nuclear charge radii are supplemented with theoretical error bars. We have successfully demonstrated the ability of the BNN approach to significantly increase the accuracy of nuclear models in the predictions of nuclear charge radii. However, as many before us, we failed to uncover the underlying physics behind the intriguing behavior of charge radii along the calcium isotopic chain.

  12. Changes in nuclear structure along the Mn isotopic chain studied via charge radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heylen, H.; Babcock, C.; Beerwerth, R.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Bonnard, J.; Campbell, P.; Cheal, B.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D.; Fritzsche, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Geithner, W.; Geppert, Ch.; Gins, W.; Grob, L. K.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Lenzi, S. M.; Moore, I. D.; Maass, B.; Malbrunot-Ettenauer, S.; Marsh, B.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Otsuka, T.; Papuga, J.; Rossel, R.; Rothe, S.; Sánchez, R.; Tsunoda, Y.; Wraith, C.; Xie, L.; Yang, X. F.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-11-01

    The hyperfine spectra of 51,53 -64Mn were measured in two experimental runs using collinear laser spectroscopy at ISOLDE, CERN. Laser spectroscopy was performed on the atomic 3 d54 s25/2 6S →3 d54 s 4 p 3/2 6P and ionic 3 d54 s 5S2→3 d54 p 5P3 transitions, yielding two sets of isotope shifts. The mass and field shift factors for both transitions have been calculated in the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock framework and were combined with a King plot analysis in order to obtain a consistent set of mean-square charge radii which, together with earlier work on neutron-deficient Mn, allow the study of nuclear structure changes from N =25 across N =28 up to N =39 . A clear development of deformation is observed towards N =40 , confirming the conclusions of the nuclear moments studies. From a Monte Carlo shell-model study of the shape in the Mn isotopic chain, it is suggested that the observed development of deformation is not only due to an increase in static prolate deformation but also due to shape fluctuations and triaxiality. The changes in mean-square charge radii are well reproduced using the Duflo-Zuker formula except in the case of large deformation.

  13. Mirror Charge Radii and the Neutron Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, B. Alex

    2017-09-01

    The differences in the charge radii of mirror nuclei are shown to be proportional to the derivative of the neutron equation of state and the symmetry energy at nuclear matter saturation density. This derivative is important for constraining the neutron equation of state for use in astrophysics. The charge radii of several neutron-rich nuclei are already measured to the accuracy of about 0.005 fm. Experiments at isotope-separator and radioactive-beam facilities are needed to measure the charge radii of the corresponding proton-rich mirror nuclei to a similar accuracy. It is also shown that neutron skins of nuclei with N =Z depend upon the value of the symmetry energy at a density of 0.10 nucleons /fm3 .

  14. Charge radii of odd-A191-211Po isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliverstov, M. D.; Cocolios, T. E.; Dexters, W.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Barzakh, A. E.; Bastin, B.; Büscher, J.; Darby, I. G.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Fritzsche, S.; Huber, G.; Huyse, M.; Keupers, M.; Köster, U.; Kudryavtsev, Yu.; Marsh, B. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Page, R. D.; Sjødin, A. M.; Stefan, I.; Van de Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Venhart, M.; Zemlyanoy, S. G.

    2013-02-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured for the odd-A polonium isotopes 191-211Po and changes in the nuclear mean square charge radii δ have been deduced. The measurements were performed at CERN-ISOLDE using the in-source resonance-ionization spectroscopy technique. The combined analysis of these data and our recent results for even-A polonium isotopes indicates an onset of deformation already at 197,198Po, when going away from stability. This is significantly earlier than was suggested by previous theoretical and experimental studies of the polonium isotopes. Moreover and in contrast to the mercury isotopes, where a strong odd-even staggering of the charge radii of the ground states was observed by approaching the neutron mid-shell at N = 104, no such effect is present in polonium down to 191Po. Consequently the charge radii of both isomeric and ground states of the odd-A polonium isotopes follow the same trend as the even-A isotopes.

  15. The 3H-3He Charge Radii Difference

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Luke S.; Arrington, John R.; Higinbotham, Douglas W.

    2016-03-01

    The upcoming E12-14-009 [1] experiment at Jefferson Lab will determine the ratio of the electric form factors for the A=3 mirror nuclei 3He and 3H. The measurement will use a 1.1 GeV electron beam, a special collimator plate to allow for simultaneous optics measurements, and the low-activity tritium target being prepared for Jefferson Lab. By observing the dependence of the form factor ratio as a function of Q2 over 0.05–0.09 GeV2, the dependence of the radii extraction on the shape of the form factors is minimized. As a result, we anticipate the uncertainty of the extracted charge radii difference to be 0.03 fm, a reduction of 70% from the current measurement. Using precise measurements of the 3He charge radius from isotopic shift or μHe measurements [2–4], we can deduce the absolute 3H charge radius. The results will provide a direct comparison to recent calculations of the charge radii.

  16. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Ekström, A.; Frömmgen, N.; Hagen, G.; Hammen, M.; Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Jansen, G. R.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Nazarewicz, W.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Papenbrock, T.; Papuga, J.; Schwenk, A.; Simonis, J.; Wendt, K. A.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-06-01

    Despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain `magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-rich atomic nuclei.

  17. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    DOE PAGES

    Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; ...

    2016-02-08

    Here, despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results aremore » complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-rich atomic nuclei.« less

  18. Unexpectedly large charge radii of neutron-rich calcium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Bissell, M. L.; Blaum, K.; Ekstrom, A.; Frommgen, N.; Hagen, G.; Hammen, M.; Hebeler, K.; Holt, J. D.; Jansen, G. R.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, K.; Nazarewicz, W.; Neugart, R.; Neyens, G.; Nortershauser, W.; Papenbrock, T.; Papuga, J.; Schwenk, A.; Simonis, J.; Wendt, K. A.; Yordanov, D. T.

    2016-02-08

    Here, despite being a complex many-body system, the atomic nucleus exhibits simple structures for certain ‘magic’ numbers of protons and neutrons. The calcium chain in particular is both unique and puzzling: evidence of doubly magic features are known in 40,48Ca, and recently suggested in two radioactive isotopes, 52,54Ca. Although many properties of experimentally known calcium isotopes have been successfully described by nuclear theory, it is still a challenge to predict the evolution of their charge radii. Here we present the first measurements of the charge radii of 49,51,52Ca, obtained from laser spectroscopy experiments at ISOLDE, CERN. The experimental results are complemented by state-of-the-art theoretical calculations. The large and unexpected increase of the size of the neutron-rich calcium isotopes beyond N = 28 challenges the doubly magic nature of 52Ca and opens new intriguing questions on the evolution of nuclear sizes away from stability, which are of importance for our understanding of neutron-rich atomic nuclei.

  19. Charge radii of neutron-deficient 52,53Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisono, K.; Brown, B. A.; Miller, A. J.; Rossi, D. M.; Maa, B.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Garand, D.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Mantica, P. F.; Beerwerth, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Klose, A.; Liu, Y.; Müller, P.; Pearson, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Shell closures can be identified as ``kinks'' in the chain of charge radii, , which can be seen for the N = 28 neutron shell closure up to 25 Mn. The trends in the vicinity of 56Ni is of particular interest, since the 56Ni nucleus is known to be soft. The of neutron-deficient 52,53Fe were determined in the present study using the bunched beam collinear laser spectroscopy at BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU. The presence of a kink in the chain of at N = 28 for the Fe isotopes was confirmed. The global behavior of the of Fe, and Ca thorough Ni isotopes, will be discussed. Work supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-11-02511 and U.S. DOE Grant DE-NA0002924.

  20. Charge Radii of Neutron Deficient Fe,5352 Produced by Projectile Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisono, K.; Rossi, D. M.; Beerwerth, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Garand, D.; Klose, A.; Liu, Y.; Maaß, B.; Mantica, P. F.; Miller, A. J.; Müller, P.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Olsen, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Saperstein, E. E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on neutron deficient Fe,5352 prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δ ⟨r2⟩ of Fe,5352 are determined relative to stable 56Fe as δ ⟨r2⟩56 ,52=-0.034 (13 ) fm2 and δ ⟨r2⟩56 ,53=-0.218 (13 ) fm2 , respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ ⟨r2⟩. The values of δ ⟨r2⟩ exhibit a minimum at the N =28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. The trend of δ ⟨r2⟩ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ ⟨r2⟩ of closed-shell Ca isotopes.

  1. Charge radii of neutron deficient Fe52,53 produced by projectile fragmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Minamisono, K.; Rossi, D. M.; Beerwerth, R.; ...

    2016-12-15

    Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on neutron deficient 52,53Fe prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δmore » $$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ of 52,53Fe are determined relative to stable 56Fe as δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$56,52=$-$0.034(13) fm2 and δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$56,53=$-$0.218(13) fm2, respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$. The values of δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ exhibit a minimum at the N=28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. As a result, the trend of δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ of closed-shell Ca isotopes« less

  2. Charge Radii of Neutron Deficient ^{52,53}Fe Produced by Projectile Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Minamisono, K; Rossi, D M; Beerwerth, R; Fritzsche, S; Garand, D; Klose, A; Liu, Y; Maaß, B; Mantica, P F; Miller, A J; Müller, P; Nazarewicz, W; Nörtershäuser, W; Olsen, E; Pearson, M R; Reinhard, P-G; Saperstein, E E; Sumithrarachchi, C; Tolokonnikov, S V

    2016-12-16

    Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on neutron deficient ^{52,53}Fe prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δ⟨r^{2}⟩ of ^{52,53}Fe are determined relative to stable ^{56}Fe as δ⟨r^{2}⟩^{56,52}=-0.034(13)  fm^{2} and δ⟨r^{2}⟩^{56,53}=-0.218(13)  fm^{2}, respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ⟨r^{2}⟩. The values of δ⟨r^{2}⟩ exhibit a minimum at the N=28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. The trend of δ⟨r^{2}⟩ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ⟨r^{2}⟩ of closed-shell Ca isotopes.

  3. Nuclear Charge Radii of Neutron-Deficient Lead Isotopes Beyond N=104 Midshell Investigated by In-Source Laser Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H. de; Cocolios, T. E.; Dean, S.; Huyse, M.; Lesher, S. R.; Mukha, I.; Stefanescu, I.; Vel, K. van de; Walle, J. van de; Duppen, P. van; Andreyev, A. N.; Barre, N.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Bender, M.; Fedoseyev, V. N.; Fraile, L. M.; Jeppessen, H.

    2007-03-16

    The shape of exotic even-mass {sup 182-190}Pb isotopes was probed by measurement of optical isotope shifts providing mean square charge radii ({delta}). The experiment was carried out at the isolde (cern) on-line mass separator, using in-source laser spectroscopy. Small deviations from the spherical droplet model are observed, but when compared to model calculations, those are explained by high sensitivity of {delta} to beyond mean-field correlations and small admixtures of intruder configurations in the ground state. The data support the predominantly spherical shape of the ground state of the proton-magic Z=82 lead isotopes near neutron midshell (N=104)

  4. Correlations Between Charge Radii, E0 Transitions, and M1 Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Van Isacker, P.

    2014-06-15

    In the framework of the interacting boson model, relations are derived between nuclear charge radii, electric monopole transition rates, and summed magnetic dipole transition in even-even nuclei. The proposed correlations are tested in the rare-earth region.

  5. Role of different nuclear charge radii parameterizations on the thermal equilibrium in nuclear reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeeta; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2017-09-01

    We emphasize the role of nuclear charge radii parameterizations on the thermal equilibrium by studying the correlation between maximal value of average temperature achieved in highly interacting nuclear matter and nuclear stopping for mass symmetric and asymmetric reactions over the entire collision geometry within the framework of isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics (IQMD) model. Our study reveals that the increase in available phase space at initial stage through different nuclear charge radii parameterizations, enhance the temperature of nuclear system and reduces the nuclear stopping for both types of reactions. The influence of nuclear charge radii on the thermalization is more pronounced for mass symmetric reactions compared to mass asymmetric reactions. Moreover, the lighter colliding pair are good probe to study the role of nuclear radius in thermalization.

  6. Structural and isospin effects on balance energy and transition energy via different nuclear charge radii parameterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangeeta; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2017-10-01

    The structural and isospin effects have been studied through isospin dependent and independent nuclear charge radii parameterizations on the collective flow within the framework of Isospin-dependent Quantum Molecular Dynamics (IQMD) model. The calculations have been carried out by using two approaches: (i) for the reaction series having fixed N / Z ratio and (ii) for the isobaric reaction series with different N / Z ratio. Our results indicate that there is a considerable effect of radii parameterizations on the excitation function of reduced flow (∂v1/∂Yred) and elliptical flow (v2). Both balance energy (Ebal) and transition energy (Etrans) are enhanced with increase in radii of reacting nuclei and found to follow a power law with nuclear charge radii. The exponent τ values show that the elliptical flow is more sensitive towards different nuclear charge radii as compared to reduced flow. Moreover, we observe that our theoretical calculation of Ebal and Etrans are in agreement with the experimental data provided by GSI, INDRA and FOPI collaborations.

  7. Effect of deformation and the neutron skin on RMS charge radii

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.D.; Schmidt, K.H.

    1981-05-01

    Droplet Model predictions for nuclear RMS charge radii are compared with measured values in order to determine whether or not there is any evidence for volume shell effects. After corrections for deformation, diffuseness, and the central depression have been applied, some evidence for such effects remains, but it is at about the same level as the experimental uncertainty.

  8. Charge radii and nuclear moments of neutron-deficient potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisono, K.; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Hughes, M.; Strum, R.; Tarazona, D.; Asberry, H. B.; Cooper, K.; Hammerton, K.; Klose, A.; Mantica, P. F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Geppert, Ch.; Harris, J.; Ringle, R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Rossi, D. M.; Ryder, C. A.; Smith, A.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The monotonic change of charge radii of K isotopes across N = 20 suggests a reduction of the shell gap. A systematic study of the charge radii and ground state magnetic and quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient 35-37K isotopes is underway at the BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU to investigate the anomalous trend in charge radii. The K isotopes were produced by fragmentation of a 40Ca beam, thermalized in a linear gas cell, extracted at an energy of 30 keV, and transported to BECOLA. The K ion beam was cooled and bunched, and neutralized in a Na vapor cell. Laser-induced fluorescence was detected as a function of the Doppler-tuned laser frequency and time relative to the release of the beam bunch. The beta-NMR technique was used to determine ground-state nuclear moments, where hyperfine splittings are too small to resolve using collinear laser spectroscopy. The monotonic change of charge radii of K isotopes across N = 20 suggests a reduction of the shell gap. A systematic study of the charge radii and ground state magnetic and quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient 35-37K isotopes is underway at the BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU to investigate the anomalous trend in charge radii. The K isotopes were produced by fragmentation of a 40Ca beam, thermalized in a linear gas cell, extracted at an energy of 30 keV, and transported to BECOLA. The K ion beam was cooled and bunched, and neutralized in a Na vapor cell. Laser-induced fluorescence was detected as a function of the Doppler-tuned laser frequency and time relative to the release of the beam bunch. The beta-NMR technique was used to determine ground-state nuclear moments, where hyperfine splittings are too small to resolve using collinear laser spectroscopy. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-11-02511.

  9. Charge radii of exotic nuclei: nuclear results versus isotopic shift calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomaselli, M.; Liu, L. C.; Fritzsche, S.; Kühl, T.; Ursescu, D.; Neumayer, P.; Wojtaszek, A.

    2004-12-01

    We study the charge radii of exotic nuclei through nuclear calculations and isotopic-shift evaluations. The computations are performed in the framework of the dynamic-correlation model DCM for nuclei with an odd number of valence particles and in the boson dynamic-correlation model (BCDM) for those with an even number of valence particles. These nuclear models take fully into consideration the correlation between valence particles as well as between valence and core particles. Consequently, these computations may reveal feature physics which is associated to the strong correlation between the valence and the core polarized states. Moreover,we propose to analyze the obtained charge radii within the isotopic shift theory in which the electronic transitions for lithium and lithium-like ions are calculated by considering the three correlated electrons described by a method similar to the nuclear DCM model.

  10. An implicit solvent model for SCC-DFTB with Charge-Dependent Radii

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Guanhua; Zhu, Xiao; Cui, Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by the need of rapidly exploring the potential energy surface of chemical reactions that involve highly charged species, we have developed an implicit solvent model for the approximate density functional theory, SCC-DFTB. The solvation free energy is calculated using the popular model that employs Poisson-Boltzmann for electrostatics and a surface-area term for non-polar contributions. To balance the treatment of species with different charge distributions, we make the atomic radii that define the dielectric boundary and solute cavity depend on the solute charge distribution. Specifically, the atomic radii are assumed to be linearly dependent on the Mulliken charges and solved self-consistently together with the solute electronic structure. Benchmark calculations indicate that the model leads to solvation free energies of comparable accuracy to the SM6 model (especially for ions), which requires much more expensive DFT calculations. With analytical first derivatives and favorable computational speed, the SCC-DFTB based solvation model can be effectively used, in conjunction with high-level QM calculations, to explore the mechanism of solution reactions. This is illustrated with a brief analysis of the hydrolysis of mono-methyl mono-phosphate ester (MMP) and tri-methyl mono-phosphate ester (TMP). Possible future improvements are also briefly discussed. PMID:20711513

  11. Protein diffusion through charged nanopores with different radii at low ionic strength.

    PubMed

    Stroeve, Pieter; Rahman, Masoud; Naidu, Lekkala Dev; Chu, Gilbert; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Ramirez, Patricio; Mafe, Salvador

    2014-10-21

    The diffusion of two similar molecular weight proteins, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and bovine haemoglobin (BHb), through nanoporous charged membranes with a wide range of pore radii is studied at low ionic strength. The effects of the solution pH and the membrane pore diameter on the pore permeability allow quantifying the electrostatic interaction between the charged pore and the protein. Because of the large screening Debye length, both surface and bulk diffusion occur simultaneously. By increasing the pore diameter, the permeability tends to the bulk self-diffusion coefficient for each protein. By decreasing the pore diameter, the charges on the pore surface electrostatically hinder the transport even at the isoelectric point of the protein. Surprisingly, even at pore sizes 100 times larger than the protein, the electrostatic hindrance still plays a major role in the transport. The experimental data are qualitatively explained using a two-region model for the membrane pore and approximated equations for the pH dependence of the protein and pore charges. The experimental and theoretical results should be useful for designing protein separation processes based on nanoporous charged membranes.

  12. SEP events and wake region lunar dust charging with grain radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, S. B. Rakesh; Rajesh, S. R.; Abraham, A.; Renuka, G.; Venugopal, Chandu

    2017-01-01

    Our lunar surface is exposed to all kinds of radiations from the Sun, since it lacks a global magnetic field. Like lunar surface, dust particles are also exposed to plasmas and UV radiation and, consequently they carry electrostatic charges. During Solar Energetic Particle events (SEPs) secondary electron emission plays a vital role in charging of lunar dusts. To study the lunar dust charging during SEPs on lunar wake region, we derived an expression for lunar dust potential and analysed how it varies with different electron temperatures and grain radii. Because of high energetic solar fluxes, secondary yield (δ) values reach up to 2.3 for 0.5 μm dust grain. We got maximum yield at an energy of 550 eV which is in well agreement with lunar sample experimental observation (Anderegg et al., 1972). It is observed that yield value increases with electron energy, reaches to a maximum value and then decreases. During SEPs heavier dust grains show larger yield values because of the geometry of the grains. On the wake region, the dust potential reaches up to -497 V for 0.5 μm dust grain. The electric field of these grains could present a significant threat to manned and unmanned missions to the Moon.

  13. Nuclear charge and neutron radii and nuclear matter: Trend analysis in Skyrme density-functional-theory approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhard, P.-G.; Nazarewicz, W.

    2016-05-01

    Background: Radii of charge and neutron distributions are fundamental nuclear properties. They depend on both nuclear interaction parameters related to the equation of state of infinite nuclear matter and on quantal shell effects, which are strongly impacted by the presence of nuclear surface. Purpose: In this work, by studying the correlation of charge and neutron radii, and neutron skin, with nuclear matter parameters, we assess different mechanisms that drive nuclear sizes. Method: We apply nuclear density functional theory using a family of Skyrme functionals obtained by means of optimization protocols, which do not include any radius information. By performing the Monte Carlo sampling of reasonable functionals around the optimal parametrization, we scan all correlations between nuclear matter properties and observables characterizing charge and neutron distributions of spherical closed-shell nuclei 48Ca,208Pb, and 298Fl. Results: By considering the influence of various nuclear matter properties on charge and neutron radii in a multidimensional parameter space of Skyrme functionals, we demonstrate the existence of two strong relationships: (i) between the nuclear charge radii and the saturation density of symmetric nuclear matter ρ0, and (ii) between the neutron skins and the slope of the symmetry energy L . The impact of other nuclear matter properties on nuclear radii is weak or nonexistent. For functionals optimized to experimental binding energies only, proton and neutron radii are found to be weakly correlated due to canceling trends from different nuclear matter characteristics. Conclusion: The existence of only two strong relations connecting nuclear radii with nuclear matter properties has important consequences. First, by requiring that the nuclear functional reproduces the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter practically fixes the charge (or proton) radii, and vice versa. This explains the recent results of ab initio calculations

  14. Intrinsic Mean Square Displacement in Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, Derya; Glyde, Henry R.

    2012-02-01

    The dynamics of biological molecules is investigated in neutron scattering experiments, in molecular dynamics simulations, and using analytical theory. Specifically, the mean square displacement (MSD), exp, of hydrogen in proteins is determined from measurements of the incoherent elastic neutron scattering intensity (ENSI). The MSD, exp, is usually obtained from the dependence of the ENSI on the scattering wave vector Q. The MSD increases with increasing temperature reaching large values at room temperature. Large MSD is often associated with and used as an indicator of protein function. The observed MSD, however, depends on the energy resolution of the neutron spectrometer employed. We present a method, a first attempt, to extract the intrinsic MSD of hydrogen in protein from measurements, one that is independent of the instrument resolution. The method consists of a model of the ENSI that contains (1) the intrinsic MSD, (2) the instrument resolution width and (3) a parameter describing the motional processes that contribute to the MSD. Several examples of intrinsic MSDs in proteins obtained from fitting to data in the existing literature will be presented.

  15. Charge radii and electromagnetic moments of Li and Be isotopes from the ab initio no-core shell model

    SciTech Connect

    Forssen, C.; Caurier, E.; Navratil, P.

    2009-02-15

    Recently, charge radii and ground-state electromagnetic moments of Li and Be isotopes were measured precisely. We have performed large-scale ab initio no-core shell model calculations for these isotopes using high-precision nucleon-nucleon potentials. The isotopic trends of our computed charge radii and quadrupole and magnetic-dipole moments are in good agreement with experimental results with the exception of the {sup 11}Li charge radius. The magnetic moments are in particular well described, whereas the absolute magnitudes of the quadrupole moments are about 10% too small. The small magnitude of the {sup 6}Li quadrupole moment is reproduced, and with the CD-Bonn NN potential, also its correct sign.

  16. Masses and Charge Radii of {sup 17-22}Ne and the Two-Proton-Halo Candidate {sup 17}Ne

    SciTech Connect

    Geithner, W.; Kappertz, S.; Keim, M.; Neugart, R.; Wilbert, S.; Neff, T.; Feldmeier, H.; Herfurth, F.; Yazidjian, C.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Blaum, K.; George, S.; Delahaye, P.; Kellerbauer, A.; Kowalska, M.; Herlert, A.; Kluge, H.-J.; Lievens, P.

    2008-12-19

    High-precision mass and charge radius measurements on {sup 17-22}Ne, including the proton-halo candidate {sup 17}Ne, have been performed with Penning trap mass spectrometry and collinear laser spectroscopy. The {sup 17}Ne mass uncertainty is improved by factor 50, and the charge radii of {sup 17-19}Ne are determined for the first time. The fermionic molecular dynamics model explains the pronounced changes in the ground-state structure. It attributes the large charge radius of {sup 17}Ne to an extended proton configuration with an s{sup 2} component of about 40%. In {sup 18}Ne the smaller radius is due to a significantly smaller s{sup 2} component. The radii increase again for {sup 19-22}Ne due to cluster admixtures.

  17. Charge radii and electromagnetic moments of Li and Be isotopes from the ab initio no-core shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forssén, C.; Caurier, E.; Navrátil, P.

    2009-02-01

    Recently, charge radii and ground-state electromagnetic moments of Li and Be isotopes were measured precisely. We have performed large-scale ab initio no-core shell model calculations for these isotopes using high-precision nucleon-nucleon potentials. The isotopic trends of our computed charge radii and quadrupole and magnetic-dipole moments are in good agreement with experimental results with the exception of the Li11 charge radius. The magnetic moments are in particular well described, whereas the absolute magnitudes of the quadrupole moments are about 10% too small. The small magnitude of the Li6 quadrupole moment is reproduced, and with the CD-Bonn NN potential, also its correct sign.

  18. Theoretical assessment of the disparity in the electrostatic forces between two point charges and two conductive spheres of equal radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolikov, Kiril

    2016-11-01

    The Coulomb's formula for the force FC of electrostatic interaction between two point charges is well known. In reality, however, interactions occur not between point charges, but between charged bodies of certain geometric form, size and physical structure. This leads to deviation of the estimated force FC from the real force F of electrostatic interaction, thus imposing the task to evaluate the disparity. In the present paper the problem is being solved theoretically for two charged conductive spheres of equal radii and arbitrary electric charges. Assessment of the deviation is given as a function of the ratio of the distance R between the spheres centers to the sum of their radii. For the purpose, relations between FC and F derived in a preceding work of ours, are employed to generalize the Coulomb's interactions. At relatively short distances between the spheres, the Coulomb force FC, as estimated to be induced by charges situated at the centers of the spheres, differ significantly from the real force F of interaction between the spheres. In the case of zero and non-zero charge we prove that with increasing the distance between the two spheres, the force F decrease rapidly, virtually to zero values, i.e. it appears to be short-acting force.

  19. Importance of realistic ice crystal radii for charge generation according to the Relative Diffusional Growth Rate theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Laura; Glassmeier, Franziska; Dietlicher, Remo; Paukert, Marco; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-04-01

    Collisional charge transfer between graupel and ice crystals in the presence of liquid water droplets is considered the dominant mechanism for charge generation in thunderclouds. The physical process of charge transfer and the sign of net charge generated on graupel and ice crystals under different cloud conditions are not yet understood. The Relative Diffusional Growth Rate (RDGR) theory suggests that the particle with the faster diffusional radius growth is charged positively. In this work, we calculate signs of charge according to the RDGR theory based on realistic parameter combinations that are generated by simulations of idealized thunderclouds with warm and cold two-moment cloud microphysics. Our analysis identifies the ice crystal radius as the most important parameter for the RDGR sign-of-charge calculations. In the simulated cloud, the average ice crystal size varies with altitude due to ice multiplication and the heterogeneous freezing of droplets and thus is correlated with temperature and liquid water content. As a consequence, missing or unrealistic variability of crystal radius with cloud temperature and effective water content in laboratory studies may limit the applicability of experimental results to thunderstorms. Due to the strong crystal-size sensitivity of the RDGR theory, we furthermore observe that the diffusional growth from the riming-related local vapor field as a key component of the RDGR theory is less important than variations of crystal size. Cloud microphysical processes and ice crystal radii vary with the abundance of ice-forming aerosol. Based on simulated profiles of crystal radii for different concentrations of ice-forming aerosol, we study aerosol effects on charge generation and discuss possible implications of cloud microphysics and aerosols for the charge structure in thunderclouds.

  20. Determination of the root-mean-square radius of the deuteron from present-day experimental data on neutron-proton scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Babenko, V. A.; Petrov, N. M.

    2008-10-15

    The correlation between the root-mean-square matter radius of the deuteron, r{sub m}, and its effective radius, {rho}, is investigated. A parabolic relationship between these two quantities makes it possible to determine the root-mean-square radius r{sub m} to within 0.01% if the effective radius {rho} is known. The matter (r{sub m}), structural (r{sub d}), and charge (r{sub ch}) radii of the deuteron are found with the aid of modern experimental results for phase shifts from the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and their values are fully consistent with their counterparts deduced by using the experimental value of the effective deuteron radius due to Borbely and his coauthors. The charge-radius value of 2.124(6) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the SAID nucleon-nucleon database, and the charge-radius value of 2.126(12) fm, which was obtained with the aid of the experimental value of the effective radius {rho}, are in very good agreement with the present-day chargeradius value of 2.128(11) fm, which was deduced by Sick and Trautmann by processing world-average experimental data on elastic electron scattering by deuterons with allowance for Coulomb distortions.

  1. Determination of the charge radii of several light nuclei from precision, high-energy electron elastic scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Kabir, Al Amin

    2015-12-01

    Analysis of high-energy electron scattering has been used to determine the charge radii of nuclei for several decades. Recent analysis of the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen found an r.m.s. radius significantly different than the electron scattering result. To understand this puzzle we have analyzed the "LEDEX" data for the (e, e'p) reaction. This experiment includes measurements on several light nuclei, hydrogen, deuterium, lithium, boron, and carbon. To test our ability to measure absolute cross sections, as well as our ability to extract the charge radius, we tested our technique against the extremely well-measured carbon case and found excellent agreement using the Fourier-Bessel parametrization. We then extended the procedure to boron and lithium, which show nice agreement with the latest theoretical calculations. For hydrogen, we see clearly the limits of this technique and therefore, the charge radius is determined from the traditional extrapolation to q2 = 0. We will show that there is a model dependence in extracting the charge radius of hydrogen and its unambiguous determination is very difficult with available electron-scattering measurements.

  2. Application of Least Mean Square Algorithms to Spacecraft Vibration Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard , Stanley E.; Nagchaudhuri, Abhijit

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm in tandem with the Filtered-X Least Mean Square algorithm for controlling a science instrument's line-of-sight pointing. Pointing error is caused by a periodic disturbance and spacecraft vibration. A least mean square algorithm is used on-orbit to produce the transfer function between the instrument's servo-mechanism and error sensor. The result is a set of adaptive transversal filter weights tuned to the transfer function. The Filtered-X LMS algorithm, which is an extension of the LMS, tunes a set of transversal filter weights to the transfer function between the disturbance source and the servo-mechanism's actuation signal. The servo-mechanism's resulting actuation counters the disturbance response and thus maintains accurate science instrumental pointing. A simulation model of the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite is used to demonstrate the algorithms.

  3. VR-SCOSMO: A smooth conductor-like screening model with charge-dependent radii for modeling chemical reactions.

    PubMed

    Kuechler, Erich R; Giese, Timothy J; York, Darrin M

    2016-04-28

    To better represent the solvation effects observed along reaction pathways, and of ionic species in general, a charge-dependent variable-radii smooth conductor-like screening model (VR-SCOSMO) is developed. This model is implemented and parameterized with a third order density-functional tight binding quantum model, DFTB3/3OB-OPhyd, a quantum method which was developed for organic and biological compounds, utilizing a specific parameterization for phosphate hydrolysis reactions. Unlike most other applications with the DFTB3/3OB model, an auxiliary set of atomic multipoles is constructed from the underlying DFTB3 density matrix which is used to interact the solute with the solvent response surface. The resulting method is variational, produces smooth energies, and has analytic gradients. As a baseline, a conventional SCOSMO model with fixed radii is also parameterized. The SCOSMO and VR-SCOSMO models shown have comparable accuracy in reproducing neutral-molecule absolute solvation free energies; however, the VR-SCOSMO model is shown to reduce the mean unsigned errors (MUEs) of ionic compounds by half (about 2-3 kcal/mol). The VR-SCOSMO model presents similar accuracy as a charge-dependent Poisson-Boltzmann model introduced by Hou et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2303 (2010)]. VR-SCOSMO is then used to examine the hydrolysis of trimethylphosphate and seven other phosphoryl transesterification reactions with different leaving groups. Two-dimensional energy landscapes are constructed for these reactions and calculated barriers are compared to those obtained from ab initio polarizable continuum calculations and experiment. Results of the VR-SCOSMO model are in good agreement in both cases, capturing the rate-limiting reaction barrier and the nature of the transition state.

  4. VR-SCOSMO: A smooth conductor-like screening model with charge-dependent radii for modeling chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuechler, Erich R.; Giese, Timothy J.; York, Darrin M.

    2016-04-01

    To better represent the solvation effects observed along reaction pathways, and of ionic species in general, a charge-dependent variable-radii smooth conductor-like screening model (VR-SCOSMO) is developed. This model is implemented and parameterized with a third order density-functional tight binding quantum model, DFTB3/3OB-OPhyd, a quantum method which was developed for organic and biological compounds, utilizing a specific parameterization for phosphate hydrolysis reactions. Unlike most other applications with the DFTB3/3OB model, an auxiliary set of atomic multipoles is constructed from the underlying DFTB3 density matrix which is used to interact the solute with the solvent response surface. The resulting method is variational, produces smooth energies, and has analytic gradients. As a baseline, a conventional SCOSMO model with fixed radii is also parameterized. The SCOSMO and VR-SCOSMO models shown have comparable accuracy in reproducing neutral-molecule absolute solvation free energies; however, the VR-SCOSMO model is shown to reduce the mean unsigned errors (MUEs) of ionic compounds by half (about 2-3 kcal/mol). The VR-SCOSMO model presents similar accuracy as a charge-dependent Poisson-Boltzmann model introduced by Hou et al. [J. Chem. Theory Comput. 6, 2303 (2010)]. VR-SCOSMO is then used to examine the hydrolysis of trimethylphosphate and seven other phosphoryl transesterification reactions with different leaving groups. Two-dimensional energy landscapes are constructed for these reactions and calculated barriers are compared to those obtained from ab initio polarizable continuum calculations and experiment. Results of the VR-SCOSMO model are in good agreement in both cases, capturing the rate-limiting reaction barrier and the nature of the transition state.

  5. Ground-state energies and charge radii of medium-mass nuclei in the unitary-model-operator approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Takayuki; Abe, Takashi; Okamoto, Ryoji; Otsuka, Takaharu

    2014-09-01

    In nuclear structure theory, one of the most fundamental problems is to understand the nuclear structure based on nuclear forces. This attempt has been enabled due to the progress of the computational power and nuclear many-body approaches. However, it is difficult to apply the first-principle methods to medium-mass region, because calculations demand the huge model space as increasing the number of nucleons. The unitary-model-operator approach (UMOA) is one of the methods which can be applied to medium-mass nuclei. The essential point of the UMOA is to construct the effective Hamiltonian which does not induce the two-particle-two-hole excitations. A many-body problem is reduced to the two-body subsystem problem in an entire many-body system with the two-body effective interaction and one-body potential determined self-consistently. In this presentation, we will report the numerical results of ground-state energies and charge radii of 16O, 40Ca, and 56Ni in the UMOA, and discuss the saturation property by comparing our results with those in the other many-body methods and also experimental data. In nuclear structure theory, one of the most fundamental problems is to understand the nuclear structure based on nuclear forces. This attempt has been enabled due to the progress of the computational power and nuclear many-body approaches. However, it is difficult to apply the first-principle methods to medium-mass region, because calculations demand the huge model space as increasing the number of nucleons. The unitary-model-operator approach (UMOA) is one of the methods which can be applied to medium-mass nuclei. The essential point of the UMOA is to construct the effective Hamiltonian which does not induce the two-particle-two-hole excitations. A many-body problem is reduced to the two-body subsystem problem in an entire many-body system with the two-body effective interaction and one-body potential determined self-consistently. In this presentation, we will report the

  6. Charge radii of neutron deficient Fe52,53 produced by projectile fragmentation

    SciTech Connect

    Minamisono, K.; Rossi, D. M.; Beerwerth, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Garand, D.; Klose, A.; Liu, Y.; MaaB, B.; Mantica, P. F.; Miller, A. J.; Muller, P.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nortershauser, W.; Olsen, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Reinhard, P. -G.; Saperstein, E. E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2016-12-15

    Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on neutron deficient 52,53Fe prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$ of 52,53Fe are determined relative to stable 56Fe as δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$56,52=$-$0.034(13) fm2 and δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$56,53=$-$0.218(13) fm2, respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$. The values of δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$ exhibit a minimum at the N=28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. As a result, the trend of δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$ of closed-shell Ca isotopes

  7. Application of linear mean-square estimation in ocean engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-ping; Chen, Bai-yu; Chen, Chao; Chen, Zheng-shou; Liu, Gui-lin

    2016-03-01

    The attempt to obtain long-term observed data around some sea areas we concern is usually very hard or even impossible in practical offshore and ocean engineering situations. In this paper, by means of linear mean-square estimation method, a new way to extend short-term data to long-term ones is developed. The long-term data about concerning sea areas can be constructed via a series of long-term data obtained from neighbor oceanographic stations, through relevance analysis of different data series. It is effective to cover the insufficiency of time series prediction method's overdependence upon the length of data series, as well as the limitation of variable numbers adopted in multiple linear regression model. The storm surge data collected from three oceanographic stations located in Shandong Peninsula are taken as examples to analyze the number-selection effect of reference oceanographic stations (adjacent to the concerning sea area) and the correlation coefficients between sea sites which are selected for reference and for engineering projects construction respectively. By comparing the N-year return-period values which are calculated from observed raw data and processed data which are extended from finite data series by means of the linear mean-square estimation method, one can draw a conclusion that this method can give considerably good estimation in practical ocean engineering, in spite of different extreme value distributions about raw and processed data.

  8. Efficient computation of root mean square deviations under rigid transformations.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Anna K; Dietzen, Matthias; Lengauer, Thomas; Lenhof, Hans-Peter; Althaus, Ernst; Hildebrandt, Andreas

    2014-04-15

    The computation of root mean square deviations (RMSD) is an important step in many bioinformatics applications. If approached naively, each RMSD computation takes time linear in the number of atoms. In addition, a careful implementation is required to achieve numerical stability, which further increases runtimes. In practice, the structural variations under consideration are often induced by rigid transformations of the protein, or are at least dominated by a rigid component. In this work, we show how RMSD values resulting from rigid transformations can be computed in constant time from the protein's covariance matrix, which can be precomputed in linear time. As a typical application scenario is protein clustering, we will also show how the Ward-distance which is popular in this field can be reduced to RMSD evaluations, yielding a constant time approach for their computation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Mean Square Error Behavior for Prediction in Linear Regression Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-03-07

    ii), MSE(6;8,4) - o2q + Eg2 _ 2E(U - e) g . (9) Given c , 4 u0 such that for all V, U > u0 Igj < c and a e80 > 0 such that jej > e P(IUI • O > u0 ) > 1... c , Ynxl’ XnXp full rank, BpX I and cnxl %,(O’c21).sors, ’nppl l ~ ) Let B L (X TX)- X TY denote the ordinary least squares estimator of B. At a new...vector of predictor values, X0, ye seek to esti- mate XTF . Using mean square error as a criterion, results of Cohen (1965) show that if c is normally

  10. Digital image gathering and minimum mean-square error restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1990-01-01

    Most digital image restoration algorithms are inherently incomplete because they are conditioned on a discrete-input, discrete-output model which only accounts for blurring during image gathering and additive noise. For those restoration applications where sampling and reconstruction are important, the restoration algorithm should be based on a more comprehensive end-to-end model which also accounts for the potentially important noiselike effects of aliasing and the low-pass filtering effects of interpolative reconstruction. It is demonstrated that although the mathematics of this more comprehensive model is more complex, the increase in complexity is not so great as to prevent a complete development and analysis of the associated minimum mean-square error (Wiener) restoration filter.

  11. Mean-squared-displacement statistical test for fractional Brownian motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Burnecki, Krzysztof; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Anomalous diffusion in crowded fluids, e.g., in cytoplasm of living cells, is a frequent phenomenon. A common tool by which the anomalous diffusion of a single particle can be classified is the time-averaged mean square displacement (TAMSD). A classical mechanism leading to the anomalous diffusion is the fractional Brownian motion (FBM). A validation of such process for single-particle tracking data is of great interest for experimentalists. In this paper we propose a rigorous statistical test for FBM based on TAMSD. To this end we analyze the distribution of the TAMSD statistic, which is given by the generalized chi-squared distribution. Next, we study the power of the test by means of Monte Carlo simulations. We show that the test is very sensitive for changes of the Hurst parameter. Moreover, it can easily distinguish between two models of subdiffusion: FBM and continuous-time random walk.

  12. Digital image gathering and minimum mean-square error restoration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Stephen K.; Reichenbach, Stephen E.

    1990-01-01

    Most digital image restoration algorithms are inherently incomplete because they are conditioned on a discrete-input, discrete-output model which only accounts for blurring during image gathering and additive noise. For those restoration applications where sampling and reconstruction are important, the restoration algorithm should be based on a more comprehensive end-to-end model which also accounts for the potentially important noiselike effects of aliasing and the low-pass filtering effects of interpolative reconstruction. It is demonstrated that although the mathematics of this more comprehensive model is more complex, the increase in complexity is not so great as to prevent a complete development and analysis of the associated minimum mean-square error (Wiener) restoration filter.

  13. Long-time mean-square displacements in proteins.

    PubMed

    Vural, Derya; Hong, Liang; Smith, Jeremy C; Glyde, Henry R

    2013-11-01

    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long-time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns, and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, I(inc)(Q,t), for finite times. The infinite-time MSD, , appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite-time I(inc)(Q,t). Specifically, the is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as I(Q,t=∞)=exp(-Q(2)/3). The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of hydrated lysozyme powder (h=0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic obtained from data out to 1 and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsic is approximately twice the value of the MSD that is reached in simulations after times of 1 ns which correspond to those observed using neutron instruments that have an energy resolution width of 1 μeV.

  14. Long-time mean-square displacements in proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vural, Derya; Hong, Liang; Smith, Jeremy C.; Glyde, Henry R.

    2013-11-01

    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long-time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns, and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, Iinc(Q,t), for finite times. The infinite-time MSD, , appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite-time Iinc(Q,t). Specifically, the is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as I(Q,t=∞)=exp(-Q2/3). The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD of hydrated lysozyme powder (h=0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic obtained from data out to 1 and to 10 ns is found to be the same. The intrinsic is approximately twice the value of the MSD that is reached in simulations after times of 1 ns which correspond to those observed using neutron instruments that have an energy resolution width of 1 μeV.

  15. Long-time mean-square displacements in proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Vural, Derya; Hong, Liang; Smith, Jeremy C.; Glyde, Henry R.

    2013-11-08

    We propose a method for obtaining the intrinsic, long-time mean square displacement (MSD) of atoms and molecules in proteins from finite-time molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Typical data from simulations are limited to times of 1 to 10 ns, and over this time period the calculated MSD continues to increase without a clear limiting value. The proposed method consists of fitting a model to MD simulation-derived values of the incoherent intermediate neutron scattering function, Iinc(Q,t), for finite times. The infinite-time MSD, r2 , appears as a parameter in the model and is determined by fits of the model to the finite-time Iinc(Q,t). Specifically, the r2 is defined in the usual way in terms of the Debye-Waller factor as I(Q,t = ∞) = exp( –Q2 r2 /3). The method is illustrated by obtaining the intrinsic MSD r2 of hydrated lysozyme powder (h = 0.4 g water/g protein) over a wide temperature range. The intrinsic r2 obtained from data out to 1 and to 10 ns is found to be the same. In conclusion, the intrinsic r2 is approximately twice the value of the MSD that is reached in simulations after times of 1 ns which correspond to those observed using neutron instruments that have an energy resolution width of 1 μeV.

  16. Mean-square convergence analysis of ADALINE training with minimum error entropy criterion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Badong; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Jinchun

    2010-07-01

    Recently, the minimum error entropy (MEE) criterion has been used as an information theoretic alternative to traditional mean-square error criterion in supervised learning systems. MEE yields nonquadratic, nonconvex performance surface even for adaptive linear neuron (ADALINE) training, which complicates the theoretical analysis of the method. In this paper, we develop a unified approach for mean-square convergence analysis for ADALINE training under MEE criterion. The weight update equation is formulated in the form of block-data. Based on a block version of energy conservation relation, and under several assumptions, we carry out the mean-square convergence analysis of this class of adaptation algorithm, including mean-square stability, mean-square evolution (transient behavior) and the mean-square steady-state performance. Simulation experimental results agree with the theoretical predictions very well.

  17. Correlating double-difference of charge radii with quadrupole deformation and B (E 2 ) in atomic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, B. H.; Liu, C. Y.; Wang, H. X.

    2017-01-01

    A good linear correlation is found between the double-difference of charge radius δ R2 p -2 n(Z ,N ) with that of quadrupole deformation data in even-even nuclei. This results in a further improved charge radius relation that holds in a precision of about 5 ×10-3 fm. The new relation can be generalized to the reduced electric quadrupole transition probability B (E 2 ) between the first 2+ state and the 0+ ground state, and the mean lifetime τ of the first 2+ state. Same correlations are also seen in global nuclear models such as Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB-24) and relativistic mean field (RMF); however, they are not consistent with the experimental data.

  18. Proton radii of {sup 4,6,8}He isotopes from high-precision nucleon-nucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Caurier, E.; Navratil, P.

    2006-02-15

    Recently, precision laser spectroscopy on {sup 6}He atoms determined accurately the isotope shift between {sup 4}He and {sup 6}He and, consequently, the charge radius of {sup 6}He. A similar experiment for {sup 8}He is under way. We have performed large-scale ab initio calculations for {sup 4,6,8}He isotopes using high-precision nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions within the no-core shell model (NCSM) approach. With the CD-Bonn 2000 NN potential we found point-proton root-mean-square (rms) radii of {sup 4}He and {sup 6}He 1.45(1) fm and 1.89(4), respectively, in agreement with experiment and predict the {sup 8}He point-proton rms radius to be 1.88(6) fm. At the same time, our calculations show that the recently developed nonlocal INOY NN potential gives binding energies closer to experiment, but underestimates the charge radii.

  19. Reducing the number of mean-square deviation calculations with floating close structure in metadynamics.

    PubMed

    Pazúriková, Jana; Křenek, Aleš; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Šimková, Mária

    2017-03-21

    Metadynamics is an important collective-coordinate-based enhanced sampling simulation method. Its performance depends significantly on the capability of collective coordinates to describe the studied molecular processes. Collective coordinates based on comparison with reference landmark structures can be used to enhance sampling in highly complex systems; however, they may slow down simulations due to high number of structure-structure distance (e.g., mean-square deviation) calculations. Here we introduce an approximation of root-mean-square or mean-square deviation that significantly reduces numbers of computationally expensive operations. We evaluate its accuracy and theoretical performance gain with metadynamics simulations on two molecular systems.

  20. Reducing the number of mean-square deviation calculations with floating close structure in metadynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazúriková, Jana; Křenek, Aleš; Spiwok, Vojtěch; Šimková, Mária

    2017-03-01

    Metadynamics is an important collective-coordinate-based enhanced sampling simulation method. Its performance depends significantly on the capability of collective coordinates to describe the studied molecular processes. Collective coordinates based on comparison with reference landmark structures can be used to enhance sampling in highly complex systems; however, they may slow down simulations due to high number of structure-structure distance (e.g., mean-square deviation) calculations. Here we introduce an approximation of root-mean-square or mean-square deviation that significantly reduces numbers of computationally expensive operations. We evaluate its accuracy and theoretical performance gain with metadynamics simulations on two molecular systems.

  1. Universal Dependence of the Mean Square Displacement in Equilibrium Point Vortex Systems without Boundary Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Takeshi

    2009-02-01

    The diffusion processes of point vortex systems with no boundary are studied numerically and analytically. The mean square displacements in the radial direction are observed in equilibrium states corresponding to several parameters. It is shown that point vortex systems display an anomalous diffusion and that the mean square displacements exhibit a universal time dependence. The exponent of this time dependence corresponds to the results with circular boundary conditions reported by Kawahara and Nakanishi. On the other hand, the mean square displacement is dependent on system energy exponentially. The energy dependence of the mean square displacement is explained by the rough scaling theory. The probability distribution functions of the velocity field are also investigated numerically, and the results reinforce the theory of the dependence on system energy.

  2. Effect of spin-orbit nuclear charge density corrections due to the anomalous magnetic moment on halonuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, A.; Berengut, J. C.; Flambaum, V. V.

    2010-07-15

    In this paper we consider the contribution of the anomalous magnetic moments of protons and neutrons to the nuclear charge density. We show that the spin-orbit contribution to the mean-square charge radius, which has been neglected in recent nuclear calculations, can be important in light halonuclei. We estimate the size of the effect in helium, lithium, and beryllium nuclei. It is found that the spin-orbit contribution represents a approx2% correction to the charge density at the center of the {sup 7}Be nucleus. We derive a simple expression for the correction to the mean-square charge radius due to the spin-orbit term and find that in light halonuclei it may be larger than the Darwin-Foldy term and comparable to finite size corrections. A comparison of experimental and theoretical mean-square radii including the spin-orbit contribution is presented.

  3. Mean square exponential and robust stability of stochastic discrete-time genetic regulatory networks with uncertainties.

    PubMed

    Ye, Qian; Cui, Baotong

    2010-06-01

    This paper aims to analyze global robust exponential stability in the mean square sense of stochastic discrete-time genetic regulatory networks with stochastic delays and parameter uncertainties. Comparing to the previous research works, time-varying delays are assumed to be stochastic whose variation ranges and probability distributions of the time-varying delays are explored. Based on the stochastic analysis approach and some analysis techniques, several sufficient criteria for the global robust exponential stability in the mean square sense of the networks are derived. Moreover, two numerical examples are presented to show the effectiveness of the obtained results.

  4. Mean squared error performance of MFBD nonlinear scene reconstruction using speckle imaging in horizontal imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archer, Glen E.; Bos, Jeremy P.; Roggemann, Michael C.

    2012-05-01

    Terrestrial imaging over very long horizontal paths is increasingly common in surveillance and defense systems. All optical systems that operate in or through the atmosphere suffer from turbulence induced image blur. This paper explores the Mean-Square-Error (MSE) performance of a multi-frame-blind-deconvolution-based reconstruction technique using a non-linear optimization strategy to recover a reconstructed object. Three sets of 70 images representing low, moderate and severe turbulence degraded images were simulated from a diffraction limited image taken with a professional digital camera. Reconstructed objects showed significant, 54, 22 and 14 percent improvement in mean squared error for low, moderate, and severe turbulence cases respectively.

  5. Probability distribution of the time-averaged mean-square displacement of a Gaussian process.

    PubMed

    Grebenkov, Denis S

    2011-09-01

    We study the probability distribution of the time-averaged mean-square displacement of a discrete Gaussian process. An empirical approximation for the probability density is suggested and numerically validated for fractional Brownian motion. The optimality of quadratic forms for inferring dynamical and microrheological quantities from individual random trajectories is discussed, with emphasis on a reliable interpretation of single-particle tracking experiments.

  6. On the Expectations of Mean Squares Based on Nonindependent Variates in Factorials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, John F.

    A study was made of the problem of representing the expectations of mean squares associated with analysis of variance sources of variation for experimental designs. These designs have a factorial structure over repeated measures or, for some other reason, have variates within a factorial design not all of which are mutually independent. A simple…

  7. Probability distribution of the time-averaged mean-square displacement of a Gaussian process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2011-09-01

    We study the probability distribution of the time-averaged mean-square displacement of a discrete Gaussian process. An empirical approximation for the probability density is suggested and numerically validated for fractional Brownian motion. The optimality of quadratic forms for inferring dynamical and microrheological quantities from individual random trajectories is discussed, with emphasis on a reliable interpretation of single-particle tracking experiments.

  8. RESEARCH NOTE: Orthogonality and mean squares of the vector fields given by spherical cap harmonic potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowes, F. J.

    1999-03-01

    It is well known that the vector fields derived from spherical harmonics are orthogonal over the sphere. It is now shown that the vector fields derived from spherical cap harmonics are orthogonal over the cap, to the same extent as the cap potentials are, and expressions are given for their mean squares.

  9. The Relationship between Mean Square Differences and Standard Error of Measurement: Comment on Barchard (2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Tianshu; Yin, Yue

    2012-01-01

    In the discussion of mean square difference (MSD) and standard error of measurement (SEM), Barchard (2012) concluded that the MSD between 2 sets of test scores is greater than 2(SEM)[superscript 2] and SEM underestimates the score difference between 2 tests when the 2 tests are not parallel. This conclusion has limitations for 2 reasons. First,…

  10. An Improved Proportionate Normalized Least-Mean-Square Algorithm for Broadband Multipath Channel Estimation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    To make use of the sparsity property of broadband multipath wireless communication channels, we mathematically propose an lp-norm-constrained proportionate normalized least-mean-square (LP-PNLMS) sparse channel estimation algorithm. A general lp-norm is weighted by the gain matrix and is incorporated into the cost function of the proportionate normalized least-mean-square (PNLMS) algorithm. This integration is equivalent to adding a zero attractor to the iterations, by which the convergence speed and steady-state performance of the inactive taps are significantly improved. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the estimation performance of the PNLMS-based algorithm for sparse channel estimation applications. PMID:24782663

  11. Test functions for the moment method which yield the minimum mean square error

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamansky, H.; Yang, C.

    1991-01-01

    The method of moments has found extensive applications in the solution of a wide class of electromagnetic problems. Additionally, there are a number of basis functions which have found favor and with them different types of testing methods. This work examines the selection of test functions, given a selected set of basis functions, which serve to minimize the mean square error. These test functions will guarantee equal or lesser error compared with any other test function. Additionally, these test functions provide a monotonic improvement of the approximation as the increase in the order of the system. Hence while these test functions require the application of the differential or integral operator one additional time, they provide an absolute lower bound to the mean square error in the approximation and a means to systematically improve accuracy with each increase in the order of the unknowns.

  12. On the root mean square quantitative chirality and quantitative symmetry measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitjean, Michel

    1999-09-01

    The properties of the root mean square chiral index of a d-dimensional set of n points, previously investigated for planar sets, are examined for spatial sets. The properties of the root mean squares direct symmetry index, defined as the normalized minimized sum of the n squared distances between the vertices of the d-set and the permuted d-set, are compared to the properties of the chiral index. Some most dissymetric figures are analytically computed. They differ from the most chiral figures, but the most dissymetric 3-tuples and the most chiral 3-tuples have a common remarkable geometric property: the squared lengths of the sides are each equal to three times a squared distance vertex to the mean point.

  13. Mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks.

    PubMed

    Muralisankar, S; Manivannan, A; Balasubramaniam, P

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to investigate the mean square delay dependent-probability-distribution stability analysis of neutral type stochastic neural networks with time-delays. The time-delays are assumed to be interval time-varying and randomly occurring. Based on the new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and stochastic analysis approach, a novel sufficient condition is obtained in the form of linear matrix inequality such that the delayed stochastic neural networks are globally robustly asymptotically stable in the mean-square sense for all admissible uncertainties. Finally, the derived theoretical results are validated through numerical examples in which maximum allowable upper bounds are calculated for different lower bounds of time-delay.

  14. A root-mean-square approach for predicting fatigue crack growth under random loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A method for predicting fatigue crack growth under random loading which employs the concept of Barsom (1976) is presented. In accordance with this method, the loading history for each specimen is analyzed to determine the root-mean-square maximum and minimum stresses, and the predictions are made by assuming the tests have been conducted under constant-amplitude loading at the root-mean-square maximum and minimum levels. The procedure requires a simple computer program and a desk-top computer. For the eleven predictions made, the ratios of the predicted lives to the test lives ranged from 2.13 to 0.82, which is a good result, considering that the normal scatter in the fatigue-crack-growth rates may range from a factor of two to four under identical loading conditions.

  15. The geometric mean squared displacement and the Stokes-Einstein scaling in a supercooled liquid.

    PubMed

    Saw, Shibu; Harrowell, Peter

    2015-12-28

    It is proposed that the rate of relaxation in a liquid is better described by the geometric mean of the van Hove distribution function, rather than the standard arithmetic mean used to obtain the mean squared displacement. The difference between the two means is shown to increase significantly with an increase in the non-Gaussian character of the displacement distribution. Preliminary results indicate that the geometric diffusion constant results in a substantial reduction of the deviation from Stokes-Einstein scaling.

  16. Lower Bounds Applied to the Mean-Square Tracking Error of an Amplitude- Comparison Monopulse Radar

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    Position, Velocity and Range . ........................... 35 12. (a) Example Plots of the Error Squared per Observation for One SNR Level; (b...Example Plot of the MSE per Observation for One SNR Level ....... .............. .. 37 13. Sketch of MSE Becoming Unbounded at Breaklock...Zakai bounds. At high signal-to-noise ratios ( SNR ), the Cramer- Rao bound is useful in lower bounding the mean-square error. At low SNR levels a

  17. Determination of Ensemble-Average Pairwise Root Mean-Square Deviation from Experimental B-Factors

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, 1/2, is directly related to average B-factors () and 1/2. We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is ∼1.1 Å, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability. PMID:20197040

  18. Determination of ensemble-average pairwise root mean-square deviation from experimental B-factors.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanic, Antonija; Zagrovic, Bojan

    2010-03-03

    Root mean-square deviation (RMSD) after roto-translational least-squares fitting is a measure of global structural similarity of macromolecules used commonly. On the other hand, experimental x-ray B-factors are used frequently to study local structural heterogeneity and dynamics in macromolecules by providing direct information about root mean-square fluctuations (RMSF) that can also be calculated from molecular dynamics simulations. We provide a mathematical derivation showing that, given a set of conservative assumptions, a root mean-square ensemble-average of an all-against-all distribution of pairwise RMSD for a single molecular species, (1/2), is directly related to average B-factors () and (1/2). We show this relationship and explore its limits of validity on a heterogeneous ensemble of structures taken from molecular dynamics simulations of villin headpiece generated using distributed-computing techniques and the Folding@Home cluster. Our results provide a basis for quantifying global structural diversity of macromolecules in crystals directly from x-ray experiments, and we show this on a large set of structures taken from the Protein Data Bank. In particular, we show that the ensemble-average pairwise backbone RMSD for a microscopic ensemble underlying a typical protein x-ray structure is approximately 1.1 A, under the assumption that the principal contribution to experimental B-factors is conformational variability.

  19. Nuclear matter radii determined by interaction cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Ozawa, A.

    2005-10-19

    Experimental studies on nuclear matter radii determined by the interaction cross sections ({sigma}I) are reviewed. In particular, the procedure to determine the root-mean square matter radii from the measured {sigma}I by Galuber model analysis is described. Future {sigma}I measurements at the RI beam factory (RIBF) in RIKEN are introduced. As new calculations, the sensitivity of the skin is discussed in the case with a proton target based on Glauber-model calculations. In the energy region of RIBF, {sigma}I is sensitive for the skin; however, measurements with high accuracies are needed.

  20. Docking to RNA via Root-Mean-Square-Deviation-Driven Energy Minimization with Flexible Ligands and Flexible Targets

    PubMed Central

    Guilbert, Christophe; James, Thomas L.

    2010-01-01

    Structure-based drug design is now well-established for proteins as a key first step in the lengthy process of developing new drugs. In many ways, RNA may be a better target to treat disease than a protein because it is upstream in the translation pathway, so inhibiting a single mRNA molecule could prevent the production of thousands of protein gene products. Virtual screening is often the starting point for structure-based drug design. However, computational docking of a small molecule to RNA seems to be more challenging than that to protein due to the higher intrinsic flexibility and highly charged structure of RNA. Previous attempts at docking to RNA showed the need for a new approach. We present here a novel algorithm using molecular simulation techniques to account for both nucleic acid and ligand flexibility. In this approach, with both the ligand and the receptor permitted some flexibility, they can bind one another via an induced fit, as the flexible ligand probes the surface of the receptor. A possible ligand can explore a low-energy path at the surface of the receptor by carrying out energy minimization with root-mean-square-distance constraints. Our procedure was tested on 57 RNA complexes (33 crystal and 24 NMR structures); this is the largest data set to date to reproduce experimental RNA binding poses. With our procedure, the lowest-energy conformations reproduced the experimental binding poses within an atomic root-mean-square deviation of 2.5 Å for 74% of tested complexes. PMID:18510306

  1. Analysis of S-box in Image Encryption Using Root Mean Square Error Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Iqtadar; Shah, Tariq; Gondal, Muhammad Asif; Mahmood, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The use of substitution boxes (S-boxes) in encryption applications has proven to be an effective nonlinear component in creating confusion and randomness. The S-box is evolving and many variants appear in literature, which include advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box, affine power affine (APA) S-box, Skipjack S-box, Gray S-box, Lui J S-box, residue prime number S-box, Xyi S-box, and S8 S-box. These S-boxes have algebraic and statistical properties which distinguish them from each other in terms of encryption strength. In some circumstances, the parameters from algebraic and statistical analysis yield results which do not provide clear evidence in distinguishing an S-box for an application to a particular set of data. In image encryption applications, the use of S-boxes needs special care because the visual analysis and perception of a viewer can sometimes identify artifacts embedded in the image. In addition to existing algebraic and statistical analysis already used for image encryption applications, we propose an application of root mean square error technique, which further elaborates the results and enables the analyst to vividly distinguish between the performances of various S-boxes. While the use of the root mean square error analysis in statistics has proven to be effective in determining the difference in original data and the processed data, its use in image encryption has shown promising results in estimating the strength of the encryption method. In this paper, we show the application of the root mean square error analysis to S-box image encryption. The parameters from this analysis are used in determining the strength of S-boxes

  2. Optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Molley, P.A.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes an optical architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm, MSE = {Sigma}(I {minus} R){sup 2} for discriminating the presence of a reference image R in an input image scene I by computing the mean-square-error between a time-varying reference image signal s{sub 1}(t) and a time-varying input image signal s{sub 2}(t) includes a laser diode light source which is temporally modulated by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier source modulation signal I{sub 1}(t) having the form I{sub 1}(t) = A{sub 1}(1 = sq. root 2m{sub 1}s{sub 1}(t)cos (2{pi} f{sub 0}t)) and the modulated light output from the laser diode source is diffracted by an acousto-optic deflector. The resultant intensity of the +1 diffracted order from the acousto-optic device is given by I{sub 2}(t) = A{sub 2}(+2m{sub 2}{sup 2}s{sub 2}{sup 2}(t) {minus} 2 sq. root 2m{sub 2}(t) cos (2{pi}f{sub 0}t)). The time integration of the two signals I{sub 1}(t) and I{sub 2}(t) on the CCD deflector plane produces the result R{tau} of the mean-square error having the form: R({tau}) = A{sub 1}A{sub 2}{l brace}(T) +(2m{sub 2}{sup 2 {integral} s}{sub 2}{sup 2}(t {minus} {tau})dt) {minus} (2m{sub 1}m{sub 2} cos (2{tau}f{sub 0}{tau}) {integral} s{sub 1}(t)s{sub 2}(t {minus} {tau}) dt){r brace}.

