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Sample records for measure milk contaminated

  1. Contaminants in human milk.

    PubMed

    Olszyna-Marzys, A E

    1978-09-01

    There is a paucity of information regarding excretion of contaminants in human milk, due to experimental difficulties and until recently a general lack of interest. Because of the high fat content of milk and as its acidity is higher than that of plasma, nearly all liposoluble and basic agents consumed by the mother will be excreted in the milk. Distinction must be made between, on the one hand drugs and social toxicants such as smoking and alcohol, whose intake can be stopped or limited during pregnancy and lactation, and ecological toxicants present in a polluted environment to which the mother is exposed. Cases have occurred of heavy prenatal and postnatal intoxication of infants with hexachlorobenzene in Turkey and methylmercury in Iraq due to consumption of fungicide-treated seed wheat by pregnant and lactating mothers. Recent attention has been concentrated on contamination of milk with organochlorine compounds such as DDT and PCB's, that are found in many parts of the world. The heaviest contamination with DDT has been found in Guatemala, resulting in suckling infants consuming many times the Acceptable Daily Intake of this compound proposed by WHO, with unknown future effects.

  2. Chemical contaminants in human milk: an overview.

    PubMed Central

    Sonawane, B R

    1995-01-01

    This review contains a succinct overview of the nature and extent of the problem of contamination of human milk with environmental and occupational chemicals, excluding drugs. Factors influencing the levels of contaminants in breast milk are discussed. Also, data on major chemicals of concern with potential health risk(s) to the general population and risk-benefit considerations are dealt with briefly. Based on the available data on the subject, research needs have been identified and policy recommendations are suggested. PMID:8549474

  3. Polychlorinated biphenyl contamination of nursing mothers' milk in Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.; Copeland, R.; Tilden, R.

    1981-02-01

    As part of an effort to assess the extent and distribution of PCB contamination in the human population of Michigan, PCB levels in the breast milk of Michigan nursing mothers were investigated. All of the 1057 samples collected from 68 counties contained PCB residues ranging from trace amounts to 5.1 ppm. The mean PCB level was 1.496 ppm. The public health significance of PCB contamination in human populations and the implications of PCB contamination of human milk for current breast-feeding practices are discussed. Several precautionary measures for nursing mothers are recommended.

  4. Microbial Contamination of Human Milk Purchased Via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Joseph S.; McNamara, Kelly A.; Gudimetla, Vishnu; Dillon, Chelsea E.; Kwiek, Jesse J.; Geraghty, Sheela R.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify microbial contamination of human milk purchased via the Internet as an indicator of disease risk to recipient infants. METHODS: Cross-sectional sample of human milk purchased via a popular US milk-sharing Web site (2012). Individuals advertising milk were contacted to arrange purchase, and milk was shipped to a rented mailbox in Ohio. The Internet milk samples (n = 101) were compared with unpasteurized samples of milk donated to a milk bank (n = 20). RESULTS: Most (74%) Internet milk samples were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had >104 colony-forming units/mL total aerobic count. They exhibited higher mean total aerobic, total Gram-negative, coliform, and Staphylococcus sp counts than milk bank samples. Growth of most species was positively associated with days in transit (total aerobic count [log10 colony-forming units/mL] β = 0.71 [95% confidence interval: 0.38–1.05]), and negatively associated with number of months since the milk was expressed (β = −0.36 [95% confidence interval: −0.55 to −0.16]), per simple linear regression. No samples were HIV type 1 RNA-positive; 21% of Internet samples were cytomegalovirus DNA-positive. CONCLUSIONS: Human milk purchased via the Internet exhibited high overall bacterial growth and frequent contamination with pathogenic bacteria, reflecting poor collection, storage, or shipping practices. Infants consuming this milk are at risk for negative outcomes, particularly if born preterm or are medically compromised. Increased use of lactation support services may begin to address the milk supply gap for women who want to feed their child human milk but cannot meet his or her needs. PMID:24144714

  5. Identification and Effect Decomposition of Risk Factors for Brucella Contamination of Raw Whole Milk in China

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Pengbo; Guo, Mancai; Guo, Kangkang; Xu, Lei; Ren, Min; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Background Lack of clear risk factor identification is the main reason for the persistence of brucellosis infection in the Chinese population, and there has been little assessment of the factors contributing to Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors affecting Brucella contamination of raw milk, and to evaluate effective measures for disease reduction in order to determine preventive strategies. Methods and Findings A nationwide survey was conducted and samples were obtained from 5211 cows corresponding to 25 sampling locations throughout 15 provinces in China. The prevalence of Brucella in the raw milk samples averaged 1.07% over the 15 Chinese provinces, while the prevalence of positive areas within these regions ranged from 0.23–3.84% among the nine provinces with positive samples. The survey examined factors that supposedly influence Brucella contamination of raw whole milk, such as management style, herd size, abortion rate, hygiene and disease control practices. A binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to determine the association between risk factors for Brucella and contamination of milk samples. Furthermore, a relative effect decomposition study was conducted to determine effective strategies for reducing the risk of Brucella contamination of raw whole milk. Our data indicate that disease prevention and control measures, abortion rate, and animal polyculture are the most important risk factors. Meanwhile, culling after quarantine was identified as an effective protective measure in the current Chinese dairy situation. Conclusions These results indicate that, although there is a low risk of contamination of milk with Brucella nationwide in China, there are individual regions where contamination is a significant problem. Controlling three factors–culling after quarantine, maintaining a low abortion rate, and avoiding mixing groups of cattle and small ruminants–could effectively

  6. Bacillus cereus spores in raw milk: factors affecting the contamination of milk during the grazing period.

    PubMed

    Christiansson, A; Bertilsson, J; Svensson, B

    1999-02-01

    Psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus is a limiting factor for the shelf-life of pasteurized milk, particularly during the grazing season. Potential sources of contamination and factors that might affect the spore content of milk were studied in detail for a group of eight cows during three 2-wk study periods from June to September over 2 yr. The spore content of milk was strongly associated with the degree of contamination of the teats with soil. High water content of soil, low evaporation of water and dirty access alloys were the most important factors correlating with high spore concentrations. The spore content of soil varied from < 50 to 380,000/g, depending on time and sampling site. The milking equipment did not contribute significantly to the contamination. The spore contents in air during milking (< 100 cfu/m3) and in feed (silage, hay, fresh grass, and concentrates) were too low to be of importance for contamination. The spore content in dung was also low. Further support that soil was the major contamination source was found by comparison of genetic fingerprints by random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction of isolates of B. cereus from soil and milk and by teat cleansing experiments, which resulted in reduced contamination levels in milk.

  7. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability.

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Gina M; Weiss, Pilar M

    2002-01-01

    Research on environmentally related chemical contaminants in breast milk spans several decades and dozens of countries. The ability to use this research as an environmental indicator is limited because of a lack of consistent protocols. Data on xenobiotics in breast milk are influenced by choices in sample selection, sample pooling, analysis, and reporting. In addition, most studies have focused only on a small panel of persistent organic pollutants, despite indications that a wide range of additional chemical contaminants may also enter breast milk. Despite these limitations, however, it is possible to draw some generalizations. In this paper we review available data on levels of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), metals, and solvents in breast milk. Examples drawn from around the world illustrate the available data and the patterns that have appeared in various areas over time. Over the past few decades, levels of the organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and dioxins have declined in breast milk in countries where these chemicals have been banned or otherwise regulated. In contrast, the levels of PBDEs are rising. Regional differences in levels of xenobiotics in breast milk are related to historical and current local use patterns. Diet is a major factor that influences breast milk levels of persistent organic pollutants, with patterns in fish consumption playing a particularly significant role. Improved global breast milk monitoring programs would allow for more consistent data on trends over time, detection of new xenobiotics in breast milk, and identification of disproportionately exposed populations. PMID:12055065

  8. Multivariate statistical approach to a data set of dioxin and furan contaminations in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, G.U.M.; Sjostrom, M.; Swanson, S.E. ); Furst, P.; Kruger, C.; Meemken, H.A.; Groebel, W. )

    1988-05-01

    The levels of chlorinated dibenzodioxins, PCDDs, and dibenzofurans, PCDFs, in human milk have been of great concern after the discovery of the toxic 2,3,7,8-substituted isomers in milk of European origin. As knowledge of environmental contamination of human breast milk increases, questions will continue to be asked about possible risks from breast feeding. Before any recommendations can be made, there must be knowledge of contaminant levels in mothers' breast milk. Researchers have measured PCB and 17 different dioxins and furans in human breast milk samples. To date the data has only been analyzed by univariate and bivariate statistical methods. However to extract as much information as possible from this data set, multivariate statistical methods must be used. Here the authors present a multivariate analysis where the relationships between the polychlorinated compounds and the personalia of the mothers have been studied. For the data analysis partial least squares (PLS) modelling has been used.

  9. Raman-spectroscopy-based chemical contaminant detection in milk powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.

    2015-05-01

    Addition of edible and inedible chemical contaminants in food powders for purposes of economic benefit has become a recurring trend. In recent years, severe health issues have been reported due to consumption of food powders contaminated with chemical substances. This study examines the effect of spatial resolution used during spectral collection to select the optimal spatial resolution for detecting melamine in milk powder. Sample depth of 2mm, laser intensity of 200mw, and exposure time of 0.1s were previously determined as optimal experimental parameters for Raman imaging. Spatial resolution of 0.25mm was determined as the optimal resolution for acquiring spectral signal of melamine particles from a milk-melamine mixture sample. Using the optimal resolution of 0.25mm, sample depth of 2mm and laser intensity of 200mw obtained from previous study, spectral signal from 5 different concentration of milk-melamine mixture (1%, 0.5%, 0.1%, 0.05%, and 0.025%) were acquired to study the relationship between number of detected melamine pixels and corresponding sample concentration. The result shows that melamine concentration has a linear relation with detected number of melamine pixels with correlation coefficient of 0.99. It can be concluded that the quantitative analysis of powder mixture is dependent on many factors including physical characteristics of mixture, experimental parameters, and sample depth. The results obtained in this study are promising. We plan to apply the result obtained from this study to develop quantitative detection model for rapid screening of melamine in milk powder. This methodology can also be used for detection of other chemical contaminants in milk powders.

  10. Phthalates in Belgian cow's milk and the role of feed and other contamination pathways at farm level.

    PubMed

    Fierens, T; Van Holderbeke, M; Willems, H; De Henauw, S; Sioen, I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the occurrence of dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), dicyclohexyl phthalate (DCHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP) in raw cow's milk and feed from Belgian farms in order to determine their most relevant contamination pathways in milk. Measurable levels of DMP, DEP, DnBP, DCHP and DnOP were found in various feed samples, although they were not observed in milk. A plausible explanation for this is that they are rapidly metabolised in cows. DEHP and in a smaller degree also DiBP and BBP levels in milk seemed to vary across seasons and farms. DiBP and BBP levels were lower in summer than in winter milk, which was in contrast with what was observed for DEHP. This is possibly due to another feed composition during summer and winter. Comparing BBP and DEHP concentrations in manually with those in mechanically obtained milk revealed that, besides environmental contamination via feed ingestion, contact materials used during the mechanical milking process is another important contamination pathway. Concentrations observed in this study confirm the decreasing trend of DEHP in European cow's milk owing to the substitution of DEHP by other plasticisers.

  11. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in raw bulk milk and the presence of aflatoxin B1 in corn supplied to dairy cattle in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Kei-ichi; Hiraoka, Hisaaki; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which has been found in the milk of dairy cattle fed AFB1-contaminated feeds. Since AFM1 has been evaluated as a possible human carcinogen, the cancer risk arising from AFM1 contamination in milk is a serious problem in food safety. To evaluate the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk, it is necessary to analyze the risk factors of AFB1 contamination in corn provided for concentrated feed in Japan. The AFM1 level in domestic raw bulk milk was measured at three sampling times, January, February and June in 2004. The AFB1 contamination in corn supplied to cows was determined at the same time as the sampling of raw milk. The AFM1 contamination levels in milk in January, February and June 2004 were 0.011, 0.007 and 0.005 ng/g, respectively. The AFB1 contamination level in the corn of the concentrated feed was higher from October of 2003 to February of 2004 than from April to June in 2004. This study provides evidence that AFM1 contamination level in milk is parallel to that of AFB1 in corn of concentrated feed, so monitoring of the AFB1 level in corn is important to prevent the risk of AFM1 contamination in milk in Japan.

  12. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis. PMID:23132544

  13. Milk and serum standard reference materials for monitoring organic contaminants in human samples.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Michele M; Eppe, Gauthier; Focant, Jean-François; Hamilton, Coreen; Heckert, N Alan; Heltsley, Rebecca M; Hoover, Dale; Keller, Jennifer M; Leigh, Stefan D; Patterson, Donald G; Pintar, Adam L; Sharpless, Katherine E; Sjödin, Andreas; Turner, Wayman E; Vander Pol, Stacy S; Wise, Stephen A

    2013-02-01

    Four new Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) have been developed to assist in the quality assurance of chemical contaminant measurements required for human biomonitoring studies, SRM 1953 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1954 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Milk, SRM 1957 Organic Contaminants in Non-Fortified Human Serum, and SRM 1958 Organic Contaminants in Fortified Human Serum. These materials were developed as part of a collaboration between the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) with both agencies contributing data used in the certification of mass fraction values for a wide range of organic contaminants including polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners, chlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) congeners. The certified mass fractions of the organic contaminants in unfortified samples, SRM 1953 and SRM 1957, ranged from 12 ng/kg to 2200 ng/kg with the exception of 4,4'-DDE in SRM 1953 at 7400 ng/kg with expanded uncertainties generally <14 %. This agreement suggests that there were no significant biases existing among the multiple methods used for analysis.

  14. Thermal Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Artificially Contaminated Milk by Direct Steam Injection

    PubMed Central

    Butot, Sophie; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Bakker, Douwe; Donaghy, John

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The efficiency of direct steam injection (DSI) at 105°C for 3 s to inactivate Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk at a pilot-plant scale was investigated. Milk samples were artificially contaminated with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and also with cow fecal material naturally infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. We also tested milk artificially contaminated with Mycobacterium smegmatis as a candidate surrogate to compare thermal inactivation between M. smegmatis and M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Following the DSI process, no viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or M. smegmatis was recovered using culture methods for both strains. For pure M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis cultures, a minimum reduction of 5.6 log10 was achieved with DSI, and a minimum reduction of 5.7 log10 was found with M. smegmatis. The minimum log10 reduction for wild-type M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis naturally present in feces was 3.3. In addition, 44 dairy and nondairy powdered infant formula (PIF) ingredients used during the manufacturing process of PIF were tested for an alternate source for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and were found to be negative by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In conclusion, the results obtained from this study indicate that a >7-fold-log10 reduction of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in milk can be achieved with the applied DSI process. IMPORTANCE M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is widespread in dairy herds in many countries. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Johne's disease in cattle, and infected animals can directly or indirectly (i.e., fecal contamination) contaminate milk. Despite much research and debate, there is no conclusive evidence that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis is a zoonotic bacterium, i.e., one that causes disease in humans. The presence of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis or its DNA has been reported in dairy products, including pasteurized milk, cheese, and infant formula

  15. Guidance on offsite emergency radiation measurement systems. Phase 2: The milk pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-04-01

    This document provides guidance to State and local governments and to Federal agencies on offsite emergency measurement of radionuclides after an accident involving a light-water nuclear power plant; in particular, this document provides guidance on determining the dose commitment from the milk pathway. Protective action levels proposed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for milk are used as the basis for monitoring requirements. Measurement of radionuclides in milk should be made at the earliest practical point in the production chain: dairy farms, receiving and transfer stations, processing plants or marketing facilities. Early monitoring will provide data to keep significantly contaminated milk out of distribution and will provide the basis for the most timely emergency response action. Radioiodine plus four other radionuclides, cesium-134, cesium-137, strontium-89, and strontium-90, contribute significantly to dose via the milk pathway; of the most severe potential accident, the short-term dose via the milk pathway from radioiodine is significantly greater than that of cesium or strontium. There is no emergency field monitoring instrumentation available for accurately monitoring cesium and strontium, particularly in the presence of radioiodine. Radioiodine can be a potential contamination problem in liquid milk, whereas radiocesium and radiostrontium can be a contamination problem in processed milk products. Monitoring for the long half-life nuclides such as cesium and strontium requires sophisticated equipment or chemistry procedures which are only available in a laboratory. 2 references, 21 figures, 21 tables.

  16. Effect of milking frequency on DHI performance measures.

    PubMed

    Smith, J W; Ely, L O; Graves, W M; Gilson, W D

    2002-12-01

    Increasing production by increasing milking frequency (MF) is a management option available to dairy producers. This study examined effects of MF and interactions with region and herd size on measures of herd performance. Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) Holstein herd summary records (n = 10,754, 10,550, and 10,438) for the years 1998, 1999, and 2000 were classified by MF: two times a day (2X) milking vs three times a day (3X); herd size: small (< 250 cows) and large (> or = 250 cows); and region: North and South. Percentage of herds milking 3X by year were 7.0, 6.7, and 7.1. Rolling herd average milk production was 16, 16, and 15% higher for herds milking 3X than herds milking 2X for the respective years. Herds milking 3X in the North region outproduced herds milking 3X in the South region. Milk fat and protein percentages were lower for herds milking 3X during all 3 yr. Differences in energy-corrected milk production between herds milking 3X and herds milking 2X were 14.5, 13.4, and 13.4% during the respective 3 yr as a result of lower component percentages for herds milking 3X. Herds milking 3X had more days open and higher actual calving intervals than herds milking 2X. Services per pregnancy for herds breeding primarily by artificial insemination were higher for herds milking 3X than for herds milking 2X. Somatic cell scores and weighted somatic cell counts were lower for herds milking 3X than herds milking 2X. Herds milking 3X had a higher percentage of somatic cell scores in the low range (0 to 3) and a lower percentage in the high range (7 to 9). Mean percentages of cows entering and leaving the herd were higher for herds milking 3X during all 3 yr.

  17. Characterization of Contaminants from a Sanitized Milk Processing Plant

    PubMed Central

    Cleto, Sara; Matos, Sónia; Kluskens, Leon; Vieira, Maria João

    2012-01-01

    Milk processing lines offer a wide variety of microenvironments where a diversity of microorganisms can proliferate. We sampled crevices and junctions where, due to deficient reach by typical sanitizing procedures, bacteria can survive and establish biofilms. The sampling sites were the holding cell, cold storage tank, pasteurizer and storage tank - transfer pump junction. The culturable bacteria that were isolated after the sanitation procedure were predominantly Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp, Staphylococcus sciuri and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. We assayed several phenotypic characteristics such as the ability to secrete enzymes and siderophores, as well as the capacity of the strains to form biofilms that might contribute to their survival in a mixed species environment. The Pseudomonas spp. isolates were found to either produce proteases or lecithinases at high levels. Interestingly, protease production showed an inverse correlation with siderophore production. Furthermore, all of the Serratia spp. isolates were strong biofilm formers and spoilage enzymes producers. The organisms identified were not mere contaminants, but also producers of proteins with the potential to lower the quality and shelf-life of milk. In addition, we found that a considerable number of the Serratia and Pseudomonas spp. isolated from the pasteurizer were capable of secreting compounds with antimicrobial properties. PMID:22761957

  18. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of human breast milk in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Pourradi, Nasibeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the last decades there has been great attention paid to aflatoxins. They are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is formed in the liver and excreted into the breast milk. It is considered to cause certain hygienic risks for infant health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the AFM1 in the breast milk using AFM1 in milk as a biomarker for exposure to aflatoxin B1 and determine the level of AFM1 contamination in the lactating mothers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 80 lactating women randomly selected from two urban health centers. Mother's milk samples and information on food intake were collected from the participants using structured food-frequency questionnaire. Breast milk samples were tested for AFM1 by a competitive ELISA technique. Results: Our findings showed that only one sample was contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations of 6.8 ng/L. However, the AFM1 level in this sample was lower than the maximum tolerable limit (25 ng/L) accepted by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius. Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the acceptable level, the presence of AFM1 in only one of them confirms the need for developing strategies to reduce exposure to aflatoxin in foods and to carry out biological monitoring of aflatoxins as a food quality control measure routinely. PMID:24524032

  19. On the inactivation of Brucella abortus in naturally contaminated milk by commercial pasteurisation procedures.

    PubMed

    Van den Heever, L W; Katz, K W; Te Brugge, L A

    1982-12-01

    Following concern about the recent publication indicating the possible ability of Brucella abortus to survive commercial pasteurisation of naturally contaminated milk, such milk was subjected to biological (BT), serological and bacteriological tests. The raw milk was Brucella Milk Ring Test positive and biotype I was isolated from 4/5 BT guinea pigs, the one tested being seropositive to the Rose Bengal Test, and with serum agglutination and complement fixation titres of 160 and 36 international units respectively. After batch (63 degrees C/30 min) and high temperature, short time (72 degrees C/15 sec) pasteurisation, all 10 BT guinea pigs were bacteriologically and serologically negative, indicating that officially approved methods of commercial pasteurisation rendered naturally Brucella-contaminated raw milk safe for consumption.

  20. Food safety in raw milk production: risk factors associated to bacterial DNA contamination.

    PubMed

    Cerva, Cristine; Bremm, Carolina; Reis, Emily Marques dos; Bezerra, André Vinícius Andrade; Loiko, Márcia Regina; Cruz, Cláudio Estêvão Farias da; Cenci, Alexander; Mayer, Fabiana Quoos

    2014-06-01

    While human illness from milkborne pathogens may be linked to contamination of the product after pasteurization or improper pasteurization, such diseases are usually associated with consumption of raw milk or its by-products. Molecular biology tools were applied to investigate contamination by Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., some pathogenic strains of Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter jejuni in 548 raw milk samples from 125 dairy farms established in two regions from southern Brazil. Moreover, 15 variables were evaluated for their association with raw milk contamination levels, and the risk factors were determined by multiple regression analysis. Salmonella spp. were more frequently detected, followed by pathogenic E. coli. There was difference in contamination index between the regions, in which risk factors such as temporary cattle confinement, low milk production, low milking machine cleaning frequency, and milk storage area without tile walls were identified. The risk factors were specific to each region studied. Nevertheless, the data can be used to improve milk quality of dairy farms/herds with similar management practices.

  1. Bacillus cereus spores during housing of dairy cows: factors affecting contamination of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, M; Christiansson, A; Svensson, B

    2007-06-01

    The contamination of raw milk with Bacillus cereus spores was studied during the indoor confinement of dairy cattle. The occurrence of spores in fresh and used bedding material, air samples, feed, feces, and the rinse water from milking equipment was compared with the spore level in bulk tank milk on 2 farms, one of which had 2 different housing systems. A less extensive study was carried out on an additional 5 farms. High spore concentrations of >100 spores/L in the raw milk were found on 4 of the farms. The number of spores found in the feed, feces, and air was too small to be of importance for milk contamination. Elevated spore contents in the rinse water from the milking equipment (up to 322 spores/L) were observed and large numbers of spores were found in the used bedding material, especially in free stalls with >5 cm deep sawdust beds. At most, 87,000 spores/g were found in used sawdust bedding. A positive correlation was found between the spore content in used bedding material and milk (r = 0.72). Comparison of the genetic fingerprints obtained by the random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR of isolates of B. cereus from the different sources indicated that used bedding material was the major source of contamination. A separate feeding experiment in which cows were experimentally fed B. cereus spores showed a positive relationship between the number of spores in the feed and feces and in the feces and milk (r = 0.78). The results showed that contaminated feed could be a significant source of spore contamination of raw milk if the number of spores excreted in the feces exceeded 100,000/g.

  2. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Fiúza, Aparecida Tatiane Lino; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs) were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral mucosa, albeit

  3. Vaccinia virus Transmission through Experimentally Contaminated Milk Using a Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Fraiha, Ana Luiza Soares; Costa, Aristóteles Gomes; Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Fiúza, Aparecida Tatiane Lino; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela

    2015-01-01

    Bovine vaccinia (BV) is a zoonosis caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), which affects dairy cattle and humans. Previous studies have detected the presence of viable virus particles in bovine milk samples naturally and experimentally contaminated with VACV. However, it is not known whether milk contaminated with VACV could be a route of viral transmission. However, anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies were detected in humans from BV endemic areas, whom had no contact with affected cows, which suggest that other VACV transmission routes are possible, such as consumption of contaminated milk and dairy products. Therefore, it is important to study the possibility of VACV transmission by contaminated milk. This study aimed to examine VACV transmission, pathogenesis and shedding in mice orally inoculated with experimentally contaminated milk. Thirty mice were orally inoculated with milk containing 107 PFU/ml of VACV, and ten mice were orally inoculated with uncontaminated milk. Clinical examinations were performed for 30 consecutive days, and fecal samples and oral swabs (OSs) were collected every other day. Mice were euthanized on predetermined days, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Nested-PCR, plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), viral isolation, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) methods were performed on the collected samples. No clinical changes were observed in the animals. Viral DNA was detected in feces, blood, OSs and tissues, at least in one of the times tested. The lungs displayed moderate to severe interstitial lymphohistiocytic infiltrates, and only the heart, tonsils, tongue, and stomach did not show immunostaining at the IHC analysis. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the 20th and 30th days post infection in 50% of infected mice. The results revealed that VACV contaminated milk could be a route of viral transmission in mice experimentally infected, showing systemic distribution and shedding through feces and oral mucosa, albeit

  4. Rapid measurement of macronutrients in breast milk: How reliable are infrared milk analyzers?✩

    PubMed Central

    Fusch, Gerhard; Rochow, Niels; Choi, Arum; Fusch, Stephanie; Poeschl, Susanna; Ubah, Adelaide Obianuju; Lee, Sau-Young; Raja, Preeya; Fusch, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Background & aims Significant biological variation in macronutrient content of breast milk is an important barrier that needs to be overcome to meet nutritional needs of preterm infants. To analyze macronutrient content, commercial infrared milk analyzers have been proposed as efficient and practical tools in terms of efficiency and practicality. Since milk analyzers were originally developed for the dairy industry, they must be validated using a significant number of human milk samples that represent the broad range of variation in macronutrient content in preterm and term milk. Aim of this study was to validate two milk analyzers for breast milk analysis with reference methods and to determine an effective sample pretreatment. Current evidence for the influence of (i) aliquoting, (ii) storage time and (iii) temperature, and (iv) vessel wall adsorption on stability and availability of macronutrients in frozen breast milk is reviewed. Methods Breast milk samples (n = 1188) were collected from 63 mothers of preterm and term infants. Milk analyzers: (A) Near-infrared milk analyzer (Unity SpectraStar, USA) and (B) Mid-infrared milk analyzer (Miris, Sweden) were compared to reference methods, e.g. ether extraction, elemental analysis, and UPLC-MS/MS for fat, protein, and lactose, respectively. Results For fat analysis, (A) measured precisely but not accurately (y = 0.55x + 1.25, r2 = 0.85), whereas (B) measured precisely and accurately (y = 0.93x + 0.18, r2 = 0.86). For protein analysis, (A) was precise but not accurate (y = 0.55x + 0.54, r2 = 0.67) while (B) was both precise and accurate (y = 0.78x + 0.05, r2 = 0.73). For lactose analysis, both devices (A) and (B) showed two distinct concentration levels and measured therefore neither accurately nor precisely (y = 0.02x + 5.69, r2 = 0.01 and y = −0.09x + 6.62, r2 = 0.02 respectively). Macronutrient levels were unchanged in two independent samples of stored breast milk (−20 °C measured with IR; −80

  5. Optical measurements on contaminated surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonham, T. E.; Schmitt, R. J.; Linford, R. M. F.

    1975-01-01

    A bidirectional reflectometer system was developed for in situ measurements of the changes in spectral reflectance of surfaces contaminated with films of organic materials. The system permits experiments with films of controlled thickness in an environment that simulates the thermal, radiation, and vacuum conditions of space. The mechanical and optical construction of the reflectometer are discussed in detail, and actual data curves are used to illustrate its operation and performance.

  6. Aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurized milk from local markets in Fariman, Iran.

    PubMed

    Riahi-Zanjani, Bamdad; Balali-Mood, Mahdi

    2013-11-01

    Contamination of milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) presents a risk for human health. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of AFM1 in pasteurized milk samples in Fariman, located in the province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Forty-five samples of pasteurized milk from different supermarkets were collected during 3 months in summer (July to September, 2012). AFM1 contamination was detected in all of milk samples. The mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 was 27.2 ng/l. The range of AFM1 content was 8.8-64 ng/l. Thirteen (28.8 %) of the samples had AFM1 levels exceeding the maximum levels (50 ng/l) accepted by the European Union. Due to the fact that milk is used by all the age groups including infants and children in Fariman city, it is necessary to minimize the health risk from AFM1 contamination in milk. For this reason, the level of its precursor, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), in dairy feeds must be reduced, requiring constant aflatoxin monitoring of relevant agricultural commodities.

  7. Microbial contamination of water intended for milk container washing in smallholder dairy farming and milk retailing houses in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Shitu, Desalew; Abera, Mesele

    2016-01-01

    The water used during handling and processing of milk products can be potential sources of microbial contamination with possible negative consequences on food safety. Especially, the water used in keeping the hygiene of milking and milk storage utensils is crucial to keep the quality and safety of the products. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used for cleaning milking and milk storage equipment in smallholder dairy production in Hawassa and its surroundings. A total of 79 water samples were collected: 26 from milk collecting houses in Hawassa and 53 from selected smallholder dairy farms (Hawassa = 14, Arsi Negele = 29 and Yirgalem = 10). Out of the total samples, 18 samples were collected directly from pipe and 61 from storage containers (46 from narrow opening and 15 from wide opening containers). The overall prevalence of E. coli exceeding zero CFU/ml was 39.2 %. From analyzed samples, high prevalence of positive samples for E. coli was found in water samples taken from wide opening containers (66.7 %). A number of bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified which include Bacillus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Citrobacter sp. 1.3 %(n = 1), E. coli 39.2 % (n = 31), Enterobacter sp. 2.5 % (n = 2), Klebisella sp. 7.6 % (n = 6), Micrococcus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Pseudomonas sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13.9 % (n = 11) and Streptococcus sp. 1.3 % (n = 1). The bacteriological quality of water especially, water stored in household storage containers in present study area was found to be contaminated with different bacteria indicating potential food safety problem and health risk to the society. In this respect, people handling water should be educated on its proper handling and the risk of contamination during storage. To minimize contamination, materials with narrow mouth and lid should be used. Further study is recommended on

  8. Microbial contamination of water intended for milk container washing in smallholder dairy farming and milk retailing houses in southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Amenu, Kebede; Shitu, Desalew; Abera, Mesele

    2016-01-01

    The water used during handling and processing of milk products can be potential sources of microbial contamination with possible negative consequences on food safety. Especially, the water used in keeping the hygiene of milking and milk storage utensils is crucial to keep the quality and safety of the products. Therefore, the current study was designed to assess the bacteriological quality of water used for cleaning milking and milk storage equipment in smallholder dairy production in Hawassa and its surroundings. A total of 79 water samples were collected: 26 from milk collecting houses in Hawassa and 53 from selected smallholder dairy farms (Hawassa = 14, Arsi Negele = 29 and Yirgalem = 10). Out of the total samples, 18 samples were collected directly from pipe and 61 from storage containers (46 from narrow opening and 15 from wide opening containers). The overall prevalence of E. coli exceeding zero CFU/ml was 39.2 %. From analyzed samples, high prevalence of positive samples for E. coli was found in water samples taken from wide opening containers (66.7 %). A number of bacteria were isolated and presumptively identified which include Bacillus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Citrobacter sp. 1.3 %(n = 1), E. coli 39.2 % (n = 31), Enterobacter sp. 2.5 % (n = 2), Klebisella sp. 7.6 % (n = 6), Micrococcus sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Pseudomonas sp. 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus aureus 6.3 % (n = 5), Staphylococcus epidermidis 13.9 % (n = 11) and Streptococcus sp. 1.3 % (n = 1). The bacteriological quality of water especially, water stored in household storage containers in present study area was found to be contaminated with different bacteria indicating potential food safety problem and health risk to the society. In this respect, people handling water should be educated on its proper handling and the risk of contamination during storage. To minimize contamination, materials with narrow mouth and lid should be used. Further study is recommended on

  9. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow's Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia.