  3. Performance characteristics of an adaptive controller based on least-mean-square filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. S.; Merhav, S. J.

    1986-01-01

    A closed-loop, adaptive-control scheme that uses a least-mean-square filter as the controller model is presented, along with simulation results that demonstrate the excellent robustness of this scheme. It is shown that the scheme adapts very well to unknown plants, even those that are marginally stable, responds appropriately to changes in plant parameters, and is not unduly affected by additive noise. A heuristic argument for the conditions necessary for convergence is presented. Potential applications and extensions of the scheme are also discussed.

  4. Least mean square fourth based microgrid state estimation algorithm using the internet of things technology

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative internet of things (IoT) based communication framework for monitoring microgrid under the condition of packet dropouts in measurements. First of all, the microgrid incorporating the renewable distributed energy resources is represented by a state-space model. The IoT embedded wireless sensor network is adopted to sense the system states. Afterwards, the information is transmitted to the energy management system using the communication network. Finally, the least mean square fourth algorithm is explored for estimating the system states. The effectiveness of the developed approach is verified through numerical simulations. PMID:28459848

  5. A root-mean-square pressure fluctuations model for internal flow applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Y. S.

    1985-01-01

    A transport equation for the root-mean-square pressure fluctuations of turbulent flow is derived from the time-dependent momentum equation for incompressible flow. Approximate modeling of this transport equation is included to relate terms with higher order correlations to the mean quantities of turbulent flow. Three empirical constants are introduced in the model. Two of the empirical constants are estimated from homogeneous turbulence data and wall pressure fluctuations measurements. The third constant is determined by comparing the results of large eddy simulations for a plane channel flow and an annulus flow.

  6. Lower Bound on the Mean Square Displacement of Particles in the Hard Disk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richthammer, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    The hard disk model is a 2D Gibbsian process of particles interacting via pure hard core repulsion. At high particle density the model is believed to show orientational order, however, it is known not to exhibit positional order. Here we investigate to what extent particle positions may fluctuate. We consider a finite volume version of the model in a box of dimensions 2 n × 2 n with arbitrary boundary configuration, and we show that the mean square displacement of particles near the center of the box is bounded from below by c log n. The result generalizes to a large class of models with fairly arbitrary interaction.

  7. Performance characteristics of an adaptive controller based on least-mean-square filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Rajiv S.; Merhav, Shmuel J.

    1986-01-01

    A closed loop, adaptive control scheme that uses a least mean square filter as the controller model is presented, along with simulation results that demonstrate the excellent robustness of this scheme. It is shown that the scheme adapts very well to unknown plants, even those that are marginally stable, responds appropriately to changes in plant parameters, and is not unduly affected by additive noise. A heuristic argument for the conditions necessary for convergence is presented. Potential applications and extensions of the scheme are also discussed.

  8. An efficient implementation of Forward-Backward Least-Mean-Square Adaptive Line Enhancers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, H.-G.; Nguyen, T. M.

    1995-01-01

    An efficient implementation of the forward-backward least-mean-square (FBLMS) adaptive line enhancer is presented in this article. Without changing the characteristics of the FBLMS adaptive line enhancer, the proposed implementation technique reduces multiplications by 25% and additions by 12.5% in two successive time samples in comparison with those operations of direct implementation in both prediction and weight control. The proposed FBLMS architecture and algorithm can be applied to digital receivers for enhancing signal-to-noise ratio to allow fast carrier acquisition and tracking in both stationary and nonstationary environments.

  9. Least mean square fourth based microgrid state estimation algorithm using the internet of things technology.

    PubMed

    Rana, Md Masud

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative internet of things (IoT) based communication framework for monitoring microgrid under the condition of packet dropouts in measurements. First of all, the microgrid incorporating the renewable distributed energy resources is represented by a state-space model. The IoT embedded wireless sensor network is adopted to sense the system states. Afterwards, the information is transmitted to the energy management system using the communication network. Finally, the least mean square fourth algorithm is explored for estimating the system states. The effectiveness of the developed approach is verified through numerical simulations.

  10. Electric field gradient and mean square displacement of iron sites in cubic iron sulphide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, V. K.

    1981-01-01

    Mössbauer absorption of Fe57, for four equivalent but differently oriented sites, in naturally occuring single crystals of FeS2 (pyrite) has been studied as a function of the orientation of the crystal axes with respect to the γ-ray beam from a Co57/Pd source. Polarization effects for our absorbers of ˜0.1 mm thickness were found not to be appreciable. Experimental peak area ratio of ˜1 in the case of powdered absorber and monocrystalline absorbers in (111), (110), and (100) planes has been analyzed to obtain the principal axes of the electric-field-gradient and the mean-square displacement as ‖1,1,1‖, ‖-1,1,1‖, ‖1,1,-1‖, and ‖1,-1,1‖ direction for the Fe sites corresponding to 000, 1/2 1/2 0, 1/2 0 1/2 , and 0 1/2 1/2, respectively. The angular independent recoilless fraction at 298 K has been obtained to be 0.20±0.02 and for the mean-square displacement =< y2>=, and its value at 298 K is 4.34±0.23×10-19 cm2.

  11. Mean square stability of uncertain stochastic BAM neural networks with interval time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haixia; Liao, Xiaofeng; Feng, Wei; Guo, Songtao

    2012-10-01

    The robust asymptotic stability analysis for uncertain BAM neural networks with both interval time-varying delays and stochastic disturbances is considered. By using the stochastic analysis approach, employing some free-weighting matrices and introducing an appropriate type of Lyapunov functional which takes into account the ranges for delays, some new stability criteria are established to guarantee the delayed BAM neural networks to be robustly asymptotically stable in the mean square. Unlike the most existing mean square stability conditions for BAM neural networks, the supplementary requirements that the time derivatives of time-varying delays must be smaller than 1 are released and the lower bounds of time varying delays are not restricted to be 0. Furthermore, in the proposed scheme, the stability conditions are delay-range-dependent and rate-dependent/independent. As a result, the new criteria are applicable to both fast and slow time-varying delays. Three numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed criteria.

  12. Derivation of mean-square displacements for protein dynamics from elastic incoherent neutron scattering.

    PubMed

    Yi, Zheng; Miao, Yinglong; Baudry, Jerome; Jain, Nitin; Smith, Jeremy C

    2012-04-26

    The derivation of mean-square displacements from elastic incoherent neutron scattering (EINS) of proteins is examined, with the aid of experiments on camphor-bound cytochrome P450cam and complementary molecular dynamics simulations. It is shown that a q(4) correction to the elastic incoherent structure factor (where q is the scattering vector) can be simply used to reliably estimate from the experiment both the average mean-square atomic displacement, <Δr(2)> of the nonexchanged hydrogen atoms in the protein and its variance, σ(2). The molecular dynamics simulation results are in broad agreement with the experimentally derived <Δr(2)> and σ(2) derived from EINS on instruments at two different energy resolutions, corresponding to dynamics on the ∼100 ps and ∼1 ns time scales. Significant dynamical heterogeneity is found to arise from methyl-group rotations. The easy-to-apply q(4) correction extends the information extracted from elastic incoherent neutron scattering experiments and should be of wide applicability.

  13. Performance measure of image and video quality assessment algorithms: subjective root-mean-square error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuutinen, Mikko; Virtanen, Toni; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2016-03-01

    Evaluating algorithms used to assess image and video quality requires performance measures. Traditional performance measures (e.g., Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient, and root mean square error) compare quality predictions of algorithms to subjective mean opinion scores (mean opinion score/differential mean opinion score). We propose a subjective root-mean-square error (SRMSE) performance measure for evaluating the accuracy of algorithms used to assess image and video quality. The SRMSE performance measure takes into account dispersion between observers. The other important property of the SRMSE performance measure is its measurement scale, which is calibrated to units of the number of average observers. The results of the SRMSE performance measure indicate the extent to which the algorithm can replace the subjective experiment (as the number of observers). Furthermore, we have presented the concept of target values, which define the performance level of the ideal algorithm. We have calculated the target values for all sample sets of the CID2013, CVD2014, and LIVE multiply distorted image quality databases.The target values and MATLAB implementation of the SRMSE performance measure are available on the project page of this study.

  14. Mean square error approximation for wavelet-based semiregular mesh compression.

    PubMed

    Payan, Frédéric; Antonini, Marc

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to propose an efficient model-based bit allocation process optimizing the performances of a wavelet coder for semiregular meshes. More precisely, this process should compute the best quantizers for the wavelet coefficient subbands that minimize the reconstructed mean square error for one specific target bitrate. In order to design a fast and low complex allocation process, we propose an approximation of the reconstructed mean square error relative to the coding of semiregular mesh geometry. This error is expressed directly from the quantization errors of each coefficient subband. For that purpose, we have to take into account the influence of the wavelet filters on the quantized coefficients. Furthermore, we propose a specific approximation for wavelet transforms based on lifting schemes. Experimentally, we show that, in comparison with a "naive" approximation (depending on the subband levels), using the proposed approximation as distortion criterion during the model-based allocation process improves the performances of a wavelet-based coder for any model, any bitrate, and any lifting scheme.

  15. Optical pattern recognition architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm

    DOEpatents

    Molley, Perry A.

    1991-01-01

    An optical architecture implementing the mean-square error correlation algorithm, MSE=.SIGMA.[I-R].sup.2 for discriminating the presence of a reference image R in an input image scene I by computing the mean-square-error between a time-varying reference image signal s.sub.1 (t) and a time-varying input image signal s.sub.2 (t) includes a laser diode light source which is temporally modulated by a double-sideband suppressed-carrier source modulation signal I.sub.1 (t) having the form I.sub.1 (t)=A.sub.1 [1+.sqroot.2m.sub.1 s.sub.1 (t)cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t)] and the modulated light output from the laser diode source is diffracted by an acousto-optic deflector. The resultant intensity of the +1 diffracted order from the acousto-optic device is given by: I.sub.2 (t)=A.sub.2 [+2m.sub.2.sup.2 s.sub.2.sup.2 (t)-2.sqroot.2m.sub.2 (t) cos (2.pi.f.sub.o t] The time integration of the two signals I.sub.1 (t) and I.sub.2 (t) on the CCD deflector plane produces the result R(.tau.) of the mean-square error having the form: R(.tau.)=A.sub.1 A.sub.2 {[T]+[2m.sub.2.sup.2.multidot..intg.s.sub.2.sup.2 (t-.tau.)dt]-[2m.sub.1 m.sub.2 cos (2.tau.f.sub.o .tau.).multidot..intg.s.sub.1 (t)s.sub.2 (t-.tau.)dt]} where: s.sub.1 (t) is the signal input to the diode modulation source: s.sub.2 (t) is the signal input to the AOD modulation source; A.sub.1 is the light intensity; A.sub.2 is the diffraction efficiency; m.sub.1 and m.sub.2 are constants that determine the signal-to-bias ratio; f.sub.o is the frequency offset between the oscillator at f.sub.c and the modulation at f.sub.c +f.sub.o ; and a.sub.o and a.sub.1 are constant chosen to bias the diode source and the acousto-optic deflector into their respective linear operating regions so that the diode source exhibits a linear intensity characteristic and the AOD exhibits a linear amplitude characteristic.

  16. Microturbulence and Wesselink radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, N. R.

    1980-01-01

    Using the calibration of Bell and Parsons (1974), the effects of changes in microturbulence and surface gravity throughout the cycles of delta Cephei and eta Aquilae are estimated. When the changes in microturbulence are considered, Wesselink radii for these stars are reduced 20%.

  17. Measured and predicted root-mean-square errors in square and triangular antenna mesh facets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichter, W. B.

    1989-01-01

    Deflection shapes of square and equilateral triangular facets of two tricot-knit, gold plated molybdenum wire mesh antenna materials were measured and compared, on the basis of root mean square (rms) differences, with deflection shapes predicted by linear membrane theory, for several cases of biaxial mesh tension. The two mesh materials contained approximately 10 and 16 holes per linear inch, measured diagonally with respect to the course and wale directions. The deflection measurement system employed a non-contact eddy current proximity probe and an electromagnetic distance sensing probe in conjunction with a precision optical level. Despite experimental uncertainties, rms differences between measured and predicted deflection shapes suggest the following conclusions: that replacing flat antenna facets with facets conforming to parabolically curved structural members yields smaller rms surface error; that potential accuracy gains are greater for equilateral triangular facets than for square facets; and that linear membrane theory can be a useful tool in the design of tricot knit wire mesh antennas.

  18. Mean square optimal NUFFT approximation for efficient non-Cartesian MRI reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhili; Jacob, Mathews

    2014-05-01

    The fast evaluation of the discrete Fourier transform of an image at non-uniform sampling locations is key to efficient iterative non-Cartesian MRI reconstruction algorithms. Current non-uniform fast Fourier transform (NUFFT) approximations rely on the interpolation of oversampled uniform Fourier samples. The main challenge is high memory demand due to oversampling, especially when multidimensional datasets are involved. The main focus of this work is to design an NUFFT algorithm with minimal memory demands. Specifically, we introduce an analytical expression for the expected mean square error in the NUFFT approximation based on our earlier work. We then introduce an iterative algorithm to design the interpolator and scale factors. Experimental comparisons show that the proposed optimized NUFFT scheme provides considerably lower approximation errors than the previous designs [1] that rely on worst case error metrics. The improved approximations are also seen to considerably reduce the errors and artifacts in non-Cartesian MRI reconstruction.

  19. An improved filter-u least mean square vibration control algorithm for aircraft framework.

    PubMed

    Huang, Quanzhen; Luo, Jun; Gao, Zhiyuan; Zhu, Xiaojin; Li, Hengyu

    2014-09-01

    Active vibration control of aerospace vehicle structures is very a hot spot and in which filter-u least mean square (FULMS) algorithm is one of the key methods. But for practical reasons and technical limitations, vibration reference signal extraction is always a difficult problem for FULMS algorithm. To solve the vibration reference signal extraction problem, an improved FULMS vibration control algorithm is proposed in this paper. Reference signal is constructed based on the controller structure and the data in the algorithm process, using a vibration response residual signal extracted directly from the vibration structure. To test the proposed algorithm, an aircraft frame model is built and an experimental platform is constructed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is more practical with a good vibration suppression performance.

  20. Linear adaptive noise-reduction filters for tomographic imaging: Optimizing for minimum mean square error

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Winston Y.

    1993-04-01

    This thesis solves the problem of finding the optimal linear noise-reduction filter for linear tomographic image reconstruction. The optimization is data dependent and results in minimizing the mean-square error of the reconstructed image. The error is defined as the difference between the result and the best possible reconstruction. Applications for the optimal filter include reconstructions of positron emission tomographic (PET), X-ray computed tomographic, single-photon emission tomographic, and nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Using high resolution PET as an example, the optimal filter is derived and presented for the convolution backprojection, Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse, and the natural-pixel basis set reconstruction methods. Simulations and experimental results are presented for the convolution backprojection method.

  1. Mean-square-displacement distribution in crystals and glasses: An analysis of the intrabasin dynamics.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ruiz, Hugo M; Naumis, Gerardo G

    2012-04-01

    In the energy landscape picture, the dynamics of glasses and crystals is usually decomposed into two separate contributions: interbasin and intrabasin dynamics. The intrabasin dynamics depends partially on the quadratic displacement distribution on a given metabasin. Here we show that such a distribution can be approximated by a Gamma function, with a mean that depends linearly on the temperature and on the inverse second moment of the density of vibrational states. The width of the distribution also depends on this last quantity, and thus the contribution of the boson peak in glasses is evident on the tail of the distribution function. It causes the distribution of the mean-square displacement to decay slower in glasses than in crystals. When a statistical analysis is performed under many energy basins, we obtain a Gaussian in which the width is regulated by the mean inverse second moment of the density of states. Simulations performed in binary glasses are in agreement with such a result.

  2. Brownian particles in an external field: Asymptotic distribution functions and mean square displacement.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Leonardo

    2010-01-28

    A simple procedure is proposed by which the long-time form of the distribution of large (or heavy) ions in a fluid, in a time-varying electric field, is obtained as asymptotic solution of the Fokker-Planck (or Klein-Kramers) equation. In this way, it is shown that, when the initial ion distribution is the product of a delta function in position space times a shifted Maxwellian in velocity space, the asymptotic ion distribution, at sufficiently large times, coincides with the asymptotic form of the corresponding fundamental solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. Moreover, it is shown that a simplified (even if incorrect) form of the ion distribution can successfully be used to obtain correct values of a large class of average quantities. In this connection, the proper, asymptotic formula for the ion mean square displacement in time-varying electric fields is widely discussed and compared to the corresponding result following from the appropriate diffusion equation.

  3. Response time of mean square slope to wind forcing: An empirical investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, David D.; Ruf, Christopher S.; Gleason, Scott T.

    2016-04-01

    We present an empirical study of the response time of surface wave mean square slope to local wind forcing using data collected over 11 years by 46 discus buoys moored at a wide variety of locations. The response time is defined as the time lag at which the time dependence of the waves exhibits the highest correlation with that of the local wind speed. The response time at each location is found to be fairly stable, with the time varying between 0.4 and 1.8 h depending on the location. Examination of long-term statistics reveals response time dependencies on wind speed magnitude, fetch, atmospheric stability, and wavelength. With the increasing reliance on satellite microwave remote sensing as a source of wind data, these results provide useful insights and bounds for their use.

  4. [Research on calculation of the regional cerebral blood volume based on minimum mean square error method].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Li, Ying; Wang, Rongren; He, Renjie; Rao, Liyun

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the Fourier transform based minimum mean square error (FT-based MMSE) method is used to calculate the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) in magnetic resonance (MR) perfusion imaging, and the method is improved to handle the existing noise in the imaging process. In the experiments with signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 50 dB, the rCBV values were compared with the results using MMSE method. The effects of different SNRs on the estimation of rCBV were analyzed. The experimental results showed that MMSE was a simple way to filter the measurement noise, and could calculate rCBV accurately. Compared with other existing methods, the present method is not sensitive to environment, and furthermore, it is suitable to deal with the perfusion images acquired from the environment with larger SNR.

  5. Iterative soft-minimum mean-square error equalization for digital nonlinear page-oriented memories.

    PubMed

    Keskinoz, Mehmet

    2006-10-01

    Digital page-oriented volume holographic memory (POVHM) is a promising candidate for next-generation ultrahigh capacity optical data storage technology. As the capacity of the POVHMs increases, the bit error rate performance of the system is degraded due to increased interpixel interference (IPI) and noise. To improve the system performance under these adverse effects and to increase the capacity, joint iterative soft equalization-detection and error correction decoding might be attractive. To address that, by considering the nonlinearity inherent in the channel, an iterative soft equalization method that is optimized in the minimum mean-square error (MMSE) sense, called the iterative soft-MMSE (ISMMSE) equalization, is devised. The performance of the ISMMSE is evaluated by use of numerical experiments under different amounts of IPI and optical noise. Simulation results suggest that the ISMMSE is a good candidate for an ultrahigh capacity POVHM, which employs joint iterative equalization-detection and decoding.

  6. Color demosaicking via directional linear minimum mean square-error estimation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wu, Xiaolin

    2005-12-01

    Digital cameras sample scenes using a color filter array of mosaic pattern (e.g., the Bayer pattern). The demosaicking of the color samples is critical to the image quality. This paper presents a new color demosaicking technique of optimal directional filtering of the green-red and green-blue difference signals. Under the assumption that the primary difference signals (PDS) between the green and red/blue channels are low pass, the missing green samples are adaptively estimated in both horizontal and vertical directions by the linear minimum mean square-error estimation (LMMSE) technique. These directional estimates are then optimally fused to further improve the green estimates. Finally, guided by the demosaicked full-resolution green channel, the other two color channels are reconstructed from the LMMSE filtered and fused PDS. The experimental results show that the presented color demosaicking technique outperforms the existing methods both in PSNR measure and visual perception.

  7. Mean square stabilisation of complex oscillatory regimes in nonlinear stochastic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkirtseva, Irina; Ryashko, Lev

    2016-04-01

    A problem of stabilisation of the randomly forced periodic and quasiperiodic modes for nonlinear dynamic systems is considered. For this problem solution, we propose a new theoretical approach to consider these modes as invariant manifolds of the stochastic differential equations with control. The aim of the control is to provide the exponential mean square (EMS) stability for these manifolds. A general method of the stabilisation based on the algebraic criterion of the EMS-stability is elaborated. A constructive technique for the design of the feedback regulators stabilising various types of oscillatory regimes is proposed. A detailed parametric analysis of the problem of the stabilisation for stochastically forced periodic and quasiperiodic modes is given. An illustrative example of stochastic Hopf system is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  8. Sea surface mean square slope from Ku-band backscatter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.; Walton, W. T.; Hines, D. E.; Walter, B. A.; Peng, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    A surface mean-square-slope parameter analysis is conducted for 14-GHz airborne radar altimeter near-nadir, quasi-specular backscatter data, which in raw form obtained by least-squares fitting of an optical scattering model to the return waveform show an approximately linear dependence over the 7-15 m/sec wind speed range. Slope data are used to draw inferences on the structure of the high-wavenumber portion of the spectrum. A directionally-integrated model height spectrum that encompasses wind speed-dependent k exp -5/2 and classical Phillips k exp -3 power laws subranges in the range of gravity waves is supported by the data.

  9. Accuracy Analysis of Anisotropic Yield Functions based on the Root-Mean Square Error

    SciTech Connect

    Huh, Hoon; Lou, Yanshan; Bae, Gihyun; Lee, Changsoo

    2010-06-15

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of popular anisotropic yield functions based on the root-mean square error (RMSE) of the yield stresses and the R-values. The yield functions include Hill48, Yld89, Yld91, Yld96, Yld2000-2d, BBC2000 and Yld2000-18p yield criteria. Two kind steels and five kind aluminum alloys are selected for the accuracy evaluation. The anisotropic coefficients in yield functions are computed from the experimental data. The downhill simplex method is utilized for the parameter evaluation for the yield function except Hill48 and Yld89 yield functions after the error functions are constructed. The yield stresses and the R-values at every 15 deg. from the rolling direction (RD) and the yield stress and R-value at equibiaxial tension conditions are predicted from each yield function. The predicted yield stresses and R-values are then compared with the experimental data. The root-mean square errors (RMSE) are computed to quantitatively evaluate the yield function. The RMSEs are calculated for the yield stresses and the R-values separately because the yield stress difference is much smaller that the difference in the R-values. The RMSEs of different yield functions are compared for each material. The Hill48 and Yld89 yield functions are the worst choices for the anisotropic description of the yield stress anisotropy while Yld91 yield function is the last choice for the modeling of the R-value directionality. Yld2000-2d and BBC2000 yield function have the same accuracy on the modeling of both the yield stress anisotropy and the R-value anisotropy. The best choice is Yld2000-18 yield function to accurately describe the yield tress and R-value directionalities of sheet metals.

  10. Sulfide bonded atomic radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.

    2017-03-01

    The bonded radius, r b(S), of the S atom, calculated for first- and second-row non-transition metal sulfide crystals and third-row transition metal sulfide molecules and crystals indicates that the radius of the sulfur atom is not fixed as traditionally assumed, but that it decreases systematically along the bond paths of the bonded atoms with decreasing bond length as observed in an earlier study of the bonded radius of the oxygen atom. When bonded to non-transition metal atoms, r b(S) decreases systematically with decreasing bond length from 1.68 Å when the S atom is bonded to the electropositive VINa atom to 1.25 Å when bonded to the more electronegative IVP atom. In the case of transition metal atoms, rb(S) likewise decreases with decreasing bond length from 1.82 Å when bonded to Cu and to 1.12 Å when bonded to Fe. As r b(S) is not fixed at a given value but varies substantially depending on the bond length and the field strength of the bonded atoms, it is apparent that sets of crystal and atomic sulfide atomic radii based on an assumed fixed radius for the sulfur atom are satisfactory in that they reproduce bond lengths, on the one hand, whereas on the other, they are unsatisfactory in that they fail to define the actual sizes of the bonded atoms determined in terms of the minima in the electron density between the atoms. As such, we urge that the crystal chemistry and the properties of sulfides be studied in terms of the bond lengths determined by adding the radii of either the atomic and crystal radii of the atoms but not in terms of existing sets of crystal and atomic radii. After all, the bond lengths were used to determine the radii that were experimentally determined, whereas the individual radii were determined on the basis of an assumed radius for the sulfur atom.

  11. Sulfide bonded atomic radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, G. V.; Ross, N. L.; Cox, D. F.

    2017-09-01

    The bonded radius, r b(S), of the S atom, calculated for first- and second-row non-transition metal sulfide crystals and third-row transition metal sulfide molecules and crystals indicates that the radius of the sulfur atom is not fixed as traditionally assumed, but that it decreases systematically along the bond paths of the bonded atoms with decreasing bond length as observed in an earlier study of the bonded radius of the oxygen atom. When bonded to non-transition metal atoms, r b(S) decreases systematically with decreasing bond length from 1.68 Å when the S atom is bonded to the electropositive VINa atom to 1.25 Å when bonded to the more electronegative IVP atom. In the case of transition metal atoms, rb(S) likewise decreases with decreasing bond length from 1.82 Å when bonded to Cu and to 1.12 Å when bonded to Fe. As r b(S) is not fixed at a given value but varies substantially depending on the bond length and the field strength of the bonded atoms, it is apparent that sets of crystal and atomic sulfide atomic radii based on an assumed fixed radius for the sulfur atom are satisfactory in that they reproduce bond lengths, on the one hand, whereas on the other, they are unsatisfactory in that they fail to define the actual sizes of the bonded atoms determined in terms of the minima in the electron density between the atoms. As such, we urge that the crystal chemistry and the properties of sulfides be studied in terms of the bond lengths determined by adding the radii of either the atomic and crystal radii of the atoms but not in terms of existing sets of crystal and atomic radii. After all, the bond lengths were used to determine the radii that were experimentally determined, whereas the individual radii were determined on the basis of an assumed radius for the sulfur atom.

  12. Evaluation of the Proton Charge Radius from Electron–Proton Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, John; Sick, Ingo

    2015-09-15

    In light of the proton radius puzzle, the discrepancy between measurements of the proton charge radius from muonic hydrogen and those from electronic hydrogen and electron–proton (e–p) scattering measurements, we re-examine the charge radius extractions from electron scattering measurements. We provide a recommended value for the proton root-mean-square charge radius, r{sub E} = 0.879 ± 0.011 fm, based on a global examination of elastic e–p scattering data. The uncertainties include contributions to account for tension between different data sets and inconsistencies between radii using different extraction procedures.

  13. Atomic motion from the mean square displacement in a monatomic liquid.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Duane C; De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric D

    2016-05-11

    V-T theory is constructed in the many-body Hamiltonian formulation, and is being developed as a novel approach to liquid dynamics theory. In this theory the liquid atomic motion consists of two contributions, normal mode vibrations in a single representative potential energy valley, and transits, which carry the system across boundaries between valleys. The mean square displacement time correlation function (the MSD) is a direct measure of the atomic motion, and our goal is to determine if the V-T formalism can produce a physically sensible account of this motion. We employ molecular dynamics (MD) data for a system representing liquid Na, and find the motion evolves in three successive time intervals: on the first 'vibrational' interval, the vibrational motion alone gives a highly accurate account of the MD data; on the second 'crossover' interval, the vibrational MSD saturates to a constant while the transit motion builds up from zero; on the third 'random walk' interval, the transit motion produces a purely diffusive random walk of the vibrational equilibrium positions. This motional evolution agrees with, and adds refinement to, the MSD atomic motion as described by current liquid dynamics theories.

  14. Estimating Root Mean Square Errors in Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture over Continental Scale Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Clara S.; Reichle, Rolf; de Jeu, Richard; Naeimi, Vahid; Parinussa, Robert; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) in the soil moisture anomaly time series obtained from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E; using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model) are estimated over a continental scale domain centered on North America, using two methods: triple colocation (RMSETC ) and error propagation through the soil moisture retrieval models (RMSEEP ). In the absence of an established consensus for the climatology of soil moisture over large domains, presenting a RMSE in soil moisture units requires that it be specified relative to a selected reference data set. To avoid the complications that arise from the use of a reference, the RMSE is presented as a fraction of the time series standard deviation (fRMSE). For both sensors, the fRMSETC and fRMSEEP show similar spatial patterns of relatively highlow errors, and the mean fRMSE for each land cover class is consistent with expectations. Triple colocation is also shown to be surprisingly robust to representativity differences between the soil moisture data sets used, and it is believed to accurately estimate the fRMSE in the remotely sensed soil moisture anomaly time series. Comparing the ASCAT and AMSR-E fRMSETC shows that both data sets have very similar accuracy across a range of land cover classes, although the AMSR-E accuracy is more directly related to vegetation cover. In general, both data sets have good skill up to moderate vegetation conditions.

  15. Speech enhancement in discontinuous transmission systems using the constrained-stability least-mean-squares algorithm.

    PubMed

    Górriz, J M; Ramírez, J; Cruces-Alvarez, S; Erdogmus, D; Puntonet, C G; Lang, E W

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a novel constrained-stability least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm for filtering speech sounds is proposed in the adaptive noise cancellation (ANC) problem. It is based on the minimization of the squared Euclidean norm of the weight vector change under a stability constraint over the a posteriori estimation errors. To this purpose, the Lagrangian methodology has been used in order to propose a nonlinear adaptation in terms of the product of differential input and error. Convergence analysis is also studied in terms of the evolution of the natural modes to the optimal Wiener-Hopf solution so that the stability performance depends exclusively on the adaptation parameter mu and the eigenvalues of the difference matrix DeltaR(1). The algorithm shows superior performance over the referenced algorithms in the ANC problem of speech discontinuous transmission systems, which are characterized by rapid transitions of the desired signal. The experimental analysis carried out on the AURORA 3 speech databases provides an extensive performance evaluation together with an exhaustive comparison to the standard LMS algorithms, i.e., the normalized LMS (NLMS), and other recently reported LMS algorithms such as the modified NLMS, the error nonlinearity LMS, or the normalized data nonlinearity LMS adaptation.

  16. Smoothness of in vivo spectral baseline determined by mean-square error.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Shen, Jun

    2014-10-01

    A nonparametric smooth line is usually added to the spectral model to account for background signals in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The assumed smoothness of the baseline significantly influences quantitative spectral fitting. In this paper, a method is proposed to minimize baseline influences on the estimated spectral parameters. The nonparametric baseline function with a given smoothness was treated as a function of spectral parameters. Its uncertainty was measured by root-mean-square error (RMSE). The proposed method was demonstrated with a simulated spectrum and in vivo spectra of both short echo time and averaged echo times. The estimated in vivo baselines were compared with the metabolite-nulled spectra and the LCModel-estimated baselines. The accuracies of estimated baseline and metabolite concentrations were further verified via cross-validation. An optimal smoothness condition was found that led to the minimal baseline RMSE. In this condition, the best fit was balanced against minimal baseline influences on metabolite concentration estimates. Baseline RMSE can be used to indicate estimated baseline uncertainties and serve as the criterion for determining the baseline smoothness of in vivo MRS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Atomic motion from the mean square displacement in a monatomic liquid

    DOE PAGES

    Wallace, Duane C.; De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric D.

    2016-04-08

    V-T theory is constructed in the many-body Hamiltonian formulation, and is being developed as a novel approach to liquid dynamics theory. In this theory the liquid atomic motion consists of two contributions, normal mode vibrations in a single representative potential energy valley, and transits, which carry the system across boundaries between valleys. The mean square displacement time correlation function (the MSD) is a direct measure of the atomic motion, and our goal is to determine if the V-T formalism can produce a physically sensible account of this motion. We employ molecular dynamics (MD) data for a system representing liquid Na,more » and find the motion evolves in three successive time intervals: on the first 'vibrational' interval, the vibrational motion alone gives a highly accurate account of the MD data; on the second 'crossover' interval, the vibrational MSD saturates to a constant while the transit motion builds up from zero; on the third 'random walk' interval, the transit motion produces a purely diffusive random walk of the vibrational equilibrium positions. Furthermore, this motional evolution agrees with, and adds refinement to, the MSD atomic motion as described by current liquid dynamics theories.« less

  18. Atomic motion from the mean square displacement in a monatomic liquid

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, Duane C.; De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric D.

    2016-04-08

    V-T theory is constructed in the many-body Hamiltonian formulation, and is being developed as a novel approach to liquid dynamics theory. In this theory the liquid atomic motion consists of two contributions, normal mode vibrations in a single representative potential energy valley, and transits, which carry the system across boundaries between valleys. The mean square displacement time correlation function (the MSD) is a direct measure of the atomic motion, and our goal is to determine if the V-T formalism can produce a physically sensible account of this motion. We employ molecular dynamics (MD) data for a system representing liquid Na, and find the motion evolves in three successive time intervals: on the first 'vibrational' interval, the vibrational motion alone gives a highly accurate account of the MD data; on the second 'crossover' interval, the vibrational MSD saturates to a constant while the transit motion builds up from zero; on the third 'random walk' interval, the transit motion produces a purely diffusive random walk of the vibrational equilibrium positions. Furthermore, this motional evolution agrees with, and adds refinement to, the MSD atomic motion as described by current liquid dynamics theories.

  19. Observations of Sea Surface Mean Square Slope During the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Hines, D. E.; Banner, M. L.; Chen, W.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.; Jensen, J.; Lee, S.; Fandry, C.

    1999-01-01

    For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the 36 GHz (8.3 mm) NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA) was shipped to Australia and installed on a CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft instrumented to make comprehensive surface layer measurements of air-sea interaction fluxes. The sea surface mean square slope (mss), which is predominantly caused by the short waves, was determined from the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle measured by the SRA in the plane normal to the aircraft heading. On each flight, data were acquired at 240 m altitude while the aircraft was in a 7 deg roll attitude, interrogating off-nadir incidence angles from -15 deg through nadir to +29 deg. The aircraft turned azimuthally through 810 deg in this attitude, mapping the azimuthal dependence of the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle. Two sets of turning data were acquired on each day, before and after the aircraft measured wind stress at low altitude (12 m to 65 m). Wave topography and backscattered power for mss were also acquired during those level flight segments whenever the aircraft altitude was above the SRA minimum range of 35 m. A unique feature of this experiment was the use of a nadir-directed low-gain horn antenna (35 deg beamwidth) to acquire azimuthally integrated backscattered power data versus incidence angle before and after the turn data.

  20. Observations of Sea Surface Mean Square Slope During the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Hines, D. E.; Banner, M. L.; Chen, W.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.; Jensen, J.; Lee, S.; Fandry, C.

    1999-01-01

    For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the 36 GHz (8.3 mm) NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA) was shipped to Australia and installed on a CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft instrumented to make comprehensive surface layer measurements of air-sea interaction fluxes. The sea surface mean square slope (mss), which is predominantly caused by the short waves, was determined from the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle measured by the SRA in the plane normal to the aircraft heading. On each flight, data were acquired at 240 m altitude while the aircraft was in a 7 deg roll attitude, interrogating off-nadir incidence angles from -15 deg through nadir to +29 deg. The aircraft turned azimuthally through 810 deg in this attitude, mapping the azimuthal dependence of the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle. Two sets of turning data were acquired on each day, before and after the aircraft measured wind stress at low altitude (12 m to 65 m). Wave topography and backscattered power for mss were also acquired during those level flight segments whenever the aircraft altitude was above the SRA minimum range of 35 m. A unique feature of this experiment was the use of a nadir-directed low-gain horn antenna (35 deg beamwidth) to acquire azimuthally integrated backscattered power data versus incidence angle before and after the turn data.

  1. Detecting Blending End-Point Using Mean Squares Successive Difference Test and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Khorasani, Milad; Amigo, José M; Bertelsen, Poul; Van Den Berg, Frans; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-08-01

    An algorithm based on mean squares successive difference test applied to near-infrared and principal component analysis scores was developed to monitor and determine the blending profile and to assess the end-point in the statistical stabile phase. Model formulations consisting of an active compound (acetylsalicylic acid), together with microcrystalline cellulose and two grades of calcium carbonate with dramatically different particle shapes, were prepared. The formulation comprising angular-shaped calcium carbonate reached blending end-point slower when compared with the formulation comprising equant-shaped calcium carbonate. Utilizing the ring shear test, this distinction in end-point could be related to the difference in flowability of the formulations. On the basis of the two model formulations, a design of experiments was conducted to characterize the blending process by studying the effect of CaCO3 grades and fill level of the bin on blending end-point. Calcium carbonate grades, fill level, and their interaction were shown to have a significant impact on the blending process.

  2. Reduced wavefront reconstruction mean square error using optimal priors: algebraic analysis and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béchet, C.; Tallon, M.; Thiébaut, E.

    2008-07-01

    The turbulent wavefront reconstruction step in an adaptive optics system is an inverse problem. The Mean-Square Error (MSE) assessing the reconstruction quality is made of two terms, often called bias and variance. The latter is also commonly referred as the noise propagation. The aim of this paper is to investigate the evolution of these two error contributions when the number of parameters to be estimated becomes of the order of 10 4. Such dimensions are expected for the adaptive optics systems on the Extremely Large Telescopes. We provide an algebraic formalism to compare the MSE of Maximum Likelihood and Maximum A Posteriori linear reconstructors. A Generalized Singular Value Decomposition applied on the reconstructors theoretically enhances the differences between zonal and modal approaches, and demonstrates the gain in using Maximum A Posteriori method. Thanks to numerical simulations, we quantitatively study the evolution of the MSE contributions with respect to the pupil shape, to the outer scale of the turbulence, to the number of actuators and to the signal-to-noise ratio. Simulations results are consistent with previous noise propagation studies and with our algebraic analysis. Finally, using the Fractal Iterative Method as a Maximum A Posteriori reconstruction algorithm in our simulations, we demonstrate a possible reduction of the MSE of a factor 2 in large adaptive optics systems, for low signal-to-noise ratio.

  3. Smoothness of In vivo Spectral Baseline Determined by Mean Squared Error

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Shen, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose A nonparametric smooth line is usually added to spectral model to account for background signals in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). The assumed smoothness of the baseline significantly influences quantitative spectral fitting. In this paper, a method is proposed to minimize baseline influences on estimated spectral parameters. Methods In this paper, the non-parametric baseline function with a given smoothness was treated as a function of spectral parameters. Its uncertainty was measured by root-mean-squared error (RMSE). The proposed method was demonstrated with a simulated spectrum and in vivo spectra of both short echo time (TE) and averaged echo times. The estimated in vivo baselines were compared with the metabolite-nulled spectra, and the LCModel-estimated baselines. The accuracies of estimated baseline and metabolite concentrations were further verified by cross-validation. Results An optimal smoothness condition was found that led to the minimal baseline RMSE. In this condition, the best fit was balanced against minimal baseline influences on metabolite concentration estimates. Conclusion Baseline RMSE can be used to indicate estimated baseline uncertainties and serve as the criterion for determining the baseline smoothness of in vivo MRS. PMID:24259436

  4. Mean square atomic displacements of LaFe4Sb12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, Joseph; Singh, David

    2005-03-01

    Calculations in the harmonic approximation of the mean square atomic displacements (MSDs) for the filled skutterudite, LaFe4Sb12, are discussed, where the first-principles based force constant model that we recently proposed for this material is employed.^1 The various values of MSDs at high temperatures are as expected, following the differences in coordination and short range force constants. The results are primarily compared with temperature dependent neutron diffraction measurements^2 of MSDs in La.75Fe3CoSb12. The differences between theory and experiment are interpreted in terms of static disorder contributions to the MSDs. In the case of the isotropic MSDs, the resulting static disorder contributions are comparable to the corresponding minimum values previously obtained^2 from a data analysis, and both the Sb and Fe values are small compared to the La value of 0.0045å^2. Nevertheless the anisotropy in the Sb static disorder is large on the basis of our analysis, and in the direction of the neighboring La site the Sb disorder parameter is comparable to the above value for La. Finally, the effect of La interactions on the Sb- and Fe-MSDs is discussed within the context of our model, as is an Einstein model, fitted to the calculated La MSD. 1. J.L. Feldman et al., Phys. Rev. B 68, 094301 (2003).2. B.C. Chakoumakos et al., Acta Cryst. B 55,341 (1999).

  5. Linear minimum mean-square error filtering for evoked responses: application to fetal MEG.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingli; Van Veen, Barry D; Wakai, Ronald T

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a linear minimum mean-squared error (LMMSE) approach for designing spatial filters that improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of multiepoch evoked response data. This approach does not rely on availability of a forward solution and thus is applicable to problems in which a forward solution is not readily available, such as fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG). The LMMSE criterion leads to a spatial filter that is a function of the autocorrelation matrix of the data and the autocorrelation matrix of the signal. The signal statistics are unknown, so we approximate the signal autocorrelation matrix using the average of the data across epochs. This approximation is reasonable provided the mean of the noise is zero across epochs and the signal mean is significant. An analysis of the error incurred using this approximation is presented. Calculations of SNR for the exact and approximate LMMSE filters and simple averaging for the rank-1 signal case are shown. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated with simulated evoked response data and fetal MEG data.

  6. Atomic motion from the mean square displacement in a monatomic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Duane C.; De Lorenzi-Venneri, Giulia; Chisolm, Eric D.

    2016-05-01

    V-T theory is constructed in the many-body Hamiltonian formulation, and is being developed as a novel approach to liquid dynamics theory. In this theory the liquid atomic motion consists of two contributions, normal mode vibrations in a single representative potential energy valley, and transits, which carry the system across boundaries between valleys. The mean square displacement time correlation function (the MSD) is a direct measure of the atomic motion, and our goal is to determine if the V-T formalism can produce a physically sensible account of this motion. We employ molecular dynamics (MD) data for a system representing liquid Na, and find the motion evolves in three successive time intervals: on the first ‘vibrational’ interval, the vibrational motion alone gives a highly accurate account of the MD data; on the second ‘crossover’ interval, the vibrational MSD saturates to a constant while the transit motion builds up from zero; on the third ‘random walk’ interval, the transit motion produces a purely diffusive random walk of the vibrational equilibrium positions. This motional evolution agrees with, and adds refinement to, the MSD atomic motion as described by current liquid dynamics theories.

  7. Decomposition of the Mean Squared Error and NSE Performance Criteria: Implications for Improving Hydrological Modelling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Hoshin V.; Kling, Harald; Yilmaz, Koray K.; Martinez-Baquero, Guillermo F.

    2009-01-01

    The mean squared error (MSE) and the related normalization, the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), are the two criteria most widely used for calibration and evaluation of hydrological models with observed data. Here, we present a diagnostically interesting decomposition of NSE (and hence MSE), which facilitates analysis of the relative importance of its different components in the context of hydrological modelling, and show how model calibration problems can arise due to interactions among these components. The analysis is illustrated by calibrating a simple conceptual precipitation-runoff model to daily data for a number of Austrian basins having a broad range of hydro-meteorological characteristics. Evaluation of the results clearly demonstrates the problems that can be associated with any calibration based on the NSE (or MSE) criterion. While we propose and test an alternative criterion that can help to reduce model calibration problems, the primary purpose of this study is not to present an improved measure of model performance. Instead, we seek to show that there are systematic problems inherent with any optimization based on formulations related to the MSE. The analysis and results have implications to the manner in which we calibrate and evaluate environmental models; we discuss these and suggest possible ways forward that may move us towards an improved and diagnostically meaningful approach to model performance evaluation and identification.

  8. Optimal design of minimum mean-square error noise reduction algorithms using the simulated annealing technique.

    PubMed

    Bai, Mingsian R; Hsieh, Ping-Ju; Hur, Kur-Nan

    2009-02-01

    The performance of the minimum mean-square error noise reduction (MMSE-NR) algorithm in conjunction with time-recursive averaging (TRA) for noise estimation is found to be very sensitive to the choice of two recursion parameters. To address this problem in a more systematic manner, this paper proposes an optimization method to efficiently search the optimal parameters of the MMSE-TRA-NR algorithms. The objective function is based on a regression model, whereas the optimization process is carried out with the simulated annealing algorithm that is well suited for problems with many local optima. Another NR algorithm proposed in the paper employs linear prediction coding as a preprocessor for extracting the correlated portion of human speech. Objective and subjective tests were undertaken to compare the optimized MMSE-TRA-NR algorithm with several conventional NR algorithms. The results of subjective tests were processed by using analysis of variance to justify the statistic significance. A post hoc test, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference, was conducted to further assess the pairwise difference between the NR algorithms.

  9. Macrocyclic lanthanide complexes as artificial nucleases and ribonucleases: effects of pH, metal ionic radii, number of coordinated water molecules, charge, and concentrations of the metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Chang, C Allen; Wu, Bo Hong; Kuan, Bu Yuan

    2005-09-19

    We have been interested in the design, synthesis, and characterization of artificial nucleases and ribonucleases by employing macrocyclic lanthanide complexes because their high thermodynamic stability, low kinetic lability, high coordination number, and charge density (Lewis acidity) allow more design flexibility and stability. In this paper, we report the study of the use of the europium(III) complex, EuDO2A+ (DO2A is 1,7-dicarboxymethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane) and other lanthanide complexes (i.e., LaDO2A+, YbDO2A+, EuK21DA+, EuEDDA+, and EuHEDTA where K21DA is 1,7-diaza-4,10,13-trioxacyclopentadecane-N,N'-diacetic acid, EDDA is ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid, and HEDTA is N-hydroxyethyl-ethylenediamine-N,N',N'-triacetic acid), as potential catalysts for the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond of BNPP (sodium bis(4-nitrophenyl)-phosphate). For the pH range 7.0-11.0 studied, EuDO2A+ promotes BNPP hydrolysis with the quickest rates among LaDO2A+, EuDO2A+, and YbDO2A+. This indicates that charge density is not the only factor affecting the reaction rates. Among the four complexes, EuDO2A+, EuK21DA+, EuEDDA+, and EuHEDTA, with their respective number of inner-sphere coordinated water molecules three, two, five, and three, EuEDDA+, with the greatest number of inner-sphere coordinated water molecules and a positive charge, promotes BNPP hydrolysis more efficiently at pH below 8.4, and the observed rate trend is EuEDDA+ > EuDO2A+ > EuK21DA+ > EuHEDTA. At pH > 8.4, the EuEDDA+ solution becomes misty and precipitates form. At pH 11.0, the hydrolysis rate of BNPP in the presence of EuDO2A+ is 100 times faster than that of EuHEDTA, presumably because the positively charged EuDO2A+ is more favorable for binding with the negatively charged phosphodiester compounds. The logarithmic hydrolysis constants (pKh) were determined, and are reported in the parentheses, by fitting the kinetic k(obs) data vs pH for EuDO2A+ (8.4), LaDO2A+ (8.4), YbDO2A+ (9.4), EuK21DA+ (7

  10. Electromagnetic moments and radii near N = 32,34

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Ruiz, Ronald Fernando

    2016-09-01

    On behalf of the COLLAPS and CRIS collaborations at ISOLDE-CERN. Nuclei in the neighborhood of calcium isotopes play a key role in the development of many-body methods and provide an important test for current descriptions of the nuclear force. The properties of stable nuclei in the vicinity of the two naturally occurring doubly-magic calcium (Z = 20) isotopes, 40Ca (N = 20) and 48Ca (N = 28), have been extensively studied, both experimentally and theoretically. Recently, special attention has been given to the evolution of nuclear structure in exotic neutron-rich isotopes beyond N = 28 , where evidence of doubly-magic features have been reported at N = 32 and N = 34. This contribution presents the latest results obtained with laser spectroscopy in the region. Measurements of the hyperfine structure spectra and isotope shifts for the potassium (Z = 19) and calcium (Z = 20) isotopic chains were obtained by using optical detection at COLLAPS, ISOLDE-CERN. From these measurements, our knowledge of nuclear ground-state spins, ground-state electromagnetic moments and changes in the root-mean-squared charge radii has been extended up to N = 32. With relatively low production yields, the isotopes 51K ( 4000 ions/s) and 52Ca ( 250 ions/s) are at the limit of optical detection techniques. In order to extend laser spectroscopy studies further away from stability, a highly sensitive experimental setup has been developed at the COLLAPS beam line. The current developments in this direction and the perspectives for future experiments using collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) in the region towards N = 34 will be discussed.

  11. The Least Mean Squares Adaptive FIR Filter for Narrow-Band RFI Suppression in Radio Detection of Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szadkowski, Zbigniew; Głas, Dariusz

    2017-06-01

    Radio emission from the extensive air showers (EASs), initiated by ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays, was theoretically suggested over 50 years ago. However, due to technical limitations, successful collection of sufficient statistics can take several years. Nowadays, this detection technique is used in many experiments consisting in studying EAS. One of them is the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA), located within the Pierre Auger Observatory. AERA focuses on the radio emission, generated by the electromagnetic part of the shower, mainly in geomagnetic and charge excess processes. The frequency band observed by AERA radio stations is 30-80 MHz. Thus, the frequency range is contaminated by human-made and narrow-band radio frequency interferences (RFIs). Suppression of contaminations is very important to lower the rate of spurious triggers. There are two kinds of digital filters used in AERA radio stations to suppress these contaminations: the fast Fourier transform median filter and four narrow-band IIR-notch filters. Both filters have worked successfully in the field for many years. An adaptive filter based on a least mean squares (LMS) algorithm is a relatively simple finite impulse response (FIR) filter, which can be an alternative for currently used filters. Simulations in MATLAB are very promising and show that the LMS filter can be very efficient in suppressing RFI and only slightly distorts radio signals. The LMS algorithm was implemented into a Cyclone V field programmable gate array for testing the stability, RFI suppression efficiency, and adaptation time to new conditions. First results show that the FIR filter based on the LMS algorithm can be successfully implemented and used in real AERA radio stations.

  12. Augmented GNSS differential corrections minimum mean square error estimation sensitivity to spatial correlation modeling errors.

    PubMed

    Kassabian, Nazelie; Lo Presti, Letizia; Rispoli, Francesco

    2014-06-11

    Railway signaling is a safety system that has evolved over the last couple of centuries towards autonomous functionality. Recently, great effort is being devoted in this field, towards the use and exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS augmentation systems in view of lower railway track equipments and maintenance costs, that is a priority to sustain the investments for modernizing the local and regional lines most of which lack automatic train protection systems and are still manually operated. The objective of this paper is to assess the sensitivity of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) algorithm to modeling errors in the spatial correlation function that characterizes true pseudorange Differential Corrections (DCs). This study is inspired by the railway application; however, it applies to all transportation systems, including the road sector, that need to be complemented by an augmentation system in order to deliver accurate and reliable positioning with integrity specifications. A vector of noisy pseudorange DC measurements are simulated, assuming a Gauss-Markov model with a decay rate parameter inversely proportional to the correlation distance that exists between two points of a certain environment. The LMMSE algorithm is applied on this vector to estimate the true DC, and the estimation error is compared to the noise added during simulation. The results show that for large enough correlation distance to Reference Stations (RSs) distance separation ratio values, the LMMSE brings considerable advantage in terms of estimation error accuracy and precision. Conversely, the LMMSE algorithm may deteriorate the quality of the DC measurements whenever the ratio falls below a certain threshold.

  13. Experimental evaluation of leaky least-mean-square algorithms for active noise reduction in communication headsets.

    PubMed

    Cartes, David A; Ray, Laura R; Collier, Robert D

    2002-04-01

    An adaptive leaky normalized least-mean-square (NLMS) algorithm has been developed to optimize stability and performance of active noise cancellation systems. The research addresses LMS filter performance issues related to insufficient excitation, nonstationary noise fields, and time-varying signal-to-noise ratio. The adaptive leaky NLMS algorithm is based on a Lyapunov tuning approach in which three candidate algorithms, each of which is a function of the instantaneous measured reference input, measurement noise variance, and filter length, are shown to provide varying degrees of tradeoff between stability and noise reduction performance. Each algorithm is evaluated experimentally for reduction of low frequency noise in communication headsets, and stability and noise reduction performance are compared with that of traditional NLMS and fixed-leakage NLMS algorithms. Acoustic measurements are made in a specially designed acoustic test cell which is based on the original work of Ryan et al. ["Enclosure for low frequency assessment of active noise reducing circumaural headsets and hearing protection," Can. Acoust. 21, 19-20 (1993)] and which provides a highly controlled and uniform acoustic environment. The stability and performance of the active noise reduction system, including a prototype communication headset, are investigated for a variety of noise sources ranging from stationary tonal noise to highly nonstationary measured F-16 aircraft noise over a 20 dB dynamic range. Results demonstrate significant improvements in stability of Lyapunov-tuned LMS algorithms over traditional leaky or nonleaky normalized algorithms, while providing noise reduction performance equivalent to that of the NLMS algorithm for idealized noise fields.

  14. Protein structure validation by generalized linear model root-mean-square deviation prediction.

    PubMed

    Bagaria, Anurag; Jaravine, Victor; Huang, Yuanpeng J; Montelione, Gaetano T; Güntert, Peter

    2012-02-01

    Large-scale initiatives for obtaining spatial protein structures by experimental or computational means have accentuated the need for the critical assessment of protein structure determination and prediction methods. These include blind test projects such as the critical assessment of protein structure prediction (CASP) and the critical assessment of protein structure determination by nuclear magnetic resonance (CASD-NMR). An important aim is to establish structure validation criteria that can reliably assess the accuracy of a new protein structure. Various quality measures derived from the coordinates have been proposed. A universal structural quality assessment method should combine multiple individual scores in a meaningful way, which is challenging because of their different measurement units. Here, we present a method based on a generalized linear model (GLM) that combines diverse protein structure quality scores into a single quantity with intuitive meaning, namely the predicted coordinate root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) value between the present structure and the (unavailable) "true" structure (GLM-RMSD). For two sets of structural models from the CASD-NMR and CASP projects, this GLM-RMSD value was compared with the actual accuracy given by the RMSD value to the corresponding, experimentally determined reference structure from the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The correlation coefficients between actual (model vs. reference from PDB) and predicted (model vs. "true") heavy-atom RMSDs were 0.69 and 0.76, for the two datasets from CASD-NMR and CASP, respectively, which is considerably higher than those for the individual scores (-0.24 to 0.68). The GLM-RMSD can thus predict the accuracy of protein structures more reliably than individual coordinate-based quality scores.

  15. Resolution Effects on the Mean Square Displacement as Obtained by the Self-Distribution-Function Procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetto, A.; Magazù, S.; Migliardo, F.; Mondelli, C.; Gonzalez, M. A.

    2012-02-01

    In the present contribution, a procedure for molecular motion characterization based on the evaluation of the Mean Square Displacement (MSD), through the Self-Distribution Function (SDF), is presented. It is shown how MSD, which represents an important observable for the characterization of dynamical properties, can be decomposed into different partial contributions associated to system dynamical processes within a specific spatial scale. It is also shown how the SDF procedure allows us to evaluate both total MSD and partial MSDs through total and partial SDFs. As a result, total MSD is the weighed sum of partial MSDs in which the weights are obtained by the fitting procedure of measured Elastic Incoherent Neutron Scattering (EINS) intensity. We apply SDF procedure to data collected,by IN13, IN10 and IN4 spectrometers (Institute Laue Langevin), on aqueous mixtures of two homologous disaccharides (sucrose and trehalose) and on dry and hydrated (H2O and D2O) lysozyme with and without disaccharides. It emerges that the hydrogen bond imposed network of the water-trehalose mixture appears to be stronger with respect to that of the water-sucrose mixture. This result can justify the higher bioprotectant effectiveness of trehalose. Furthermore, it emerges that partial MSDs of sucrose and trehalose are equivalent in the low Q domain (0÷1.7) Å-1 whereas they are different in the high Q domain (1.7÷4) Å-1. This suggests that the higher structure sensitivity of sucrose should be related to the small spatial observation windows. Moreover, the role of the instrumental resolution in EINS is considered. The nature of the dynamical transition is highlighted and it is shown that it occurs when the system relaxation time becomes shorter than the instrumental energy time. Finally, the bioprotectants effect on protein dynamics and the amplitude of vibrations in lysozyme are presented.

  16. Augmented GNSS Differential Corrections Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation Sensitivity to Spatial Correlation Modeling Errors

    PubMed Central

    Kassabian, Nazelie; Presti, Letizia Lo; Rispoli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Railway signaling is a safety system that has evolved over the last couple of centuries towards autonomous functionality. Recently, great effort is being devoted in this field, towards the use and exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals and GNSS augmentation systems in view of lower railway track equipments and maintenance costs, that is a priority to sustain the investments for modernizing the local and regional lines most of which lack automatic train protection systems and are still manually operated. The objective of this paper is to assess the sensitivity of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) algorithm to modeling errors in the spatial correlation function that characterizes true pseudorange Differential Corrections (DCs). This study is inspired by the railway application; however, it applies to all transportation systems, including the road sector, that need to be complemented by an augmentation system in order to deliver accurate and reliable positioning with integrity specifications. A vector of noisy pseudorange DC measurements are simulated, assuming a Gauss-Markov model with a decay rate parameter inversely proportional to the correlation distance that exists between two points of a certain environment. The LMMSE algorithm is applied on this vector to estimate the true DC, and the estimation error is compared to the noise added during simulation. The results show that for large enough correlation distance to Reference Stations (RSs) distance separation ratio values, the LMMSE brings considerable advantage in terms of estimation error accuracy and precision. Conversely, the LMMSE algorithm may deteriorate the quality of the DC measurements whenever the ratio falls below a certain threshold. PMID:24922454

  17. Sea surface mean square slope from K u -band backscatter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, F. C.; Walton, W. T.; Hines, D. E.; Walter, B. A.; Peng, C. Y.

    1992-07-01

    Near-nadir, quasi-specular backscatter data obtained with a 14-GHz airborne radar altimeter are analyzed in terms of the surface mean square slope (mss) parameter. The raw mss data, derived from a least squares fitting of a ray optical scattering model to the return waveform, show an approximately linear wind speed dependence over the wind speed range of 7-15 m s-1, with a slope of about one half that of the optically determined mss. Further analysis based on a simple two-scale scattering model indicates that, at the higher wind speeds, ˜20% of this apparent slope signal can be attributed to diffraction from waves shorter than the estimated diffraction limit of ˜0.10 m. The present slope data, as well as slope and other data from a variety of sources, are used to draw inferences on the structure of the high wavenumber portion of the wave spectrum. The data support a directionally integrated model height spectrum consisting of wind speed dependent k-5/2 and classical Phillips' k-3 power law subranges in the range of gravity waves, with a transition between the two subranges occurring around 10 times the peak wavenumber, and a Durden and Vesecky wind speed dependent spectrum in the gravity-capillary wave range. With a nominal value of the spectral constant Au = 0.002 in the first k-5/2 subrange, this equilibrium spectrum model predicts a mss wind speed dependence that accords with much of the available data at both microwave and optical frequencies.