    PubMed

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J D; Hang'ombe, M Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow's milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30-120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100-223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of milk

  10. Microbial Contamination and Hygiene of Fresh Cow’s Milk Produced by Smallholders in Western Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Jones, Theodore J.D.; Hang’ombe, M. Bernard; Songe, Mwansa M.; Sinkala, Yona; Grace, Delia

    2016-01-01

    A field study was performed to assess safety of smallholder fresh cow’s milk around Mongu, Western Province, Zambia. This involved observation and sampling of milk along the value chain from milking to point-of-sale and storage. Samples were collected from 86 cows, from 9 farmers, selling through two dairy cooperatives, with additional samples from informal markets. Production was very low; around one litre/day/cow and 10 L/day/herd. The milk was typically transported by bicycle in high ambient temperatures without refrigeration until reaching the point-of-sale (journey times of 30–120 min), where it was sold without pasteurisation despite milk-borne zoonoses being endemic (bovine tuberculosis (bTB) and Brucellosis). Although microbiological contamination was initially low, with geometric mean total bacterial count (TBC) of 425 cfu/mL (cfu = colony forming units) upon arrival at point-of-sale, poor hygiene led to high bacterial loads later on (geometric mean TBC > 600,000 cfu/mL after two days refrigeration), with almost all samples culture positive for Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. After milking, milk was kept for 100–223 min at temperatures favouring microbial growth (median 34 °C) and sold without a microbial kill step. In this situation limited variation in observed standards of milk hygiene had no significant effect on milk end-product bacterial counts. Options for refrigerated transport are limited. Pasteurisation at the cooperative should be investigated, as this would largely remove pathogenic microbes present in the milk whether resulting from cattle infection or poor hygiene during milking and transportation. As milk is also purchased directly from producers, on-farm milk heating options should also be assessed. Smallholders may benefit from access to national markets by providing milk to large dairies, which have systems for ensuring safety. However, this requires significant investment and an increased and more consistent supply of

  11. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the monitoring of she-donkey's milk contamination or adulteration.

    PubMed

    Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Muccilli, Vera; Saletti, Rosaria; Foti, Salvatore

    2013-02-01

    Donkey's milk (DM), representing a safe and alternative food in both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy, can be categorized as precious pharma-food. Moreover, an economically relevant interest for the use of DM in cosmetology is also developing. The detection of adulterations and contaminations of DM is a matter of fundamental importance from both an economic and allergenic standpoint, and, to this aim, fast and efficient analytical approaches to assess the authenticity of this precious nutrient are desirable. Here, a rapid matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based method aimed to the detection of bovine or caprine milk in raw DM is reported. The presence of the extraneous milks was revealed by monitoring the protein profiles of the most abundant whey proteins, α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin, used as molecular markers. The possibility of obtaining a quantitative analysis of the level of cow or goat milk in DM based on the MALDI-TOF peak areas of α-LAs was also explored. The results showed that the experimental quantitative values were in good agreement with the real composition of each mixture. As pretreatment of the milk samples is not required, and owing to the speed and the high sensitivity of MALDI-MS, the protocol here reported could represent a reliable method for routine analyses aimed to assess the absence of contamination in raw fresh DM samples.

  12. Organochlorine pesticide contaminations in human milk samples from women living in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Alawi, M A; Ammari, N; al-Shuraiki, Y

    1992-08-01

    Concentration of 15 organochlorine pesticides were determined by capillary gas chromatography in 59 human milk samples collected from the general population during 1989/1990 in the Jordanian capital of Amman. In addition to hexachlorbenzene (HCB), three groups of organochlorine compounds namely, DDT and its metabolites, hexachlorcyclohexane (HCH-isomers) and the cyclopentadiene group (aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide) were analyzed. The results show that almost all samples contained HCB, beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT, whereas p,p'-DDD, heptachlor, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH and o,p'DDT were found in 42, 40, 33, 22 and 20 analyzed samples, respectively. The concentration of HCB, beta-HCH, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT and heptachlor expressed on a milk-fat basis (median in mg/kg milk fat): 0.29, 0.4, 2.04, and 0.7 respectively. For the comparative purposes and in order to try to find the possible sources of mother-milk contaminations, different types of locally produced and imported cow milk samples were also analyzed for the same organochlorine compounds. Almost all types of tested milk were contaminated with p,p'-DDE.

  13. AFM1 in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Santinoli, Claudia; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species which colonize crops, including many dietary staple foods and feed components. AFB1 is the prevalent and most toxic among AFs. In the liver, it is biotransformed into AFM1, which is then excreted into the milk of lactating mammals, including dairy animals. AFM1 has been shown to be cause of both acute and chronic toxicoses. The presence of AFM1 in milk and dairy products represents a worldwide concern since even small amounts of this metabolite may be of importance as long-term exposure is concerned. Contamination of milk may be mitigated either directly, decreasing the AFM1 content in contaminated milk, or indirectly, decreasing AFB1 contamination in the feed of dairy animals. Current strategies for AFM1 mitigation include good agricultural practices in pre-harvest and post-harvest management of feed crops (including storage) and physical or chemical decontamination of feed and milk. However, no single strategy offers a complete solution to the issue. PMID:26512694

  14. AFM₁ in Milk: Physical, Biological, and Prophylactic Methods to Mitigate Contamination.

    PubMed

    Giovati, Laura; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Santinoli, Claudia; Conti, Stefania; Polonelli, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are toxic, carcinogenic, immunosuppressive secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species which colonize crops, including many dietary staple foods and feed components. AFB₁ is the prevalent and most toxic among AFs. In the liver, it is biotransformed into AFM₁, which is then excreted into the milk of lactating mammals, including dairy animals. AFM₁ has been shown to be cause of both acute and chronic toxicoses. The presence of AFM₁ in milk and dairy products represents a worldwide concern since even small amounts of this metabolite may be of importance as long-term exposure is concerned. Contamination of milk may be mitigated either directly, decreasing the AFM₁ content in contaminated milk, or indirectly, decreasing AFB₁ contamination in the feed of dairy animals. Current strategies for AFM₁ mitigation include good agricultural practices in pre-harvest and post-harvest management of feed crops (including storage) and physical or chemical decontamination of feed and milk. However, no single strategy offers a complete solution to the issue. PMID:26512694

  15. Cesium separation from contaminated milk using magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitantes.

    SciTech Connect

    Nunez, L.; Kaminski, M.; Chemical Engineering

    2000-11-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster in 1986 contaminated vast regions of prime grazing land. Subsequently, milk produced in the region has been contaminated with small amounts of the long-lived fission product cesium-137, and the Ukraine is seeking to deploy a simple separation process that will remove the Cs and preserve the nutritional value of the milk. Tiny magnetic particles containing crystalline silicotitanates (CST) have been manufactured and tested to this end. The results show that partitioning efficiency is optimized with low ratios of particle mass to volume. To achieve 90% Cs decontamination in a single-stage process, <3 g of magnetic CST per l milk is sufficient with a 30-min mixing time. A two-stage process would utilize <0.4 g/l per stage. The modeling of the magnetic CST system described herein can be achieved rather simply which is important for deployment in the affected Ukraine region.

  16. Raman-spectroscopy-based chemical contaminant detection in milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Addition of edible and inedible chemical contaminants in food powders for purposes of economic benefit has become a recurring trend. In recent years, severe health issues have been reported due to consumption of food powders contaminated with chemical substances. This study examines the effect of sp...

  17. Milk contamination and resistance to processing conditions determine the fate of Lactococcus lactis bacteriophages in dairies.

    PubMed

    Madera, Carmen; Monjardín, Cristina; Suárez, Juan E

    2004-12-01

    Milk contamination by phages, the susceptibility of the phages to pasteurization, and the high levels of resistance to phage infection of starter strains condition the evolution dynamics of phage populations in dairy environments. Approximately 10% (83 of 900) of raw milk samples contained phages of the quasi-species c2 (72%), 936 (24%), and P335 (4%). However, 936 phages were isolated from 20 of 24 (85%) whey samples, while c2 was detected in only one (4%) of these samples. This switch may have been due to the higher susceptibility of c2 to pasteurization (936-like phages were found to be approximately 35 times more resistant than c2 strains to treatment of contaminated milk in a plate heat exchanger at 72 degrees C for 15 s). The restriction patterns of 936-like phages isolated from milk and whey were different, indicating that survival to pasteurization does not result in direct contamination of the dairy environment. The main alternative source of phages (commercial bacterial starters) does not appear to significantly contribute to phage contamination. Twenty-four strains isolated from nine starter formulations were generally resistant to phage infection, and very small progeny were generated upon induction of the lytic cycle of resident prophages. Thus, we postulate that a continuous supply of contaminated milk, followed by pasteurization, creates a factory environment rich in diverse 936 phage strains. This equilibrium would be broken if a particular starter strain turned out to be susceptible to infection by one of these 936-like phages, which, as a consequence, became prevalent. PMID:15574937

  18. Comparison of contaminant and residue levels in organic and conventional milk and meat products from northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Ghidini, S; Zanardi, E; Battaglia, A; Varisco, G; Ferretti, E; Campanini, G; Chizzolini, R

    2005-01-01

    Due to the growing interest in organic products, a comparison between the chemical safety of organic and conventional products was undertaken. Milk and meat were the products chosen for study. The parameters evaluated to assess chemical safety were organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), lead, cadmium and mycotoxin contamination. Pesticides and PCBs residues in both organic and conventional milk and meat were lower than legal limits. Lead and cadmium residues were very low and did not differ between organic and conventional products. However, aflatoxin M1 contamination in some but not all samples of organic milk was significantly higher than those of conventional milk, although factors other than organic production might be implicated.

  19. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2006-10-31

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4-7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 microg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure.

  20. Long-term consequences of arsenic poisoning during infancy due to contaminated milk powder

    PubMed Central

    Dakeishi, Miwako; Murata, Katsuyuki; Grandjean, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic toxicity is a global health problem affecting many millions of people. The main source of exposure is drinking water contaminated by natural geological sources. Current risk assessment is based on the recognized carcinogenicity of arsenic, but neurotoxic risks have been overlooked. In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred among Japanese infants, with more than 100 deaths. The source was contaminated milk powder produced by the Morinaga company. Detailed accounts of the Morinaga dried milk poisoning were published in Japanese only, and an overview of this poisoning incident and its long-term consequences is therefore presented. From analyses available, the arsenic concentration in milk made from the Morinaga milk powder is calculated to be about 4–7 mg/L, corresponding to daily doses slightly above 500 μg/kg body weight. Lower exposures would result from using diluted milk. Clinical poisoning cases occurred after a few weeks of exposure, with a total dose of about 60 mg. This experience provides clear-cut evidence for hazard assessment of the developmental neurotoxicity. At the present time, more than 600 surviving victims, now in their 50s, have been reported to suffer from severe sequelae, such as mental retardation, neurological diseases, and other disabilities. Along with more recent epidemiological studies of children with environmental arsenic exposures, the data amply demonstrate the need to consider neurotoxicity as a key concern in risk assessment of inorganic arsenic exposure. PMID:17076881

  1. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  2. Radiocesium levels measured in breast milk one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl

    SciTech Connect

    Assimakopoulos, P.A.; Ioannides, K.G.; Pakou, A.A.; Lolis, D.; Zikopoulos, K.; Dusias, B.

    1989-01-01

    One hundred-two samples of colostral milk, collected during spring of 1987, approximately one year after the reactor accident at Chernobyl, were measured for radiocesium contamination. The data showed a normal-type distribution with a mean contamination concentration of 16.4 Bq L-1. A weak correlation of the data to the mothers' diet was established by taking into account four of the main staples in the area. The corresponding transfer coefficient was deduced with a value of fm = 0.06 +/- 0.03 d L-1. The resultant effective dose received by breast-feeding infants was estimated, on the average, as 0.012 mrem d-1.

  3. Quality preservation of deliberately contaminated milk using thyme free and nanoemulsified essential oils.

    PubMed

    Ben Jemaa, Mariem; Falleh, Hanen; Neves, Marcos A; Isoda, Hiroko; Nakajima, Mitsutoshi; Ksouri, Riadh

    2017-02-15

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of either a solution of Thymus capitatus essential oil or its nanoemulsion on the quality of milk contaminated by bacteria. After 24h of S. aureus inoculation, bacterial growth reached 202×10(3)CFU/ml in the presence of the essential oil while it was limited to 132×10(3)CFU/ml when treated with nanoemulsion. The reduction of antioxidant capacity of milk treated with essential oil was higher when treated with nanoemulsion. Moreover, free essential oil was more efficient in protecting proteins from degradation than the nanoemulsion. For instance, after 24h of E. hirae contamination, 26% of the total proteins were consumed in the presence of nano-encapsulated essential oil, while only 14% of the initial content was consumed when free essential oil was added. Concerning milk acidity increase and the inhibition of peroxide production, no statistical differences have been recorded between the use of free essential oil or its nano-emulsion. In conclusion, bulk or nano-encapsulated T. capitatus essential oil preserve milk quality and can extend its shelf life. PMID:27664691

  4. Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii Circulation in a Dairy Farm and Sources of Milk Contamination.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Federica; Lucchi, Alex; Di Francesco, Antonietta; Delogu, Mauro; Grilli, Ester; Guarniero, Ilaria; Stancampiano, Laura; Manfreda, Gerardo; Merialdi, Giuseppe; Serraino, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    Even though dairy cows are known carriers of Arcobacter species and raw or minimally processed foods are recognized as the main sources of human Arcobacter infections in industrialized countries, data on Arcobacter excretion patterns in cows and in milk are scant. This study aimed to identify potentially pathogenic Arcobacter species in a dairy herd and to investigate the routes of Arcobacter transmission among animals and the potential sources of cattle infection and milk contamination. A strategy of sampling the same 50 dairy animals, feed, water, and milk every month for a 10-month period, as well as the sampling of quarter milk, animal teats, the milking environment, and animals living on the farm (pigeons and cats), was used to evaluate, by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), the characteristic patterns in animals, their living environment, and the raw milk they produced. Of the 463 samples collected, 105 (22.6%) were positive for Arcobacter spp. by culture examination. All the matrices except quarter milk and pigeon gut samples were positive, with prevalences ranging from 15 to 83% depending on the sample. Only three Arcobacter species, Arcobacter cryaerophilus (54.2%), A. butzleri (34.2%), and A. skirrowii (32.3%), were detected. PFGE analysis of 370 isolates from positive samples provided strong evidence of Arcobacter circulation in the herd: cattle likely acquire the microorganisms by orofecal transmission, either by direct contact or from the environment, or both. Water appears to be a major source of animal infection. Raw milk produced by the farm and collected from a bulk tank was frequently contaminated (80%) by A. butzleri; our PFGE findings excluded primary contamination of milk, whereas teats and milking machine surfaces could be sources of Arcobacter milk contamination.

  5. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of milk and ice cream in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Atanda, Olusegun; Oguntubo, Adenike; Adejumo, Oloyede; Ikeorah, John; Akpan, Iyang

    2007-07-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine the aflatoxin M(1) contamination of milk and some locally produced dairy products in Abeokuta and Odeda local governments of Ogun State, Nigeria. Samples of human and cow milk, yoghurt, "wara", ice cream and "nono" were collected randomly within the local governments and analysed for aflatoxin M(1) using the two-dimensional TLC. Aflatoxin M(1) contamination in the range of 2.04-4.00 microg l(-1) was noticed only in milk and ice cream. In particular, samples of human milk, cow milk and ice cream recorded high scores of 4.0 microg l(-1), 2.04 microg l(-1) and 2.23 microg l(-1), respectively in Abeokuta local governments and a score of 4.0 microg l(-1) for cow milk in Odeda local government. This indicates a high level contamination in the local governments since the weighted mean concentration of aflatoxin M1 in milk for African diet is 0.002 microg l(-1). Therefore the concentration of AFB1 in feeds which is transformed to AFM1 in milk should be reduced by good manufacturing and good storage practices. Furthermore, there is need for stringent quality control during processing and distribution of these products.

  6. Bifidobacterium pseudolongum are efficient indicators of animal fecal contamination in raw milk cheese industry

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The contamination of raw milk cheeses (St-Marcellin and Brie) from two plants in France was studied at several steps of production (raw milk, after addition of rennet - St-Marcellin - or after second maturation - Brie -, after removal from the mold and during ripening) using bifidobacteria as indicators of fecal contamination. Results Bifidobacterium semi-quantitative counts were compared using PCR-RFLP and real-time PCR. B. pseudolongum were detected in 77% (PCR-RFLP; 1.75 to 2.29 log cfu ml-1) and 68% (real-time PCR; 2.19 to 2.73 log cfu ml-1) of St-Marcellin samples and in 87% (PCR-RFLP; 1.17 to 2.40 log cfu ml-1) of Brie cheeses samples. Mean counts of B. pseudolongum remained stable along both processes. Two other populations of bifidobacteria were detected during the ripening stage of St-Marcellin, respectively in 61% and 18% of the samples (PCR-RFLP). The presence of these populations explains the increase in total bifidobacteria observed during ripening. Further characterization of these populations is currently under process. Forty-eight percents (St-Marcellin) and 70% (Brie) of the samples were B. pseudolongum positive/E. coli negative while only 10% (St-Marcellin) and 3% (Brie) were B. pseudolongum negative/E. coli positive. Conclusions The increase of total bifidobacteria during ripening in Marcellin's process does not allow their use as fecal indicator. The presence of B. pseudolongum along the processes defined a contamination from animal origin since this species is predominant in cow dung and has never been isolated in human feces. B. pseudolongum was more sensitive as an indicator than E. coli along the two different cheese processes. B. pseudolongum should be used as fecal indicator rather than E. coli to assess the quality of raw milk and raw milk cheeses. PMID:21816092

  7. Minimization of viral contamination in human pharmaceuticals produced in the milk of transgenic goats.

    PubMed

    Ziomek, C A

    1996-01-01

    The minimization of viral contamination in therapeutic proteins produced in transgenic goats' milk can be achieved by a combinatorial approach. It begins with reduction in the risk in the starting material followed by appropriate clearance/inactivation steps in the purification process. To minimize risk in the starting material, Genzyme Transgenics Corporation (GTC)'s closed goat herds are subjected to routine serological surveillance for known viral diseases, especially those transmitted through milk. Although scrapie is defined as a slow-acting virus of sheep and goats, its incidence in goats in the US is rare (only four cases) and all four were in goats co-mingled with scrapie-infected sheep. All GTC's domestic goats were selected for previous non-exposure to sheep, cows or scrapie. In addition, milk, which is the starting material for transgenic protein production, is categorized as non-infectious for prions. Standard operating procedures are in place at GTC Farm sites to minimize human, animal or vehicular vectoring of viral diseases and the transgenic production animals are milked according to high standard Good Agricultural Practices (GAP). The transgenic protein (ATIII) purification process contains steps that should provide a high level of viral reduction. Validation of viral and prion removal will also be undertaken.

  8. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices.

  9. Residues of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of Alpine and Saanen goats from the central region of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Schettino, Beatriz; Gutiérrez, Rey; Ortiz, Rutilio; Vega, Salvador; Urban, Georgina; Ramírez, Acacia

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated a suite of legacy organochlorine contaminants in the milk of two breeds of goats raised in the central region of Mexico, where this agricultural production is of national (Mexican) economic importance. Forty milk samples from Alpine and Saanen goats were assessed. It was found that the concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides in milk samples were lower than those stipulated in Mexican and international regulation. The values in both breeds of goat exceeded the upper permissible limits of Codex Alimentarius for delta hexachloro cyclohexane (HCH) (17.3 of samples of Saanen) and heptachlor plus heptachlor epoxide (50 % and 13 % of samples). It may be concluded that milk from these goat breeds from central Mexico showed some risks of contamination in certain times of the year (dry season). However, under further assessment and use of pesticides the goat's milk will likely be safe for human consumption and for use in products such as cheeses, regional candies and desserts (cajeta). In recent years, goat milk production has increased in the central regions and it is an economic alternative to milk from livestock. It is necessary to continue the monitoring of goat's milk to assess the presence and control of HCHs through best management practices. PMID:23689930

  10. Spectrograph Measures Contamination Of Optical Elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flint, Bruce K.; Fancy, Robert D.; Jarratt, Robert V., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Scanning-monochromator spectrograph designed to measure contamination on surfaces of optical elements as function of time. Repeatedly exposes samples to environment, then measures their transmittances or reflectances over range of wavelengths. Intended for use at vacuum-ultraviolet wavelengths to evaluate effects of outgassing, heating, and cooling on optical instruments. Principle of operation also applicable to spectral monitoring of time-dependent contamination at other wavelengths and in laboratory, industrial, or other settings.

  11. Milk of nonhuman origin and infectious diseases in humans.

    PubMed

    Leedom, John M

    2006-09-01

    Milk and milk products from domestic animals, which are potential infectious hazards, are made more so by modern milk production, because milk from thousands of animals is often pooled prior to bottling or before manufacturing derivative products. Thus, contaminated milk from 1 animal can result in a widespread problem. Pasteurization largely eliminates this hazard. Most disease transmission caused by contamination of the milk supply has been eliminated by hygienic production measures and pasteurization. However, contamination may occur after pasteurization, and no process works perfectly all of the time. Despite scientific opinion that pasteurized products are safer than raw ones--and are equally nutritious--segments of the population regard raw milk products as more nutritious and better tasting than pasteurized milk products. Thus, low levels of raw milk consumption persist in the United States and other developed nations. Occasional milk-associated disease outbreaks caused by raw milk consumption or by breakdowns in the proper production of pasteurized products still occur.

  12. Phytoestrogens in milk: Overestimations caused by contamination of the hydrolytic enzyme used during sample extraction.

    PubMed

    Bláhová, L; Kohoutek, J; Procházková, T; Prudíková, M; Bláha, L

    2016-09-01

    Isoflavones are natural phytoestrogens with antioxidant and endocrine-disrupting potencies. Monitoring of their levels is important to ensure the high quality and safety of food, milk, and dairy products. The efficiency and accuracy of phytoestrogen analyses in complex matrices such as milk depend on the extraction procedure, which often uses hydrolysis by means of the β-glucuronidase/sulfatase enzyme originating from Helix pomatia. The present study reveals that the commercially available hydrolytic enzyme is contaminated by several phytoestrogen isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, formononetin, and biochanin A) and their metabolite equol, as well as flavones (naringenin and apigenin) and coumestrol. We show that the concentrations of daidzein and genistein in the enzyme could have impaired the results of analyses of the main isoflavones in several previously published studies. Of 8 analyzed compounds, only equol was confirmed in the present study and it serves as a reliable marker of phytoestrogens originating from cow feed. Critical reassessment of phytoestrogen concentrations in milk is needed because several previously published studies might have overestimated the concentrations depending on the extraction procedure used. PMID:27394955

  13. Phytoestrogens in milk: Overestimations caused by contamination of the hydrolytic enzyme used during sample extraction.

    PubMed

    Bláhová, L; Kohoutek, J; Procházková, T; Prudíková, M; Bláha, L

    2016-09-01

    Isoflavones are natural phytoestrogens with antioxidant and endocrine-disrupting potencies. Monitoring of their levels is important to ensure the high quality and safety of food, milk, and dairy products. The efficiency and accuracy of phytoestrogen analyses in complex matrices such as milk depend on the extraction procedure, which often uses hydrolysis by means of the β-glucuronidase/sulfatase enzyme originating from Helix pomatia. The present study reveals that the commercially available hydrolytic enzyme is contaminated by several phytoestrogen isoflavones (genistein, daidzein, formononetin, and biochanin A) and their metabolite equol, as well as flavones (naringenin and apigenin) and coumestrol. We show that the concentrations of daidzein and genistein in the enzyme could have impaired the results of analyses of the main isoflavones in several previously published studies. Of 8 analyzed compounds, only equol was confirmed in the present study and it serves as a reliable marker of phytoestrogens originating from cow feed. Critical reassessment of phytoestrogen concentrations in milk is needed because several previously published studies might have overestimated the concentrations depending on the extraction procedure used.

  14. New technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, Ohio, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.A. was measured. Small size clean silicon wafers as contamination sensors placed at all desired measurement sites were used. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet uniformly the silicon substrate, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: continuous, homogeneous film and islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models for our case shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on samples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

  15. Enterotoxin-producing Staphylococcus aureus genotype B as a major contaminant in Swiss raw milk cheese.

    PubMed

    Hummerjohann, J; Naskova, J; Baumgartner, A; Graber, H U

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize Staphylococcus aureus isolates from Swiss raw milk cheeses that had been found to be contaminated with coagulase-positive staphylococci and to estimate the frequency of the various genotypes, in particular the mastitis-associated Staph. aureus genotype B (GTB). The isolates were also tested for staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) genes and other virulence factors. From 623 coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from 78 contaminated raw milk cheeses, 609 were found to be Staphylococcus aureus. Genotyping of all Staph. aureus isolates was performed by PCR amplification of the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, as this method was used previously to differentiate between mastitis subtypes associated with their clinical outcome. In total, 20 different genotypes were obtained and the 5 most frequently occurring genotypes were distributed in 6.4% or more of the samples. The enterotoxin-producing Staph. aureus GTB, known for its high contagiousness and increased pathogenicity in Swiss mastitis herds, was found to be the most abundant subtype at the sample level (71.8%) as well as among the isolates (62.0%). A subset of 107 isolates of the different genotypes were analyzed for the presence of SE genes and revealed 9 different SE gene patterns, with sed being most frequently detected and 26% being PCR-negative for SE genes. Almost all isolates of the major contaminant GTB contained the SE gene pattern sed, sej, ser, with half of them additionally carrying sea. Production of SE in vitro was consistent with the SE genes detected in most of the cases; however, some isolated GTB did not produce SEA. Staphylococcus aureus Protein A (spa) typing revealed 30 different subtypes and most GTB isolates belonged to the bovine spa type t2953; GTB/t2953 was linked among other subtypes to SE production in cheese and staphylococcal intoxication cases. Furthermore, 1 of the 623 isolates was a methicillin-resistant Staph. aureus, which was an

  16. Retrospective analysis of a listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in raw milk goat cheese using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Delhalle, L; Ellouze, M; Yde, M; Clinquart, A; Daube, G; Korsak, N

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, the Belgian authorities reported a Listeria monocytogenes contamination episode in cheese made from raw goat's milk. The presence of an asymptomatic shedder goat in the herd caused this contamination. On the basis of data collected at the time of the episode, a retrospective study was performed using an exposure assessment model covering the production chain from the milking of goats up to delivery of cheese to the market. Predictive microbiology models were used to simulate the growth of L. monocytogenes during the cheese process in relation with temperature, pH, and water activity. The model showed significant growth of L. monocytogenes during chilling and storage of the milk collected the day before the cheese production (median increase of 2.2 log CFU/ml) and during the addition of starter and rennet to milk (median increase of 1.2 log CFU/ml). The L. monocytogenes concentration in the fresh unripened cheese was estimated to be 3.8 log CFU/g (median). This result is consistent with the number of L. monocytogenes in the fresh cheese (3.6 log CFU/g) reported during the cheese contamination episode. A variance-based method sensitivity analysis identified the most important factors impacting the cheese contamination, and a scenario analysis then evaluated several options for risk mitigation. Thus, by using quantitative microbial risk assessment tools, this study provides reliable information to identify and control critical steps in a local production chain of cheese made from raw goat's milk.

  17. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    PubMed

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  18. Direct detection of viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts by reverse transcriptase PCR in contaminated milk samples after heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Vaitilingom, M; Gendre, F; Brignon, P

    1998-03-01

    A fast, sensitive, and target contaminant-modulable method was developed to detect viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts after heat treatment. By reverse transcriptase PCR with elongation factor gene (EF-Tu or EF-1 alpha)-specific primers, the detection level was 10 cells ml of milk-1. The simplicity and rapidity (4 h) of the procedure suggests that this method may be easily transposable to other foods and other contaminants. PMID:9501455

  19. Apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring surface particulate contamination includes a tool for collecting a contamination sample from a target surface, a mask having an opening of known area formed therein for defining the target surface, and a flexible connector connecting the tool to the mask. The tool includes a body portion having a large diameter section defining a surface and a small diameter section extending from the large diameter section. A particulate collector is removably mounted on the surface of the large diameter section for collecting the contaminants. The tool further includes a spindle extending from the small diameter section and a spool slidingly mounted on the spindle. A spring is disposed between the small diameter section and the spool for biasing the spool away from the small diameter section. An indicator is provided on the spindle so as to be revealed when the spool is pressed downward to compress the spring.

  20. Application of a real time PCR method to detect castor toxin contamination in fluid milk and eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The castor seed contains ricin, which is one of the most potent biological toxins and is widely considered to be a threat agent for bioterrorism. In this study, a rapid and sensitive PCR method was developed for the detection of castor contamination in milk and liquid egg samples. Primers targeting ...

  1. Seasonal patterns of aflatoxin M1 contamination in commercial pasteurised milk from different areas in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suriyasathaporn, Witaya; Nakprasert, Watinee

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) levels were determined in pasteurised milk from five commercial trademarks produced in different areas in Thailand. One hundred and twenty milk samples were collected from local markets in Chiang Mai province, Thailand, to evaluate AFM1 concentrations using immunoaffinity columns and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The overall median AFM1 level was 0.023 µg L(-1) ranging from 0.004 to 0.293 µg L(-1). All trademarks had average AFM1 concentrations lower than 0.05 µg L(-1), with those in Trademarks 3 to 5 being higher than Trademarks 1 and 2 (P < 0.01). All trademarks had different seasonal patterns of AFM1, even though operating in the same area. However, only Trademark 3 showed significant differences of AFM1 levels between seasons. The results suggested that farm management factors, rather than environment factors, were likely to be the main cause of AFM1 contamination in dairy products.

  2. Dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants in relation to their concentrations in breast milk and serum in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yukiko; Nishimura, Eri; Kato, Yoshihisa; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated human exposure to neutral, phenolic, and methoxylated organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) in a duplicate diet study to evaluate their concentrations in breast milk and serum of Okinawan people from Japan during 2004-2009. Dietary intakes of phenolic OHCs were predominantly 2,4,6-tribromophenol (TriBP), followed by tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and 6-hydroxy-2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-BDE47). After exposure, TriBP and TBBPA were transferred to breast milk, whereas 6-OH-BDE47 was selectively retained in serum. Despite a lower dietary exposure to pentachlorophenol and 4-hydroxy-CB187, both were retained in serum. For the methoxylated OHCs, 2,4,6-tribromoanisole (TriBA) and 6-methoxy-BDE47 were the predominant dietary contaminants, of which TriBA was present in both breast milk and serum, whereas 6-methoxy-BDE47 was selectively transferred to breast milk. These findings suggest that dietary exposure to phenolic and methoxylated OHCs may result in differential partitioning between breast milk and serum with different pharmacokinetic or exposure routes. PMID:24263137

  3. A spatial, statistical approach to map the risk of milk contamination by β-hexachlorocyclohexane in dairy farms.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Sabrina; Caminiti, Antonino; Ciotoli, Giancarlo; Panetta, Valentina; Rombolà, Pasquale; Sala, Marcello; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Scaramozzino, Paola

    2013-11-01

    In May 2005, beta-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) was found in a sample of bovine bulk milk from a farm in the Sacco River valley (Latium region, central Italy). The primary source of contamination was suspected to be industrial discharge into the environment with the Sacco River as the main mean of dispersion. Since then, a surveillance programme on bulk milk of the local farms was carried out by the veterinary services. In order to estimate the spatial probability of β- HCH contamination of milk produced in the Sacco River valley and draw probability maps of contamination, probability maps of β-HCH values in milk were estimated by indicator kriging (IK), a geo-statistical estimator, and traditional logistic regression (LR) combined with a geographical information systems approach. The former technique produces a spatial view of probabilities above a specific threshold at non-sampled locations on the basis of observed values in the area, while LR gives the probabilities in specific locations on the basis of certain environmental predictors, namely the distance from the river, the distance from the pollution site, the elevation above the river level and the intrinsic vulnerability of hydro-geological formations. Based on the β-HCH data from 2005 in the Sacco River valley, the two techniques resulted in similar maps of high risk of milk contamination. However, unlike the IK method, the LR model was capable of estimating coefficients that could be used in case of future pollution episodes. The approach presented produces probability maps and define high-risk areas already in the early stages of an emergency before sampling operations have been carried out.

  4. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  5. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakstan: high levels of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in agricultural villages of southern Kazakstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Petreas, M X; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Druz, N; Seminova, G; Sharmanov, T; Hayward, D; She, J; Visita, P; Winkler, J; McKinney, M; Wade, T J; Grassman, J; Stephens, R D

    1998-01-01

    To assess levels of chlorinated contaminants in breast milk, we measured organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) in breast milk samples collected in 1994 according to the World Health Organization protocol from 92 donors that were representative of regional populations in southern Kazakstan. High levels (10-120 pg/g fat) of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most toxic of the PCDD/PCDF congeners, were found in breast milk samples from an agricultural region. TCDD was the major contributor (75%) to the international toxicity equivalents of these samples. The same distinctive PCDD/PCDF congener pattern was found in 15 breast milk samples and 4 serum samples collected in 1996 in a follow-up study, and has now been confirmed by three analytical laboratories. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9831540

  6. Lead Levels in the Breast Milk of Nursing Andean Mothers Living in a Lead-Contaminated Environment

    PubMed Central

    Counter, S. Allen; Buchanan, Leo H.; Ortega, Fernando; Chiriboga, Roberto; Correa, Rommy; Collaguaso, María Angela

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of lead (Pb) in breast milk (PbM) and blood (PbB) were measured in a current cohort of lactating mothers living in Andean communities where women of child-bearing age engage in the occupational use of Pb, and compared to results obtained in earlier studies. Mean PbM concentration in the current group of breastfeeding mothers tested in 2012/2013 was 3.73 μg/l (SD: 7.3; range: 0.049 - 28.04), and significantly lower than the 9.83 μg/l (SD: 12.75; range: 0.2 - 49) previously observed in breastfeeding mothers in the study area from 1999 to 2007. Breastfeeding women in the current cohort showed an average PbM/PbB ratio of 3.6%, which is in agreement with other studies. The mean PbB level obtained for the current cohort was 7.8 μg/dl (SD: 5.2; range: 1.4 - 21), and significantly lower than the mean PbB level of 20.8 μg/dl (SD: 16.4; range: 4-73) obtained for the comparison group of breastfeeding mothers tested between 1999-2007. A correlation of .687 between paired PbM and maternal PbB was found, indicating that maternal PbB level is a significant predictor of PbM. Current PbM levels remain higher than international averages, but indicate that maternal Pb exposure has declined over time in the environmentally Pb-contaminated study area. The current reduction in Pb in milk and blood of breastfeeding mothers may be due to adherence to a Pb-exposure education and prevention program initiated by the authors in the study area years earlier, as well as recent improvements in local healthcare delivery. PMID:25072821

  7. Application of a real time polymerase chain reaction method to detect castor toxin contamination in fluid milk and eggs.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; Carter, John Mark; Brandon, David L; Cheng, Luisa W; McKeon, Thomas A

    2007-08-22

    The castor seed contains ricin, which is one of the most potent biological toxins and is widely considered to be a threat agent for bioterrorism. In this study, a rapid and sensitive PCR method was applied to the detection of castor contamination in milk and liquid egg samples. The targeting gene sequence of the primer set, Ricin-F4/R4, was not found in either the bovine or chicken genome. Primers against a highly conserved sequence from the 18S ribosomal RNA gene were used as a positive control for DNA extraction and PCR reaction efficiency. The quantity and quality of DNA prepared from castor spiked or nonspiked milk and egg samples obtained from three different DNA extraction methods were compared. The cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method yielded the highest quality of DNA and is most suitable for the sensitive detection of castor DNA by real-time PCR in both milk and liquid egg matrixes. However, taking time and cost into consideration, a commercial kit designed for extraction of DNA from stool samples could be used as an alternative method for the routine extraction of DNA from milk for real-time PCR assays. The egg matrix was found to inhibit PCR amplification and interfere with two of the three methods tested for DNA extraction. Egg yolk had a greater negative effect on PCR amplification than the egg white matrix. Our results affirm the necessity of performing individual validations for each food matrix. Both real-time PCR systems used in this study, TaqMan and SYBR Green I dye, were capable of detecting 100 ng of castor acetone powder, corresponding to 5 ng of ricin, in 1 mL of milk or liquid egg, well below the toxic dose for humans. On the basis of these results, the real-time PCR method for detection of intentional castor contamination is applicable to milk and egg matrixes. PMID:17650003

  8. Assessment of Risk Factors in Milk Contamination with Staphylococcus aureus in Urban and Peri-Urban Small-Holder Dairy Farming in Central Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tigabu, E; Asrat, D; Kassa, T; Sinmegn, T; Molla, B; Gebreyes, W

    2015-12-01

    Assessment of risk factors associated with milk production systems is central to ensuring quality and safety of milk and milk products. This study was aimed at identifying possible risk factors in milk contamination in urban and peri-urban areas of the central high lands of Ethiopia. A total of 477 on-farm pooled milk (n = 433) and combined bulk milk samples (n = 44) were collected and processed using standard microbiological techniques to isolate and characterize Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, 433 individual farm owners and 22 collection centre owners were interviewed using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine risk factors. Of the total individual on-farm pooled milk samples analysed (n = 433), it was found that 103 of the individual milk samples (24%) and 17 of the combined bulk milk (39%) were positive for S. aureus. This difference in prevalence was statistically significant. Even though there were a number of potential variables associated with the recovery of S. aureus in bovine milk, four variables including cleaning milk container with hot water and detergent [Adjusted OR: 0.342, 95% CI, (0.166, 0.701)], mastitis check [Adjusted OR: 3.019, 95% CI (1.542, 5.913)], travel time to collection centres [Adjusted OR: 4.932, 95% CI, (2.265, 10.739)] and amount of milk delivered by farmers to collection centres per day [Adjusted OR: 1.059 (1.032, 1.087 β = 0.057)] were found to be statistically significantly associated with isolation of S. aureus. We recommend a targeted educational intervention on defined risk factors to reduce the post-harvest S. aureus contamination of raw milk in urban and peri-urban milk shed areas of central Ethiopia. PMID:25916167

  9. Contribution to the study of staphylococcus contamination of cows' milk on a number of farms in Algiers: its impact on human health.

    PubMed

    Hamiroune, M; Berber, A; Boubekeur, S

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe a survey and screening programme for staphylococcus. The study covers 14 dairy farms in the Algiers region, from which 203 samples of cows' milk were taken for bacteriological testing. The survey results show that poor husbandry conditions are the main cause of staphylococcus in cows' milk. Staphylococcus was found in the milk of 30% of the cows sampled. These results were influenced by a variety of factors, in that: the contamination rate rose with the number of pregnancies, age, and volume of milk output of the cow, as well as the bedding thickness; the milk contamination rate was greater when milking occurred outside a milking parlour and when it was performed by machine; higher rates of staphylococcus infection were found in the milk of cows at the end of lactation, in red and white breeds, and in those with cylindricalteats. Identification of the bacteria found (staphylococcus) showed that coagulase- negative staphylococci were present in 67.21% of samples, whereas coagulase- positive staphylococci were present in only 32.79%. The average count for the latter was equal to 0.54 x 10(4) colony-forming units per ml of Staphylococcus aureus. Seventy percent of the milk analysed was free from staphylococci and most of the bacteria identified were not pathogenic to consumers (coagulase- negative staphylococci); nevertheless, consuming fresh milk still presents a degree of risk.

  10. Non-dioxin-like PCB and PBDE deposition on Zea mays L. leaves: modelled contamination in milk from dairy animals fed on silage.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Gianfranco; Abate, Vittorio; di Domenico, Alessandro; Esposito, Mauro; Fulgenzi, Anna Rita; Iacovella, Nicola; Serpe, Francesco Paolo; Tassinari, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) can intercept airborne pollutants before their deposition on soil. Selected non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (Σ6NDL-PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (Σ8PBDEs) with feed and food safety relevance were measured on maize leaves harvested for silage in dairy animals from 28 fields in Italy. Analyses were carried out by gas chromatography coupled to high- and low-resolution mass spectrometry. Contamination ranged from 0.65 to 5.3 ng g(-1) with 12% moisture for Σ6NDL-PCBs, and from 2.7 to 6.2 for Σ8 PBDEs. Modelled contamination in cow's milk was estimated to fall within the range 0.27-16 ng g(-1) for PCBs, 0.17-1.9 for PBDE number 47, and 0.22-2.1 for PBDE number 99 on a lipid basis. The results indicate that maize silage alone may raise Σ6NDL-PCB contamination in dairy milk up to the 95th percentile in the European Union. Results are discussed in terms of air quality standards able to support food safety.

  11. On the use of milk composition measures to predict the energy balance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Friggens, N C; Ridder, C; Løvendahl, P

    2007-12-01

    Milk composition varies with energy status and was proposed for measuring energy balance on-farm, but the accuracy of prediction using monthly samples is not high. With automated sampling and inline milk analysis, a much higher measurement frequency is possible, and thus improved accuracy of energy balance determination may be expected. Energy balance was evaluated using data in which milk composition was measured at each milking. Three breeds (Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Jerseys) of cows (623 lactations from 299 cows) in parities 1, 2, and 3+ were used. Data were smoothed using a rolling local regression. Energy balance (EBal) was calculated from changes in body reserves (body weight and body condition score). The relationship between EBal and milk measures was quantified by partial least squares regression (PLS) using group means data. For each day in lactation, the within-breed and parity mean EBal and mean milk measures were used. Further PLS was done using the individual cow data. The initial PLS models included 25 combinations of milk measures allowing a range of nonlinear effects. These combinations were as follows: days in milk (DIM); DIM raised to the powers 2, 3, and 4; milk yield; fat content; protein content; lactose content; fat yield; protein yield; lactose yield; fat:protein ratio; fat:lactose ratio; protein:lactose ratio; and milk yield:lactose ratio, together with 10 "diff()" variables. These variables are the current minus the previous value of the milk measure in question. Using group means data, a very high proportion (96%) of the variability in EBal was explained by the PLS model. A reduced model with only 6 variables explained 94% of the variation in EBal. This model had a prediction error of 3.82 MJ/d; the 25-variable model had a prediction error of 3.11 MJ/d. When using individual rather than group means data, the PLS prediction error was 17.3 MJ/d. In conclusion, the mean Ebal of different parities of Holstein, Danish Red, and Jersey

  12. Monitoring of environmental contaminants in raw bovine milk and estimates of dietary intakes of children in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Gyu; Kim, MeeKyung; Jang, Jung-Hee; Bong, Young Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Han

    2013-09-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are ubiquitous residual contaminants in the environment and in the food chain. Milk is an important matrix for monitoring POP contamination. This study determined the concentrations of POPs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in raw bovine milk, and the data was used to estimate dietary intakes in South Korea. The average concentrations of PBDEs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, and DL-PCBs in raw milk were 0.29 ng g(-1)fat, 0.50 ng g(-1)fat, 0.27 pg TEQ g(-1)fat, and 0.33 pg TEQ g(-1)fat, respectively. No significant relationship was found between the concentrations of analytes and the regions sampled. The dietary intakes of PBDEs from the consumption of milk was calculated to be 0.26, 0.10, and 0.05ng kg(-1)bwd(-1) for the group of ages 0-6, 7-12, and 13-19, respectively. The dietary intakes of HCB was calculated to be 0.44, 0.16, and 0.09 ng kg(-1)bwd(-1) for the group of ages 0-6, 7-12, and 13-19, respectively. The dietary intakes of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs was calculated to be 0.78, 0.29, and 0.16pgTEQ kg(-1)bwd(-1) for the group of ages 0-6, 7-12, and 13-19, respectively. These results indicated that the residual levels of PBDEs, HCB, PCDD/Fs, and DL-PCBs in raw bovine milk were within safe levels.

  13. Measuring milk fat content by random laser emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Pagani, Alessandra A. C.; Zílio, Sérgio C.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Rodrigues, José J.

    2016-10-01

    The luminescence spectra of milk containing rhodamine 6G are shown to exhibit typical signatures of random lasing when excited with 532 nm laser pulses. Experiments carried out on whole and skim forms of two commercial brands of UHT milk, with fat volume concentrations ranging from 0 to 4%, presented lasing threshold values dependent on the fat concentration, suggesting that a random laser technique can be developed to monitor such important parameter.

  14. Measuring milk fat content by random laser emission

    PubMed Central

    Abegão, Luis M. G.; Pagani, Alessandra A. C.; Zílio, Sérgio C.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Rodrigues, José J.

    2016-01-01

    The luminescence spectra of milk containing rhodamine 6G are shown to exhibit typical signatures of random lasing when excited with 532 nm laser pulses. Experiments carried out on whole and skim forms of two commercial brands of UHT milk, with fat volume concentrations ranging from 0 to 4%, presented lasing threshold values dependent on the fat concentration, suggesting that a random laser technique can be developed to monitor such important parameter. PMID:27731366

  15. Limits to prediction of energy balance from milk composition measures at individual cow level.

    PubMed

    Løvendahl, P; Ridder, C; Friggens, N C

    2010-05-01

    Frequently updated energy balance (EB) estimates for individual cows are especially useful for dairy herd management, and individual-level estimates form the basis for group-level EB estimates. The accuracy of EB estimates determines the value of this information for management decision support. This study aimed to assess EB accuracy through ANOVA components and by comparing EB estimates based either on milk composition (EBalMilk) or on body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) (EBalBody). Energy balance based on milk composition was evaluated using data in which milk composition was measured at each milking. Three breeds (Danish Red, Holstein-Friesian, and Jersey) of cows (299 cows, 623 lactations) in parities 1 to 4 were used. Milk data were smoothed using a rolling local regression. Energy balance based on milk composition was calculated using a partial least squares (PLS) model based on milk fat, protein, and lactose contents and yields, and the daily change in these variables at each day. Energy balance based on BCS and BW was calculated from changes in body condition and BW scored weekly or fortnightly. Equations for calculation of EBalMilk and EBalBody used no common variables and were, therefore, assumed mathematically independent. Traits were analyzed within 3 stages of lactation expected to have high mobilization of body tissue (1, early), almost balanced (2), and deposition of body energy (3, mid to late lactation). In general, EBalMilk and EBalBody followed similar expected changes through lactation. Estimates of covariance were obtained using single-trait mixed models with random regression terms describing the change with time and used for calculation of repeatability as intraclass correlations. Within stage, EBalMilk was less repeatable than EBalBody (0.53, 0.41, 0.43 vs. 0.93, 0.91, 0.86, respectively, for stages 1, 2, and 3), mainly because of a larger residual variance for EBalMilk. Correlations between individual-level estimates of EBalMilk

  16. Measurement of betacellulin levels in bovine serum, colostrum and milk.

    PubMed

    Bastian, S E; Dunbar, A J; Priebe, I K; Owens, P C; Goddard, C

    2001-01-01

    Betacellulin, a member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, was originally isolated and identified from the conditioned medium from a murine pancreatic beta-cell carcinoma cell line. Recently, we isolated bovine betacellulin from a growth factor enriched cheese whey extract, but there is no information on the presence of betacellulin in other biological fluids. We have cloned the cDNA for bovine betacellulin, produced recombinant betacellulin and shown that it has a similar potency to the purified native molecule in stimulating the proliferation of Balb/c3T3 fibroblasts. We have produced a polyclonal antiserum to bovine betacellulin which did not cross-react with EGF or transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha). The antibody was used in a homologous RIA that was able to detect betacellulin in pooled bovine colostrum sampled during the first 3 days after calving (2.30+/-0.11 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6), in bovine milk soluble fraction (1.93+/-0.64 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=5) and in bovine cheese whey (2.59+/-0.16 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=3). The betacellulin concentration in foetal bovine serum (FBS) (3.68+/-0.59 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=6) greatly exceeded that of betacellulin in serum from male calves 1 and 5 weeks of age (0.53+/-0.15 ng/ml and 0.70+/- 0.09 ng/ml respectively; mean+/-s.e.m.; n=9). Betacellulin measured in the serum of these same animals when aged between 27 and 43 weeks was below the detection limits of the RIA. Sera from 10 out of 36 unmated heifers contained betacellulin levels within the detection limits of the assay (0.433+/-0.06 ng/ml mean+/-s.e.m.; n=10). The presence of betacellulin in bovine colostrum and milk suggests that it plays a role in the growth and development of the neonate and/or mammary gland function. The results also show that betacellulin is undetectable in the castrated adult male circulation. Additionally, although present in very low amounts, serum betacellulin could be under hormonal regulation in the female, since

  17. Raman spectral imaging for quantitative contaminant evaluation in skim milk powder

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study uses a point-scan Raman spectral imaging system for quantitative detection of melamine in milk powder. A sample depth of 2 mm and corresponding laser intensity of 200 mW were selected after evaluating the penetration of a 785 nm laser through milk powder. Horizontal and vertical spatial r...

  18. Microbial contamination of milk and dairy products from restaurants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Sospedra, Isabel; Rubert, Josep V; Soler, Carla; Soriano, Jose M; Mañes, Jordi

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of milk and some dairy products, including 95 lots of warm milk, 95 lots of milk conserved at room temperature, and 75 lots of dairy products collected from restaurants in Spain. According to the European microbiological criteria (92/46/EEC, 93/43/EEC, and Commission Regulation No. 2073/2005), 31% and 35% of the total examined lots exceed the adopted limits of mesophilic aerobic counts and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. This may be due to incorrect handling of milk and dairy products and inadequate cleaning and sanitization of milk container. Further, 2% of all the lots examined were positive for the presence of Escherichia coli. All lots, however, were negative for Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp. These results emphasize the need for applying and maintaining good hygienic practices in the restaurants. PMID:19737068

  19. Farm to Fork Quantitative Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes Contamination in Raw and Pasteurized Milk Cheese in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Uma; Cummins, Enda; Valero, Antonio; Walsh, Des; Dalmasso, Marion; Jordan, Kieran; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to model and quantify the level of Listeria monocytogenes in raw milk cheese (RMc) and pasteurized milk cheese (PMc) from farm to fork using a Bayesian inference approach combined with a quantitative risk assessment. The modeling approach included a prediction of contamination arising from the farm environment as well from cross-contamination within the cheese-processing facility through storage and subsequent human exposure. The model predicted a high concentration of L. monocytogenes in contaminated RMc (mean 2.19 log10 CFU/g) compared to PMc (mean -1.73 log10 CFU/g). The mean probability of illness (P1 for low-risk population, LR) and (P2 for high-risk population, HR, e.g., immunocompromised) adult Irish consumers following exposure to contaminated cheese was 7 × 10(-8) (P1 ) and 9 × 10(-4) (P2 ) for RMc and 7 × 10(-10) (P1 ) and 8 × 10(-6) (P2 ) for PMc, respectively. In addition, the model was used to evaluate performance objectives at various stages, namely, the cheese making and ripening stages, and to set a food safety objective at the time of consumption. A scenario analysis predicted various probabilities of L. monocytogenes contamination along the cheese-processing chain for both RMc and PMc. The sensitivity analysis showed the critical factors for both cheeses were the serving size of the cheese, storage time, and temperature at the distribution stage. The developed model will allow food processors and policymakers to identify the possible routes of contamination along the cheese-processing chain and to reduce the risk posed to human health.

  20. Measurements of radiocesium transfer to milk and calculation of resulting dose in Brescia, Italy, following the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Albini, E; Mascaro, L; Belletti, S

    1990-10-01

    Results are presented of several measurements on components of the cows' milk chain performed at our Medical Physics Service after the Chernobyl accident. Values were obtained for Cs isotope transfer coefficients, namely, for cows' diet-milk and diet-feces transfers. Other measured parameters were the effective half-life of Cs in milk and the 134Cs:137Cs ratio. In addition, an evaluation of Cs contribution to the absorbed dose to population from milk is performed.

  1. Milking the data: Measuring milk off-take in extensive livestock systems. Experimental evidence from Niger

    PubMed Central

    Zezza, Alberto; Federighi, Giovanni; Kalilou, Amadou Adamou; Hiernaux, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Milk is an important source of cash and nutrients for many households in developing countries. Yet, our understanding of the role of dairy production in livelihoods and nutritional outcomes is hindered by the lack of decent quality household survey data. Data on milk off-take for human consumption are difficult to collect in household surveys for a number of reasons which make accurate recall challenging for the respondent (continuous production and seasonality among others), introducing possibly severe biases in the computation of full household incomes and farm sales, as well as in the estimation of the contribution of livestock (specifically dairy) production to agricultural value added and the livelihoods of rural households. This paper presents results from a validation exercise implemented in Niger, where alternative survey instruments based on recall methods were administered to randomly selected households, and compared to a 12-month system of physical monitoring and recording of milk production. The results of the exercise show that reasonably accurate estimates via recall methods are possible, and provide a clear ranking of questionnaire design options that can inform future survey operations. PMID:26973375

  2. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors' code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  3. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    PubMed Central

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2–36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10–11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1–1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  4. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster.

    PubMed

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors' code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses. PMID:26198990

  5. Implementation of iodine biokinetic model for interpreting I-131 contamination in breast milk after the Fukushima nuclear disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Kotaro; Kurihara, Osamu; Kim, Eunjoo; Yoshida, Satoshi; Sakai, Kazuo; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-07-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant run by Tokyo Electric Power Company in 2011, breast milk samples obtained from volunteers living in Fukushima and neighboring prefectures were examined and small amounts of I-131 (2.2-36.3 Bq/kg) were detected in some samples. In this work, the I-131 concentrations in breast milk from nursing mothers in Ibaraki prefecture were calculated based on the iodine biokinetic model during lactation together with time-variable intake scenarios by inhalation of ambient air and ingestion of tap water, using the authors’ code. The calculated I-131 concentrations in breast milk generally agreed with those measured for the volunteers. Based on the results, thyroid equivalent doses to breast-fed infants were estimated for each place of residence of the volunteers on the assumption that these infants consumed 800 ml of breast milk every day, resulting in 10-11 mSv for Mito and Kasama cities and 1.1-1.8 mSv for Tsukuba and Moriya cities. It was suggested that breast milk consumption could be a major contributor to internal dose of breast-fed infants in areas with mild I-131 pollution; however, further studies considering personal behavior surveys would be necessary to estimate individual doses.

  6. MEASURING CONTAMINANT RESUSPENSION RESULTING FROM SEDIMENT CAPPING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Sediment Issue summarizes two studies undertaken at marine sites by the National Risk Management Research Laboratory of U.S. EPA to evaluate the resuspension of surface materials contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) b...

  7. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    PubMed Central

    van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk. PMID:27735836

  8. Dioxins and Nonortho PCBs in Breast Milk of Vietnamese Mothers Living in the Largest Hot Spot of Dioxin Contamination.

    PubMed

    Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Manh, Ho Dung; Tai, Pham The; Van Luong, Hoang; Anh, Tran Hai; Thao, Pham Ngoc; Trung, Nguyen Viet; Waseda, Tomoo; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Kido, Teruhiko; Nishijo, Hisao

    2015-05-01

    Bien Hoa Air Base is the largest dioxin contamination hot spot in Vietnam. In 2012, we recruited 216 mothers who were living in 10 communities around Bien Hoa Air Base and had delivered newborns at a prefecture hospital, and we investigated recent exposure levels of dioxins and nonortho PCBs in their breast milk. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-tetraCDD) was present at 2.6 pg/g lipid in primiparae and 2.2 pg/g lipid in multiparae. Among multiparae and total subjects, significant high prevalence of 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD≥5 pg/g lipid and 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD contribution≥40% were observed in mothers living in the five communities closest to Bien Hoa Air Base. The TEQ for nonortho PCBs was 1.6 pg-TEQ/g lipid for primiparae, and this was even lower than that in the unsprayed area. The length of residency was a strong factor to increase dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. Residency in the five communities with the highest exposure was a specific risk factor for increased 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. Food intake might contribute partly to the increased levels of dioxin congeners other than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD in breast milk. These results suggest that Bien Hoa Air Base has led to elevated 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD levels in breast milk of mothers in nearby areas even in the recent years.

  9. Evaluation of Commercial Probes for On-Line Electrical Conductivity Measurements during Goat Gland Milking Process

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution. PMID:22666042

  10. Evaluation of commercial probes for on-line electrical conductivity measurements during goat gland milking process.

    PubMed

    Romero, Gema; Díaz, Jose Ramon; Sabater, Jose Maria; Perez, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of the milk electrical conductivity (EC) during mechanical milking has been widely studied for mastitis detection on cows because its improving of welfare and animal health, although research about small ruminants is scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of three commercial conductimeters to be used during mechanical milking of small ruminant halves, especially Murciano-Granadina goats. The objective of this research was to integrate the probes on the milking unit and to check the suitability of the probe selected. The results presented in this research have guided authors to discard the commercial probes and to establish the requirements of a new probe design that is briefly outlined in the conclusions of this contribution.

  11. Influence of short-term dietary measures on dioxin concentrations in human milk.

    PubMed Central

    Pluim, H J; Boersma, E R; Kramer, I; Olie, K; van der Slikke, J W; Koppe, J G

    1994-01-01

    Breast-feeding may expose infants to high levels of toxic chlorinated dioxins. To diminish intake of these lipophilic compounds by the baby, two diets were tested for their ability to reduce concentrations of dioxins in human milk. The diets were a low-fat/high- carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet. (about 20% of energy intake derived from fat) and a high fat /low-carbohydrate/low-dioxin diet. These diets were tested in 16 and 18 breast-feeding women, respectively. The test diets were followed for 5 consecutive days in the fourth week after delivery. Milk was sampled before and at the end of the dietary regimen, and dioxin concentrations and fatty acid concentrations were determined. Despite significant influences of these diets on the fatty acid profiles, no significant influence on the dioxin concentrations in breast milk could be found. We conclude that short-term dietary measures will not reduce dioxin concentration in human milk. PMID:9738212

  12. Automatic Measurement of Low Level Contamination on Concrete Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, M.; Itoh, H.; Shimada, T.; Yanagihara, S.

    2002-02-28

    Automatic measurement of radioactivity is necessary for considering cost effectiveness in final radiological survey of building structures in decommissioning nuclear facilities. The RAPID (radiation measuring pilot device for surface contamination) was developed to be applied to automatic measurement of low level contamination on concrete surfaces. The RAPID has a capability to measure contamination with detection limit of 0.14 Bq/cm2 for 60Co in 30 seconds of measurement time and its efficiency is evaluated to be 5 m2/h in a normal measurement option. It was confirmed that low level contamination on concrete surfaces could be surveyed by the RAPID efficiently compared with direct measurement by workers through its actual application.

  13. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  14. Routing of Fatty Acids from Fresh Grass to Milk Restricts the Validation of Feeding Information Obtained by Measuring (13)C in Milk.

    PubMed

    Auerswald, Karl; Schäufele, Rudi; Bellof, Gerhard

    2015-12-01

    Dairy production systems vary widely in their feeding and livestock-keeping regimens. Both are well-known to affect milk quality and consumer perceptions. Stable isotope analysis has been suggested as an easy-to-apply tool to validate a claimed feeding regimen. Although it is unambiguous that feeding influences the carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) in milk, it is not clear whether a reported feeding regimen can be verified by measuring δ(13)C in milk without sampling and analyzing the feed. We obtained 671 milk samples from 40 farms distributed over Central Europe to measure δ(13)C and fatty acid composition. Feeding protocols by the farmers in combination with a model based on δ(13)C feed values from the literature were used to predict δ(13)C in feed and subsequently in milk. The model considered dietary contributions of C3 and C4 plants, contribution of concentrates, altitude, seasonal variation in (12/13)CO2, Suess's effect, and diet-milk discrimination. Predicted and measured δ(13)C in milk correlated closely (r(2) = 0.93). Analyzing milk for δ(13)C allowed validation of a reported C4 component with an error of <8% in 95% of all cases. This included the error of the method (measurement and prediction) and the error of the feeding information. However, the error was not random but varied seasonally and correlated with the seasonal variation in long-chain fatty acids. This indicated a bypass of long-chain fatty acids from fresh grass to milk.