  18. Observations of Sea Surface Mean Square Slope During the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Wright, C. W.; Banner, M. L.; Chen, W.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.; Hines, D. E.; Jensen, J.; Lee, S.; Gerlach, John C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA) was shipped to Australia and installed on a CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft instrumented to make comprehensive surface layer measurements of air-sea interaction fluxes. The SRA sweeps a radar beam of P (two-way) half-power width across the aircraft ground track over a swath equal to 0.8 of the aircraft height, simultaneously measuring the backscattered power at its 36 GHz (8.3 mm) operating frequency and the range to the sea surface at 64 cross-track positions. In realtime, the slant ranges are multiplied by the cosine of the off-nadir incidence angles (including the effect of aircraft roll attitude) to determine the vertical distances from the aircraft to the sea surface. These distances are subtracted from the aircraft height to produce a sea-surface elevation map, which is displayed on a monitor in the aircraft to enable real-time assessments of data quality and wave properties. The sea surface mean square slope (mss), which is predominantly caused by the short waves, was determined from the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle measured by the SRA in the plane normal to the aircraft heading. On each flight, data were acquired at 240 m altitude while the aircraft was in a 7 degree roll attitude, interrogating off-nadir incidence angles from -15 degrees through nadir to +29 degrees. The aircraft turned azimuthally through 810 degrees in this attitude, mapping the azimuthal dependence of the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle. Two sets of turning data were acquired on each day, before and after the aircraft measured wind stress at low altitude (12 meters to 65 meters). Wave topography and backscattered power for mss were also acquired during those level flight segments whenever the aircraft altitude was above the SRA minimum range of 35 m. Data were collected over a wide range of wind and sea

  19. Observations of Sea Surface Mean Square Slope During the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Vandemark, D. C.; Wright, C. W.; Banner, M. L.; Chen, W.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.; Hines, D. E.; Jensen, J.; Lee, S.; hide

    2001-01-01

    For the Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX), conducted in June 1992 out of Hobart, Tasmania, the NASA Scanning Radar Altimeter (SRA) was shipped to Australia and installed on a CSIRO Fokker F-27 research aircraft instrumented to make comprehensive surface layer measurements of air-sea interaction fluxes. The SRA sweeps a radar beam of P (two-way) half-power width across the aircraft ground track over a swath equal to 0.8 of the aircraft height, simultaneously measuring the backscattered power at its 36 GHz (8.3 mm) operating frequency and the range to the sea surface at 64 cross-track positions. In realtime, the slant ranges are multiplied by the cosine of the off-nadir incidence angles (including the effect of aircraft roll attitude) to determine the vertical distances from the aircraft to the sea surface. These distances are subtracted from the aircraft height to produce a sea-surface elevation map, which is displayed on a monitor in the aircraft to enable real-time assessments of data quality and wave properties. The sea surface mean square slope (mss), which is predominantly caused by the short waves, was determined from the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle measured by the SRA in the plane normal to the aircraft heading. On each flight, data were acquired at 240 m altitude while the aircraft was in a 7 degree roll attitude, interrogating off-nadir incidence angles from -15 degrees through nadir to +29 degrees. The aircraft turned azimuthally through 810 degrees in this attitude, mapping the azimuthal dependence of the backscattered power falloff with incidence angle. Two sets of turning data were acquired on each day, before and after the aircraft measured wind stress at low altitude (12 meters to 65 meters). Wave topography and backscattered power for mss were also acquired during those level flight segments whenever the aircraft altitude was above the SRA minimum range of 35 m. Data were collected over a wide range of wind and sea

  20. Mean square consensus of leader-following multi-agent systems with measurement noises and time delays.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongwei; Deng, Feiqi

    2017-08-05

    This paper investigates the mean square consensus problem of dynamical networks of leader-following multi-agent systems with measurement noises and time-varying delays. We consider that the fixed undirected communication topologies are connected. A neighbor-based tracking algorithm together with distributed estimators are presented. Using tools of algebraic graph theory and the Gronwall-Bellman-Halanay type inequality, we establish sufficient conditions to reach consensus in mean square sense via the proposed consensus protocols. Finally, a numerical simulation is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the obtained theoretical result. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. First Leptonic Probe of Neutron Radii in Lead (Lead-82) at Low-Q Square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jen, Chun-Min

    Over the past decade, in Hall-A of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), both the HAPPEX and PREx collaborations have carried out various high-precision polarized elastic electron scattering experiments to explore the nuclear structure, the nucleon form factor and the weak charge of proton and electron. They have done so through the technique of the parity-violating asymmetry measurement with limited theoretical uncertainties. My dissertation focuses on the study of nuclear structure, namely the thickness of the neutron skin, using elastic electron scattering experiments. The direct measurement of the thickness of the neutron skin in heavy nuclei, where neutron are two-fold more than protons, constrains the slope of changes in binding energies of every single heavy nucleus with respect to the full nucleus density, including proton and neutron densities. In addition, a more precise description of the neutron density profile for each heavy nucleus can help us gain better understanding of nuclear binding energies and has astrophysical implications for neutron stars. As far as we know, the proton and charge RMS (root-mean-square) radii in heavy nuclei such as Lead ( P20882b ) have been measured with an accuracy of 0.02 fm and 0.002 fm, respectively. However, there is no clear picture of the neutron density profile through a high precision neutron RMS radii measurement free from the strong interaction until now. Through a series simulations, both theorists and experimentalists have studied the sensitivity of the parity-violating asymmetry to the extraction of the neutron radii in heavy nuclei. Under some specific conditions, for instance, a fixed scattering angle of 5 degrees and a fixed Q 2 of 0.0088 GeV2, a 3% statistic uncertainty of parity-violating asymmetries corresponds to a merely 1% error of the neutron radii in Lead ( P20882b ). That is, the uncertainties of neutron radii in Lead ( P20882b ) is three-fold smaller than the error of the

  2. The Relationship between Root Mean Square Error of Approximation and Model Misspecification in Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savalei, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    The fit index root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) is extremely popular in structural equation modeling. However, its behavior under different scenarios remains poorly understood. The present study generates continuous curves where possible to capture the full relationship between RMSEA and various "incidental parameters," such as…

  3. Modes of Diffusion of Cholera Toxin Bound to GM1 on Live Cell Membrane by Image Mean Square Displacement Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moens, Pierre D.J.; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The image-mean square displacement technique applies the calculation of the mean square displacement commonly used in single-molecule tracking to images without resolving single particles. The image-mean square displacement plot obtained is similar to the mean square displacement plot obtained using the single-particle tracking technique. This plot is then used to reconstruct the protein diffusion law and to identify whether the labeled molecules are undergoing pure isotropic, restricted, corralled, transiently confined, or directed diffusion. In our study total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images were taken of Cholera toxin subunit B (CtxB) membrane-labeled NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and MDA 231 MB cells. We found a population of CTxB undergoing purely isotropic diffusion and one displaying restricted diffusion with corral sizes ranging from 150 to ∼1800 nm. We show that the diffusion rate of CTxB bound to GM1 is independent of the size of the confinement, suggesting that the mechanism of confinement is different from the mechanism controlling the diffusion rate of CtxB. We highlight the potential effect of continuous illumination on the diffusion mode of CTxB. We also show that aggregation of CTxB/GM1 in large complexes occurs and that these aggregates tend to have slower diffusion rates. PMID:25809257

  4. Modes of diffusion of cholera toxin bound to GM1 on live cell membrane by image mean square displacement analysis.

    PubMed

    Moens, Pierre D J; Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico

    2015-03-24

    The image-mean square displacement technique applies the calculation of the mean square displacement commonly used in single-molecule tracking to images without resolving single particles. The image-mean square displacement plot obtained is similar to the mean square displacement plot obtained using the single-particle tracking technique. This plot is then used to reconstruct the protein diffusion law and to identify whether the labeled molecules are undergoing pure isotropic, restricted, corralled, transiently confined, or directed diffusion. In our study total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy images were taken of Cholera toxin subunit B (CtxB) membrane-labeled NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblasts and MDA 231 MB cells. We found a population of CTxB undergoing purely isotropic diffusion and one displaying restricted diffusion with corral sizes ranging from 150 to ∼1800 nm. We show that the diffusion rate of CTxB bound to GM1 is independent of the size of the confinement, suggesting that the mechanism of confinement is different from the mechanism controlling the diffusion rate of CtxB. We highlight the potential effect of continuous illumination on the diffusion mode of CTxB. We also show that aggregation of CTxB/GM1 in large complexes occurs and that these aggregates tend to have slower diffusion rates. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy in Parameter Estimation for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation: Sample Size Planning for Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Lai, Keke

    2011-01-01

    The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) is one of the most widely reported measures of misfit/fit in applications of structural equation modeling. When the RMSEA is of interest, so too should be the accompanying confidence interval. A narrow confidence interval reveals that the plausible parameter values are confined to a relatively…

  6. Large area aggregation and mean-squared prediction error estimation for LACIE yield and production forecasts. [wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chhikara, R. S.; Feiveson, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Aggregation formulas are given for production estimation of a crop type for a zone, a region, and a country, and methods for estimating yield prediction errors for the three areas are described. A procedure is included for obtaining a combined yield prediction and its mean-squared error estimate for a mixed wheat pseudozone.

  7. The Relationship between Root Mean Square Error of Approximation and Model Misspecification in Confirmatory Factor Analysis Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savalei, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    The fit index root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) is extremely popular in structural equation modeling. However, its behavior under different scenarios remains poorly understood. The present study generates continuous curves where possible to capture the full relationship between RMSEA and various "incidental parameters," such as…

  8. Accuracy in Parameter Estimation for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation: Sample Size Planning for Narrow Confidence Intervals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Ken; Lai, Keke

    2011-01-01

    The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) is one of the most widely reported measures of misfit/fit in applications of structural equation modeling. When the RMSEA is of interest, so too should be the accompanying confidence interval. A narrow confidence interval reveals that the plausible parameter values are confined to a relatively…

  9. Charge Radius Changes Of Even-even Neutron-Rich Tellurium Isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sifi, R.; Le Blanc, F.; Barre, N.; Ducourtieux, M.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Oms, J.; Roussiere, B.; Sauvage, J.; Cabaret, L.; Pinard, J.; Crawford, J.; Lee, J. K. P.; Genevey, J.; Huber, G.; Kowalska, M.; Seliverstov, M.; Le Scornet, G.; Stroke, H.

    2006-04-26

    Laser spectroscopy based on resonant ionization of laser-desorbed atoms has been used to study the neutron-rich tellurium isotopes with the COMPLIS facility at ISOLDE-CERN. The isotope shift and the hyperfine structure of several neutron-rich Te isotopes: 120-136Te and 123m-133mTe have been measured. From the hyperfine structure and the isotope shift we can extract the magnetic and quadrupole moments and the change in the mean square charge radius respectively. The mean square charge radii of the even-even isotopes have been deduced and their comparison with the known data for the other elements near Z=50 is presented. The experimental {delta} is compared with that obtained from the relativistic mean field calculations.

  10. Metal radii in surface science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Charles T.

    1986-03-01

    The saturation monolayer coverage of an adsorbed metal overlayer on a smooth metal surface is largely determined by the adsorbed metal's radius. Experimental maximum packing densities in two-dimensional metal overlayers are compared with predictions based on several different definitions of metal atom radii: atomic radii, covalent radii, minimum bulk interatomic distance (:2) and the Zachariasen [J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 35 (1973) 3487] metal radii. Best agreement is found with the last, which is obtained by assuming that the bulk, pure metal density is obtained from an ideal, hexagonal close-packed structure of spheres of that radius.

  11. Metal radii in surface science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Charles T.

    The saturation monolayer coverage of an adsorbed metal overlayer on a smooth metal surface is largely determined by the adsorbed metal's radius. Experimental maximum packing densities in two-dimensional metal overlayers are compared with predictions based on several different definitions of metal atom radii: atomic radii, covalent radii, minimum bulk interatomic distance (: 2) and the Zachariasen [J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem. 35 (1973) 3487] metal radii. Best agreement is found with the last, which is obtained by assuming that the bulk, pure metal density is obtained from an ideal, hexagonal close-packed structure of spheres of that radius.

  12. Complex linear minimum mean-squared-error equalization of spatially quadrature-amplitude-modulated signals in holographic data storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Takanori; Kanno, Kazutaka; Bunsen, Masatoshi

    2016-09-01

    We applied complex linear minimum mean-squared-error equalization to spatially quadrature-amplitude-modulated signals in holographic data storage (HDS). The equalization technique can improve dispersion in constellation outputs due to intersymbol interference. We confirm the effectiveness of the equalization technique in numerical simulations and basic optical experiments. Our numerical results have shown that intersymbol interference of a retrieved signal in a HDS system can be improved by using the equalization technique. In our experiments, a mean squared error (MSE), which indicates the deviation from an ideal signal, has been used for quantitatively evaluating the dispersion of equalized signals. Our equalization technique has been able to improve the MSE. However, symbols in the equalized signal have remained inseparable. To further improve the MSE and make the symbols separable, reducing errors in repeated measurements is our future task.

  13. Moments and Root-Mean-Square Error of the Bayesian MMSE Estimator of Classification Error in the Gaussian Model.

    PubMed

    Zollanvari, Amin; Dougherty, Edward R

    2014-06-01

    The most important aspect of any classifier is its error rate, because this quantifies its predictive capacity. Thus, the accuracy of error estimation is critical. Error estimation is problematic in small-sample classifier design because the error must be estimated using the same data from which the classifier has been designed. Use of prior knowledge, in the form of a prior distribution on an uncertainty class of feature-label distributions to which the true, but unknown, feature-distribution belongs, can facilitate accurate error estimation (in the mean-square sense) in circumstances where accurate completely model-free error estimation is impossible. This paper provides analytic asymptotically exact finite-sample approximations for various performance metrics of the resulting Bayesian Minimum Mean-Square-Error (MMSE) error estimator in the case of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in the multivariate Gaussian model. These performance metrics include the first, second, and cross moments of the Bayesian MMSE error estimator with the true error of LDA, and therefore, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error of the estimator. We lay down the theoretical groundwork for Kolmogorov double-asymptotics in a Bayesian setting, which enables us to derive asymptotic expressions of the desired performance metrics. From these we produce analytic finite-sample approximations and demonstrate their accuracy via numerical examples. Various examples illustrate the behavior of these approximations and their use in determining the necessary sample size to achieve a desired RMS. The Supplementary Material contains derivations for some equations and added figures.

  14. Moments and Root-Mean-Square Error of the Bayesian MMSE Estimator of Classification Error in the Gaussian Model

    PubMed Central

    Zollanvari, Amin; Dougherty, Edward R.

    2014-01-01

    The most important aspect of any classifier is its error rate, because this quantifies its predictive capacity. Thus, the accuracy of error estimation is critical. Error estimation is problematic in small-sample classifier design because the error must be estimated using the same data from which the classifier has been designed. Use of prior knowledge, in the form of a prior distribution on an uncertainty class of feature-label distributions to which the true, but unknown, feature-distribution belongs, can facilitate accurate error estimation (in the mean-square sense) in circumstances where accurate completely model-free error estimation is impossible. This paper provides analytic asymptotically exact finite-sample approximations for various performance metrics of the resulting Bayesian Minimum Mean-Square-Error (MMSE) error estimator in the case of linear discriminant analysis (LDA) in the multivariate Gaussian model. These performance metrics include the first, second, and cross moments of the Bayesian MMSE error estimator with the true error of LDA, and therefore, the Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error of the estimator. We lay down the theoretical groundwork for Kolmogorov double-asymptotics in a Bayesian setting, which enables us to derive asymptotic expressions of the desired performance metrics. From these we produce analytic finite-sample approximations and demonstrate their accuracy via numerical examples. Various examples illustrate the behavior of these approximations and their use in determining the necessary sample size to achieve a desired RMS. The Supplementary Material contains derivations for some equations and added figures. PMID:24729636

  15. Thermochemical Radii of Complex Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roobottom, Helen K.; Jenkins, H. Donald B.; Passmore, Jack; Glasser, Leslie

    1999-11-01

    Using rectilinear correlations of lattice energy with the inverse cubic root of the volume per molecule of complex salts of type MX (1:1), M2X (2:1), and MX2 (1:2) we have generated a comprehensive self-consistent tabulation of more than 400 thermochemical radii for complex ions. These radii can be used in the Kapustinskii equation to generate lattice energies and also as ion size parameters.

  16. Connection between fragility, mean-squared displacement, and shear modulus in two van der Waals bonded glass-forming liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Henriette W.; Frick, Bernhard; Hecksher, Tina; Dyre, Jeppe C.; Niss, Kristine

    2017-03-01

    The temperature dependence of the high-frequency shear modulus measured in the kHz range is compared with the mean-squared displacement measured in the nanosecond range for the two van der Waals bonded glass-forming liquids cumene and 5-polyphenyl ether. This provides an experimental test for the assumption connecting two versions of the shoving model for the non-Arrhenius temperature dependence of the relaxation time in glass formers. The two versions of the model are also tested directly and both are shown to work well for these liquids.

  17. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Analysis of short subdiffusive time series: scatter of the time-averaged mean-squared displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Jae-Hyung; Metzler, Ralf

    2010-06-01

    We analyse the statistical behaviour of short time series in systems performing subdiffusion. Comparing the non-ergodic continuous time random walk model to the ergodic fractional Brownian motion, we demonstrate that the scatter between individual trajectories is not purely dominated by finite sample size effects but preserves some of the characteristics of the individual processes. In particular we show that the distribution of the time-averaged mean-squared displacements allows one to clearly distinguish between the two stochastic mechanisms even for a very short time series.

  18. Central depression of nuclear charge density distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Chu Yanyun; Ren Zhongzhou; Wang Zaijun; Dong Tiekuang

    2010-08-15

    The center-depressed nuclear charge distributions are investigated with the parametrized distribution and the relativistic mean-field theory, and their corresponding charge form factors are worked out with the phase shift analysis method. The central depression of nuclear charge distribution of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S is supported by the relativistic mean-field calculation. According to the calculation, the valence protons in {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S prefer to occupy the 1d{sub 3/2} state rather than the 2s{sub 1/2} state, which is different from that in the less neutron-rich argon and sulfur isotopes. As a result, the central proton densities of {sup 46}Ar and {sup 44}S are highly depressed, and so are their central charge densities. The charge form factors of some argon and sulfur isotopes are presented, and the minima of the charge form factors shift upward and inward when the central nuclear charge distributions are more depressed. Besides, the effect of the central depression on the charge form factors is studied with a parametrized distribution, when the root-mean-square charge radii remain constant.

  19. Ultrasound computed tomography by frequency-shift low-pass filtering and least mean square adaptive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshan; Song, Junjie; Peng, Yang; Zhou, Liang; Ding, Mingyue; Yuchi, Ming

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, many research studies have been carried out on ultrasound computed tomography (USCT) for improving the detection and management of breast cancer. This paper investigates a signal pre-processing method based on frequency-shift low-pass filtering (FSLF) and least mean square adaptive filtering (LMSAF) for USCT image quality enhancement (proposed in our previous work). FSLF is designed base on Zoom Fast Fourier Transform algorithm (ZFFT) for processing the ultrasound signals in the frequency domain, while LMSAPF is based on the least mean square (LMS) algorithm in the time domain. Through the combination of the two filters, the ultrasound image is expected to have less noises and artifacts, and higher resolution and contrast. The proposed method was verified with the radio-frequency (RF) data of the nylon threads and the breast phantom captured by the USCT system developed in the Medical Ultrasound Laboratory. Experimental results show that the reconstructed images of nylon threads by the proposed method had narrower main lobe width and lower side lobe level comparing to the delay-and-sum (DAS). The background noises and artifacts could also be efficiently restrained. The reconstructed image of breast phantom by the proposed method had a higher resolution and the contrast ratio (CR) could be enhanced for about 12dB to 18dB at different region of interest (ROI).

  20. Indirect Determinations of Atomic Radii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Noojin

    1976-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities which relate the mass, volume, density, and radii of atoms through the assumption that the smallest unit of matter is a cubic box containing one atom. From calculations based on macroscopic materials, the author feels that the concept of an atom may be better developed. (CP)

  1. Indirect Determinations of Atomic Radii

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Noojin

    1976-01-01

    Describes laboratory activities which relate the mass, volume, density, and radii of atoms through the assumption that the smallest unit of matter is a cubic box containing one atom. From calculations based on macroscopic materials, the author feels that the concept of an atom may be better developed. (CP)

  2. Statistical mechanics of helical wormlike chains. XVI. Excluded-volume effect on the mean-square electric dipole moment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshizaki, Takenao; Yamakawa, Hiromi

    1993-03-01

    The expansion factor αμ for the mean-square electric dipole moment is studied on the basis of the helical wormlike chain with the excluded-volume effect incorporated in the Yamakawa-Stockmayer-Shimada scheme. A general expression is formulated for the first-order perturbation coefficient Kμ(L) for the chain of total contour length L. The asymptotic solution for Kμ(L) in the limit of L→∞ is evaluated analytically in the Daniels approximation by an application of the operational method. In contradiction to the common notion, it is found that, in the case of κ0τ0≠0 with κ0 and τ0 being the constant curvature and torsion, respectively, of the characteristic helix, Kμ(∞) does not vanish even for the chain having a local electric dipole moment vector perpendicular to the chain contour, indicating that αμ diverges with increasing molecular weight.

  3. Particle-number fluctuations and neutron-proton pairing effects on proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Douici, M.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.

    2012-10-20

    The particle-number fluctuation effect on the root-mean-square (rms) proton and neutron radii of even-even N Almost-Equal-To Z nuclei is studied in the isovector neutron-proton (np) pairing case using an exact particle-number projection method and the Woods-Saxon model.

  4. Time-shift compensation of ultrasonic pulse focus degradation using least-mean-square error estimates of arrival time.

    PubMed

    Liu, D L; Waag, R C

    1994-01-01

    Focus degradation produced by abdominal wall has been compensated using a least-mean-square error estimate of arrival time. The compensation was performed on data from measurements of ultrasonic pulses from a curved transducer that emits a hemispheric wave and simulates a point source. The pulse waveforms were measured in a two-dimensional aperture after propagation through a water path and after propagation through 14 different specimens of human abdominal wall. Time histories of the virtual point source were reconstructed by removing the time delays produced by geometric path differences and also removing time shifts produced by propagation inhomogeneities in the case of compensation, finding the complex amplitudes of the Fourier harmonics across the aperture, calculating the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of each harmonic, and summing the patterns. This process used a least-mean-square error solution for the relative delay expressed in terms of the arrival time differences between neighboring points and included an algorithm to determine arrival time differences when correlation based estimates were unsatisfactory due to dissimilarity of neighboring waveforms. Comparisons of reconstructed time histories in the image plane show that the -10-dB effective radius of the focus for reception through abdominal wall without compensation for inhomogeneities averaged 48% greater than the corresponding average effective radius for ideal waveforms, while time-shift compensation reduced the average -10-dB effective radius to a value that is only 4% greater than for reception of ideal waveforms. The comparisons also indicate that the average ratio of energy outside an ellipsoid defined by the -10-dB effective widths to the energy inside that ellipsoid is 1.81 for uncompensated tissue path data and that time-shift compensation reduced this average to 0.93, while the corresponding average for ideal waveforms was found to be 0.35. These results show that time-shift compensation

  5. Three-dimensional relationship between high-order root-mean-square wavefront error, pupil diameter, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Raymond A.; Donnelly, William J.; Marsack, Jason D.; Koenig, Darren E.; Pesudovs, Konrad

    2007-01-01

    We report root-mean-square (RMS) wavefront error (WFE) for individual aberrations and cumulative high-order (HO) RMS WFE for the normal human eye as a function of age by decade and pupil diameter in 1 mm steps from 3 to 7 mm and determine the relationship among HO RMS WFE, mean age for each decade of life, and luminance for physiologic pupil diameters. Subjects included 146 healthy individuals from 20 to 80 years of age. Ocular aberration was measured on the preferred eye of each subject (for a total of 146 eyes through dilated pupils; computed for 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 mm pupils; and described with a tenth-radial-order normalized Zernike expansion. We found that HO RMS WFE increases faster with increasing pupil diameter for any given age and pupil diameter than it does with increasing age alone. A planar function accounts for 99% of the variance in the 3-D space defined by mean log HO RMS WFE, mean age for each decade of life, and pupil diameter. When physiologic pupil diameters are used to estimate HO RMS WFE as a function of luminance and age, at low luminance (9 cd/m2) HO RMS WFE decreases with increasing age. This normative data set details (1) the 3-D relationship between HO RMS WFE and age for fixed pupil diameters and (2) the 3-D relationship among HO RMS WFE, age, and luminance for physiologic pupil diameters. PMID:17301847

  6. Statistical properties of the anomalous scaling exponent estimator based on time-averaged mean-square displacement.

    PubMed

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Grebenkov, Denis

    2017-08-01

    The most common way of estimating the anomalous scaling exponent from single-particle trajectories consists of a linear fit of the dependence of the time-averaged mean-square displacement on the lag time at the log-log scale. We investigate the statistical properties of this estimator in the case of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We determine the mean value, the variance, and the distribution of the estimator. Our theoretical results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of long trajectories, the estimator is shown to be asymptotically unbiased, consistent, and with vanishing variance. These properties ensure an accurate estimation of the scaling exponent even from a single (long enough) trajectory. As a consequence, we prove that the usual way to estimate the diffusion exponent of FBM is correct from the statistical point of view. Moreover, the knowledge of the estimator distribution is the first step toward new statistical tests of FBM and toward a more reliable interpretation of the experimental histograms of scaling exponents in microbiology.

  7. Continuous-time random-walk approach to supercooled liquids. II. Mean-square displacements in polymer melts.

    PubMed

    Helfferich, J; Ziebert, F; Frey, S; Meyer, H; Farago, J; Blumen, A; Baschnagel, J

    2014-04-01

    The continuous-time random walk (CTRW) describes the single-particle dynamics as a series of jumps separated by random waiting times. This description is applied to analyze trajectories from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a supercooled polymer melt. Based on the algorithm presented by Helfferich et al. [Phys. Rev. E 89, 042603 (2014)], we detect jump events of the monomers. As a function of temperature and chain length, we examine key distributions of the CTRW: the jump-length distribution (JLD), the waiting-time distribution (WTD), and the persistence-time distribution (PTD), i.e., the distribution of waiting times for the first jump. For the equilibrium (polymer) liquid under consideration, we verify that the PTD is determined by the WTD. For the mean-square displacement (MSD) of a monomer, the results for the CTRW model are compared with the underlying MD data. The MD data exhibit two regimes of subdiffusive behavior, one for the early α process and another at later times due to chain connectivity. By contrast, the analytical solution of the CTRW yields diffusive behavior for the MSD at all times. Empirically, we can account for the effect of chain connectivity in Monte Carlo simulations of the CTRW. The results of these simulations are then in good agreement with the MD data in the connectivity-dominated regime, but not in the early α regime where they systematically underestimate the MSD from the MD.

  8. Application of least mean square algorithm to suppression of maglev track-induced self-excited vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, D. F.; Li, J.; Hansen, C. H.

    2011-11-01

    Track-induced self-excited vibration is commonly encountered in EMS (electromagnetic suspension) maglev systems, and a solution to this problem is important in enabling the commercial widespread implementation of maglev systems. Here, the coupled model of the steel track and the magnetic levitation system is developed, and its stability is investigated using the Nyquist criterion. The harmonic balance method is employed to investigate the stability and amplitude of the self-excited vibration, which provides an explanation of the phenomenon that track-induced self-excited vibration generally occurs at a specified amplitude and frequency. To eliminate the self-excited vibration, an improved LMS (Least Mean Square) cancellation algorithm with phase correction (C-LMS) is employed. The harmonic balance analysis shows that the C-LMS cancellation algorithm can completely suppress the self-excited vibration. To achieve adaptive cancellation, a frequency estimator similar to the tuner of a TV receiver is employed to provide the C-LMS algorithm with a roughly estimated reference frequency. Numerical simulation and experiments undertaken on the CMS-04 vehicle show that the proposed adaptive C-LMS algorithm can effectively eliminate the self-excited vibration over a wide frequency range, and that the robustness of the algorithm suggests excellent potential for application to EMS maglev systems.

  9. The Application of Root Mean Square Electrocardiography (RMS ECG) for the Detection of Acquired and Congenital Long QT Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Robert L.; Sower, Christopher Todd; Allen, Nancy; Etheridge, Susan P.; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Saarel, Elizabeth V.

    2014-01-01

    Background Precise measurement of the QT interval is often hampered by difficulty determining the end of the low amplitude T wave. Root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) provides a novel alternative measure of ventricular repolarization. Experimental data have shown that the interval between the RMS ECG QRS and T wave peaks (RTPK) closely reflects the mean ventricular action potential duration while the RMS T wave width (TW) tracks the dispersion of repolarization timing. Here, we tested the precision of RMS ECG to assess ventricular repolarization in humans in the setting of drug-induced and congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). Methods RMS ECG signals were derived from high-resolution 24 hour Holter monitor recordings from 68 subjects after receiving placebo and moxifloxacin and from standard 12 lead ECGs obtained in 97 subjects with LQTS and 97 age- and sex-matched controls. RTPK, QTRMS and RMS TW intervals were automatically measured using custom software and compared to traditional QT measures using lead II. Results All measures of repolarization were prolonged during moxifloxacin administration and in LQTS subjects, but the variance of RMS intervals was significantly smaller than traditional lead II measurements. TW was prolonged during moxifloxacin and in subjects with LQT-2, but not LQT-1 or LQT-3. Conclusion These data validate the application of RMS ECG for the detection of drug-induced and congenital LQTS. RMS ECG measurements are more precise than the current standard of care lead II measurements. PMID:24454918

  10. Accurate human limb angle measurement: sensor fusion through Kalman, least mean squares and recursive least-squares adaptive filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, A.; Górriz, J. M.; Ramírez, J.; Olivares, G.

    2011-02-01

    Inertial sensors are widely used in human body motion monitoring systems since they permit us to determine the position of the subject's limbs. Limb angle measurement is carried out through the integration of the angular velocity measured by a rate sensor and the decomposition of the components of static gravity acceleration measured by an accelerometer. Different factors derived from the sensors' nature, such as the angle random walk and dynamic bias, lead to erroneous measurements. Dynamic bias effects can be reduced through the use of adaptive filtering based on sensor fusion concepts. Most existing published works use a Kalman filtering sensor fusion approach. Our aim is to perform a comparative study among different adaptive filters. Several least mean squares (LMS), recursive least squares (RLS) and Kalman filtering variations are tested for the purpose of finding the best method leading to a more accurate and robust limb angle measurement. A new angle wander compensation sensor fusion approach based on LMS and RLS filters has been developed.

  11. Statistical properties of the anomalous scaling exponent estimator based on time-averaged mean-square displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, Grzegorz; Teuerle, Marek; Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Grebenkov, Denis

    2017-08-01

    The most common way of estimating the anomalous scaling exponent from single-particle trajectories consists of a linear fit of the dependence of the time-averaged mean-square displacement on the lag time at the log-log scale. We investigate the statistical properties of this estimator in the case of fractional Brownian motion (FBM). We determine the mean value, the variance, and the distribution of the estimator. Our theoretical results are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulations. In the limit of long trajectories, the estimator is shown to be asymptotically unbiased, consistent, and with vanishing variance. These properties ensure an accurate estimation of the scaling exponent even from a single (long enough) trajectory. As a consequence, we prove that the usual way to estimate the diffusion exponent of FBM is correct from the statistical point of view. Moreover, the knowledge of the estimator distribution is the first step toward new statistical tests of FBM and toward a more reliable interpretation of the experimental histograms of scaling exponents in microbiology.

  12. Minimization of the mean square velocity response of dynamic structures using an active-passive dynamic vibration absorber.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Y L; Wong, W O; Cheng, L

    2012-07-01

    An optimal design of a hybrid vibration absorber (HVA) with a displacement and a velocity feedback for minimizing the velocity response of the structure based on the H(2) optimization criterion is proposed. The objective of the optimal design is to reduce the total vibration energy of the vibrating structure under wideband excitation, i.e., the total area under the velocity response spectrum is minimized in this criterion. One of the inherent limitations of the traditional passive vibration absorber is that its vibration suppression is low if the mass ratio between the absorber mass and the mass of the primary structure is low. The active element of the proposed HVA helps further reduce the vibration of the controlled structure, and it can provide very good vibration absorption performance even at a low mass ratio. Both the passive and active elements are optimized together for the minimization of the mean square velocity of the primary system as well as the active force required in the HVA. The proposed HVA was tested on single degree-of-freedom (SDOF) and continuous vibrating structures and compared to the traditional passive vibration absorber.

  13. Linear intensity normalization of DaTSCAN images using Mean Square Error and a model-based clustering approach.

    PubMed

    Brahim, Abdelbasset; Górriz, Juan Manuel; Ramírez, Javier; Khedher, Laila

    2014-01-01

    The analysis of 3D SPECT brain images requires several pre-processing steps such as intensity normalization and brain feature extraction. In this sense, a new method for intensity normalization of 123I-ioflupane-SPECT (DaTSCAN) brain images based on minimization of the Mean Square Error (MSE) between the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based extracted features from each subject image and a template in the so-defined non-specific region is derived. Our approach to feature extraction consists of using the set of parameters that define the template features, such as weights, covariance matrices and mean vectors to model the remaining images by reducing, consequently their dimensionality. The proposed method is compared to a widely used approach such as specific-to-non-specific binding ratio normalization. This comparison is performed on a DaTSCAN image database comprising analysis and classification stages for the development of a computer aided diagnosis (CAD) system for Parkinsonian syndrome (PS) detection.

  14. The application of root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) for the detection of acquired and congenital long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lux, Robert L; Sower, Christopher Todd; Allen, Nancy; Etheridge, Susan P; Tristani-Firouzi, Martin; Saarel, Elizabeth V

    2014-01-01

    Precise measurement of the QT interval is often hampered by difficulty determining the end of the low amplitude T wave. Root mean square electrocardiography (RMS ECG) provides a novel alternative measure of ventricular repolarization. Experimental data have shown that the interval between the RMS ECG QRS and T wave peaks (RTPK) closely reflects the mean ventricular action potential duration while the RMS T wave width (TW) tracks the dispersion of repolarization timing. Here, we tested the precision of RMS ECG to assess ventricular repolarization in humans in the setting of drug-induced and congenital Long QT Syndrome (LQTS). RMS ECG signals were derived from high-resolution 24 hour Holter monitor recordings from 68 subjects after receiving placebo and moxifloxacin and from standard 12 lead ECGs obtained in 97 subjects with LQTS and 97 age- and sex-matched controls. RTPK, QTRMS and RMS TW intervals were automatically measured using custom software and compared to traditional QT measures using lead II. All measures of repolarization were prolonged during moxifloxacin administration and in LQTS subjects, but the variance of RMS intervals was significantly smaller than traditional lead II measurements. TW was prolonged during moxifloxacin and in subjects with LQT-2, but not LQT-1 or LQT-3. These data validate the application of RMS ECG for the detection of drug-induced and congenital LQTS. RMS ECG measurements are more precise than the current standard of care lead II measurements.

  15. Outcome analysis after helmet therapy using 3D photogrammetry in patients with deformational plagiocephaly: the role of root mean square.

    PubMed

    Moghaddam, Mahsa Bidgoli; Brown, Trevor M; Clausen, April; DaSilva, Trevor; Ho, Emily; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-02-01

    Deformational plagiocephaly (DP) is a multifactorial non-synostotic cranial deformity with a reported incidence as high as 1 in 7 infants in North America. Treatment options have focused on non-operative interventions including head repositioning and the use of an orthotic helmet device. Previous studies have used linear and two dimensional outcome measures to assess changes in cranial symmetry after helmet therapy. Our objective was to demonstrate improvement in head shape after treatment with a cranial molding helmet by using Root Mean Square (RMS), a measure unique to 3D photogrammetry, which takes into account both changes in volume and shape over time. Three dimensional photographs were obtained before and after molding helmet treatment in 40 infants (4-10 months old) with deformational plagiocephaly. Anatomical reference planes and measurements were recorded using the 3dMD Vultus(®) analysis software. RMS was used to quantify symmetry by superimposing left and right quadrants and calculating the mean value of aggregate distances between surfaces. Over 95% of the patients demonstrated an improvement in symmetry with helmet therapy. Furthermore, when the sample of infants was divided into two treatment subgroups, a statistically significant correlation was found between the age at the beginning of treatment and the change in the RMS value. When helmet therapy was started before 7 months of age a greater improvement in symmetry was seen. This work represents application of the technique of RMS analysis to demonstrate the efficacy of treatment of deformational plagiocephaly with a cranial molding helmet.

  16. GPU-Q-J, a fast method for calculating root mean square deviation (RMSD) after optimal superposition.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ling-Hong; Guerquin, Michal; Samudrala, Ram

    2011-04-01

    Calculation of the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the atomic coordinates of two optimally superposed structures is a basic component of structural comparison techniques. We describe a quaternion based method, GPU-Q-J, that is stable with single precision calculations and suitable for graphics processor units (GPUs). The application was implemented on an ATI 4770 graphics card in C/C++ and Brook+ in Linux where it was 260 to 760 times faster than existing unoptimized CPU methods. Source code is available from the Compbio website http://software.compbio.washington.edu/misc/downloads/st_gpu_fit/ or from the author LHH. The Nutritious Rice for the World Project (NRW) on World Community Grid predicted de novo, the structures of over 62,000 small proteins and protein domains returning a total of 10 billion candidate structures. Clustering ensembles of structures on this scale requires calculation of large similarity matrices consisting of RMSDs between each pair of structures in the set. As a real-world test, we calculated the matrices for 6 different ensembles from NRW. The GPU method was 260 times faster that the fastest existing CPU based method and over 500 times faster than the method that had been previously used. GPU-Q-J is a significant advance over previous CPU methods. It relieves a major bottleneck in the clustering of large numbers of structures for NRW. It also has applications in structure comparison methods that involve multiple superposition and RMSD determination steps, particularly when such methods are applied on a proteome and genome wide scale.

  17. Proton Radii of B12-17 Define a Thick Neutron Surface in B17

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estradé, A.; Kanungo, R.; Horiuchi, W.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Suzuki, Y.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2014-09-01

    The first determination of radii of point proton distribution (proton radii) of B12-17 from charge-changing cross sections (σCC) measurements at the FRS, GSI, Darmstadt is reported. The proton radii are deduced from a finite-range Glauber model analysis of the σCC. The radii show an increase from B13 to B17 and are consistent with predictions from the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics model for the neutron-rich nuclei. The measurements show the existence of a thick neutron surface with neutron-proton radius difference of 0.51(0.11) fm in B17.

  18. Experimental determination of optimal root-mean-square deviations of macromolecular bond lengths and angles from their restrained ideal values.

    PubMed

    Tickle, Ian J

    2007-12-01

    A number of inconsistencies are apparent in the recent research paper by Jaskolski et al. [(2007), Acta Cryst. D63, 611-620] concerning their recommendations for the values of the magnitude and resolution-dependence of the root-mean-square deviations (RMSDs) of bond lengths and angles from their restrained ideal values in macromolecular refinement, as well as their suggestions for the use of variable standard uncertainties dependent on atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) and occupancies. Whilst many of the comments and suggestions in the paper regarding updates for the ideal geometry values proposed by Engh and Huber are entirely reasonable and supported by the experimental evidence, the recommendations concerning the optimal values of RMSDs appear to be in conflict with previous experimental and theoretical work in this area [Tickle et al. (1998), Acta Cryst. D54, 243-252] and indeed appear to be based on a misunderstanding of the distinction between RMSD and standard uncertainty (SU). In contrast, it is proposed here that the optimal values of all desired weighting parameters, in particular the weighting parameters for the ADP differences and for the diffraction terms, be estimated by the purely objective procedure of maximizing the experiment-based log(free likelihood). In principle, this allows all weighting parameters that are not known accurately a priori to be scaled globally, relative to those that are known accurately, for an optimal refinement. The RMS Z score (RMSZ) is recommended as a more satisfactory statistic than the RMSD to assess the extent to which the geometry deviates from the ideal values and a theoretical rationale for the results obtained is presented in which the optimal RMSZ is identified as the calculated versus true Z-score correlation coefficient, the latter being a monotonic function of the resolution cutoff of the data. Regarding the proposal to use variable standard uncertainties, it is suggested that any departure from the current

  19. Mean absolute error and root mean square error: which is the better metric for assessing model performance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brassington, Gary

    2017-04-01

    The mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are two metrics that are often used interchangeably as measures of ocean forecast accuracy. Recent literature has debated which of these should be preferred though their conclusions have largely been based on empirical arguments. We note that in general, RM SE2 = M AE2 + V ARk [|ɛ|] PIC PIC such that RMSE includes both the MAE as well as additional information related to the variance (biased estimator) of the errors ɛ with sample size k. The greater sensitivity of RMSE to a small number of outliers is directly attributable to the variance of absolute error. Further statistical properties for both metrics are derived and compared based on the assumption that the errors are Gaussian. For an unbiased (or bias corrected) model both MAE and RMSE are shown to estimate the total error standard deviation to within a constant coefficient such that ° -- M AE ≈ 2/πRM SE PIC . Both metrics have comparable behaviour in response to model bias and asymptote to the model bias as the bias increases. MAE is shown to be an unbiased estimator while RMSE is a biased estimator. MAE also has a lower sample variance compared with RMSE indicating MAE is the most robust choice. For real-time applications where there is a likelihood of "bad" observations we recommend ° - ° ---° - π- -1- π- π- TESD = 2 M AE ± √k- 2 - 1 2M AE PIC as an unbiased estimator of the total error standard deviation with error estimates (one standard deviation) based on the sample variance and defined as a scaling of the MAE itself. A sample size (k) on the order of 90 and 9000 provides an error scaling of 10% and 1% respectively. Nonetheless if the model performance is being analysed using a large sample of delayed-mode quality controlled observations then RMSE might be preferred where the second moment sensitivity to large model errors is important. Alternatively for model intercomparisons the information might compactly represented by a

  20. Nuclear radii calculations in various theoretical approaches for nucleus-nucleus interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Merino, C.; Novikov, I. S.; Shabelski, Yu.

    2009-12-15

    The information about sizes and nuclear density distributions in unstable (radioactive) nuclei is usually extracted from the data on interaction of radioactive nuclear beams with a nuclear target. We show that in the case of nucleus-nucleus collisions the values of the parameters depend somewhat strongly on the considered theoretical approach and on the assumption about the parametrization of the nuclear density distribution. The obtained values of root-mean-square radii (R{sub rms}) for stable nuclei with atomic weights A=12-40 vary by approximately 0.1 fm when calculated in the optical approximation, in the rigid target approximation, and using the exact expression of the Glauber theory. We present several examples of R{sub rms} radii calculations using these three theoretical approaches and compare these results with the data obtained from electron-nucleus scattering.

  1. Characterization and assessment of different algorithms for retrieval of mean square slopes from GNSS-R measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarizia, Maria Paola; Ruf, Christopher; Gommenginger, Christine

    2013-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System-Reflectometry (GNSS-R) exploits signals of opportunity from navigation constellations (e.g. GPS, GLONASS, Galileo), scattered by the surface of the ocean, to retrieve the surface wind and wave fields. GNSS-R represents a true innovation in remote sensing, and it is receiving a growing interest from the scientific community. Its main advantages lie in the dense space-time sampling capabilities, the ability of L-band signals to penetrate well through rain, and the possibility of simple, low-cost/low-power GNSS receivers. These recognized strengths of GNSS-R recently led to the approval of the NASA EV-2 Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), a spaceborne mission focused on tropical cyclone (TC) inner core process studies. CYGNSS attempts to resolve the problem of inadequate observations and modeling of the inner core, which represents the principal deficiency with current TC intensity forecasts, and which can be overcome with GNSS-R. The present study focuses on the information content about the sea surface roughness and wind speed, that is contained in spaceborne GNSS-R Delay-Doppler Maps (DDMs). A number of algorithms for the retrieval of Mean Square Slopes (MSS) - representative of the surface roughness - are analyzed. These include existing algorithms based on least-square fitting procedures (e.g. 2D least-square fitting of DDMs, using the Zavorotny-Voronovich DDM theoretical model), or based on direct observables (e.g. DDM volume), as well as "new" algorithms, which make use of waveforms derived from the DDM, which have thusfar been unexploited (e.g. integrated delay and Doppler waveforms). The analysis is carried out using simulated DDMs generated by the mature forward model end-to-end simulator developed for CYGNSS. A comparison of the results obtained for different retrieval algorithms will be presented. In particular, the performance of the algorithms considered is investigated and characterized for the case of

  2. Quantified Choice of Root-Mean-Square Errors of Approximation for Evaluation and Power Analysis of Small Differences between Structural Equation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Libo; Bentler, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    MacCallum, Browne, and Cai (2006) proposed a new framework for evaluation and power analysis of small differences between nested structural equation models (SEMs). In their framework, the null and alternative hypotheses for testing a small difference in fit and its related power analyses were defined by some chosen root-mean-square error of…

  3. DETERMINATION OF STELLAR RADII FROM ASTEROSEISMIC DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne E-mail: w.j.chaplin@bham.ac.u

    2010-02-20

    The NASA Kepler mission is designed to find planets through transits. Accurate and precise radii of the detected planets depend on knowing the radius of the host star accurately, which is difficult unless the temperature and luminosity of the star are known precisely. Kepler, however, has an asteroseismology program that will provide seismic variables that can characterize stellar radii easily, accurately, and extremely precisely. In this paper, we describe the Yale-Birmingham (YB) method to determine stellar radii using a combination of seismic and conventional variables and analyze the effect of these variables on the result. We find that for main-sequence stars, a knowledge of the parallax is not important to get accurate radii using the YB method: we can get results to an accuracy and precision of better than a few percent if we know the effective temperature and the seismic parameters for these stars. Metallicity does not make much difference either. However, good estimates of the effective temperature and metallicity, along with those of the seismic parameters, are essential to determine radii of subgiants properly. On the other hand, for red giants we find that determining radii properly is not possible without a good estimate of the parallax. We find that the so-called 'surface term' in the seismic data has minimal effect on the inferred radii. Uncertainties in the convective mixing length can matter under some circumstances and can cause a systematic shift in the inferred radii. Blind tests with data simulated to match those expected from the asteroseismic survey phase of Kepler show that it will be possible to infer stellar radii successfully using our method.

  4. Determination of Stellar Radii from Asteroseismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basu, Sarbani; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    The NASA Kepler mission is designed to find planets through transits. Accurate and precise radii of the detected planets depend on knowing the radius of the host star accurately, which is difficult unless the temperature and luminosity of the star are known precisely. Kepler, however, has an asteroseismology program that will provide seismic variables that can characterize stellar radii easily, accurately, and extremely precisely. In this paper, we describe the Yale-Birmingham (YB) method to determine stellar radii using a combination of seismic and conventional variables and analyze the effect of these variables on the result. We find that for main-sequence stars, a knowledge of the parallax is not important to get accurate radii using the YB method: we can get results to an accuracy and precision of better than a few percent if we know the effective temperature and the seismic parameters for these stars. Metallicity does not make much difference either. However, good estimates of the effective temperature and metallicity, along with those of the seismic parameters, are essential to determine radii of subgiants properly. On the other hand, for red giants we find that determining radii properly is not possible without a good estimate of the parallax. We find that the so-called "surface term" in the seismic data has minimal effect on the inferred radii. Uncertainties in the convective mixing length can matter under some circumstances and can cause a systematic shift in the inferred radii. Blind tests with data simulated to match those expected from the asteroseismic survey phase of Kepler show that it will be possible to infer stellar radii successfully using our method.

  5. Photometric radii of Io and Europa.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, M. J.; Hall, J. S.; Boyce, P. B.; Albrecht, R.

    1971-01-01

    Simultaneous two-color photoelectric photometry of Io and Europa performed during their eclipse by Jupiter on the night of April 5/6, 1971, is reported and discussed. The results are compared with satellite radii obtained using other observational techniques. It is concluded that the eclipse technique can be used to infer satellite radii accurate to plus or minus 10 per cent. In principle the eclipse technique can also be applied to the satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune for early objective determinations of their radii.

  6. van der Waals radii of noble gases.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Jürgen; Alvarez, Santiago

    2014-09-02

    Consistent van der Waals radii are deduced for Ne-Xe, based on the noble gas···oxygen intermolecular distances found in gas phase structures. The set of radii proposed is shown to provide van der Waals distances for a wide variety of noble gas···element atom pairs that represent properly the distribution of distances both in the gas phase and in the solid state. Moreover, these radii show a smooth periodic trend down the group which is parallel to that shown by the halogens.

  7. Radii and Binding Energies in Oxygen Isotopes: A Challenge for Nuclear Forces.

    PubMed

    Lapoux, V; Somà, V; Barbieri, C; Hergert, H; Holt, J D; Stroberg, S R

    2016-07-29

    We present a systematic study of both nuclear radii and binding energies in (even) oxygen isotopes from the valley of stability to the neutron drip line. Both charge and matter radii are compared to state-of-the-art ab initio calculations along with binding energy systematics. Experimental matter radii are obtained through a complete evaluation of the available elastic proton scattering data of oxygen isotopes. We show that, in spite of a good reproduction of binding energies, ab initio calculations with conventional nuclear interactions derived within chiral effective field theory fail to provide a realistic description of charge and matter radii. A novel version of two- and three-nucleon forces leads to considerable improvement of the simultaneous description of the three observables for stable isotopes but shows deficiencies for the most neutron-rich systems. Thus, crucial challenges related to the development of nuclear interactions remain.

  8. Hypervelocity, minimum-radii, coordinated turns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tauber, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the most basic powered-flight maneuver, consisting of a constant-altitude coordinated turn and expressions for minimum-turn radii; associated flight conditions are derived. It is shown that the formulation for hypervelocity turns differs from that for subsonic and hypersonic speeds. Illustrative calculations using approximate aerodynamics based on Newtonian theory are presented, and these demonstrate the differences of hypersonic flight conditions and their associated turning radii from those at lower speeds.

  9. Mean-square exponential input-to-state stability of delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching based on vector Lyapunov functions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhihong; Liu, Lei; Zhu, Quanxin

    2016-12-01

    This paper studies the mean-square exponential input-to-state stability of delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching. By using the vector Lyapunov function and property of M-matrix, two generalized Halanay inequalities are established. By means of the generalized Halanay inequalities, sufficient conditions are also obtained, which can ensure the exponential input-to-state stability of delayed Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with Markovian switching. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency of the derived results.

  10. Study of muonic atoms in the A = 40 to 70 and A = 100 to 130 mass regions (nuclear charge radii, isotope and isotone shifts) and in the Sm-Gd and W-Os-Pt transition regions (electric monopole and quadrupole moments). Progress report No. 5, December 1, 1979-October 15, 1980. [Dept. of Physics, Purdue Univ. , 12/1/79-10/15/80

    SciTech Connect

    Steffen, R M

    1980-10-01

    The muonic x-ray spectra of the stable Ru and Pd isotope have been measured, and the data have been analyzed in terms of the effective Barrett radii and in terms of isotope shifts. The effects of the neutron subshell closure on the ..delta..N = 2 isotopes shifts at N = 56 is much smaller in the Ru (Z = 44) isotopes as compared to the recently observed effect in the Mo (Z = 42) isotope shifts. This is the first time a pronounced difference in ..delta..N = 2 isotope shifts has been observed for different values of Z. The muonic x-ray measurements on 24 stable isotopes of Cd, Sn, Te, and Ba have been completed and the analysis of the 74 spectra (including calibration spectra) is progressing. The work on the quadrupole parameters of the even-A Os nuclei has been completed. The analysis of the muonic x-ray spectra of the even-A Gd isotopes is near completion. Monopole and quadrupole charge parameters of the 0/sub g//sup +/ and 2/sub g//sup +/ states (and in the case of /sup 160/Gd, of the 3/sup -/ state) have been determined. The model dependence of extracting point-quadrupole matrix elements from muonic x-ray measurements has been carefully investigated. It was found that neither the ..beta..-vibration nor the ..gamma..-vibration modes influence the value of the extracted point moments by more than 2 percent. The problem of nuclear polarization corrections was examined.

  11. Dislocation core radii near elastic stability limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawyer, C. A.; Morris, J. W., Jr.; Chrzan, D. C.

    2013-04-01

    Recent studies of transition metal alloys with compositions that place them near their limits of elastic stability [e.g., near the body-centered-cubic (BCC) to hexagonal-close-packed (HCP) transition] suggest interesting behavior for the dislocation cores. Specifically, the dislocation core size is predicted to diverge as the stability limit is approached. Here a simple analysis rooted in elasticity theory and the computation of ideal strength is used to analyze this divergence. This analysis indicates that dislocation core radii should diverge as the elastic limits of stability are approached in the BCC, HCP, and face-centered-cubic (FCC) structures. Moreover, external stresses and dislocation-induced stresses also increase the core radii. Density functional theory based total-energy calculations are combined with anisotropic elasticity theory to compute numerical estimates of dislocation core radii.

  12. Study of the charge radii of the stable lead isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Borchert, G.L.; Schult, O.W.B.; Speth, J.; Hansen, P.G.; Jonson, B.; Ravn, H.; McGrory, J.B.

    1982-01-01

    Isotope shifts have been measured of the K/sub ..cap alpha..l/ x-ray lines emitted after photo ionization of /sup 204/Pb, /sup 206/Pb, /sup 207/Pb and /sup 208/Pb samples. The results are compared with theoretical values for delta < r/sup 2/> calculated with a microscopic model. The x-ray shift data are also compared with optical data and the nuclear parameters lambda derived from electron scattering results.

  13. Observable consequences of event-by-event fluctuations of HBT radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumberg, Christopher; Heinz, Ulrich

    2016-12-01

    We explore the effects of event-by-event fluctuations of Hanbury Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii and show how they can be observed experimentally. The relation of measured HBT radii extracted from ensemble-averaged correlation functions to the mean of their event-by-event probability distribution is clarified. We propose a method to experimentally determine the mean and variance of this distribution and test it on an ensemble of fluctuating events generated with the viscous hydrodynamic code VISH2+1. Using the same code, the sensitivity of the mean and variance of the HBT radii to the specific QGP shear viscosity η / s is studied. We report sensitivity of the mean pion HBT radii and their variances to the temperature dependence of η / s near the quark-hadron transition at a level similar (10-20%) to that which was previously observed for elliptic and quadrangular flow of charged hadrons [1].

  14. Internal machining accomplished at constant radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gollihugh, T. E.

    1966-01-01

    Device machines fluid passages in workpieces at constant radii through two adjacent surfaces that are at included angles up to approximately 120 degrees. This technique has been used extensively in fabricating engine parts where close control of fluid flow is a requirement.

  15. Hot Jupiter Radii: A Turbulent History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youdin, Andrew N.; Komacek, Thaddeus D.

    2014-11-01

    Many hot Jupiters, i.e. giant exoplanets with short orbital periods, are bloated, with radii that greatly exceed those of colder gas giants. In models that neglect atmospheric motion, the enhanced irradiation of hot Jupiters is insufficient to explain their large radii. However uneven surface irradiation drives atmospheric circulation. These atmospheric motions deposit heat at deeper layers than irradiation alone, and can explain their large radii. The specific dissipation mechanism for atmospheric circulation can involve a turbulent cascade and/or the driving of electric currents that undergo Ohmic dissipation. The “Mechanical Greenhouse” model (Youdin & Mitchell, 2010) showed that turbulence in hot Jupiter atmospheres does mechanical work against the stable stratification of upper radiative zones, thereby driving a heat flux deeper into the interior. This poster will describe the first efforts to include this turbulent heat flux in planetary structure models. The goal is to understand the effects of turbulent mixing on hot Jupiter radius evolution. To perform these calculations we modify the publicly available stellar structure code MESA. We show how the effects of turbulence can be included in MESA — and understood physically — as an effective dissipation profile. We compare the radius evolution of hot Jupiters for different dissipation prescriptions, including our turbulent mixing model and others from the literature. We find that turbulent mixing is an energetically efficient way to explain the bloated radii of hot Jupiters.

  16. Derivation of formulas for root-mean-square errors in location, orientation, and shape in triangulation solution of an elongated object in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, S. A. T.

    1974-01-01

    Formulas are derived for the root-mean-square (rms) displacement, slope, and curvature errors in an azimuth-elevation image trace of an elongated object in space, as functions of the number and spacing of the input data points and the rms elevation error in the individual input data points from a single observation station. Also, formulas are derived for the total rms displacement, slope, and curvature error vectors in the triangulation solution of an elongated object in space due to the rms displacement, slope, and curvature errors, respectively, in the azimuth-elevation image traces from different observation stations. The total rms displacement, slope, and curvature error vectors provide useful measure numbers for determining the relative merits of two or more different triangulation procedures applicable to elongated objects in space.

  17. Comment on "Relative variance of the mean squared pressure in multimode media: rehabilitating former approaches" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2621-2629 (2014)].

    PubMed

    Davy, John L; Weaver, Richard L

    2015-03-01

    Models for the statistics of responses in finite reverberant structures, and in particular, for the variance of the mean square pressure in reverberation rooms, have been studied for decades. It is therefore surprising that a recent communication has claimed that the literature has gotten the simplest of such calculations very wrong. Monsef, Cozza, Rodrigues, Cellard, and Durocher [(2014). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 136, 2621-2629] have derived a modal-based expression for the relative variance that differs significantly from expressions that have been accepted since 1969. This Comment points out that the Monsef formula is clearly incorrect, and then for the interested reader, points out the subtle place where they made their mistake.

  18. Investigation of multilevel amplitude modulation for a dual-wavelength free-space optical communications system using realistic channel estimation and minimum mean-squared-error linear equalization.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Colin N; Jaruwatanadilok, Sermsak; Kuga, Yasuo; Ishimaru, Akira; Ritcey, James A

    2008-10-10

    Fog is a highly dispersive medium at optical wavelengths, and the received pulse waveform may suffer significant distortion. Thus it is desirable to have the impulse response of the propagation channel to recover data transmitted through fog. The fog particle density and the particle size distribution both strongly influence the channel impulse response, yet it is difficult to estimate these parameters. We present a method using a dual-wavelength free-space optical system for estimating the average particle diameter and the particle number density and for approximating the particle distribution function. These parameters serve as inputs to estimate the atmospheric channel impulse response using simulation based on the modified vector radiative transfer theory. The estimated channel response is used to design a minimum mean-square-error equalization filter to improve the bit error rate by correcting distortion in the received signal waveform due to intersymbol interference and additive white Gaussian noise. (c) 2008 Optical Society of America

  19. Polarization mode dispersion emulation using polarization maintaining fibers: fixed root-mean-square differential group delay but varying second-order polarization mode dispersion.

    PubMed

    Musara, Vitalis; Wu, Lorinda; Pelaelo, Gaoboelwe; Leitch, Andrew W R

    2009-05-01

    We report on a polarization mode dispersion (PMD) emulator with a fixed root-mean-square differential group delay (RMS-DGD) but varying second-order PMD (SO-PMD) using only a combination of polarization maintaining fibers and a polarization controller. The SO-PMD control mechanism is not completely in real time. Besides controlling the mean PMD values of the emulator, simultaneous adjustments in the maximum and minimum values of PMD statistics can be performed. We therefore illustrate irregular fluctuations that occur around the RMS-DGD due to SO-PMD. This novel design can be used to further show the impact of a high first-order PMD segment on the DGD and SO-PMD statistical distributions that might occur in an optical network system.

  20. Proton radii of neutron-rich B isotopes and neutron surface thickness in 17B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanungo, Rituparna; Estrade, Alfredo; Horiuchi, Wataru

    2014-09-01

    As the neutron to proton asymmetry increases nuclei develop exotic structures such as neutron skin and halo. It is important to investigate how this asymmetry affects the proton distribution. The matter and proton radii have started unfolding a complete picture of the halo. For two-neutron halos the correlation between the halo neutrons and their distance from the core can be derived to define the average halo geometry. The proton radii are crucial information to extract the neutron skin thickness to constrain the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Very limited information is available on the proton radii of very neutron-rich nuclei. In this presentation, we will describe the new technique of extracting proton radii from charge changing cross sections using relativistic beams at GSI, Germany. The presentation will show first measurements of proton radii of the neutron-rich boron isotopes. The implications of the results in understanding the neutron surface thickness in the Borromean 17B and its possible halo structure will be discussed. As the neutron to proton asymmetry increases nuclei develop exotic structures such as neutron skin and halo. It is important to investigate how this asymmetry affects the proton distribution. The matter and proton radii have started unfolding a complete picture of the halo. For two-neutron halos the correlation between the halo neutrons and their distance from the core can be derived to define the average halo geometry. The proton radii are crucial information to extract the neutron skin thickness to constrain the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter. Very limited information is available on the proton radii of very neutron-rich nuclei. In this presentation, we will describe the new technique of extracting proton radii from charge changing cross sections using relativistic beams at GSI, Germany. The presentation will show first measurements of proton radii of the neutron-rich boron isotopes. The implications

  1. 1.5% root-mean-square flat-intensity laser beam formed using a binary-amplitude spatial light modulator.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinyang; Kohn, Rudolph N; Becker, Michael F; Heinzen, Daniel J

    2009-04-01

    We demonstrate a digital micromirror device (DMD)-based optical system that converts a spatially noisy quasi-Gaussian to an eighth-order super-Lorentzian flat-top beam. We use an error-diffusion algorithm to design the binary pattern for the Texas Instruments DLP device. Following the DMD, a telescope with a pinhole low-pass filters the beam and scales it to the desired sized image. Experimental measurements show a 1% root-mean-square (RMS) flatness over a diameter of 0.28 mm in the center of the flat-top beam and better than 1.5% RMS flatness over its entire 1.43 mm diameter. The power conversion efficiency is 37%. We develop an alignment technique to ensure that the DMD pattern is correctly positioned on the incident beam. An interferometric measurement of the DMD surface flatness shows that phase uniformity is maintained in the output beam. Our approach is highly flexible and is able to produce not only flat-top beams with different parameters, but also any slowly varying target beam shape. It can be used to generate the homogeneous optical lattice required for Bose-Einstein condensate cold atom experiments.

  2. Autocorrelation standard deviation and root mean square frequency analysis of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell to monitor for hydrogen and air undersupply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joo Gon; Mukherjee, Santanu; Bates, Alex; Zickel, Benjamin; Park, Sam; Son, Byung Rak; Choi, Jae Sung; Kwon, Osung; Lee, Dong Ha; Chung, Hyun-Youl

    2015-12-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cells are a promising energy conversion device which can help to solve urgent environmental and economic problems. Among the various types of fuel cells, the air breathing proton exchange membrane fuel cell, which minimizes the balance of plant, has drawn a lot of attention due to its superior energy density. In this study a compact, air breathing, proton exchange membrane fuel cell based on Nafion and a Pt/C membrane electrode assembly was designed. The fuel cell was tested using a Scribner Associates 850e fuel cell test station. Specifically, the hydrogen fuel and oxygen starvation of the fuel cell were accurately and systematically tested and analyzed using a frequency analysis method which can analyze the input and output frequency. The analysis of the frequency variation under a fuel starvation condition was done using RMSF (root mean square frequency) and ACSD (autocorrelation standard deviation). The study reveals two significant results: first, the fuel starvations show entirely different phenomenon in both RMSF and ACSD and second, the results of the Autocorrelation show clearer results for fuel starvation detection than the results with RMSF.

  3. A least mean-square filter for the estimation of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation artifact based on the frequency of the compressions.

    PubMed

    Irusta, Unai; Ruiz, Jesús; de Gauna, Sofía Ruiz; Eftestøl, Trygve; Kramer-Johansen, Jo

    2009-04-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) artifacts caused by chest compressions and ventilations interfere with the rhythm diagnosis of automated external defibrillators (AED). CPR must be interrupted for a reliable diagnosis. However, pauses in chest compressions compromise the defibrillation success rate and reduce perfusion of vital organs. The removal of the CPR artifacts would enable compressions to continue during AED rhythm analysis, thereby increasing the likelihood of resuscitation success. We have estimated the CPR artifact using only the frequency of the compressions as additional information to model it. Our model of the artifact is adaptively estimated using a least mean-square (LMS) filter. It was tested on 89 shockable and 292 nonshockable ECG samples from real out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest episodes. We evaluated the results using the shock advice algorithm of a commercial AED. The sensitivity and specificity were above 95% and 85%, respectively, for a wide range of working conditions of the LMS filter. Our results show that the CPR artifact can be accurately modeled using only the frequency of the compressions. These can be easily registered after small changes in the hardware of the CPR compression pads.