  15. Levels and profiles of brominated and chlorinated contaminants in human breast milk from Thessaloniki, Greece.

    PubMed

    Dimitriadou, Lida; Malarvannan, Govindan; Covaci, Adrian; Iossifidou, Eleni; Tzafettas, John; Zournatzi-Koiou, Vassiliki; Kalantzi, Olga-Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Human breast milk samples (n=87) collected between July 2004 and July 2005 from primipara and multipara mothers from Thessaloniki, Greece were analysed for six groups of persistent organic pollutants (POPs): polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). DDTs [median: 410ng/g lipid weight (lw)], PCBs (median: 90ng/g lw) and HCHs (median: 40ng/g lw) were the predominantly identified compounds in all the breast milk samples. Levels of PBDEs (median: 1.5ng/g lw) in human breast milk samples from Thessaloniki, Greece were lower compared to other countries. Maternal age had a positive correlation with most compounds, but not with PBDEs. Women with a higher occupational exposure to PBDEs (i.e., working in office environments) had higher PBDE concentrations than all others and showed strong correlations, especially for BDE 47 and BDE 153. None of the analysed compounds showed any correlation with parity. Based on these levels, the daily intake of each group of POPs via human milk was calculated and compared with the tolerable daily intakes (TDI) or the reference doses (RfD). For the majority of samples (85 out of 87) a higher daily intake of PCBs than the TDI was calculated, while 11 out of 87 samples had a higher HCB intake than the TDI. The TDI and the RfD were not exceeded for DDTs and PBDEs, respectively. This is the first report of brominated flame retardants in human breast milk from Greece. PMID:26367190

  16. Estimates of marker effects for measures of milk flow in the Italian brown Swiss dairy cattle population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Milkability is a complex trait that is characterized by milk flow traits including average milk flow rate, maximum milk flow rate and total milking time. Milkability has long been recognized as an economically important trait that can be improved through selection. By improving milkability, management costs of milking decrease through reduced labor and improved efficiency of the automatic milking system, which has been identified as an important factor affecting net profit. The objective of this study was to identify markers associated with electronically measured milk flow traits, in the Italian Brown Swiss population that could potentially improve selection based on genomic predictions. Results Sires (n = 1351) of cows with milk flow information were genotyped for 33,074 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers distributed across 29 Bos taurus autosomes (BTA). Among the six milk flow traits collected, ascending time, time of plateau, descending time, total milking time, maximum milk flow and average milk flow, there were 6,929 (time of plateau) to 14,585 (maximum milk flow) significant SNP markers identified for each trait across all BTA. Unique regions were found for each of the 6 traits providing evidence that each individual milk flow trait offers distinct genetic information about milk flow. This study was also successful in identifying functional processes and genes associated with SNPs that influences milk flow. Conclusions In addition to verifying the presence of previously identified milking speed quantitative trait loci (QTL) within the Italian Brown Swiss population, this study revealed a number of genomic regions associated with milk flow traits that have never been reported as milking speed QTL. While several of these regions were not associated with a known gene or QTL, a number of regions were associated with QTL that have been formerly reported as regions associated with somatic cell count, somatic cell score and udder morphometrics

  17. Evaluation of the effects of ultraviolet light on bacterial contaminants inoculated into whole milk and colostrum, and on colostrum immunoglobulin G.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R V; Bicalho, M L; Machado, V S; Lima, S; Teixeira, A G; Warnick, L D; Bicalho, R C

    2014-05-01

    Raw milk and colostrum can harbor dangerous microorganisms that can pose serious health risks for animals and humans. According to the USDA, more than 58% of calves in the United States are fed unpasteurized milk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UV light on reduction of bacteria in milk and colostrum, and on colostrum IgG. A pilot-scale UV light continuous (UVC) flow-through unit (45 J/cm(2)) was used to treat milk and colostrum. Colostrum and sterile whole milk were inoculated with Listeria innocua, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Salmonella serovar Typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Acinetobacter baumannii before being treated with UVC. During UVC treatment, samples were collected at 5 time points and bacteria were enumerated using selective media. The effect of UVC on IgG was evaluated using raw colostrum from a nearby dairy farm without the addition of bacteria. For each colostrum batch, samples were collected at several different time points and IgG was measured using ELISA. The UVC treatment of milk resulted in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction of Listeria monocytogenes (3.2 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (3.7 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Escherichia coli (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), Staph. aureus (3.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Streptococcus spp. (3.4 ± 0.4 log cfu/mL reduction), and A. baumannii (2.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of milk did not result in a significant final count (log cfu/mL) reduction for M. smegmatis (1.8 ± 0.5 log cfu/mL reduction). The UVC treatment of colostrum was significantly associated with a final reduction of bacterial count (log cfu/mL) of Listeria spp. (1.4 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Salmonella spp. (1.0 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and Acinetobacter spp. (1.1 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), but not of E. coli (0.5 ± 0.3 log cfu/mL reduction), Strep. agalactiae (0.8 ± 0.2 log cfu/mL reduction), and

  18. In vitro gastrointestinal mimetic protocol for measuring bioavailable contaminants

    DOEpatents

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to measurements of contaminants in the soil and other organic or environmental materials, using a biologically relevant chemical analysis that will measure the amount of contaminants in a given sample that may be expected to be absorbed by a human being ingesting the contaminated soil. According to the present invention, environmental samples to be tested are added to a pre-prepared physiological composition of bile salts and lipids. They are thoroughly mixed and then the resulting mixture is separated e.g. by centrifugation. The supernatant is then analyzed for the presence of contaminants and these concentrations are compared to the level of contaminants in the untreated samples. It is important that the bile salts and lipids be thoroughly pre-mixed to form micelles.

  19. Behavior of Different Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Serotypes in Various Experimentally Contaminated Raw-Milk Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D.; Perrin, Frédérique; Ganet, Sarah; Jamet, Emmanuel; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Montel, Marie-Christine

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness. The public health implication of the presence of STEC in dairy products remains unclear. Knowledge of STEC behavior in cheeses would help to evaluate the human health risk. The aim of our study was to observe the growth and survival of experimentally inoculated STEC strains in raw-milk cheeses manufactured and ripened according to five technological schemes: blue-type cheese, uncooked pressed cheese with long ripening and with short ripening steps, cooked cheese, and lactic cheese. Cheeses were contaminated with different STEC serotypes (O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, and O145:H28) at the milk preparation stage. STEC growth and survival were monitored on selective media during the entire manufacturing process. STEC grew (2 to 3 log10 CFU · g−1) in blue-type cheese and the two uncooked pressed cheeses during the first 24 h of cheese making. Then, STEC levels progressively decreased in cheeses that were ripened for more than 6 months. In cooked cheese and in lactic cheese with a long acidic coagulation step (pH < 4.5), STEC did not grow. Their levels decreased after the cooking step in the cooked cheese and after the coagulation step in the lactic cheese, but STEC was still detectable at the end of ripening and storage. A serotype effect was found: in all cheeses studied, serotype O157:H7 grew less strongly and was less persistent than the others serotypes. This study improves knowledge of the behavior of different STEC serotypes in various raw-milk cheeses. PMID:23087038

  20. Behavior of different Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli serotypes in various experimentally contaminated raw-milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Perrin, Frédérique; Ganet, Sarah; Jamet, Emmanuel; Tenenhaus-Aziza, Fanny; Montel, Marie-Christine; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2013-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important cause of food-borne illness. The public health implication of the presence of STEC in dairy products remains unclear. Knowledge of STEC behavior in cheeses would help to evaluate the human health risk. The aim of our study was to observe the growth and survival of experimentally inoculated STEC strains in raw-milk cheeses manufactured and ripened according to five technological schemes: blue-type cheese, uncooked pressed cheese with long ripening and with short ripening steps, cooked cheese, and lactic cheese. Cheeses were contaminated with different STEC serotypes (O157:H7, O26:H11, O103:H2, and O145:H28) at the milk preparation stage. STEC growth and survival were monitored on selective media during the entire manufacturing process. STEC grew (2 to 3 log(10) CFU · g(-1)) in blue-type cheese and the two uncooked pressed cheeses during the first 24 h of cheese making. Then, STEC levels progressively decreased in cheeses that were ripened for more than 6 months. In cooked cheese and in lactic cheese with a long acidic coagulation step (pH < 4.5), STEC did not grow. Their levels decreased after the cooking step in the cooked cheese and after the coagulation step in the lactic cheese, but STEC was still detectable at the end of ripening and storage. A serotype effect was found: in all cheeses studied, serotype O157:H7 grew less strongly and was less persistent than the others serotypes. This study improves knowledge of the behavior of different STEC serotypes in various raw-milk cheeses.

  1. Comparison of breast milk vitamin A concentration measured in fresh milk by a rapid field assay (the iCheck FLUORO) with standard measurement of stored milk by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Engle-Stone, R; Haskell, M J; La Frano, M R; Ndjebayi, A O; Nankap, M; Brown, K H

    2014-08-01

    Availability of rapid, point-of-contact analytical methods would facilitate the use of breast milk vitamin A concentration (BMVA) to assess vitamin A (VA) status. We compared BMVA concentrations measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (the standard technique) with those by iCheck FLUORO, a new portable fluorometer that can rapidly quantify BMVA. Casual breast milk samples (n=154) were collected during a representative survey in Yaoundé and Douala, Cameroon. Milk fat and BMVA concentrations (by iCheck) were measured in fresh milk in the field. After storage at <-20 °C, BMVA concentrations were also measured by HPLC. BMVA values from the two methods were highly correlated (R(2)=0.72 for BMVA/l; R(2)=0.62 for BMVA/g fat, both P<0.0001). HPLC values were greater than iCheck values on average, and the difference increased with increasing BMVA. The iCheck FLUORO could be useful for monitoring fortification programs, but before-after surveys to assess change in BMVA concentrations should use one method consistently. PMID:24736678

  2. Long-Term Prospective Study of 6104 Survivors of Arsenic Poisoning During Infancy Due to Contaminated Milk Powder in 1955

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hideo; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Oshima, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Background In 1955, an outbreak of arsenic poisoning caused by ingestion of arsenic-contaminated dry milk occurred in western Japan. We assessed the excess mortality among Japanese who were poisoned during this episode as infants. Methods We identified and enrolled 6104 survivors (mean age at enrollment, 27.4 years) who had ingested contaminated milk when they were age 2 years or younger; they were followed until 2006 (mean duration of follow-up, 24.3 years). Death certificates of subjects who died between 1982 and 2006 were examined to calculate cause-specific standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) using the mortality rate among Osaka residents as the standard. Results There was no significant excess overall mortality (SMR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.2). However, significant excess mortality in both sexes was observed from diseases of the nervous system (3.7, 1.9–6.2). Excess mortality from all causes of death decreased to unity beyond 10 years after study enrollment. The 408 men who were unemployed at the time of enrollment in the study had a significantly elevated risk of death from diseases of the nervous system (25.3, 10.8–58.8), respiratory diseases (8.6, 3.1–16.8), circulatory diseases (3.2, 1.6–5.2), and external causes (2.6, 1.4–4.1). Conclusions As compared with the general population, survivors of arsenic poisoning during infancy had a significantly higher mortality risk from diseases of the nervous system. PMID:20736507

  3. Online Oxide Contamination Measurement and Purification Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, D. E.; Godfroy, T. J.; Webster, K. L.; Garber, A. E.; Polzin, K. A.; Childers, D. J.

    2011-01-01

    Liquid metal sodium-potassium (NaK) has advantageous thermodynamic properties indicating its use as a fission reactor coolant for a surface (lunar, martian) power system. A major area of concern for fission reactor cooling systems is system corrosion due to oxygen contaminants at the high operating temperatures experienced. A small-scale, approximately 4-L capacity, simulated fission reactor cooling system employing NaK as a coolant was fabricated and tested with the goal of demonstrating a noninvasive oxygen detection and purification system. In order to generate prototypical conditions in the simulated cooling system, several system components were designed, fabricated, and tested. These major components were a fully-sealed, magnetically-coupled mechanical NaK pump, a graphite element heated reservoir, a plugging indicator system, and a cold trap. All system components were successfully demonstrated at a maximum system flow rate of approximately 150 cc/s at temperatures up to 550 C. Coolant purification was accomplished using a cold trap before and after plugging operations which showed a relative reduction in oxygen content.

  4. Measurement and analysis of EUV photoresist related outgassing and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollentier, I.; Aksenov, G.; Goethals, A.-M.; Gronheid, R.; Jonckheere, R.; Leeson, M.

    2009-03-01

    Photoresist outgassing and the related risk for optics contamination in extreme ultraviolet (EUV) exposure tools are concerns in the development of EUV lithography, especially towards the high volume manufacturing tools. The measurement however of how much and what species are outgassing/contaminating, is still very challenging. Various techniques are investigated worldwide, but there is still no consensus on which technique is most adequate. Moreover, since the outgassing/contamination qualification of photoresists needs dedicated tool set-up, it is likely that the testing configuration (with parameters such as exposure intensity, background vacuum quality, pumping speed, ...) can impact the measurement result. In this paper, we are comparing two candidates for outgassing/contamination measurement which are integrated in one experimental set-up : RGA (Residual Gas Analysis) and witness plate testing. RGA is based on in situ mass spectrometer measurements during photoresist EUV exposure and enables chemical identification of species that are outgassing, but has limited information on the probability of mirror contamination. Results are shown on how the measurement results can depend on the testing configuration. Witness plate testing is based on the evaluation of EUV exposed mirror samples that are placed in the vicinity of EUV outgassing photoresist. Results are shown on how the generated contamination can be affected by the tool configuration, and on how to measure/analyze the contamination. Finally, since both techniques are integrated in one test-set-up, measurement results will be compared and correlated, which should help in understanding the phenomena and lead to well defined measurement for photoresist qualification.

  5. Short communication: Toxicokinetics of ochratoxin A in dairy ewes and carryover to milk following a single or long-term ingestion of contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Boudra, H; Saivin, S; Buffiere, C; Morgavi, D P

    2013-10-01

    Ruminal microbes have the capacity to inactivate ochratoxins, rendering ruminants less sensitive to this fungal contaminant found in cereal feeds. However, ochratoxin A has been reported in milk surveys. The objective of this study was to assess the toxicokinetics, excretion, and transmission into milk of ochratoxin A using doses similar to those of naturally occurring field contaminations. Six Lacaune dairy ewes in late lactation were separated into 2 groups that received a single dose of contaminated wheat containing 5 or 30 μg of ochratoxin A/kg of body weight. After administration, toxicokinetics and excretion were monitored for 48 h. Subsequently, ewes were administered the corresponding toxin dose daily for 24 d followed by a second toxicokinetics and excretion monitoring period for this long-term exposure. The doses used did not affect production or health of ewes. After a single dose, ochratoxin A and its main metabolite, ochratoxin α, were found in blood 1h postexposure. The maximum blood concentrations of ochratoxin A and α, respectively, were dose dependent and were observed, on average, 6 and 8h after exposure. Long-term exposure increased the maximum concentration of ochratoxin A detected in blood, whereas ochratoxin α was not affected. In contrast, the time to reach the maximum concentration was reduced to 3h for both molecules. Ochratoxins, essentially ochratoxin α, were mainly excreted in feces. Ochratoxin A and α were detected in milk at concentrations that were dose dependent but with a low carryover rate (<0.02%). Chronic administration did not increase the concentration of toxin in milk. Even though ochratoxin A can escape ruminal degradation and traces were found in milk of experimentally exposed ewes, the low carryover of ochratoxin A in milk minimizes the risk to consumers. PMID:23972496

  6. MEASUREMENT OF SURFACE ALPHA CONTAMINATION USING ELECTRET ION CHAMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    Electret ion chambers (EICs) are known to be inexpensive, reliable, passive, integrating devices used for measurement of ionizing radiation. Their application for measurement of alpha contamination on surfaces was recently realized. This two-year project deals with the evaluation of electret ion chambers with different types of electrets and chambers for measurement of surface alpha contamination, their demonstration at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, a cost-benefit comparison with the existing methods, and the potential deployment at DOE sites. During the first year (FY98) of the project, evaluation of the EICS was completed. It was observed that EICS could be used for measurement of free release level of alpha contamination for transuranics (100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2} fixed). DOE sites, where demonstration of EIC technology for surface alpha contamination measurements could be performed, were also identified. During FY99, demonstration and deployment of EICS at DOE sites are planned. A cost-benefit analysis of the EIC for surface alpha contamination measurement will also be performed.

  7. A new technique for oil backstreaming contamination measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Speier, H. J.; Sieg, R. M.; Drotos, M. N.; Dunning, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Due to the large size and the number of diffusion pumps, space simulation chambers cannot be easily calibrated by the usual test dome method for measuring backstreaming from oil diffusion pumps. In addition, location dependent contamination may be an important parameter of the test. The backstreaming contamination was measured in the Space Power Facility (SPF) near Sandusky, OH, the largest space simulation vacuum test chamber in the U.S.. Small clean silicon wafers placed at all desired measurement sites were used as contamination sensors. The facility used diffusion pumps with DC 705 oil. The thickness of the contamination oil film was measured using ellipsometry. Since the oil did not wet the silicon substrate uniformly, two analysis models were developed to measure the oil film: (1) continuous, homogeneous film; and (2) islands of oil with the islands varying in coverage fraction and height. In both cases, the contamination film refractive index was assumed to be that of DC 705. The second model improved the ellipsometric analysis quality parameter by up to two orders of magnitude, especially for the low coverage cases. Comparison of the two models shows that the continuous film model overestimates the oil volume by less than 50 percent. Absolute numbers for backstreaming are in good agreement with published results for diffusion pumps. Good agreement was also found between the ellipsometric results and measurements done by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on examples exposed to the same vacuum runs.

  8. Hot topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, R L; Zhang, A; Fultz, S W; Abubeker, S; Harris, C; Connor, E E; Van Hekken, D L

    2014-01-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB; Halyomorpha halys) is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative effects on the dairy industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of including BMSB-contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow rations. First, 6 dairies, either highly infested (n=3; 30 to 100 bugs per stalk) or not infested (n=3), were sampled to assess the prevalence of bug secretion compounds tridecane (major component) and E-2-decenal (stink odor component) in silage and milk. Second, using wild BMSB, a mini-silo dose-response experiment (adding 100, 50, 25, 10, and 1 freshly crushed bugs/0.5kg of chopped corn) was conducted to assess the effect of ensiling on BMSB stink odor compounds. Finally, synthetic BMSB stink odor compounds (10g of tridecane and 5g of E-2-decenal) were ruminally infused twice daily over 3 d, and samples of milk, urine, and rumen fluid were collected to evaluate disposition. Bug stink odor compounds were sampled by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Milk production and feed composition were unaffected when BMSB-contaminated silage was fed. Moreover, no E-2-decenal was detected in silage or milk (detection threshold = 0.00125μg/mL). The dose-response of tridecane in mini-silo samples exhibited a linear relationship (R(2)=0.78) with the amount of BMSB added; however, E-2-decenal was completely decomposed and undetectable in spiked mini-silos after ensiling. Both synthetic secretion compounds infused into rumen were undetectable in all milk and urine samples. E-2-Decenal was not detectable in rumen fluid, whereas tridecane was detected only at 15 min postinfusion but not present thereafter. Feed intake was unaffected by infusion treatment and BMSB secretion compounds (E-2-decenal and tridecane) were not observed in milk. E-2-Decenal and tridecane from the metathoracic gland of BMSB are not able to

  9. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakhstan: sources of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposures in an agricultural region of southern Kazakhstan.

    PubMed

    Hooper, K; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Hayward, D; Tulenova, A; Petreas, M X; Wade, T J; Benedict, K; Cheng, Y Y; Grassman, J

    1999-06-01

    High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; up to 208 pg/g fat) were measured in samples of breast milk collected in 1997 from 64 donors [41 first-time mothers (primiparae)] living on state farms in southern Kazakhstan. TCDD was the major contributor (70%) to the toxic equivalents, matching the congener patterns found in breast milk and serum samples collected in 1994 and 1996 from donors in nearby villages. The highest TCDD levels were found in state farms adjacent to a reservoir (zone A), which receives agricultural runoff from cotton fields. TCDD levels in zone A were significantly higher than levels in a region more distant (zone B; > 10 miles) from the reservoir (zone A: mean 53 pg/g, n = 17; zone B: mean 21 pg/g, n = 24; p = 0.0017). Levels of TCDD in breast milk and animal-derived foodstuffs were 10 times U.S. levels. Body burden and dietary data suggest that exposures to TCDD are chronic, environmental, and long term and may be related to the use of chemicals in cotton agriculture. The data suggest that the most likely source is the use of cotton defoliants contaminated with TCDD, and the most likely pathway for human exposure is via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs.

  10. Analysis of breast milk to assess exposure to chlorinated contaminants in Kazakhstan: sources of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposures in an agricultural region of southern Kazakhstan.

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, K; Chuvakova, T; Kazbekova, G; Hayward, D; Tulenova, A; Petreas, M X; Wade, T J; Benedict, K; Cheng, Y Y; Grassman, J

    1999-01-01

    High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD; up to 208 pg/g fat) were measured in samples of breast milk collected in 1997 from 64 donors [41 first-time mothers (primiparae)] living on state farms in southern Kazakhstan. TCDD was the major contributor (70%) to the toxic equivalents, matching the congener patterns found in breast milk and serum samples collected in 1994 and 1996 from donors in nearby villages. The highest TCDD levels were found in state farms adjacent to a reservoir (zone A), which receives agricultural runoff from cotton fields. TCDD levels in zone A were significantly higher than levels in a region more distant (zone B; > 10 miles) from the reservoir (zone A: mean 53 pg/g, n = 17; zone B: mean 21 pg/g, n = 24; p = 0.0017). Levels of TCDD in breast milk and animal-derived foodstuffs were 10 times U.S. levels. Body burden and dietary data suggest that exposures to TCDD are chronic, environmental, and long term and may be related to the use of chemicals in cotton agriculture. The data suggest that the most likely source is the use of cotton defoliants contaminated with TCDD, and the most likely pathway for human exposure is via the consumption of contaminated foodstuffs. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:10515712

  11. Comparison of Contamination Model Predictions to LDEF Surface Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Tim; Rantanen, Ray; Pippin, Gary; Finckenor, Miria

    1998-01-01

    Contaminant deposition measurements have been made on species content and depth profiles on three experiments trays from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), Auger, Argon sputtering, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis. The integrated spacecraft environment model (ISEM) was used to predict the deposition levels of the contaminants measured on the three trays. The details of the modeling and assumptions used are presented along with the predictions for the deposition on select surfaces on the trays. These are compared to the measured results. The trays represent surfaces that have a high atomic oxygen flux, and intermediate oxygen flux, and no oxygen flux. All surfaces received significant solar Ultraviolet flux. It appears that the atomic oxygen was the primary agent that caused significant deposition to occur. Surfaces that saw significant contaminant flux solar UV and no atomic oxygen did not show any appreciable levels of observable deposition. The implications of the atom ic oxygen interaction with contaminant deposits containing silicon contaminant sources is discussed. The primary contaminant sources are DC61104 adhesive and Z306 paint. The results and interpretation of the findings have a potential significant impact on spacecraft surfaces that are exposed to solar UV and atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit.

  12. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented.

  13. [Chemical pollution and breast milk: Taking positions].

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gómez, N M; Ares, S; Hernández-Aguilar, M T; Ortega-García, J A; Paricio-Talayero, J M; Landa-Rivera, L

    2013-12-01

    Chemical pollution affects all ecosystems of our planet. Human milk has been used as a biomarker of environmental pollution as, due to bioaccumulation processes in fat tissue, many chemical compounds reach measurable concentrations that can be readily tested in breast milk. Quite frequently information about the presence of contaminants in breast milk appears in the media, leading to misunderstanding among parents and health professionals, and in some cases breastfeeding the child is stopped. In this article, the Breastfeeding Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics stresses the importance of promoting breastfeeding as the healthiest option, because its benefits clearly outweigh any health risks associated with chemical contaminants in breast milk. Breast milk contains protective factors that counteract the potential effects related to prenatal exposure to environmental pollutants. This article summarises the key recommendations to reduce the level of chemical contaminants in breast milk. It also highlights the importance of government involvement in the development of programs to eliminate or reduce chemical contamination of food and the environment. In this way, the negative effects on child health resulting from exposure to these toxic compounds through the placenta and breast milk may be prevented. PMID:23791806

  14. Fuzzy measurement based image testing for oil particles contamination level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Xianming; Li, Chuan; Chen, Bin

    2010-11-01

    The oil contamination level testing is important for its using and maintenance which is the basement of the oil contamination control is required higher by the developing device system, and the testing method is urgently needed to be studied for improving the process method and the maintenance quality of the contaminated oil. To classify the level of particles contamination in lubricant, CCD imaging technology is used to capture microscopic digital image of the oil particles sample . The digital image was processed and segmented in order that the computer can recognize and understand the particle targets by using image testing algorithm to measure the sizes, amounts and distributions of particles. The oil contamination level can be measured effectively by the economical and convenient method in which there is little air bubble and bead leading to false particle targets. To improve the influence produced by the false particle targets, One method is that a series of dynamical image samples from the contaminated oil in the multi-period and the multi-state are captured and used to test the particle targets, and the further method is to employ the fuzzy measurement using Gaussian subjection function, which describes the distribution of the standard evidences and the distribution of the testing data, and the testing probabilities of the evidence are weighed by the matching degree of the two distributions, which is used to classify the oil particles contamination level .The test shows that the oil particles contamination level diagnosis reliability is improved and the diagnosis uncertainty is reduced. This method combining with other testing methods by using the multi-information fusion method will be further studied later.

  15. Uncertainties Associated with Flux Measurements Due to Heterogeneous Contaminant Distributions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mass flux and mass discharge measurements at contaminated sites have been applied to assist with remedial management, and can be divided into two broad categories: point-scale measurement techniques and pumping methods. Extrapolation across un-sampled space is necessary when usi...

  16. Immunosorbent analysis of toxin contamination in milk and ground beef using IgY-based ELISA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analytical methodology to detect ricin and Shiga toxins (Stx) in food matrices is important because of the potential use of ricin in food as a terrorist weapon, and the presence of Stx in food as a result of contamination with Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) that has lead to serious foodborne d...

  17. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners.

  18. Levels of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in breast milk samples from three dioxin-contaminated hotspots of Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Manh, Ho Dung; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Okamoto, Rie; Honma, Seijiro; Liang, Sun Xian; Anh, Le Thai; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nghi, Tran Ngoc; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Nhu, Dang Duc; Van Tung, Dao; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Son, Le Ke

    2015-04-01

    We determined polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels in breast milk of 143 primiparae living around the three most dioxin-contaminated areas of Vietnam. The women sampled lived in the vicinity of former U.S. air bases at Bien Hoa (n=51), Phu Cat (n=23), and Da Nang (n=69), which are known as dioxin hotspots. Breast milk samples from Bien Hoa City, where residents live very close to the air base, showed high levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), with 18% of the samples containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. However, Phu Cat residents lived far from the air base and their samples showed lower TCDD levels, with none containing >5 pgTCDD/g lipid. In Da Nang, TCDD levels in mothers from Thanh Khe (close to the air base, n=43) were significantly higher than those in mothers from Son Tra (far from the air base, n=26), but not other PCDD and PCDF (PCDD/F) congeners. Although TCDD levels in Bien Hoa were the highest among these hotspots, levels of other PCDD/F congeners as well as the geometric mean concentration of total PCDD/F level in Bien Hoa (9.3 pg toxic equivalents [TEQ]/g lipid) were significantly lower than the level observed in Phu Cat (14.1 pgTEQ/g lipid), Thanh Khe (14.3 pgTEQ/g lipid), and Son Tra (13.9 pgTEQ/g lipid). Our findings indicated that residents living close to former U.S. air bases were exposed to elevated levels of TCDD, but not of other PCDD/F congeners. PMID:25569577

  19. [Surveillance of perchlorate level in wine, seafood, polished rice, milk, powdered milk and yogurt].

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Satoshi; Watanabe, Takahiro; Matsuda, Rieko

    2011-01-01

    Perchlorate, which may be naturally occurring or artificial in origin, inhibits iodide uptake into the thyroid gland and disturbs thyroid function. In order to investigate perchlorate contamination in foods in Japan, perchlorate levels in 28 wine samples, 20 seafood samples, 10 polished rice samples, 30 milk (include whole milk, composition modified milk, low fat milk, processed milk, milk drink) samples, 10 powdered milk samples and 10 yogurt samples were measured. Perchlorate was found in all wine, milk, powdered milk and yogurt samples tested. Perchlorate levels ranged from 0.2 ng/g to 103 ng/g in wine samples, from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in milk samples, from 3 ng/g to 35 ng/g in powdered milk samples, and from 2 ng/g to 11 ng/g in yogurt samples. Perchlorate levels in the seafood samples were under the LOQ (0.8 ng/g) in 8 samples and ranged from 0.8 ng/g to 72 ng/g in 12 samples. In all polished rice samples, perchlorate level was under the LOQ (1.0 ng/g).

  20. Detection limits of antimicrobials in ewe milk by delvotest photometric measurements.

    PubMed

    Althaus, R L; Torres, A; Montero, A; Balasch, S; Molina, M P

    2003-02-01

    The Delvotest method detection limits per manufacturer's instructions at a fixed reading time of 3 h for 24 antimicrobial agents were determined in ewe milk by photometric measurement. For each drug, eight concentrations were tested on 20 ewe milk samples from individual ewes. Detection limits, determined by means of logistic regression models, were (microg/kg): 3, amoxycillin; 2, ampicillin; 18, cloxacillin; 1, penicillin "G"; 34, cefadroxil; 430, cephalosporin "C"; 40, cephalexin; 20, cefoperazone; 33, Ceftiofur; 18, cefuroxime; 6100, streptomycin; 1200, gentamycin; 2600, neomycin; 830, erythromycin; 100, tylosin; 180, doxycycline; 320, oxytetracycline; 590, tetracycline; 88, sulfadiazine; 44, sulfamethoxazole; 140, sulfametoxypyridazine; 48, sulfaquinoxaline; 12,000, chloramphenicol; and 290, trimethoprim. Whereas the beta-lactam antibiotics, sulphonamides, and tylosin were detected by Delvotest method at levels equal to those of maximum residue limits, its sensitivity needs to be enhanced to detect aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim residues in ewe milk or to develop an integrated residue detection system for ewe milk with different sensitive microorganisms for each group of antiinfectious agents. PMID:12647952

  1. Effects of 3 sequestering agents on milk aflatoxin M1 concentration and the performance and immune status of dairy cows fed diets artificially contaminated with aflatoxin B1.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Arriola, K G; Jiang, Y; Driver, J P; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2016-08-01

    This study examined whether adding 3 mycotoxin-sequestering agents to diets contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) would reduce milk aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) concentration, and improve the performance and alter immune status of dairy cows. Fifteen lactating dairy cows were used in an experiment with an incomplete crossover design including four 28-d periods. Treatments included a control diet (C), a toxin diet (T; 1,725µg of AFB1/head per day; 75µg/kg), and diets containing the toxin and 20g/head per day of a proprietary mixture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product containing a low (SEQ1) or high (SEQ2) dose of a chlorophyll-based additive, or a low dose of the chlorophyll-based additive and sodium bentonite clay (SEQ3). Sequestering agents were top-dressed on the total mixed ration (TMR) daily in each period, and AFB1 was dosed orally in gelatin capsules before the TMR was fed on d 21 to 25. Milk was sampled twice daily on d 20 to 28 and plasma was sampled on d 20 and 25. Sequestering agents did not affect milk AFM1 concentration during the toxin-dosing period. However, after AFB1 was withdrawn, the sequestering agents reduced the time required (24 vs. 48h) to reduce the milk AFM1 concentration below the Food and Drug Administration action level of 0.5µg/kg. Feeding T instead of C tended to reduce milk and fat-corrected milk yields, but feeding SEQ1 prevented these effects. Red blood cell count and hemoglobin concentration were reduced by feeding T instead of C, but not by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, or SEQ3. The mean fluorescence intensity of antibody staining for 2 leukocyte adhesion molecules, L-selectin (CD62L) and β-integrin (CD18), tended to be greatest when SEQ1 and SEQ3 were fed. Plasma acid-soluble protein concentration was decreased by feeding SEQ1, SEQ2, and SEQ3 instead of T. Sequestering agents had no effect on milk AFM1 concentration, but they reduced the time required to reduce milk AFM1 concentration to a safe level after withdrawal of AFB1 from

  2. Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.

    2016-11-01

    We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (i) removing the contaminant signal, (ii) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum and (iii) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (i), we show that removing the best-fitting contaminant (mode subtraction) and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (ii), performing a quadratic maximum likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (ii) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants, is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.

  3. Unbiased contaminant removal for 3D galaxy power spectrum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalus, B.; Percival, W. J.; Bacon, D. J.; Samushia, L.

    2016-08-01

    We assess and develop techniques to remove contaminants when calculating the 3D galaxy power spectrum. We separate the process into three separate stages: (i) removing the contaminant signal, (ii) estimating the uncontaminated cosmological power spectrum, (iii) debiasing the resulting estimates. For (i), we show that removing the best-fit contaminant (mode subtraction), and setting the contaminated components of the covariance to be infinite (mode deprojection) are mathematically equivalent. For (ii), performing a Quadratic Maximum Likelihood (QML) estimate after mode deprojection gives an optimal unbiased solution, although it requires the manipulation of large N_mode^2 matrices (Nmode being the total number of modes), which is unfeasible for recent 3D galaxy surveys. Measuring a binned average of the modes for (ii) as proposed by Feldman, Kaiser & Peacock (1994, FKP) is faster and simpler, but is sub-optimal and gives rise to a biased solution. We present a method to debias the resulting FKP measurements that does not require any large matrix calculations. We argue that the sub-optimality of the FKP estimator compared with the QML estimator, caused by contaminants is less severe than that commonly ignored due to the survey window.