  4. Minimum mean squared error (MSE) adjustment and the optimal Tykhonov-Phillips regularization parameter via reproducing best invariant quadratic uniformly unbiased estimates (repro-BIQUUE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaffrin, Burkhard

    2008-02-01

    In a linear Gauss-Markov model, the parameter estimates from BLUUE (Best Linear Uniformly Unbiased Estimate) are not robust against possible outliers in the observations. Moreover, by giving up the unbiasedness constraint, the mean squared error (MSE) risk may be further reduced, in particular when the problem is ill-posed. In this paper, the α-weighted S-homBLE (Best homogeneously Linear Estimate) is derived via formulas originally used for variance component estimation on the basis of the repro-BIQUUE (reproducing Best Invariant Quadratic Uniformly Unbiased Estimate) principle in a model with stochastic prior information. In the present model, however, such prior information is not included, which allows the comparison of the stochastic approach (α-weighted S-homBLE) with the well-established algebraic approach of Tykhonov-Phillips regularization, also known as R-HAPS (Hybrid APproximation Solution), whenever the inverse of the “substitute matrix” S exists and is chosen as the R matrix that defines the relative impact of the regularizing term on the final result.

  5. Fluctuation analysis of time-averaged mean-square displacement for the Langevin equation with time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivity.

    PubMed

    Uneyama, Takashi; Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma

    2015-09-01

    The mean-square displacement (MSD) is widely utilized to study the dynamical properties of stochastic processes. The time-averaged MSD (TAMSD) provides some information on the dynamics which cannot be extracted from the ensemble-averaged MSD. In particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the TAMSD can be utilized to study the long-time relaxation behavior. In this work, we consider a class of Langevin equations which are multiplicatively coupled to time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivities. Various interesting dynamics models such as entangled polymers and supercooled liquids can be interpreted as the Langevin equations with time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivities. We derive a general formula for the RSD of the TAMSD for the Langevin equation with the time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivity. We show that the RSD can be expressed in terms of the correlation function of the diffusivity. The RSD exhibits the crossover at the long time region. The crossover time is related to a weighted average relaxation time for the diffusivity. Thus the crossover time gives some information on the relaxation time of fluctuating diffusivity which cannot be extracted from the ensemble-averaged MSD. We discuss the universality and possible applications of the formula via some simple examples.

  6. Fluctuation analysis of time-averaged mean-square displacement for the Langevin equation with time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uneyama, Takashi; Miyaguchi, Tomoshige; Akimoto, Takuma

    2015-09-01

    The mean-square displacement (MSD) is widely utilized to study the dynamical properties of stochastic processes. The time-averaged MSD (TAMSD) provides some information on the dynamics which cannot be extracted from the ensemble-averaged MSD. In particular, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of the TAMSD can be utilized to study the long-time relaxation behavior. In this work, we consider a class of Langevin equations which are multiplicatively coupled to time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivities. Various interesting dynamics models such as entangled polymers and supercooled liquids can be interpreted as the Langevin equations with time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivities. We derive a general formula for the RSD of the TAMSD for the Langevin equation with the time-dependent and fluctuating diffusivity. We show that the RSD can be expressed in terms of the correlation function of the diffusivity. The RSD exhibits the crossover at the long time region. The crossover time is related to a weighted average relaxation time for the diffusivity. Thus the crossover time gives some information on the relaxation time of fluctuating diffusivity which cannot be extracted from the ensemble-averaged MSD. We discuss the universality and possible applications of the formula via some simple examples.

  7. Development of an image Mean Square Displacement (iMSD)-based method as a novel approach to study the intracellular trafficking of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Digiacomo, Luca; Digman, Michelle A.; Gratton, Enrico; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy and spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to investigate complex and interacting biological systems (e.g. proteins and nanoparticles in living cells), since these techniques can explore intracellular dynamics with high time resolution at the nanoscale. Here we extended one of the Image Correlation Spectroscopy (ICS) methods, i.e. the image Mean Square Displacement, in order to study 2-dimensional diffusive and flow motion in confined systems, whose driving speed is uniformly distributed in a variable angular range. Although these conditions are not deeply investigated in the current literature, they can be commonly found in the intracellular trafficking of nanocarriers, which diffuse in the cytoplasm and/or may move along the cytoskeleton in different directions. The proposed approach could reveal the underlying system’s symmetry using methods derived from fluorescence correlation concepts and could recover dynamic and geometric features which are commonly done by single particle analyses. Furthermore, it improves the characterization of low-speed flow motions, when compared to SpatioTemporal Image Correlation Spectroscopy (STICS). Although we present a specific example (lipoplexes in living cells), the emphasis is in the discussion of the method, its basic assumptions and its validation on numeric simulations. PMID:27449340

  8. Using Akaike information criterion and minimum mean square error mode in compensating for ultrasonographic errors for estimation of fetal weight by new operators.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yueh-Chin; Chiu, Yu Hsien; Wang, Hsien-Chang; Chang, Fong-Ming; Chung, Kao-Chi; Chang, Chiung-Hsin; Cheng, Kuo-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    The accuracy of ultrasound (US) measurements is operator dependent. In order to decrease the operator-dependent errors in estimated fetal weight (EFW), a model selection analysis was undertaken to select significant compensation weighting factors on ultrasonographic parameters to support artificial neural network (ANN), and thus to enhance the accuracy of fetal weight estimation. In total, 2127 singletons were examined by prenatal US within 3 days before delivery for ANN development, and another 100 cases were selected from new operators for evaluation. First, correlation analysis was used to analyze the differences between the prenatal and postnatal parameters. Second, Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to determine the number of database partition and optimal weightings for compensating the input parameters of the ANN model. Finally, minimum mean squared error (MMSE) mode was utilized to determine the optimal EFW. EFW of the proposed compensation model using AIC and MMSE showed mean absolute percent error of 5.1 ± 3.1% and mean absolute error of 158.9 ± 96.2 g. When comparing the accuracy of EFW, our model using AIC and MMSE was superior to those conventional EFW formulas (all p < 0.05). We proved that performing the parameter compensation (by AIC) and model compensations (by MMSE) for the ANN model can improve EFW accuracy. Our AIC-MMSE model of EFW will contribute to the improvement of accuracy when adding new US datasets measured by new operators. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Evolution of few-cycle pulses in nonlinear dispersive media: Velocity of the center of mass and root-mean-square duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapoyko, Yury A.; Drozdov, Arkadiy A.; Kozlov, Sergei A.; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    Simple arithmetic dependencies of the velocity of the mass center motion and the root-mean-square duration of initially single-cycle, two-cycle, and Gaussian pulses with a random number of oscillations under the pulse envelope are derived depending on their center frequency, initial duration, and peak field amplitude, as well as on dispersive and nonlinear characteristics of homogeneous isotropic dielectric media. In media with normal group dispersion, it is shown that due to nonresonant dispersion the square of the few-cycle pulse duration increases with distance inversely proportional to the fourth power of the number of input pulse cycles. In media with normal group dispersion, the square of the pulse duration is inversely proportional to the number of input pulse cycles due to cubic nonlinearity. In media with anomalous group dispersion, it is shown that due to cubic nonlinearity, few-cycle pulse self-compression decreases with the reduction of the number of cycles in the initial pulse. This pulse self-compression effect has a threshold nature and terminates at a fixed number of cycles of the input pulse. Such a number of cycles is determined by the input intensity and the central frequency of the pulse, as well as by the dispersive and nonlinear characteristics of the medium.

  10. Proton Distribution Radii of 12-19C Illuminate Features of Neutron Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, R.; Horiuchi, W.; Hagen, Gaute; Jansen, Gustav R.; Navratil, Petr; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Suzuki, Y.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-09-02

    We report proton radii of 12-19C densities derived from first accurate charge changing cross section measurements at 900A MeV with a carbon target. A thick neutron surface evolves from ~0.5 fm in 15C to ~1 fm in 19C. Also, the halo radius in 19C is found to be 6.4±0.7 fm as large as 11Li. Ab initio calculations based on chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces reproduce the radii well.

  11. Proton Distribution Radii of ^{12-19}C Illuminate Features of Neutron Halos.

    PubMed

    Kanungo, R; Horiuchi, W; Hagen, G; Jansen, G R; Navratil, P; Ameil, F; Atkinson, J; Ayyad, Y; Cortina-Gil, D; Dillmann, I; Estradé, A; Evdokimov, A; Farinon, F; Geissel, H; Guastalla, G; Janik, R; Kimura, M; Knöbel, R; Kurcewicz, J; Litvinov, Yu A; Marta, M; Mostazo, M; Mukha, I; Nociforo, C; Ong, H J; Pietri, S; Prochazka, A; Scheidenberger, C; Sitar, B; Strmen, P; Suzuki, Y; Takechi, M; Tanaka, J; Tanihata, I; Terashima, S; Vargas, J; Weick, H; Winfield, J S

    2016-09-02

    Proton radii of ^{12-19}C densities derived from first accurate charge changing cross section measurements at 900A  MeV with a carbon target are reported. A thick neutron surface evolves from ∼0.5  fm in ^{15}C to ∼1  fm in ^{19}C. The halo radius in ^{19}C is found to be 6.4±0.7  fm as large as ^{11}Li. Ab initio calculations based on chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces reproduce the radii well.

  12. Proton Distribution Radii of 12-19C Illuminate Features of Neutron Halos

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, R.; Horiuchi, W.; Hagen, Gaute; Jansen, Gustav R.; Navratil, Petr; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Estradé, A.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Strmen, P.; Suzuki, Y.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Tanihata, I.; Terashima, S.; Vargas, J.; Weick, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2016-09-02

    We report proton radii of 12-19C densities derived from first accurate charge changing cross section measurements at 900A MeV with a carbon target. A thick neutron surface evolves from ~0.5 fm in 15C to ~1 fm in 19C. Also, the halo radius in 19C is found to be 6.4±0.7 fm as large as 11Li. Ab initio calculations based on chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces reproduce the radii well.

  13. Proton Distribution Radii of 12-19C Illuminate Features of Neutron Halos

    DOE PAGES

    Kanungo, R.; Horiuchi, W.; Hagen, Gaute; ...

    2016-09-02

    We report proton radii of 12-19C densities derived from first accurate charge changing cross section measurements at 900A MeV with a carbon target. A thick neutron surface evolves from ~0.5 fm in 15C to ~1 fm in 19C. Also, the halo radius in 19C is found to be 6.4±0.7 fm as large as 11Li. Ab initio calculations based on chiral nucleon-nucleon and three-nucleon forces reproduce the radii well.

  14. Noninvasive microwave ablation zone radii estimation using x-ray CT image analysis.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noam; Goldberg, S Nahum; Nissenbaum, Yitzhak; Sosna, Jacob; Azhari, Haim

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study were to noninvasively and automatically estimate both the radius of the ablated liver tissue and the radius encircling the treated zone, which also defines where the tissue is definitely untreated during a microwave (MW) thermal ablation procedure. Fourteen ex vivo bovine fresh liver specimens were ablated at 40 W using a 14 G microwave antenna, for durations of 3, 6, 8, and 10 min. The tissues were scanned every 5 s during the ablation using an x-ray CT scanner. In order to estimate the radius of the ablation zone, the acquired images were transformed into a polar presentation by displaying the Hounsfield units (HU) as a function of angle and radius. From this polar presentation, the average HU radial profile was analyzed at each time point and the ablation zone radius was estimated. In addition, textural analysis was applied to the original CT images. The proposed algorithm identified high entropy regions and estimated the treated zone radius per time. The estimated ablated zone radii as a function of treatment durations were compared, by means of correlation coefficient and root mean square error (RMSE) to gross pathology measurements taken immediately post-treatment from similarly ablated tissue. Both the estimated ablation radii and the treated zone radii demonstrated strong correlation with the measured gross pathology values (R(2) ≥ 0.89 and R(2) ≥ 0.86, respectively). The automated ablation radii estimation had an average discrepancy of less than 1 mm (RMSE = 0.65 mm) from the gross pathology measured values, while the treated zone radii showed a slight overestimation of approximately 1.5 mm (RMSE = 1.6 mm). Noninvasive monitoring of MW ablation using x-ray CT and image analysis is feasible. Automatic estimations of the ablation zone radius and the radius encompassing the treated zone that highly correlate with actual ablation measured values can be obtained. This technique can therefore potentially be used to obtain real time

  15. Reliable Radii for M Dwarf Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Andrew; Feiden, Gregory A.; Gaidos, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Precise and accurate parameters for late-type (late K and M) dwarf stars are critical for characterizing their planets. A deluge of planets discovered by Kepler has driven the need for even more precise stellar radii. We present our efforts to better constrain the luminosity-radius and Teff-radius relations for late-type (K5-M6) stars, taking advantage of improved techniques to calculate bolometric fluxes and [Fe/H] for M dwarfs. We determine effective temperatures for these stars by comparing observed spectra to atmospheric models, and confirm the accuracy of these temperatures using stars with temperatures determined from long-baseline optical interferometry. Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law we can empirically determine radii for these stars to better than 5%. We find the Teff-radius relation depends strongly on [Fe/H], which was missed in earlier studies that used smaller samples or less precise methods. We expect our empirical relations to be increasingly useful with the arrival of Gaia parallaxes in the near future.

  16. Temperature variation of ultralow frequency modes and mean square displacements in solid lasamide (diuretic drug) studied by 35Cl-NQR, X-ray and DFT/QTAIM.

    PubMed

    Latosińska, Jolanta Natalia; Latosińska, Magdalena; Kasprzak, Jerzy; Tomczak, Magdalena; Maurin, Jan Krzysztof

    2012-10-25

    The application of combined (35)Cl-NQR/X-ray/DFT/QTAIM methods to study the temperature variation of anisotropic displacement parameters and ultralow frequency modes of anharmonic torsional vibrations in the solid state is illustrated on the example of 2,4-dichloro-5-sulfamolybenzoic acid (lasamide, DSBA) which is a diuretic and an intermediate in the synthesis of furosemide and thus its common impurity. The crystallographic structure of lasamide is solved by X-ray diffraction and refined to a final R-factor of 3.06% at room temperature. Lasamide is found to crystallize in the triclinic space group P-1, with two equivalent molecules in the unit cell a = 7.5984(3) Å, b = 8.3158(3) Å, c = 8.6892(3) Å; α = 81.212(3)°, β = 73.799(3)°, γ = 67.599(3)°. Its molecules form symmetric dimers linked by two short and linear intermolecular hydrogen bonds O-H···O (O-H···O = 2.648 Å and ∠OHO = 171.5°), which are further linked by weaker and longer intermolecular hydrogen bonds N-H···O (N-H···O = 2.965 Å and ∠NHO = 166.4°). Two (35)Cl-NQR resonance frequencies, 36.899 and 37.129 MHz, revealed at room temperature are assigned to chlorine sites at the ortho and para positions, relative to the carboxyl functional group, respectively. The difference in C-Cl(1) and C-Cl(2) bond lengths only slightly affects the value of (35)Cl-NQR frequencies, which results mainly from chemical inequivalence of chlorine atoms but also involvement in different intermolecular interactions pattern. The smooth decrease in both (35)Cl-NQR frequencies with increasing temperature in the range of 77-300 K testifies to the averaging of EFG tensor at each chlorine site due to anharmonic torsional vibrations. Lasamide is thermally stable; no temperature-induced release of chlorine or decomposition of this compound is detected. The temperature dependence of ultralow frequency modes of anharmonic small-angle internal torsional vibrations averaging EFG tensor and mean square angle

  17. Motion of chromosomal loci and the mean-squared displacement of a fractional Brownian motion in the presence of static and dynamic errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, Mikael P.; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-03-01

    Mean-squared displacement (MSD) analysis is one of the most prevalent tools employed in the application of single-particle tracking to biological systems. In camera-based tracking, the effects of "static error" due to photon fluctuations and "dynamic error" due to motion blur on the MSD have been well-characterized for the case of pure Brownian motion, producing a known constant offset to the straight-line MSD. However, particles tracked in cellular environments often do not undergo pure Brownian motion, but instead can for instance exhibit anomalous diffusion wherein the MSD curve obeys a power law with respect to time, MSD=2D*τα, where D* is an effective diffusion coefficient and 0 < α <= 1. There are a number of models that can explain anomalous diffusive behavior in different subcellular contexts. Of these models, fractional Brownian motion (FBM) has been shown to accurately describe the motion of labeled particles such as mRNA and chromosomal loci as they traverse the cytoplasm or nucleoplasm (i.e. crowded viscoelastic environments). Despite the importance of FBM in biological tracking, there has yet to be a complete treatment of the MSD in the presence of static and dynamic errors analogous to the special case of pure Brownian motion. We here present a closed-form, analytical expression of the FBM MSD in the presence of both types of error. We have previously demonstrated its value in live-cell data by applying it to the study of chromosomal locus motion in budding yeast cells. Here we focus on validations in simulated data.

  18. On the relationship between the Hurst exponent, the ratio of the mean square successive difference to the variance, and the number of turning points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarnopolski, Mariusz

    2016-11-01

    The long range dependence of the fractional Brownian motion (fBm), fractional Gaussian noise (fGn), and differentiated fGn (DfGn) is described by the Hurst exponent H. Considering the realizations of these three processes as time series, they might be described by their statistical features, such as half of the ratio of the mean square successive difference to the variance, A, and the number of turning points, T. This paper investigates the relationships between A and H, and between T and H. It is found numerically that the formulae A(H) = aebH in case of fBm, and A(H) = a + bHc for fGn and DfGn, describe well the A(H) relationship. When T(H) is considered, no simple formula is found, and it is empirically found that among polynomials, the fourth and second order description applies best. The most relevant finding is that when plotted in the space of (A , T) , the three process types form separate branches. Hence, it is examined whether A and T may serve as Hurst exponent indicators. Some real world data (stock market indices, sunspot numbers, chaotic time series) are analyzed for this purpose, and it is found that the H's estimated using the H(A) relations (expressed as inverted A(H) functions) are consistent with the H's extracted with the well known wavelet approach. This allows to efficiently estimate the Hurst exponent based on fast and easy to compute A and T, given that the process type: fBm, fGn or DfGn, is correctly classified beforehand. Finally, it is suggested that the A(H) relation for fGn and DfGn might be an exact (shifted) 3 / 2 power-law.

  19. Relativistic calculations of screening parameters and atomic radii of neutral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra, M.; Amaro, P.; Santos, J. P.; Indelicato, P.

    2017-09-01

    Calculations of the effective nuclear charge for elements with 1 ≤ Z ≤ 118 have been performed in a Dirac-Fock approach including all relativistic effects as well as contributions from quantum electrodynamics. Maximum charge density for every subshell of every element in the periodic table was also computed in the same framework as well as atomic radii based on the total charge density. Results were compared with the extensively cited works of Clementi et al., obtained in the 1960s with Roothan's self-consistent-field method.

  20. Change of caged dynamics at Tg in hydrated proteins: Trend of mean squared displacements after correcting for the methyl-group rotation contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngai, K. L.; Capaccioli, S.; Paciaroni, A.

    2013-06-01

    The question whether the dynamics of hydrated proteins changes with temperature on crossing the glass transition temperature like that found in conventional glassformers is an interesting one. Recently, we have shown that a change of temperature dependence of the mean square displacement (MSD) at Tg is present in proteins solvated with bioprotectants, such as sugars or glycerol with or without the addition of water, coexisting with the dynamic transition at a higher temperature Td. The dynamical change at Tg is similar to that in conventional glassformers at sufficiently short times and low enough temperatures, where molecules are mutually caged by the intermolecular potential. This is a general and fundamental property of glassformers which is always observed at or near Tg independent of the energy resolution of the spectrometer, and is also the basis of the dynamical change of solvated proteins at Tg. When proteins are solvated with bioprotectants they show higher Tg and Td than the proteins hydrated by water alone, due to the stabilizing action of excipients, thus the observation of the change of T-dependence of the MSD at Tg is unobstructed by the methyl-group rotation contribution at lower temperatures [S. Capaccioli, K. L. Ngai, S. Ancherbak, and A. Paciaroni, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 1745 (2012)], 10.1021/jp2057892. On the other hand, in the case of proteins hydrated by water alone unambiguous evidence of the break at Tg is hard to find, because of their lower Tg and Td. Notwithstanding, in this paper, we provide evidence for the change at Tg of the T-dependence of proteins hydrated by pure water. This evidence turns out from (i) neutron scattering experimental investigations where the sample has been manipulated by either full or partial deuteration to suppress the methyl-group rotation contribution, and (ii) neutron scattering experimental investigations where the energy resolution is such that only motions with characteristic times shorter than 15 ps can be

  1. Temperature and flow velocity of the interplanetary gases along solar radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, F. M.; Judge, D. L.

    1979-01-01

    The velocity distributions along solar radii for hydrogen and helium in interplanetary space are calculated by using the Danby-Camm formula modified with a loss function. From these distributions the radial temperature and radial flow velocity of the interplanetary gases are determined. The effects of solar gravitation and ionization loss, due to charge exchange and photoionization, on the gas temperature and velocity are described.

  2. Reexamination of proton rms radii from low-q power expansions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sick, Ingo; Trautmann, Dirk

    2017-01-01

    Several recent publications claim that the proton charge rms radius resulting from the analysis of electron-scattering data restricted to low-momentum transfer agrees with the radius determined from muonic hydrogen, in contrast to the radius resulting from analyses of the full (e ,e ) data set which is 0.04 fm larger. Here we show why these publications erroneously arrive at the low radii.

  3. THERMAL PROCESSES GOVERNING HOT-JUPITER RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.edu

    2013-07-20

    There have been many proposed explanations for the larger-than-expected radii of some transiting hot Jupiters, including either stellar or orbital energy deposition deep in the atmosphere or deep in the interior. In this paper, we explore the important influences on hot-Jupiter radius evolution of (1) additional heat sources in the high atmosphere, the deep atmosphere, and deep in the convective interior; (2) consistent cooling of the deep interior through the planetary dayside, nightside, and poles; (3) the degree of heat redistribution to the nightside; and (4) the presence of an upper atmosphere absorber inferred to produce anomalously hot upper atmospheres and inversions in some close-in giant planets. In particular, we compare the radius expansion effects of atmospheric and deep-interior heating at the same power levels and derive the power required to achieve a given radius increase when night-side cooling is incorporated. We find that models that include consistent day/night cooling are more similar to isotropically irradiated models when there is more heat redistributed from the dayside to the nightside. In addition, we consider the efficacy of ohmic heating in the atmosphere and/or convective interior in inflating hot Jupiters. Among our conclusions are that (1) the most highly irradiated planets cannot stably have uB {approx}> 10 km s{sup -1} G over a large fraction of their daysides, where u is the zonal wind speed and B is the dipolar magnetic field strength in the atmosphere, and (2) that ohmic heating cannot in and of itself lead to a runaway in planet radius.

  4. Radii of the bound states in 16N from the asymptotic normalization coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, E. T.; Guo, B.; Li, Z. H.; Wang, Y. B.; Li, Y. J.; Wu, Z. D.; Su, J.; Pang, D. Y.; Bai, X. X.; Du, X. C.; Fan, Q. W.; Gan, L.; Han, Z. Y.; Hao, X.; Hu, S. P.; He, J. J.; Jing, L.; Jin, S. J.; Li, L.; Li, X. Y.; Li, Z. C.; Lian, G.; Liu, J. C.; Luo, Q.; Qiao, L. H.; Shen, Y. P.; Sun, H. B.; Yan, S. Q.; Yu, X. Q.; Zeng, S.; Zhang, D. H.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhang, W. J.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, W. P.

    2016-11-01

    The asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) of the virtual decay 16N → 15N + n are extracted from the 15N(7Li, 6Li)16N reaction populating the ground and first three excited states in 16N. The root-mean-square (rms) radii of the valence neutron in these four low-lying 16N states are then derived by using the ANCs. The probabilities of the valence neutron staying out of the core potentials are found to be 31% ± 8%, 58% ± 12%, 32% ± 8%, and 60% ± 12%. The present results support the conclusion that a one-neutron halo may be formed in the 16N first and third excited states, while the ground and second excited states do not have a one-neutron halo structure. However, the core excitation effect has a strong influence on the one-neutron halo structure of the ground and first excited states in 16N. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11505117, 11490560, 11475264, 11321064, 11375269), Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (2015A030310012), 973 program of China (2013CB834406) National key Research and Development Province (2016YFA0400502)

  5. Systematics of binding energies and radii based on realistic two-nucleon plus phenomenological three-nucleon interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, A.; Roth, R.; Reinhardt, S.; Hergert, H.

    2010-08-15

    We investigate the influence of phenomenological three-nucleon interactions on the systematics of ground-state energies and charge radii throughout the whole nuclear mass range from {sup 4}He to {sup 208}Pb. The three-nucleon interactions supplement unitarily transformed two-body interactions constructed within the unitary correlation operator method or the similarity renormalization group approach. To be able to address heavy nuclei as well, we treat the many-body problem in Hartree-Fock plus many-body perturbation theory, which is sufficient to assess the systematics of energies and radii, and limit ourselves to regularized three-body contact interactions. We show that even with such a simplistic three-nucleon interaction a simultaneous reproduction of the experimental ground-state energies and charge radii can be achieved, which is not possible with unitarily transformed two-body interactions alone.

  6. Novel algorithm and MATLAB-based program for automated power law analysis of single particle, time-dependent mean-square displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umansky, Moti; Weihs, Daphne

    2012-08-01

    In many physical and biophysical studies, single-particle tracking is utilized to reveal interactions, diffusion coefficients, active modes of driving motion, dynamic local structure, micromechanics, and microrheology. The basic analysis applied to those data is to determine the time-dependent mean-square displacement (MSD) of particle trajectories and perform time- and ensemble-averaging of similar motions. The motion of particles typically exhibits time-dependent power-law scaling, and only trajectories with qualitatively and quantitatively comparable MSD should be ensembled. Ensemble averaging trajectories that arise from different mechanisms, e.g., actively driven and diffusive, is incorrect and can result inaccurate correlations between structure, mechanics, and activity. We have developed an algorithm to automatically and accurately determine power-law scaling of experimentally measured single-particle MSD. Trajectories can then categorized and grouped according to user defined cutoffs of time, amplitudes, scaling exponent values, or combinations. Power-law fits are then provided for each trajectory alongside categorized groups of trajectories, histograms of power laws, and the ensemble-averaged MSD of each group. The codes are designed to be easily incorporated into existing user codes. We expect that this algorithm and program will be invaluable to anyone performing single-particle tracking, be it in physical or biophysical systems. Catalogue identifier: AEMD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEMD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 25 892 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 5 572 780 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MATLAB (MathWorks Inc.) version 7.11 (2010b) or higher, program

  7. Total Galaxy Magnitudes and Effective Radii from Petrosian Magnitudes and Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.; Driver, Simon P.; Petrosian, Vahé; Conselice, Christopher J.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Crawford, Steven M.; Goto, Tomotsugu

    2005-10-01

    Petrosian magnitudes were designed to help with the difficult task of determining a galaxy's total light. Although these magnitudes [taken here as the flux within 2RP, with the inverted Petrosian index 1/η(RP)=0.2] can represent most of an object's flux, they do of course miss the light outside the Petrosian aperture (2RP). The size of this flux deficit varies monotonically with the shape of a galaxy's light profile, i.e., its concentration. In the case of a de Vaucouleurs R1/4 profile, the deficit is 0.20 mag; for an R1/8 profile this figure rises to 0.50 mag. Here we provide a simple method for recovering total (Sérsic) magnitudes from Petrosian magnitudes using only the galaxy concentration (R90/R50 or R80/R20) within the Petrosian aperture. The corrections hold to the extent that Sérsic's model provides a good description of a galaxy's luminosity profile. We show how the concentration can also be used to convert Petrosian radii into effective half-light radii, enabling a robust measure of the mean effective surface brightness. Our technique is applied to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 2 (SDSS DR2) Petrosian parameters, yielding good agreement with the total magnitudes, effective radii, and mean effective surface brightnesses obtained from the New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalog Sérsic R1/n fits by Blanton and coworkers. Although the corrective procedure described here is specifically applicable to the SDSS DR2 and DR3, it is generally applicable to all imaging data where any Petrosian index and concentration can be constructed.

  8. Modeling hardwood crown radii using circular data analysis

    Treesearch

    Paul F. Doruska; Hal O. Liechty; Douglas J. Marshall

    2003-01-01

    Cylindrical data are bivariate data composed of a linear and an angular component. One can use uniform, first-order (one maximum and one minimum) or second-order (two maxima and two minima) models to relate the linear component to the angular component. Crown radii can be treated as cylindrical data when the azimuths at which the radii are measured are also recorded....

  9. Atomic and Ionic Radii of Elements 1-96.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Martin; Hoffmann, Roald; Ashcroft, N W

    2016-10-04

    Atomic and cationic radii have been calculated for the first 96 elements, together with selected anionic radii. The metric adopted is the average distance from the nucleus where the electron density falls to 0.001 electrons per bohr(3) , following earlier work by Boyd. Our radii are derived using relativistic all-electron density functional theory calculations, close to the basis set limit. They offer a systematic quantitative measure of the sizes of non-interacting atoms, commonly invoked in the rationalization of chemical bonding, structure, and different properties. Remarkably, the atomic radii as defined in this way correlate well with van der Waals radii derived from crystal structures. A rationalization for trends and exceptions in those correlations is provided.

  10. Lightning energetics: Estimates of energy dissipation in channels, channel radii, and channel-heating risetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Borovsky, J.E.

    1998-05-01

    In this report, several lightning-channel parameters are calculated with the aid of an electrodynamic model of lightning. The electrodynamic model describes dart leaders and return strokes as electromagnetic waves that are guided along conducting lightning channels. According to the model, electrostatic energy is delivered to the channel by a leader, where it is stored around the outside of the channel; subsequently, the return stroke dissipates this locally stored energy. In this report this lightning-energy-flow scenario is developed further. Then the energy dissipated per unit length in lightning channels is calculated, where this quantity is now related to the linear charge density on the channel, not to the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference. Energy conservation is then used to calculate the radii of lightning channels: their initial radii at the onset of return strokes and their final radii after the channels have pressure expanded. Finally, the risetimes for channel heating during return strokes are calculated by defining an energy-storage radius around the channel and by estimating the radial velocity of energy flow toward the channel during a return stroke. In three appendices, values for the linear charge densities on lightning channels are calculated, estimates of the total length of branch channels are obtained, and values for the cloud-to-ground electrostatic potential difference are estimated. {copyright} 1998 American Geophysical Union

  11. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  12. Hall Determination of Atomic Radii of Alkali Metals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houari, Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    I will propose here an alternative method for determining atomic radii of alkali metals based on the Hall measurements of their free electron densities and the knowledge of their crystal structure. (Contains 2 figures.)

  13. Consistent van der Waals Radii for the Whole Main Group

    PubMed Central

    Mantina, Manjeera; Chamberlin, Adam C.; Valero, Rosendo; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2013-01-01

    Atomic radii are not precisely defined but are nevertheless widely used parameters in modeling and understanding molecular structure and interactions. The van der Waals radii determined by Bondi from molecular crystals and noble gas crystals are the most widely used values, but Bondi recommended radius values for only 28 of the 44 main-group elements in the periodic table. In the present article we present atomic radii for the other 16; these new radii were determined in a way designed to be compatible with Bondi’s scale. The method chosen is a set of two-parameter correlations of Bondi’s radii with repulsive-wall distances calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The newly determined radii (in Å) are Be, 1.53; B, 1.92; Al, 1.84; Ca, 2.31; Ge, 2.11; Rb, 3.03; Sr, 2.50; Sb, 2.06; Cs, 3.43; Ba, 2.68; Bi, 2.07; Po, 1.97; At, 2.02; Rn, 2.20; Fr, 3.48; and Ra, 2.83. PMID:19382751

  14. Consistent van der Waals radii for the whole main group.

    PubMed

    Mantina, Manjeera; Chamberlin, Adam C; Valero, Rosendo; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2009-05-14

    Atomic radii are not precisely defined but are nevertheless widely used parameters in modeling and understanding molecular structure and interactions. The van der Waals radii determined by Bondi from molecular crystals and data for gases are the most widely used values, but Bondi recommended radius values for only 28 of the 44 main-group elements in the periodic table. In the present Article, we present atomic radii for the other 16; these new radii were determined in a way designed to be compatible with Bondi's scale. The method chosen is a set of two-parameter correlations of Bondi's radii with repulsive-wall distances calculated by relativistic coupled-cluster electronic structure calculations. The newly determined radii (in A) are Be, 1.53; B, 1.92; Al, 1.84; Ca, 2.31; Ge, 2.11; Rb, 3.03; Sr, 2.49; Sb, 2.06; Cs, 3.43; Ba, 2.68; Bi, 2.07; Po, 1.97; At, 2.02; Rn, 2.20; Fr, 3.48; and Ra, 2.83.

  15. On the Anomalous Radii of the Transiting Extrasolar Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laughlin, Gregory; Crismani, Matteo; Adams, Fred C.

    2011-03-01

    We present a systematic evaluation of the agreement between the observed radii of 90 well-characterized transiting extrasolar giant planets and their corresponding model radii. Our model radii are drawn from previously published calculations of coreless giant planets that have attained their asymptotic radii, and which have been tabulated for a range of planet masses and equilibrium temperatures. (We report a two-dimensional polynomial fitting function that accurately represents the models.) As expected, the model radii provide a statistically significant improvement over a null hypothesis that the sizes of giant planets are completely independent of mass and effective temperature. As is well known, however, fiducial models provide an insufficient explanation; the planetary radius anomalies, R ≡ R_obs-R_pred, are strongly correlated with planetary equilibrium temperature. We find that the radius anomalies have a best-fit dependence, R∝ T_eff^{α}, with α = 1.4 ± 0.6. Incorporating this relation into the model radii leads to substantially less scatter in the radius correlation. The extra temperature dependence represents an important constraint on theoretical models for hot Jupiters. Using simple scaling arguments, we find support for the hypothesis of Batygin & Stevenson that this correlation can be attributed to a planetary heating mechanism that is mediated by magnetohydrodynamic coupling between the planetary magnetic field and near-surface flow that is accompanied by ohmic dissipation at adiabatic depth. Additionally, we find that the temperature dependence is likely too strong to admit kinetic heating as the primary source of anomalous energy generation within the majority of the observed transiting planets.

  16. ON THE ANOMALOUS RADII OF THE TRANSITING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Laughlin, Gregory; Crismani, Matteo

    2011-03-01

    We present a systematic evaluation of the agreement between the observed radii of 90 well-characterized transiting extrasolar giant planets and their corresponding model radii. Our model radii are drawn from previously published calculations of coreless giant planets that have attained their asymptotic radii, and which have been tabulated for a range of planet masses and equilibrium temperatures. (We report a two-dimensional polynomial fitting function that accurately represents the models.) As expected, the model radii provide a statistically significant improvement over a null hypothesis that the sizes of giant planets are completely independent of mass and effective temperature. As is well known, however, fiducial models provide an insufficient explanation; the planetary radius anomalies, R{identical_to}R{sub obs}-R{sub pred}, are strongly correlated with planetary equilibrium temperature. We find that the radius anomalies have a best-fit dependence, R{proportional_to}T{sub eff}{sup {alpha}}, with {alpha} = 1.4 {+-} 0.6. Incorporating this relation into the model radii leads to substantially less scatter in the radius correlation. The extra temperature dependence represents an important constraint on theoretical models for hot Jupiters. Using simple scaling arguments, we find support for the hypothesis of Batygin and Stevenson that this correlation can be attributed to a planetary heating mechanism that is mediated by magnetohydrodynamic coupling between the planetary magnetic field and near-surface flow that is accompanied by ohmic dissipation at adiabatic depth. Additionally, we find that the temperature dependence is likely too strong to admit kinetic heating as the primary source of anomalous energy generation within the majority of the observed transiting planets.

  17. A differential equation for the Generalized Born radii.

    PubMed

    Fogolari, Federico; Corazza, Alessandra; Esposito, Gennaro

    2013-06-28

    The Generalized Born (GB) model offers a convenient way of representing electrostatics in complex macromolecules like proteins or nucleic acids. The computation of atomic GB radii is currently performed by different non-local approaches involving volume or surface integrals. Here we obtain a non-linear second-order partial differential equation for the Generalized Born radius, which may be solved using local iterative algorithms. The equation is derived under the assumption that the usual GB approximation to the reaction field obeys Laplace's equation. The equation admits as particular solutions the correct GB radii for the sphere and the plane. The tests performed on a set of 55 different proteins show an overall agreement with other reference GB models and "perfect" Poisson-Boltzmann based values.

  18. Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; ...

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shellmore » nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.« less

  19. Estimates of the radii, masses, and luminosities of LAMOST stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichevskij, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Based on the spectral observations of the LAMOST (DR2) survey, the radii, masses, and luminosities of 700 481 stars were estimated. These stars belong to spectral types A, F, G, and K, and have metallicities between -0.845 and 0.0. To determine the properties of the stars, we used up-to-date models of the stellar interior structure, computed with account for the stellar evolution rate and the initial mass function. The use of evolutionary estimates for two types of stars—with and without rotation—allowed us to account for the uncertainty associated with the lack of data on the rotation velocity of the stars under consideration. The obtained stellar radii, together with the photometric estimates of interstellar extinction and angular diameters can be used to study the dependence of interstellar extinction on distance as well as to estimate the stellar distances.

  20. Accurate nuclear radii and binding energies from a chiral interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Ekstrom, Jan A.; Jansen, G. R.; Wendt, Kyle A.; Hagen, Gaute; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Carlsson, Boris; Forssen, Christian; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Navratil, Petr; Nazarewicz, Witold

    2015-05-01

    With the goal of developing predictive ab initio capability for light and medium-mass nuclei, two-nucleon and three-nucleon forces from chiral effective field theory are optimized simultaneously to low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering data, as well as binding energies and radii of few-nucleon systems and selected isotopes of carbon and oxygen. Coupled-cluster calculations based on this interaction, named NNLOsat, yield accurate binding energies and radii of nuclei up to 40Ca, and are consistent with the empirical saturation point of symmetric nuclear matter. In addition, the low-lying collective Jπ=3- states in 16O and 40Ca are described accurately, while spectra for selected p- and sd-shell nuclei are in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  1. The radii of SU Cas and TU Cas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niva, G. D.; Schmidt, E. G.

    1980-01-01

    It is possible to obtain the masses of Cepheid variables by several methods involving the pulsation theory. However, these masses are frequently smaller than those indicated by the theory of stellar evolution. The cause of this discrepancy is not fully understood. Since the pulsation theory indicates that there is a relation among the mass, the radius and the period, the discrepancy also manifests itself in the radii of these stars. With this in mind, radius determinations for two Cepheids, SU Cas and TU Cas, were undertaken. It is concluded that because of the agreement between the present radius and the beat radius of TU Cas, the pulsation theory is giving correct information about the radii of beat Cepheids. This implies that the luminosities of short period Cepheids have been overestimated. Thus, the solution to the mass discrepancy should perhaps be sought in the theory of stellar evolution or in the possibility of mass loss.

  2. Silicon pore optics mirror modules for inner and outer radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Oosterbroek, Tim; Collon, Maximilien; Ackermann, Marcelo; Günther, Ramses; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Vervest, Mark; Yanson, Alexei; van Baren, Coen; Haneveld, Jeroen; Koelewijn, Arenda; Leenstra, Anne; Wijnperle, Maurice; Pareschi, Giovanni; Civitani, Marta; Conconi, Paolo; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Marioni, Fabio; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Schweitzer, Mario

    2015-09-01

    Athena (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) is an x-ray observatory using a Silicon Pore Optics telescope and was selected as ESA's second L-class science mission for a launch in 2028. The x-ray telescope consists of several hundreds of mirror modules distributed over about 15-20 radial rings. The radius of curvature and the module sizes vary among the different radial positions of the rings resulting in different technical challenges for mirror modules for inner and outer radii. We present first results of demonstrating Silicon Pore Optics for the extreme radial positions of the Athena telescope. For the inner most radii (0.25 m) a new mirror plate design is shown which overcomes the challenges of larger curvatures, higher stress values and bigger plates. Preliminary designs for the mounting system and its mechanical properties are discussed for mirror modules covering all other radial positions up to the most outer radius of the Athena telescope.

  3. Centrality dependence of pion freeze-out radii in Pb-Pb collisions at sNN=2.76  TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; ...

    2016-02-04

    Here, we report on the measurement of freeze-out radii for pairs of identical-charge pions measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √sNN = 2.76 TeV as a function of collision centrality and the average transverse momentum of the pair kT. Three-dimensional sizes of the system (femtoscopic radii), as well as direction-averaged one-dimensional radii are extracted. The radii decrease with kT, following a power-law behavior. This is qualitatively consistent with expectations from a collectively expanding system, produced in hydrodynamic calculations. The radii also scale linearly with < dNch/d η >1/3. We compare this behavior to world data on femtoscopic radii in heavy-ion collisions.more » While the dependence is qualitatively similar to results at smaller √sNN, a decrease in the ratio Rout/Rside is seen, which is in qualitative agreement with a specific prediction from hydrodynamic models: a change from inside-out to outside-in freeze-out configuration. Furthermore, these results provide further evidence for the production of a collective, strongly coupled system in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.« less

  4. Centrality dependence of pion freeze-out radii in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sN N}=2.76 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahn, S. U.; Aimo, I.; Aiola, S.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alexandre, D.; Alfaro Molina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaraz, J. R. M.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves Garcia Prado, C.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartke, J.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batista Camejo, A.; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Bossú, F.; Botta, E.; Böttger, S.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calero Diaz, L.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A. R.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Cerkala, J.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chelnokov, V.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Chunhui, Z.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa Del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Albino, R.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; de, S.; de Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; de Falco, A.; de Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; de Pasquale, S.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Dénes, E.; D'Erasmo, G.; di Bari, D.; di Mauro, A.; di Nezza, P.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdemir, I.; Erhardt, F.; Eschweiler, D.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabbietti, L.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fiore, E. M.; Fleck, M. G.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Germain, M.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Goméz Coral, D. M.; Gomez Ramirez, A.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Görlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haake, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hansen, A.; Harris, J. W.; Hartmann, H.; Harton, A.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hilden, T. E.; Hillemanns, H.; Hippolyte, B.; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadlovska, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kamin, J.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kravčáková, A.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kučera, V.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, S.; Legrand, I.; Lehas, F.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; León Monzón, I.; Leoncino, M.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Luz, P. H. F. N. D.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martin Blanco, J.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez García, G.; Martinez Pedreira, M.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Masui, H.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; McDonald, D.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mikhaylov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Minervini, L. M.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Montes, E.; Morando, M.; Moreira de Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Mühlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Naru, M. U.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nellen, L.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Oh, S. K.; Ohlson, A.; Okatan, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozdemir, M.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Pant, D.; Papcun, P.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, W. J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira da Costa, H.; Pereira de Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perez Lezama, E.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Płoskoń, M.; Planinic, M.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pospisil, J.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rivetti, A.; Rocco, E.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Ronflette, L.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Sarkar, D.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schulc, M.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Seo, J.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shadura, O.; Shahoyan, R.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, B. C.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Song, Z.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Spacek, M.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szabo, A.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szymanski, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tangaro, M. A.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; Trogolo, S.; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; van der Maarel, J.; van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vande Vyvre, P.; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Veldhoen, M.; Velure, A.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limón, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, Y.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Völkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Winn, M.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yang, H.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yurchenko, V.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaborowska, A.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zyzak, M.; Alice Collaboration

    2016-02-01

    We report on the measurement of freeze-out radii for pairs of identical-charge pions measured in Pb-Pb collisions at √{sNN}=2.76 TeV as a function of collision centrality and the average transverse momentum of the pair kT. Three-dimensional sizes of the system (femtoscopic radii), as well as direction-averaged one-dimensional radii are extracted. The radii decrease with kT, following a power-law behavior. This is qualitatively consistent with expectations from a collectively expanding system, produced in hydrodynamic calculations. The radii also scale linearly with 1 /3. This behavior is compared to world data on femtoscopic radii in heavy-ion collisions. While the dependence is qualitatively similar to results at smaller √{sNN}, a decrease in the ratio Rout/Rside is seen, which is in qualitative agreement with a specific prediction from hydrodynamic models: a change from inside-out to outside-in freeze-out configuration. The results provide further evidence for the production of a collective, strongly coupled system in heavy-ion collisions at the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  5. Impact of surface imperfections on the Casimir force for lenses of centimeter-size curvature radii

    SciTech Connect

    Bezerra, V. B.; Romero, C.; Klimchitskaya, G. L.; Mohideen, U.; Mostepanenko, V. M.

    2011-02-15

    The impact of imperfections, which are always present on surfaces of lenses with centimeter-size curvature radii, on the Casimir force in the lens-plate geometry is investigated. It is shown that the commonly used formulation of the proximity force approximation is inapplicable for spherical lenses with surface imperfections, such as bubbles and pits. More general expressions for the Casimir force are derived that take surface imperfections into account. Using these expressions, we show that surface imperfections can both increase and decrease the magnitude of the Casimir force up to a few tens percent when compared with the case of a perfectly spherical lens. We demonstrate that the Casimir force between a perfectly spherical lens and a plate described by the Drude model can be made approximately equal to the force between a sphere with some surface imperfection and a plate described by the plasma model, and vice versa. In the case of a metallic sphere and a semiconductor plate, approximately the same Casimir forces are obtained for four different descriptions of charge carriers in the semiconductor if appropriate surface imperfections on the lens surface are present. The conclusion is made that there is a fundamental problem in the interpretation of measurement data for the Casimir force using spherical lenses of centimeter-size radii.

  6. Absolute radii of single and multiple stars from the Catalog of Apparent and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fracassini, M.; Pasinetti, L. E.

    1982-05-01

    A modification of the Chalonge and Divan method for computing the apparent diameters of stars is reported on. Correlation between the modified method and intensity interferometry is good, except for the double visual, spectroscopic binary system alpha CMi. Systematic differences between the absolute radii of single and double (spectroscopic and visual) stars were ascertained. In order to improve data, observation of single and double stars, drawn from CADARS, is proposed for the Hipparcos mission.

  7. Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry with Resolved Charge States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contino, Nathan C.; Pierson, Elizabeth E.; Keifer, David Z.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) measurements have been performed for cytochrome c and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) monomer using a modified cone trap incorporating a cryogenically cooled JFET. Cooling the JFET increases its transconductance and lowers thermal noise, improving the signal to noise (S/N) ratio. Single ions with as few as 9 elementary charges (e) have been detected. According to simulations, the detection efficiency for ions with a charge of 13 e is 75 %, and for charges above 13 e the detection efficiency rapidly approaches 95 %. With the low limit of detection achieved here, adjacent charge states are easily resolved in the m/ z spectrum, so the accuracy and precision of the image charge measurements can be directly evaluated by comparing the measured image charge to the charge deduced from the m/ z spectrum. For ADH monomer ions with 32 to 43 charges, the root mean square deviation of the measured image charge is around 2.2 e. Ions were trapped for over 1500 cycles. The number of cycles detected appears to be limited mainly by collisions with the background gas.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Matter radii of {sup 32-35}Mg

    SciTech Connect

    Kanungo, R.; Perro, C.; Prochazka, A.; Farinon, F.; Knoebel, R.; Horiuchi, W.; Nociforo, C.; Aumann, T.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Mahata, K.; Scheidenberger, C.; Weick, H.; Winkler, M.; Boutin, D.; Lenske, H.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Davids, B.

    2011-02-15

    The interaction cross sections of {sup 32-35}Mg at 900A MeV have been measured using the fragment separator at GSI. The deviation from the r{sub 0}A{sup 1/3} trend is slightly larger for {sup 35}Mg, signaling the possible formation of a longer tail in the neutron distribution for {sup 35}Mg. The radii extracted from a Glauber model analysis with Fermi densities are consistent with models predicting the development of neutron skins.

  9. A Technical Memorandum On Core Radii In Lens Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, Christopher S.

    Quantitative estimates of lensing probabilities must be self-consistent. In particular, for asymptotically isothermal models: (1) using the $(3/2)^{1/2}$ correction for the velocity dispersion overestimates the expected number of lenses by 150\\% and their average separations by 50\\%, thereby introducing large cosmological errors; (2) when a core radius is added to the SIS model, the velocity dispersion must be increased; and (3) cross sections and magnification bias cannot be separated when computing the lensing probability. When we self-consistently calculate the effects of finite core radii in flat cosmological models, we find that the cosmological limits are independent of the core radius.

  10. A novel instrumentation of study cavitation maximum radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rui; Xu, Rong-qing; Chen, Xiao; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu

    2005-02-01

    Based on the optical beam deflection (OBD) technique, a fiber-optic diagnostic technique is applied to investigate the pulsation of a laser-induced cavitation bubble on the vicinity of an aluminum target in water. The sequence waveforms induced by the bubble pulsation is presented and analyzed in detail. The maximum radii corresponding to each pulsation are determined. Furthermore, by varying the acting laser energy, the variation of the maximum bubble radius and bubble energy with respect to acting laser energy is obtained. The theoretical and experimental results are in good agreement within a relative error.

  11. Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Clearfield, Abraham; Choi, Hyunho; Liang, Hong

    2015-12-21

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (R{sub h}). However, the R{sub h} represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.

  12. Masses, Radii, and the Equation of State of Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Feryal; Freire, Paulo

    2016-09-01

    We summarize our current knowledge of neutron-star masses and radii. Recent instrumentation and computational advances have resulted in a rapid increase in the discovery rate and precise timing of radio pulsars in binaries in the past few years, leading to a large number of mass measurements. These discoveries show that the neutron-star mass distribution is much wider than previously thought, with three known pulsars now firmly in the 1.9-2.0-M⊙ mass range. For radii, large, high-quality data sets from X-ray satellites as well as significant progress in theoretical modeling led to considerable progress in the measurements, placing them in the 10-11.5-km range and shrinking their uncertainties, owing to a better understanding of the sources of systematic errors. The combination of the massive-neutron-star discoveries, the tighter radius measurements, and improved laboratory constraints of the properties of dense matter has already made a substantial impact on our understanding of the composition and bulk properties of cold nuclear matter at densities higher than that of the atomic nucleus, a major unsolved problem in modern physics.

  13. Correlating hydrodynamic radii with that of two-dimensional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yuan; Kan, Yuwei; Choi, Hyunho; Clearfield, Abraham; Liang, Hong

    2015-12-01

    Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is one of the most adapted methods to measure the size of nanoparticles, as referred to the hydrodynamic radii (Rh). However, the Rh represents only that of three-dimensional spherical nanoparticles. In the present research, the size of two-dimensional (2D) nanoparticles of yttrium oxide (Y2O3) and zirconium phosphate (ZrP) was evaluated through comparing their hydrodynamic diameters via DLS with lateral sizes obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We demonstrate that the hydrodynamic radii are correlated with the lateral sizes of both square and circle shaped 2D nanoparticles. Two proportional coefficients, i.e., correcting factors, are proposed for the Brownian motion status of 2D nanoparticles. The correction is possible by simplifying the calculation of integrals in the case of small thickness approximation. The correcting factor has great significance for investigating the translational diffusion behavior of 2D nanoparticles in a liquid and in effective and low-cost measurement in terms of size and morphology of shape-specific nanoparticles.

  14. Diversity of Debris Disks - Constraining the Disk Outer Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, George; Smith, Paul; Su, Kate

    2008-03-01

    Existing Spitzer observations of debris disks show a wide range of diversity in disk morphologies and spectral energy distributions (SEDs). The majority of debris disks observed with Spitzer are not resolved, resulting in very few direct constraints on disk extent. In general, SEDs alone have little diagnostic power beyond some basic statistics. However, as demonstrated by some Spitzer observations of nearby systems (beta Leo and gamma Oph), the spectra of the excess emission in the IRS and MIPS-SED wavelength range can help to put tighter constraints on disk properties such as minimum/maximum grain sizes and inner/outer disk radii. The dust continuum slopes are very useful to differentiate between various disk structures and constrain the dust mass. We need to study sufficient numbers of disks to explore their characteristics systematically. Therefore, we propose to obtain MIPS-SED observations of 27 debris disks that already have IRS-LL spectra and MIPS 24 and 70 micron photometry.

  15. Masses and radii for thirteen chromospherically active ellipsoidal variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Douglas S.

    1990-01-01

    The amplitude of the ellipticity effect, the mass function, and the V sin i in ten long-period RS CVn SB1 binaries are used to compute limits on the masses of the two stars and the radius of the primary: zeta And, UV CrB, V1764 Cyg, V826 Her, V350 Lac, GX Lib, V1197 Ori, AP Psc, 33 Psc, and EE UMa. Explicit masses and radii are computed for three SB2 systems: BL CVn, V1817 Cyg, and TZ Tri. The primary in several is found to fill 95 percent or more of its Roche lobe. The two minima produced by the ellipticity effect are unequal in depth, with the effect largest when i is near 90 deg and the primary nearly fills its Roche lobe. The greatest inequality found, in UV CrB, was 0.08 mag.

  16. On the prompt gamma -ray emission radii of LGRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.-B.

    A simple method has been used to measure the prompt emission radii of 27 Swift and 37 pre-Swift long gamma-ray bursts with known redshift and jet break time. I find that the prompt gamma -rays are emitted from a beamed jet with dynamic open angle narrower than its geometric open angle. It is also found that both Swift and pre-Swift long bursts occurred at a similarly upper-limited radius of ˜ 1016 cm, although Swift/BAT is more sensitive to long bursts than pre-Swift detectors did. These results are consistent with some previous expectations based on Swift early afterglow data, spectral cut-off energy or turbulence model.

  17. Hypergravity effects on normal and avulsed developing avian radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negulesco, J. A.; Clark, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Rhode Island red female chicks were subjected to complete closed fracture of the right radius at 2 weeks post-hatching. The animals were allowed to heal for 1 week at either earth-gravity or 2-G-hypergravity state with control and estrogen-injected groups. Intact and fractured radial length, weight, average epiphysial-diaphysial diameters, and length, width, and weight of healing fracture callus were measured. Daily 2000 IU estrogen administration for 7 d increased intact radial length. Estrogen augments the effects of the 2-G state by inhibiting growth and depleting the mass of both intact and fractured radii and by decreasing the average distal epiphysial diameter of fractured bones. Animals exposed to the hypergravity state without hormonal treatment showed decreased fractured radial length, weight, and smaller proximal epiphysial diameters. The measurable parameters of the fracture callus (width, length, and weight) were depressed by the hypergravity state regardless of whether the animal was untreated or supplemented with estrogen.

  18. Hypergravity effects on normal and avulsed developing avian radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negulesco, J. A.; Clark, D. L.

    1976-01-01

    Rhode Island red female chicks were subjected to complete closed fracture of the right radius at 2 weeks post-hatching. The animals were allowed to heal for 1 week at either earth-gravity or 2-G-hypergravity state with control and estrogen-injected groups. Intact and fractured radial length, weight, average epiphysial-diaphysial diameters, and length, width, and weight of healing fracture callus were measured. Daily 2000 IU estrogen administration for 7 d increased intact radial length. Estrogen augments the effects of the 2-G state by inhibiting growth and depleting the mass of both intact and fractured radii and by decreasing the average distal epiphysial diameter of fractured bones. Animals exposed to the hypergravity state without hormonal treatment showed decreased fractured radial length, weight, and smaller proximal epiphysial diameters. The measurable parameters of the fracture callus (width, length, and weight) were depressed by the hypergravity state regardless of whether the animal was untreated or supplemented with estrogen.

  19. Automatic differentiation for Fourier series and the radii polynomial approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessard, Jean-Philippe; Mireles James, J. D.; Ransford, Julian

    2016-11-01

    In this work we develop a computer-assisted technique for proving existence of periodic solutions of nonlinear differential equations with non-polynomial nonlinearities. We exploit ideas from the theory of automatic differentiation in order to formulate an augmented polynomial system. We compute a numerical Fourier expansion of the periodic orbit for the augmented system, and prove the existence of a true solution nearby using an a-posteriori validation scheme (the radii polynomial approach). The problems considered here are given in terms of locally analytic vector fields (i.e. the field is analytic in a neighborhood of the periodic orbit) hence the computer-assisted proofs are formulated in a Banach space of sequences satisfying a geometric decay condition. In order to illustrate the use and utility of these ideas we implement a number of computer-assisted existence proofs for periodic orbits of the Planar Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (PCRTBP).

  20. Cathode fall thickness of abnormal glow discharges between parallel-plane electrodes in different radii at low pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Yangyang; Luo, Haiyun; Zou, Xiaobing; Wang, Xinxin

    2015-02-15

    In order to investigate the influence of electrode radius on the characteristics of cathode fall thickness, experiments of low-pressure (20 Pa ≤ p ≤ 30 Pa) abnormal glow discharge were carried out between parallel-plane electrodes in different radii keeping gap distance unchanged. Axial distributions of light intensity were obtained from the discharge images captured using a Charge Coupled Device camera. The assumption that the position of the negative glow peak coincides with the edge of cathode fall layer was verified based on a two-dimensional model, and the cathode fall thicknesses, d{sub c}, were calculated from the axial distributions of light intensity. It was observed that the position of peak emission shifts closer to the cathode as current or pressure grows. The dependence of cathode fall thickness on the gas pressure and normalized current J/p{sup 2} was presented, and it was found that for discharges between electrodes in large radius the curves of pd{sub c} against J/p{sup 2} were superimposed on each other, however, this phenomenon will not hold for discharges between the smaller electrodes. The reason for this phenomenon is that the transverse diffusions of charged particles are not the same in two gaps between electrodes with different radii.

  1. Calculations of neutron and proton radii of cesium isotopes. Final report, April 23--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This task involved the calculation of neutron and proton radii of cesium isotopes. The author has written a computer code that calculates radii according to two models: Myers 1983 and FRDM 1992. Results of calculations in both these models for both cesium and francium isotopes are attached as figures. He is currently interpreting these results in collaboration with D. Vieira and J.R. Nix, and they expect to use the computer code for further studies of nuclear radii.

  2. On the Radii of Close-in Giant Planets.

    PubMed

    Burrows; Guillot; Hubbard; Marley; Saumon; Lunine; Sudarsky

    2000-05-01

    The recent discovery that the close-in extrasolar giant planet HD 209458b transits its star has provided a first-of-its-kind measurement of the planet's radius and mass. In addition, there is a provocative detection of the light reflected off of the giant planet tau Bootis b. Including the effects of stellar irradiation, we estimate the general behavior of radius/age trajectories for such planets and interpret the large measured radii of HD 209458b and tau Boo b in that context. We find that HD 209458b must be a hydrogen-rich gas giant. Furthermore, the large radius of a close-in gas giant is not due to the thermal expansion of its atmosphere but to the high residual entropy that remains throughout its bulk by dint of its early proximity to a luminous primary. The large stellar flux does not inflate the planet but retards its otherwise inexorable contraction from a more extended configuration at birth. This implies either that such a planet was formed near its current orbital distance or that it migrated in from larger distances (>/=0.5 AU), no later than a few times 107 yr of birth.

  3. Measuring Neutron Star Radii via Pulse Profile Modeling with NICER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Morsink, Sharon; Bauböck, Michi

    2016-11-01

    The Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer is an X-ray astrophysics payload that will be placed on the International Space Station. Its primary science goal is to measure with high accuracy the pulse profiles that arise from the non-uniform thermal surface emission of rotation-powered pulsars. Modeling general relativistic effects on the profiles will lead to measuring the radii of these neutron stars and to constraining their equation of state. Achieving this goal will depend, among other things, on accurate knowledge of the source, sky, and instrument backgrounds. We use here simple analytic estimates to quantify the level at which these backgrounds need to be known in order for the upcoming measurements to provide significant constraints on the properties of neutron stars. We show that, even in the minimal-information scenario, knowledge of the background at a few percent level for a background-to-source countrate ratio of 0.2 allows for a measurement of the neutron star compactness to better than 10% uncertainty for most of the parameter space. These constraints improve further when more realistic assumptions are made about the neutron star emission and spin, and when additional information about the source itself, such as its mass or distance, are incorporated.

  4. CCD Photometry and Radii of Eight Jupiter-Family Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weissman, Paul R.; Choi, Y. J.; Lowry, S. C.

    2008-09-01

    We are conducting a program of CCD photometry of Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) when they are far from the Sun, in order to image the inactive nucleus. The photometry is used to estimate the nucleus sizes and shapes, assuming a typical cometary albedo of 0.04 and a phase coefficient of 0.035 magnitudes/degree. We used the Palomar 5m telescope and Large Format Camera to search for 12 distant JFCs on September 25-26, 2006 (UT). Of the 12, two were not detected (79P, 143P) and two were active (74P, 116P) at distances of 4.54 AU and 4.72 AU from the Sun, respectively. Measured magnitudes and estimated mean radii for the remaining eight comets are shown in the Table below. We will discuss the implications of the latest measurements for the size distribution of JFC nuclei. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory with support from the NASA Planetary Astronomy Program.

  5. Baade-Wesselink radii for NGC 1866 Cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; Fischer, Philippe; Mateo, Mario; Madore, Barry F.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocities and CCD photometry suitable for a Baade-Wesselink analysis are now available for six short-period Cepheids (HV12198, HV12199, HV12202, HV12203, HV12204, and V4) in the LMC cluster NGC 1866. As a prerequisite for such an analysis, O-C diagrams have been constructed and examined for seven of the NGC 1866 Cepheids (HV12197, HV12198, HV12199, HV12200, HV12202, HV12203, and HV12204), yielding improved periods and estimates of the rate of period change in these coeval variables. One star, HV12198, shows possible evidence for period change, but the phase mismatch due to that change is small enough to have negligible effect on its Baade-Wesselink radius. The computed radii are in good agreement with the Baade-Wesselink, theoretical and cluster/association period-radius relations of Fernie (1984) and the Galactic relation of Coulson and Caldwell (1989). The Flower (1977) color-effective temperature relation and the Becker et al. (1977) mass-luminosity relation lead to mean masses of 4.9 + or - 0.5 solar masses and 4.6 + or - 0.5 solar masses for the respective metallicities of (Y,Z) = (0.0273,0.0016) and (0.026,0.02). Pulsation constants are also computed for these stars.

  6. Possible radii of compact stars: A relativistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalam, Mehedi; Hossein, Sk Monowar; Molla, Sajahan

    2016-11-01

    The inner structure of compact stars is checked from theoretical as well as observational points of view. In this paper, we determine the possible radii of six compact stars: two binary millisecond pulsars, namely PSR J1614-2230 and PSR J1903+327, studied by [P. B. Demorest, T. Pennucci, S. M. Ransom, M. S. E. Roberts and W. T. Hessels, Nature 467, 1081 (2010)] and four X-ray binaries, namely Cen X-3, SMC X-1, Vela X-1 and Her X-1 studied by [M. L. Rawls et al., Astrophys. J. 730, 25 (2011)]. Interestingly, we see that density of the star does not vanishes at the boundary though it is maximum at the center which implies that these compact stars may be treated as strange stars rather than neutron stars. We propose a stiff equation of state (EoS) relating to pressure with matter density. We also obtain compactness (u) and surface redshift (Zs) for the above-mentioned stars and compare it with the recent observational data.

  7. Baade-Wesselink radii for NGC 1866 Cepheids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, Patrick; Welch, Douglas L.; Fischer, Philippe; Mateo, Mario; Madore, Barry F.

    1991-01-01

    Radial velocities and CCD photometry suitable for a Baade-Wesselink analysis are now available for six short-period Cepheids (HV12198, HV12199, HV12202, HV12203, HV12204, and V4) in the LMC cluster NGC 1866. As a prerequisite for such an analysis, O-C diagrams have been constructed and examined for seven of the NGC 1866 Cepheids (HV12197, HV12198, HV12199, HV12200, HV12202, HV12203, and HV12204), yielding improved periods and estimates of the rate of period change in these coeval variables. One star, HV12198, shows possible evidence for period change, but the phase mismatch due to that change is small enough to have negligible effect on its Baade-Wesselink radius. The computed radii are in good agreement with the Baade-Wesselink, theoretical and cluster/association period-radius relations of Fernie (1984) and the Galactic relation of Coulson and Caldwell (1989). The Flower (1977) color-effective temperature relation and the Becker et al. (1977) mass-luminosity relation lead to mean masses of 4.9 + or - 0.5 solar masses and 4.6 + or - 0.5 solar masses for the respective metallicities of (Y,Z) = (0.0273,0.0016) and (0.026,0.02). Pulsation constants are also computed for these stars.

  8. Bonded radii and the contraction of the electron density of the oxygen atom by bonded interactions.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Gerald V; Ross, Nancy L; Cox, David F; Rosso, Kevin M; Iversen, Bo B; Spackman, Mark A

    2013-02-21

    The bonded radii for more than 700 bonded pairs of atoms, comprising more than 50 oxide crystals, extracted from experimental and theoretical electron density distributions, are averaged and compared with the ionic radii for first, second, and third row atoms. At odds with the assumption of a "fixed" ionic radius of 1.40 Å for the oxide anion, the bonded radius for the anion, r(b)(O), decreases systematically from 1.40 to 0.65 Å as the electron density distribution of the atom is progressively polarized and contracted by its bonded interactions. The radii for the more electropositive metal atoms agree with the ionic radii when the electron density distribution of the anion is largely unpolarized by its bonded interactions. However, those for the more electronegative metal atoms are progressively larger than the ionic radii as the electron density distribution of the anion is progressively polarized and contracted along the bond vectors with decreasing bond length. The progressive decrease of r(b)(O) indicates that the compilation of sets of ionic radii, based on a fixed radius for the oxide anion, is problematic and impacts the accuracy of the ionic radii for the metal atoms. The assumption of a "fixed" radius for the anion, made in the derivation of sets of radii, not only results in unrealistic negative ionic radii for the more electronegative atoms but also in ionic radii that are as much as 0.5 Å smaller than the bonded radii, particularly for the more electronegative M atoms. The lack of agreement between the ionic and the bonded radii for the more shared bonded interactions is ascribed to the progressive increase in the polarization and contraction of the electron density of the oxide anion by the bonded interactions with a concomitant decrease in the radius of the anion, a factor that was largely neglected in the compilation of the ionic radii for fluoride, oxide, sulfide, and nitride crystals. The close agreement of the bonded radii and procrystal bonded

  9. Charge-ordering transitions without charge differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Yundi; Pardo, Victor; Pickett, Warren

    2013-03-01

    The distorted perovskite nickelate system RNiO3 (R=rare earth except La) undergoes a metal-insulator transition (MIT) at a temperature that varies smoothly with the R ionic radius. This MIT is accompanied by structural transition which leads to two inequivalent Ni sites in the cell, and has been explained by charge ordering (CO): charge is transferred between the Ni1 and Ni2 sites in a long-range ordered fashion. Experimental data on core binding energies, ionic radii, and Mossbauer shifts are interpreted in terms of Ni cation charges of 3 +/- δ with, for example, δ ~ 0.3 for YNiO3. Making use of first principles DFT results and a new approach not invoking integration of the charge density, we find[2] that the Ni 3 d occupation is identical (to high accuracy) for the two Ni sites. We also present results for other compounds (La2VCuO6, YNiO3, CaFeO3, AgNiO2, V4O7), all of which have distinct ``charge states'' that have identical 3 d occupation. This quantitative procedure will be discussed and some implications will be outlined. DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-04ER46111 and Ramon y Cajal Program

  10. MASSES, RADII, AND CLOUD PROPERTIES OF THE HR 8799 PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard E-mail: dsaumon@lanl.gov E-mail: andrew.ackerman@nasa.gov E-mail: freedman@darkstar.arc.nasa.gov

    2012-08-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Some studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here, we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against observations of field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike some previous studies, we require mutually consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure thus yields plausible values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends, including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition-some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to whether or not we include the H- and the K-band spectrum in our analysis. Solutions for planets c and d are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that, like in L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present an exploratory evolution calculation that accounts for this effect. Finally we recompute the bolometric luminosity of all three planets.

  11. Galaxy Structure: Core Radii, and Central Mass Deficits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, A. W.; Trujillo, I.; Erwin, P.

    2004-05-01

    We investigate the nuclear and global structure of elliptical galaxies, and the apparent disparity between the Nuker and Sérsic light-profile models. We show that the so-called ``power-law" galaxies in fact have Sérsic r1/n profiles over their entire observed radial range. Consequently, only three (Sérsic-profile) parameters are required to simultaneously describe both the inner (HST-resolved) and outer profiles of low-luminosity (M > -20.5 B-mag) elliptical galaxies. We also find that ``core galaxies" have Sérsic profiles with a (partially evacuated) single power-law core. We have developed a modified (5-parameter) Sérsic profile with a power-law core to model the complete radial extent of luminous galaxies with cores. In addition to quantifying the global stellar distribution in these systems, we have derived new estimates of their core radii and other central properties. Comparison of the central stellar deficits with the galaxies' black hole masses suggests that the number of (dissipationless) major mergers that have produced luminous elliptical galaxies is around 1-2, rather than 8-10, which agrees with theory and implies that the galactic merger history of the Universe is roughly an order of magnitude less violent than previous observational analyses had suggested. Support for proposal number HST-AR-09927.01-A was provided by NASA through a grant from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  12. THE OBSERVATIONAL AND THEORETICAL TIDAL RADII OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IN M87

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Sills, Alison; Harris, William E.

    2012-02-10

    Globular clusters have linear sizes (tidal radii) which theory tells us are determined by their masses and by the gravitational potential of their host galaxy. To explore the relationship between observed and expected radii, we utilize the globular cluster population of the Virgo giant M87. Unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 are used to measure the effective and limiting radii of approximately 2000 globular clusters. To compare with these observations, we simulate a globular cluster population that has the same characteristics as the observed M87 cluster population. Placing these simulated clusters in the well-studied tidal field of M87, the orbit of each cluster is solved and the theoretical tidal radius of each cluster is determined. We compare the predicted relationship between cluster size and projected galactocentric distance to observations. We find that for an isotropic distribution of cluster velocities, theoretical tidal radii are approximately equal to observed limiting radii for R{sub gc} < 10 kpc. However, the isotropic simulation predicts a steep increase in cluster size at larger radii, which is not observed in large galaxies beyond the Milky Way. To minimize the discrepancy between theory and observations, we explore the effects of orbital anisotropy on cluster sizes, and suggest a possible orbital anisotropy profile for M87 which yields a better match between theory and observations. Finally, we suggest future studies which will establish a stronger link between theoretical tidal radii and observed radii.

  13. Open Descendants of U(2N) Orbifolds at Rational Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellekens, A. N.; Sousa, N.

    We construct explicitly the open descendants of some exceptional automorphism invariants of U(2N) orbifolds. We focus on the case N=p1×p2, p1 and p2 prime, and on the automorphisms of the diagonal and charge conjugation invariants that exist for these values of N. These correspond to orbifolds of the circle with radius R2=2p1/p2. For each automorphism invariant we find two consistent Klein bottles, and for each Klein bottle we find a complete (and probably unique) set of boundary states. The two Klein bottles are in each case related to each other by simple currents, but surprisingly for the automorphism of the charge conjugation invariant neither of the Klein bottle choices is the canonical (symmetric) one.

  14. Masses, Radii, and Cloud Properties of the HR 8799 Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark S.; Saumon, Didier; Cushing, Michael; Ackerman, Andrew S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Freedman, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The near-infrared colors of the planets directly imaged around the A star HR 8799 are much redder than most field brown dwarfs of the same effective temperature. Previous theoretical studies of these objects have compared the photometric and limited spectral data of the planets to the predictions of various atmosphere and evolution models and concluded that the atmospheres of planets b, c, and d are unusually cloudy or have unusual cloud properties. Most studies have also found that the inferred radii of some or all of the planets disagree with expectations of standard giant planet evolution models. Here we compare the available data to the predictions of our own set of atmospheric and evolution models that have been extensively tested against field L and T dwarfs, including the reddest L dwarfs. Unlike almost all previous studies we specify mutually self-consistent choices for effective temperature, gravity, cloud properties, and planetary radius. This procedure yields plausible and self-consistent values for the masses, effective temperatures, and cloud properties of all three planets. We find that the cloud properties of the HR 8799 planets are in fact not unusual but rather follow previously recognized trends including a gravity dependence on the temperature of the L to T spectral transition, some reasons for which we discuss. We find that the inferred mass of planet b is highly sensitive to the H and K band spectrum. Solutions for planets c and particularly d are less certain but are consistent with the generally accepted constraints on the age of the primary star and orbital dynamics. We also confirm that as for L and T dwarfs and solar system giant planets, non-equilibrium chemistry driven by atmospheric mixing is also important for these objects. Given the preponderance of data suggesting that the L to T spectral type transition is gravity dependent, we present a new evolution calculation that predicts cooling tracks on the near-infrared color

  15. Accurate Empirical Radii and Masses of Planets and Their Host Stars with Gaia Parallaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, Keivan G.; Collins, Karen A.; Gaudi, B. Scott

    2017-03-01

    We present empirical measurements of the radii of 116 stars that host transiting planets. These radii are determined using only direct observables—the bolometric flux at Earth, the effective temperature, and the parallax provided by the Gaia first data release—and thus are virtually model independent, with extinction being the only free parameter. We also determine each star’s mass using our newly determined radius and the stellar density, a virtually model independent quantity itself from previously published transit analyses. These stellar radii and masses are in turn used to redetermine the transiting-planet radii and masses, again using only direct observables. The median uncertainties on the stellar radii and masses are 8% and 30%, respectively, and the resulting uncertainties on the planet radii and masses are 9% and 22%, respectively. These accuracies are generally larger than previously published model-dependent precisions of 5% and 6% on the planet radii and masses, respectively, but the newly determined values are purely empirical. We additionally report radii for 242 stars hosting radial-velocity (non-transiting) planets, with a median achieved accuracy of ≈2%. Using our empirical stellar masses we verify that the majority of putative “retired A stars” in the sample are indeed more massive than ˜1.2 {M}⊙ . Most importantly, the bolometric fluxes and angular radii reported here for a total of 498 planet host stars—with median accuracies of 1.7% and 1.8%, respectively—serve as a fundamental data set to permit the re-determination of transiting-planet radii and masses with the Gaia second data release to ≈3% and ≈5% accuracy, better than currently published precisions, and determined in an entirely empirical fashion.

  16. Bluues: a program for the analysis of the electrostatic properties of proteins based on generalized Born radii

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation and its linear approximation have been widely used to describe biomolecular electrostatics. Generalized Born (GB) models offer a convenient computational approximation for the more fundamental approach based on the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, and allows estimation of pairwise contributions to electrostatic effects in the molecular context. Results We have implemented in a single program most common analyses of the electrostatic properties of proteins. The program first computes generalized Born radii, via a surface integral and then it uses generalized Born radii (using a finite radius test particle) to perform electrostic analyses. In particular the ouput of the program entails, depending on user's requirement: 1) the generalized Born radius of each atom; 2) the electrostatic solvation free energy; 3) the electrostatic forces on each atom (currently in a dvelopmental stage); 4) the pH-dependent properties (total charge and pH-dependent free energy of folding in the pH range -2 to 18; 5) the pKa of all ionizable groups; 6) the electrostatic potential at the surface of the molecule; 7) the electrostatic potential in a volume surrounding the molecule; Conclusions Although at the expense of limited flexibility the program provides most common analyses with requirement of a single input file in PQR format. The results obtained are comparable to those obtained using state-of-the-art Poisson-Boltzmann solvers. A Linux executable with example input and output files is provided as supplementary material. PMID:22536964

  17. The Masses and Radii of the Eclipsing Binary zeta Aurigae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Philip D.; Harper, Graham M.; Brown, Alexander; Hummel, Christian A.

    1996-11-01

    stellar flux plus an interstellar extinction model to the flux-calibrated GHRS data. We find MK = 5.8±0.2 Msun, MB = 4.8±0.2 Msun, RK = 148±3 Rsun, and RB = 4.5±0.3 Rsun for the masses and radii of the ζ Aur stars. We determine the distance to ζ Aur to be 261±3 pc. Additionally, we refine the stellar parameters of the B star secondary presented in the 1995 spectroscopic study of Bennett, Brown, & Linsky. We also determine the effective temperature of the K star primary using values of the bolometric flux, angular diameter, and interstellar extinction derived in this study. The positions of the ζ Aur stars on the theoretical H-R diagram are compared to current evolutionary model tracks, and the resulting good agreement provides a strong check of the internal self-consistency of this analysis and the accuracy of the theoretical models. The ζ Aurigae stars are confirmed to be coeval with an age of 80±15 Myr.

  18. Expected oscillation parameters for red giants from dynamical masses and radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Themeßl, Nathalie; Hekker, Saskia

    2017-09-01

    Stellar masses and radii of stars with stochastic (solar-like) oscillations can be derived using asteroseismic scaling relations. Here, we predict the asteroseismic observables using the dynamical masses and radii from red-giants in eclipsing binary systems. We show that the predicted frequency of maximum oscillation power (νmax) is generally lower than the observed one, while the predicted large frequency separation (Δν) is in most cases larger than the observed value. This shows that both the scaling relations for Δν and νmax used with solar references contribute to the observed differences between dynamical and asteroseismically determined masses and radii.

  19. Interaction radii of proton-rich radioactive nuclei at A=60-80

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, G. F.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Villari, A. C. C.; Mittig, W.; Casandjian, J. M.; Lewitowicz, M.; Chartier, M.; Hirata, D.; Angelique, J. C.; Orr, N. A.; Audi, G.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Donzeaud, C.; MacCormick, M.; Stephan, C.; Suomijarvi, T.; Tassan-Got, L.; Gillibert, A.

    1998-12-21

    The interaction radii of proton-rich, radioactive {sub 31}Ga, {sub 32}Ge, {sub 33}As, {sub 34}Se, {sub 35}Br isotopes were measured using the direct method. The secondary beams were produced using a {sup 78}Kr primary beam of 73 MeV/nucleon in conjunction with SISSI and the SPEG spectrometers at GANIL. Most elements show reduced radii which vary with N, with a minimum around N=36-38. The experimental reduced radii are compared to theoretical values obtained from Glauber reaction cross-section calculations based on Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) nuclear densities.

  20. Radii broadening due to molecular collision in focused ion beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komuro, Masanori

    1988-01-01

    Point exposures of poly(methyl methacrylate) resist are carried out with focused ion beams of Si++ and Au++ from a liquid AuSi ion source in order to obtain a current density distribution in the probe. All the distributions are composed of a main Gaussian distribution and a long tail dependent on r-3.3 (r means radial distance). The magnitude of this tail increases with the increase in ambient pressure of the ion-drifting space. When the probe is steered at the corner of deflection field, two types of clear ghost patterns appear: (1) circular patterns and (2) lines trailing from the main spot toward the deflection center. It is revealed that they are produced by exposures to ions or energetic neutrals generated with charge transfer collision of the primary ions with residual gas molecules. It is shown that the long tail in the current density distribution is also due to scattering with the residual gas molecules.

  1. Radii, shapes, and topography of the satellites of Uranus from limb coordinates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P. C.

    1988-01-01

    The present use of limb coordinates to ascertain radii, shape and local topographic characteristics for the five large Uranian satellites directly measured satellite ellipsoidal shapes, determining radii with subpixel accuracy. While Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon are spherical, Miranda and Ariel are noted to be ellipsoids whose equatorial bulges agree with previously determined mean densities. Miranda's topography exhibits substantial deformation of cratered terrain and the younger coronae, as well as uplift and complex faulting at coronae margins.

  2. Confined hydrogen atom by the Lagrange-mesh method: energies, mean radii, and dynamic polarizabilities.

    PubMed

    Baye, D; Sen, K D

    2008-08-01

    The Lagrange-mesh method is an approximate variational calculation which resembles a mesh calculation because of the use of a Gauss quadrature. The hydrogen atom confined in a sphere is studied with Lagrange-Legendre basis functions vanishing at the center and surface of the sphere. For various confinement radii, accurate energies and mean radii are obtained with small numbers of mesh points, as well as dynamic dipole polarizabilities. The wave functions satisfy the cusp condition with 11-digit accuracy.

  3. Near-global survey of effective droplet radii in liquid water clouds using ISCCP data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Qingyan; Rossow, William B.; Lacis, Andrew B.

    1994-01-01

    A global survey of cloud particle size variations can provide crucial constraints on how cloud processes determine cloud liquid water contents and their variation with temperature, and further, may indicate the magnitude of aerosol effects on clouds. A method, based on a complete radiative transfer model for Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)-measured radiances, is described for retrieving cloud particle radii in liquid water clouds from satellite data currently available from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. Results of sensitivity tests and validation studies provide error estimates. AVHRR data from NOAA-9 and NOAA-10 have been analyzed for January, April, July and October in 1987 and 1988. The results of this first survey reveal systematic continental and maritime differences and hemispheric contrasts that are indicative of the effects of associated aerosol concentration differences: cloud droplet radii in continental water clouds are about 2-3 micrometers smaller than in marine clouds, and droplet radii are about 1 micrometer smaller in marine clouds of the Northern Hemisphere than in the Southern Hemisphere. The height dependencies of cloud droplet radii in continental and marine clouds are also consistent with differences in the vertical profiles of aerosol concentration. Significant seasonal and diurnal variations of effective droplet radii are also observed, particularly at lower latitudes. Variations of the relationship between cloud optical thickness and droplet radii may indicate variations in cloud microphysical regimes.

  4. The strongest gravitational lenses. III. The order statistics of the largest Einstein radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waizmann, J.-C.; Redlich, M.; Meneghetti, M.; Bartelmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    Context. The Einstein radius of a gravitational lens is a key characteristic. It encodes information about decisive quantities such as halo mass, concentration, triaxiality, and orientation with respect to the observer. Therefore, the largest Einstein radii can potentially be utilised to test the predictions of the ΛCDM model. Aims: Hitherto, studies have focussed on the single largest observed Einstein radius. We extend those studies by employing order statistics to formulate exclusion criteria based on the n largest Einstein radii and apply these criteria to the strong lensing analysis of 12 MACS clusters at z> 0.5. Methods: We obtain the order statistics of Einstein radii by a Monte Carlo approach, based on the semi-analytic modelling of the halo population on the past lightcone. After sampling the order statistics, we fit a general extreme value distribution to the first-order distribution, which allows us to derive analytic relations for the order statistics of the Einstein radii. Results: We find that the Einstein radii of the 12 MACS clusters are not in conflict with the ΛCDM expectations. Our exclusion criteria indicate that, in order to exhibit tension with the concordance model, one would need to observe approximately twenty Einstein radii with θeff ≳ 30″, ten with θeff ≳ 35″, five with θeff ≳ 42″, or one with θeff ≳ 74″ in the redshift range 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1.0 on the full sky (assuming a source redshift of zs = 2). Furthermore, we find that, with increasing order, the haloes with the largest Einstein radii are on average less aligned along the line-of-sight and less triaxial. In general, the cumulative distribution functions steepen for higher orders, giving them better constraining power. Conclusions: A framework that allows the individual and joint order distributions of the n-largest Einstein radii to be derived is presented. From a statistical point of view, we do not see any evidence of an Einstein ring problem even for the

  5. Charged massive scalar field configurations supported by a spherically symmetric charged reflecting shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-12-01

    The physical properties of bound-state charged massive scalar field configurations linearly coupled to a spherically symmetric charged reflecting shell are studied analytically. To that end, we solve the Klein-Gordon wave equation for a static scalar field of proper mass μ, charge coupling constant q, and spherical harmonic index l in the background of a charged shell of radius R and electric charge Q. It is proved that the dimensionless inequality μR <√{(qQ) 2 -(l + 1 / 2) 2 } provides an upper bound on the regime of existence of the composed charged-spherical-shell-charged-massive-scalar-field configurations. Interestingly, we explicitly show that the discrete spectrum of shell radii {Rn(μ,qQ,l)}n = 0 n = ∞ which can support the static bound-state charged massive scalar field configurations can be determined analytically. We confirm our analytical results by numerical computations.

  6. Radii of neutron drops probed via the neutron skin thickness of nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, P. W.; Gandolfi, S.

    2016-10-10

    Multineutron systems are crucial to understanding the physics of neutron-rich nuclei and neutron stars. Neutron drops, neutrons confined in an external field, are investigated systematically in both nonrelativistic and relativistic density functional theories and with ab initio calculations. Here, we demonstrate a new strong linear correlation, which is universal in the realm of mean-field models, between the rms radii of neutron drops and the neutron skin thickness of 208 Pb and 48 Ca , i.e., the difference between the neutron and proton rms radii of a nucleus. This correlation can be used to deduce the radii of neutron drops frommore » the measured neutron skin thickness in a model-independent way, and the radii obtained for neutron drops can provide a useful constraint for realistic three-neutron forces, due to its high quality. Furthermore, we present a new correlation between the slope L of the symmetry energy and the radii of neutron drops, and provide the first validation of such a correlation by using density-functional models and ab initio calculations. These newly established correlations, together with more precise measurements of the neutron skin thicknesses of 208 Pb and 48 Ca and/or accurate determinations of L , will have an enduring impact on the understanding of multineutron interactions, neutron-rich nuclei, neutron stars, etc.« less

  7. Radii of neutron drops probed via the neutron skin thickness of nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, P. W.; Gandolfi, S.

    2016-10-10

    Multineutron systems are crucial to understanding the physics of neutron-rich nuclei and neutron stars. Neutron drops, neutrons confined in an external field, are investigated systematically in both nonrelativistic and relativistic density functional theories and with ab initio calculations. Here, we demonstrate a new strong linear correlation, which is universal in the realm of mean-field models, between the rms radii of neutron drops and the neutron skin thickness of 208 Pb and 48 Ca , i.e., the difference between the neutron and proton rms radii of a nucleus. This correlation can be used to deduce the radii of neutron drops from the measured neutron skin thickness in a model-independent way, and the radii obtained for neutron drops can provide a useful constraint for realistic three-neutron forces, due to its high quality. Furthermore, we present a new correlation between the slope L of the symmetry energy and the radii of neutron drops, and provide the first validation of such a correlation by using density-functional models and ab initio calculations. These newly established correlations, together with more precise measurements of the neutron skin thicknesses of 208 Pb and 48 Ca and/or accurate determinations of L , will have an enduring impact on the understanding of multineutron interactions, neutron-rich nuclei, neutron stars, etc.

  8. Dynamical instability of a charged gaseous cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, M.; Mumtaz, Saadia

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss dynamical instability of a charged dissipative cylinder under radial oscillations. For this purpose, we follow the Eulerian and Lagrangian approaches to evaluate linearized perturbed equation of motion. We formulate perturbed pressure in terms of adiabatic index by applying the conservation of baryon numbers. A variational principle is established to determine characteristic frequencies of oscillation which define stability criteria for a gaseous cylinder. We compute the ranges of radii as well as adiabatic index for both charged and uncharged cases in Newtonian and post-Newtonian limits. We conclude that dynamical instability occurs in the presence of charge if the gaseous cylinder contracts to the radius R*.

  9. Radiation of charge bunches revolving around a metamaterial sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, Mahmoud; Shokri, Babak

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of a relativistic uniformly rotating charge with a metamaterial sphere in the microwave range. The charge revolves around the sphere at the equatorial plane. The root mean square of the radiation field for different types of metamaterial spheres is presented and its dependence on some usual parameters is considered. They demonstrate that the radiation field is concentrated near the surface and shifts towards the centre by increasing charge energy for conventional and double-negative metamaterials. The stopping and deflection forces acting on the charge are also calculated. Finally, we generalize these results to a line charge bunch. This study has potential application in the area of high-power radiation sources and accelerators.

  10. Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy of extremely neutron-deficient barium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, S. A.; Evans, D. E.; Griffith, J. A. R.; Eastham, D. A.; Groves, J.; Smith, J. R. H.; Tolfree, D. W. L.; Warner, D. D.; Billowes, J.; Grant, I. S.; Walker, P. M.

    1988-09-01

    Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy (FACS) has been used to measure the nuclear mean square radii and moments of the extremely neutron-deficient isotopes 120-124Ba. At N=65 an abrupt change in nuclear mean square charge radii is observed which can be understood in terms of the occupation of the spin-orbit partner g7/25/2[413] neutron and g9/29/2[404] proton orbitals and the consequent enhancement of the n-p interaction.

  11. Gray and multigroup radiation transport through 3D binary stochastic media with different sphere radii distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Olson, Gordon Lee

    2016-12-06

    Here, gray and multigroup radiation is transported through 3D media consisting of spheres randomly placed in a uniform background. Comparisons are made between using constant radii spheres and three different distributions of sphere radii. Because of the computational cost of 3D calculations, only the lowest angle order, n=1, is tested. If the mean chord length is held constant, using different radii distributions makes little difference. This is true for both gray and multigroup solutions. 3D transport solutions are compared to 2D and 1D solutions with the same mean chord lengths. 2D disk and 3D sphere media give solutions that aremore » nearly identical while 1D slab solutions are fundamentally different.« less

  12. Gray and multigroup radiation transport through 3D binary stochastic media with different sphere radii distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Gordon Lee

    2016-12-06

    Here, gray and multigroup radiation is transported through 3D media consisting of spheres randomly placed in a uniform background. Comparisons are made between using constant radii spheres and three different distributions of sphere radii. Because of the computational cost of 3D calculations, only the lowest angle order, n=1, is tested. If the mean chord length is held constant, using different radii distributions makes little difference. This is true for both gray and multigroup solutions. 3D transport solutions are compared to 2D and 1D solutions with the same mean chord lengths. 2D disk and 3D sphere media give solutions that are nearly identical while 1D slab solutions are fundamentally different.

  13. Interaction radii of proton-rich radioactive nuclei at A=60{endash}80

    SciTech Connect

    Lima, G.F.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Villari, A.C.; Lichtenthaler, R.; Villari, A.C.; Mittig, W.; Chartier, M.; Casandjian, J.M.; Lewitowicz, M.; Ostrowski, A.N.; Hirata, D.; Angelique, J.C.; Orr, N.A.; Audi, G.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Donzeaud, C.; MacCormick, M.; Stephan, C.; Suomijarvi, T.; Tassan-Got, L.; Gillibert, A.; Chartier, M.; Morrissey, D.J.; Sherrill, B.M.; Ostrowski, A.N.; Vieira, D.J.; Wouters, J.M.

    1998-12-01

    The interaction radii of proton-rich, radioactive {sub 31}Ga,thinsp{sub 32}Ge,thinsp{sub 33}As,thinsp{sub 34}Se,thinsp{sub 35}Br isotopes were measured using the direct method. The secondary beams were produced using a {sup 78}Kr primary beam of 73 MeV/nucleon in conjunction with SISSI and the SPEG spectrometers at GANIL. Most elements show reduced radii which vary with N, with a minimum around N=36{endash}38. The experimental reduced radii are compared to theoretical values obtained from Glauber reaction cross-section calculations based on Relativistic Mean Field (RMF) nuclear densities. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Gray and multigroup radiation transport through 3D binary stochastic media with different sphere radii distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, Gordon L.

    2017-03-01

    Gray and multigroup radiation is transported through 3D media consisting of spheres randomly placed in a uniform background. Comparisons are made between using constant radii spheres and three different distributions of sphere radii. Because of the computational cost of 3D calculations, only the lowest angle order, n=1, is tested. If the mean chord length is held constant, using different radii distributions makes little difference. This is true for both gray and multigroup solutions. 3D transport solutions are compared to 2D and 1D solutions with the same mean chord lengths. 2D disk and 3D sphere media give solutions that are nearly identical while 1D slab solutions are fundamentally different.

  15. A new determination of radii and limb parameters for Pluto and Charon from mutual event lightcurves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Binzel, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years Pluto-Charon mutual events have yielded progressively more accurate estimates of Charon's orbital elements and the radii of Pluto and Charon (e.g., Buie, Tholen, and Horne, 1992). Analysis of the 1988 stellar occultation by Pluto indicates a radius for Pluto that is about 4%, or 50 km, larger than the mutual event radius of 1151 km. One possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the mutual event modeling treats Pluto and Charon as uniformly bright disks. If they are limb-darkened, the mutual event fits could underestimate their radii. In this paper we use an independent mutual event data set (Young and Binzel, 1992) to fit for Pluto and Charon's radii in a manner independent of either object's limb profile or albedo distribution. Our least-squares solution indicates that Pluto's radius is 1164 +/- 22.9 km and Charon's radius is 621 +/- 20.6 km.

  16. A new determination of radii and limb parameters for Pluto and Charon from mutual event lightcurves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Binzel, Richard P.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past several years Pluto-Charon mutual events have yielded progressively more accurate estimates of Charon's orbital elements and the radii of Pluto and Charon (e.g., Buie, Tholen, and Horne, 1992). Analysis of the 1988 stellar occultation by Pluto indicates a radius for Pluto that is about 4%, or 50 km, larger than the mutual event radius of 1151 km. One possible explanation for the discrepancy is that the mutual event modeling treats Pluto and Charon as uniformly bright disks. If they are limb-darkened, the mutual event fits could underestimate their radii. In this paper we use an independent mutual event data set (Young and Binzel, 1992) to fit for Pluto and Charon's radii in a manner independent of either object's limb profile or albedo distribution. Our least-squares solution indicates that Pluto's radius is 1164 +/- 22.9 km and Charon's radius is 621 +/- 20.6 km.

  17. EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTIES IN STELLAR MODEL PARAMETERS ON ESTIMATED MASSES AND RADII OF SINGLE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Sarbani; Verner, Graham A.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne E-mail: gav@bison.ph.bham.ac.uk E-mail: y.p.elsworth@bham.ac.uk

    2012-02-10

    Accurate and precise values of radii and masses of stars are needed to correctly estimate properties of extrasolar planets. We examine the effect of uncertainties in stellar model parameters on estimates of the masses, radii, and average densities of solar-type stars. We find that in the absence of seismic data on solar-like oscillations, stellar masses can be determined to a greater accuracy than either stellar radii or densities; but to get reasonably accurate results the effective temperature, log g, and metallicity must be measured to high precision. When seismic data are available, stellar density is the most well-determined property, followed by radius, with mass the least well-determined property. Uncertainties in stellar convection, quantified in terms of uncertainties in the value of the mixing length parameter, cause the most significant errors in the estimates of stellar properties.

  18. Energy losses in thermally cycled optical fibers constrained in small bend radii

    SciTech Connect

    Guild, Eric; Morelli, Gregg

    2012-09-23

    High energy laser pulses were fired into a 365μm diameter fiber optic cable constrained in small radii of curvature bends, resulting in a catastrophic failure. Q-switched laser pulses from a flashlamp pumped, Nd:YAG laser were injected into the cables, and the spatial intensity profile at the exit face of the fiber was observed using an infrared camera. The transmission of the radiation through the tight radii resulted in an asymmetric intensity profile with one half of the fiber core having a higher peak-to-average energy distribution. Prior to testing, the cables were thermally conditioned while constrained in the small radii of curvature bends. Single-bend, double-bend, and U-shaped eometries were tested to characterize various cable routing scenarios.

  19. Fast Moving Average Recursive Least Mean Square Fit

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    due to reduced computation could make the moving average LMSF procedure competitive for many real-time processing applications. 15. SUBJECT TERMS...make the moving average LMSF procedure competitive for many real-time processing applications. ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION This memorandum was

  20. Mean-square error due to gradiometer field measuring devices.

    PubMed

    Hatsell, C P

    1991-06-01

    Gradiometers use spatial common mode magnetic field rejection to reduce interference from distant sources. They also introduce distortion that can be severe, rendering experimental data difficult to interpret. Attempts to recover the measured magnetic field from the gradiometer output will be plagued by the nonexistence of a spatial function for deconvolution (except for first-order gradiometers), and by the high-pass nature of the spatial transform that emphasizes high spatial frequency noise. Goals of a design for a facility for measuring biomagnetic fields should be an effective shielded room and a field detector employing a first-order gradiometer.

  1. Series-coupled double-ring resonators with asymmetric radii for use in channelizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xiaowen; Zhu, Dan; Zhao, Yongjiu; Pan, Shilong

    2014-10-01

    A series-coupled double-ring resonator with asymmetric radii is analyzed to achieve a filter response with a large free spectral range (FSR), a narrow passband of tens of MHz and a small shape factor simultaneously for use in microwave photonic channelizer. By introducing difference to the two radii, based on the vernier effect, the FSR of the resonator filter can be extended while maintaining the narrow passband and the small shape factor. A filter response with a FSR of 29.444 GHz, a 3-dB bandwidth of 96 MHz and a shape factor of 3.17 is realized by numerical analysis.

  2. On the Radii of Brown Dwarfs Measured with AKARI Near-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2013-04-01

    We derive the radii of 16 brown dwarfs observed by AKARI using their parallaxes and the ratios of observed to model fluxes. We find that the brown dwarf radius ranges between 0.64-1.13 RJ with an average radius of 0.83 RJ . We find a trend in the relation between radii and T eff; the radius is at a minimum at T eff ~ 1600 K, which corresponds to the spectral types of mid- to late-L. The result is interpreted by a combination of radius-mass and radius-age relations that are theoretically expected for brown dwarfs older than 108 yr.

  3. Neutrino Intensity Interferometry: Measuring Protoneutron Star Radii During Core-Collapse Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Warren P.; Kneller, James P.

    2017-08-01

    Intensity interferometry is a technique that has been used to measure the size of sources ranging from the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy ion collisions to the radii of stars. We investigate using the same technique to measure protoneutron star (PNS) radii with the neutrino signal received from a core-collapse supernovae. Using a full wave-packet analysis, including the neutrino mass for the first time, we derive criteria where the effect can be expected to provide the desired signal, and find that neutrinos from the next Galactic supernova should contain extractable PNS radius information.

  4. Charge-changing cross sections of Ne30, Na32,33 with a proton target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, A.; Moriguchi, T.; Ohtsubo, T.; Aoi, N.; Fang, D. Q.; Fukuda, N.; Fukuda, M.; Geissel, H.; Hachiuma, I.; Inabe, N.; Ishibashi, Y.; Ishimoto, S.; Ito, Y.; Izumikawa, T.; Kameda, D.; Kubo, T.; Kuboki, T.; Kusaka, K.; Lantz, M.; Ma, Y. G.; Mihara, M.; Miyashita, Y.; Momota, S.; Nagae, D.; Namihira, K.; Nishimura, D.; Ooishi, H.; Ohkuma, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Ohtake, M.; Ogawa, K.; Shimbara, Y.; Suda, T.; Sumikama, T.; Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, T.; Takechi, M.; Takeda, H.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, R.; Winkler, M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yanagisawa, Y.; Yasuda, Y.; Yoshinaga, K.; Yoshida, A.; Yoshida, K.

    2014-04-01

    The total charge-changing, charge pick-up, and partial charge-changing cross sections of very neutron-rich nuclei (Ne30, Na32,33) with a proton target have been measured at ˜240A MeV for the first time. We introduced the phenomenological correction factor in Glauber-model calculations for the total charge-changing cross sections with the proton target, and applied it to deduce the proton radii of these nuclei. For Ne30 and Na32, the neutron skin thicknesses of the nuclei were deduced by comparing the proton radii with the matter radii deduced from the interaction cross-section measurements. A significant thick neutron-skin has been observed for the nuclei. We also found that the charge pick-up cross sections are much larger than those in the systematics of stable nuclei.

  5. Responses of articular and epiphyseal cartilage zones of developing avian radii to estrone treatment and a 2-G environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negulesco, J. A.; Kossler, T.

    1978-01-01

    Histological measurements of radii from chickens exposed to estrone and hypergravity are reported. Female chicks at two weeks post-hatch were maintained for two weeks at earth gravity or 2 G with daily injections of 0.2 or 0.4 mg estrone. Animals were sacrificed after the last injection, and the radii were processed by described histological techniques. The results suggest that proximal and distal epiphyses of developing radii show different morphological responses to estrone and hypergravity.

  6. Responses of articular and epiphyseal cartilage zones of developing avian radii to estrone treatment and a 2-G environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Negulesco, J. A.; Kossler, T.

    1978-01-01

    Histological measurements of radii from chickens exposed to estrone and hypergravity are reported. Female chicks at two weeks post-hatch were maintained for two weeks at earth gravity or 2 G with daily injections of 0.2 or 0.4 mg estrone. Animals were sacrificed after the last injection, and the radii were processed by described histological techniques. The results suggest that proximal and distal epiphyses of developing radii show different morphological responses to estrone and hypergravity.

  7. Determination of mechanical properties of excised dog radii from lateral vibration experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, G. A.; Anliker, M.; Young, D. R.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental data which can be used as a guideline in developing a mathematical model for lateral vibrations of whole bone are reported. The study used wet and dry dog radii mounted in a cantilever configuration. Data are also given on the mechanical, geometric, and viscoelastic properties of bones.

  8. Relations among Five Radii of Circles in a Triangle, Its Sides and Other Segments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigler, Avi; Stupel, Moshe; Flores, Alfinio

    2017-01-01

    Students use GeoGebra to explore the mathematical relations among different radii of circles in a triangle (circumcircle, incircle, excircles) and the sides and other segments in the triangle. The more formal mathematical development of the relations that follows the explorations is based on known geometrical properties, different formulas…

  9. Investigation of Possible Electromagnetic Disturbances caused by Spacecraft-Plasma Interactions at 4 Radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okada, M.; Tsurutani, B. T.; Goldstein, G. E.; Matsumoto, H.; Brinca, A. L.; Kellogg, P. J.

    1995-01-01

    The proposed Small Solar Probe mission features a close approach to the sun with a perihelion of 4 radii. Carbon molecules emitted from the spacecraft's heat shield will become ionized by electron impact and photoionization. The newly created ions and electrons may generate electromagnetic and electrostatic plasma waves which are possible sources of interference with in-situ plasma measurements.

  10. Equation of state and radii of finite nuclei in the presence of a diffuse surface layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolomietz, V. M.; Lukyanov, S. V.; Sanzhur, A. I.; Shlomo, S.

    2017-05-01

    The definitions of nuclear surface and nuclear radii are considered within the Gibbs-Tolman-Rowlinson-Widom (GTW) approach. We demonstrate the nonmonotonic behavior of the nuclear equimolar radii, which is due to the shell effects in the chemical potential of finite nuclei. The direct variational method within the extended Thomas-Fermi approximation is used to establish the equation of state for finite nuclei. We have studied the influence of the polarization effect caused by the neutron excess on the particle density and the nuclear radii. This effect increases with the asymmetry parameter X and can be responsible for the appearance of large neutron halos in nuclei well away from the β stability line. We have performed new calculations of the A dependence of the radii R (A ) of nucleon distribution, which are based on the use of the experimental data for the nuclear binding energy. We demonstrate the presence of the quantum shell effects in R (A ) . We have analyzed the value of the neutron-skin thickness Δ rn p in the isotopes of the Na, Sn, and Pb nuclei within the GTW approach and show the appearance of nonmonotonic behavior of Δ rn p as a function of the neutron excess. We discuss the relative contributions to the neutron-skin thickness Δ rn p from the skin and the halo effects.

  11. The magnetic field of the equatorial magnetotail from 10 to 40 earth radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    A statistical study of IMP 6, 7, and 8 magnetotail magnetic field measurements near the equatorial plane reveals new information about various aspects of magnetospheric structure. More magnetic flux crosses the equatorial plane on the dawn and dusk flanks of the tail than near midnight, but no evidence is found for a dependence on the interplanetary magnetic field sector polarity. Field magnitudes within 3 earth radii of the equatorial plane near dawn are more than twice as large as those near dusk for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii. The frequency of occurrence of southward fields is greatest near midnight, and such fields are seen almost twice as often for Xsm = -20 to -10 earth radii as for Xsm beyond -20 earth radii. This latter result supports the idea that the midnight region of the tail between 10 and 20 is a special location where neutral lines are particularly apt to form. Such a neutral line will approach nearest the earth in the midnight and premidnight region, where substorms are thought to have their onset.

  12. Fitted Hanbury-Brown-Twiss radii versus space-time variances in flow-dominated models

    SciTech Connect

    Frodermann, Evan; Heinz, Ulrich; Lisa, Michael Annan

    2006-04-15

    The inability of otherwise successful dynamical models to reproduce the Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) radii extracted from two-particle correlations measured at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is known as the RHIC HBT Puzzle. Most comparisons between models and experiment exploit the fact that for Gaussian sources the HBT radii agree with certain combinations of the space-time widths of the source that can be directly computed from the emission function without having to evaluate, at significant expense, the two-particle correlation function. We here study the validity of this approach for realistic emission function models, some of which exhibit significant deviations from simple Gaussian behavior. By Fourier transforming the emission function, we compute the two-particle correlation function, and fit it with a Gaussian to partially mimic the procedure used for measured correlation functions. We describe a novel algorithm to perform this Gaussian fit analytically. We find that for realistic hydrodynamic models the HBT radii extracted from this procedure agree better with the data than the values previously extracted from the space-time widths of the emission function. Although serious discrepancies between the calculated and the measured HBT radii remain, we show that a more apples-to-apples comparison of models with data can play an important role in any eventually successful theoretical description of RHIC HBT data.

  13. The stellar accretion origin of stellar population gradients in massive galaxies at large radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Naab, Thorsten; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Davé, Romeel; Oser, Ludwig; Karabal, Emin

    2015-05-01

    We investigate the evolution of stellar population gradients from z = 2 to 0 in massive galaxies at large radii (r > 2Reff) using 10 cosmological zoom simulations of haloes with 6 × 1012 M⊙ < Mhalo < 2 × 1013 M⊙. The simulations follow metal cooling and enrichment from SNII, SNIa and asymptotic giant branch winds. We explore the differential impact of an empirical model for galactic winds that reproduces the mass-metallicity relation and its evolution with redshift. At larger radii the galaxies, for both models, become more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. In the wind model, fewer stars are accreted, but they are significantly more metal-poor resulting in steep global metallicity (<∇Zstars> = -0.35 dex dex-1) and colour (e.g. <∇g - r> = -0.13 dex dex-1) gradients in agreement with observations. In contrast, colour and metallicity gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations. Age gradients are in general mildly positive at z = 0 (<∇Agestars> = 0.04 dex dex-1) with significant differences between the models at higher redshift. We demonstrate that for the wind model, stellar accretion is steepening existing in situ metallicity gradients by about 0.2 dex by the present day and helps to match observed gradients of massive early-type galaxies at large radii. Colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. The effect of stellar migration of in situ formed stars to large radii is discussed. This study highlights the importance of stellar accretion for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii, which can provide important constraints for formation models.

  14. THE DEPENDENCE OF BROWN DWARF RADII ON ATMOSPHERIC METALLICITY AND CLOUDS: THEORY AND COMPARISON WITH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Burrows, Adam; Nampaisarn, Thane; Heng, Kevin E-mail: tnampais@astro.princeton.edu

    2011-07-20

    Employing realistic and consistent atmosphere boundary conditions, we have generated evolutionary models for brown dwarfs and very low mass stars (VLMs) for different atmospheric metallicities ([Fe/H]), with and without clouds. We find that the spread in radius at a given mass and age can be as large as {approx}10% to {approx}25%, with higher-metallicity, higher-cloud-thickness atmospheres resulting quite naturally in larger radii. For each 0.1 dex increase in [Fe/H], radii increase by {approx}1% to {approx}2.5%, depending upon the age and mass. We also find that, while for smaller masses and older ages brown dwarf radii decrease with increasing helium fraction (Y, as expected), for more massive brown dwarfs and a wide range of ages they increase with helium fraction. The increase in radius in going from Y = 0.25 to Y = 0.28 can be as large as {approx}0.025 R{sub J} ({approx}2.5%). Furthermore, we find that for VLMs an increase in atmospheric metallicity from 0.0 to 0.5 dex, increases radii by {approx}4%, and from -0.5 to 0.5 dex by {approx}10%. Therefore, we suggest that opacity due to higher metallicity might naturally account for the apparent radius anomalies in some eclipsing VLM systems. Ten to twenty-five percent variations in radius exceed errors stemming from uncertainties in the equation of state alone. This serves to emphasize that transit and eclipse measurements of brown dwarf radii constrain numerous effects collectively, importantly including the atmosphere and condensate cloud models, and not just the equation of state. At all times, one is testing a multi-parameter theory, and not a universal radius-mass relation.

  15. Effective Radii of Young, Massive Star Clusters in Two LEGUS Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryon, J. E.; Gallagher, J. S.; Smith, L. J.; Adamo, A.; Calzetti, D.; Bright, S. N.; Cignoni, M.; Cook, D. O.; Dale, D. A.; Elmegreen, B. E.; Fumagalli, M.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grasha, K.; Grebel, E. K.; Kim, H.; Messa, M.; Thilker, D.; Ubeda, L.

    2017-06-01

    We present a study of the effective (half-light) radii and other structural properties of a systematically selected sample of young, massive star clusters (≥5 × 103 {M}⊙ and ≤200 Myr) in two nearby spiral galaxies, NGC 628 and NGC 1313. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3/UVIS and archival ACS/WFC data obtained by the Legacy Extragalactic UV Survey (LEGUS), an HST Treasury Program. We measure effective radii with GALFIT, a two-dimensional image-fitting package, and with a new technique to estimate effective radii from the concentration index of observed clusters. The distribution of effective radii from both techniques spans ˜0.5-10 pc and peaks at 2-3 pc for both galaxies. We find slight positive correlations between effective radius and cluster age in both galaxies, but no significant relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance. Clusters in NGC 1313 display a mild increase in effective radius with cluster mass, but the trend disappears when the sample is divided into age bins. We show that the vast majority of the clusters in both galaxies are much older than their dynamical times, suggesting they are gravitationally bound objects. We find that about half of the clusters in NGC 628 are underfilling their Roche lobes, based on their Jacobi radii. Our results suggest that the young, massive clusters in NGC 628 and NGC 1313 are expanding, due to stellar mass loss or two-body relaxation, and are not significantly influenced by the tidal fields of their host galaxies. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program #13364.

  16. Absolute masses and radii determination in multiplanetary systems without stellar models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Mardling, R.; Barros, S. C. C.; Damiani, C.; Bruno, G.; Bonfils, X.; Deleuil, M.

    2015-11-01

    The masses and radii of extrasolar planets are key observables for understanding their interior, formation and evolution. While transit photometry and Doppler spectroscopy are used to measure the radii and masses respectively of planets relative to those of their host star, estimates for the true values of these quantities rely on theoretical models of the host star which are known to suffer from systematic differences with observations. When a system is composed of more than two bodies, extra information is contained in the transit photometry and radial velocity data. Velocity information (finite speed-of-light, Doppler) is needed to break the Newtonian MR-3 degeneracy. We performed a photodynamical modelling of the two-planet transiting system Kepler-117 using all photometric and spectroscopic data available. We demonstrate how absolute masses and radii of single-star planetary systems can be obtained without resorting to stellar models. Limited by the precision of available radial velocities (38 m s-1), we achieve accuracies of 20 per cent in the radii and 70 per cent in the masses, while simulated 1 m s-1 precision radial velocities lower these to 1 per cent for the radii and 2 per cent for the masses. Since transiting multiplanet systems are common, this technique can be used to measure precisely the mass and radius of a large sample of stars and planets. We anticipate these measurements will become common when the TESS and PLATO mission provide high-precision light curves of a large sample of bright stars. These determinations will improve our knowledge about stars and planets, and provide strong constraints on theoretical models.

  17. Charge renormalization in nominally apolar colloidal dispersions.

    PubMed

    Evans, Daniel J; Hollingsworth, Andrew D; Grier, David G

    2016-04-01

    We present high-resolution measurements of the pair interactions between dielectric spheres dispersed in a fluid medium with a low dielectric constant. Despite the absence of charge control agents or added organic salts, these measurements reveal strong and long-ranged repulsions consistent with substantial charges on the particles whose interactions are screened by trace concentrations of mobile ions in solution. The dependence of the estimated charge on the particles' radii is consistent with charge renormalization theory and, thus, offers insights into the charging mechanism in this interesting class of model systems. The measurement technique, based on optical-tweezer manipulation and artifact-free particle tracking, makes use of optimal statistical methods to reduce measurement errors to the femtonewton frontier while covering an extremely wide range of interaction energies.

  18. Effects on the geomagnetic tail at 60 earth radii of the geomagnetic storm of April 9, 1971.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, W. J.; Rich, F. J.; Reasoner, D. L.; Colburn, D. S.; Goldstein, B. E.

    1973-01-01

    A geomagnetic storm beginning with an sc occurred on Apr. 9, 1971. During the storm the charged particle lunar environment experiment at the Apollo 14 site, the solar wind spectrometer experiment at the Apollo 12 site, and the Ames magnetometers on Explorer 35 took data in the magnetosheath, at the magnetopause, in the plasma sheet, and in the high-latitude geomagnetic tail. The MIT Faraday cup and Ames magnetometers on board Explorer 33 monitored the solar wind. The data show that the storm was caused by a corotating tangential discontinuity in the solar wind, the magnetopause position is strongly dependent on the attack angle of the solar wind, and the tail field strength was indirectly measured to increase from 10 to 14 gamma after the sc. During the main phase the field strength in the tail was observed to increase to between 28 and 34 gamma. This increase is consistent with a thermal and magnetic compression of the tail radius from about 26 to about 16 earth radii.

  19. Nuclear magnetization distribution radii determined by hyperfine transitions in the 1s level of H-like ions 185Re74+ and 187Re74+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Widmann, K.; Birkett, B. B.; Mårtensson-Pendrill, A.-M.; Gustavsson, M. G. H.

    1998-02-01

    The F=3 to F=2 hyperfine transitions in the 1s ground state of the two isotopes 185Re74+ and 187Re74+ were measured to be (4560.5+/-3) Å and (4516.9+/-3) Å, respectively, using emission spectroscopy in an electron beam ion trap. After applying appropriate corrections for the nuclear charge distribution and QED effects, a Bohr-Weisskopf effect of ɛ=2.23(9)% and 2.30(9)% are found for 185Re and 187Re, respectively. This value is almost twice that of a previous theoretical estimate, and indicates a distribution of the nuclear magnetization far more extended than that of the nuclear charge. A radius of the magnetization distribution of 1/2=7.57(32) fm and 1/2=7.69(32) fm for 185Re and 187Re, respectively, is inferred from the data. These radii are larger than the nuclear charge distribution radius [1/2=5.39(1) fm] for both isotopes by factors 1.40(6) and 1.43(6), respectively. We find that the Bohr-Weisskopf effect in H-like ions is a sensitive probe of nuclear magnetization distribution, especially for cases where the charge distribution and magnetic moments are accurately known.

  20. Interferometric determination of the topographies of absolute sphere radii using the sphere interferometer of PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, Guido; Krystek, Michael; Nicolaus, Arnold; Giardini, Walter

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents a method to reconstruct the absolute shape of a sphere—i.e. a topography of radii—using the sphere interferometer of PTB in combination with a stitching approach. The method allows for the reconstruction of absolute radii instead of the relative shape deviations which result from conventional sphericity measurements. The sphere interferometer was developed for the volume determination of spherical material measures—in particular the spheres of the Avogadro project—by precise diameter measurements with an uncertainty of 1 nm or less. In the scope of the present work a procedure has been implemented that extends the applicability of the interferometer to fields where not the volume or diameter but the direction-dependent radii are of interest. The results of the reconstruction were compared quantitatively to the independent results of sphericity measurements from CSIRO.

  1. ON THE RADII OF BROWN DWARFS MEASURED WITH AKARI NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    SciTech Connect

    Sorahana, S.; Yamamura, I.; Murakami, H.

    2013-04-10

    We derive the radii of 16 brown dwarfs observed by AKARI using their parallaxes and the ratios of observed to model fluxes. We find that the brown dwarf radius ranges between 0.64-1.13 R{sub J} with an average radius of 0.83 R{sub J} . We find a trend in the relation between radii and T{sub eff}; the radius is at a minimum at T{sub eff} {approx} 1600 K, which corresponds to the spectral types of mid- to late-L. The result is interpreted by a combination of radius-mass and radius-age relations that are theoretically expected for brown dwarfs older than 10{sup 8} yr.

  2. Masses And Radii Of Neutron Stars Measured From Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guver, Tolga; Ozel, F.

    2011-09-01

    Low mass X-ray binaries that show thermonuclear bursts are ideal targets for constraining the equation of state of neutron star matter. The analysis of the time resolved, high count rate X-ray spectra allow a measurement of the Eddington limits and the apparent radii of neutron stars. Combined with an independent distance estimate, these spectroscopic quantities lead to the measurement of neutron star masses and radii. I will discuss the results of the application of this method to a number of X-ray binaries including EXO 1745-248, 4U 1820-30, 4U 1608-52,KS 1731-260, and SAX J1748.9-2021. I will also present the results from a comprehensive analysis of the entire RXTE archive of X-ray burst observations, which allows for a better quantification of the systematic uncertainties in these measurements.

  3. Counter-streaming electrons at the geomagnetic equator near 9 earth radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Quinn, J. M.; Shelley, E. G.

    1988-01-01

    AMPTE/CEE observations are used to study short-lived, highly anisotropic electron distributions in the region of the equatorial magnetosphere bewtween 6.6 earth radii and the CCE apogee at 8.8 earth radii. Intense bursts of highly collimated counterstreaming electrons were observed at keV energies with durations of a few tens of seconds to a few minutes near the geomagnetic equator on L-shells that intersect the high-latitude ionosphere in the region normally associated with the auroral zone. It is found that the counterstreaming electrons at energies below the peak energy are accompanied by simultaneous deep depressions of the locally mirroring fluxes. It is suggested that these equatorial electrons may result from the release of auroral electrons trapped beneath the auroral accelerating potentials at lower altitudes along the same magnetic flux tubes.

  4. Determination of radii of satellites and asteroids from radiometry and photometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1973-01-01

    Visual photometry, which measures reflected solar radiation, can be combined with infrared radiometry, which measures absorbed and reradiated solar energy, to determine the albedo and hence the radius of small solar system objects. Equations and graphical solutions for radius and albedo are presented for cases where the object is at opposition, in equilibrium with the insolation, and has unit values for phase integral and infrared emissivities. Each of these assumptions is then discussed, and expressions are given for the dependence of the derived parameters on the assumptions. The Galilean satellites, whose radii are well known, provide a calibration of this technique. Applications are then discussed to Saturn's satellites Iapetus and Rhea and to asteroids (1) Ceres, (4) Vesta, and (324) Bamberga. It is shown that the technique is not subject to major systematic errors and that it is possible to derive radii, particularly for dark objects, with uncertainties of less than 10%.

  5. New Baade-Wesselink distances and radii for four metal-rich Galactic Cepheids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedicelli, S.; Lemasle, B.; Groenewegen, M.; Romaniello, M.; Bono, G.; Laney, C. D.; François, P.; Buonanno, R.; Caputo, F.; Lub, J.; Pel, J. W.; Primas, F.; Pritchard, J.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: We provide accurate estimates of distances, radii, and iron abundances of four metal-rich Cepheids, namely V340 Ara, UZ Sct, AV Sgr, and VY Sgr. The main aim of this investigation is to constrain their pulsation properties and their location across the Galactic inner disk. Methods: We adopted new accurate NIR (J,H,K) light curves and new radial velocity measurements for the target Cepheids to determinate their distances and radii using the Baade-Wesselink technique. In particular, we adopted the most recent calibrations of both the IR surface brightness relation and the projection factor. We also provide accurate measurements of the iron abundance of the target Cepheids. Results: Current distance estimates agree to within one σ with similar distances based on either empirical or theoretical NIR Period-Luminosity (P-L) relations. However, the uncertainties in the Baade-Wesselink distances are on average a factor of 3-4 smaller than errors affecting other distance determinations. Mean Baade-Wesselink radii also agree at the one σ level with Cepheid radii based either on empirical or theoretical Period-Radius relations. Iron abundances are, within one σ, similar to those determined by Andrievsky and collaborators, thus confirming that the target Cepheids are super metal-rich. We also found that the luminosity amplitudes of classical Cepheids, at odds with RR Lyrae stars, do not exhibit a clear correlation with their metal content. This circumstantial evidence appears to be caused by the Hertzsprung progression and the dependence of the topology of the instability strip on metallicity, evolutionary effects, and binaries. Based on observations made with MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope at La Silla Observatory under proposal IDs: 75.D-0676, 60.A-9120 and multi-epoch, multi-band NIR data at SAAO.

  6. Determining the nuclear equation of state from neutron-star masses and radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindblom, Lee

    1992-01-01

    A method is developed for determining the nuclear equation of state directly from a knowledge of the masses and radii of neutron stars. This analysis assumes only that equilibrium neutron-star matter has the stress-energy tensor of an isotropic fluid with a barotropic equation of state, and that general relativity describes a neutron star's internal gravitational field. We present numerical examples which illustrate how well this method will determine the equation of state when the appropriate observational data become available.

  7. The Radii and Oblateness of Pluto and Charon: Preliminary Results from the 2015 New Horizons Flyby

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisse, Carey M.; Nimmo, Francis; McKinnon, William B.; Umurhan, Orkan M.; Buie, Marc W.; Lauer, Tod R.; Roberts, James H.; Stern, S. Alan; Weaver, Hal A.; Young, Leslie A.; Ennico-Smith, Kimberly; Olkin, Cathy B.

    2015-11-01

    We present preliminary results for the radii and oblateness of Pluto and Charon. Accurate determinations of the mean radii of Pluto and Charon are important for establishing their densities and bulk composition. A fossil bulge, if present, would place constraints on the thermal and orbital evolution of these bodies [1,2]. The New Horizons LORRI imaging system [3] has provided global images of Pluto and Charon, with best resolutions of 3.8 and 2.3 km/pix, respectively. Three separate approaches have been used to determine mean radii and oblateness from the images, two using a threshold DN value [4,5] and one using a maximum gradient method. These approaches were validated using synthetic images having a range of photometric functions. Tradeoffs between the limb center location and the derived shape in individual images can be reduced by combining limb pixel locations obtained from different imaged rotational phases.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.[1] Robuchon & Nimmo, Icarus 216, 426, 2011. [2] McKinnon & Singer, DPS 46, abs. no. 419.07, 2014. [3] Cheng et al., SSR 140, 189, 2008. [4] Dermott & Thomas, Icarus 73, 25, 1988. [5] Thomason & Nimmo, LPSC 46, abs. no. 1462, 2015.

  8. What shapes stellar metallicity gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar metallicity gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing sets of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic, stellar-driven winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity gradients in agreement with observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations. Moreover, we discuss the impact of additional AGN feedback. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (e.g. MaNGA, CALIFA).

  9. Probing the 2D kinematic structure of early-type galaxies out to three effective radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Robert N.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Spolaor, Max; Mendel, J. Trevor; Spitler, Lee

    2009-09-01

    We detail an innovative new technique for measuring the two-dimensional (2D) velocity moments (rotation velocity, velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite coefficients h3 and h4) of the stellar populations of galaxy haloes using spectra from Keck DEIMOS (Deep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph) multi-object spectroscopic observations. The data are used to reconstruct 2D rotation velocity maps. Here we present data for five nearby early-type galaxies to ~three effective radii. We provide significant insights into the global kinematic structure of these galaxies, and challenge the accepted morphological classification in several cases. We show that between one and three effective radii the velocity dispersion declines very slowly, if at all, in all five galaxies. For the two galaxies with velocity dispersion profiles available from planetary nebulae data we find very good agreement with our stellar profiles. We find a variety of rotation profiles beyond one effective radius, i.e. rotation speed remaining constant, decreasing and increasing with radius. These results are of particular importance to studies which attempt to classify galaxies by their kinematic structure within one effective radius, such as the recent definition of fast- and slow-rotator classes by the Spectrographic Areal Unit for Research on Optical Nebulae project. Our data suggest that the rotator class may change when larger galactocentric radii are probed. This has important implications for dynamical modelling of early-type galaxies. The data from this study are available on-line.