  4. Data on milk dioxin contamination linked with the location of fodder croplands allow to hypothesize the origin of the pollution source in an Italian valley.

    PubMed

    Desiato, Rosanna; Bertolini, Silvia; Baioni, Elisa; Crescio, Maria Ines; Scortichini, Giampiero; Ubaldi, Alessandro; Sparagna, Bruno; Cuttica, Giancarlo; Ru, Giuseppe

    2014-11-15

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) have similar toxic, endocrine-disrupting, and carcinogenic activity. They are classified as persistent organic pollutants accumulating in the environment and the tissues of living organisms. High concentrations of PCDD/F and dl-PCB have been detected in bovine milk collected in a Piedmont valley (Northwestern Italy) since 2004. This geographic study describes the local distribution of pollution from PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs. Since their presence in animal products could be traced back to the ingestion of contaminated fodder, dioxin levels in cow milk were related to the distribution of fodder cropland parcels. Specifically, the aim of the study was to determine, through an exploratory approach, whether the contamination was consistent with one common point source of contamination or different scattered sources. Data for PCDD/F and dl-PCB concentrations in the bulk milk from 27 herds, sampled over a 4-year period (2004-2007), were matched to the georeferenced land parcels the dairy farmers used for growing fodder. Isopleth maps of dioxin concentrations were estimated with ordinary kriging. The highest level of pollution for both PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was geographically juxtaposed: in both instances, the location of the local steel plant was within this extremely highly polluted area. The study results support the hypothesis for one common point source of contamination in the valley. The exploratory spatial analysis applied in this research may provide a valuable, novel approach to straightforward identification of a highly likely source of dioxin contamination of dairy products (even in the absence of top soil contamination data).

  5. Light scattering and transmission measurement using digital imaging for online analysis of constituents in milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Pranay; Sarma, Sanjay E.

    2015-05-01

    Milk is an emulsion of fat globules and casein micelles dispersed in an aqueous medium with dissolved lactose, whey proteins and minerals. Quantification of constituents in milk is important in various stages of the dairy supply chain for proper process control and quality assurance. In field-level applications, spectrophotometric analysis is an economical option due to the low-cost of silicon photodetectors, sensitive to UV/Vis radiation with wavelengths between 300 - 1100 nm. Both absorption and scattering are witnessed as incident UV/Vis radiation interacts with dissolved and dispersed constituents in milk. These effects can in turn be used to characterize the chemical and physical composition of a milk sample. However, in order to simplify analysis, most existing instrument require dilution of samples to avoid effects of multiple scattering. The sample preparation steps are usually expensive, prone to human errors and unsuitable for field-level and online analysis. This paper introduces a novel digital imaging based method of online spectrophotometric measurements on raw milk without any sample preparation. Multiple LEDs of different emission spectra are used as discrete light sources and a digital CMOS camera is used as an image sensor. The extinction characteristic of samples is derived from captured images. The dependence of multiple scattering on power of incident radiation is exploited to quantify scattering. The method has been validated with experiments for response with varying fat concentrations and fat globule sizes. Despite of the presence of multiple scattering, the method is able to unequivocally quantify extinction of incident radiation and relate it to the fat concentrations and globule sizes of samples.

  6. Measuring electric fields from surface contaminants with neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Obrecht, J. M.; Wild, R. J.; Cornell, E. A.

    2007-06-15

    In this paper we demonstrate a technique of utilizing magnetically trapped neutral {sup 87}Rb atoms to measure the magnitude and direction of stray electric fields emanating from surface contaminants. We apply an alternating external electric field that adds to (or subtracts from) the stray field in such a way as to resonantly drive the trapped atoms into a mechanical dipole oscillation. The growth rate of the oscillation's amplitude provides information about the magnitude and sign of the stray field gradient. Using this measurement technique, we are able to reconstruct the vector electric field produced by surface contaminants. In addition, we can accurately measure the electric fields generated from adsorbed atoms purposely placed onto the surface and account for their systematic effects, which can plague a precision surface-force measurement. We show that baking the substrate can reduce the electric fields emanating from adsorbate and that the mechanism for reduction is likely surface diffusion, not desorption.

  7. Effective lactation yield: A measure to compare milk yield between cows with different dry period lengths.

    PubMed

    Kok, A; van Middelaar, C E; Engel, B; van Knegsel, A T M; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M

    2016-04-01

    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving interval in the case of a shortened dry period. We aimed to develop a measure that would enable the comparison of milk yield between cows with different dry period (DP) lengths. We assessed the importance of accounting for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. The 305-d yield was compared with a 365-d yield, which included additional milk yield in the 60 d before calving. Next, an effective lactation yield was computed, defined as the daily yield from 60d before calving to 60 d before the next calving, to account for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. Test-day records and drying-off dates of 15 commercial farms were used to compute the 305-d, 365-d, and effective lactation yields for individual cows. We analyzed 817 second-parity lactations preceded by no DP, a short DP (20 to 40 d), or a conventional DP (49 to 90 d). Compared with cows with a conventional DP, the 305-d yield of cows with no DP was 7.0 kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) per day lower, and the 305-d yield of cows with a short DP was 2.3 kg of FPCM per day lower. Including additional milk yield before calving in the 365-d yield reduced this difference to 3.4 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with no DP and to 0.9 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with a short DP. Compared with cows with a conventional DP, median days open were reduced by 25d for cows with no DP and by 18d for cows with a short DP. Accounting for these differences in calving interval in the effective lactation yield further decreased yield reductions for cows with no DP or a short DP by 0.3 kg of FPCM per cow per day. At the herd level, estimated

  8. Using a portable mass spectrometer to measure surface contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Gregg, H.; Meltzer, M.; Lindsey, J.; Edberg, H.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major sources of hazardous waste and VOC air emissions throughout manufacturing industry is parts and equipment cleaning operations. Modification of the cleaning process to use non-hazardous cleaning agents may be the best way to these sources, but some operations still require the use of hazardous solvents. Monitoring the contamination levels during cleaning operations can provide useful feedback for reducing waste generation and air emissions due to over- or under-cleaning. Near real-time evaluation of cleaning operations can help reduce pollution in a wide variety of industries, including aerospace, electronics, and metal finishing industries. The authors have developed a mass spectrometry based analyzer that has similar or better sensitivity than ellipsometry or FTIR and is more tolerant of surface conditions and composition. In addition, the instrument is relatively portable and can be used to help identify unknown surface contamination. This method uses vacuum and thermal desorption to remove volatile and semi-volatile contaminants from the surface. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to identify and measure the contamination. A bench-scale model of this {open_quotes}contamination analysis unit{close_quotes} employs a residual gas analyzer (RGA) mated to a small, internally heated inlet that samples a surface.

  9. Expressed breast milk on a neonatal unit: a hazard analysis and critical control points approach.

    PubMed

    Cossey, Veerle; Jeurissen, Axel; Thelissen, Marie-José; Vanhole, Chris; Schuermans, Annette

    2011-12-01

    With the increasing use of human milk and growing evidence of the benefits of mother's milk for preterm and ill newborns, guidelines to ensure its quality and safety are an important part of daily practice in neonatal intensive care units. Operating procedures based on hazard analysis and critical control points can standardize the handling of mother's expressed milk, thereby improving nutrition and minimizing the risk of breast milk-induced infection in susceptible newborns. Because breast milk is not sterile, microorganisms can multiply when the milk is not handled properly. Additional exogenous contamination should be prevented. Strict hygiene and careful temperature and time control are important during the expression, collection, transport, storage, and feeding of maternal milk. In contrast to formula milk, no legal standards exist for the use of expressed maternal milk. The need for additional measures, such as bacteriological screening or heat treatment, remains unresolved.

  10. A General Model of Dioxin Contamination in Breast Milk: Results from a Study on 94 Women from the Caserta and Naples Areas in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Rivezzi, Gaetano; Piscitelli, Prisco; Scortichini, Giampiero; Giovannini, Armando; Diletti, Gianfranco; Migliorati, Giacomo; Ceci, Roberta; Rivezzi, Giulia; Cirasino, Lorenzo; Carideo, Pietro; Black, Dennis M.; Garzillo, Carmine; Giani, Umberto

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Caserta and Naples areas in Campania Region experience heavy environmental contamination due to illegal waste disposal and burns, thus representing a valuable setting to develop a general model of human contamination with dioxins (PCDDs-PCDFs) and dioxin-like-PCBs (dl-PCBs). Methods: 94 breastfeeding women (aged 19–32 years; mean age 27.9 ± 3.0) were recruited to determine concentrations of PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs in their milk. Individual milk samples were collected and analyzed according to standard international procedures. A generalized linear model was used to test potential predictors of pollutant concentration in breast milk: age, exposure to waste fires, cigarette smoking, diet, and residence in high/low risk area (defined at high/low environmental pressure by a specific 2007 WHO report). A Structural Equation Model (SEM) analysis was carried out by taking into account PCDDs-PCDFs and dl-PCBs as endogenous variables and age, waste fires, risk area and smoking as exogenous variables. Results: All milk samples were contaminated by PCDDs-PCDFs (8.6 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 2.7; range 3.8–19) and dl-PCBs (8.0 pg WHO-TEQ/98g fat ± 3.7; range 2.5–24), with their concentrations being associated with age and exposure to waste fires (p < 0.01). Exposure to fires resulted in larger increases of dioxins concentrations in people living in low risk areas than those from high risk areas (p < 0.01). Conclusions: A diffuse human exposure to persistent organic pollutants was observed in the Caserta and Naples areas. Dioxins concentration in women living in areas classified at low environmental pressure in 2007 WHO report was significantly influenced by exposure to burns. PMID:24217180

  11. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  12. Levels of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Norwegian breast milk (2002-2006), and factors that may predict the level of contamination.

    PubMed

    Polder, A; Skaare, J U; Skjerve, E; Løken, K B; Eggesbø, M

    2009-08-01

    In the present study, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined in 423 breast milk samples from women living in Norway. Various predictors for the contaminant levels were also investigated. The samples were collected in six counties, representing South, Central and North Norway in 2002-2006. Initial results showed significantly lower levels of OCPs in breast milk from ethnic Norwegians (N=377) compared to ethnic non-Norwegians (N=46). Median concentrations (range) of PCBs, p,p'-DDE, HCB, beta-HCH and oxychlordane in breast milk of the Norwegian women, all parities included, were 103 (34-450), 41 (5.4-492), 11 (3.6-24), 4.7 (0.9-37) and 2.8 (0.5-16) ng/g lipid weight, respectively. Results indicated that sum of 18 PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH are good predictors for monitoring of PCB, DDT and HCH levels in Norwegian breast milk. Multivariable linear regression analyses showed that age was strongly associated with increasing OC levels (P<0.001), whereas parity was associated with decreasing OC levels (P<0.001). Smoking was associated with higher levels of PCBs, p,p'-DDE and beta-HCH. The models explained from 17 to 35% of the variance. Median levels of OCs in the present Norwegian primparaes seemed to be 29-62% lower than corresponding results found in a Norwegian study from 2000-2002.

  13. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntampaka, M.; Trac, H.; Sutherland, D. J.; Fromenteau, S.; Póczos, B.; Schneider, J.

    2016-11-01

    We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers and show that a modern machine learning algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create two mock catalogs from Multidark’s publicly available N-body MDPL1 simulation, one with perfect galaxy cluster membership information and the other where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power-law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line-of-sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. Assuming perfect membership knowledge, this unrealistic case produces a wide fractional mass error distribution, with a width of {{Δ }}ε ≈ 0.87. Interlopers introduce additional scatter, significantly widening the error distribution further ({{Δ }}ε ≈ 2.13). We employ the support distribution machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement ({{Δ }}ε ≈ 0.67) for the contaminated case. Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even the scaling relation approach applied to uncontaminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  14. [The role of bacterial contamination of milking utensils and disinfecting solutions as a possible cause of clinical mastitis in dairy cows].

    PubMed

    Hässig, M; Sigrist, S M; Corti, S; Giezendanner, N; Stephan, R

    2011-06-01

    Various instruments and utensils used during milking as well as teat dip solutions were examined for contamination with coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between contaminated fomites and udder infection in dairy cows. A total of 344 cows from ten dairy farms with the highest rate of clinical mastitis among the farms serviced by the Ambulatory Clinic of the University of Zurich were included in the study. Each farm was visited five times. All lactating cows, with the exception of those undergoing antibiotic treatment, were examined immediately before milking using the California Mastitis Test (CMT). A milk sample was collected from positive quarters. Items used to clean the udder, which included wood wool, paper towels and disinfecting towels as well as the milker's hands and the teat dip cup were swabbed for bacteriological examination. Water samples, samples of teat dip and cleaning solutions were also collected and cultured. Our results demonstrate that cleaning and disinfecting solutions have the potential to transmit udder pathogens and cause clinical mastitis. The most common CNS isolated from quarter samples were S. saprophyticus, S. sciuri and S. chromogenes, and the most common CNS isolated from utensils, cleaning and disinfecting solutions were S. fleuretii, S. vitulus, S. equorum, S. sciuri, S. haemolyticus, S. succinus and S. saprophyticus. PMID:21638262

  15. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  16. Short communication: Inactivation of microbial contaminants in raw milk La Serena cheese by high-pressure treatments.

    PubMed

    Arqués, J L; Garde, S; Gaya, P; Medina, M; Nuñez, M

    2006-03-01

    La Serena cheese, a Spanish variety made from Merino ewes' raw milk, has a high pH value, low salt content, and high moisture, conditions that are all favorable for growth and survival of contaminating microorganisms, including pathogens. To improve its microbiological quality and safety, high-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa for 10 min at 10 degrees C were applied to 2 batches of La Serena cheese on d 2 or 50 of ripening. Cheese treated on d 2 at 300 MPa showed viable aerobic counts that were 0.99 log units lower than those for control cheese on d 3 and showed counts of enterococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms that were 2.05, 0.49, 3.14, and 4.13 log units lower, respectively, than control cheese. For cheese treated on d 2 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 2.02, 2.68, 1.45, 3.96, and 5.50 log units. On d 60, viable aerobic counts in cheese treated on d 50 at 300 MPa were 0.50 log units lower than those in control cheese, and counts of enterococci, gram-negative bacteria, and coliforms were 1.37, 2.30, and 4.85 log units lower, respectively. For cheese treated on d 50 at 400 MPa, the respective reductions in counts were 1.29, 1.98, 4.47, and > 5 log units. High-pressure treatments at 300 or 400 MPa on d 2 or 50 reduced significantly the counts of undesirable microorganisms, improving the microbiological quality and safety of La Serena cheese immediately after treatment and at the end of the ripening period.

  17. Neurological and neuropsychological functions in adults with a history of developmental arsenic poisoning from contaminated milk powder.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kato, Tsuguhiko; Ohta, Hitoshi; Bellinger, David C; Matsuoka, Kenichi; Grandjean, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    During the summer of 1955, mass arsenic poisoning of bottle-fed infants occurred in the western part of Japan due to contaminated milk powder, and more than 100 died; some childhood victims were later found to suffer from neurological sequelae in adolescence. This unique incident enabled us to explore infancy as a critical period of arsenic exposure in regard to developmental neurotoxicity and its possible persistence through adulthood. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the association between developmental arsenic exposure and the neurological outcomes more than 50 years later. We conducted a retrospective cohort study during the period from April 2012 to February 2013 in two hospitals in Okayama Prefecture, Japan. The study sample consisted of 50 individuals: 27 known poisoning victims from Okayama Prefecture, and 23 non-exposed local controls of similar age. In addition to neurological examination, we adapted a battery of neurophysiological and neuropsychological tests to identify the types of brain functions affected by early-life arsenic exposure. While limited abnormalities were found in the neurophysiological tests, neuropsychological deficits were observed. Except for Finger tapping, all test scores in the exposed group--Vocabulary and Block Design from Wechsler Adults Intelligent Scale III, Design memory subtest from Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning 2, and Grooved pegboard test--were substantially below those obtained by the unexposed. The exposed group showed average performance at least 1.2 standard deviations below the average for the controls. Exposed participants performed less well than controls, even after exclusion of subjects with recognized disabilities or those with a high level of education. Adults who had suffered arsenic poisoning during infancy revealed neuropsychological dysfunctions, even among those subjects not recognized as having disabilities. Developmental neurotoxicity due to arsenic likely results in permanent

  18. Dynamical Mass Measurements of Contaminated Galaxy Clusters Using Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntampaka, Michelle; Trac, Hy; Sutherland, Dougal; Fromenteau, Sebastien; Poczos, Barnabas; Schneider, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy clusters are a rich source of information for examining fundamental astrophysical processes and cosmological parameters, however, employing clusters as cosmological probes requires accurate mass measurements derived from cluster observables. We study dynamical mass measurements of galaxy clusters contaminated by interlopers, and show that a modern machine learning (ML) algorithm can predict masses by better than a factor of two compared to a standard scaling relation approach. We create a mock catalog from Multidark's publicly-available N-body MDPL1 simulation where a simple cylindrical cut around the cluster center allows interlopers to contaminate the clusters. In the standard approach, we use a power law scaling relation to infer cluster mass from galaxy line of sight (LOS) velocity dispersion. The presence of interlopers in the catalog produces a wide, flat fractional mass error distribution, with width = 2.13. We employ the Support Distribution Machine (SDM) class of algorithms to learn from distributions of data to predict single values. Applied to distributions of galaxy observables such as LOS velocity and projected distance from the cluster center, SDM yields better than a factor-of-two improvement (width = 0.67). Remarkably, SDM applied to contaminated clusters is better able to recover masses than even a scaling relation approach applied to uncontaminated clusters. We show that the SDM method more accurately reproduces the cluster mass function, making it a valuable tool for employing cluster observations to evaluate cosmological models.

  19. Milk production and nutrient partitioning as measured by (13)C enrichment of milk components during C3 and C4 plant feeding in purebred Holstein and in Charolais × Holstein F2 crossbred cows.

    PubMed

    Hillal, Hany; Voigt, Jürgen; Metges, Cornelia C; Hammon, Harald M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient partitioning was investigated in cows with different genetic merits for milk production by measuring (13)C/(12)C ratios (reported by delta values δ(13)C) in milk components in response to C3 (grass silage) and C4 diets (corn silage). We hypothesised that changes of δ(13)C in milk differ between Holstein (HOL; high milk production) and Charolais × Holstein cows with medium (CHM) and low (CHL) milk production. Changes of δ(13)C (Δδ(13)C) in milk components were estimated by calculating differences of δ(13)C due to switch from C3 to C4 feeding. After switch to C4 feeding, Δδ(13)C of lactose was greater in HOL than in CHL. Immediate Δδ(13)C of milk fat was the lowest in CHL. The maximal Δδ(13)C of casein was the lowest in HOL. The proportion of carbon in milk derived from diet increased with milk yield, indicating the main impact of the milk production level, but minor impact of breed, on nutrient partitioning towards the mammary gland.

  20. Technical note: Assessment of milk temperature measured by automatic milking systems as an indicator of body temperature and fever in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pohl, A; Heuwieser, W; Burfeind, O

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether milk temperature (MT) measured by automatic milking system (AMS) is a reliable indicator of body temperature of dairy cows and whether cows with fever could be detected. Data loggers (Minilog 8, Vemco Ltd., Halifax, NS, Canada) measuring body temperature were inserted for 7 ± 1 d into the vaginal cavity of 31 dairy cows and programmed to take 1 reading/min. Milk temperature was recorded at each milking event by the AMS, and values from the vaginal loggers were paired with the corresponding MT. The correlation (r) between vaginal temperature (VT) and MT was 0.52. Vaginal temperature was higher (39.1 ± 0.4°C) than MT (38.6 ± 0.7°C) with a mean difference of 0.5 ± 0.6°C. The ability of MT to identify cows with fever was assessed using 2 approaches. In the first approach, VT could indicate fever at any time of the day, whereas MT could display fever only during the milking events of a given day. Different definitions of fever based on thresholds of VT and duration exceeding these thresholds were constructed. Different thresholds of MT were tested to distinguish between cows with and without fever. The combination of 39.0°C as a threshold for MT and 39.5°C for at least 2h/d as a threshold for VT resulted in the highest combination of sensitivity (0.65) and specificity (0.65). In the second approach, we evaluated whether MT could identify cows with fever at a given milking event. A threshold of MT >38.7°C delivered the best combination of sensitivity (0.77) and specificity (0.66) when fever was defined as VT ≥39.5°C. Therefore, MT measured by AMS can be indicative of fever in dairy cows to a limited extent.

  1. Review of methods to measure internal contamination in an emergency.

    PubMed

    Youngman, M J

    2015-06-01

    In the event of a radiation emergency, people close to the site of the incident may be exposed to radiation by external exposure, or as a result of intakes of radioactive material. For these incidents it may be necessary to monitor members of the public both for external and internal contamination. This work reviews currently available equipment for the assessment of internal exposure following an emergency. It concentrates on incidents involving the spread of radioactive material and on contamination by radionuclides which emit penetrating radiation. It is essential that this monitoring is carried out as soon as possible so that people who have been exposed at a level which could have an effect on health can be identified and receive prompt medical assessment. Proposed action levels to identify people who need medical attention are reviewed to determine the required sensitivity of monitoring equipment. For releases containing gamma-ray emitting radionuclides the best means of measuring internal contamination is to use detectors placed close to the body (whole body or partial body monitoring). Laboratory based whole body monitors could be used but these may well be inconveniently located and so equipment which can be deployed to the site of an incident has been developed and these are described. The need for rapid selection and prioritisation of people for monitoring, methods to deal with potentially high numbers of contaminated people and the requirement for a means of rapidly interpreting monitoring information are also discussed.It has been found that for many types of incidents and scenarios, systems based on unshielded high-resolution detectors and hand-held instruments do have the required sensitivity to identify people who require medical assessment.

  2. Measurement of total hemispherical emissivity of contaminated mirror surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facey, T. A.; Nonnenmacher, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of dust contamination on the total hemispherical emissivity (THE) of a 1.5-inch-diameter Al/MgF2-coated telescope mirror are investigated experimentally. The THE is determined by means of cooling-rate measurements in the temperature range 10-14.5 C in a vacuum of 100 ntorr or better. Photographs and drawings of the experimental setup are provided, and results for 11 dust levels are presented in tables and graphs. It is shown that dust has a significant effect on THE, but the experimental losses are only about half those predicted for perfectly black dust in perfect thermal contact with the mirror surface.

  3. Elementary and Middle School Children's Acceptance of Lower Calorie Flavored Milk as Measured by Milk Shipment and Participation in the National School Lunch Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yon, Bethany A.; Johnson, Rachel K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) new nutrition standards for school meals include sweeping changes setting upper limits on calories served and limit milk offerings to low fat or fat-free and, if flavored, only fat-free. Milk processors are lowering the calories in flavored milks. As changes to milk impact…

  4. Stability of sulfonamides, nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in preserved raw milk samples measured by liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Noa, Mario; Perez, Norima; Gutierrez, Rey; Escobar, Irma; Diaz, Gilberto; Vega, Salvador; Prado, Guadalupe; Urban, Georgina

    2002-01-01

    A stability study was made of 10 antimicrobials: 6 sulfonamides, 3 nitrofurans, and chloramphenicol residues in raw milk samples preserved with 0.1 % potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and 0.05% mercuric bichloride (HgCl2) during cold storage for 7 days. Preserved milk samples fortified with 50 ppb of each antimicrobial were analyzed by liquid chromatography (modified AOAC Method 993.32). Drugs were extracted with chloroform-acetone after solvent evaporation residues were dissolved with aqueous sodium acetate buffer solution (0.02M, pH 4.8), and fat was removed with hexane. Sulfonamides and chloramphenicol were detected at 275 nm (UV) by using a gradient system of sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile starting at 95 + 5 (v/v) and finishing at 80 + 20 (v/v). Nitrofurans were detected at 375 nm (UV) isocratically with sodium acetate buffer solution-acetonitrile (80 + 20, v/v). Residues stability was measured through recovery data. Sulfamethoxazole, sulfachloropyridazine, nitrofurazone, furazolidone, and furaltadone residues remained stable in the presence of either preservative for 7 days. Sulfamethazine and chloramphenicol were not affected by K2Cr2O7, but had significant losses (p <0.05) when HgCl2 was used: 26.2 and 13.4%, respectively. Average recoveries of sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamerazine, and sulfathiazole significantly decreased by Day 7, with losses of 17.1, 17.2, and 23.2% for K2Cr2O7, and 23.3, 20.7, and 48.0% for HgCl2, respectively. During 5 days of cold storage all antimicrobials tested, except sulfathiazole, remained stable in milk samples preserved with 0.1 % K2Cr2O7 or 0.05% HgCl2.

  5. Effect of cleaning procedure and hygienic condition of milking equipment on bacterial count of bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Zanini, Lucio; Tamburini, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of cleaning procedures for milking equipment applied in intensive dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) and to study their relationships with bacterial count of bulk milk and hygienic condition of milking machine components. A group of 22 dairy farms was visited twice (winter and summer) in order to collect bulk tank milk and post-rinse water samples and swabs from liners and milk receiver. Samples were analysed to determine: standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli. Cleaning procedures were monitored using electronic milk flow meters with specific software for the measurement of the duration of each cleaning phase, circulating solution temperature and electrical conductivity, turbulence and water filling percentage of pipelines. The results showed that farms classified as high and low milk total bacteria count significantly differed both in terms of liners and receiver bacterial contamination and in terms of water temperature reached during the detergent phase of cleaning milking equipment. Significant positive correlations were found among total bacteria count in milk and bacterial contamination of the liners. Maximum water temperature reached during the cleaning cycle of milking equipment was very low (34.4±8.9°C on average); most of the observations (88.6%) corresponded to water temperatures <45°C. Cleaning temperature was related to psychrotrophic bacteria count of milk and post-rinse water and coliform count in liners. Routine check and regulation of water temperature during the washing phase of the milking machine can be a simple and effective way to control one of the main risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk. PMID:21371358

  6. Effect of cleaning procedure and hygienic condition of milking equipment on bacterial count of bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Bava, Luciana; Zucali, Maddalena; Sandrucci, Anna; Brasca, Milena; Vanoni, Laura; Zanini, Lucio; Tamburini, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of cleaning procedures for milking equipment applied in intensive dairy farms in Lombardy (Italy) and to study their relationships with bacterial count of bulk milk and hygienic condition of milking machine components. A group of 22 dairy farms was visited twice (winter and summer) in order to collect bulk tank milk and post-rinse water samples and swabs from liners and milk receiver. Samples were analysed to determine: standard plate count (SPC), laboratory pasteurization count (LPC), psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC), coliform count (CC) and Escherichia coli. Cleaning procedures were monitored using electronic milk flow meters with specific software for the measurement of the duration of each cleaning phase, circulating solution temperature and electrical conductivity, turbulence and water filling percentage of pipelines. The results showed that farms classified as high and low milk total bacteria count significantly differed both in terms of liners and receiver bacterial contamination and in terms of water temperature reached during the detergent phase of cleaning milking equipment. Significant positive correlations were found among total bacteria count in milk and bacterial contamination of the liners. Maximum water temperature reached during the cleaning cycle of milking equipment was very low (34.4±8.9°C on average); most of the observations (88.6%) corresponded to water temperatures <45°C. Cleaning temperature was related to psychrotrophic bacteria count of milk and post-rinse water and coliform count in liners. Routine check and regulation of water temperature during the washing phase of the milking machine can be a simple and effective way to control one of the main risk factors for bacteriological quality of bulk tank milk.

  7. Measurement and modeling of atmospheric flux of ammonia from dairy milking cow housing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, Brian; Mount, George H.; Filipy, Jenny; Lamb, Brian; Westberg, Hal; Yonge, David; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Atmospheric ammonia (NH3) measurements are needed to better understand the impacts of NH3 emissions on aerosol formation and concentrations and anthropogenic changes to the N cycle. This paper describes concentration measurements of NH3 using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS), tracer ratio flux experiments, and development of a NH3 emissions model from a dairy milking cow free stall house with concrete floors. An area source tracer gas ratio method was used to determine NH3 fluxes which involved releasing SF6 as the tracer gas from the upwind edge of the stalls and measuring the tracer concentration downwind along with the DOAS NH3 measurements. The flux is calculated from the ratio of the NH3 and SF6 concentrations and the SF6 release rate and taking into account the differences in area and dispersion. The measured stall flux for the summers averaged 29±19gNH3cow-1h-1 at an average temperature of 18±5C. The emissions model calculated liquid NH3 concentrations in urine puddles, NH3 volatilization, theoretical and empirical mass transfer to the bulk atmosphere, and NH3 transport. The predicted concentrations were within ±30% using an empirical mass transfer coefficient and within ±41% using a theoretical mass transfer coefficient. Total annual NH3 emissions for the dairy of 185 milking cows was 7400 kg or 40kgNH3cow-1year-1, estimated total N excretions are 180kgcow-1year-1. This agrees with a N mass balance of the dairy. The model was very sensitive to urine puddle pH and also showed that emissions are temperature dependent.

  8. Maternal risk factors associated with increased dioxin concentrations in breast milk in a hot spot of dioxin contamination in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Nguyet; Nishijo, Muneko; Tai, Pham The; Maruzeni, Shoko; Morikawa, Yuko; Anh, Tran Hai; Van Luong, Hoang; Dam, Pham Minh; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Son, Le Ke; Nishijo, Hisao

    2014-01-01

    This study looked to identify determinants of exposure to dioxin in breast milk from breast-feeding women in a hot spot of dioxin exposure in Vietnam. Breast milk was collected from 140 mothers 1 month after delivery. The risk factors investigated included length of residency, drinking of well water and the frequency of animal food consumption. Cluster analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns of fish and meat portions, fish variety and egg variety. Residency, age and parity were clearly associated with increased dioxin levels. Drinking well water and the consumption of marine crab and shrimps were related to higher levels of furans in breast milk. The consumption of quail eggs also appeared to be associated with increased levels of some dioxin isomers in this area. Some mothers who ate no or less meat than fish and mothers who consumed more freshwater fish than marine fish had lower levels of dioxins in their breast milk. However, the type of water and the eating habits of mothers contributed only partly to the increased dioxin levels in their breast milk; the length of residency was the most important risk factor associated with increased dioxin body burdens of mothers. PMID:24149970

  9. The effect of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure in patients with type II diabetes mellitus: A randomized double-blind clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Hariri, Mitra; Salehi, Rasoul; Feizi, Awat; Mirlohi, Maryam; Kamali, Sara; Ghiasvand, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of probiotic soy milk and soy milk on anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP) in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. METHODS A total of 40 patients with T2D, 35-68 years old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 200 ml/day of probiotic soy milk containing Lactobacillus planetarium A7 and those in control group consumed 200 ml/day of soy milk for 8 weeks. Anthropometric and BP measurements were performed according to standard protocols. For detecting within-group differences paired-sample t-tests was used and analysis of covariance was used for determining any differences between two groups. (The trial has been registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials, identifier: IRCT: IRCT201405265062N8). RESULTS In this study, we failed to find any significant changes between probiotic soy milk and soy milk in term of body mass index (26.65 ± 0.68 vs. 26.33 ± 0.74, P = 0.300) and waist to hip ratio (1.49 ± 0.08 vs. 1.54 ± 0.1, P = 0.170). Although soy milk did not have any effect on BP, probiotic soymilk significantly decreased systolic (14.7 ± 0.48 vs. 13.05 ± 0.16, P = 0.001) and diastolic BP (10 ± 0.7 vs. 9.1 ± 1, P = 0.031). CONCLUSION In our study, probiotic soy milk in comparing with soy milk did not have any beneficial effects on anthropometric measures in these patients. We need more clinical trial for confirming the effect of probiotic foods on anthropometric measure in diabetic patients. However, probiotic soy milk decreased systolic and diastolic BP significantly. PMID:26261453

  10. Development of a new instrument for the measurement of the milk constituents based on the embedded system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen; Wu, Juan; Su, Lijun; Li, Zhonggang; Zhao, Hong

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a new way for measuring milk constituents. The new technology utilizes the scattered light to transmitted light ratio of laser light to determine the amount of protein and fat in milk. Fundamental theories of this new technology are discussed in detail and the design blueprint of an embedded system built based on this technology is outlined. Furthermore, the protein concentrations measured by the newly developed instrument are fit well with the authentic results from Dairy Quality Supervision and Inspection Center of the Country, indicating the instrument is feasible and has great potential for the application in dairy industry

  11. HIGH BREAST MILK LEVELS OF POLYCHLORINATEDE BIPHENYLS (PCBS) AMONG FOUR WOMEN LIVING ADJACENT TO A PCB-CONTAMINATED WASTE SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As a consequence of contamination by effluents from local electronics manufacturing facilities, the New Bedford Harbor and estuary in southeastern Massachusetts is among the sites in the United States that are considered the most highly contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls (...