  10. LARGER PLANET RADII INFERRED FROM STELLAR ''FLICKER'' BRIGHTNESS VARIATIONS OF BRIGHT PLANET-HOST STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-10

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ({sup f}licker{sup )} of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ∼0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T {sub eff} = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  11. Physical properties of a polar coronal hole from 2 to 5 solar radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munro, R. H.; Jackson, B. V.

    1977-01-01

    Observations with a white-light coronagraph aboard Skylab are used to determine the boundaries of a coronal hole in the northern polar region and the three-dimensional density structure within the hole between heights of 2 and 5 solar radii. The boundary of the hole is found to be essentially axisymmetric about the polar axis, nearly radial from 3 to 6 solar radii, and located near 25 deg latitude at these heights. The radiances arising from the hole are interpreted as resulting from an axisymmetric density distribution whose logarithmic radial gradient is independent of position within the hole and whose magnitude increases with angular distance away from the hole's axis. The velocity distribution within the hole is obtained from the continuity equation by assuming that the particle flux flowing outward in the hole is similar to that measured for high-speed solar-wind streams at 1 AU, and it is shown that the transition from subsonic to supersonic flow occurs between 2.2 and 3 solar radii.

  12. Planetary Radii Across Five Orders of Magnitude in Mass and Stellar Insolation: Application to Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortney, Jonathan J.; Barnes, J. W.; Marley, M. S.

    2006-09-01

    The forthcoming CoRoT and Kepler space missions promise to detect hundreds of transiting planets in the next several years. CoRoT may be able to detect planets as small at 2 Earth radii (13000 km) and Kepler as small as 1 Mercury radius (2500 km). Planetary systems for which radial velocity measurements can be made will allow for a determination of planetary mass, and hence, bulk density. However, obtaining radial velocities will often take years, and many planets will have no direct mass determination. Here we compute mass-radius relations for planets from 0.01 M_Earth to 10 M_Jupiter. We use high pressure equations of state for iron, rock, ice, helium, and hydrogen and make as few assumptions as necessary regarding composition to compute planetary radii over a significant phase space. For the hydrogen/helium-rich planets, we compute self-consistent model atmospheres at distances from 0.02 to 10 AU from the Sun, to correctly include the effects of stellar insolation on the contraction of planets with masses from 1 M_Neptune to 10 M_Jupiter. For all compositions we provide analytic fits to the derived mass-radius relations, which should allow for fast and useful mass estimates when only planetary radii are known. JJF is funded by a Spitzer Fellowship from NASA.

  13. Larger Planet Radii Inferred from Stellar "Flicker" Brightness Variations of Bright Planet-host Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, Fabienne A.; Stassun, Keivan G.; Pepper, Joshua

    2014-06-01

    Most extrasolar planets have been detected by their influence on their parent star, typically either gravitationally (the Doppler method) or by the small dip in brightness as the planet blocks a portion of the star (the transit method). Therefore, the accuracy with which we know the masses and radii of extrasolar planets depends directly on how well we know those of the stars, the latter usually determined from the measured stellar surface gravity, log g. Recent work has demonstrated that the short-timescale brightness variations ("flicker") of stars can be used to measure log g to a high accuracy of ~0.1-0.2 dex. Here, we use flicker measurements of 289 bright (Kepmag < 13) candidate planet-hosting stars with T eff = 4500-6650 K to re-assess the stellar parameters and determine the resulting impact on derived planet properties. This re-assessment reveals that for the brightest planet-host stars, Malmquist bias contaminates the stellar sample with evolved stars: nearly 50% of the bright planet-host stars are subgiants. As a result, the stellar radii, and hence the radii of the planets orbiting these stars, are on average 20%-30% larger than previous measurements had suggested.

  14. Which processes shape stellar population gradients of massive galaxies at large radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers (stellar accretion) and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar population gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing a set of high-resolution, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity and color gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity and colour gradients in agreement with present-day observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations (too flat). In the wind model, colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (like MaNGA and Califa), which in turn can help to better constrain still uncertain models for energetic processes in simulations.

  15. STATISTICS OF MEASURING NEUTRON STAR RADII: ASSESSING A FREQUENTIST AND A BAYESIAN APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Özel, Feryal; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2015-09-10

    Measuring neutron star radii with spectroscopic and timing techniques relies on the combination of multiple observables to break the degeneracies between the mass and radius introduced by general relativistic effects. Here, we explore a previously used frequentist and a newly proposed Bayesian framework to obtain the most likely value and the uncertainty in such a measurement. We find that for the expected range of masses and radii and for realistic measurement errors, the frequentist approach suffers from biases that are larger than the accuracy in the radius measurement required to distinguish between the different equations of state. In contrast, in the Bayesian framework, the inferred uncertainties are larger, but the most likely values do not suffer from such biases. We also investigate ways of quantifying the degree of consistency between different spectroscopic measurements from a single source. We show that a careful assessment of the systematic uncertainties in the measurements eliminates the need for introducing ad hoc biases, which lead to artificially large inferred radii.

  16. Electrical Charging of the Clouds of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; Whitten, R. C.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2003-01-01

    We have used recent data on graphitic cloud particles in the atmosphere or Titan to compute the electrical charging of the particles (radii ranging from 0.01 microns to 0.26 microns). The charging on the nightside was rather similar to that obtained earlier (Borucki et al, Icarus, 72, 604-622, 1987) except that charge distributions on the particles are now computed and recently obtained cloud particle sizes and density distributions were employed. The negative charge on particles of 0.26 microns peaked at 9 at 150 km altitude. The computations were repeated for the dayside with the addition of photoelectron emission by the particles as a result of the absorption of solar UV radiation. Particles (except the very smallest) now became positively charged with particles of radius 0.26 microns being charged up to +47. Next, very small particles (radii approximately 3 x 10^-4 microns) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were introduced and treated as sources of negative ions since they could be either neutral or carry one negative charge. Moreover, they are mobile so that they had to be treated like molecular size negative ions although much more massive. They had the effect of substantially reducing the electron densities in the altitude range 190 to 310 km to values less than the negative PAH densities and increasing the peak electron charge on the larger particles. Particles of radius 0.26 microns bore peak charges of plus or minus 47 at altitudes of approximately 250 km. The simulated effect of PAHs on the nightside proved to be much less pronounced; at the peak negative PAH density, it was less than the electron density. The physics governing these results will be discussed.

  17. RADII OF RAPIDLY ROTATING STARS, WITH APPLICATION TO TRANSITING-PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Timothy M.

    2010-01-20

    The currently favored method for estimating radii and other parameters of transiting-planet host stars is to match theoretical models to observations of the stellar mean density rho{sub *}, the effective temperature T{sub eff}, and the composition parameter [Z]. This explicitly model-dependent approach is based on readily available observations, and results in small formal errors. Its performance will be central to the reliability of results from ground-based transit surveys such as TrES, HAT, and SuperWASP, as well as to the space-borne missions MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler. Here, I use two calibration samples of stars (eclipsing binaries (EBs) and stars for which asteroseismic analyses are available) having well-determined masses and radii to estimate the accuracy and systematic errors inherent in the rho{sub *} method. When matching to the Yonsei-Yale stellar evolution models, I find the most important systematic error results from selection bias favoring rapidly rotating (hence probably magnetically active) stars among the EB sample. If unaccounted for, this bias leads to a mass-dependent underestimate of stellar radii by as much as 4% for stars of 0.4 M{sub sun}, decreasing to zero for masses above about 1.4 M{sub sun}. Relative errors in estimated stellar masses are three times larger than those in radii. The asteroseismic sample suggests (albeit with significant uncertainty) that systematic errors are small for slowly rotating, inactive stars. Systematic errors arising from failings of the Yonsei-Yale models of inactive stars probably exist, but are difficult to assess because of the small number of well-characterized comparison stars having low mass and slow rotation. Poor information about [Z] is an important source of random error, and may be a minor source of systematic error as well. With suitable corrections for rotation, it is likely that systematic errors in the rho{sub *} method can be comparable to or smaller than the random errors, yielding radii that

  18. Charge-changing cross-section measurements of C-1612 at around 45 A MeV and development of a Glauber model for incident energies 10 A -2100 A MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, D. T.; Ong, H. J.; Nguyen, T. T.; Tanihata, I.; Aoi, N.; Ayyad, Y.; Chan, P. Y.; Fukuda, M.; Hashimoto, T.; Hoang, T. H.; Ideguchi, E.; Inoue, A.; Kawabata, T.; Khiem, L. H.; Lin, W. P.; Matsuta, K.; Mihara, M.; Momota, S.; Nagae, D.; Nguyen, N. D.; Nishimura, D.; Ozawa, A.; Ren, P. P.; Sakaguchi, H.; Tanaka, J.; Takechi, M.; Terashima, S.; Wada, R.; Yamamoto, T.; RCNP-E372 Collaboration

    2016-12-01

    We have measured for the first time the charge-changing cross sections (σCC) of C-1612 on a 12C target at energies below 100 A MeV. To analyze these low-energy data, we have developed a finite-range Glauber model with a global parameter set within the optical-limit approximation which is applicable to reaction cross section (σR) and σCC measurements at incident energies from 10 A to 2100 A MeV. Adopting the proton-density distribution of 12C known from the electron-scattering data, as well as the bare total nucleon-nucleon cross sections and the real-to-imaginary-part ratios of the forward proton-proton elastic scattering amplitude available in the literatures, we determine the energy-dependent slope parameter βp n of the proton-neutron elastic differential cross section so as to reproduce the existing σR and interaction cross-section data for 12C+12C over a wide range of incident energies. The Glauber model thus formulated is applied to calculate the σR's of 12C on a 9Be and 27Al targets at various incident energies. Our calculations show excellent agreement with the experimental data. Applying our model to the σR and σCC for the so-called neutron-skin 16C nucleus, we reconfirm the importance of measurements at incident energies below 100 A MeV. The proton root-mean-square radii of C-1612 are extracted using the measured σCC's and the existing σR data. The results for C-1412 are consistent with the values from the electron scatterings, demonstrating the feasibility, usefulness of the σCC measurement, and the present Glauber model.

  19. Effect of ionic radii on the Curie temperature in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds.

    PubMed

    Berenov, A; Le Goupil, F; Alford, N

    2016-06-21

    A series of Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds were prepared with varying average ionic radii and cation disorder on A-site. All samples showed typical ferroelectric behavior. A simple empirical equation correlated Curie temperature, TC, with the values of ionic radii of A-site cations. This correlation was related to the distortion of TiO6 octahedra observed during neutron diffraction studies. The equation was used for the selection of compounds with predetermined values of TC. The effects of A-site ionic radii on the temperatures of phase transitions in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 were discussed.

  20. Effect of ionic radii on the Curie temperature in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berenov, A.; Le Goupil, F.; Alford, N.

    2016-06-01

    A series of Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds were prepared with varying average ionic radii and cation disorder on A-site. All samples showed typical ferroelectric behavior. A simple empirical equation correlated Curie temperature, TC, with the values of ionic radii of A-site cations. This correlation was related to the distortion of TiO6 octahedra observed during neutron diffraction studies. The equation was used for the selection of compounds with predetermined values of TC. The effects of A-site ionic radii on the temperatures of phase transitions in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 were discussed.

  1. Improvement of energy conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic engine by a multistage stack with multiple pore radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagimoto, Kohei; Sakamoto, Shin-ichi; Kuroda, Kentaro; Nakano, Yosuke; Watanabe, Yoshiaki

    2012-09-01

    In the conventional thermoacoustic engine, the pore radius of stack is almost constant in the axial direction. Therefore, we focus on the improvement of energy conversion efficiency of thermoacoustic engine by proposing a new type of multistage stack with multiple pore radii. The stack is composed of several stages, each of which is a bundle of a number of narrow tubes with specified pore radii. The pore radius is determined so that its ratio to the thickness of boundary layer on the tube wall may be a suitable value for the enhancement of the thermoacoustic oscillation in the tube. Owing to the temperature gradient along the axis of the stack, however, the thickness of the boundary layer changes along the axis and hence the suitable pore radius also changes in the axial direction. We therefore introduce a multistage stack with multiple pore radii, thereby realizing a desired ratio of pore radius and boundary layer thickness everywhere in the stack. The energy conversion efficiency of the multistage stack is experimentally studied on a straight tube type thermoacoustic engine and compared with that of a conventional single-stage stack. In the experiments, in spite that a sufficiently large temperature difference from ambient temperature near low-temperature heat exchanger was not attained, we have been able to confirm a slight improvement of energy conversion efficiency. Furthermore, we used a numerical method with transmittance matrix to include the effect of multistage stack, and obtained a good agreement between the experimental and numerical results. They show the future possibilities of the stack design aiming to the higher efficiency of the thermoacoustic engine.

  2. Interaction cross sections and matter radii of oxygen isotopes using the Glauber model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Suhel; Usmani, A. A.; Ahmad, Shakeb; Khan, Z. A.

    2017-05-01

    Using the Coulomb modified correlation expansion for the Glauber model S matrix, we calculate the interaction cross sections of oxygen isotopes (O-2616) on 12C at 1.0 GeV/nucleon. The densities of O-2616 are obtained using (i) the Slater determinants consisting of the harmonic oscillator single-particle wave functions (SDHO) and (ii) the relativistic mean-field approach (RMF). Retaining up to the two-body density term in the correlation expansion, the calculations are performed employing the free as well as the in-medium nucleon-nucleon (N N ) scattering amplitude. The in-medium N N amplitude considers the effects arising due to phase variation, higher momentum transfer components, and Pauli blocking. Our main focus in this work is to reveal how could one make the best use of SDHO densities with reference to the RMF one. The results demonstrate that the SDHO densities, along with the in-medium N N amplitude, are able to provide satisfactory explanation of the experimental data. It is found that, except for O,2423, the predicted SDHO matter rms radii of oxygen isotopes closely agree with those obtained using the RMF densities. However, for O,2423, our results require reasonably larger SDHO matter rms radii than the RMF values, thereby predicting thicker neutron skins in 23O and 24O as compared to RMF ones. In conclusion, the results of the present analysis establish the utility of SDHO densities in predicting fairly reliable estimates of the matter rms radii of neutron-rich nuclei.

  3. Effect of the Electrode Radii on the Pump Discharge width and KrF Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Yu. I.; Yampolskaya, S. A.; Yastremskii, A. G.

    2017-08-01

    The effect of the electrode shapes on the pump discharge width and the energy of radiation of the KrF laser with pulse duration of 30 ns is investigated by the method of computer modeling. The pump and laser power density distributions across the discharge cross section are obtained as functions of the electrode curvature radii. It is shown that an optimum is observed in the dependence of the laser radiation energy on the electrode radius given that the excitation parameters and the mixture composition remain unchanged. The optimum is reached with the electrodes for which the maximum excitation power density in the discharge does not exceed 8 MV/cm3.

  4. The quantization of the radii of coordination spheres cubic crystals and cluster systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, G.; Emelyanov, S.; Ignatenko, N.; Ignatenko, G.

    2016-02-01

    The article deals with the creation of an algorithm for calculating the radii of coordination spheres and coordination numbers cubic crystal structure and cluster systems in liquids. Solution has important theoretical value since it allows us to calculate the amount of coordination in the interparticle interaction potentials, to predict the processes of growth of the crystal structures and processes of self-organization of particles in the cluster system. One option accounting geometrical and quantum factors is the use of the Fibonacci series to construct a consistent number of focal areas for cubic crystals and cluster formation in the liquid.

  5. Disk radii and grain sizes in Herschel-resolved debris disks

    SciTech Connect

    Pawellek, Nicole; Krivov, Alexander V.; Marshall, Jonathan P.; Montesinos, Benjamin; Ábrahám, Péter; Moór, Attila; Bryden, Geoffrey; Eiroa, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    The radii of debris disks and the sizes of their dust grains are important tracers of the planetesimal formation mechanisms and physical processes operating in these systems. Here we use a representative sample of 34 debris disks resolved in various Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) programs to constrain the disk radii and the size distribution of their dust. While we modeled disks with both warm and cold components, and identified warm inner disks around about two-thirds of the stars, we focus our analysis only on the cold outer disks, i.e., Kuiper-belt analogs. We derive the disk radii from the resolved images and find a large dispersion for host stars of any spectral class, but no significant trend with the stellar luminosity. This argues against ice lines as a dominant player in setting the debris disk sizes, since the ice line location varies with the luminosity of the central star. Fixing the disk radii to those inferred from the resolved images, we model the spectral energy distribution to determine the dust temperature and the grain size distribution for each target. While the dust temperature systematically increases toward earlier spectral types, the ratio of the dust temperature to the blackbody temperature at the disk radius decreases with the stellar luminosity. This is explained by a clear trend of typical sizes increasing toward more luminous stars. The typical grain sizes are compared to the radiation pressure blowout limit s {sub blow} that is proportional to the stellar luminosity-to-mass ratio and thus also increases toward earlier spectral classes. The grain sizes in the disks of G- to A-stars are inferred to be several times s {sub blow} at all stellar luminosities, in agreement with collisional models of debris disks. The sizes, measured in the units of s {sub blow}, appear to decrease

  6. The Systematics of the Structures of Ternary Compounds Using Pseudopotential-Orbital Radii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-11

    size in the periodic table . For the transition metals, the orbital radii are also independent of oxidation state. However, for the heavy elements which...covalent compounds are sorted successfully, but this 2 may be because the variation of r.- across a row of the periodic table can reflect the size and...size and electronegativity. The combination r =r +r is a measure of an average ’core size’ of an atom , and indeed,0-s p for each row of the Periodic

  7. Understanding the Rapidity Dependence of the Elliptic Flow and the HBT Radii at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Csanad, M.; Loerstad, B.

    2006-04-11

    The pseudo-rapidity dependence of the elliptic flow at various excitation energies measured by the PHOBOS Collaboration in Au+Au collisions at RHIC is one of the surprising results that has not been explained before in terms of hydrodynamical models. Here we show that these data are in agreement with theoretical predictions and satisfy the universal scaling relation predicted by the Buda-Lund hydrodynamical model, based on exact solutions of perfect fluid hydrodynamics. We also show a theoretical prediction on the rapidity and transverse momentum scaling of the HBT radii measured in heavy ion collisions, based on the Buda-Lund model.

  8. Performance Characteristics of Oil Lubricated Swing-Pad Thrust Bearings with Different Radii of Curvatures.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    nique was developed and perfected with the assistance of the Center’s rubber labora- tory. The metallic components were fabricated in the machine shop...The laminates consisted of calendered sheets of Buna-N rubber that were vulcanized to the metal parts using a specially designed mold. The hardness of...the cured rubber is 55±5 on the Shore A scale. Bearings with four different radii of curvature were fabricated ; three were 2.54, 5.08, and 10.16 cm

  9. Possible octupole deformation in Cs and Ba nuclei from their differential radii

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, R.K.; Jain, A.K.; Jain, K.

    1988-12-01

    The odd-even staggering of the differential radii of Fr and Ra and the Cs and Ba nuclei is compared. This staggering is inverted in the region of known octupole deformation in the Fr and Ra nuclei. The normal staggering is eliminated in the Cs nuclei and attenuated in the Ba nuclei for neutron numbers 85--88. This fact is used to suggest the possible existence of octupole deformation and its neutron number range in the Cs and Ba nuclear ground states.

  10. Plastic set of smooth large radii of curvature thermal conductance specimens at light loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckinzie, D. J., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Thermal contact conductance test data at high vacuum were obtained from two Armco iron specimens having smooth, large radii of curvature, convex, one-half wave length surfaces. The data are compared with calculations based on two macroscopic elastic deformation theories and an empirical expression. Major disagreement with the theories and fair agreement with the empirical expression resulted. Plastic deformation of all the contacting surfaces was verified from surface analyzer statistics. These results indicate that the theoretical assumption of macroscopic elastic deformation is inadequate for accurate prediction of heat transfer with light loads for Armco iron specimens similar to those used in this investigation.

  11. Centrality and Transverse Momentum Dependence of HBT Radii in Au+Au Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweid, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The expansion dynamics of relativistic heavy ion collisions is influenced by the transport properties of the created medium, as well as the path of the reaction trajectory in the (T ,μB)-plane. Such an influence can manifest as quantifiable changes in the magnitude of the space-time extent of the emission source, characterized by the so-called HBT radii Rout, Rside and Rlong. We will present and discuss recent HBT measurements which extend the upper momentum range of measurements that have been made in the STAR detector for Au+Au collisions at several collision centralities and beam energies.

  12. Charging machine

    DOEpatents

    Medlin, John B.

    1976-05-25

    A charging machine for loading fuel slugs into the process tubes of a nuclear reactor includes a tubular housing connected to the process tube, a charging trough connected to the other end of the tubular housing, a device for loading the charging trough with a group of fuel slugs, means for equalizing the coolant pressure in the charging trough with the pressure in the process tubes, means for pushing the group of fuel slugs into the process tube and a latch and a seal engaging the last object in the group of fuel slugs to prevent the fuel slugs from being ejected from the process tube when the pusher is removed and to prevent pressure liquid from entering the charging machine.

  13. The magnetic field of the equatorial magnetotail - AMPTE/CCE observations at R less than 8.8 earth radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairfield, D. H.; Acuna, M. H.; Zanetti, L. J.; Potemra, T. A.

    1987-01-01

    The MPTE/CCE magnetic field experiment has been used to obtain a quantitative evaluation of the frequency and extent of magnetic field distortion in the near-tail region at less than 8.8 earth radii. The variation of this distortion with Kp, radial distance, longitude, and near-equatorial latitude is reported. It has been found that taillike distortions from the dipole field direction may reach 80 deg near the MPTE/CE apogee of 8.8 earth radii. The Bz field component in dipole coordinates was always positive within 0.5 earth radii of the equatorial current sheet, indicating the neutral lines were never seen inside of 8.8 earth radii. Fields were most taillike near midnight and during times of high Kp. At 8.5 earth radii the equatorial field magnitude depressions were roughly half the dipole field strength of 51 nT. These depressions are larger at lesser distances, reaching -40 nT at 3.4 earth radii for Kp of 2- or less and -80 nT and Kp of 3+ and greater.

  14. Radii and Shape of Pluto and Charon: Preliminary Results from New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Lisse, C. M.; Umurhan, O. M.; McKinnon, W. B.; Buie, M. W.; Lauer, T.; Beyer, R. A.; Moore, J. M.; Stern, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Olkin, C.; Ennico Smith, K.; Young, L. A.; Bierson, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determinations of the mean radii of Pluto and Charon are important for establishing their densities and thus bulk composition. A fossil bulge, if present, would place constraints on the thermal and orbital evolution of these bodies [1,2]. The New Horizons LORRI imaging system [3] has provided global images of Pluto and Charon, with best resolutions of 3.8 and 2.3 km/pix, respectively. Three separate approaches have been used to determine mean radii and shape from the images, two using a threshold DN value [4,5] and one using a maximum gradient method. These approaches were validated using synthetic images having a range of photometric functions. Tradeoffs between the limb center location and the derived shape in individual images can be reduced by combining limb picks from different images. Preliminary results for both Pluto and Charon will be presented. [1] Robuchon & Nimmo, Icarus 216, 426, 2011. [2] McKinnon & Singer, DPS 46, abs. no. 419.07, 2014. [3] Cheng et al., SSR 140, 189, 2008. [4] Dermott & Thomas, Icarus 73, 25, 1988. [5] Thomason & Nimmo, LPSC 46, abs. no. 1462, 2015.

  15. Prediction of apatite lattice constants from their constituent elemental radii and artificial intelligence methods.

    PubMed

    Wu, P; Zeng, Y Z; Wang, C M

    2004-03-01

    Lattice constants (LCs) of all possible 96 apatite compounds, A(5)(BO(4))(3)C, constituted by A[double bond]Ba(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Sr(2+), Mn(2+); B[double bond]As(5+), Cr(5+), P(5+), V(5+); and C[double bond]F(1-), Cl(1-), Br(1-), OH(1-), are predicted from their elemental ionic radii, using pattern recognition (PR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques. In particular, by a PR study it is demonstrated that ionic radii predominantly govern the LCs of apatites. Furthermore, by using ANN techniques, prediction models of LCs a and c are developed, which reproduce well the measured LCs (R(2)=0.98). All the literature reported on 30 pure and 22 mixed apatite compounds are collected and used in the present work. LCs of all possible 66 new apatites (assuming they exist) are estimated by the developed ANN models. These proposed new apatites may be of interest to biomedical research especially in the design of new apatite biomaterials for bone remodeling. Similarly these techniques may also be applied in the study of interface growth behaviors involving other biomaterials.

  16. Extracting temperature and transverse flow by fitting transverse mass spectra and HBT radii together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ronghua; Qian, Jing; Chen, Jianyi; Wu, Qingxin; Huo, Lei

    2017-03-01

    Single particle transverse mass spectra and HBT radii of identical pion and identical kaon are analyzed with a blast-wave parametrization under the assumptions of local thermal equilibrium and transverse expansion. Under the assumptions, temperature parameter T and transverse expansion rapidity ρ are sensitive to the shapes of transverse mass mT spectrum and HBT radius Rs(KT). Negative and positive correlations between T and ρ are observed by fitting mT spectrum and HBT radius Rs(KT), respectively. For a Monte Carlo simulation using the blast-wave function, T and ρ are extracted by fitting mT spectra and HBT radii together utilizing a combined optimization function χ2. With this method, T and ρ of the Monte Carlo sources can be extracted. Using this method for A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy, the differences of T and ρ between pion and kaon are observed obviously, and the tendencies of T and ρ versus collision energy sNN are similar with the results extracted directly from the AMPT model.

  17. THE INFLUENCE OF ORBITAL ECCENTRICITY ON TIDAL RADII OF STAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison; Hurley, Jarrod R.

    2013-02-20

    We have performed N-body simulations of star clusters orbiting in a spherically symmetric smooth galactic potential. The model clusters cover a range of initial half-mass radii and orbital eccentricities in order to test the historical assumption that the tidal radius of a cluster is imposed at perigalacticon. The traditional assumption for globular clusters is that since the internal relaxation time is larger than its orbital period, the cluster is tidally stripped at perigalacticon. Instead, our simulations show that a cluster with an eccentric orbit does not need to fully relax in order to expand. After a perigalactic pass, a cluster recaptures previously unbound stars, and the tidal shock at perigalacticon has the effect of energizing inner region stars to larger orbits. Therefore, instead of the limiting radius being imposed at perigalacticon, it more nearly traces the instantaneous tidal radius of the cluster at any point in the orbit. We present a numerical correction factor to theoretical tidal radii calculated at perigalacticon which takes into consideration both the orbital eccentricity and current orbital phase of the cluster.

  18. Absolute densities, masses, and radii of the WASP-47 system determined dynamically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almenara, J. M.; Díaz, R. F.; Bonfils, X.; Udry, S.

    2016-10-01

    We present a self-consistent modelling of the available light curve and radial velocity data of WASP-47 that takes into account the gravitational interactions between all known bodies in the system. The joint analysis of light curve and radial velocity data in a multi-planetary system allows deriving absolute densities, radii, and masses without the use of theoretical stellar models. For WASP-47 the precision is limited by the reduced dynamical information that is due to the short time span of the K2 light curve. We achieve a precision of around 22% for the radii of the star and the transiting planets, between 40% and 60% for their masses, and between 1.5% and 38% for their densities. All values agree with previously reported measurements. When theoretical stellar models are included, the system parameters are determined with a precision that exceeds that achieved by previous studies, thanks to the self-consistent modelling of light curve and radial velocity data.

  19. Charged snowball in nonpolar liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikina, I.; Shikin, V.; Varlamov, A.

    2007-09-01

    The problem of correct definition of the charge carrier effective mass in superfluid helium is revised. It is demonstrated that the effective mass M of such a quasiparticle can be introduced without use of Atkins' idea concerning the solidification of liquid He in the close vicinity of an ion. The two-liquid scenario of the "snowball" mass formation is investigated. The normal fluid contribution to the total snowball effective mass, the physical causes of its singularity, and a way to do the corresponding regularization procedure are discussed. Within the two-liquid model, two different effective snowball radii exist: Rid for superfluid flow component and Rn for the normal one, Rn>Rid is demonstrated. Agreement of the theory with the available experimental data is found.

  20. Approximating proto-stellar structure without a computer (The proto-sun at 50 earth radii)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doorish, John F.

    1991-09-01

    An analytical method that facilitates the description of main-sequence stellar structure is applied to protostars to model the core in formation. The model is based on Motz dimensionless variables which permit the stellar interior equations to be converted into a linearly approximate form. Equations for the mass, pressure, and temperature gradients of the protosun's hydrostatic core at 50 earth radii are given, and an approximation is presented for a one-solar-mass protostar that is contracting down to the main sequence. Comparisons are made between the analytical values and values from observations and computer models, and IR data confirm some analytically derived protostellar characteristics. It is concluded that the core of a protostar is composed of a spherical ball of gas in hydrostatic equilibrium where accretion very gradually becomes a factor.

  1. High Precision, Directly Determined Radii and Effective Temperatures for Giant Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Belle, Gerard

    Mission Statement. The radius and temperature scale of giant stars across the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram from red giant branch stars to horizontal branch stars is understood well enough to enable an accurate prediction of temperature and size for a given star to no better than ~2.5% and ~20%, respectively, based upon photometry. The primary reason for this is the lack of empirically determined radii and temperatures across the giant branches. One of the long-running strengths of optical interferometry has been the empirical determination of fundamental stellar parameters. Through direct measurements of effective temperature and linear radius, methods such as photometric colors that indirectly predict such values can be calibrated. A substantial body of data on this topic collected for giant stars remains unpublished and stands to benefit from the advances in ancillary data sources and computational techniques of the last dozen years. Previous efforts in this regard have been limited by data sample breadth and depth. The Experiment. We will use multi-technique and multi-wavelength data available in NASA's Archives to directly measure angular sizes and bolometric fluxes for giant stars, establishing the radius-temperature scale across the giant branches. Interferometric data from NASA's Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) Archive in conjunction with recent advances in calibration techniques will allow us to directly establish fundamental parameters of temperature and radius for 425 giant stars at unprecedented levels of accuracy. The majority of these objects was observed repeatedly over the 11-year run of this well- understood instrument, allowing for exquisite control of observational systematics. Optical, near-infrared and mid-infrared data from NASA Archives, including 2MASS, COBE, MSX, and WISE will constrain the bolometric fluxes; the recent reanalysis of the Hipparcos data will provide unparalleled distances to each of the 425 giant stars in the sample. We

  2. On the diamagnetic effect of the plasma sheet near 60 earth radii.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meng, C.-I.; Mihalov, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The two-dimensional (YZ plane) spatial distribution of magnetic field magnitudes in the geomagnetic tail at the lunar distance is given in both the solar magnetospheric and the neutral-sheet coordinate systems by using three years of data from the Ames magnetometer on Explorer 35. The effect of changes in geomagnetic activity is also presented. In the magnetotail near 60 earth radii, a broad region in which the magnetic field intensity is relatively weak in comparison with that in the other region of the tail is located adjacent to the solar magnetospheric equatorial plane and the calculated neutral sheet. This depression of the field due to the diamagnetic effect of the plasma sheet is more evident during times of minimum geomagnetic activity.-

  3. Repeated sharp flux dropouts observed at 6.6 earth radii during a geomagnetic storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, S.-Y.; Fritz, T. A.; Konradi, A.

    1976-01-01

    A number of repeated rapid flux dropouts have been observed at 6.6 earth radii by the low-energy proton detectors on board the ATS 6 satellite during the July 4-6, 1974, geomagnetic storm period. These rapid flux changes are caused by the fact that the outer boundary of the trapped radiation region moves back and forth past the satellite. Although a tilting field line configuration can cause the boundary to pass the satellite, as has frequently been reported in the literature, the boundary is shown to be distorted by a large surface wave traveling eastward around the earth. The maximum velocity of the wave was observed to be about 40 km/s.

  4. Coronal activity below 2 solar radii - 1980 February 15-17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, R. R.; Poland, A. I.

    1981-01-01

    Coronal observations concerning the area between the solar surface and 2.0 solar radii can now be conducted by making use of a new ground-based K-coronameter and a prominence monitor on Mauna Loa in Hawaii. Observations made by the K-coronameter on three consecutive days surrounding the eclipse of 1980 February 16 show that the solar corona was very active during this time. Definite changes occurred between each day's observations. During one period of K-coronameter observations (1980 February 15) a coronal transient was observed to move through the coronameter's field of view. A description is presented of the general changes which occurred in the corona during this period, taking into account the coronal transient observed by the prominence monitor and K-coronameter. The most important aspects of these new observations pertain to the relationship between the H alpha prominence and the surrounding coronal material.

  5. Retrievals and Comparisons of Various MODIS-Spectrum Inferred Water Cloud Droplet Effective Radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu-Lung, Chang; Minnis, Patrick; Lin, Bin; Sunny, Sun-Mack; Khaiyer, Mandana M.

    2007-01-01

    Cloud droplet effective radius retrievals from different Aqua MODIS nearinfrared channels (2.1- micrometer, 3.7- micrometer, and 1.6- micrometer) show considerable differences even among most confident QC pixels. Both Collection 004 and Collection 005 MOD06 show smaller mean effective radii at 3.7- micrometer wavelength than at 2.1- micrometer and 1.6- micrometer wavelengths. Differences in effective radius retrievals between Collection 004 and Collection 005 may be affected by cloud top height/temperature differences, which mainly occur for optically thin clouds. Changes in cloud top height and temperature for thin clouds have different impacts on the effective radius retrievals from 2.1- micrometer, 3.7- micrometer, and 1.6- micrometer channels. Independent retrievals (this study) show, on average, more consistency in the three effective radius retrievals. This study is for Aqua MODIS only.

  6. A finite element stress analysis of spur gears including fillet radii and rim thickness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Spur gear stress analysis results are presented for a variety of loading conditions, support conditions, fillet radii, and rim thickness. These results are obtained using the SAP IV finite-element code. The maximum stresses, occurring at the root surface, substantially increase with decreasing rim thickness for partially supported rims (that is, with loose-fitting hubs). For fully supported rims (that is, with tight-fitting hubs), the root surface stresses slightly decrease with decreasing rim thickness. The fillet radius is found to have a significant effect upon the maximum stresses at the root surface. These stresses increase with increasing fillet radius. The fillet radius has little effect upon the internal root section stresses.

  7. Probing the 2-D Kinematic Structure of Early-Type Galaxies Out to 3 Effective Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, Robert N.; Forbes, Duncan A.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Strader, Jay; Spolaor, Max; Trevor Mendel, J.; Spitler, Lee

    2010-06-01

    We detail an innovative new technique for measuring the 2-D velocity moments (rotation velocity, velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite coefficients h3 and h4) using spectra from Keck DEIMOS multi-object spectroscopic observations. The data are used to reconstruct 2-D rotation velocity maps. Here we present data for one of five early-type galaxies whose kinematics we have measured out to ~3 effective radii (see [1]). From these data 2D kinematic maps are constructed. We show such analyses can provide significant insights into the global kinematic structure of galaxies, and, in some cases, challenge the accepted morphological classification. Our results are of particular importance to studies which attempt to classify galaxies by their kinematic structure within one effective radius, such as the recent definition of fast- and slow- rotator classes by the SAURON project.

  8. Fossil hominin radii from the Sima de los Huesos Middle Pleistocene site (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Laura; Carretero, José Miguel; García-González, Rebeca; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Quam, Rolf; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Téllez, Ana; Arsuaga, Juan Luis

    2016-01-01

    Complete radii in the fossil record preceding recent humans and Neandertals are very scarce. Here we introduce the radial remains recovered from the Sima de los Huesos (SH) site in the Sierra de Atapuerca between 1976 and 2011 and which have been dated in excess of 430 ky (thousands of years) ago. The sample comprises 89 specimens, 49 of which are attributed to adults representing a minimum of seven individuals. All elements are described anatomically and metrically, and compared with other fossil hominins and recent humans in order to examine the phylogenetic polarity of certain radial features. Radial remains from SH have some traits that differentiate them from those of recent humans and make them more similar to Neandertals, including strongly curved shafts, anteroposterior expanded radial heads and both absolutely and relatively long necks. In contrast, the SH sample differs from Neandertals in showing a high overall gracility as well as a high frequency (80%) of an anteriorly oriented radial tuberosity. Thus, like the cranial and dental remains from the SH site, characteristic Neandertal radial morphology is not present fully in the SH radii. We also analyzed the cross-sectional properties of the SH radial sample at two different levels: mid-shaft and at the midpoint of the neck length. When standardized by shaft length, no difference in the mid-shaft cross-sectional properties were found between the SH hominins, Neandertals and recent humans. Nevertheless, due to their long neck length, the SH hominins show a higher lever efficiency than either Neandertals or recent humans. Functionally, the SH radial morphology is consistent with more efficient pronation-supination and flexion-extension movements. The particular trait composition in the SH sample and Neandertals resembles more closely morphology evident in recent human males.

  9. Measuring the masses, radii and orbital eccentricities of sub-Neptunes with transit timing variations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason; Fabrycky, Daniel C.

    2014-05-01

    Outside our solar system, there is a small sample of planets with known masses and radii, mostly hot jupiters whose radii are known from transit depths, and whose masses are determined from radial velocity spectroscopy (RV). In the absence of mass determinations via RV observations, transit timing variations (TTVs) offer a chance to probe perturbations between planets that pass close to one another or are near resonance, and hence dynamical fits to observed transit times can measure planetary masses and orbital parameters. Such modeling can probe planetary masses at longer orbital periods than RV targets, although not without some challenges. For example, in modeling pairwise planetary perturbations near first order mean motion resonances, a degeneracy between eccentricity and mass exists that limits the accuracy of mass determinations. Nevertheless, in several compact multiplanet systems, fitting complex TTV signals can break the degeneracy, permitting useful mass constraints, and precise measures of small but non-zero eccentricity.The precision in measuring the radius of a transiting planet rests on the uncertainty in the stellar radius, which is typically ~10% for targets with spectral follow-up. With dynamical fits, however, solutions for the orbital parameters including the eccentricity vectors can, alongside the transit light curves, tightly constrain the stellar density and radius. Alongside spectroscopic data, our dynamical fits to TTVs reduced the stellar and hence planetary radius uncertainties at Kepler-11 and Kepler-79 to just 2%, permitting useful planetary density determinations. In the case of Kepler-79, planetary bulk densities are remarkably low given the planetary masses. Indeed, several multiplanet systems characterized by TTV show much lower planetary densities than typical RV determinations in the same mass range. While this reflects the detection biases of both techniques, it also represents a growing sample of characterized systems of

  10. Measuring the Masses and Radii of Sub-Neptunes with Transit Timing Variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jontof-Hutter, Daniel; Lissauer, J. J.; Rowe, J. F.; Fabrycky, D.

    2013-10-01

    The bounty of sub-Neptunes discovered by Kepler enables us to study a regime in planetary size and mass that is absent from the Solar System. This regime includes a transition from rocky planets to those with substantial amounts of volatiles-- in either ice mantles or deep atmospheres. Characterizing these worlds by their bulk densities can probe this transition, and this requires mass and radius determinations. Outside our solar system, there is a small sample of planets with known masses and radii, mostly hot jupiters whose radii are known from transit depths, and whose masses are determined from radial velocity spectroscopy (RV). In the absence of mass determinations via RV observations, transit timing variations (TTVs) offer a chance to probe perturbations between planets that pass close to one another or are near resonance, and hence dynamical fits to observed transit times can measure planetary masses and orbital parameters. Such modelling can probe planetary masses at longer orbital periods than RV targets, although not without some challenges. For example, in modeling pairwise planetary perturbations, a degeneracy between eccentricity and mass exists that limits the accuracy of mass determinations. Nevertheless, in several compact multiplanet systems, fitting complex TTV signals can break the degeneracy, permitting useful mass determinations. The precision in measuring the radius of a transiting planet rests on the uncertainty in the stellar radius, which is typically ~10% for targets with spectral follow-up. With dynamical fits, however, solutions for the orbital parameters including the eccentricity vectors can, alongside the transit lightcurves, tightly constrain the stellar density and radius. Revisiting the six-planet system of Kepler-11, our dynamical fits to TTVs, alongside spectroscopic data on the host star, reduced the stellar and hence planetary radius uncertainties to just 2%, permitting useful planetary density determinations. In the case of

  11. THE MASS-RADIUS RELATION FOR 65 EXOPLANETS SMALLER THAN 4 EARTH RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Lauren M.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.

    2014-03-01

    We study the masses and radii of 65 exoplanets smaller than 4 R {sub ⊕} with orbital periods shorter than 100 days. We calculate the weighted mean densities of planets in bins of 0.5 R {sub ⊕} and identify a density maximum of 7.6  g cm{sup –3} at 1.4 R {sub ⊕}. On average, planets with radii up to R {sub P} = 1.5 R {sub ⊕} increase in density with increasing radius. Above 1.5 R {sub ⊕}, the average planet density rapidly decreases with increasing radius, indicating that these planets have a large fraction of volatiles by volume overlying a rocky core. Including the solar system terrestrial planets with the exoplanets below 1.5 R {sub ⊕}, we find ρ{sub P} = 2.43 + 3.39(R {sub P}/R {sub ⊕}) g cm{sup –3} for R {sub P} < 1.5 R {sub ⊕}, which is consistent with rocky compositions. For 1.5 ≤ R {sub P}/R {sub ⊕} < 4, we find M {sub P}/M {sub ⊕} = 2.69(R {sub P}/R {sub ⊕}){sup 0.93}. The rms of planet masses to the fit between 1.5 and 4 R {sub ⊕} is 4.3 M {sub ⊕} with reduced χ{sup 2} = 6.2. The large scatter indicates a diversity in planet composition at a given radius. The compositional diversity can be due to planets of a given volume (as determined by their large H/He envelopes) containing rocky cores of different masses or compositions.

  12. Neutron star radii, universal relations, and the role of prior distributions

    DOE PAGES

    Steiner, Andrew W.; Lattimer, James M.; Brown, Edward F.

    2016-02-02

    We investigate constraints on neutron star structure arising from the assumptions that neutron stars have crusts, that recent calculations of pure neutron matter limit the equation of state of neutron star matter near the nuclear saturation density, that the high-density equation of state is limited by causality and the largest high-accuracy neutron star mass measurement, and that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. We explore the role of prior assumptions by considering two classes of equation of state models. In a first, the intermediate- and high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise polytropes. Inmore » the second class, the high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise continuous line segments. The smallest density at which high-density matter appears is varied in order to allow for strong phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density. We critically examine correlations among the pressure of matter, radii, maximum masses, the binding energy, the moment of inertia, and the tidal deformability, paying special attention to the sensitivity of these correlations to prior assumptions about the equation of state. It is possible to constrain the radii of 1.4 solar mass neutron stars to be larger than 10 km, even without consideration of additional astrophysical observations, for example, those from photospheric radius expansion bursts or quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries. We are able to improve the accuracy of known correlations between the moment of inertia and compactness as well as the binding energy and compactness. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the existence of a correlation between the neutron star binding energy and the moment of inertia.« less

  13. Neutron star radii, universal relations, and the role of prior distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Steiner, Andrew W.; Lattimer, James M.; Brown, Edward F.

    2016-02-02

    We investigate constraints on neutron star structure arising from the assumptions that neutron stars have crusts, that recent calculations of pure neutron matter limit the equation of state of neutron star matter near the nuclear saturation density, that the high-density equation of state is limited by causality and the largest high-accuracy neutron star mass measurement, and that general relativity is the correct theory of gravity. We explore the role of prior assumptions by considering two classes of equation of state models. In a first, the intermediate- and high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise polytropes. In the second class, the high-density behavior of the equation of state is parameterized by piecewise continuous line segments. The smallest density at which high-density matter appears is varied in order to allow for strong phase transitions above the nuclear saturation density. We critically examine correlations among the pressure of matter, radii, maximum masses, the binding energy, the moment of inertia, and the tidal deformability, paying special attention to the sensitivity of these correlations to prior assumptions about the equation of state. It is possible to constrain the radii of 1.4 solar mass neutron stars to be larger than 10 km, even without consideration of additional astrophysical observations, for example, those from photospheric radius expansion bursts or quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries. We are able to improve the accuracy of known correlations between the moment of inertia and compactness as well as the binding energy and compactness. Furthermore, we also demonstrate the existence of a correlation between the neutron star binding energy and the moment of inertia.

  14. Neutron star masses and radii from quiescent low-mass x-ray binaries

    SciTech Connect

    Lattimer, James M.; Steiner, Andrew W. E-mail: steiner3@uw.edu

    2014-04-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of neutron star radius constraints from five quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries and examine how they depend on measurements of their distances and amounts of intervening absorbing material, as well as their assumed atmospheric compositions. We construct and calibrate to published results a semi-analytic model of the neutron star atmosphere which approximates these effects for the predicted masses and radii. Starting from mass and radius probability distributions established from hydrogen-atmosphere spectral fits of quiescent sources, we apply this model to compute alternate sets of probability distributions. We perform Bayesian analyses to estimate neutron star mass-radius curves and equation of state (EOS) parameters that best-fit each set of distributions, assuming the existence of a known low-density neutron star crustal EOS, a simple model for the high-density EOS, causality, and the observation that the neutron star maximum mass exceeds 2 M {sub ☉}. We compute the posterior probabilities for each set of distance measurements and assumptions about absorption and composition. We find that, within the context of our assumptions and our parameterized EOS models, some absorption models are disfavored. We find that neutron stars composed of hadrons are favored relative to those with exotic matter with strong phase transitions. In addition, models in which all five stars have hydrogen atmospheres are found to be weakly disfavored. Our most likely models predict neutron star radii that are consistent with current experimental results concerning the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction near the nuclear saturation density.

  15. Effect of ionic radii on the Curie temperature in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds

    PubMed Central

    Berenov, A.; Le Goupil, F.; Alford, N.

    2016-01-01

    A series of Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 compounds were prepared with varying average ionic radii and cation disorder on A-site. All samples showed typical ferroelectric behavior. A simple empirical equation correlated Curie temperature, TC, with the values of ionic radii of A-site cations. This correlation was related to the distortion of TiO6 octahedra observed during neutron diffraction studies. The equation was used for the selection of compounds with predetermined values of TC. The effects of A-site ionic radii on the temperatures of phase transitions in Ba1-x-ySrxCayTiO3 were discussed. PMID:27324841

  16. Charged kaon femtoscopic correlations in pp collisions at s=7TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelev, B.; Adam, J.; Adamová, D.; Adare, A. M.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agocs, A. G.; Agostinelli, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad Masoodi, A.; Ahn, S. U.; Ahn, S. A.; Ajaz, M.; Akindinov, A.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Almaráz Aviña, E.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altini, V.; Altinpinar, S.; Altsybeev, I.; Andrei, C.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anielski, J.; Anson, C.; Antičić, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshäuser, H.; Arbor, N.; Arcelli, S.; Arend, A.; Armesto, N.; Arnaldi, R.; Aronsson, T.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Asryan, A.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Awes, T. C.; Äystö, J.; Azmi, M. D.; Bach, M.; Badalà, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Bán, J.; Baral, R. C.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartke, J.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Batyunya, B.; Baumann, C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bellwied, R.; Belmont-Moreno, E.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Berceanu, I.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bergognon, A. A. E.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Bjelogrlic, S.; Blanco, F.; Blanco, F.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boccioli, M.; Böttger, S.; Bogdanov, A.; Bøggild, H.; Bogolyubsky, M.; Boldizsár, L.; Bombara, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Bossú, F.; Botje, M.; Botta, E.; Braidot, E.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Breitner, T.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brun, R.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Caffarri, D.; Cai, X.; Caines, H.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Canoa Roman, V.; Cara Romeo, G.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carlin Filho, N.; Carminati, F.; Casanova Díaz, A.; Castillo Castellanos, J.; Castillo Hernandez, J. F.; Casula, E. A. R.; Catanescu, V.; Cavicchioli, C.; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cepila, J.; Cerello, P.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chawla, I.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Chibante Barroso, V.; Chinellato, D. D.; Chochula, P.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Coccetti, F.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Conesa Balbastre, G.; Conesa del Valle, Z.; Connors, M. E.; Contin, G.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Corrales Morales, Y.; Cortese, P.; Cortés Maldonado, I.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Cotallo, M. E.; Crescio, E.; Crochet, P.; Cruz Alaniz, E.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dainese, A.; Dalsgaard, H. H.; Danu, A.; Das, S.; Das, I.; Das, D.; Das, K.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; De, S.; de Barros, G. O. V.; De Caro, A.; de Cataldo, G.; de Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; Delagrange, H.; Deloff, A.; De Marco, N.; Dénes, E.; De Pasquale, S.; Deppman, A.; D Erasmo, G.; de Rooij, R.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Di Bari, D.; Dietel, T.; Di Giglio, C.; Di Liberto, S.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Divià, R.; Djuvsland, Ø.; Dobrin, A.; Dobrowolski, T.; Dönigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Driga, O.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Dupieux, P.; Dutta Majumdar, A. K.; Dutta Majumdar, M. R.; Elia, D.; Emschermann, D.; Engel, H.; Erazmus, B.; Erdal, H. A.; Espagnon, B.; Estienne, M.; Esumi, S.; Evans, D.; Eyyubova, G.; Fabris, D.; Faivre, J.; Falchieri, D.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Fearick, R.; Fehlker, D.; Feldkamp, L.; Felea, D.; Feliciello, A.; Fenton-Olsen, B.; Feofilov, G.; Fernández Téllez, A.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A. S.; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floratos, E.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Fusco Girard, M.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A.; Gallio, M.; Gangadharan, D. R.; Ganoti, P.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garishvili, I.; Gerhard, J.; Germain, M.; Geuna, C.; Gheata, M.; Gheata, A.; Ghosh, P.; Gianotti, P.; Girard, M. R.; Giubellino, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glässel, P.; Gomez, R.; Ferreiro, E. G.; González-Trueba, L. H.; González-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goswami, A.; Gotovac, S.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Grajcarek, R.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoras, A.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, S.; Grigoryan, A.; Grinyov, B.; Grion, N.; Gros, P.; Grosse-Oetringhaus, J. F.; Grossiord, J.-Y.; Grosso, R.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Guilbaud, M.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gulkanyan, H.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Haaland, Ø.; Hadjidakis, C.; Haiduc, M.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Han, B. H.; Hanratty, L. D.; Hansen, A.; Harmanová-Tóthová, Z.; Harris, J. W.; Hartig, M.; Harton, A.; Hasegan, D.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Heckel, S. T.; Heide, M.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; Herrera Corral, G.; Herrmann, N.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hicks, B.; Hippolyte, B.; Hori, Y.; Hristov, P.; Hřivnáčová, I.; Huang, M.; Humanic, T. J.; Hwang, D. S.; Ichou, R.; Ilkaev, R.; Ilkiv, I.; Inaba, M.; Incani, E.; Innocenti, G. M.; Innocenti, P. G.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Ivan, C.; Ivanov, V.; Ivanov, A.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanytskyi, O.; Jachołkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jang, H. J.; Janik, M. A.; Janik, R.; Jayarathna, P. H. S. Y.; Jena, S.; Jha, D. M.; Jimenez Bustamante, R. T.; Jones, P. G.; Jung, H.; Jusko, A.; Kaidalov, A. B.; Kalcher, S.; Kaliňák, P.; Kalliokoski, T.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Karasu Uysal, A.; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karpechev, E.; Kazantsev, A.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Khan, M. M.; Khan, P.; Khan, K. H.; Khan, S. A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Kileng, B.; Kim, S.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, B.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, J.; Klein-Bösing, C.; Kliemant, M.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Köhler, M. K.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kompaniets, M.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Konevskikh, A.; Kour, R.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.; Kox, S.; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, G.; Kral, J.; Králik, I.; Kramer, F.; Kravčáková, A.; Krawutschke, T.; Krelina, M.; Kretz, M.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Krus, M.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kucheriaev, Y.; Kugathasan, T.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kulakov, I.; Kumar, J.; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kurepin, A.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, V.; Kushpil, S.; Kvaerno, H.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; Ladrón de Guevara, P.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; La Pointe, S. L.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; La Rocca, P.; Lea, R.; Lechman, M.; Lee, G. R.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S. C.; Legrand, I.; Lehnert, J.; Lenhardt, M.; Lenti, V.; León, H.; León Monzón, I.; León Vargas, H.; Lévai, P.; Li, S.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Loenne, P. I.; Loggins, V. R.; Loginov, V.; Lohner, D.; Loizides, C.; Loo, K. K.; Lopez, X.; López Torres, E.; Løvhøiden, G.; Lu, X.-G.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luo, J.; Luparello, G.; Luzzi, C.; Ma, K.; Ma, R.; Madagodahettige-Don, D. M.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahapatra, D. P.; Maire, A.; Malaev, M.; Maldonado Cervantes, I.; Malinina, L.; Mal'Kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manceau, L.; Mangotra, L.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mareš, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Marín, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martashvili, I.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martínez, M. I.; Martínez Davalos, A.; Martínez García, G.; Martynov, Y.; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Massacrier, L.; Mastroserio, A.; Matthews, Z. L.; Matyja, A.; Mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Mercado Pérez, J.; Meres, M.; Miake, Y.; Mikhailov, K.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miśkowiec, D.; Mitu, C.; Mizuno, S.; Mlynarz, J.; Mohanty, B.; Molnar, L.; Montaño Zetina, L.; Monteno, M.; Montes, E.; Moon, T.; Morando, M.; Moreira De Godoy, D. A.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Müller, H.; Munhoz, M. G.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Musso, A.; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Nattrass, C.; Navin, S.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Nielsen, B. S.; Niida, T.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikolic, V.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nilsen, B. S.; Nilsson, M. S.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Novitzky, N.; Nyanin, A.; Nyatha, A.; Nygaard, C.; Nystrand, J.; Ochirov, A.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S. K.; Oh, S.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oppedisano, C.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Ostrowski, P.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Ozawa, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pachr, M.; Padilla, F.; Pagano, P.; Paić, G.; Painke, F.; Pajares, C.; Pal, S. K.; Palaha, A.; Palmeri, A.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Park, W. J.; Passfeld, A.; Patalakha, D. I.; Paticchio, V.; Paul, B.; Pavlinov, A.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Pereira Da Costa, H.; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, E.; Peresunko, D.; Pérez Lara, C. E.; Perini, D.; Perrino, D.; Peryt, W.; Pesci, A.; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petráček, V.; Petran, M.; Petris, M.; Petrov, P.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Piano, S.; Piccotti, A.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Pitz, N.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Planinic, M.; Płoskoń, M.; Pluta, J.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polák, K.; Polichtchouk, B.; Pop, A.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Pospíšil, V.; Potukuchi, B.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puddu, G.; Punin, V.; Putiš, M.; Putschke, J.; Quercigh, E.; Qvigstad, H.; Rachevski, A.; Rademakers, A.; Räihä, T. S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Ramírez Reyes, A.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Räsänen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Read, K. F.; Real, J. S.; Redlich, K.; Reed, R. J.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reicher, M.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Rettig, F.; Revol, J.-P.; Reygers, K.; Riccati, L.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Rodríguez Cahuantzi, M.; Rodriguez Manso, A.; Røed, K.; Rohr, D.; Röhrich, D.; Romita, R.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossegger, S.; Rossi, A.; Roy, P.; Roy, C.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Ryabinkin, E.; Rybicki, A.; Sadovsky, S.; Šafařík, K.; Sahoo, R.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakai, S.; Sakata, D.; Salgado, C. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sanchez Castro, X.; Šándor, L.; Sandoval, A.; Sano, M.; Santagati, G.; Santoro, R.; Sarkamo, J.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, C.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schuster, T.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, P. A.; Scott, R.; Segato, G.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senyukov, S.; Seo, J.; Serci, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shabratova, G.; Shahoyan, R.; Sharma, S.; Sharma, N.; Rohni, S.; Shigaki, K.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Sicking, E.; Siddhanta, S.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R.; Singha, S.; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sinha, B. C.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Skjerdal, K.; Smakal, R.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Søgaard, C.; Soltz, R.; Son, H.; Song, M.; Song, J.; Soos, C.; Soramel, F.; Sputowska, I.; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, M.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stefanek, G.; Steinpreis, M.; Stenlund, E.; Steyn, G.; Stiller, J. H.; Stocco, D.; Stolpovskiy, M.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Subieta Vásquez, M. A.; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Sultanov, R.; Šumbera, M.; Susa, T.; Symons, T. J. M.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Szostak, A.; Szymański, M.; Takahashi, J.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Tarantola Peloni, A.; Tarazona Martinez, A.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Muñoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terrevoli, C.; Thäder, J.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Timmins, A. R.; Tlusty, D.; Toia, A.; Torii, H.; Toscano, L.; Trubnikov, V.; Truesdale, D.; Trzaska, W. H.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ulery, J.; Ullaland, K.; Ulrich, J.; Uras, A.; Urbán, J.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Usai, G. L.; Vajzer, M.; Vala, M.; Valencia Palomo, L.; Vallero, S.; Vande Vyvre, P.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vannucci, L.; Vargas, A.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vechernin, V.; Veldhoen, M.; Venaruzzo, M.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara, S.; Vernet, R.; Verweij, M.; Vickovic, L.; Viesti, G.; Vilakazi, Z.; Villalobos Baillie, O.; Vinogradov, Y.; Vinogradov, L.; Vinogradov, A.; Virgili, T.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S.; Volpe, G.; von Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Vranic, D.; Vrláková, J.; Vulpescu, B.; Vyushin, A.; Wagner, V.; Wagner, B.; Wan, R.; Wang, D.; Wang, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Watanabe, K.; Weber, M.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilde, M.; Wilk, A.; Wilk, G.; Williams, M. C. S.; Windelband, B.; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, L.; Yaldo, C. G.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yang, H.; Yang, S.; Yasnopolskiy, S.; Yi, J.; Yin, Z.; Yoo, I.-K.; Yoon, J.; Yu, W.; Yuan, X.; Yushmanov, I.; Zaccolo, V.; Zach, C.; Zampolli, C.; Zaporozhets, S.; Zarochentsev, A.; Závada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zelnicek, P.; Zgura, I. S.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, F.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zinovjev, G.; Zoccarato, Y.; Zynovyev, M.; Zyzak, M.

    2013-03-01

    Correlations of two charged identical kaons (KchKch) are measured in pp collisions at s=7TeV by the ALICE experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). One-dimensional KchKch correlation functions are constructed in three multiplicity and four transverse momentum ranges. The KchKch femtoscopic source parameters R and λ are extracted. The KchKch correlations show a slight increase of femtoscopic radii with increasing multiplicity and a slight decrease of radii with increasing transverse momentum. These trends are similar to the ones observed for ππ and Ks0Ks0 correlations in pp and heavy-ion collisions. However at high multiplicities, there is an indication that the one-dimensional correlation radii for charged kaons are larger than those for pions in contrast to what was observed in heavy-ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

  17. Determination of ion track radii in amorphous matrices via formation of nano-clusters by ion-beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Buljan, M.; Karlusic, M.; Bogdanovic-Radovic, I.; Jaksic, M.; Radic, N.; Salamon, K.; Bernstorff, S.

    2012-09-03

    We report on a method for the determination of ion track radii, formed in amorphous materials by ion-beam irradiation. The method is based on the addition to an amorphous matrix of a small amount of foreign atoms, which easily diffuse and form clusters when the temperature is sufficiently increased. The irradiation causes clustering of these atoms, and the final separations of the formed clusters are dependent on the parameters of the ion-beam. Comparison of the separations between the clusters that are formed by ions with different properties in the same type of material enables the determination of ion-track radii.

  18. Discovery of a Subparsec Jet 4000 Schwarzschild Radii Away from the Central Engine of NGC 4258: Erratum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrnstein, J. R.; Moran, J. M.; Greenhill, L. J.; Diamond, P. J.; Miyoshi, M.; Nakai, N.; Inoue, M.

    1997-06-01

    As the result of an error in the process of publication, the title of the paper ``Discovery of a Subparsec Jet 4000 Schwarzschild Radii Away from the Central Engine of NGC 4258'' by J. R. Herrnstein, J. M. Moran, L. J. Greenhill, P. J. Diamond, M. Miyoshi, M. Nakai, and M. Inoue (ApJ, 475, L17 [1997]) appeared in print incorrectly as ``Discovery of a Subparsec Jet 4000 Radii away from the Central Schwarzschild Engine of NGC 4258.'' The Press apologizes for this error.

  19. Determination of ion track radii in amorphous matrices via formation of nano-clusters by ion-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buljan, M.; Karlušić, M.; Bogdanović-Radović, I.; Jakšić, M.; Salamon, K.; Bernstorff, S.; Radić, N.

    2012-09-01

    We report on a method for the determination of ion track radii, formed in amorphous materials by ion-beam irradiation. The method is based on the addition to an amorphous matrix of a small amount of foreign atoms, which easily diffuse and form clusters when the temperature is sufficiently increased. The irradiation causes clustering of these atoms, and the final separations of the formed clusters are dependent on the parameters of the ion-beam. Comparison of the separations between the clusters that are formed by ions with different properties in the same type of material enables the determination of ion-track radii.

  20. Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-23

    We present a systematic study of charged pion and kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-mass dependence of the oscillations.

  1. Systematic study of charged-pion and kaon femtoscopy in Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    DOE PAGES

    Adare, A.

    2015-09-23

    We present a systematic study of charged pion and kaon interferometry in Au+Au collisions at √sNN=200 GeV. The kaon mean source radii are found to be larger than pion radii in the outward and longitudinal directions for the same transverse mass; this difference increases for more central collisions. The azimuthal-angle dependence of the radii was measured with respect to the second-order event plane and similar oscillations of the source radii were found for pions and kaons. Hydrodynamic models qualitatively describe the similar oscillations of the mean source radii for pions and kaons, but they do not fully describe the transverse-massmore » dependence of the oscillations.« less

  2. Determination of time zero from a charged particle detector

    DOEpatents

    Green, Jesse Andrew [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-03-15

    A method, system and computer program is used to determine a linear track having a good fit to a most likely or expected path of charged particle passing through a charged particle detector having a plurality of drift cells. Hit signals from the charged particle detector are associated with a particular charged particle track. An initial estimate of time zero is made from these hit signals and linear tracks are then fit to drift radii for each particular time-zero estimate. The linear track having the best fit is then searched and selected and errors in fit and tracking parameters computed. The use of large and expensive fast detectors needed to time zero in the charged particle detectors can be avoided by adopting this method and system.

  3. Radii, masses, and ages of 18 bright stars using interferometry and new estimations of exoplanetary parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligi, R.; Creevey, O.; Mourard, D.; Crida, A.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Nardetto, N.; Perraut, K.; Schultheis, M.; Tallon-Bosc, I.; ten Brummelaar, T.

    2016-02-01

    Context. Accurate stellar parameters are needed in numerous domains of astrophysics. The position of stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is an important indication of their structure and evolution, and it helps improve stellar models. Furthermore, the age and mass of stars hosting planets are required elements for studying exoplanetary systems. Aims: We aim at determining accurate parameters of a set of 18 bright exoplanet host and potential host stars from interferometric measurements, photometry, and stellar models. Methods: Using the VEGA/CHARA interferometer operating in the visible domain, we measured the angular diameters of 18 stars, ten of which host exoplanets. We combined them with their distances to estimate their radii. We used photometry to derive their bolometric flux and, then, their effective temperature and luminosity to place them on the H-R diagram. We then used the PARSEC models to derive their best fit ages and masses, with error bars derived from Monte Carlo calculations. Results: Our interferometric measurements lead to an average of 1.9% uncertainty on angular diameters and 3% on stellar radii. There is good agreement between measured and indirect estimations of angular diameters (either from SED fitting or from surface brightness relations) for main sequence (MS) stars, but not as good for more evolved stars. For each star, we provide a likelihood map in the mass-age plane; typically, two distinct sets of solutions appear (an old and a young age). The errors on the ages and masses that we provide account for the metallicity uncertainties, which are often neglected by other works. From measurements of its radius and density, we also provide the mass of 55 Cnc independently of models. From the stellar masses, we provide new estimates of semi-major axes and minimum masses of exoplanets with reliable uncertainties. We also derive the radius, density, and mass of 55 Cnc e, a super-Earth that transits its stellar host. Our exoplanetary

  4. Two-qubit separability probabilities as joint functions of the Bloch radii of the qubit subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Paul B.

    2016-11-01

    We detect a certain pattern of behavior of separability probabilities p(rA,rB) for two-qubit systems endowed with Hilbert-Schmidt (HS), and more generally, random induced measures, where rA and rB are the Bloch radii (0≤rA,rB≤1) of the qubit reduced states (A,B). We observe a relative repulsion of radii effect, that is p(rA,rA)

  5. Variability of Stellar and Solar Radii and Effect on Planetary Orbits and Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leubner, I. H.

    2006-05-01

    Based on a quantitative model, the planets are relatively loosely connected to the solar system. This was previously presented for the stability of the solar planetary system as a function of solar radiative and solar mass loss (Joint Assembly 2005). The model led to the prediction of the transition from water to ice about 3.6 billion years ago, in close agreement with experimental Mars explorations (AGU Fall meeting 2005). The model also revealed that the planetary orbits depend on the radii of their stellar parent, e.g., the Sun. The model assumes that stellar and solar radii are a function of the equilibrium between the stellar surface gravitational forces and intrasolar thermonuclear expansion forces. The model quantifies changes of planetary orbits, orbital periods, and planetary surface cooling and warming as a function of solar radius changes. The dependence on solar radius is super-linear. An increase of solar radius results in increasing planetary orbits, increasing orbital periods, and lowering of surface temperatures. At a critical solar radius, planets will separate from the solar system. The model shows that planetary orbits are highly sensitive to very small (<<1%) variations of solar radius. Solar radius and planetary orbit changes can be linked to the planetary global climate. This was evaluated for Earth. The model shows that relatively small decreases of solar radius can lead to significant increases of Earth global temperatures. These temperature increases are in addition and above to the much-studied greenhouse effects. Relatively small increases of solar radius can lead to significant lowering of Earth surface temperatures that may have been related to ages. The Earth global temperature is predicted to change at a rate of 0.29C per 0.001% solar radius change, and of 0.90C per 1.0E06 km (0.67%) orbital change. For the stability of planetary orbits as a function of solar radius, the model predicts that Pluto, Earth, and Mercury will separate from

  6. Evidence for short-range-ordered charge stripes far above the charge-ordering transition in La1.67Sr0.33NiO4.

    PubMed

    Abeykoon, A M Milinda; Božin, Emil S; Yin, Wei-Guo; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P; Tranquada, John M; Billinge, Simon J L

    2013-08-30

    The temperature evolution of structural effects associated with charge order (CO) and spin order in La1.67Sr0.33NiO4 has been investigated using neutron powder diffraction. We report an anomalous shrinking of the c/a lattice parameter ratio that correlates with T(CO). The sign of this change can be explained by the change in interlayer Coulomb energy between the static-stripe-ordered state and the fluctuating-stripe-ordered state or the charge-disordered state. In addition, we identify a contribution to the mean-square displacements of Ni and in-plane O atoms whose width correlates quite well with the size of the pseudogap extracted from the reported optical conductivity, with a non-Debye-like component that persists below and well above T(CO). We infer that dynamic charge-stripe correlations survive to T∼2T(CO).

  7. Evidence for Short-Range-Ordered Charge Stripes Far above the Charge-Ordering Transition in La1.67Sr0.33NiO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Božin, Emil S.; Yin, Wei-Guo; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2013-08-01

    The temperature evolution of structural effects associated with charge order (CO) and spin order in La1.67Sr0.33NiO4 has been investigated using neutron powder diffraction. We report an anomalous shrinking of the c/a lattice parameter ratio that correlates with TCO. The sign of this change can be explained by the change in interlayer Coulomb energy between the static-stripe-ordered state and the fluctuating-stripe-ordered state or the charge-disordered state. In addition, we identify a contribution to the mean-square displacements of Ni and in-plane O atoms whose width correlates quite well with the size of the pseudogap extracted from the reported optical conductivity, with a non-Debye-like component that persists below and well above TCO. We infer that dynamic charge-stripe correlations survive to T˜2TCO.

  8. Charged rotating black holes on a 3-brane

    SciTech Connect

    Aliev, A.N.; Guemruekcueoglu, A.E.

    2005-05-15

    We study exact stationary and axisymmetric solutions describing charged rotating black holes localized on a 3-brane in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld. The charges of the black holes are considered to be of two types, the first being an induced tidal charge that appears as an imprint of nonlocal gravitational effects from the bulk space and the second is a usual electric charge arising due to a Maxwell field trapped on the brane. We assume a special ansatz for the metric on the brane taking it to be of the Kerr-Schild form and show that the Kerr-Newman solution of ordinary general relativity in which the electric charge is superseded by a tidal charge satisfies a closed system of the effective gravitational field equations on the brane. It turns out that the negative tidal charge may provide a mechanism for spinning up the black hole so that its rotation parameter exceeds its mass. This is not allowed in the framework of general relativity. We also find a new solution that represents a rotating black hole on the brane carrying both charges. We show that for a rapid enough rotation the combined influence of the rotational dynamics and the local bulk effects of the 'squared' energy-momentum tensor on the brane distort the horizon structure of the black hole in such a way that it can be thought of as composed of nonuniformly rotating null circles with growing radii from the equatorial plane to the poles. We finally study the geodesic motion of test particles in the equatorial plane of a rotating black hole with tidal charge. We show that the effects of negative tidal charge tend to increase the horizon radius, as well as the radii of the limiting photon orbit, the innermost bound and the innermost stable circular orbits for both direct and retrograde motions of the particles.

  9. Estimating the masses and radii of neutron stars using NICER pulse waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2017-08-01

    The key scientific objective of the Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is to precisely and reliably measure the mass M and radius R of several neutron stars, in order to tightly constrain the properties of cold ultradense matter. M and R will be measured by fitting energy-dependent pulse waveform models to the observed soft X-ray pulse waveforms of selected rotation-powered millisecond pulsars. These waveforms are thought to be produced by rotation with the stellar surface of hot spots located near the pulsar's magnetic polar caps. We have explored the accuracies and precisions with which NICER should be able to determine M and R, by analyzing synthetic waveform data using Bayesian statistical methods. Here we describe the pulse waveform models that will be used by the NICER mission, the scaling of the uncertainties in M and R estimates with the total number of counts, and the dependence of the uncertainties in M and R estimates on the rotational colatitudes of the hot spots and the inclination of the observer. We show that the shapes of the hot spots and modest variations in the temperature of the emission across them are unlikely to produce significant systematic errors. We find that NICER should be able to measure the masses and radii of a few neutron stars to within 5%.

  10. Tracing the stellar halo of an early type galaxy out to 25 effective radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejkuba, Marina

    2016-08-01

    We have used ACS and WFC3 cameras on board HST to resolve stars in the halo of NGC 5128 out to 140 kpc (25 effective radii, R eff) along the major axis and 70 kpc (13 R eff) along the minor axis. This dataset provides an unprecedented radial coverage of stellar halo properties in any galaxy. Color-magnitude diagrams clearly reveal the presence of the red giant branch stars belonging to the halo of NGC 5128 even in the most distant fields. The V-I colors of the red giants enable us to measure the metallicity distribution in each field and so map the metallicity gradient over the sampled area. The stellar metallicity follows a shallow gradient and even out at 140 kpc (25 R eff) its median value does not go below [M/H]~-1 dex. We observe significant field-to-field metallicity and stellar density variations. The star counts are higher along the major axis when compared to minor axis field located 90 kpc from the galaxy centre, indicating flattening in the outer halo. These observational results provide new important constraints for the assembly history of the halo and the formation of this gE galaxy.

  11. The zero gravity curve and surface and radii for geostationary and geosynchronous satellite orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöberg, L. E.; Grafarend, E. W.; Joud, M. S. S.

    2017-02-01

    A geosynchronous satellite orbits the Earth along a constant longitude. A special case is the geostationary satellite that is located at a constant position above the equator. The ideal position of a geostationary satellite is at the level of zero gravity, i.e. at the geocentric radius where the gravitational force of the Earth equals the centrifugal force. These forces must be compensated for several perturbing forces, in particular for the lunisolar tides. Considering that the gravity field of the Earth varies not only radially but also laterally, this study focuses on the variations of zero gravity not only on the equator (for geostationary satellites) but also for various latitudes. It is found that the radius of a geostationary satellite deviates from its mean value of 42164.2 km only within ±2 m, mainly due to the spherical harmonic coefficient J22, which is related with the equatorial flattening of the Earth. Away from the equator the zero gravity surface deviates from the ideal radius of a geosynchronous satellite, and more so for higher latitudes. While the radius of the former surface increases towards infinity towards the poles, the latter decreases about 520 m from the equator to the pole. Tidal effects vary these radii within ±2.3 km.

  12. New determinations of far-side lunar radii from Apollo photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1979-01-01

    Determinations of far side lunar radii based on the reduction of photogrammetric measurements derived from Apollo 16 photographs obtained during the trans-earth phase of the spacecraft trajectory are presented. Reduction is accomplished by determining the Apollo 16 metric camera orientation relative to control points on the lunar surface whose coordinates are known exactly, than charting the surface on the basis of data coverage. The positions of 66 surface features in the area between longitudes 90 and 130 deg E and 10 and 60 deg N relative to the center of mass of the moon, with a relative accuracy of 500 km, are presented. A topographical map which can resolve basin-sized features has been derived from radius determinations. It is found that the craters Fabry, Riemann and Szilard comprise a topographically depressed region about 500 km in diameter with a floor 2.4 to 3.4 km below the 1730.0 km reference sphere and 4.8 to 5.8 km below the northern rim of the unfilled basin.

  13. Quantifying mass segregation and new core radii for 54 Milky Way globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Goldsbury, Ryan; Heyl, Jeremy; Richer, Harvey E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca

    2013-11-20

    We present core radii for 54 Milky Way globular clusters determined by fitting King-Michie models to cumulative projected star count distributions. We find that fitting star counts rather than surface brightness profiles produces results that differ significantly due to the presence of mass segregation. The sample in each cluster is further broken down into various mass groups, each of which is fit independently, allowing us to determine how the concentration of each cluster varies with mass. The majority of the clusters in our sample show general agreement with the standard picture that more massive stars will be more centrally concentrated. We find that core radius versus stellar mass can be fit with a two-parameter power law. The slope of this power law is a value that describes the amount of mass segregation present in the cluster, and is measured independently of our distance from the cluster. This value correlates strongly with the core relaxation time and physical size of each cluster. Supplementary figures are also included showing the best fits and likelihood contours of fit parameters for all 54 clusters.

  14. Effective temperatures, angular diameters, distances and linear radii for 160 O and B stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underhill, A. B.; Divan, L.; Prevot-Burnichon, M.-L.; Doazan, V.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses effective temperatures, angular diameters, distances, and linear diameters that have been determined for 160 O and B stars on the basis of published UV spectrophotometry, visible and near-IR intermediate-band photometry, and model-atmosphere fluxes. The results are compared with previous measurements and calculations for main-sequence and giant O and B stars. It is found that: (1) the flux effective temperatures of O and B supergiants are systematically lower than those of main-sequence and giant stars of the same subtype; (2) the effective temperatures and radii of Beta Cep stars are the same as those of nonvariable stars of the same spectral type; (3) Be stars that do not have two Balmer jumps have effective temperatures very similar to those of normal B stars of the same subtype; (4) O and B stars increase in size from the main sequence to supergiants; and (5) late B supergiants are approximately twice as large as O9 supergiants.

  15. Acceleration of protons at 32 Jovian radii in the outer magnetosphere of jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schardt, A. W.; Mcdonald, F. B.; Trainor, J. H.

    1977-01-01

    During the inbound pass of Pioneer 10, a rapid ten-fold increase of the 0.2 to MeV proton flux was observed at 32 Jovian radii (R sub J). The total event lasted for 30 minutes and was made up of a number of superimposed individual events. At the time, the spacecraft was in the outer magnetosphere about 7 R sub J below the magnetic equator. Before and after the event, the proton flux was characteristic of the low flux level normally encountered between crossings of the magnetic equator. Flux changes at different energies were coherent within 1 minute; a time comparable to the time resolution of the data. The angular distributions were highly anisotropic with protons streaming towards Jupiter. A field-aligned dumbbell distribution was observed initially, and a pancake distribution just before the flux decayed to its pre-event value. The alpha particle flux changed as rapidly as the proton flux but peaked at different times. The energetic electron flux behaved differently; it increased gradually throughout the period.

  16. Fabrication of large radii toroidal surfaces by single point diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, J.P.; Marlar, T.A.; Miller, A.C.

    1995-12-31

    An unconventional machining technique has been developed for producing relatively large radii quasi-toroidal surfaces which could not normally be produced by conventional diamond turning technology. The maximum radial swing capacity of a diamond turning lathe is the limiting factor for the rotational radius of any toroid. A typical diamond turned toroidal surface is produced when a part is rotated about the spindle axis while the diamond tool contours the surface with any curved path. Toric surfaces sliced horizontally, have been used in laser resonator cavities. This paper will address the fabrication of a special case of toroids where a rotating tool path is a circle whose center is offset from the rotational axis of the toroid by a distance greater than the minor radius of the tool path. The quasi-toroidal surfaces produced by this technique approximate all asymmetrical combinations of concave/convex sections of a torus. Other machine configurations have been reported which offer alternative approaches to the fabrication of concave asymmetric aspheric surfaces.

  17. A study of free convection heat transfer in a horizontal annulus with a large radii ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Hessami, M.A.; Pollard, A.; Rowe, R.D.; Ruth, R.W.

    1983-07-01

    Steady laminar natural convection heat transfer in a horizontal annulus with a large radii ratio (R) of 11.4 (and inner-cylinder diameter, D /SUB i/ , of 1.27 cm) has been investigated. Experimental data for air, glycerin and mercury in the ranges 0.023 less than or equal to Pr less than or equal to 10,000 and 0.2 less than or equal to Gr /SUB D/ /SUB i/ less than or equal to X 10/sup 6/ are reported. The influence of the variation of fluid properties as compared to the usual assumption of constant fluid properties has been explored numerically for air and glycerin. The heat transfer computations for air do not change with variation of fluid properties, whereas for glycerin significant differences in the local heat transfer distributions and flow patterns are observed. The experimental data have been correlated with some other data from the literature for smaller values of R, and it has been shown that the heat transfer from the inner-cylinder should be almost the same as that in an infinite medium when R greater than or equal to 10.

  18. Hydrogen bond radii for the hydrogen halides and van der Waals radius of hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Pankaj K.; Arunan, E.

    2001-03-01

    In this article, the effective size of hydrogen in the hydrogen halides forming hydrogen bonded complexes is estimated. The scheme proposed by Bhadane and Gadre [J. Chem. Phys. 107, 5625 (1997)] for estimating the size of hydrogen in HF is extended to the other hydrogen halides (HCl and HBr) and HCN. It is noted that the radius of H atom in HF, HCl, HBr, and HCN are, respectively, 0.55±0.07, 0.74±0.08, 0.80±0.11, and 0.93±0.07 Å. The radii found for HF, HCl, and HBr show a strong inverse correlation with the dipole moment of the HX. From this correlation the radius of H atom in HI is estimated to be 0.90±0.11 Å. By extrapolating to zero dipole moment, the van der Waals radius of H atom is determined to be 1.0±0.1 Å, reasonably close to the value proposed by Pauling, 1.2 Å.

  19. Alfvenic Turbulence from the Sun to 65 Solar Radii: Numerical predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, J. C.; Chandran, B. D. G.

    2015-12-01

    The upcoming NASA Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission will fly to within 9 solar radii from the solar surface, about 7 times closer to the Sun than any previous spacecraft has ever reached. This historic mission will gather unprecedented remote-sensing data and the first in-situ measurements of the plasma in the solar atmosphere, which will revolutionize our knowledge and understanding of turbulence and other processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. This close to the Sun the background solar-wind properties are highly inhomogeneous. As a result, outward-propagating Alfven waves (AWs) arising from the random motions of the photospheric magnetic-field footpoints undergo strong non-WKB reflections and trigger a vigorous turbulent cascade. In this talk I will discuss recent progress in the understanding of reflection-driven Alfven turbulence in this scenario by means of high-resolution numerical simulations, with the goal of predicting the detailed nature of the velocity and magnetic field fluctuations that the SPP mission will measure. In particular, I will place special emphasis on relating the simulations to relevant physical mechanisms that might govern the radial evolution of the turbulence spectra of outward/inward-propagating fluctuations and discuss the conditions that lead to universal power-laws.

  20. Flow in Thin Streamer Boundaries, Streamer Stalks, and Plumes Between 2 and 10 Solar Radii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Nerney, S.

    2005-01-01

    Slow solar wind is believed to arise in the legs or near the cusp of streamers, inside the brightness boundary. In an earlier study, we used an analytic model of flow in this layer to analyze the effect of the magnetic field on the geometry of the flow. That study successfully described those conditions that can lead to a decrease of the flow speed with increasing height near the cusp of the closed magnetic helmet inside the streamer. We have generalized that model to describe outflow in an arbitrarily thin layer inside the brightness boundary. The flow geometry now can also be constructive or divergent above the cusp and we show solutions of this type. A diverging streamer or ray above 2-3 solar radii is shown to indicate the plasma beta is greater than unity inside the streamer and less than unity outside. The same argument can be used to discover the height above which the plasma beta in plumes, inside coronal holes, is greater than unity.

  1. Interferometric observation of the F-corona radial velocities fields between 3 and 7 solar radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcheglov, P. V.; Shestakova, L. I.; Aimanov, A. K.

    During the July 31, 1981 solar eclipse, F-corona interferograms near Mg I 5184 A were obtained using a Fabry-Perot etalon with an FWHM of 0.5 A (corresponding to 30 km/sec) and an image tube. Radial velocities V(r) of the interplanetary dust (ID) were measured in different directions. Both prograde and retrograde motions of ID in the ecliptic region is discovered. Most of velocity values do not exceed 50 km/sec. A negative velocity component appears after averaging all V(r) for all directions. Its average increases to -20 km/sec toward the sun. Some ejections are observed. The strongest (+130 km/sec) is located at the north ecliptic pole at a distance of 6 to 7 solar radii. From the lack of unshifted Fraunhofer lines in the scattered sky light, it is concluded that the sky brigntness continuous component is predominant and its source is K-corona scattered light in the earth's atmosphere.

  2. Structure of the magnetic field at altitudes of 1-1.15 solar radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhtemov, Z. S.; Stepanyan, N. N.; Fainshtein, V. G.; Rudenko, G. V.

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the characteristics of unipolar structures detected at latitudes from -40° to +40°, longitudes of 0°-360°, and altitudes of 1-1.15 solar radii during the period from May 1996 (the 23rd solar minimum) to October 2000 (the 23rd solar maximum) has been carried out. Synoptic maps of the solar radial magnetic field calculated in a potential approximation are used. The boundaries between unipolar structures with opposite magnetic polarities ("+/-" and "-/+" polarities) form chains extending along meridians at all the considered latitudes and altitudes. Depending on the latitude, the single-peaked distributions of the number of structures found at the lowest altitudes are replaced by double-peaked distributions at higher altitudes. The time variations of the total number of structures are non-monotonic. The growth in the number of unipolar structures begins before the growth in the Wolf number. This indicates that new unipolar structures already appear together with flocculi, preceding the formation of sunspots. It is found that structures with positive field have larger mean sizes that do structures with negative field. The polar field in the northern hemisphere penetrates to middle latitudes of the southern hemisphere. The existence of sets of structures with typical sizes is shown. The sizes of the smallest structures vary little with latitude, but increase slightly with altitude.

  3. DNA stretching on the wall surfaces in curved microchannels with different radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Wu, Fong-He; Tsai, Ming-Ju

    2014-08-01

    DNA molecule conformation dynamics and stretching were made on semi-circular surfaces with different radii (500 to 5,000 μm) in microchannels measuring 200 μm × 200 μm in cross section. Five different buffer solutions - 1× Tris-acetate-EDTA (TAE), 1× Tris-borate-EDTA (TBE), 1× Tris-EDTA (TE), 1× Tris-phosphate-EDTA (TPE), and 1× Tris-buffered saline (TBS) solutions - were used with a variety of viscosity such as 40, 60, and 80 cP, with resultant 10-4 ≤ Re ≤ 10-3 and the corresponding 5 ≤ Wi ≤ 12. The test fluids were seeded with JOJO-1 tracer particles for flow visualization and driven through the test channels via a piezoelectric (PZT) micropump. Micro particle image velocimetry (μPIV) measuring technique was applied for the centered-plane velocity distribution measurements. It is found that the radius effect on the stretch ratio of DNA dependence is significant. The stretch ratio becomes larger as the radius becomes small due to the larger centrifugal force. Consequently, the maximum stretch was found at the center of the channel with a radius of 500 μm.

  4. Molecular single-bond covalent radii for elements 1-118.

    PubMed

    Pyykkö, Pekka; Atsumi, Michiko

    2009-01-01

    A self-consistent system of additive covalent radii, R(AB)=r(A) + r(B), is set up for the entire periodic table, Groups 1-18, Z=1-118. The primary bond lengths, R, are taken from experimental or theoretical data corresponding to chosen group valencies. All r(E) values are obtained from the same fit. Both E-E, E-H, and E-CH(3) data are incorporated for most elements, E. Many E-E' data inside the same group are included. For the late main groups, the system is close to that of Pauling. For other elements it is close to the methyl-based one of Suresh and Koga [J. Phys. Chem. A 2001, 105, 5940] and its predecessors. For the diatomic alkalis MM' and halides XX', separate fits give a very high accuracy. These primary data are then absorbed with the rest. The most notable exclusion are the transition-metal halides and chalcogenides which are regarded as partial multiple bonds. Other anomalies include H(2) and F(2). The standard deviation for the 410 included data points is 2.8 pm.

  5. Observations of T Tauri Disks at Sub-AU Radii: Implications for Magnetospheric Accretion and Planet Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisner, J. A.; Hillenbrand, L. A.; White, R. J.; Akeson, R. L.; Sargent, A. I.

    2005-04-01

    We determine inner disk sizes and temperatures for four solar-type (1-2 Msolar) classical T Tauri stars, AS 207A, V2508 Oph, AS 205A, and PX Vul, using 2.2 μm observations from the Keck Interferometer. Nearly contemporaneous near-IR adaptive optics imaging photometry, optical photometry, and high-dispersion optical spectroscopy are used to distinguish contributions from the inner disks and central stars in the interferometric observations. In addition, the spectroscopic and photometric data provide estimates of stellar properties, mass accretion rates, and disk corotation radii. We model our interferometric and photometric data in the context of geometrically flat accretion disk models with inner holes, and flared disks with puffed-up inner walls. Models incorporating puffed-up inner disk walls generally provide better fits to the data, similar to previous results for higher mass Herbig Ae stars. Our measured inner disk sizes are larger than disk truncation radii predicted by magnetospheric accretion models, with larger discrepancies for sources with higher mass accretion rates. We suggest that our measured sizes correspond to dust sublimation radii, and that optically thin gaseous material may extend farther inward to the magnetospheric truncation radii. Finally, our inner disk measurements constrain the location of terrestrial planet formation as well as potential mechanisms for halting giant planet migration.

  6. Self-organization and oscillation of negatively charged dust particles in a 2-dimensional dusty plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Y. L.; Huang, F.; Chen, Z. Y.; Liu, Y. H.; Yu, M. Y.

    2016-02-01

    Negatively charged dust particles immersed in 2-dimensional dusty plasma system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the confinement potential and attraction interaction potential on dust particle self-organization are studied in detail and two typical dust particle distributions are obtained when the system reaches equilibrium. The average radial velocity (ARV), average radial force (ARF) and radial mean square displacement are employed to analyze the dust particles' dynamics. Both ARVs and ARFs exhibit oscillation behaviors when the simulation system reaches equilibrium state. The relationships between the oscillation and confinement potential and attraction potential are studied in this paper. The simulation results are qualitatively similar to experimental results.

  7. Charge Separation in Semicrystalline Polymeric Semiconductors by Photoexcitation: Is the Mechanism Intrinsic or Extrinsic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paquin, Francis; Latini, Gianluca; Sakowicz, Maciej; Karsenti, Paul-Ludovic; Wang, Linjun; Beljonne, David; Stingelin, Natalie; Silva, Carlos

    2011-05-01

    We probe charge photogeneration and subsequent recombination dynamics in neat regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) films over six decades in time by means of time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Exciton dissociation at 10 K occurs extrinsically at interfaces between molecularly ordered and disordered domains. Polaron pairs thus produced recombine by tunneling with distributed rates governed by the distribution of electron-hole radii. Quantum-chemical calculations suggest that hot-exciton dissociation at such interfaces results from a high charge-transfer character.

  8. Research on the drag reduction performance induced by the counterflowing jet for waverider with variable blunt radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shi-bin; Wang, Zhen-guo; Barakos, George N.; Huang, Wei; Steijl, Rene

    2016-10-01

    Waverider will endure the huge aero-heating in the hypersonic flow, thus, it need be blunt for the leading edge. However, the aerodynamic performance will decrease for the blunt waverider because of the drag hoik. How to improve the aerodynamic performance and reduce the drag and aero-heating is very important. The variable blunt radii method will improve the aerodynamic performance, however, the huge aero-heating and bow shock wave at the head is still serious. In the current study, opposing jet is used in the waverider with variable blunt radii to improve its performance. The three-dimensional coupled implicit Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) equation and the two equation SST k-ω turbulence model have been utilized to obtain the flow field properties. The numerical method has been validated against the available experimental data in the open literature. The obtained results show that the L/D will drop 7-8% when R changes from 2 to 8. The lift coefficient will increase, and the drag coefficient almost keeps the same when the variable blunt radii method is adopted, and the L/D will increase. The variable blunt radii method is very useful to improve the whole characteristics of blunt waverider and the L/D can improve 3%. The combination of the variable blunt radii method and opposing jet is a novel way to improve the whole performance of blunt waverider, and L/D can improve 4-5%. The aperture as a novel way of opposing jet is suitable for blunt waverider and also useful to improve the aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic characteristics of waverider in the hypersonic flow. There is the optimal P0in/P0 that can make the detached shock wave reattach the lower surface again so that the blunt waverider can get the better aerodynamic performance.

  9. Robust scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions with quantum chemical charge models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jui-Chih; Lin, Jung-Hsin; Chen, Chung-Ming; Perryman, Alex L; Olson, Arthur J

    2011-10-24

    Ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression has been used widely for constructing the scoring functions for protein-ligand interactions. However, OLS is very sensitive to the existence of outliers, and models constructed using it are easily affected by the outliers or even the choice of the data set. On the other hand, determination of atomic charges is regarded as of central importance, because the electrostatic interaction is known to be a key contributing factor for biomolecular association. In the development of the AutoDock4 scoring function, only OLS was conducted, and the simple Gasteiger method was adopted. It is therefore of considerable interest to see whether more rigorous charge models could improve the statistical performance of the AutoDock4 scoring function. In this study, we have employed two well-established quantum chemical approaches, namely the restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) and the Austin-model 1-bond charge correction (AM1-BCC) methods, to obtain atomic partial charges, and we have compared how different charge models affect the performance of AutoDock4 scoring functions. In combination with robust regression analysis and outlier exclusion, our new protein-ligand free energy regression model with AM1-BCC charges for ligands and Amber99SB charges for proteins achieve lowest root-mean-squared error of 1.637 kcal/mol for the training set of 147 complexes and 2.176 kcal/mol for the external test set of 1427 complexes. The assessment for binding pose prediction with the 100 external decoy sets indicates very high success rate of 87% with the criteria of predicted root-mean-squared deviation of less than 2 Å. The success rates and statistical performance of our robust scoring functions are only weakly class-dependent (hydrophobic, hydrophilic, or mixed).

  10. Electrical Charging of Aerosols and Conductivity of Titan's Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, W. J.; Whitten, R. C.; Tripathi, S. N.; Bakes, E. L. O.; Barth, E.

    2004-01-01

    We have used recent data on graphitic cloud particles in the atmosphere of Titan to compute the electrical charging of the particles (radii ranging from 0.01 microns to 0.26 microns). The charging on the nightside was rather similar to that obtained earlier except that charge distributions on the particles are now computed and recently obtained cloud particle sizes and density distributions were employed. The negative charge on particles of 0.26 microns peaked at 9 at 150 km altitude. The computations were repeated for the dayside with the addition of photoelectron emission by the particles as a result of the absorption of solar UV radiation. Particles (except the very smallest) now became positively charged with particles of radius 0.26 microns being charged up to +47. Next, very small particles (radii approx. 3 x 10 (sup -4) microns) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were introduced and treated as sources of negative ions since they could be either neutral or carry one negative charge. Moreover, they are mobile so that they had to be treated like molecular size negative ions although much more massive. They had the effect of substantially reducing the electron densities in the altitude range 190 to 310 km to values less than the negative PAH densities and increasing the peak electron charge on the larger particles. Particles of radius 0.26 microns bore peak charges of approx. +47 at altitudes of approx. 250 km. The simulated effect of PAHs on the nightside proved to be much less pronounced; at the peak negative PAH density, it was less than the electron density. The physics governing these results will be discussed.

  11. Radii and Mass-loss Rates of Type IIb Supernova Progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouchi, Ryoma; Maeda, Keiichi

    2017-05-01

    Several Type IIb supernovae (SNe IIb) have been extensively studied, both in terms of the progenitor radius and the mass-loss rate in the final centuries before the explosion. While the sample is still limited, evidence has been accumulating that the final mass-loss rate tends to be larger for a more extended progenitor, with the difference exceeding an order of magnitude between the more and less extended progenitors. The high mass-loss rates inferred for the more extended progenitors are not readily explained by a prescription commonly used for a single stellar wind. In this paper, we calculate a grid of binary evolution models. We show that the observational relation in the progenitor radii and mass-loss rates may be a consequence of non-conservative mass transfer in the final phase of progenitor evolution without fine tuning. Further, we find a possible link between SNe IIb and SNe IIn. The binary scenario for SNe IIb inevitably leads to a population of SN progenitors surrounded by dense circumstellar matter (CSM) due to extensive mass loss (\\dot{M}≳ {10}-4 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1) in the binary origin. About 4% of all observed SNe IIn are predicted to have dense CSM, produced by binary non-conservative mass transfer, whose observed characteristics are distinguishable from SNe IIn from other scenarios. Indeed, such SNe may be observationally dominated by systems experiencing huge mass loss in the final 103 yr, leading to luminous SNe IIn or initially bright SNe IIP or IIL with characteristics of SNe IIn in their early spectra.

  12. Fabrication of large radii toroidal surfaces by single point diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, J.P.; Marlar, T.A.; Miller, A.C.; Paterson, R. L.

    1995-12-31

    An unconventional machining technique has been developed for producing relatively large radii quasi-toroidal surfaces which could not normally be produced by conventional diamond turning technology. The maximum radial swing capacity of a diamond turning lathe is the limiting factor for the rotational radius of any toroid. A typical diamond turned toroidal surface is produced when a part is rotated about the spindle axis while the diamond tool contours the surface with any curved path. Toric surfaces sliced horizontally, have been used in laser resonator cavities. This paper will address the fabrication of a special case of toroids where a rotating tool path is a circle whose center is offset from the rotational axis of the toroid by a distance greater than the minor radius of the tool path. The quasi-toroidal surfaces produced by this technique approximate all asymmetrical combinations of concave/convex section of a torus. Other machine configurations have been reported which offer alternative approaches to the fabrication of concave asymmetric aspheric surfaces. Prototypes of unique lenses each having two quasi-toroidal surfaces were fabricated in the Ultraprecision Manufacturing Technology Center at form key components of a scanned laser focusing system. As an example of the problem faced, the specifications for one of the surfaces was equivalent to a section of a torus with a two meter diameter hole. The lenses were fabricated on a Nanoform 600 diamond turning lathe. This is a numerically controlled two axis T-base lathe with an air bearing spindle and oil hydrostatic slides. The maximum radial swing for this machine is approximately 0.3 meters.

  13. THE INNERMOST COLLIMATION STRUCTURE OF THE M87 JET DOWN TO ∼10 SCHWARZSCHILD RADII

    SciTech Connect

    Hada, Kazuhiro; Giroletti, Marcello; Giovannini, Gabriele; Kino, Motoki; Doi, Akihiro; Nagai, Hiroshi; Honma, Mareki; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki

    2013-09-20

    We investigated the detailed inner jet structure of M87 using Very Long Baseline Array data at 2, 5, 8.4, 15, 23.8, 43, and 86 GHz, especially focusing on the multi-frequency properties of the radio core at the jet base. First, we measured the size of the core region transverse to the jet axis, defined as W{sub c}, at each frequency ν, and found a relation between W{sub c} and ν: W{sub c}(ν)∝ν{sup –0.71±0.05}. Then, by combining W{sub c}(ν) and the frequency dependence of the core position r{sub c}(ν), which was obtained in our previous study, we constructed a collimation profile of the innermost jet W{sub c}(r) down to ∼10 Schwarzschild radii (R{sub s}) from the central black hole. We found that W{sub c}(r) smoothly connects with the width profile of the outer edge-brightened, parabolic jet and then follows a similar radial dependence down to several tens of R{sub s}. Closer to the black hole, the measured radial profile suggests a possible change in the jet collimation shape from the outer parabolic one, where the jet shape tends to become more radially oriented. This result could be related to a magnetic collimation process or/and interactions with surrounding materials at the jet base. The present results shed light on the importance of higher-sensitivity/resolution imaging studies of M87 at 86, 43, and 22 GHz; these studies should be examined more rigorously.

  14. Proton radius of 14Be from measurement of charge-changing cross sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, S.; Tanihata, I.; Kanungo, R.; Estradé, A.; Horiuchi, W.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Neff, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Suzuki, Y.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Vargas, J.; Winfield, J. S.; Weick, H.

    2014-10-01

    The charge-changing cross sections of {}^{7,9-12,14}Be have been measured at 900AMeV on a carbon target. These cross sections are discussed both in terms of a geometrical and a Glauber model. From several different analyses of the cross sections, the proton distribution radius (proton radius) of {}^{14}Be is determined for the first time to be 2.41 ± 0.04 fm. A large difference in the proton and neutron radii is found. The proton radii are compared to the results of fermionic molecular dynamics (FMD) and antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) calculations.

  15. The transverse momentum dependence of charged kaon Bose–Einstein correlations in the SELEX experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Nigmatkulov, G. A.; et al.

    2015-12-18

    We report the measurement of the one-dimensional charged kaon correlation functions using 600 GeV/c Σ–, π– and 540 GeV/Cρ beams from the SELEX (E781) experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. K±K± correlation functions are studied for three transverse pair momentum, kT, ranges and parameterized by a Gaussian form. The emission source radii, R, and the correlation strength, λ, are extracted. Furthermore, the analysis shows a decrease of the source radii with increasing kaon transverse pair momentum for all beam types.

  16. Transportable charge in a periodic alternating gradient system

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.; Fessenden, T.J.; Laslett, L.J.

    1985-05-01

    A simple set of formulas is derived which relate emittance, line charge density, matched maximum and average envelope radii, occupancy factors, and the (space charge) depressed and vacuum values of tune. This formulation is an improvement on the smooth limit approximation; deviations from exact (numerically determined) relations are on the order of +-2%, while the smooth limit values are in error by up to +-30%. This transport formalism is used to determine the limits of transportable line charge density in an electrostatic quadrupole array, with specific application to the low energy portion of the High Temperature Experiment of Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research. The line charge density limit is found to be essentially proportional to the voltage on the pole faces and the fraction of occupied aperture area. A finite injection energy (greater than or equal to 2 MeV) is required to realize this limit, independent of particle mass.

  17. Hydrodynamic Radii of Intrinsically Disordered Proteins Determined from Experimental Polyproline II Propensities.

    PubMed

    Tomasso, Maria E; Tarver, Micheal J; Devarajan, Deepa; Whitten, Steven T

    2016-01-01

    The properties of disordered proteins are thought to depend on intrinsic conformational propensities for polyproline II (PPII) structure. While intrinsic PPII propensities have been measured for the common biological amino acids in short peptides, the ability of these experimentally determined propensities to quantitatively reproduce structural behavior in intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) has not been established. Presented here are results from molecular simulations of disordered proteins showing that the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) can be predicted from experimental PPII propensities with good agreement, even when charge-based considerations are omitted. The simulations demonstrate that Rh and chain propensity for PPII structure are linked via a simple power-law scaling relationship, which was tested using the experimental Rh of 22 IDPs covering a wide range of peptide lengths, net charge, and sequence composition. Charge effects on Rh were found to be generally weak when compared to PPII effects on Rh. Results from this study indicate that the hydrodynamic dimensions of IDPs are evidence of considerable sequence-dependent backbone propensities for PPII structure that qualitatively, if not quantitatively, match conformational propensities measured in peptides.

  18. CHARGE Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Semanti; Chakraborty, Jayanta

    2012-12-01

    We present here a case of 17-year-old boy from Kolkata presenting with obesity, bilateral gynecomastia, mental retardation, and hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism. The patient weighed 70 kg and was of 153 cm height. Facial asymmetry (unilateral facial palsy), gynecomastia, decreased pubic and axillary hair, small penis, decreased right testicular volume, non-palpable left testis, and right-sided congenital inguinal hernia was present. The patient also had disc coloboma, convergent squint, microcornea, microphthalmia, pseudohypertelorism, low set ears, short neck, and choanalatresia. He had h/o VSD repaired with patch. Laboratory examination revealed haemoglobin 9.9 mg/dl, urea 24 mg/dl, creatinine 0.68 mg/dl. IGF1 77.80 ng/ml (decreased for age), GH <0.05 ng/ml, testosterone 0.25 ng/ml, FSH-0.95 μIU/ml, LH 0.60 ΅IU/ml. ACTH, 8:00 A.M cortisol, FT3, FT4, TSH, estradiol, DHEA-S, lipid profile, and LFT was within normal limits. Prolactin was elevated at 38.50 ng/ml. The patient's karyotype was 46XY. Echocardiography revealed ventricularseptal defect closed with patch, grade 1 aortic regurgitation, and ejection fraction 67%. Ultrasound testis showed small right testis within scrotal sac and undescended left testis within left inguinal canal. CT scan paranasal sinuses revealed choanalatresia and deviation of nasal septum to the right. Sonomammography revealed bilateral proliferation of fibroglandular elements predominantly in subareoalar region of breasts. MRI of brain and pituitary region revealed markedly atrophic pituitary gland parenchyma with preserved infundibulum and hypothalamus and widened suprasellar cistern. The CHARGE association is an increasingly recognized non-random pattern of congenital anomalies comprising of coloboma, heart defect, choanal atresia, retarded growth and development, genital hypoplasia, ear abnormalities, and/or deafness.[1] These anomalies have a higher probability of occurring together. In this report, we have described a boy with CHARGE

  19. Measurements of Lunar Dust Charging Properties by Electron Impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Craven, Paul D.; Schneider, Todd A.; Vaughn, Jason A.; LeClair, Andre; Spann, James F.; Norwood, Joseph K.

    2009-01-01

    Dust grains in the lunar environment are believed to be electrostatically charged predominantly by photoelectric emissions resulting from solar UV radiation on the dayside, and on the nightside by interaction with electrons in the solar wind plasma. In the high vacuum environment on the lunar surface with virtually no atmosphere, the positive and negative charge states of micron/submicron dust grains lead to some unusual physical and dynamical dust phenomena. Knowledge of the electrostatic charging properties of dust grains in the lunar environment is required for addressing their hazardous effect on the humans and mechanical systems. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual small micron size dust grains are substantially different from the measurements on bulk materials. In this paper we present the results of measurements on charging of individual Apollo 11 and Apollo 17 dust grains by exposing them to mono-energetic electron beams in the 10-100 eV energy range. The charging/discharging rates of positively and negatively charged particles of approx. 0.1 to 5 micron radii are discussed in terms of the sticking efficiencies and secondary electron yields. The secondary electron emission process is found to be a complex and effective charging/discharging mechanism for incident electron energies as low as 10-25 eV, with a strong dependence on particle size. Implications of the laboratory measurements on the nature of dust grain charging in the lunar environment are discussed.

  20. A Hard Look at Neutron Star Radii and Disks with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Jon

    2013-10-01

    We request 40 ks observations of Cygnus X-2, 4U 1636-53, GX 17+2 and 4U 1705-44, jointly with XMM-Newton and NuSTAR. The primary goals are to test the ubiquity of relativistic lines in "Z" and "atoll" sources, and to obtain constraints on stellar radii and/or inner disk radii in cases where relativistic lines are found. With NuSTAR as a guide, we will determine when pile-up has been removed from the EPIC-pn ``timing'' mode observations via the exclusion of central pixels. We can then fully leverage the superior resolution of the EPIC-pn in the Fe K band in order to check for ionized disk winds that could distort disk reflection. The low energy coverage of XMM-Newton will give the best possible contraints on the direct continuum and the neutral line-of-sight absorption.

  1. Neutron star radii and crusts: Uncertainties and unified equations of state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortin, M.; Providência, C.; Raduta, Ad. R.; Gulminelli, F.; Zdunik, J. L.; Haensel, P.; Bejger, M.

    2016-09-01

    The uncertainties in neutron star radii and crust properties due to our limited knowledge of the equation of state are quantitatively analyzed. We first demonstrate the importance of a unified microscopic description for the different baryonic densities of the star. If the pressure functional is obtained matching a crust and a core equation of state based on models with different properties at nuclear matter saturation, the uncertainties can be as large as ˜30 % for the crust thickness and 4% for the radius. Necessary conditions for causal and thermodynamically consistent matchings between the core and the crust are formulated and their consequences examined. A large set of unified equations of state for purely nucleonic matter is obtained based on twenty-four Skyrme interactions and nine relativistic mean-field nuclear parametrizations. In addition, for relativistic models fifteen equations of state including a transition to hyperonic matter at high density are presented. All these equations of state have in common the property of describing a 2 M⊙ star and of being causal within stable neutron stars. Spans of ˜3 and ˜4 km are obtained for the radius of, respectively, 1.0 M⊙ and 2.0 M⊙ stars. Applying a set of nine further constraints from experiment and ab initio calculations the uncertainty is reduced to ˜1 and 2 km, respectively. These residual uncertainties reflect lack of constraints at large densities and insufficient information on the density dependence of the equation of state near the nuclear matter saturation point. The most important parameter to be constrained is shown to be the symmetry energy slope L . Indeed, this parameter exhibits a linear correlation with the stellar radius, which is particularly clear for small mass stars around 1.0 M⊙ . The other equation-of-state parameters do not show clear correlations with the radius, within the present uncertainties. Potential constraints on L , the neutron star radius, and the equation of

  2. Kinematics of the jet in M 87 on scales of 100-1000 Schwarzschild radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, F.; Lobanov, A. P.; Walker, R. C.; Hardee, P. E.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging of radio emission from extragalactic jets provides a unique probe of physical mechanisms governing the launching, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic outflows. Aims: VLBI imaging of the jet in the nearby active galaxy M 87 enables morphological and kinematic studies to be done on linear scales down to 100 Schwarzschild radii (Rs). Methods: The two-dimensional structure and kinematics of the jet in M 87 (NGC 4486) have been studied by applying the wavelet-based image segmentation and evaluation (WISE) method to 11 images obtained from multi-epoch Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations made in January-August 2007 at 43 GHz (λ = 7 mm). Results: The WISE analysis recovers a detailed two-dimensional velocity field in the jet in M 87 at sub-parsec scales. The observed evolution of the flow velocity with distance from the jet base can be explained in the framework of MHD jet acceleration and Poynting flux conversion. A linear acceleration regime is observed up to zobs 2 mas. The acceleration is reduced at larger scales, which is consistent with saturation of Poynting flux conversion. Stacked cross correlation analysis of the images reveals a pronounced stratification of the flow. The flow consists of a slow, mildly relativistic layer (moving at β 0.5c), associated either with instability pattern speed or an outer wind, and a fast, accelerating stream line (with β 0.92, corresponding to a bulk Lorentz factor γ 2.5). A systematic difference of the apparent speeds in the northern and southern limbs of the jet is detected, providing evidence for jet rotation. The angular velocity of the magnetic field line associated with this rotation suggests that the jet in M 87 is launched in the inner part of the disk, at a distance r0 5Rs from the central engine. Conclusions: The combined results of the analysis imply that MHD acceleration and conversion of Poynting flux to kinetic energy play the dominant

  3. An improved algorithm for inferring neutron star masses and radii using NICER waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.; Miller, M. Coleman

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a new, faster Bayesian analysis algorithm that enables us to use energy-resolved waveforms of X-ray burst oscillations, like those that will be obtained using NICER, to estimate quickly the masses and radii of rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars and determine the uncertainties in these estimates. We use the oblate-Schwarzschild (OS) approximation, which Cadeau et al. (2007) showed provides a very accurate description of the waveforms produced by hot spots on rapidly rotating, oblate neutron stars. We show that the angular radius of the hot spot and a phase-independent but otherwise arbitrary background must be included as part of the fit; to do otherwise is observationally incorrect and leads to misleadingly tight constraints on the mass and radius. A simple, single-hot-spot waveform model with 30 energy channels has 38 parameters. If the waveform data is informative, i.e., if they tightly constrain the mass M and the equatorial radius R of the star, the high-probability regions of the full parameter space are small. A grid search of this space would therefore require a prohibitive number of waveform computations. Here we describe a different procedure that is much more efficient. This new procedure (1) generates waveforms by interpolating in a table of pre-computed waveforms and (2) computes bounding ellipsoids that encompass points in the waveform parameter space that have interestingly high likelihoods. Using these bounding ellipsoids typically reduces the volume of the Monte Carlo integration by a factor ~ 30. The net result of these improvements is that whereas the analysis procedure used in Lo et al. (2013) took 50-150 clock hours on a 150-core cluster and did not search the (M,R) volume of interest, the new analysis procedure takes 50-150 clock hours on a 5-core desktop computer to perform a completely blind search of the full volume, despite the additional complexity of the OS waveform model used in the new algorithm.

  4. On neutron stars in f(R) theories: Small radii, large masses and large energy emitted in a merger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio Resco, Miguel; de la Cruz-Dombriz, Álvaro; Llanes Estrada, Felipe J.; Zapatero Castrillo, Víctor

    2016-09-01

    In the context of f(R) gravity theories, we show that the apparent mass of a neutron star as seen from an observer at infinity is numerically calculable but requires careful matching, first at the star's edge, between interior and exterior solutions, none of them being totally Schwarzschild-like but presenting instead small oscillations of the curvature scalar R; and second at large radii, where the Newtonian potential is used to identify the mass of the neutron star. We find that for the same equation of state, this mass definition is always larger than its general relativistic counterpart. We exemplify this with quadratic R2 and Hu-Sawicki-like modifications of the standard General Relativity action. Therefore, the finding of two-solar mass neutron stars basically imposes no constraint on stable f(R) theories. However, star radii are in general smaller than in General Relativity, which can give an observational handle on such classes of models at the astrophysical level. Both larger masses and smaller matter radii are due to much of the apparent effective energy residing in the outer metric for scalar-tensor theories. Finally, because the f(R) neutron star masses can be much larger than General Relativity counterparts, the total energy available for radiating gravitational waves could be of order several solar masses, and thus a merger of these stars constitutes an interesting wave source.

  5. The stellar accretion origin of stellar population gradients at large radii in massive, early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschmann, Michaela; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the differential impact of physical mechanisms, mergers (stellar accretion) and internal energetic phenomena, on the evolution of stellar population gradients in massive, present-day galaxies employing a set of high-resolved, cosmological zoom simulations. We demonstrate that negative metallicity and color gradients at large radii (>2Reff) originate from the accretion of metal-poor stellar systems. At larger radii, galaxies become typically more dominated by stars accreted from satellite galaxies in major and minor mergers. However, only strong galactic winds can sufficiently reduce the metallicity content of the accreted stars to realistically steepen the outer metallicity and colour gradients in agreement with present-day observations. In contrast, the gradients of the models without winds are inconsistent with observations (too flat). In the wind model, colour and metallicity gradients are significantly steeper for systems which have accreted stars in minor mergers, while galaxies with major mergers have relatively flat gradients, confirming previous results. This analysis greatly highlights the importance of both energetic processes and merger events for stellar population properties of massive galaxies at large radii. Our results are expected to significantly contribute to the interpretation of current and up-coming IFU surveys (like MaNGA and Califa), which in turn can help to constrain models for energetic processes in simulations.

  6. Strong correlations of neutron star radii with the slopes of nuclear matter incompressibility and symmetry energy at saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, N.; Agrawal, B. K.; Fortin, M.; Pais, H.; Providência, C.; Raduta, Ad. R.; Sulaksono, A.

    2016-11-01

    We examine the correlations of neutron star radii with the nuclear matter incompressibility, symmetry energy, and their slopes, which are the key parameters of the equation of state (EoS) of asymmetric nuclear matter. The neutron star radii and the EoS parameters are evaluated using a representative set of 24 Skyrme-type effective forces and 18 relativistic mean field models, and two microscopic calculations, all describing 2 M⊙ neutron stars. Unified EoSs for the inner-crust-core region have been built for all the phenomenological models, both relativistic and nonrelativistic. Our investigation shows the existence of a strong correlation of the neutron star radii with the linear combination of the slopes of the nuclear matter incompressibility and the symmetry energy coefficients at the saturation density. Such correlations are found to be almost independent of the neutron star mass in the range 0.6 -1.8 M⊙ . This correlation can be linked to the empirical relation existing between the star radius and the pressure at a nucleonic density between one and two times saturation density, and the dependence of the pressure on the nuclear matter incompressibility, its slope, and the symmetry energy slope. The slopes of the nuclear matter incompressibility and the symmetry energy coefficients as estimated from the finite nuclei data yield the radius of a 1.4 M⊙ neutron star in the range 11.09 -12.86 km.

  7. Uniform spatial distribution of collagen fibril radii within tendon implies local activation of pC-collagen at individual fibrils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew D.; Brown, Aidan I.; Kreplak, Laurent

    2016-08-01

    Collagen fibril cross-sectional radii show no systematic variation between the interior and the periphery of fibril bundles, indicating an effectively constant rate of collagen incorporation into fibrils throughout the bundle. Such spatially homogeneous incorporation constrains the extracellular diffusion of collagen precursors from sources at the bundle boundary to sinks at the growing fibrils. With a coarse-grained diffusion equation we determine stringent bounds, using parameters extracted from published experimental measurements of tendon development. From the lack of new fibril formation after birth, we further require that the concentration of diffusing precursors stays below the critical concentration for fibril nucleation. We find that the combination of the diffusive bound, which requires larger concentrations to ensure homogeneous fibril radii, and lack of nucleation, which requires lower concentrations, is only marginally consistent with fully processed collagen using conservative bounds. More realistic bounds may leave no consistent concentrations. Therefore, we propose that unprocessed pC-collagen diffuses from the bundle periphery followed by local C-proteinase activity and subsequent collagen incorporation at each fibril. We suggest that C-proteinase is localized within bundles, at fibril surfaces, during radial fibrillar growth. The much greater critical concentration of pC-collagen, as compared to fully processed collagen, then provides broad consistency between homogeneous fibril radii and the lack of fibril nucleation during fibril growth.

  8. Energetic Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere: Voyager 2 Results.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R E; Chenette, D L; Cummings, A C; Garrard, T L; Stone, E C; Schardt, A W; Trainor, J H; Lal, N; McDonald, F B

    1982-01-29

    Results from the cosmic-ray system on Voyager 2 in Saturn's magnetosphere are presented. During the inbound pass through the outer magnetosphere, the >/= 0.43-million-electron-volt proton flux was more intense, and both the proton and electron fluxes were more variable, than previously observed. These changes are attributed to the influence on the magnetosphere of variations in the solar wind conditions. Outbound, beyond 18 Saturn radii, impulsive bursts of 0.14- to > 1.0- million-electron-volt electrons were observed. In the inner magnetosphere, the charged particle absorption signatures of Mimas, Enceladus, and Tethys are used to constrain the possible tilt and offset of Saturn's internal magnetic dipole. At approximately 3 Saturn radii, a transient decrease was observed in the electron flux which was not due to Mimas. Characteristics of this decrease suggest the existence of additional material, perhaps another satellite, in the orbit of Mimas.

  9. Energetic charged particles in Saturn's magnetosphere: Voyager 2 results

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.E.; Chenette, D.L.; Cummings, A.C.; Garrard, T.L.; Stone, E.C.; Schardt, A.W.; Trainor, J.H.; Lal, N.; McDonald, F.B.

    1982-01-29

    Results from the cosmic-ray system on Voyager 2 in Saturn's magnetosphere are presented. During the inbound pass through the outer magnetosphere, the greater than or equal to 0.43-million-electron-volt proton flux was more intense, and both the proton and electron fluxes were more varible, than previously observed. These changes are attributed to the influence on the magnetosphere of variations in the solar wind conditions. Outbound, beyond 18 Saturn radii, impulsive bursts of 0.14- to > 1.0-million-electron-volt electrons were observed. In the inner magnetosphere, the charged particle absorption signatures of Mimas, Enceladus, and Tethys are used to constrain the possible tilt and offset of Saturn's internal magnetic dipole. At approx. 3 Saturn radii, a transient decrease was observed in the electron flux which was not due to Mimas. Characteristics of this decrease suggest the existence of additional material, perhaps another satellite, in the orbit of Mimas.

  10. Energetic charged particles in Saturn's magnetosphere - Voyager 2 results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, R. E.; Chenette, D. L.; Cummings, A. C.; Garrard, T. L.; Stone, E. C.; Schardt, A. W.; Trainor, J. H.; Lal, N.; McDonald, F. B.

    1982-01-01

    Results from the cosmic-ray system on Voyager 2 in Saturn's magnetosphere are presented. During the inbound pass through the outer magnetosphere, the not less than 0.43-million-electron-volt proton flux was more intense, and both the proton and electron fluxes were more variable, than previously observed. These changes are attributed to the influence on the magnetosphere of variations in the solar wind conditions. Outbound, beyond 18 Saturn radii, impulsive bursts of 0.14to greater than 1.0-million-electron-volt electrons were observed. In the inner magnetosphere, the charged particle absorption signatures of Mimas, Enceladus, and Tethys are used to constrain the possible tilt and offset of Saturn's internal magnetic dipole. At approximately 3 Saturn radii, a transient decrease was observed in the electron flux which was not due to Mimas. Characteristics of this decrease suggest the existence of additional material, perhaps another satellite, in the orbit of Mimas.

  11. Stochastic charging of dust grains in planetary rings: Diffusion rates and their effects on Lorentz resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.

  12. Stochastic charging of dust grains in planetary rings: Diffusion rates and their effects on Lorentz resonances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, L.; Burns, J. A.

    1995-01-01

    Dust grains in planetary rings acquire stochastically fluctuating electric charges as they orbit through any corotating magnetospheric plasma. Here we investigate the nature of this stochastic charging and calculate its effect on the Lorentz resonance (LR). First we model grain charging as a Markov process, where the transition probabilities are identified as the ensemble-averaged charging fluxes due to plasma pickup and photoemission. We determine the distribution function P(t;N), giving the probability that a grain has N excess charges at time t. The autocorrelation function tau(sub q) for the strochastic charge process can be approximated by a Fokker-Planck treatment of the evolution equations for P(t; N). We calculate the mean square response to the stochastic fluctuations in the Lorentz force. We find that transport in phase space is very small compared to the resonant increase in amplitudes due to the mean charge, over the timescale that the oscillator is resonantly pumped up. Therefore the stochastic charge variations cannot break the resonant interaction; locally, the Lorentz resonance is a robust mechanism for the shaping of etheral dust ring systems. Slightly stronger bounds on plasma parameters are required when we consider the longer transit times between Lorentz resonances.

  13. Intrinsic α helix propensities compact hydrodynamic radii in intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    English, Lance R; Tilton, Erin C; Ricard, Benjamin J; Whitten, Steven T

    2017-02-01

    Proteins that lack tertiary stability under normal conditions, known as intrinsically disordered, exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Molecular descriptions for the biology of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) consequently rely on disordered structural models, which in turn require experiments that assess the origins to structural features observed. For example, while hydrodynamic size is mostly insensitive to sequence composition in chemically denatured proteins, IDPs show strong sequence-specific effects in the hydrodynamic radius (Rh ) when measured under normal conditions. To investigate sequence-modulation of IDP Rh , disordered ensembles generated by a hard sphere collision model modified with a structure-based parameterization of the solution energetics were used to parse the contributions of net charge, main chain dihedral angle bias, and excluded volume on hydrodynamic size. Ensembles for polypeptides 10-35 residues in length were then used to establish power-law scaling relationships for comparison to experimental Rh from 26 IDPs. Results showed the expected outcomes of increased hydrodynamic size from increases in excluded volume and net charge, and compaction from chain-solvent interactions. Chain bias representing intrinsic preferences for α helix and polyproline II (PPII ), however, modulated Rh with intricate dependence on the simulated propensities. PPII propensities at levels expected in IDPs correlated with heightened Rh sensitivity to even weak α helix propensities, indicating bias for common (φ, ψ) are important determinants of hydrodynamic size. Moreover, data show that IDP Rh can be predicted from sequence with good accuracy from a small set of physicochemical properties, namely intrinsic conformational propensities and net charge. Proteins 2017; 85:296-311. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Nuclear Shape And Size Properties For Rare-earth Neutron-rich Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M. R.; Allal, N. H.; Fellah, M.

    2009-01-28

    Two-neutron separation energies, quadrupole moments and mean square charge radii, are evaluated for even-even Osmium isotopes with 78{<=}N{<=}114. The calculations are performed in the framework of a microscopic model including the pairing correlations rigorously by means of the FSBCS (Fixed-Sharp-BCS) method.

  15. Charge form factors of two-neutron halo nuclei in halo EFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, P.; Hammer, H.-W.; Platter, L.

    2013-09-01

    We set up a formalism to calculate the charge form factors of two-neutron halo nuclei with S -wave neutron-core interactions in the framework of the halo effective field theory. The method is applied to some known and suspected halo nuclei. In particular, we calculate the form factors and charge radii relative to the core to leading order in the halo EFT and compare to experiments where they are available. Moreover, we investigate the general dependence of the charge radius on the core mass and the one- and two-neutron separation energies.

  16. Workplace Charging. Charging Up University Campuses

    SciTech Connect

    Giles, Carrie; Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-03-01

    This case study features the experiences of university partners in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Workplace Charging Challenge with the installation and management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations.

  17. [Experimental study of poly-DL-lactic acid membrane guided bone regeneration in rabbit radii bone defects].