  12. Genetic evaluations for measures of the milk-flow curve in the Italian Brown Swiss population.

    PubMed

    Gray, K A; Vacirca, F; Bagnato, A; Samoré, A B; Rossoni, A; Maltecca, C

    2011-02-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations between milk-release parameters, somatic cell score, milk yield, and udder functional traits in the Italian Brown Swiss population. Data were available from 37,511 cows over a span of 12 yr (1997-2008) from 1,592 herds. Milking flows were recorded for each individual once during lactation. Three different analyses were performed to estimate variance components for all the traits of interest. The first analysis included single control data milk yield, somatic cell score, maximum milk flow, average milk flow, time of plateau, decreasing time, and total milking time, whereas the second analysis included milk-release parameters as well as total udder score, udder depth, and 305-d milk yield and somatic cell score as dependent variables. The third analysis included total milking time, 305-d milk yield and somatic cell score, total udder score, udder depth, and ratios of maximum milk flow over total milking time (R1), time of plateau (R2), and decreasing time (R3) to estimate the relationship between the shape of the milk-release curves and important milking traits. Results from the first and second analysis found similar heritabilities for milkability traits ranging from 0.05 to 0.41 with genetic correlations between production traits and flow traits ranging from low to moderate values. Positive genetic correlations were found among production, somatic cell score, and milkability traits. The third analysis showed that R1 had the greatest heritability of the ratio traits (0.37) with large genetic correlations with R2 and R3, a low correlation with 305-d somatic cell score, and no correlation with 305-d milk yield. Estimated responses to selection over 5 generations were also calculated using different indexes, which included either flow or ratio traits. The results of this study show that it is possible to use information collected through portable flowmeters to improve milkability traits

  13. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm-5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5-1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm-3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study. PMID:27023555

  14. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S.; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-01-01

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm–5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5–1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm–3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study. PMID:27023555

  15. Penetration Depth Measurement of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging Light for Milk Powder.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Kim, Moon S; Chao, Kuanglin; Qin, Jianwei; Mo, Changyeun; Esquerre, Carlos; Delwiche, Stephen; Zhu, Qibing

    2016-03-25

    The increasingly common application of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging technique to the analysis of food powders has led to the need for optical characterization of samples. This study was aimed at exploring the feasibility of quantifying penetration depth of NIR hyperspectral imaging light for milk powder. Hyperspectral NIR reflectance images were collected for eight different milk powder products that included five brands of non-fat milk powder and three brands of whole milk powder. For each milk powder, five different powder depths ranging from 1 mm-5 mm were prepared on the top of a base layer of melamine, to test spectral-based detection of the melamine through the milk. A relationship was established between the NIR reflectance spectra (937.5-1653.7 nm) and the penetration depth was investigated by means of the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) technique to classify pixels as being milk-only or a mixture of milk and melamine. With increasing milk depth, classification model accuracy was gradually decreased. The results from the 1-mm, 2-mm and 3-mm models showed that the average classification accuracy of the validation set for milk-melamine samples was reduced from 99.86% down to 94.93% as the milk depth increased from 1 mm-3 mm. As the milk depth increased to 4 mm and 5 mm, model performance deteriorated further to accuracies as low as 81.83% and 58.26%, respectively. The results suggest that a 2-mm sample depth is recommended for the screening/evaluation of milk powders using an online NIR hyperspectral imaging system similar to that used in this study.

  16. Fatty acid composition of muscle tissue measured in amphibians living in radiologically contaminated and non-contaminated environments.

    PubMed

    Audette-Stuart, M; Ferreri, C; Festarini, A; Carr, J

    2012-09-01

    Fatty acid composition was identified as a potential biological indicator of the effects of environmental exposure to radiological contaminants. This end point was measured in muscle tissues of Mink frogs ( Rana septentrionalis ) obtained from a radiologically contaminated pond and from a non-contaminated pond. It was also measured after the frogs obtained from both ponds were exposed to a 4 Gy (60)Co γ radiation dose delivered in vivo at a dose rate of approximately 8 Gy/min. Statistically significant differences for the increase of a couple of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid residues and the decrease of a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid residue were observed between radiologically contaminated and non-contaminated frogs, indicating a partial remodeling of muscle lipids in response to a chronic low-dose tritium exposure. The effects of an acute high-dose exposure to (60)Co γ radiation, either for the radiologically contaminated or non-contaminated frogs indicated fast post-irradiation fatty acid changes with an increase of polyunsaturated and decrease of saturated fatty acid contents. Fatty acid composition was found to be a sensitive marker that may be useful to study and monitor biota health in environments that are radiologically contaminated, as well as for understanding the differences between low chronic and high acute stress responses.

  17. Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

    2006-01-01

    Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology.

  18. Measures of de novo synthesis of milk components from propionate in lactating goats

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-02-01

    Possible direct contributions of propionate to de novo synthesis of milk components by the mammary gland of lactating goats fed a concentrate-roughage diet have been studied in vivo by primed constant infusion of (1-carbon-14)propionate into the right mammary artery. Specific radioactivities of milk galactose, fatty acids, and protein were higher in the infused than in the uninfused half of the mammary gland, suggesting de novo synthesis of these compounds in the udder. Specific radioactivities of milk glucose in both udder halves were identical, ruling out any possibility of mammary gland-derived glucose from propionate of blood plasma under the experimental conditions. Of milk galactose, .8% was derived from propionate of blood plasma, and of milk glucose, 98% was derived from glucose of blood plasma. After intraruminal infusion of unlabeled propionic acid at 11 g/h, concentration of propionate in blood plasma was doubled, its contribution to milk galactose was increased to 1.5%, and proportions of milk odd-numbered fatty acids were increased. Propionate was incorporated largely into milk odd-numbered fatty acids. The authors conclude that small amounts of propionate can be incorporated into principal components of milk in the mammary gland of lactating goats.

  19. Human milk banking.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing. PMID:23666187

  20. Current Measures on Radioactive Contamination in Japan: A Policy Situation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Stuart; Miyagawa, Shoji; Kasuga, Fumiko; Shibuya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Background The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11th March 2011 and the subsequent Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant disaster caused radioactive contamination in the surrounding environment. In the immediate aftermath of the accident the Government of Japan placed strict measures on radio-contamination of food, and enhanced radio-contamination monitoring activities. Japan is a pilot country in the WHO Foodborne Disease Burden Epidemiology Reference Group (FERG), and through this initiative has an opportunity to report on policy affecting chemicals and toxins in the food distribution network. Nuclear accidents are extremely rare, and a policy situation analysis of the Japanese government’s response to the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear accident is a responsibility of Japanese scientists. This study aims to assess Japan government policies to reduce radio-contamination risk and to identify strategies to strengthen food policies to ensure the best possible response to possible future radiation accidents. Methods and Findings We conducted a hand search of all publicly available policy documents issued by the Cabinet Office, the Food Safety Commission, the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW), the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery (MAFF) and prefectural governments concerning food safety standards and changes to radiation and contamination standards since March 11th, 2011. We extracted information on food shipment and sales restrictions, allowable radio-contamination limits, monitoring activities and monitoring results. The standard for allowable radioactive cesium (Cs-134 and Cs-137) of 100 Bq/Kg in general food, 50 Bq/Kg in infant formula and all milk products, and 10 Bq/Kg in drinking water was enforced from April 2012 under the Food Sanitation Law, although a provisional standard on radio-contamination had been applied since the nuclear accident. Restrictions on the commercial sale and distribution of specific meat, vegetable and fish products

  1. Fluorescence photon migration techniques for the on-farm measurement of somatic cell count in fresh cow's milk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoo, Geoffrey; Kuennemeyer, Rainer; Claycomb, Rod W.

    2005-04-01

    Currently, the state of the art of mastitis detection in dairy cows is the laboratory-based measurement of somatic cell count (SCC), which is time consuming and expensive. Alternative, rapid, and reliable on-farm measurement methods are required for effective farm management. We have investigated whether fluorescence lifetime measurements can determine SCC in fresh, unprocessed milk. The method is based on the change in fluorescence lifetime of ethidium bromide when it binds to DNA from the somatic cells. Milk samples were obtained from a Fullwood Merlin Automated Milking System and analysed within a twenty-four hour period, over which the SCC does not change appreciably. For reference, the milk samples were also sent to a testing laboratory where the SCC was determined by traditional methods. The results show that we can quantify SCC using the fluorescence photon migration method from a lower bound of 4x105 cells mL-1 to an upper bound of 1 x 107 cells mL-1. The upper bound is due to the reference method used while the cause of the lower boundary is unknown, yet.

  2. Measurement of thermal characteristics of spray-dried milk and juice blend.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Hanan S; Abu Shelaibi, A A; Laleye, L C; Ismail, I A

    2009-01-01

    Blended concentrated grape/peach (G/P) juice 60% total soluble solids (TSS) with condensed whole cow milk 40% TSS (1.5:8.5) was spray dried using a pilot-scale spray drier FT 80 at feeding pressure 7,000 Pa, at chamber temperature 180 degrees C and at chamber pressure -110 Pa. The glass transition state of blended G/P juice-milk powder, three pure sugars (glucose, sucrose and lactose) and casein were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetry showed that G/P juice-milk powder is a glassy material. The glass transition temperature of blended G/P juice-milk powder at 0.248 water activity was 42 degrees C, compared with commercial full milk powder (control) of 29 degrees C at 0.334 at water activity (a(w)).

  3. Spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurement of NAPL contaminated soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, N.; Huisman, J. A.; Furman, A.

    2010-12-01

    The potential applicability of spectral induce polarization (SIP) as a tool to map NAPLs (non aqueous phase liquids) contaminants at the subsurface lead researchers to investigate the electric signature of those contaminant on the spectral response. However, and despite the cumulative efforts, the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of soil, and the mechanisms that control this effect are largely unknown. In this work a novel experiment is designed to further examine the effect of NAPL on the electrical properties of partially saturated soil. The measurement system that used is the ZEL-SIP04 impedance meter developed at the Forschungszentrum Julich, Germany. The system accurately (nominal phase precision of 0.1 mrad below 1 kHz) measures the phase and the amplitude of a material possessing a very low polarization (such as soil). The sample holder has a dimension of 60 cm long and 4.6 cm in diameter. Current and potential electrodes were made of brass, and while the current electrodes were inserted in full into the soil, the contact between the potential electrode and the soil was made through an Agarose bridge. Two types of soils were used: clean quartz sand, and a mixture of sand with clean Bentonite. Each soil (sandy or clayey) was mixed with water to get saturation degree of 30%. Following the mixture with water, NAPL was added and the composite were mixed again. Packing was done by adding and compressing small portions of the soil to the column. A triplicate of each mixture was made with a good reproducible bulk density. Both for the sandy and clayey soils, the results indicate that additions of NAPL decrease the real part of the complex resistivity. Additionally, for the sandy soil this process is time depended, and that a further decrease in resistivity develops over time. The results are analyzed considering geometrical factors: while the NAPL is electrically insulator, addition of NAPL to the soil is expected to increase the connectivity of the

  4. Deuterium and oxygen-18 measurements on microliter samples of urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, W.W.; Lee, L.S.; Klein, P.D.

    1987-05-01

    Improved methods to measure /sup 2/H:/sup 1/H and /sup 18/O:/sup 16/O isotope ratios on microliter samples of biological fluids are described. Enriched levels of /sup 2/H (580%) and /sup 18/O (256%) in urine, plasma, saliva, and human milk can be measured with a precision of 3.2% (n = 200) and 0.97% (n = 200) and an accuracy of -4.6 +/- 4.4% (mean +/- SD, n = 200) and -0.32 +/- 0.87% (mean +/- SD, n = 200), respectively. Hydrogen gas samples are generated from 10 microL of undistilled fluid by zinc reduction in quartz reaction vessels. Water-CO/sub 2/ equilibration of a 100-microL sample for /sup 18/O measurement is completed in 10 h using a modified commercial equilibration system. These methodological improvements facilitate and extend the use of /sup 2/H and /sup 18/O tracers in studies of body composition and energy expenditure.

  5. Modeling Ellipsometry Measurements of Molecular Thin-Film Contamination on Genesis Array Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of a molecular thin-film contamination on Genesis flown array samples changed the course of preliminary assessment strategies. Analytical techniques developed to measure solar wind elemental abundances must now compensate for a thin-film contamination. Currently, this is done either by experimental cleaning before analyses or by depth-profiling techniques that bypass the surface contamination. Inside Johnson Space Center s Genesis dedicated ISO Class 4 (Class 10) cleanroom laboratory, the selection of collector array fragments allocated for solar wind analyses are based on the documentation of overall surface quality, visible surface particle contamination greater than 1 m, and the amount of thin film contamination measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Documenting the exact thickness, surface topography, and chemical composition of these contaminates is also critical for developing accurate cleaning methods. However, the first step in characterization of the molecular film is to develop accurate ellipsometry models that will determine an accurate thickness measurement of the contamination film.

  6. Practical improvement of the radiological quality of milk produced by peasant farmers in the territories of Belarus contaminated by the Chernobyl accident. The ETHOS project.

    PubMed

    Lepicard, S; Dubreuil, G H

    2001-01-01

    The Chernobyl post-accident situation has highlighted how the sudden emergence of persistent radioactive contamination in the environment is severely affecting the quality of life of the inhabitants in the concerned territories. The management of this situation is complex, mainly conditioned by the ability of the inhabitants themselves to be directly involved in the process of improving their living conditions. In this process, quality of life cannot be restricted solely to the dimension of radiological risk, but needs to encompass the diverse aspects of daily living, including the social, psychological, economic, political and ethical aspects. This paper presents the experience of the involvement of a group of peasant farmers from a village in the Republic of Belarus, in the process of improving the radiological quality of privately produced milk. This experience took place in the context of the ETHOS project, funded by the radiation protection research programme of the European Commission. The principal objective was to implement a complementary approach to the rehabilitation strategies adopted so far in the contaminated territories of the Republic of Belarus. This paper retraces the process of involvement of the inhabitants in a working group. It describes the characterisation of the situation by local actors, the opening of new possible actions to improve the radiological quality of milk at the individual level and the positive consequences at the scale of the village. The ETHOS project also illustrates how the scientific knowledge accumulated over many years since the Chernobyl accident in the field of radiation protection and radioecology can enter into local practices in the form of practical tools, which can be used by the population to produce significant improvements in the radiological situation.

  7. Raw Milk Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, John A.

    2015-01-01

    There continues to be considerable public debate on the possible benefits regarding the growing popularity of the consumption of raw milk. However, there are significant concerns by regulatory, or public health, organizations like the Food and Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention because of risk of contracting milkborne illnesses if the raw milk is contaminated with human pathogens. This review describes why pasteurization of milk was introduced more than 100 years ago, how pasteurization helped to reduce the incidence of illnesses associated with raw milk consumption, and the prevalence of pathogens in raw milk. In some studies, up to a third of all raw milk samples contained pathogens, even when sourced from clinically healthy animals or from milk that appeared to be of good quality. This review critically evaluates some of the popularly suggested benefits of raw milk. Claims related to improved nutrition, prevention of lactose intolerance, or provision of “good” bacteria from the consumption of raw milk have no scientific basis and are myths. There are some epidemiological data that indicate that children growing up in a farming environment are associated with a decreased risk of allergy and asthma; a variety of environmental factors may be involved and there is no direct evidence that raw milk consumption is involved in any “protective” effect. PMID:27340300

  8. a New Method for Measuring Macroparticulate Systems Applied to Measuring Syneresis of Renneted Milk Gels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maynes, Jonathan R.

    Syneresis is an integral part of cheese manufacture. The rate and extent of syneresis affect the properties of cheese. There are many factors that affect syneresis, but measured results vary because of inaccuracies in measuring techniques. To better control syneresis, an accurate mathematical description must be developed. Current mathematical models describing syneresis are limited because of inherent error in measuring techniques used to develop them. Developing an accurate model requires an accurate way to measure syneresis. The curd becomes a particle in a whey suspension when the coagulum is cut. The most effective technique to measure particle size, without interference, is with light. Approximations to rigorous Maxwellian theory render useable results for a variety of particle sizes. Assumptions of Fraunhofer diffraction theory relate absorption to the cross sectional area of a particle that is much larger than the wavelength of light being used. By applying diffraction theory to the curd-whey system, this researcher designed a new apparatus to permit measurement of large particle systems. The apparatus was tested, and calibrated, with polyacrylic beads. Then the syneresis of curd was measured with this apparatus. The apparatus was designed to measure particles in suspension. Until some syneresis takes place, curd does not satisfy this condition. Theoretical assumptions require a monolayer of scattering centers. The sample container must be thin enough to preclude stacking of the particles. This presents a unique problem with curd. If the coagulum is cut in the sample cell, it adheres to the front and back surfaces and does not synerese. The curd must be coagulated and cut externally and transferred to the sample cell with a large amount of whey. This measurement technique has other limitations that may be overcome with commercially available accessories.

  9. Direct Detection of Viable Bacteria, Molds, and Yeasts by Reverse Transcriptase PCR in Contaminated Milk Samples after Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vaitilingom, Marc; Gendre, Francois; Brignon, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    A fast, sensitive, and target contaminant-modulable method was developed to detect viable bacteria, molds, and yeasts after heat treatment. By reverse transcriptase PCR with elongation factor gene (EF-Tu or EF-1α)-specific primers, the detection level was 10 cells ml of milk−1. The simplicity and rapidity (4 h) of the procedure suggests that this method may be easily transposable to other foods and other contaminants. PMID:9501455

  10. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN OYSTER (CRASSOSTREA VIRGINICA) DEFENSE MEASUREMENTS AND TISSUE CONTAMINANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bivalve mollusks such as Crassostrea virginica typically inhabit estuaries and coastal areas that are increasingly contaminated with anthropogenic chemicals. Oysters may bioaccumulate large quantities of metals, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB...

  11. RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT OF PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES FOR MOLD CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Air Pollution Prevention and Control Division, Indoor Environment Management Branch has, since 1995, conducted research into controlling biological contamination in the indoor environment. In this paper four areas of research are discusse...

  12. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    SciTech Connect

    Magdas, D. A. Cristea, G. Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Cordea, D. V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-13

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ{sup 18}O and δ{sup 2}H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  13. Measurements of stable isotope ratios in milk samples from a farm placed in the mountains of Transylvania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdas, D. A.; Cristea, G.; Cordea, D. V.; Bot, A.; Puscas, R.; Radu, S.; Mirel, V.; Mihaiu, M.

    2013-11-01

    Product origin is of great importance for consumers especially because its association in consumer's perception with food quality, freedom from disease or pollution. Stable isotope ratio analysis is a powerful technique in food authenticity and traceability control which has been introduced within the European wine industry to ensure authenticity of wine provenance and to detect adulteration. Isotopic ratios measurements have also been successfully to other food commodities like: fruit juices, honey and dairy foods. The δ18O and δ2H content in milk water reflects the isotope composition of the ground water drunk by animals. Seasonal effects are also very important: in summer, milk water contains higher δ18O and δ2H values due to the fresh plants that are ate by animals. Relative carbon stable isotope abundances in total milk reflect the isotopic composition of the diet fed to the dairy cows. In this study the hydrogen, oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of 15 milk samples coming from a unit placed in the mountains of Transylvania was investigated. The distribution of the obtained isotopic values was than discussed taking into account that all the animals were feed with the same type of forage and consumed water was taken from the same source.

  14. Bidirectional Reflectance Function Measurement of Molecular Contaminant Scattering in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Gregory, Don A.

    2006-01-01

    Bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements of optical surfaces both before and after molecular contamination were done using UV, VUV and visible light. Molecular contamination of optical surfaces from outgassed material has been shown in many cases to proceed from acclimation centers, and to produce many roughly hemispherical "islands" of contamination on the surface. Vacuum Ultraviolet (VW) wavelengths are used here to measure angularly scattered light from optical surfaces.

  15. Milk demystified by chemistry.

    PubMed

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    This article traces the decline of milk from a heavenly elixir to a tradeable food. Early cultures regarded milk not as a simple nutrient, but a living fluid. Heroes and gods were believed to have been nurtured by animals after being abandoned. Character traits were assumed to be transmitted by milk; infantile diseases were attributed to "bad milk", whereas "good milk" was used as a remedy. With chemical methods developed at the end of the 18th century, it became known that human milk was higher in sugar and lower in protein than cow's milk. During the 19th century, "scientific" feeding emerged that meant modifying cow's milk to imitate the proportion of nutrients in human milk. In Boston from 1893, Rotch initiated the "percentage" method, requiring a physician's prescription. In Paris from 1894, Budin sterilized bottled infant milk. In Berlin in 1898, Rubner measured oxygen and energy uptake by calorimetry, prompting feeding by calories, and Czerny introduced regulated feeding by the clock. These activities ignored the emotional dimension of infant nutrition and the anti-infective properties of human milk. They may have also enhanced the decline in breastfeeding, which reached an all-time low in 1971. Milk's demystification made artificial nutrition safer, but paved the way for commercially produced infant formula.

  16. On Removing Interloper Contamination from Intensity Mapping Power Spectrum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidz, Adam; Taylor, Jessie

    2016-07-01

    Line intensity mapping experiments seek to trace large-scale structures by measuring the spatial fluctuations in the combined emission, in some convenient spectral line, from individually unresolved galaxies. An important systematic concern for these surveys is line confusion from foreground or background galaxies emitting in other lines that happen to lie at the same observed frequency as the “target” emission line of interest. We develop an approach to separate this “interloper” emission at the power spectrum level. If one adopts the redshift of the target emission line in mapping from observed frequency and angle on the sky to co-moving units, the interloper emission is mapped to the wrong co-moving coordinates. Because the mapping is different in the line of sight and transverse directions, the interloper contribution to the power spectrum becomes anisotropic, especially if the interloper and target emission are at widely separated redshifts. This distortion is analogous to the Alcock–Paczynski test, but here the warping arises from assuming the wrong redshift rather than an incorrect cosmological model. We apply this to the case of a hypothetical [C ii] emission survey at z˜ 7 and find that the distinctive interloper anisotropy can, in principle, be used to separate strong foreground CO emission fluctuations. In our models, however, a significantly more sensitive instrument than currently planned is required, although there are large uncertainties in forecasting the high-redshift [C ii] emission signal. With upcoming surveys, it may nevertheless be useful to apply this approach after first masking pixels suspected of containing strong interloper contamination.

  17. On Removing Interloper Contamination from Intensity Mapping Power Spectrum Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidz, Adam; Taylor, Jessie

    2016-07-01

    Line intensity mapping experiments seek to trace large-scale structures by measuring the spatial fluctuations in the combined emission, in some convenient spectral line, from individually unresolved galaxies. An important systematic concern for these surveys is line confusion from foreground or background galaxies emitting in other lines that happen to lie at the same observed frequency as the “target” emission line of interest. We develop an approach to separate this “interloper” emission at the power spectrum level. If one adopts the redshift of the target emission line in mapping from observed frequency and angle on the sky to co-moving units, the interloper emission is mapped to the wrong co-moving coordinates. Because the mapping is different in the line of sight and transverse directions, the interloper contribution to the power spectrum becomes anisotropic, especially if the interloper and target emission are at widely separated redshifts. This distortion is analogous to the Alcock-Paczynski test, but here the warping arises from assuming the wrong redshift rather than an incorrect cosmological model. We apply this to the case of a hypothetical [C ii] emission survey at z˜ 7 and find that the distinctive interloper anisotropy can, in principle, be used to separate strong foreground CO emission fluctuations. In our models, however, a significantly more sensitive instrument than currently planned is required, although there are large uncertainties in forecasting the high-redshift [C ii] emission signal. With upcoming surveys, it may nevertheless be useful to apply this approach after first masking pixels suspected of containing strong interloper contamination.

  18. Application of passive sampling for measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants in the water column at three marine superfund sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). However, historically a...

  19. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential.

  20. Mycotoxins in Bovine Milk and Dairy Products: A Review.

    PubMed

    Becker-Algeri, Tania Aparecida; Castagnaro, Denise; de Bortoli, Kennidy; de Souza, Camila; Drunkler, Deisy Alessandra; Badiale-Furlong, Eliana

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a literature review of the occurrence of several mycotoxins in bovine milk and dairy products, because it is the main type of milk produced and marketed worldwide. Mycotoxins are produced by different genera of filamentous fungi and present serious health hazards such as carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. Under favorable growth conditions, toxigenic fungi produce mycotoxins which contaminate the lactating cow's feedstuff. During metabolism, these mycotoxins undergo biotransformation and are secreted in milk. Data show that there is a seasonal trend in the levels of mycotoxins in milk, with these being higher in the cold months probably due to the prolonged storage required for the cattle feeds providing favorable conditions for fungal growth. Good agricultural and storage practices are therefore of fundamental importance in the control of toxigenic species and mycotoxins. Although aflatoxins (especially aflatoxin M1 ) are the mycotoxins of greater incidence in milk and dairy products, this review shows that other mycotoxins, such as fumonisin, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and deoxynivalenol, can also be found in these products. Given that milk is widely consumed and is a source of nutrients, especially in childhood, a thorough investigation of the occurrence of mycotoxins as well the adoption of measures to minimize their contamination of milk is essential. PMID:26799355

  1. Solubility measurement of uranium in uranium-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Elless, M.; Hoffman, F.

    1993-08-01

    A short-term equilibration study involving two uranium-contaminated soils at the Fernald site was conducted as part of the In Situ Remediation Integrated Program. The goal of this study is to predict the behavior of uranium during on-site remediation of these soils. Geochemical modeling was performed on the aqueous species dissolved from these soils following the equilibration study to predict the on-site uranium leaching and transport processes. The soluble levels of total uranium, calcium, magnesium, and carbonate increased continually for the first four weeks. After the first four weeks, these components either reached a steady-state equilibrium or continued linearity throughout the study. Aluminum, potassium, and iron, reached a steady-state concentration within three days. Silica levels approximated the predicted solubility of quartz throughout the study. A much higher level of dissolved uranium was observed in the soil contaminated from spillage of uranium-laden solvents and process effluents than in the soil contaminated from settling of airborne uranium particles ejected from the nearby incinerator. The high levels observed for soluble calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate are probably the result of magnesium and/or calcium carbonate minerals dissolving in these soils. Geochemical modeling confirms that the uranyl-carbonate complexes are the most stable and dominant in these solutions. The use of carbonate minerals on these soils for erosion control and road construction activities contributes to the leaching of uranium from contaminated soil particles. Dissolved carbonates promote uranium solubility, forming highly mobile anionic species. Mobile uranium species are contaminating the groundwater underlying these soils. The development of a site-specific remediation technology is urgently needed for the FEMP site.

  2. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect

  3. Phenotypic analysis of cheese yields and nutrient recoveries in the curd of buffalo milk, as measured with an individual model cheese-manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Cipolat-Gotet, C; Bittante, G; Cecchinato, A

    2015-01-01

    Traits associated with cheese yield and milk nutrient recovery in curd are used to describe the efficiency of the cheese-making process. This is fundamental for all dairy species, including the Italian Mediterranean buffalo, which is largely used for milk production aimed at the dairy industry. To assess cheese-making traits among buffalo, a model cheese-manufacturing process was tested; it was capable of processing 24 samples per run, using 0.5-L samples of milk from individual buffalo. In total, 180 buffalo reared in 7 herds located in Northeast Italy were sampled once. Briefly, each sample was weighed and heated (35°C for 30min), inoculated with starter culture (90min), and mixed with rennet (51.2 international milk-clotting units/L of milk). After 10min of gelation, the curd was cut; 5min after the cut, the curd was separated from the whey, and the curd was subjected to draining (for 30min) and pressing (18h). The curd and whey were weighed, analyzed for pH and the total solid, fat, lactose, and protein contents, and subjected to estimation of the energy content. Three measures of cheese yield (%CY), %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, and %CYWATER, were computed as the ratios between the weight of the curd, the curd dry matter, and the water retained in the curd, respectively, and the weight of the milk processed. These traits were multiplied by the daily milk yield to define the 3 corresponding measures of daily cheese yield (dCY, kg/d). The milk component recoveries (REC) in the curd, RECFAT, RECPROTEIN, and RECSOLIDS, represented the ratios between the weights of the fat, protein, and total solids in the curd, respectively, and the corresponding components in the milk. Finally, energy recovery (RECENERGY) was estimated. The values for %CYCURD, %CYSOLIDS, %CYWATER, RECPROTEIN, RECFAT, RECSOLIDS, and RECENERGY averaged 25.6, 12.7, 12.9, 80.4, 95.1, 66.7, and 79.3%, respectively, indicating that buffalo milk has a higher aptitude to cheese-making than bovine milk. The effect

  4. Characterization of Alpha Contamination in Lanthanum Trichloride Scintillators Using Coincidence Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Milbrath, Brian D.; Runkle, Robert C.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kaye, William R.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Smith, Leon E.

    2005-08-01

    The commercial availability of LaCl3:Ce scintillators has been much anticipated due to their significantly lower resolution relative to NaI(Tl). Our investigation of these scintillators in regards to the effect of their improved resolution for coincidence gamma-ray measurement applications revealed that the scintillators had a large, internal alpha contamination affecting the gamma-ray energy range from 1700-3000 keV. One passive method of identifying contaminants relies on exploiting coincident signatures. Aided by a coincidence lookup library developed at PNNL, we determined that the parent contaminant is Ac-227 via an alpha-gamma coincidence measurement. In this paper, we characterize the level of contamination and describe our coincidence measurement technique. The Ac-227 concentration was approximately 0.13 ppt. We demonstrate that this coincidence technique measures minimum detectable activities much lower than singles gamma-ray spectroscopy. We also discuss gamma- and beta-contamination in these scintillators.

  5. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk].

    PubMed

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A

    2012-03-01

    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy.

  6. Testing for polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk

    SciTech Connect

    Wickizer, T.M.; Brilliant, L.B.

    1981-09-01

    Reports of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) contamination of human milk have raised questions about the possible risks of breast-feeding and whether nursing mothers ought to have their breast milk tested. Current data on contamination of human milk are needed so that pediatricians can make informed recommendations about breast milk testing and breast-feeding. With consideration of recent findings of PCB contamination of human milk in Michigan, recommendations concerning breast milk testing and breast-feeding are made. No major changes in current breast-feeding practices are advised. However, breast milk testing is recommended for certain nursing mothers who have had potentially high exposure to PCBs. Limiting the duration of breast-feeding may also be advisable for mothers with high PCB milk fat levels in order to reduce infant exposure to PCBs.