    PubMed

    Duan, Hong; Fan, Yubo; Dou, Jun; Pei, Fuxing

    2004-10-01

    This study was conducted to observe bone regeneration guided by poly-DL-latic acid (PDLLA) membrane in rabbit radii bone defects and to explore the mechanism of the membrane guided bone regeneration (MGBR). The animal models of bony and periosteous defects were established in both radii of 40 adult New Zealand white rabbits. The left defect as the experimental side was bridged with PDLLA membrane tube, the right side as the controlled side was untreated. The specimens were collected at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks postoperatively. General observation, X-ray, histological observation and biomechanical examination were applied to the repair of the models of MGBR in both groups. Two weeks after operation, with much new bony callus formed outside the tube at both fragments, the membrane tube covered with connective tissues was filled with haematoma and fibrous callus. Twelve weeks after operation, the PDLLA membrane became white and its tube shape was still maintained. However, new bone callus outside the tube almost completely disappeared, and inside the tubes all radii bone defects were successfully repaired with bony union. On the controlled sides, bone defects were filled with connective tissues 2 weeks postoperatively. And 12 weeks after operation, the typical nonunion that had been formed after bone marrow canals were sealed with cortical bone. On the experimental side, the strength of the newly formed bone at the 12th week was higher than that at the 8th week (P<0.05), whereas the biomechanical examination could not be done on the controlled side. Therefore, these findings suggested that the bone regeneration could be successfully guided by PDLLA membrane, and this MGBR technique might be generally used in the treatment of bone defects and nonunion.

  18. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  19. Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine infrared CH intensities of hydrocarbons: a quantum theory of atoms in molecules model.

    PubMed

    Silva, Arnaldo F; Richter, Wagner E; Meneses, Helen G C; Bruns, Roy E

    2014-11-14

    Atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effects determine most of the infrared fundamental CH intensities of simple hydrocarbons, methane, ethylene, ethane, propyne, cyclopropane and allene. The quantum theory of atoms in molecules/charge-charge flux-dipole flux model predicted the values of 30 CH intensities ranging from 0 to 123 km mol(-1) with a root mean square (rms) error of only 4.2 km mol(-1) without including a specific equilibrium atomic charge term. Sums of the contributions from terms involving charge flux and/or dipole flux averaged 20.3 km mol(-1), about ten times larger than the average charge contribution of 2.0 km mol(-1). The only notable exceptions are the CH stretching and bending intensities of acetylene and two of the propyne vibrations for hydrogens bound to sp hybridized carbon atoms. Calculations were carried out at four quantum levels, MP2/6-311++G(3d,3p), MP2/cc-pVTZ, QCISD/6-311++G(3d,3p) and QCISD/cc-pVTZ. The results calculated at the QCISD level are the most accurate among the four with root mean square errors of 4.7 and 5.0 km mol(-1) for the 6-311++G(3d,3p) and cc-pVTZ basis sets. These values are close to the estimated aggregate experimental error of the hydrocarbon intensities, 4.0 km mol(-1). The atomic charge transfer-counter polarization effect is much larger than the charge effect for the results of all four quantum levels. Charge transfer-counter polarization effects are expected to also be important in vibrations of more polar molecules for which equilibrium charge contributions can be large.

  20. Ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and ionic radii of element Uus (Z = 117) and astatine.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhiwei; Li, Jiguang; Dong, Chenzhong

    2010-12-30

    Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method was employed to calculate the first five ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and radii for the element Uus and its homologue At. Main valence correlation effects were taken into account. The Breit interaction and QED effects were also estimated. The uncertainties of calculated IPs, EAs, and IR for Uus and At were reduced through an extrapolation procedure. The good consistency with available experimental and other theoretical values demonstrates the validity of the present results. These theoretical data therefore can be used to predict some unknown physicochemical properties of element Uus, Astatine, and their compounds.

  1. Geophysical disturbance environment during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, T. N.; Stanley, G. M.; Boyd, J. S.

    1973-01-01

    The geophysical disturbance environment was quiet during the NASA/MPE barium release at 5 earth radii on September 21, 1971. At the time of the release, the magnetosphere was in the late recovery phase of a principal magnetic storm, the provisional Dst value was -13 gammas, and the local horizontal disturbance at Great Whale River was near zero. Riometer and other observations indicated low-level widespread precipitation of high-energy electrons at Great Whale River before, during, and after the release. Cloudy sky at this station prevented optical observation of aurora. No magnetic or ionospheric effects attributable to the barium release were detected at Great Whale River.

  2. Diffusion Dynamics of Charged Dust Particles in Capacitively Coupled RF Discharge System

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, W. X.; Muniandy, S. V.; Wong, C. S.; Yap, S. L.; Tan, K. S.

    2011-03-30

    Dusty plasma is loosely defined as electron-ion plasma with additional charged components of micron-sized dust particles. In this study, we developed a particle diagnostic technique based on light scattering and particle tracking velocimetry to investigate the dynamics of micron-sized titanium oxide particles in Argon gas capacitively coupled rf-discharge. The particle trajectories are constructed from sequence of image frames and treated as sample paths of charged Brownian motion. At specific sets of plasma parameters, disordered liquid-like dust particle configuration are observed. Mean-square-displacement of the particle trajectories are determined to characterize the transport dynamics. We showed that the dust particles in disordered liquid phase exhibit anomalous diffusion with different scaling exponents for short and large time scales, indicating the presence of slow and fast modes which can be related to caging effect and dispersive transport, respectively.

  3. A simple rotational pendulum method to measure the radii of gyration or mass moments of inertia of a rotor and other assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Andriulli, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    In mechanical dynamic problems, it is often necessary to know the radii of gyration or equivalent mass moments of inertia of components and assemblies. Using the rotational pendulum technique described, one can easily measure the radii of gyration about the polar and diametric axes of any rigid rotor without requiring a special fixture. The principals employed are also applicable to more complicated assemblies such as aircraft, boats, and cars, where the radius of gyration and vehicle maneuverability are of interest. This description focuses on rotors. The relative values of polar and diametric radii of gyration characterize some dynamic behavior and stability of spinning rotors. When the ratio of polar to diametric radii of gyration approaches unity, the spinning rotor may exhibit undesirable dynamic behavior. Consequently, prior to high-speed spin testing the rotor or otherwise operating the assembly, it is desirable to have a simple and inexpensive procedure to directly measure the radii of gyration of existing hardware. These data permit the technician to estimate the rotor dynamic behavior or identify potential problems prior to committing to operation. If sufficient part information is available, such as dimensions, geometry and material density, one can calculate the radii of gyration. For complicated parts, this can be time consuming. Often the technician does not have access to the rotor`s dimensional details to make the calculations. Hence, an inexpensive empirical technique such as the one described is valuable.

  4. A new FFT-based algorithm to compute Born radii in the generalized Born theory of biomolecule solvation

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Wei Xu Zhenli; Baumketner, Andrij

    2008-12-20

    In this paper, a new method for calculating effective atomic radii within the generalized Born (GB) model of implicit solvation is proposed, for use in computer simulations of biomolecules. First, a new formulation for the GB radii is developed, in which smooth kernels are used to eliminate the divergence in volume integrals intrinsic in the model. Next, the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm is applied to integrate smoothed functions, taking advantage of the rapid spectral decay provided by the smoothing. The total cost of the proposed algorithm scales as O(N{sup 3}logN+M) where M is the number of atoms comprised in a molecule and N is the number of FFT grid points in one dimension, which depends only on the geometry of the molecule and the spectral decay of the smooth kernel but not on M. To validate our algorithm, numerical tests are performed for three solute models: one spherical object for which exact solutions exist and two protein molecules of differing size. The tests show that our algorithm is able to reach the accuracy of other existing GB implementations, while offering much lower computational cost.

  5. A new FFT-based algorithm to compute Born radii in the generalized Born theory of biomolecule solvation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wei; Xu, Zhenli; Baumketner, Andrij

    2008-12-20

    In this paper, a new method for calculating effective atomic radii within the generalized Born (GB) model of implicit solvation is proposed, for use in computer simulations of bio-molecules. First, a new formulation for the GB radii is developed, in which smooth kernels are used to eliminate the divergence in volume integrals intrinsic in the model. Next, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm is applied to integrate smoothed functions, taking advantage of the rapid spectral decay provided by the smoothing. The total cost of the proposed algorithm scales as O(N(3)logN + M) where M is the number of atoms comprised in a molecule, and N is the number of FFT grid points in one dimension, which depends only on the geometry of the molecule and the spectral decay of the smooth kernel but not on M. To validate our algorithm, numerical tests are performed for three solute models: one spherical object for which exact solutions exist and two protein molecules of differing size. The tests show that our algorithm is able to reach the accuracy of other existing GB implementations, while offering much lower computational cost.

  6. A New Semi-Empirical Technique For Computing Effective Temperatures For Main Sequence Stars From Their Mass And Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aslan, Gürkan; Soydugan, Faruk; Eker, Zeki; Bilir, Selçuk; Bakış, Volkan

    2016-07-01

    A semi-empirical technique of improving effective temperature for main sequence stars from their observed mass and radius based on the Stefan-Boltzmann law, was introduced and applied to 450 main-sequence stars with accurate parameters. The method requires a mass-luminosity relation (MLR) and theoretical predictions of radius and effective temperature for stars at zero age main-sequence and at terminal age main-sequence. The MLRs, which act as if a catalyst, are necessary but have no effect on the final result. The present sample of main-sequence stars, which are members of the detached double-lined eclipsing binaries in the solar neighborhood chosen from Eker et al. (2014), have an error histogram for the observed effective temperatures with a peak at 2-3%. Errors of refined effective temperatures by the present method are the propagated errors of the observed masses and radii, that is, the refined temperatures and associated errors are independent of the observational temperatures and their associated errors. The histogram of the refined temperature errors shows a peak at less than 1%. A refined sample of stars (270 out of 450) with masses and radii accurate up to 3% and their refined effective temperatures has been used in this study to improve the classical MLRs. One may prefer, however, to use improved classical MLRs, which allows one to compute effective temperatures as accurate as 3.5%.

  7. Empirical Calibration of the P-Factor for Cepheid Radii Determined Using the IR Baade-Wesselink Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, Michael D.; Laney, C. D.

    2012-05-01

    We have used 41 galactic Cepheids for which parallax or cluster/association distances are available, and for which pulsation parallaxes can be calculated, to calibrate the p-factor to be used in K-band Baade-Wesselink radius calculations. Our sample includes the 10 Cepheids from Benedict et al. (2007), and three additional Cepheids with Hipparcos parallaxes derived from van Leeuwen et al. (2007). Turner and Burke (2002) list cluster distances for 33 Cepheids for which radii have been or (in a few cases) can be calculated. Revised cluster distances from Turner (2010), Turner and Majaess (2008, 2012), and Majaess and Turner (2011, 2012a, 2012b) have been used where possible. Radii have been calculated using the methods described in Laney and Stobie (1995) and converted to K-band absolute magnitudes using the methods described in van Leeuwen et al. (2007), Feast et al. (2008), and Laney and Joner (2009). The resulting pulsation parallaxes have been used to estimate the p-factor for each Cepheid. These new results stand in contradiction to those derived by Storm et al. (2011), but are in good agreement with theoretical predictions by Nardetto et al. (2009) and with interferometric estimates of the p-factor, as summarized in Groenewegen (2007). We acknowledge the Brigham Young University College of Physical and Mathematical Sciences for continued support of research done using the facilities and personnel at the West Mountain Observatory. This support is connected with NSF/AST grant #0618209.

  8. The direct cooling tail method for X-ray burst analysis to constrain neutron star masses and radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleimanov, Valery F.; Poutanen, Juri; Nättilä, Joonas; Kajava, Jari J. E.; Revnivtsev, Mikhail G.; Werner, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    Determining neutron star (NS) radii and masses can help to understand the properties of matter at supra-nuclear densities. Thermal emission during thermonuclear X-ray bursts from NSs in low-mass X-ray binaries provides a unique opportunity to study NS parameters, because of the high fluxes, large luminosity variations and the related changes in the spectral properties. The standard cooling tail method uses hot NS atmosphere models to convert the observed spectral evolution during cooling stages of X-ray bursts to the Eddington flux FEdd and the stellar angular size Ω. These are then translated to the constraints on the NS mass M and radius R. Here we present the improved, direct cooling tail method that generalizes the standard approach. First, we adjust the cooling tail method to account for the bolometric correction to the flux. Then, we fit the observed dependence of the blackbody normalization on flux with a theoretical model directly on the M-R plane by interpolating theoretical dependences to a given gravity, hence ensuring only weakly informative priors for M and R instead of FEdd and Ω. The direct cooling method is demonstrated using a photospheric radius expansion burst from SAX J1810.8-2609, which has happened when the system was in the hard state. Comparing to the standard cooling tail method, the confidence regions are shifted by 1σ towards larger radii, giving R = 11.5-13.0 km at M = 1.3-1.8 M⊙ for this NS.

  9. The Effect of Modified Gravity on the Odds of the Bound Violations of the Turn-around Radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jounghun; Li, Baojiu

    2017-06-01

    The turn-around radii of the galaxy groups show the imprint of a long battle between their self-gravitational forces and the accelerating space. The standard ΛCDM cosmology based on the general relativity (GR) predicts the existence of an upper bound on the expectation value of the turn-around radius that is rarely violated by individual galaxy groups. We speculate that a deviation of the gravitational law from GR on the cosmological scale could cause an appreciable shift of the mean turn-around radius to higher values and make the occurrence of the bound violation more probable. Analyzing the data from high-resolution N-body simulations for two specific models with modified gravity (MG) and the standard GR+ΛCDM cosmology, we determine the turn-around radii of the massive Rockstar groups from the peculiar motions of the galactic halos located in the bound zone where the fifth force generated by MG is expected to be, at most, partially shielded. We detect a 4σ signal of difference in the odds of the bound violations between a fiducial MG and the GR models, which proves that the odds of the bound violations increase with the strength of the fifth force produced by the presence of MG. The advantage of using the odds of the bound violations as a complementary diagnostics to probe the nature of gravity is discussed.

  10. Constructing a statistical atlas of the radii of the optic nerve and cerebrospinal fluid sheath in young healthy adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, Robert L.; Plassard, Andrew J.; Mawn, Louise A.; Galloway, Robert L.; Smith, Seth A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Optic neuritis is a sudden inflammation of the optic nerve (ON) and is marked by pain on eye movement, and visual symptoms such as a decrease in visual acuity, color vision, contrast and visual field defects. The ON is closely linked with multiple sclerosis (MS) and patients have a 50% chance of developing MS within 15 years. Recent advances in multi-atlas segmentation methods have omitted volumetric assessment. In the past, measuring the size of the ON has been done by hand. We utilize a new method of automatically segmenting the ON to measure the radii of both the ON and surrounding cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sheath to develop a normative distribution of healthy young adults. We examine this distribution for any trends and find that ON and CSF sheath radii do not vary between 20-35 years of age and between sexes. We evaluate how six patients suffering from optic neuropathy compare to this distribution of controls. We find that of these six patients, five of them qualitatively differ from the normative distribution which suggests this technique could be used in the future to distinguish between optic neuritis patients and healthy controls

  11. Modulation of folding energy landscape by charge-charge interactions: linking experiments with computational modeling.

    PubMed

    Tzul, Franco O; Schweiker, Katrina L; Makhatadze, George I

    2015-01-20

    The kinetics of folding-unfolding of a structurally diverse set of four proteins optimized for thermodynamic stability by rational redesign of surface charge-charge interactions is characterized experimentally. The folding rates are faster for designed variants compared with their wild-type proteins, whereas the unfolding rates are largely unaffected. A simple structure-based computational model, which incorporates the Debye-Hückel formalism for the electrostatics, was used and found to qualitatively recapitulate the experimental results. Analysis of the energy landscapes of the designed versus wild-type proteins indicates the differences in refolding rates may be correlated with the degree of frustration of their respective energy landscapes. Our simulations indicate that naturally occurring wild-type proteins have frustrated folding landscapes due to the surface electrostatics. Optimization of the surface electrostatics seems to remove some of that frustration, leading to enhanced formation of native-like contacts in the transition-state ensembles (TSE) and providing a less frustrated energy landscape between the unfolded and TS ensembles. Macroscopically, this results in faster folding rates. Furthermore, analyses of pairwise distances and radii of gyration suggest that the less frustrated energy landscapes for optimized variants are a result of more compact unfolded and TS ensembles. These findings from our modeling demonstrates that this simple model may be used to: (i) gain a detailed understanding of charge-charge interactions and their effects on modulating the energy landscape of protein folding and (ii) qualitatively predict the kinetic behavior of protein surface electrostatic interactions.

  12. Space Charge Compensation (SSC) in hadron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, V; /Fermilab

    2010-04-01

    Longitudinal space-charge fields can generate substantial distortion of the rf-generated potential wells, fill the extraction kicker gap in the beam, affect the incoherent synchrotron tune spread, and have the potential for causing instability and longitudinal emittance growth. The net effective voltage per turn resulting from the space-charge self voltage and the ring inductive wall impedance ?0L is proportional to the slope of the beam current distribution e{beta}c {lambda}(s) and can be expressed as: V{sub s} = {partial_derivative}{lambda}(s)/{partial_derivative}s [g{sub 0}Z{sub 0}/2{beta}{gamma}{sup 2} - {omega}{sub 0}L]e{beta}cR where R = c/{omega}{sub 0} is the average machine radius, Z{sub 0} = 377 Ohm and g{sub 0} = 1 + 2ln(b/a) is the geometric space-charge constant, a and b are the beam radii and vacuum-chamber aperture. By introduction a tunable inductance L, e.g. of ferrite rings, the term in brackets and, consequently, the space-charge effect may be substantially reduced or canceled at some chosen energy [1]. This concept has been experimentally proven at the LANL Proton Storage Ring at LANL where three inductive inserts, each consisting of 30 'cores' of a cylindrically shaped ferrite with thickness of 1 inch, inner diameter of 5 inches, and an outer diameter of 8 inches, were installed. The magnetic permeability of the ferrite could be adjusted by introducing current into solenoids wound around the ferrite so that in the MHz range of frequencies the longitudinal space charge impedance of the machine was compensated. A strong longitudinal instability was noticed at much higher frequencies of about 75 MHz, but it was later suppressed by heating the ferrite to a temperature of 130 C to make it more lossy.

  13. Singularity free charged anisotropic solutions of Einstein-Maxwell field equations in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. N.; Pant, N.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present generalization of anisotropic analogue of charged Heintzmann's solution of the general relativistic field equations in curvature coordinates. These exact solutions are stable and well behaved in all respect for a wide range of anisotropy parameter and charge parameter. We have found that these new solutions are suitable for the modeling of super dense stars like neutron stars and quark stars because they yield a wide range of masses and radii with simple mathematical expressions. By tuning different values of the few parameters, we can model various neutron stars and quark stars which are compatible with the experimentally observed values of masses and radii. Therefore, we have synchronized our solution with the observed values of some of the compact stars XTE J1739 - 217, EXO 0748 - 676, PSR J1614 - 2230, PSR J0348 + 0432 and PSR B0943 + 10.

  14. Proton Radius of 14Be from Measurement of Charge-Changing Cross Sections1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terashima, S.; Tanihata, I.; Kanungo, R.; Estradé, A.; Horiuchi, W.; Ameil, F.; Atkinson, J.; Ayyad, Y.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Dillmann, I.; Evdokimov, A.; Farinon, F.; Geissel, H.; Guastalla, G.; Janik, R.; Kimura, M.; Knoebel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Marta, M.; Mostazo, M.; Mukha, I.; Neff, T.; Nociforo, C.; Ong, H. J.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sitar, B.; Suzuki, Y.; Takeuchi, M.; Tanaka, J.; Vargas, J.; Winfield, J. S.; Weick, H.

    Charge-changing cross sections for 7,9-12,14Be have been measured at ˜900A MeV on a carbon target. These cross sections are discussed both in terms of a geometrical and a Glauber model. From several different analyses of the cross sections, the proton distribution radius (proton radius) of 14Be was determined for the first time to be 2.41 ± 0.04 fm. A large difference in the proton and neutron radii is found. The charge-changing cross sections and the proton distribution radii are compared to the results of fermionic molecular dynamics (FMD) and antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) under the Glauber model.

  15. The polydisperse cell model: Nonlinear screening and charge renormalization in colloidal mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Aldemar; Téllez, Gabriel; van Roij, René

    2008-04-01

    We propose a model for the calculation of renormalized charges and osmotic properties of mixtures of highly charged colloidal particles. The model is a generalization of the cell model and the notion of charge renormalization as introduced by Alexander et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5776 (1984)]. The total solution is partitioned into as many different cells as components in the mixture. The radii of these cells are determined self-consistently for a given set of parameters from the solution of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with appropriate boundary conditions. This generalizes Alexanders's model where the (unique) Wigner-Seitz cell radius is solely fixed by the colloid packing fraction. We illustrate the technique by considering a binary mixture of the colloids with the same sign of charge. The present model can be used to calculate thermodynamic properties of highly charged colloidal mixtures at the level of linear theories, while taking the effect of nonlinear screening into account.

  16. Detailed heat transfer coefficient measurements and thermal analysis at engine conditions of a pedestal with fillet radii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Z.; Ireland, P. T.; Jones, T. V.

    1995-04-01

    The heat transfer coefficient over the surface of a pedestal with fillet radii has been measured using thermochromic liquid crystals and the transient heat transfer method. The tests were performed at engine representative Reynolds numbers for a geometry typical of those used in turbine blade cooling systems. The heat conduction process that occurs in the engine was subsequently modeled numerically with a finite element discretization of the solid pedestal. The measured heat transfer coefficients were used to derive the exact boundary conditions applicable to the engine. The temperature field within the pedestal, calculated using the correct heat transfer coefficient distribution, is compared to that calculated using an area-averaged heat transfer coefficient. Metal temperature differences of 90 K are predicted across the blade wall.

  17. Synchrotron radiation from the winds of O supergiants - Tb = 10 to the 7. 6th K at 60 stellar radii

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, R.B.; Titus, M.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Results are presented on VLBI measurements of the nonthermal radio components around two O supergiant stars: Cyg OB2 No. 9 and HD 167971. The measurements were used to characterize the brightness temperature of the emission and to measure the size of compact 5-10 mJy components in these stars, reported by Bieging et al. (1989). The sizes found for the 5-10 mJy components are consistent with the free-free wind radii, indicating that the compact companions are not the sources of nonthermal radiation. Results suggest that there is a small fractional population (10 to the -4th to 10 to the -7th) of ultrarelativistic electrons (Teff of about 10 to the 11th K) coexisting with the stellar wind, which emit optically thin synchrotron radiation. This is in agreement with the synchrotron model of White (1985). 21 refs.

  18. Eccentric ringlet in the Maxwell gap at 1.45 Saturn radii Multi-instrument Voyager observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, L. W.; Borderies, N.; Goldreich, P.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Holberg, J. B.; Lane, A. L.; Pomphrey, R. B.; Terrile, R. J.; Lissauer, J. J.; Marouf, E. A.; Tyler, G. L.

    1983-10-01

    The Voyager spacecraft observed a narrow, eccentric ringlet in the Maxwell gap (1.45 Saturn radii) in Saturn's rings. Intercomparison of the Voyager imaging, photopolarimeter, ultraviolet spectrometer, and radio science observations yields results not available from individual observations. The shape and width of the ringlet are consistent with a set of uniformly precessing, confocal ellipses with foci at Saturn's center of mass. The ringlet precesses as a unit at a rate consistent with the known dynamical oblateness of Saturn; the lack of differential precession across the ringlet yields a ringlet mass of about 5×1018 grams. Comparison of the measured transmission of the ringlet at radio, visible, and ultraviolet wavelengths indicates that about half of the total extinction is due to particles smaller than 1 centimeter in radius, in contrast even with nearby regions of the C ring. However, the color and brightness of the ringlet material are not measurably different from those of nearby C ring particles.

  19. Characteristics of Jovian trapped electrons and protons for the region within 20 Jupiter radii and their interaction with Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J. A.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mckibben, R. B.; Mogro-Campero, A.; Pyle, K. R.; Tuzzolino, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    A brief summary is given of Pioneer 10 observations of trapped particles in the inner-core region (within 20 Jupiter radii) of the Jovian magnetosphere. The three sensor systems used to study trapped radiation in this region are described. Intensity profiles are plotted as a function of magnetic-shell parameter (L) for electrons with energies of at least 3 MeV, protons with energies of at least 35 MeV, and protons with energies between 0.5 and 1.8 MeV. The effect of trapped-particle absorption by Io is clearly seen in the intensity profiles of all the observed particle species, and evidence is presented for preferential absorption of small-pitch-angle particles by Io. Conclusive evidence is given for the fact that Jupiter's trapped radiation is maintained by the inward diffusion of particles across L shells.

  20. Lattice summations for spread out particles: Applications to neutral and charged systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyes, D. M.; Brańka, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    This work is concerned with the lattice energy of periodic assemblies of mass and charge distributions of the form, exp (-αp2), where α is an adjustable positive variable and {p} is the vector from the lattice site or average position. The energy of interaction between two distributions is the density-weighted integral of the interactions between the volume elements of each distribution. Reciprocal space lattice summation formulas derived for particles represented by gaussian smeared-out density distributions are applied to the gaussian potential and a bounded version of the soft-sphere potential for a range of exponents. Two types of spatial broadening are considered, continuous or physical broadening (PB) and broadening resulting from the time average of point particle positions, so-called "time" broadening (TB). For neutral mass distributions a reciprocal space lattice summation formula is derived which is applied to the bounded soft-sphere potential. For the charged systems, the methodology described in Heyes [J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1924 (1981), 10.1063/1.441285] is used, which for the PB case gives the Ewald-like formulas derived by Gingrich and Wilson [Chem. Phys. Lett. 500, 178 (2010), 10.1016/j.cplett.2010.10.010] using a different method. Another expression for the lattice energy of the spread out charge distributions is derived which is cast entirely in terms of a summation over the reciprocal lattice vectors, without the arbitrary charge spreading function used in the Ewald method. The effects of charge spreading on a generalized definition of the Madelung constant (M) for a selection of crystal lattices are shown to be insignificant for route mean square displacements up to values typical of melting of an ionic crystal. When the length scale of the charge distribution becomes comparable to or greater than the mean inter particle spacing, however, the effects of charge broadening on the lattice energy are shown to be significant. In the PB case, M → 0

  1. Lattice summations for spread out particles: applications to neutral and charged systems.

    PubMed

    Heyes, D M; Brańka, A C

    2013-01-21

    This work is concerned with the lattice energy of periodic assemblies of mass and charge distributions of the form, exp (-αp(2)), where α is an adjustable positive variable and p(̱) is the vector from the lattice site or average position. The energy of interaction between two distributions is the density-weighted integral of the interactions between the volume elements of each distribution. Reciprocal space lattice summation formulas derived for particles represented by gaussian smeared-out density distributions are applied to the gaussian potential and a bounded version of the soft-sphere potential for a range of exponents. Two types of spatial broadening are considered, continuous or physical broadening (PB) and broadening resulting from the time average of point particle positions, so-called "time" broadening (TB). For neutral mass distributions a reciprocal space lattice summation formula is derived which is applied to the bounded soft-sphere potential. For the charged systems, the methodology described in Heyes [J. Chem. Phys. 74, 1924 (1981)] is used, which for the PB case gives the Ewald-like formulas derived by Gingrich and Wilson [Chem. Phys. Lett. 500, 178 (2010)] using a different method. Another expression for the lattice energy of the spread out charge distributions is derived which is cast entirely in terms of a summation over the reciprocal lattice vectors, without the arbitrary charge spreading function used in the Ewald method. The effects of charge spreading on a generalized definition of the Madelung constant (M) for a selection of crystal lattices are shown to be insignificant for route mean square displacements up to values typical of melting of an ionic crystal. When the length scale of the charge distribution becomes comparable to or greater than the mean inter particle spacing, however, the effects of charge broadening on the lattice energy are shown to be significant. In the PB case, M → 0 for the uniform charge density or α → 0

  2. Simulation of global sulfate distribution and the influence on effective cloud drop radii with a coupled photochemistry sulfur cycle model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roelofs, Geert-J. A. N.; Lelieveld, Jos; Ganzeveld, Laurens

    1998-07-01

    A sulfur cycle model is coupled to a global chemistry-climate model. The simulated surface sulfate concentrations are generally within a factor of 2 of observed concentrations, and display a realistic seasonality for most background locations. However, the model tends to underestimate sulfate and overestimate surface SO2 at relatively polluted locations. A possible explanation for this is that additional oxidation reactions not considered in the model, may be important. Calculated tropospheric sulfate column abundances exceed those of previous studies, which is predominantly associated with a less efficient nucleation scavenging in wet convective updrafts. Through the simultaneous calculation of the sulfur cycle and tropospheric photochemistry, simulated H2O2 and SO2 concentrations are strongly linked, especially in polluted areas. The coupled model simulates a stronger oxidant limitation and, consequently, a smaller contribution to sulfate formation by H2O2 oxidation of SO2 when compared to sulfur cycle models that use monthly averaged oxidant distributions as input. In the polluted NH, the differences in calculated sulfate columns are largest in winter and relatively small in summer. Therefore, the coupling between the sulfur cycle and the oxidant chemistry is expected to have a minor impact on the calculation of the indirect and direct radiative forcing by sulfate. An empirical relation between sulfate concentration and cloud drop number concentration, derived from cloud measurements at Grean Dun Fell (UK), is applied to the simulated cloud and sulfate fields to derive distributions of effective could drop radii. Additionally, a relation between wind speed and cloud drop number concentration is applied over marine regions to account for the effect of seasalt aerosol on cloud formation when sulfate concentrations are relatively low. Calculated droplet radii are systematically underestimated by about 10 20% in the NH compared to satellite derived values, but they

  3. Comparison of Radii Sets, Entropy, QM Methods, and Sampling on MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA, and QM/MM-GBSA Ligand Binding Energies of F. tularensis Enoyl-ACP Reductase (FabI)

    PubMed Central

    Su, Pin-Chih; Tsai, Cheng-Chieh; Mehboob, Shahila; Hevener, Kirk E.; Johnson, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    To validate a method for predicting the binding affinities of FabI inhibitors, three implicit solvent methods, MM-PBSA, MM-GBSA and QM/MM GBSA were carefully compared using sixteen benzimidazole inhibitors in complex with F. tularensis FabI. The data suggests that the prediction results are sensitive to radii sets, GB methods, QM Hamiltonians, sampling protocols, and simulation length, if only one simulation trajectory is used for each ligand. In this case, QM/MM-GBSA using 6 ns MD simulation trajectories together with GBneck2, PM3, and the mbondi2 radii set, generate the closest agreement with experimental values (r2= 0.88). However, if the three implicit solvent methods are averaged from six 1 ns MD simulations for each ligand (called “multiple independent sampling”), the prediction results are relatively insensitive to all the tested parameters. Moreover, MM/GBSA together with GBHCT and mbondi, using 600 frames extracted evenly from six 0.25 ns MD simulations, can also provide accurate prediction to experimental values (r2 = 0.84). Therefore, the multiple independent sampling method can be more efficient than a single, long simulation method. Since future scaffold expansions may significantly change the benzimidazole's physiochemical properties (charges, etc.) and possibly binding modes, which may affect the sensitivities of various parameters, the relatively insensitive “multiple independent sampling method” may avoid the need of an entirely new validation study. Moreover, due to large fluctuating entropy values, (QM/)MM-P(G)BSA were limited to inhibitors’ relative affinity prediction, but not the absolute affinity. The developed protocol will support an ongoing benzimidazole lead optimization program. PMID:26216222

  4. Lattice charge models and core level shifts in disordered alloys.

    PubMed

    Underwood, T L; Cole, R J

    2013-10-30

    Zn random alloys. The model is used to deduce the effective radii associated with valence electron charge transfer for Cu, Pd and Zn in these systems for use in the 'ESCA potential model' of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The effective radii are found to be R1/3, where R1 is the nearest neighbor distance, with only small variations between chemical elements and between different systems. The model provides a framework for rationalizing the disorder broadenings in these systems: they can be understood in terms of an interplay between the broadening in the Madelung potentials and the broadening in the intra-atomic electrostatic potentials.

  5. Analysis of charged aerosols in the mesosphere during the MASS/ECOMA rocket campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knappmiller, Scott Robert

    In the polar summer mesosphere ice particles grow sufficiently large to scatter sunlight, giving rise to visible cloud displays called Noctilucent Clouds (NLC). In August of 2007, two sounding rockets were launched from the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway carrying the newly developed MASS instrument (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer) to study NLC. The instrument detects charged aerosols in four different mass ranges on four pairs of biased collector plates, one set for positive particles and one set for negative particles. The first sounding rocket was launched into a Polar Mesospheric Summer echo (PMSE) and into a NLC on 3 August. The solar zenith angle was 93 degrees and NLC were seen in the previous hour at 83 km by the ALOMAR RMR lidar. NLC were also detected at the same altitude by rocket-borne photometer measurements. The data from the MASS instrument shows a negatively charged population with radii >3 nm in the 83--89 km altitude range, which is collocated with PMSE detected by the ALWIN radar. Smaller particles, 1--2 nm in radius with both positive and negative polarity were detected between 86--88 km. Positively charged particles <1 nm in radius were detected at the same altitude. This is the first time the charge number densities of positive and negative NLC particles have been measured simultaneously. A charging model is developed to investigate the coexistence of positively and negatively charged aerosols in the NLC environment as measured by the MASS instrument. Natanson's rate equations are used for the attachment of free electrons and ions and the model includes charging by photo-electron emission and photo-detachment. Although the MASS flight occurred during twilight conditions, the solar UV flux was still sufficient to affect the charge state of the aerosols. The calculations are done assuming three types of particles with different photo-electron charging properties: (1) Icy NLC particles, (2) Hematite particles of meteoric origin as

  6. Evidence for Short-Range-Ordered Charge Stripes Far above the Charge-Ordering Transition in La1.67Sr0.33NiO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Bozin, Emil S.; Yin, Wei-Guo; Gu, Genda; Hill, John P.; Tranquada, John M.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-03-01

    The temperature evolution of structural modulation associated with charge and spin order in La1.67Sr0.33NiO4 has been investigated using neutron powder diffraction. For the first time we report an anomalous shrinking of the c/a lattice parameter ratio that correlates with TCO at the temperature where long-range stacking order of charge stripes disappears. The sign of this change can be explained by the change in interlayer Coulomb energy between the static-stripe-ordered state and the fluctuating-stripe-ordered state or the charge-disordered state. In addition, we identify a contribution to the mean-square displacements of Ni and in-plane O atoms whose width correlates quite well with the size of the pseudogap extracted from the reported optical conductivity, with a non-Debye-like component that persists below and well above TCO. Local structural parameters in the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) well-agree with this result. We infer that dynamic charge-stripe correlations survive to T ~ 2TCO. This work was supported by the DOE Grant, DE- AC02-98CH10886.

  7. Determination of the conformal-field-theory central charge by the Wang-Landau algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, P. A.; Nazarov, A. A.; Sorokin, A. O.

    2017-06-01

    We present a simple method to estimate the central charge of the conformal field theory corresponding to a critical point of a two-dimensional lattice model from Monte Carlo simulations. The main idea is to use the Wang-Landau flat-histogram algorithm, which allows us to obtain the free energy of a lattice model on a torus as a function of torus radii. The central charge is calculated with good precision from a free-energy scaling at the critical point. We apply the method to the Ising, tricritical Ising (Blume-Capel), Potts, and site-diluted Ising models, and we also discuss an estimation of the conformal weights.

  8. The charged black-hole bomb: A lower bound on the charge-to-mass ratio of the explosive scalar field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-04-01

    The well-known superradiant amplification mechanism allows a charged scalar field of proper mass μ and electric charge q to extract the Coulomb energy of a charged Reissner-Nordström black hole. The rate of energy extraction can grow exponentially in time if the system is placed inside a reflecting cavity which prevents the charged scalar field from escaping to infinity. This composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is known as the charged black-hole bomb. Previous numerical studies of this composed physical system have shown that, in the linearized regime, the inequality q / μ > 1 provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability. In the present paper we use analytical techniques to study the instability properties of the charged black-hole bomb in the regime of linearized scalar fields. In particular, we prove that the lower bound q/μ>√{rm/r--1/rm /r+-1 } provides a necessary condition for the development of the superradiant instability in this composed physical system (here r± are the horizon radii of the charged Reissner-Nordström black hole and rm is the radius of the confining mirror). This analytically derived lower bound on the superradiant instability regime of the composed black-hole-charged-scalar-field-mirror system is shown to agree with direct numerical computations of the instability spectrum.

  9. Linear shaped charge

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, David; Stofleth, Jerome H.; Saul, Venner W.

    2017-07-11

    Linear shaped charges are described herein. In a general embodiment, the linear shaped charge has an explosive with an elongated arrowhead-shaped profile. The linear shaped charge also has and an elongated v-shaped liner that is inset into a recess of the explosive. Another linear shaped charge includes an explosive that is shaped as a star-shaped prism. Liners are inset into crevices of the explosive, where the explosive acts as a tamper.

  10. Charge Exchange with Highly Charged Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Jeremy; Ferri, Kevin; Schmitt, Jaclyn; Hanson, Joshua; Marler, Joan

    2016-05-01

    A detailed study of the physics of highly charged ions (HCIs) is critical for a deep understanding of observed phenomena resulting from interactions of HCIs with neutral atoms in astrophysical and fusion environments. Specifically the charge transfer rates and spectroscopy of the subsequent decay fluorescence are of great interest to these communities. Results from a laboratory based investigation of these rates will be presented. The experiment takes advantage of an energy and charge state selected beam of HCIs from the recently on-line Clemson University EBIT (CUEBIT). Progress towards an experimental apparatus for retrapping HCIs towards precision spectroscopy of HCIs will also be presented.

  11. Spacecraft Charging Technology, 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The third Spacecraft Charging Technology Conference proceedings contain 66 papers on the geosynchronous plasma environment, spacecraft modeling, charged particle environment interactions with spacecraft, spacecraft materials characterization, and satellite design and testing. The proceedings is a compilation of the state of the art of spacecraft charging and environmental interaction phenomena.

  12. Particle charge spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuerstenau, Stephen D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An airflow through a tube is used to guide a charged particle through the tube. A detector may be used to detect charge passing through the tube on the particle. The movement of the particle through the tube may be used to both detect its charge and size.

  13. Charge exchange system

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  14. Effects of Strong Turbulence on Short Wavelength Laser - Experimental Determination of Mean Square Wander Angle.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-15

    200 watts Sampling Time: 20 milliseconds 23 ANGLE DATA VALUES ARE IN RADIONS . kNGLE DATA VALUES ARE IN RAODIPS. NOISE SUBTRACTED a F, MANNING WINDOW •T...DFA032 Input Power: 400 watts Sampling Time: 20 milliseconds 31 - • l ! | | | • | .... .. m , . , m - ,-A A ANGLE DATA VALUES ARE IN RADIONS . ANGLE...DATA VALUES ARE IN RADIONS . NOISE SUBTRACTED a F, NAtNING WINDOW * T. ENSEMBLE POWER SERIES COMPUTED AT 15:15:14 OF HOH. APP 06 156! FROM DATA ON TAPE

  15. Plasma fluctuations in a Kaufman thruster. [root mean square magnitude, spectra and cross correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, J. S.; Terdan, F. F.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of the RMS magnitude, spectra and cross-correlations for the fluctuations in the beam, discharge and neutralizer keeper currents are presented for a 30-cm diameter dished grid ion thrustor for a range of magnetic baffle currents and up to 2.0 amperes beam current. The ratio of RMS to mean ion beam current varied from 0.04 to 0.23. The spectra of the amplitudes of the beam and discharge current fluctuations were taken up to 9 MHz and show that the predominant amplitudes occur at frequencies of 10 kHz or below. The fall-off with increasing frequency is rapid. Frequencies above 100 kHz the spectral levels are 45 kb or more below the maximum peak amplitudes. The cross-correlations revealed the ion beam fluctuations to have large radial and axial scales which implied that the beam fluctuates as a whole or 'in-phase.' The cross-correlations of the beam and neutralizer keeper current fluctuations indicated the neutralizer contributions to the beam fluctuations to be small, but not negligible. The mode of operation of the thrustor (values of beam and magnetic baffle currents) was significant in determining the RMS magnitude and spectral shape of the beam fluctuations. The major oscillations were not found to be directly dependent on the power conditioner inverter frequencies.

  16. Examining the Reliability of Interval Level Data Using Root Mean Square Differences and Concordance Correlation Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchard, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces new statistics for evaluating score consistency. Psychologists usually use correlations to measure the degree of linear relationship between 2 sets of scores, ignoring differences in means and standard deviations. In medicine, biology, chemistry, and physics, a more stringent criterion is often used: the extent to which…

  17. Mean square fluctuations of hydrogen atoms and water-biopolymer interactions in hydrated saccharides.

    PubMed Central

    Di Bari, M; Cavatorta, F; Deriu, A; Albanese, G

    2001-01-01

    We have used the elastic neutron scattering technique to investigate the dynamics of the two main saccharidic components of starch: amylose and amylopectin. The measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 20 to 320 K and at different hydration levels from the dry state up to 0.47 g saccharide/g D(2)O. In the dry samples, the atomic dynamics is harmonic up to approximately 300 K. In the hydrated samples a "glass-like" transition leading to an anharmonic dynamics is observed. The onset of the anharmonicity occurs at temperatures that increase from approximately 180 K to 260 K upon decreasing hydration from 0.5 to 0.1 g saccharide/g D(2)O. This behavior is qualitatively similar to that observed in hydrated globular proteins, but quantitative differences are present. Assuming a simple asymmetric double-well potential model, the temperature and hydration dependence of the transition have been described in terms of few physical parameters. PMID:11463660

  18. Spacial and Frequency Domain Calculation of Terrain Roughness Metric Root-Mean-Square (RMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    digital elevation versus displacement samples in the spacial domain. The assumption for displacement is equally spaced data samples. Example...inputs: % x - array to filter % N - number of samples vector eg. [0 1 2 3 4 5] % A - sample spacing % lambda - exp weighting constant % %returns

  19. Computation of LMS (Least-Mean-Square) and Matched Digital Filters for Optical Clutter Suppression.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-31

    35, art. 48; ref. 36, secs. 35,36). Ay(dv/dy) Av, = Vv, = -v 1 + v, Av2(d 2v/dV2 ) 12v 1 V 2v3 = 62V, = v - 2v, + v3 Av 3(d 3v/dv3) .1v, V 3v4 = -v 1...required, and reduced correlation between the added and original samples may offset the greater accu - racy of the higher-order formulae. In addition, the... 12v , - 39v, + 56v, - 39v, - 12v , v.). )Cl I-C 16)6 6 Ay 5 (d 5v/dy5) M P65v 5 - -LA7v 5 W -- (vj - 9v, + 26v3 - 29v, + 29v - 26v, + 9v, - v.), 3 6 -~~y

  20. Range Profile Specific Optimal Waveforms for Minimum Mean Square Error Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    requires as input the result of a single dwell. This is because of the effect of changing a fil- ter can be observed by simply processing the radar return...only be observed by transmitting another dwell. We have posited a joint measurement and adaptation process that assumes range cell specific waveforms...The observation resulting from using waveform s(l) is assumed to be given by ỹ(l) = AT (l)s(l) + ṽ(l) (1) where ṽ(l) is the measurement noise and A

  1. Mean square value of noise equivalent magnetic induction for magnetic microsensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panait, Cornel; Tamaş, Razvan; Căruntu, George

    2010-11-01

    The noise-signal at the output of a Hall magnetic sensor can be interpreted as a results of an equivalent magnetic induction, acting on a noiseless Hall device. In the paperwork is defined this characteristic for two Hall devices realised in the bipolar and the MOS integrated circuits technology. The influence of geometry and material properties on these essential parameters in the characterisation of magnetic sensors performances, can be emphasised by simulating a few Hall devices structures.

  2. Use of Least Means Squares Filter in Control of Optical Beam Jitter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    experiments, the platform is vibrated at 50 and87Hz. In addition, a fast steering mirror is used to inject a random component of 200 Hz band-limited white noise...created in a spacecraft by rotating devices such as reaction wheels, control moment gyros, cryocoolers and the motion of flexible structures, such as solar...mitigate the effects of jitter on the optical beam. The simulation shows that adaptive feedforward vibration compensation can be used to minimize

  3. Adaptive Beamforming with the Transform Domain LMS (Least Mean-Square).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-01

    r --- ". - i,-early corstrained adaptive beamformring to cne cf corstraired multiple -efererne noise carcelling . Applying the TRLMS aigcrth to...Canceller. 2. 1. 1 The Generalized Sidelcbe Carceller Figure 2.2 shows the Generalized Sidelcbe Canceller Broadband Beamfor-mer (GSC), first analyzed by...nalsisanddaignef ’- [13] ~. Widrow et aL., "Adacptve noise carcelling : prlrn±ies ard acpiicatiors," Proc. IEEE, vol. 63, no. .2, pp. 5,2421715, December 10975

  4. Plasma fluctuations in a Kaufman thruster. [root mean square magnitude, spectra and cross correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Serafini, J. S.; Terdan, F. F.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of the RMS magnitude, spectra and cross-correlations for the fluctuations in the beam, discharge and neutralizer keeper currents are presented for a 30-cm diameter dished grid ion thrustor for a range of magnetic baffle currents and up to 2.0 amperes beam current. The ratio of RMS to mean ion beam current varied from 0.04 to 0.23. The spectra of the amplitudes of the beam and discharge current fluctuations were taken up to 9 MHz and show that the predominant amplitudes occur at frequencies of 10 kHz or below. The fall-off with increasing frequency is rapid. Frequencies above 100 kHz the spectral levels are 45 kb or more below the maximum peak amplitudes. The cross-correlations revealed the ion beam fluctuations to have large radial and axial scales which implied that the beam fluctuates as a whole or 'in-phase.' The cross-correlations of the beam and neutralizer keeper current fluctuations indicated the neutralizer contributions to the beam fluctuations to be small, but not negligible. The mode of operation of the thrustor (values of beam and magnetic baffle currents) was significant in determining the RMS magnitude and spectral shape of the beam fluctuations. The major oscillations were not found to be directly dependent on the power conditioner inverter frequencies.

  5. Iterative linear minimum mean-square-error image restoration from partially known blur.

    PubMed

    Mesarović, V Z; Galatsanos, N P; Wernick, M N

    2000-04-01

    We address the problem of space-invariant image restoration when the blurring operator is not known exactly, a situation that arises regularly in practice. To account for this uncertainty, we model the point-spread function as the sum of a known deterministic component and an unknown random one. Such an approach has been studied before, but the problem of estimating the parameters of the restoration filter to our knowledge has not been addressed systematically. We propose an approach based on a Gaussian statistical assumption and derive an iterative, expectation-maximization algorithm that simultaneously restores the image and estimates the required filter parameters. We obtain two versions of the algorithm based on two different models for the statistics of the image. The computations are performed in the discrete Fourier transform domain; thus they are computationally efficient even for large images. We examine the convergence properties of the resulting estimators and evaluate their performance experimentally.

  6. Examining the Reliability of Interval Level Data Using Root Mean Square Differences and Concordance Correlation Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchard, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces new statistics for evaluating score consistency. Psychologists usually use correlations to measure the degree of linear relationship between 2 sets of scores, ignoring differences in means and standard deviations. In medicine, biology, chemistry, and physics, a more stringent criterion is often used: the extent to which…

  7. Fourier Integral Estimate of the Failure Rate Function and Its Mean Square Error Properties,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-14

    and absolutely integrale in (-,-). (Kernels satisfying this latter condition are known as L1 kernels.) In Sing- purwalla and Wong (1980)--abbreviated...that h(u) is bounded in IL-XoI<A . We split the interval of integration (-ooo) into two parts , Ju-xo0j<A and ju-xo >X , and note that sin 0uxO f 1 COO

  8. Multilevel sequential Monte Carlo: Mean square error bounds under verifiable conditions

    DOE PAGES

    Del Moral, Pierre; Jasra, Ajay; Law, Kody J. H.

    2017-01-09

    We consider the multilevel sequential Monte Carlo (MLSMC) method of Beskos et al. (Stoch. Proc. Appl. [to appear]). This technique is designed to approximate expectations w.r.t. probability laws associated to a discretization. For instance, in the context of inverse problems, where one discretizes the solution of a partial differential equation. The MLSMC approach is especially useful when independent, coupled sampling is not possible. Beskos et al. show that for MLSMC the computational effort to achieve a given error, can be less than independent sampling. In this article we significantly weaken the assumptions of Beskos et al., extending the proofs tomore » non-compact state-spaces. The assumptions are based upon multiplicative drift conditions as in Kontoyiannis and Meyn (Electron. J. Probab. 10 [2005]: 61–123). The assumptions are verified for an example.« less

  9. Computer Assisted Improvement of the Estimation Mean Squared Error with Application to Back Propagation Neural Networks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    function. Key Words and Phrases: Parametric estimation , exponential families, nonlinear models, nonlinear least squares, neural networks, Monte Carlo simulation, computer intensive statistical methods.

  10. The mean-square error optimal linear discriminant function and its application to incomplete data vectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. F.

    1979-01-01

    In many pattern recognition problems, data vectors are classified although one or more of the data vector elements are missing. This problem occurs in remote sensing when the ground is obscured by clouds. Optimal linear discrimination procedures for classifying imcomplete data vectors are discussed.

  11. Nanoparticle gel electrophoresis: bare charged spheres in polyelectrolyte hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Hill, Reghan J

    2013-03-15

    Nanoparticle gel electrophoresis has recently emerged as an attractive means of separating and characterizing nanoparticles. Consequently, a theory that accounts for electroosmotic flow in the gel, and coupling of the nanoparticle and hydrogel electrostatics and hydrodynamics, is required, particularly for gels in which the mesh size is comparable to or smaller than the particle radii. Here, we present an electrokinetic model for charged, spherical colloidal particles undergoing electrophoresis in charged (polyelectrolyte) hydrogels: the gel-electrophoresis analogue of Henry's theory for electrophoresis in Newtonian electrolytes. We compare numerically exact solutions of the model with several independent asymptotic approximations, identifying regions in the parameter space where these approximations are accurate or break down. As previously assumed in the literature, Henry's formula, modified by the addition of a constant electroosmotic flow mobility, is accurate only for nanoparticles that are small compared to the hydrogel mesh size. We derived an exact analytical solution of the full model by judiciously modifying the theory of Allison et al. for uncharged gels, drawing on the superposition methodology of Doane et al. to account for hydrogel charge. This furnishes accurate and economical mobility predictions for the entire parameter space. The present model suggests that nanoparticle size separations (with diameters ≲40 nm) are optimal at low ionic strength, with a gel mesh size that is selected according to the particle charging mechanism. For weakly charged particles, optimal size separation is achieved when the Brinkman screening length is matched to the mean particle size.

  12. Impact of photo-evaporative mass loss on masses and radii of water-rich sub/super-Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, K.; Ikoma, M.; Hori, Y.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Recent progress in transit photometry opened a new window to the interior of super-Earths. From measured radii and masses, we can infer constraints on planetary internal compositions. It has been recently revealed that super-Earths orbiting close to host stars (i.e., hot super-Earths) are diverse in composition. This diversity is thought to arise from diversity in volatile content. Aims: The stability of the volatile components, which we call the envelopes, is to be examined, because hot super-Earths, which are exposed to strong irradiation, undergo photo-evaporative mass loss. While several studies investigated the impact of photo-evaporative mass loss on hydrogen-helium envelopes, there are few studies as to the impact on water-vapor envelopes, which we investigate in this study. To obtain theoretical prediction to future observations, we also investigate the relationships among masses, radii, and semi-major axes of water-rich super-Earths and also sub-Earths that have undergone photo-evaporative mass loss. Methods: We simulate the interior structure and evolution of highly-irradiated sub/super-Earths that consist of a rocky core surrounded by a water envelope, which include mass loss due to the stellar XUV-driven energy-limited hydrodynamic escape. Results: We find that the photo-evaporative mass loss has a significant impact on the evolution of hot sub/super-Earths. With a widely-used empirical formula for XUV flux from typical G-stars and the heating efficiency of 0.1 for example, the planets of less than 3 Earth masses orbiting 0.03 AU have their water envelopes completely stripped off. We then derive the threshold planetary mass and radius below which the planet loses its water envelope completely as a function of the initial water content and find that there are minimums of the threshold mass and radius. Conclusions: We constrain the domain in the parameter space of planetary mass, radius, and the semi-major axis in which sub/super-Earths never

  13. Space-charge limits of ion sensitive probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, D.; LaBombard, B.; Ochoukov, R.; Sullivan, R.; Whyte, D.

    2013-12-01

    Ion sensitive probes (ISPs) are used to measure ion temperature and plasma potential in magnetized plasmas. Their operation relies on the difference in electron and ion Larmor radii to preferentially collect the ion species on a recessed electrode. Because of their simple two-electrode construction and optimal geometry for heat flux handling they are an attractive probe to use in the high heat flux boundary of magnetic confinement fusion experiments. However, the integrity of its measurements is rarely, if ever, checked under such conditions. Recent measurements with an ISP in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have shown that its ion current is space-charge limited and thus its current-voltage (I-V) response does not contain information on the ion temperature. We numerically solve a 1D Vlasov-Poisson model of ion collection to determine how much bias is needed to overcome space-charge effects and regain the classic I-V characteristic with an exponential decay. Prompted by the observations of space charge in C-Mod, we have performed a survey of ISP measurements reported in the literature. Evidence of space-charge limited current collection is found on many probes, with few authors noting its presence. Some probes are able to apparently exceed the classic 1D space-charge limit because electrons can E × B drift into the probe volume, partially reducing the net ion charge; it is argued that this does not, however, change the basic problem that space charge compromises the measurement of ion temperature. Guidance is given for design of ISPs to minimize the effects of space charge.

  14. Brownian motion of a charged test particle in vacuum between two conducting plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hongwei; Chen, Jun

    2004-12-01

    The Brownian motion of a charged test particle caused by quantum electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations between two perfectly conducting plates is examined and the mean squared fluctuations in the velocity and position of the test particle are calculated. Our results show that the Brownian motion in the direction normal to the plates is reinforced in comparison to that in the single plate case. The effective temperature associated with this normal Brownian motion could be three times as large as that in the single plate case. However, the negative dispersions for the velocity and position in the longitudinal directions, which could be interpreted as reducing the quantum uncertainties of the particle, acquire positive corrections due to the presence of the second plate, and are thus weakened.

  15. Tidal radii and destruction rates of globular clusters in the Milky Way due to bulge-bar and disk shocking

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, Edmundo; Pichardo, Bárbara; Velázquez, Héctor

    2014-10-01

    We calculate orbits, tidal radii, and bulge-bar and disk shocking destruction rates for 63 globular clusters in our Galaxy. Orbits are integrated in both an axisymmetric and a nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential that includes a bar and a three-dimensional model for the spiral arms. With the use of a Monte Carlo scheme, we consider in our simulations observational uncertainties in the kinematical data of the clusters. In the analysis of destruction rates due to the bulge-bar, we consider the rigorous treatment of using the real Galactic cluster orbit instead of the usual linear trajectory employed in previous studies. We compare results in both treatments. We find that the theoretical tidal radius computed in the nonaxisymmetric Galactic potential compares better with the observed tidal radius than that obtained in the axisymmetric potential. In both Galactic potentials, bulge-shocking destruction rates computed with a linear trajectory of a cluster at its perigalacticons give a good approximation of the result obtained with the real trajectory of the cluster. Bulge-shocking destruction rates for clusters with perigalacticons in the inner Galactic region are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential than those in the axisymmetric potential. For the majority of clusters with high orbital eccentricities (e > 0.5), their total bulge+disk destruction rates are smaller in the nonaxisymmetric potential.

  16. Eccentric ringlet in the maxwell gap at 1.45 saturn radii: multi-instrument voyager observations.

    PubMed

    Esposito, L W; Borderies, N; Goldreich, P; Cuzzi, J N; Holberg, J B; Lane, A L; Pomphrey, R B; Terrile, R J; Lissauer, J J; Marouf, E A; Tyler, G L

    1983-10-07

    The Voyager spacecraft observed a narrow, eccentric ringlet in the Maxwell gap (1.45 Saturn radii) in Saturn's rings. Intercomparison of the Voyager imaging, photopolarimeter, ultraviolet spectrometer, and radio science observations yields results not available from individual observations. The width of the ringlet varies from about 30 to about 100 kilometers, its edges are sharp on a radial scale < 1 kilometer, and its opacity exhibits a double peak near the center. The shape and width of the ringlet are consistent with a set of uniformly precessing, confocal ellipses with foci at Saturn's center of mass. The ringlet precesses as a unit at a rate consistent with the known dynamical oblateness of Saturn; the lack of differential precession across the ringlet yields a ringlet mass of about 5 x 10(18) grams. The ratio of surface mass density to particle cross-sectional area is about five times smaller than values obtained elsewhere in the Saturn ring system, indicating a relatively larger fraction of small particles. Also, comparison of the measured transmission of the ringlet at radio, visible, and ultraviolet wavelengths indicates that about half of the total extinction is due to particles smaller than 1 centimeter in radius, in contrast even with nearby regions of the C ring. However, the color and brightness of the ringlet material are not measurably different from those of nearby C ring particles. We find this ringlet is similar to several of the rings of Uranus.

  17. Magnetospheric ions and electrons in the distant magnetosheath at about 50 and 180 earth radii - ISEE-3 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Hovestadt, D.; Klecker, B.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Zwickl, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    Energetic particle data were obtained in the dawn magnetosheath at about 50 earth radii (ER), analyzed, and compared with data taken at 180 ER. Both data sets were acquired during the ISEE-3 geotail mission. The results of analyses of the 16 sec time profiles of 32 and 130 keV protons, 75-115 keV electrons, and some of the 30-36 keV proton angular distributions (PAD) are presented. No temporal dispersions were detected in the particle bursts, implying instead a spatial dispersion. The particles filled flux tubes of 6 ER, with the energetic electrons being beamed along magnetic field lines. PADs displayed anisotropy symmetric relative to the magnetic field. The electrons were not detected at 180 ER. The phenomena are modeled as flux tubes connected to the magnetotail magnetic field in the near-earth magnetopause. The particles leak out along connected field lines. Lion roars scatter the electrons, which escape into interplanetary space. Ions, however, may carry their intensity out to 200 ER, a factor which awaits verification by further data.

  18. Relativistic electrons and magnetic fields of the M87 jet on the ∼10 Schwarzschild radii scale

    SciTech Connect

    Kino, M.; Takahara, F.; Hada, K.; Doi, A.

    2014-05-01

    We explore energy densities of the magnetic fields and relativistic electrons in the M87 jet. Since the radio core at the jet base is identical to the optically thick surface against synchrotron self-absorption (SSA), the observing frequency is identical to the SSA turnover frequency. As a first step, we assume the radio core has a simple uniform sphere geometry. Using the observed angular size of the radio core measured by the Very Long Baseline Array at 43 GHz, we estimate the energy densities of magnetic fields (U{sub B} ) and relativistic electrons (U{sub e} ) on the basis of the standard SSA formula. Imposing the condition that the Poynting power and kinetic power of relativistic electrons should be smaller than the total power of the jet, we find that (1) the allowed range of the magnetic field strength (B {sub tot}) is 1 G ≤ B {sub tot} ≤ 15 G and that (2) 1 × 10{sup –5} ≤ U{sub e} /U{sub B} ≤ 6 × 10{sup 2} holds. The uncertainty of U{sub e} /U{sub B} comes from the strong dependence on the angular size of the radio core and the minimum Lorentz factor of non-thermal electrons (γ {sub e,min}) in the core. It is still unsettled whether resultant energetics are consistent with either the magnetohydrodynamic jet or the kinetic power dominated jet even on the ∼10 Schwarzschild radii scale.

  19. Group galaxy number density profiles far out: Is the `one-halo' term NFW out to >10 virial radii?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trevisan, M.; Mamon, G. A.; Stalder, D. H.

    2017-10-01

    While the density profiles (DPs) of $\\Lambda$CDM haloes obey the NFW law out to roughly one virial radius, $r_{\\rm vir}$, the structure of their outer parts is still poorly understood, since the 1-halo term describing the halo itself is dominated by the 2-halo term representing the other haloes picked up. Using a semi-analytical model, we measure the real-space `1-halo' number DP of groups out to $20\\,r_{\\rm vir}$ by assigning each galaxy to its nearest group with mass above $M_{\\rm a}$, in units of the group $r_{\\rm vir}$. If $M_{\\rm a}$ is small (large), the outer DP of groups falls rapidly (slowly). We find that there is an optimal $M_{\\rm a}$ for which the stacked DP resembles the NFW model to $0.1$ dex accuracy out to $\\simeq 13\\,r_{\\rm vir}$. We find similar long-range NFW surface DPs (out to $\\simeq 10\\,r_{\\rm vir}$) in the SDSS observations using a galaxy assignment scheme that combines the non-linear virialized regions of groups with their linear outer parts. The optimal $M_{\\rm a}$ scales as the minimum mass of the groups that are stacked to the power $0.25-0.3$. Our results suggest that the NFW model does not solely originate from violent relaxation. Moreover, populating haloes with galaxies using HOD models must proceed out to larger radii than usually done.

  20. Observations of magnetospheric bursts of high-energy protons and electrons at approximately 35 earth radii with Imp 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarris, E. T.; Krimigis, S. M.; Armstrong, T. P.

    1976-01-01

    Proton and electron bursts (above 0.29 MeV and above 0.22 MeV, respectively) in the vicinity of the magnetosphere are studied on the basis of a high-sensitivity experiment. Although the bursts are a permanent feature in the upstream solar wind, the range of observed intensities varies by at least 5 orders of magnitude, depending on magnetic activity. The bursts are typically associated with weak fluctuations in the interplanetary magnetic field, which suggests the presence of hydromagnetic waves. Burst are found in and about the magnetosheath, plasma sheet, and magnetotail boundary layer, and also outside the bow shock; however, they rarely appear at distances greater than 10 earth radii north or south of the neutral sheet. Dawn-dusk asymmetries are present in intensity but not necessarily in frequency of occurrence. Proton bursts are highly anisotropic upstream from the bow shock and in the magnetosheath, while electron bursts are anisotropic only in the upstream solar wind.