  7. Activity measurements of Sr-90 and Cs-137 in spiked solutions of milk. Results of a national intercomparison in Italy.

    PubMed

    De Felice, P; Laitano, R F; Piermattei, S

    1988-02-01

    A national intercomparison was organized by ENEA for activity measurements of 90Sr and 137Cs in spiked solutions of milk. The participants in the intercomparison were the laboratories belonging to the Italian network for control of radioactivity in the environment. The purpose of these measurements was to check the reliability of measurement procedures and experimental means as routinely used by each participant. This first intercomparison showed appreciable discrepancies among the participants and this was due both to improper procedures and non correct calibrated spectrometers. Soon after a second intercomparison was carried out to check to what extent the previous results were reproducible among the various participants. Methods and results are discussed.

  8. Diurnal differences in milk composition and its influence on in vitro growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in bovine quarter milk.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, S W F; Boerhout, E M; Ravesloot, L; Daemen, A J J M; Benedictus, L; Rutten, V P M G; Koets, A P

    2016-07-01

    In experimental intramammary inoculation studies, it has been observed that mastitis susceptibility is influenced, among others, by cow factors. To identify milk characteristics leading to these differences, quarter milk samples of morning and evening milk were collected and analyzed for their composition (protein, fat, lactose, urea, lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, and β-lactoglobulin concentrations), somatic cell count, and antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, in vitro growth of S. aureus and Escherichia coli in fresh quarter milk samples was determined. All measured parameters differed significantly between quarters and also between morning and evening milk with the exception of lactose levels. In addition, quantitative growth of S. aureus and E. coli was significantly different in morning milk compared with evening milk. Mixed model analysis revealed that replication of S. aureus was negatively associated with the presence of fat, S. aureus-specific IgG1 antibodies, contamination of the milk sample and morning milk. Replication of E. coli was negatively associated with fat concentrations, and positively associated with morning milk. The significant difference between morning and evening milk supports the theory that changes in milk composition influence bacterial growth. Although all determined milk components differed significantly between quarters and in time no significant association with bacterial growth could be identified with the exception of fat for both studied species and IgG1 titers for S. aureus. The negative association of fat with bacterial growth was assumed to occur due to activation of lipolysis by milk handling and can most likely be neglected for in vivo relevance. The fact that S. aureus-specific IgG1 titers were negatively associated with S. aureus growth in vitro encourages the ongoing effort to develop a vaccine against S. aureus-induced mastitis.

  9. Quality Indicators for Human Milk Use in Very Low Birthweight Infants: Are We Measuring What We Should be Measuring?

    PubMed Central

    Bigger, Harold R.; Fogg, Louis J.; Patel, Aloka; Johnson, Tricia; Engstrom, Janet L.; Meier, Paula P.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare the currently used human milk (HM) quality indicators that measure whether very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g birthweight) infants “ever” received HM and whether they were still receiving HM at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) to the actual amount and timing of HM received. Study Design This study used data from a large NIH-funded cohort study and calculated whether VLBW infants ever received HM (HM-Ever) and of these infants, the percentage who were still receiving HM at NICU discharge (HM-DC). Then, the HM-DC indicator (exclusive, partial and none) was compared with the amount and timing of HM feedings received by these same infants. Results Of the 291 VLBW infants who met inclusion criteria, 285 received some HM (HM-Ever = 98%). At NICU discharge (HM-DC), 24.2%, 15.1% and 60.7% were receiving exclusive, partial and no HM, respectively. Of the 60.7% infants with no HM-DC, some had received higher amounts of HM during the NICU hospitalization than infants categorized as exclusive and partial for HM-DC. Of the infants with no HM-DC, 76.8% and 59.7% had received exclusive HM during the Days 1–14 and Days 1–28 exposure periods, respectively. Conclusion The average daily dose (HM-DD; in mL/kg/d) and cumulative percentage (HM-PCT; as % of cumulative enteral intake) of HM feedings were sufficient to significantly reduce the risk of multiple morbidities, including late onset sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, neurocognitive delay and rehospitalization, in the majority of the VLBW infants who were discharged with no HM-DC. Quality indicators that focus on the amount and timing of HM feedings in the NICU should be added to the HM-Ever and HM-DC measures. PMID:24526005

  10. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Milk Allergy KidsHealth > For Teens > Milk Allergy Print A ... on to find out. What Happens With a Milk Allergy? Food allergies involve the body's immune system, ...

  11. Parameter estimation and prediction for groundwater contamination based on measure theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattis, S. A.; Butler, T. D.; Dawson, C. N.; Estep, D.; Vesselinov, V. V.

    2015-09-01

    The problem of groundwater contamination in an aquifer is one with many uncertainties. Properly quantifying these uncertainties is essential in order to make reliable probabilistic-based predictions and decisions regarding remediation strategies. In this work, a measure-theoretic framework is employed to quantify uncertainties in a simplified groundwater contamination transport model. Given uncertain data from observation wells, the stochastic inverse problem is solved numerically to obtain a probability measure on the space of unknown model parameters characterizing groundwater flow and contaminant transport in an aquifer, as well as unknown model boundary or source terms such as the contaminant source release into the environment. This probability measure is used to make predictions of future contaminant concentrations and to analyze possible remediation techniques. The ability to identify regions of small but nonzero probability using this method is illustrated.

  12. Virus recovering from strawberries: Evaluation of a skimmed milk organic flocculation method for assessment of microbiological contamination.

    PubMed

    Melgaço, Fabiana Gil; Victoria, Matias; Corrêa, Adriana Abreu; Ganime, Ana Carolina; Malta, Fábio Correia; Brandão, Marcelo Luiz Lima; de Mello Medeiros, Valéria; de Oliveira Rosas, Carla; Bricio, Silvia Maria Lopes; Miagostovich, Marize Pereira

    2016-01-18

    Skimmed milk organic flocculation method was adapted, optimized and compared with polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation and filtration methods for recovering viruses from a strawberry matrix. Spiking experiments with norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (NoV GII.4) and murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1) demonstrated that the organic flocculation method associated with a glycine elution buffer, filter bag and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) showed a recovery percentage of 2.5 and 32 times higher than PEG precipitation and filtration methodologies for NoV recovering. Furthermore, this method was used for investigating NoV and human adenoviruses (HAdVs) in 90 samples of fresh strawberries commercialized in Rio de Janeiro markets. NoV GI and GII were not detected in those samples and MNV-1, used as internal process control (IPC), was recovered in 95.5% (86) of them. HAdVs were detected in 18 (20.0%) samples and characterized by nucleotide sequencing as Human Mastadenovirus specie F and as type specie HAdV-2. Bacterial analysis did not detect Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes, however, 3.3% of fecal coliforms were detected in those samples. These results indicate the organic flocculation method as an alternative for recovering enteric viruses from strawberries, emphasizing a need for virus surveillance in food matrices.

  13. [The thermophilic streptomycetes flora in milk powders and condensed milk products (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Falkowski, J

    1978-08-01

    247 specimens of powdered milk and 165 of condensed milk were tested for their contamination with thermophile Streptomycetes. Colonies of these contaminants were isolated from all specimens of powdered milk and from 73 samples of condensed sweeted milk. The isolated strains corresponded with the following species of thermophilic Streptomycetes: Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899, Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, Tsiklinsky 1899 "giant colonies", Micromonospora sp. (Agre et al., 1).

  14. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic armomatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  15. LAND TREATMENT OF PAH-CONTAMINATED SOIL: PERFORMANCE MEASURED BY CHEMICAL AND TOXICITY ASSAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a ...

  16. Case Report of Sepsis in Neonates Fed Expressed Mother's Milk.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sandra L; Serke, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Mother's milk is the recommended food for premature infants cared for in the NICU. In the cases presented in this article, mothers pumped their milk into food-grade aseptic plastic containers. Milk was refrigerated before use. In Case 1, an infant developed Pseudomonas aeruginosa sepsis. In Case 2, an infant developed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Both cases were attributed to contaminated mother's milk. Proper cleaning and sterilization of pump parts is essential to prevent milk contamination. PMID:27486089

  17. Effect of purificatory measures through cow's urine and milk on strychnine and brucine content of Kupeelu (Strychnos nuxvomica Linn.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Swarnendu; Shukla, V J; Acharya, Rabinarayan

    2012-01-01

    Strychnos nux vomica Linn.(Loganaceae) commonly known as Nux vomica (Kupeelu), is a poisonous plant and its seeds are used widely in Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. Ayurveda advocates that nux vomica seeds are to be administered in therapeutics only after going through certain purificatory measures (Shodhana). There are more than six media: cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel), castor oil (Eranda taila) and fresh ginger juice (Ardraka swarasa) etc., which have been reported in different classical texts of Ayurveda for proper processing of nux vomica seeds. In this study, an attempt has been made to purify the seeds by using three different methods as described in ancient treatise by using cow's urine and cow's milk as media alone and together. This study revealed that all the methods studied reduced the toxicity of strychnine and brucine contents in comparison to the raw seeds as determined by HPTLC. Out of these three methods maximum reduction in strychnine and brucine contents was found when the seeds were purified by keeping them in cow's urine for seven days followed by boiling in cow's milk for three hrs. PMID:23983327

  18. Waste minimization measures associated with the analysis of {sup 137}Cs in coconut milk collected from the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T.; Jones, H.; Wong, K.; Robinson, W.

    1998-05-01

    The Marshall Islands Environmental Characterization and Dose Assessment Program has recently implemented waste minimization measures to reduce low level radioactive (LLW) and low level mixed (LLWMIXED) waste streams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Several thousand environmental samples are collected annually from former US nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands, and returned to LLNL for processing and radiometric analysis. In the past, we analyzed coconut milk directly by gamma-spectrometry after adding formaldehyde (as preservative) and sealing the fluid in metal cans. This procedure was not only tedious and time consuming but generated storage and waste disposal problems. We have now reduced the number of coconut milk samples required for analysis from 1500 per year to approximately 250, and developed a new analytical procedure which essentially eliminates the associated mixed radioactive waste stream. Coconut milk samples are mixed with a few grams of ammonium-molydophosphate (AMP) which quantitatively scavenges the target radionuclide cesium 137 in an ion-exchange process. The AMP is then separated from the mixture and sealed in a plastic container. The bulk sample material can be disposed of as a non- radioactive non-hazardous waste, and the relatively small amount of AMP conveniently counted by gamma-spectrometry, packaged and stored for future use.

  19. Survival of Escherichia coli O26:H11 exceeds that of Escherichia coli O157:H7 as assessed by simulated human digestion of contaminated raw milk cheeses.

    PubMed

    Miszczycha, Stéphane D; Thévenot, Jonathan; Denis, Sylvain; Callon, Cécile; Livrelli, Valérie; Alric, Monique; Montel, Marie-Christine; Blanquet-Diot, Stéphanie; Thevenot-Sergentet, Delphine

    2014-02-17

    Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important cause of human foodborne outbreaks. The consumption of raw milk dairy products may be an important route of STEC infection. For successful foodborne transmission, STEC strains must survive stress conditions met during gastrointestinal transit in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the survival of two STEC strains of serotypes O157:H7 and O26:H11 during simulated human digestion in the TNO gastro-Intestinal tract Model (TIM) of contaminated uncooked pressed cheeses. The survival of cheese microflora during in vitro gastrointestinal transit was also determined for the first time. The level of STEC increased from 2 log₁₀ CFU/ml to 4 log₁₀ CFU/g during the first 24h of cheese making and remained stable at around 4 log₁₀ CFU/g during cheese ripening and conservation. During transit through the artificial stomach and duodenum, levels of STEC decreased: 0.2% of E. coli O157:H7 and 1.8% of E. coli O26:H11 were recovered at 150 min in the gastric compartment, compared with 14.3% for the transit marker. Bacterial resumption was observed in the jejunum and ileum: 35.8% of E. coli O157:H7 and 663.2% of E. coli O26:H11 were recovered at 360 min in the ileal compartment, compared with 12.6% for the transit marker. The fate of STEC was strain-dependent, the survival of E. coli O26:H11 being 13 times greater than that of E. coli O157:H7 at the end of digestion in the cumulative ileal deliveries. These data provide a better understanding of STEC behavior during gastrointestinal transit in humans after ingestion of contaminated cheese.

  20. Development of an approach to estimating mid- to long-term critical loads for radiocaesium contamination of cow milk in western Europe.

    PubMed

    Wright, S M; Howard, B J; Barnett, C L; Stevens, P; Absalom, J P

    1998-09-29

    This paper describes the application of the critical load methodology, developed to set emission targets for atmospheric pollutants, to radioecology. The critical load can be redefined within radioecology as the radionuclide deposition at which radionuclide activity concentrations in a specified food product will exceed the maximum permitted level. An empirically based approach is described which provides estimates of critical load values for cow milk in the mid- to long-term after an accident when soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium is largely responsible for plant radiocaesium contamination. The areas identified as being most potentially vulnerable to radiocaesium deposition using this approach are those with extensive areas of organic soils such as western Scotland, parts of Ireland, The Netherlands and Denmark. The classification of European soil types into soil groups with significantly different soil-to-plant transfer of radiocaesium, and the allocation of a transfer value to each soil group provide the greatest uncertainties within this approach. Potential problems and deficiencies affecting the estimation of parameter values are discussed.

  1. Space Shuttle contamination measurements from flights STS-1 through STS-4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehlers, H. K. F.; Jacobs, S.; Leger, L. J.; Miller, E.

    1983-01-01

    Results of contamination measurements performed on the initial four flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter are summarized and compared with requirements contained in the Space Shuttle Flight and Ground System Specifications and those formulated by the Contamination Requirements Definition Group. In general, the results of measurements carried out with the induced environment contamination monitor indicate that molecular fluxes, deposition rates, and average counts of particulates are within the requirements and close to predicted values. Among the exceptions, were such special circumstances as water dumps, payload bay door closures, and RCS engine, APU, and flash evaporator operations which led to molecular and particulate contamination levels exceeding the limits. In cases where these circumstances would interfere with sensitive payload operations, careful mission planning to preclude a contamination source by operational limitation should be done to avoid losses.

  2. Wash-out of ambient air contaminations for breath measurements.

    PubMed

    Maurer, F; Wolf, A; Fink, T; Rittershofer, B; Heim, N; Volk, T; Baumbach, J I; Kreuer, S

    2014-06-01

    In breath analysis, ambient air contaminations are ubiquitous and difficult to eliminate. This study was designed to investigate the reduction of ambient air background by a lung wash-out with synthetic air. The reduction of the initial ambient air volatile organic compound (VOC) intensity was investigated in the breath of 20 volunteers inhaling synthetic air via a sealed full face mask in comparison to inhaling ambient air. Over a period of 30 minutes, breath analysis was conducted using ion mobility spectrometry coupled to a multi-capillary column. A total of 68 VOCs were identified for inhaling ambient air or inhaling synthetic air. By treatment with synthetic air, 39 VOCs decreased in intensity, whereas 29 increased in comparison to inhaling ambient air. In total, seven VOCs were significantly reduced (P-value < 0.05). A complete wash-out of VOCs in this setting was not observed, whereby a statistically significant reduction up to 65% as for terpinolene was achieved. Our setting successfully demonstrated a reduction of ambient air contaminations from the airways by a lung wash-out with synthetic air.

  3. Use of Passive Samplers to Measure Dissolved Organic Contaminants in a Temperate Estuary

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measuring dissolved concentrations of organic contaminants can be challenging given their low solubilities and high particle association. However, to perform accurate risk assessments of these chemicals, knowing the dissolved concentration is critical since it is considered to b...

  4. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows. PMID:26454286

  5. Effects of feeding diets based on transgenic soybean meal and soybean hulls to dairy cows on production measures and sensory quality of milk.

    PubMed

    Weiss, W P; Simons, C T; Ekmay, R D

    2015-12-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine whether feeding meal and hulls derived from genetically modified soybeans to dairy cows affected production measures and sensory qualities of milk. The soybeans were genetically modified (Event DAS-444Ø6-6) to be resistant to multiple herbicides. Twenty-six Holstein cows (13/treatment) were fed a diet that contained meal and hulls derived from transgenic soybeans or a diet that contained meal and hulls from a nontransgenic near-isoline variety. Soybean products comprised approximately 21% of the diet dry matter, and diets were formulated to be nearly identical in crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, energy, and minerals and vitamins. The experimental design was a replicated 2×2 Latin square with a 28-d feeding period. Dry matter intake (21.3 vs. 21.4kg/d), milk yield (29.3 vs. 29.4kg/d), milk fat (3.70 vs. 3.68%), and milk protein (3.10 vs. 3.12%) did not differ between cows fed control or transgenic soybean products, respectively. Milk fatty acid profile was virtually identical between treatments. Somatic cell count was significantly lower for cows fed transgenic soybean products, but the difference was biologically trivial. Milk was collected from all cows in period 1 on d 0 (before treatment), 14, and 28 for sensory evaluation. On samples from all days (including d 0) judges could discriminate between treatments for perceived appearance of the milk. The presence of this difference at d 0 indicated that it was likely not a treatment effect but rather an initial bias in the cow population. No treatment differences were found for preference or acceptance of the milk. Overall, feeding soybean meal and hulls derived from this genetically modified soybean had essentially no effects on production or milk acceptance when fed to dairy cows.

  6. Comparing different methods of human breast milk fortification using measured v. assumed macronutrient composition to target reference growth: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Gemma; Sherriff, Jill; Hartmann, Peter E; Nathan, Elizabeth; Geddes, Donna; Simmer, Karen

    2016-02-14

    The variable content of human breast milk suggests that its routine fortification may result in sub-optimal nutritional intakes and growth. In a pragmatic trial, we randomised infants born below 30 weeks of gestation to either the intervention (Igp) of fortifying milk on measured composition according to birth weight criteria and postmenstrual age (PMA) or our routine practice (RPgp) of fortifying on assumed milk composition to target 3·8-4·4 g protein/kg per d and 545-629 kJ/kg per d. Milk composition was measured using the MIRIS® Human Milk Analyser. Percentage fat mass (%FM) was measured using PEA POD (COSMED). The effects of macronutrient intakes and clinical variables on growth were assessed using mixed model analysis. Mean measured protein content (1·6 g/100 ml) was higher than the assumed value (1·4 g/100 ml), often leading to lower amounts of fortifier added to the milk of intervention infants. At discharge (Igp v. RPgp), total protein (3·2 (SD 0·3) v. 3·4 (SD 0·4) g; P=0·067) and energy (456 (SD 39) v. 481 (SD 48) kJ; P=0·079) intakes from all nutrition sources, weight gain velocity (11·4 (SD 1·4) v. 12·1 (SD 1·6) g/kg per d; P=0·135) and %FM (13·7 (SD 3·6) v.13·6 (SD 3·5) %; P=0·984) did not significantly differ between groups. A protein intake >3·4 g/kg per d reduced %FM by 2%. Nutrition and growth was not improved by targeting milk fortification according to birth weight criteria and PMA using measured milk composition, compared with routine practice. Targeting fortification on measured composition is labour intensive, requiring frequent milk sampling and precision measuring equipment, perhaps reasons for its limited practice. Guidance around safe upper levels of milk fortification is needed.

  7. Enzymatic-ultraviolet method for measuring lactose in milk: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kleyn, D H; Trout, J R

    1984-01-01

    Collaborators in 8 dairy and food industry laboratories performed one lactose determination on each of 8 unknown samples of milk, lowfat milk, or skim milk, as 3 pairs of blind duplicates. Two known samples were provided to gain experience prior to analysis of the unknown samples. All of the above samples were also analyzed for lactose content by the official AOAC gravimetric method (16.507) by a commercial laboratory. From the overall mean of results on all samples, determinations by the enzymatic method averaged 0.49% lower than by the AOAC method. This difference was significant by the t-test (P = 0.05), which indicated a lack of agreement between the compared methods in determining lactose content. Standard deviations were similar for the 3 sets of blind duplicates which ranged between 3.67 and 4.55% lactose content. F-values revealed that variations between means obtained by laboratories differed significantly as compared with variations within laboratory means. The method has been adopted official first action.

  8. Rapid Contamination During Storage of Carbonaceous Chondrites Prepared for Micro FTIR Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kebukawa, Yoko; Nakashima, Satoru; Otsuka, Takahiro; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Zolensky, ichael E.

    2008-01-01

    The carbonaceous chondrites Tagish Lake and Murchison, which contain abundant hydrous minerals, when pressed on aluminum plates and analyzed by micro FTIR, were found to have been contaminated during brief (24 hours) storage. This contamination occurred when the samples were stored within containers which included silicone rubber, silicone grease or adhesive tape. Long-path gas cell FTIR measurements for silicone rubber revealed the presence of contaminant volatile molecules having 2970 cm(sup -1) (CH3) and 1265 cm(sup -1) (Si-CH3) peaks. These organic contaminants are found to be desorbed by in-situ heating infrared measurements from room temperature to 200-300 C. Careful preparation and storage are therefore needed for precious astronomical samples such as meteorites, IDPs and mission returned samples from comets, asteroids and Mars, if useful for FTIR measurements are to be made.

  9. Optical system contamination: Effects, measurement, control II; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 10-12, 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassford, A. P.

    1990-11-01

    The present conference on the effects, measurement, and control of optical system contamination encompasses contamination effects on spaceborne optical instruments, noncontact techniques for cleaning optical surfaces, contamination measurement techniques, the characterization of contaminants, and contamination transport and interactions with space systems. Specific issues addressed include contamination requirements for the Cosmic Background Explorer, contamination removal by CO2 jet spray, ultraviolet laser cleaning of mirrored surfaces, laser-mirror cleaning in a simulated space environment, a nonoptical real-time particle-fallout monitor, and a 200-MHz surface acoustic wave-mass microbalance. Also addressed are the optical effects of photochemically deposited contaminant films, a spacecraft contamination database, a BGK method to determine thruster-plume backscatter, the surface accommodation of molecular contaminants, and the role of low-energy neutral N2 beam-surface interaction leading to spacecraft glow.

  10. Human Milk Fortification in India.

    PubMed

    Kler, Neelam; Thakur, Anup; Modi, Manoj; Kaur, Avneet; Garg, Pankaj; Soni, Arun; Saluja, Satish

    2015-01-01

    Human milk fortification in preterm babies has become a standard of care in developed countries. Use of human milk fortifier (HMF) in very-low-birthweight infants is not a routine practice in India. There are concerns about high osmolality, feed intolerance, necrotizing enterocolitis, risk of contamination and added cost associated with use of HMF. There are limited data from India which address the issue of safety and short-term benefits of human milk fortification. This chapter highlights the issues related to human milk fortification in our country.

  11. Characterization of organic contaminants in porous media using nuclear magnetic resonance and spectral induced polarization measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupert, Y. K.

    2015-12-01

    The remediation and monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts. This laboratory research focuses on combining two innovative geophysical methods: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and spectral induced polarization (SIP) to assess their suitability to characterize and quantify organic contaminants in porous media. Toluene, a light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL), and ethoxy-nonafluorobutane, an engineered dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), have been selected as representative organic contaminants. Low-field NMR relaxation time (T2) measurements and diffusion-relaxation (D-T2) correlation measurements, as well as low frequency SIP measurements (<10 kHz) are performed to quantify the amount of these two organic compounds in the presence of water in three types of porous media (sands, clay, and various sand-clay mixtures). The T2, D-T2, and SIP measurements are made on water, toluene, and the synthetic DNAPL in each porous media to understand the effect of different porous media on the NMR and SIP responses in each fluid. We then plan to make measurements on water-organic mixtures with varied concentrations of organic compounds in each porous medium to resolve the NMR and SIP response of the organic contaminants from that of water and to quantify the amount of organic contaminants. Building a relationship between SIP and NMR signatures from organic contaminants not only provides a fundamental yet important petrophysical relationship, but also builds a framework for continued investigation into how these two methods synergize. This will also provide spatially dense information about organic contaminated natural sediments at scales that will improve the quantitative characterization and remediation of contaminated sites.The remediation and monitoring of soils and groundwater contaminated with organic compounds is an important goal of many environmental restoration efforts

  12. Measurement of residual radioactive surface contamination by 2-D laser heated TLD

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, S.C.

    1997-06-01

    The feasibility of applying and adapting a two-dimensional laser heated thermoluminescence dosimetry system to the problem of surveying for radioactive surface contamination was studied. The system consists of a CO{sub 2} laser-based reader and monolithic arrays of thin dosimeter elements. The arrays consist of 10,201 thermoluminescent phosphor elements of 40 micron thickness, covering a 900 cm{sup 2} area. Array substrates are 125 micron thick polyimide sheets, enabling them to easily conform to regular surface shapes, especially for survey of surfaces that are inaccessible for standard survey instruments. The passive, integrating radiation detectors are sensitive to alpha and beta radiation at contamination levels below release guideline limits. Required contact times with potentially contaminated surfaces are under one hour to achieve detection of transuranic alpha emission at 100 dpm/100 cm{sup 2}. Positional information obtained from array evaluation is useful for locating contamination zones. Unique capabilities of this system for survey of sites, facilities and material include measurement inside pipes and other geometrical configurations that prevent standard surveys, and below-surface measurement of alpha and beta emitters in contaminated soils. These applications imply a reduction of material that must be classified as radioactive waste by virtue of its possibility of contamination, and cost savings in soil sampling at contaminated sites.

  13. Blood Contamination in Saliva: Impact on the Measurement of Salivary Oxidative Stress Markers.

    PubMed

    Kamodyová, Natália; Baňasová, Lenka; Janšáková, Katarína; Koborová, Ivana; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Stanko, Peter; Celec, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salivary oxidative stress markers represent a promising tool for monitoring of oral diseases. Saliva can often be contaminated by blood, especially in patients with periodontitis. The aim of our study was to examine the impact of blood contamination on the measurement of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples were collected from 10 healthy volunteers and were artificially contaminated with blood (final concentration 0.001-10%). Next, saliva was collected from 12 gingivitis and 10 control patients before and after dental hygiene treatment. Markers of oxidative stress were measured in all collected saliva samples. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and antioxidant status were changed in 1% blood-contaminated saliva. Salivary AOPP were increased in control and patients after dental treatment (by 45.7% and 34.1%, p < 0.01). Salivary AGEs were decreased in patients after microinjury (by 69.3%, p < 0.001). Salivary antioxidant status markers were decreased in both control and patients after dental treatment (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01). One % blood contamination biased concentrations of salivary oxidative stress markers. Saliva samples with 1% blood contamination are visibly discolored and can be excluded from analyses without any specific biochemic detection of blood constituents. Salivary markers of oxidative stress were significantly altered in blood-contaminated saliva in control and patients with gingivitis after dental hygiene treatment.

  14. Biosurfactants and increased bioavailability of sorbed organic contaminants: Measurements using a biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Strong-Gunderson, J.M.; Palumbo, A.V.; Applegate, B.; Saylor, G.S.

    1993-12-31

    Bioremediation of sites contaminated with hydrophobic materials that sorb onto the soil matrix is very difficult due to reduced microbial (bio)availability. Following biosurfactant addition, we have measured an increase in contaminant bioavailability by using a lux biosensor. Direct microbial bioavailability was determined by using a genetically engineered microbial bioreporter strain of Pseudomonas putida. This strain was engineered so the lux genes, which code for light production, are transcriptionally fused with genes that code for contaminant degradation and are thus induced in the presence of specific compounds. By using a bioreporter we can quantify the actual microbial bioavailability of the contaminants and compare it to concentrations measured by other analytical methods (e.g. gas chromatograph). It is possible that these values are not equal to each other. Thus, bioremediation rates may not be accurately predicted if bioavailability is not considered.

  15. The Measurement of Protein in Powdered Milk Products and Infant Formulas: A Review and Recent Developments.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Dave; Evers, Jaap M; Holroyd, Stephen E; Johnson, Richard; Rowan, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Proteins are a key nutritional component of both powdered milk and infant formula types of product, and reliable methods for their determination are important for manufacturing and international trade. In this review, we distinguish between methods used for determining protein quality for nutrition purposes and those used for determining chemically defined protein. The former methods cover the ability of a dietary protein source to meet human nutritional requirements for the indispensable amino acids. The latter are chemical methods for the determination of total protein and can be divided into three broad types: total nitrogen determination, direct protein determination, and indirect protein determination. Current techniques and recent developments in each are reviewed. PMID:26823162

  16. Simultaneous Measurement of Zinc, Copper, Lead and Cadmium in Baby Weaning Food and Powder Milk by DPASV.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behfar, Abdolazim; Behzad, Masoomeh; Norouzi, Narges; Oveisi, Morvarid; Jannat, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    Apart from the breast milk, infant formula and baby weaning food have a special role in infant diet. Infants and young children are very susceptible to amount of trace elements. Copper and zinc are two elements that add in infant food. Lead and cadmium are heavy metals that enter to food chain unavoidably. DPASV is a benefit and applicable method for measurement of trace elements in food products. In this study, concentration of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in four brands of baby food (rice and wheat based) and powder milk was analyzed with DPASV and polarograph set. Total Mean ± SE of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in baby foods (n = 240) were 11.86 ± 1.474 mg/100g, 508.197 ± 83.154 μg/100g, 0.445 ± 0.006, 0.050 ± 0.005 mg/Kg respectively. Also these amount in powder milk (n = 240) were 3.621± 0.529 mg/100g, 403.822 ± 133.953 μg/100g, 0.007 ± 0.003, 0.060 ± 0.040 mg/Kg respectively. Zinc level in baby food type I was higher than lablled value (P = 0.030), but in other brands was not difference. Concentration of copper in all of samples was in labeled range (P > 0.05). In each four products, level of lead and cadmium were lower than the standard limit (P < 0.05). Amount of zinc and lead in baby food I, had difference versus other products. Concentration of zinc, camium in baby food type I, was higher than type II (P = 0.043, 0.001 respectively). Concentration of lead and cadmium in baby food type II, was higher than infant formulas, but are in standard limit.

  17. Integration of analytical and biological measurements for assessing the effects of contaminants present at a Great Lakes area of concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Assessing the potential biological impacts of complex contaminant mixtures in aquatic environments is a challenge. Instrumental analyses of site waters provide insights into the occurrence of contaminants, but provide little information about possible effects. Biological measur...

  18. In-Line Detection and Measurement of Molecular Contamination in Semiconductor Process Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jason; West, Michael; Han, Ye; McDonald, Robert C.; Yang, Wenjing; Ormond, Bob; Saini, Harmesh

    2005-09-01

    This paper discusses a fully automated metrology tool for detection and quantitative measurement of contamination, including cationic, anionic, metallic, organic, and molecular species present in semiconductor process solutions. The instrument is based on an electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF/MS) platform. The tool can be used in diagnostic or analytical modes to understand process problems in addition to enabling routine metrology functions. Metrology functions include in-line contamination measurement with near real-time trend analysis. This paper discusses representative organic and molecular contamination measurement results in production process problem solving efforts. The examples include the analysis and identification of organic compounds in SC-1 pre-gate clean solution; urea, NMP (N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone) and phosphoric acid contamination in UPW; and plasticizer and an organic sulfur-containing compound found in isopropyl alcohol (IPA). It is expected that these unique analytical and metrology capabilities will improve the understanding of the effect of organic and molecular contamination on device performance and yield. This will permit the development of quantitative correlations between contamination levels and process degradation. It is also expected that the ability to perform routine process chemistry metrology will lead to corresponding improvements in manufacturing process control and yield, the ability to avoid excursions and will improve the overall cost effectiveness of the semiconductor manufacturing process.

  19. Effect of Safety Measures on Bacterial Contamination Rates of Blood Components in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Walther-Wenke, Gabriele; Däubener, Walter; Heiden, Margarethe; Hoch, Jochen; Hornei, Britt; Volkers, Peter; von König, Carl Heinz Wirsing

    2011-01-01

    Summary Requirements for bacterial testing of blood components on a defined quantity as part of routine quality control were introduced in Germany by the National Advisory Committee Blood of the German Federal Ministry of Health in 1997. The philosophy was to establish standardized methods for bacterial testing. Numerous measures to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination were implemented into the blood donation and manufacturing processes between 1999 and 2002. German Blood establishments performed culture-based bacterial testing on random samples of platelet concentrates (PCs), red blood cells (RBCs) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and reported data out of the production periods 1998, 2001 and 2005/2006. While the bacterial contamination rate of apheresis PCs remained nearly unchanged, it decreased by 70% for pooled PCs to a rate of 0.158% in the last observation period. Leukocyte-depleted RBCs with diversion of the initial blood volume showed a contamination rate of 0.029% which is significantly lower than that of RBCs without leukocyte depletion and diversion (0.157%). The contamination rate of plasma decreased by 80%. Preventive measures resulted in a significant reduction of bacterial contamination of blood components. Long-term monitoring with standardized methods for bacteria testing supports evaluation of the cumulative effect of contamination reducing measures. PMID:22016691

  20. Uncertainty of measurement or of mean value for the reliable classification of contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Boon, Katy A; Ramsey, Michael H

    2010-12-15

    Classification of contaminated land is important for risk assessment and so it is vital to understand and quantify all of the uncertainties that are involved in the assessment of contaminated land. This paper uses a case study to compare two methods for assessing the uncertainty in site investigations (uncertainty of individual measurements, including that from sampling, and uncertainty of the mean value of all measurements within an area) and how the different methods affect the decisions made about a site. Using the 'uncertainty of the mean value' there is shown to be no significant possibility of 'significant harm' under UK guidance at one particular test site, but if you consider the 'uncertainty of the measurements' a significant proportion (50%) of the site is shown to be possibly contaminated. This raises doubts as to whether the current method using 'uncertainty of the mean' is sufficiently robust, and suggests that 'uncertainty of measurement' information may be preferable, or at least beneficial when used in conjunction.

  1. Measuring transfer of 14C-PCB from maternal diet to milk in a goat model using an accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janle, E.; Sojka, J.; Jackson, G. S.; Lachcik, P.; Einstien, J. A.; Santerre, C. R.

    2007-06-01

    Environmental pollutants pose a substantial risk to nursing infants. Many of these toxicants (i.e. PCBs, PBDEs, mercury) are passed from the maternal diet to the nursing infant in breast milk. Determining the toxicokinetics has been difficult to measure due to ethical limitations. Since extremely small amounts of 14C can be measured using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), a goat model was used to establish a minimum oral dose of 14C-labeled PCB (2,2‧,4,4‧,5,5‧-hexachlorobiphenyl-UL-14C) that could be given to a lactating animal and traced into the milk. An oral dose of 66 nCi/kg body weight (1.84 μg PCB/kg bw) was administered. Plasma and milk samples were collected for 2 months after dosing. The concentration of 14C label reached a peak value of 1.71 ng/ml PCB equivalents in the milk on day 2 and then declined to about 135 pg/ml PCB equivalents in the milk at 3 weeks. A second goat was administered a smaller dose (22 nCi/kg bw; 616 ng PCB/kg bw). A peak concentration of 485 pg PCB equivalents/ml milk occurred at 3 days and declined to 77.6 pg PCB equivalents/ml milk by 3 weeks. Our results indicated that an even lower dosage of labeled-PCB could be used due to the extreme sensitivity of AMS measurement. Extrapolating from current data it is estimated that the dose could be reduced by a factor of 20 (31 ng PCB/kg bw; 1.1 nCi/kg bw) and still be detectable after 2 months. Thus, the potential exists for developing protocols for studying toxicokinetics in humans using radiologically- and toxicologically-benign doses of labeled environmental toxicants.

  2. Rapid method for measuring protease activity in milk using radiolabeled casein

    SciTech Connect

    Christen, G.L.

    1987-09-01

    A rapid means to detect the presence of protease activity in raw milk could be useful in predicting keeping ability of products made from that milk. A 30-min assay has been developed and compared with three other methods of detecting protease. Casein, (methyl-/sup 14/C)-methylated-alpha was purchased from a radioisotope supplier. Concentrations of substrate from 2 to 20 nCi gave counts per minute, which increased linearly when counted with the Charm analyzer. There was not a significant difference in counting times of 10, 20, or 30 min. A mixture of sodium acetate and acetic acid precipitated nonhydrolyzed substrate with an efficiency of 97%. Comparison of the (/sup 14/C) casein assay, a casein fluorescein isothiocyanate assay, trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid procedure, and the Hull procedure using protease from psychrotrophic bacteria revealed that the (/sup 14/C) casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were roughly equivalent and that the radiometric procedure was 10 times more sensitive than the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay. The radiometric procedure was approximately 10(4) times more sensitive than the Hull procedure. The (/sup 14/C) casein and casein fluorescein isothiocyanate methods were similar in time required, about 30 min, while the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid assay and Hull method required about 1 h plus reagent preparation time. The (/sup 14/C) casein procedure was most expensive per test; the other three were cheaper and similar to each other in cost.

  3. Effect of season on milk temperature, milk growth hormone, prolactin, and somatic cell counts of lactating cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igono, M. O.; Johnson, H. D.; Steevens, B. J.; Hainen, W. A.; Shanklin, M. D.

    1988-09-01

    Monthly fluctuations in milk temperature, somatic cell counts, milk growth hormone and prolactin of lactating cows were measured in milk samples over a 1 year period. The seasonal patterns in milk temperature, somatic cell count and milk prolactin concentration showed a positive trend with increasing environmental temperatures. Milk growth hormone concentration increased with lactation level and declined significantly during summer heat. Milk temperature and the measured hormonal levels may serve as indicators of the impact of the climatic environment on lactating cattle.

  4. Two-pulse rapid remote surface contamination measurement.

    SciTech Connect

    Headrick, Jeffrey M.; Kulp, Thomas J.; Bisson, Scott E.; Reichardt, Thomas A.; Farrow, Roger L.

    2010-11-01

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of a 'pump-probe' optical detection method for standoff sensing of chemicals on surfaces. Such a measurement uses two optical pulses - one to remove the analyte (or a fragment of it) from the surface and the second to sense the removed material. As a particular example, this project targeted photofragmentation laser-induced fluorescence (PF-LIF) to detect of surface deposits of low-volatility chemical warfare agents (LVAs). Feasibility was demonstrated for four agent surrogates on eight realistic surfaces. Its sensitivity was established for measurements on concrete and aluminum. Extrapolations were made to demonstrate relevance to the needs of outside users. Several aspects of the surface PF-LIF physical mechanism were investigated and compared to that of vapor-phase measurements. The use of PF-LIF as a rapid screening tool to 'cue' more specific sensors was recommended. Its sensitivity was compared to that of Raman spectroscopy, which is both a potential 'confirmer' of PF-LIF 'hits' and is also a competing screening technology.

  5. Problem on estimation of the content of 131I in milk in the ``iodine'' period of the Chernobyl accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrushchinskii, A. A.; Kuten', S. A.; Budevich, N. M.; Minenko, V. F.; Zhukova, O. M.; Luk'yanov, N. K.

    2007-11-01

    Measurements of the beta-activity of milk, serving as the main source of information on the radioactive contamination of the environment by the iodine isotope 131I, carried out on a DP-100 radiometer in the early post-Chernobyl period (1986) in Belarus, have been mathematically simulated. The results obtained allow the conclusion that the indicated measurements should be analyzed again with consideration for all of the nuclides present in milk.

  6. America's Children and the Environment: Measures of Contaminants, Body Burdens, and Illnesses. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodruff, Tracey J.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Kyle, Amy D.; Nweke, Onyemaechi; Miller, Gregory G.

    Noting that children may be affected by environmental contaminants in ways quite different from the way adults are affected, this report is the second on trends in measures reflecting environmental factors that may affect the U.S. children's health and well-being. A list of measures and key findings begins the report, followed by five main…

  7. Measures of self-efficacy and norms for low-fat milk consumption are reliable and related to beverage consumption among 5th graders at school lunch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine the reliability and validity of scales measuring low-fat milk consumption self-efficacy and norms during school lunch among a cohort of 5th graders. Two hundred seventy-five students completed lunch food records and a psychosocial questionnaire measuring self-efficacy ...

  8. Hazard Assessment of Chemical Air Contaminants Measured in Residences

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J.M.; McKone, T.E.; Sherman, M. H.; Singer, B.C.

    2010-05-10

    Identifying air pollutants that pose a potential hazard indoors can facilitate exposure mitigation. In this study, we compiled summary results from 77 published studies reporting measurements of chemical pollutants in residences in the United States and in countries with similar lifestyles. These data were used to calculate representative mid-range and upper bound concentrations relevant to chronic exposures for 267 pollutants and representative peak concentrations relevant to acute exposures for 5 activity-associated pollutants. Representative concentrations are compared to available chronic and acute health standards for 97 pollutants. Fifteen pollutants appear to exceed chronic health standards in a large fraction of homes. Nine other pollutants are identified as potential chronic health hazards in a substantial minority of homes and an additional nine are identified as potential hazards in a very small percentage of homes. Nine pollutants are identified as priority hazards based on the robustness of measured concentration data and the fraction of residences that appear to be impacted: acetaldehyde; acrolein; benzene; 1,3-butadiene; 1,4-dichlorobenzene; formaldehyde; naphthalene; nitrogen dioxide; and PM{sub 2.5}. Activity-based emissions are shown to pose potential acute health hazards for PM{sub 2.5}, formaldehyde, CO, chloroform, and NO{sub 2}.

  9. Measuring economic losses from ground water contamination: An investigation of household avoidance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Abdalla, C.W. )

    1990-06-01

    Economic losses from ground water contamination were estimated in a central Pennsylvania community. The averting expenditures method was applied via a mail survey of households in which water contained the unregulated volatile organic chemical, perchloroethylene (PCE). Expenditures were estimated at $148,900 (1987 dollars) over the six-month contamination period or approximately $252 per household annually. These costs underestimate the lower bound measure of welfare losses to households from ground water contamination. An upper bound measure of welfare losses was estimated at $383 per household annually. These estimates do not represent the full economic losses resulting from ground water contamination since the study did not address municipal-level and business avoidance costs and losses from actual health effects, increased fear and anxiety, ecological damages, and nonuser ground water benefits. The results expand the existing empirical base of information about municipal-level responses and economic losses from ground water contamination to include household-level impacts. The findings indicate that households undertake substantial averting actions in response to ground water contamination and that such actions can have significant economic consequences. These extent and magnitude of avoidance costs documented suggests that policy-makers should give greater attention to this category of economic losses.

  10. In situ measurements of scattering from contaminated optics in the Vacuum Ultraviolet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herren, Kenneth A.; Linton, Roger C.; Whitaker, Ann F.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's In Situ Contamination Effects Facility has been used to measure the time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly contaminated optical surfaces in the vacuum ultraviolet. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular contaminants. The measurements are taken using noncoherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 angstroms. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (bidirectional reflectance distribution function) experiment is described and details of the on-going program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.

  11. [Methodological Approaches to the Organization of Counter Measures Taking into Account Landscape Features of Radioactively Contaminated Territories].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V K; Sanzharova, N I

    2016-01-01

    Methodological approaches to the organization of counter measures are considered taking into account the landscape features of the radioactively contaminated territories. The current status and new requirements to the organization of counter measures in the contaminated agricultural areas are analyzed. The basic principles, objectives and problems of the formation of counter measures with regard to the landscape characteristics of the territory are presented; also substantiated are the organization and optimization of the counter measures in radioactively contaminated agricultural landscapes.

  12. [Methodological Approaches to the Organization of Counter Measures Taking into Account Landscape Features of Radioactively Contaminated Territories].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, V K; Sanzharova, N I

    2016-01-01

    Methodological approaches to the organization of counter measures are considered taking into account the landscape features of the radioactively contaminated territories. The current status and new requirements to the organization of counter measures in the contaminated agricultural areas are analyzed. The basic principles, objectives and problems of the formation of counter measures with regard to the landscape characteristics of the territory are presented; also substantiated are the organization and optimization of the counter measures in radioactively contaminated agricultural landscapes. PMID:27245009

  13. [10 years after Chernobyl--radioactivity of mother's milk-- measurements from Tirol, Tibet and Nepal].

    PubMed

    Lechner, W; Brunner, P; Bergant, A; Pastner, E; Müller, D

    1997-11-28

    10 years after the Chernobyl disaster gamma radioactivity from Cs-137 was determined in 53 breast milk samples from Tyrol, as well as 9 samples from Tibet and 2 from Nepal by means of a gamma-spectrometer with a germanium detector. In contrast to the values obtained within a few days, and again 1 year after the nuclear plant catastrophe, all samples from Tyrol showed gamma radioactivity levels (median 0.07 nCi/l; range 0.02-0.20 nCi/l) which were now below the limit laid down for baby food in Austria (0.3 nCi/l-11.1 Bq). The samples from Tibet and Nepal registered a slightly higher level of gamma radioactivity (median 0.16 nCi/l; range 0.16-0.41 nCi/l).

  14. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments. PMID:23178068

  15. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.

  16. Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling System for Real-Time Field Screening of Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, L.B.; Lockwood, G.J.; Normann, R.A.; Selph, M.M.; Williams, C.V.

    1999-02-22

    Sampling during environmental drilling is essential to fully characterize the spatial distribution and migration of near surface contaminants. However, analysis of the samples is expensive and time-consuming: off-site laboratory analysis can take weeks or months. An alternative screening technology, Environmental Measurement-While-Drilling (EMWD), could save money and valuable time by quickly distinguishing between contaminated and uncontaminated areas. Real time measurements provided by an EMWD system enable on-the-spot decisions to be made regarding sampling strategies. The system also enhances worker safety and provides the added flexibility of being able to steer a drill bit in or out of hazardous zones.

  17. Quantitative risk assessment of Listeriosis due to consumption of raw milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the risk of illnesses for raw milk consumers due to L. monocytogenes contamination in raw milk sold by permitted raw milk dealers, and the risk of listeriosis for people on farms who consume raw milk. Three scenarios were evaluated for raw milk sold by ...

  18. Reducing uncertainty in ecological risk assessment: The pros of measuring contaminant exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Burris, J.A.; Pease, A.

    1995-12-31

    Wildlife species (mammals, birds and reptiles) are primarily exposed to contamination in soils via ingestion of food. Uncertainties in risk analyses for this pathway are largely associated with the estimation of the amount of contamination in food items. The benefits of measuring contaminant concentrations in food items are examined based on comparison of risk results with and without measurements of exposure. At two hazardous waste sites, plants and earthworms were analyzed for metals and organics. Site-specific bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) were calculated and compared to literature reported values. In general, the metals concentrations in plant samples were higher than those predicted by literature values with the exception of cadmium and copper. Metal concentrations measured in invertebrates (worms) were lower than those predicted by literature values with the exception of arsenic. Literature BAFs did not adequately predict concentrations of barium, mercury or copper in invertebrate tissue. In the ecological risk assessments for both of the sites, if site-specific measurements were used, risks for wildlife species were not predicted. However if literature BAF values were used, unacceptable risks were predicted. The higher estimates of risks were associated with overestimates of dietary exposures of lead, cadmium, chromium, copper and zinc. Measurement of contaminant exposures provided for a more realistic and cost-effective estimate of ecological risks. The effect of using the empirical data on the magnitude of risks were evaluated including decisions concerning remediation. A cost-benefit analysis will be provided comparing the costs of measurement of exposures versus remediation.

  19. The determination of short-term breast volume changes and the rate of synthesis of human milk using computerized breast measurement.

    PubMed

    Daly, S E; Kent, J C; Huynh, D Q; Owens, R A; Alexander, B F; Ng, K C; Hartmann, P E

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of using sequential breast volume measurements as a method of studying short-term rates of milk synthesis in women has been established. We have developed a rapid Computerized Breast Measurement system for the determination of breast volume, based upon the Shape Measurement System. A circle encompassing all the breast tissue is drawn in black face paint on the subject's skin. Six patterns of sixty-four horizontal light stripes are projected onto the breast and chest wall surface. A CCD camera relays video images to a computer, which produces a model of the chest by active triangulation. The volume of the breast and the chest wall segment enclosed by the circle is then calculated. The precision of the method was dependent upon the subject repositioning carefully. The coefficient of variation of replicate measurements was 1.6%. The accuracy of the method was established by comparing the change in breast volume before and after a breast-feed with the amount of milk removed by the infant as determined by test weighing. There was a close relationship between the removal of milk by the infant (x) and the change in breast volume (y), (r = 0.93, n = 73, y = 1.10x - 3.25). The rates of milk synthesis between breast-feeds, for six women determined on one to eight occasions, varied from 11 to 58 ml/h. The results show that the amount of milk available in the breast is not necessarily an important determinant of the amount of milk removed by the infant at a breast-feed. PMID:1543594

  20. Distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides in human breast milk from various locations in Tunisia: Levels of contamination, influencing factors, and infant risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Ennaceur, S. Gandoura, N.; Driss, M.R.

    2008-09-15

    The concentrations of dichlorodiphenytrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), dieldrin, and 20 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined in 237 human breast milk samples collected from 12 locations in Tunisia. Gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) was used to identify and quantify residue levels on a lipid basis of organochlorine compounds (OCs). The predominant OCs in human breast milk were PCBs, p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, HCHs, and HCB. Concentrations of DDTs in human breast milk from rural areas were significantly higher than those from urban locations (p<0.05). With regard to PCBs, we observed the predominance of mid-chlorinated congeners due to the presence of PCBs with high K{sub ow} such as PCB 153, 138, and 180. Positive correlations were found between concentrations of OCs in human breast milk and age of mothers and number of parities, suggesting the influence of such factors on OC burdens in lactating mothers. The comparison of daily intakes of PCBs, DDTs, HCHs, and HCB to infants through human breast milk with guidelines proposed by WHO and Health Canada shows that some individuals accumulated OCs in breast milk close to or higher than these guidelines.

  1. Influence of milk yield, stage of lactation, and body condition on dairy cattle lying behaviour measured using an automated activity monitoring sensor.

    PubMed

    Bewley, Jeffrey M; Boyce, Robert E; Hockin, Jeremy; Munksgaard, Lene; Eicher, Susan D; Einstein, Mark E; Schutz, Michael M

    2010-02-01

    Time spent lying by lactating Holstein-Friesian cows of varying body condition scores (BCS) and milk yield was measured using an animal activity monitor. A 3-week average BCS was calculated for each cow; and in total, 84 cows were selected with 28 cows each among three BCS categories (Thin: BCS<2.75; Moderate: 2.75 > or = BCS<3.25; Heavy: BCS> or = 3.25) and two stage of lactation categories (<150 days in milk or >150 days in milk). Cows were kept in two management systems: parlour/freestall (n=60) or automated milking system/freestall (n=24). Behaviour was recorded for 5.3+/-0.1 d for each cow. Production levels were considered using a 28-d rolling average of daily milk production. Cows that exhibited clinical lameness before or during the observation period were excluded from analyses. For cows exhibiting oestrus, the day prior to, day of, and day following breeding were removed. The final analysis included 77 cows (408 d of observation). A mixed model was fitted to describe average daily hours spent lying. Results demonstrated that lying time increased as days in milk (DIM) increased (P=0.05). Variables that were tested but not significant (P>0.05) were BCS category, parity category (1 or 2) and 28-d rolling average daily milk production. Although a numerical trend for increasing hours spent lying with increasing BCS was observed, after accounting for other factors in the mixed model, BCS did not significantly impact lying time. Continued investigation of these management factors that impact lying time and bouts, using new technologies, more cows, and more herds will help dairy owners better manage facilities and cow movements to optimize this essential behaviour.

  2. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space.

    PubMed

    Oyama, K-I; Lee, C H; Fang, H K; Cheng, C Z

    2012-05-01

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment.

  3. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space.

    PubMed

    Oyama, K-I; Lee, C H; Fang, H K; Cheng, C Z

    2012-05-01

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment. PMID:22667663

  4. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, K.-I.; Lee, C. H.; Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2012-05-15

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment.

  5. Dielectric and conductivity measurements as proxy method to monitor contamination in sandstone.

    PubMed

    Saltas, V; Vallianatos, F; Soupios, P; Makris, J P; Triantis, D

    2007-04-01

    The present work investigates whether dielectric spectroscopy can be used to detect contamination, which may leach in a natural porous material, due to the spreading of contaminants. For this purpose, dielectric and conductivity measurements, in the frequency range from 10 mHz to 1 MHz, were carried out in sandstone samples, partially filled or saturated with solutions of leachates, at different concentrations. The experimental results suggest the dominant role of free water to the measured electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity in contaminated samples with high water content. On the other hand, various relaxation mechanisms were observed in dried samples at different leachate concentrations. Experimental data were fitted using the Havriliak-Negami dielectric relaxation function, superimposed with a conductivity term. The determined parameters of the fitting function may serve to distinguish between different amounts of leachate in sandstone samples.

  6. Means to remove electrode contamination effect of Langmuir probe measurement in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyama, K.-I.; Lee, C. H.; Fang, H. K.; Cheng, C. Z.

    2012-05-01

    Precaution to remove the serious effect of electrode contamination in Langmuir probe experiments has not been taken in many space measurements because the effect is either not understood or ignored. We stress here that one should pay extra attention to the electrode contamination effect to get accurate and reliable plasma measurements so that the long time effort for sounding rocket/satellite missions does not end in vain or becomes less fruitful. In this paper, we describe two main features of voltage-current characteristic curves associated with the contaminated Langmuir probe, which are predicted from the equivalent circuit model, which we proposed in 1970's. We then show that fast sweeping dc Langmuir probes can give reliable results in the steady state regime. The fast sweeping probe can also give reliable results in transient situations such as satellite moves through plasma bubble in the ionosphere where the electron density drastically changes. This fact was first confirmed in our laboratory experiment.

  7. Radioactivity measurement of radioactive contaminated soil by using a fiber-optic radiation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Hanyoung; Kim, Rinah; Moon, Joo Hyun

    2016-06-01

    A fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS) was developed to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. The FORS was fabricated using an inorganic scintillator (Lu,Y)2SiO5:Ce (LYSO:Ce), a mixture of epoxy resin and hardener, aluminum foil, and a plastic optical fiber. Before its real application, the FORS was tested to determine if it performed adequately. The test result showed that the measurements by the FORS adequately followed the theoretically estimated values. Then, the FORS was applied to measure the gamma radiation from radioactive contaminated soil. For comparison, a commercial radiation detector was also applied to measure the same soil samples. The measurement data were analyzed by using a statistical parameter, the critical level to determine if net radioactivity statistically different from background was present in the soil sample. The analysis showed that the soil sample had radioactivity distinguishable from background.

  8. Dynamic measurements of ultraviolet-enhanced silica contamination by photoluminescence-based diagnostic

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Alexandre; Quesnel, Etienne; Reymermier, Maryse

    2009-01-01

    The ultraviolet-enhanced (UV-enhanced) contamination of optical components leads to an untimely aging of sealed laser systems, photolithography, and synchrotron installations. The laser-induced deposition of organic films on silica substrates and coatings significantly reduces their transmission and degrades their optical functions. In this paper, measurements of organic contaminant films growth under 213 nm laser irradiation performed on silica Corning 7980 grade ArF are reported. We present an in situ contaminant layer growth diagnostic based on silica photoluminescence measurements. The purpose was to determine the photodeposition kinetics as a function of controlled environmental conditions and fluence and to find out the experimental conditions in which the growth of contamination films was significantly reduced. We then demonstrated that with a low partial pressure of oxygen, the growth of carbonaceous films is drastically reduced during UV laser irradiation whereas with water and nitrogen it was not the case. We also proposed a physical modeling of the UV-enhanced silica contamination processes.

  9. Space Flight Experiments to Measure Polymer Erosion and Contamination on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillis, Maura C.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Marx, Laura M.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Finefrock, Katherine D.; Youngstrom, Christiane A.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Hunt, Patricia K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic oxygen erosion and silicone contamination are serious issues that could damage or destroy spacecraft components after orbiting for an extended period of time, such as on a space station or satellite. An experiment, the Polymer Erosion And Contamination Experiment (PEACE) will be conducted to study the effects of atomic oxygen (AO) erosion and silicone contamination, and it will provide information and contribute to a solution for these problems. PEACE will fly 43 different polymer materials that will be analyzed for AO erosion effects through two techniques: mass loss measurement and recession depth measurement. Pinhole cameras will provide information about the arrival direction of AO, and silicone contamination pinhole cameras will identify the source of silicone contamination on a spacecraft. All experimental hardware will be passively exposed to AO for up to two weeks in the actual space environment when it flies in the bay of a space shuttle. A second set of the PEACE Polymers is being exposed to the space environment for erosion yield determination as part of a second experiment, Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE). MISSE is a collaboration between several federal agencies and aerospace companies. During a space walk on August 16, 2001, MISSE was attached to the outside of the International Space Station (ISS) during an extravehicular activity (EVA), where it began its exposure to AO for approximately 1.5 years. The PEACE polymers, therefore, will be analyzed after both short-term and long-term AO exposures for a more complete study of AO effects.

  10. Optical system contamination: Effects, measurement, control III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, July 23, 24, 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassford, A. P.

    1992-12-01

    The present volume on optical system contamination characterizes contaminants and discusses contaminants in the field of view, contamination control for the MSX mission, and contaminant detection and removal techniques. Attention is given to outgassing measurements of clad and unclad carbon composite laminates, photodeposition of molecular contaminants with a vacuum UV solar illumination lamp, and exact calculation of light scattering from a particle on a mirror. Topics addressed include optical properties of water released in LEO, a space particle imaging measurement system, a particle monitor experiment, and optical signatures of particles in space. Also discussed are outgassing measurements on an actuator used for solar array deployment, the effects of cryocontaminants on cryogenic superpolished mirror and superpolished quartz crystal microbalance, a system to detect and remove contaminants from space optics, and on-orbit cleaning of cryogenic optical surfaces.

  11. Potential for use of optical measurements to understand the fate of urban contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.; Fleck, J.; Kraus, T. E.; Pellerin, B. A.; Corsi, S. R.

    2012-12-01

    Contamination associated with urban environments can dramatically affect aquatic ecosystems, yet our ability to gage its impact is hampered by the fact that contamination occurs episodically and we are often most interested in the effects in highly dynamic environments; ephemeral and dynamic systems require large numbers of samples to monitor, and the cost associated with characterizing the contribution of urban contaminants in an individual sample using conventional tracers can be prohibitively expensive. We propose that optical measurements may be used to help characterize urban contaminant fluxes in dynamic systems using in situ instruments as well as to assess the contribution of urban material to individual water samples using inexpensive lab-based measurements. We have used measurements of optical properties both in the laboratory and in situ at high temporal and spatial resolution to differentiate among sources of water, and as proxies for contaminants such as mercury (Hg), methylmercury, pharmaceuticals, and wastewater. These measurements include determination of spectral properties of absorbance, attenuation, fluorescence, and scatter in aqueous samples. We present examples of how such measurements can serve as tracers of urban-derived water sources, and provide information about source and biogeochemical processing. One example demonstrates how in situ fluorescence and scattering measurements were used to track the transport of Hg contamination into the San Francisco Estuary. We measured the tidally-driven exchange of Hg between the estuary and a tidal wetland over spring-neap in three different seasons. In situ measurements of scatter (turbidity) and fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were highly related to total mercury concentrations, and we used these measurements to calculate flux into and out of the wetland. Another example in a dynamic river system illustrates how data collected at a high spatial resolution, again using in situ optical

  12. Soot on Snow experiment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, P.; Arnalds, Ó.; Anttila, K.; Hannula, H.-R.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Meinander, O.; Svensson, J.; Virkkula, A.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-12-01

    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing contaminants on snow, a series of spectral reflectance measurements were conducted. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt were deposited on a natural snow surface in a controlled way as a part of the Soot on Snow (SoS) campaign. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these soiled surfaces and untouched snow were measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Goniospectropolariradiometer, FIGIFIGO. A remarkable feature is the fact that the absorbing contaminants on snow enhanced the metamorphism of snow under strong sunlight in our experiments. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appeared darker than the natural snow in all viewing directions, but the absorbing particles sank deep into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remained the darkest, but at larger zenith angles, the surface of the contaminated snow changed back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for a ground observer the darkening caused by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir-observing satellite sees the darkest points, underestimating the albedo. Through a reciprocity argument, we predict that at noon, the albedo perturbation should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates sinking more than melting, the albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting dominates. However, differences in the hydrophobic properties, porosity, clumping, or size of the impurities may cause different results than observed in these measurements.

  13. Soot on snow experiment: bidirectional reflectance factor measurements of contaminated snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peltoniemi, J. I.; Gritsevich, M.; Hakala, T.; Dagsson-Waldhauserová, P.; Arnalds, Ó.; Anttila, K.; Hannula, H.-R.; Kivekäs, N.; Lihavainen, H.; Meinander, O.; Svensson, J.; Virkkula, A.; de Leeuw, G.

    2015-06-01

    In order to quantify the effects of absorbing contaminants on snow, a series of spectral reflectance measurements were conducted. Chimney soot, volcanic sand, and glaciogenic silt were deposited on a natural snow surface in a controlled way as a part of the Soot on Snow (SoS) campaign. The bidirectional reflectance factors of these soiled surfaces and untouched snow were measured using the Finnish Geodetic Institute's Field Goniospectropolariradiometer, FIGIFIGO. A remarkable feature is the fact that the absorbing contaminants on snow enhanced in our experiments the metamorphosis of snow under strong sunlight. Immediately after deposition, the contaminated snow surface appeared darker than the pure snow in all viewing directions, but the absorbing particles sank deep into the snow in minutes. The nadir measurement remained the darkest, but at larger zenith angles the surface of the contaminated snow changed back to almost as white as clean snow. Thus, for a ground observer the darkening caused by impurities can be completely invisible, overestimating the albedo, but a nadir observing satellite sees the darkest points, now underestimating the albedo. By a reciprocity argument, we predict, that at noon the albedo should be lower than in the morning or afternoon. When sunlight stimulates sinking more than melting, the albedo should be higher in the afternoon than in the morning, and vice versa when melting dominates. However, differences in the hydrophobic properties, porosity, clumping, or size of the impurities may cause different results than observed in these measurements.

  14. IN SITU APPARENT CONDUCTIVITY MEASUREMENTS AND MICROBIAL POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AT A HYDROCARBON CONTAMINATED SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated the bulk electrical conductivity and microbial population distribution in sediments at a site contaminated with light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL). The bulk conductivity was measured using in situ vertical resistivity probes, while the most probable number met...

  15. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    PubMed

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  16. 21 CFR 510.105 - Labeling of drugs for use in milk-producing animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... conditions of use intended to prevent the contamination of milk from the use of such drugs. (b) Preparations... would result in contamination of the milk; or (2) The label should bear the following statement... contamination of the milk, neither of the above warning statements is required....

  17. The milk yield response to frequent milking in early lactation of dairy cows is locally regulated.

    PubMed

    Wall, E H; McFadden, T B

    2007-02-01

    Frequent milking during early lactation of dairy cows increases milk production throughout lactation; however, whether this response is regulated systemically via lactogenic hormones, locally in the mammary gland, or both is unknown. We hypothesized that the effects of frequent milking on milk production during early lactation are regulated via local mechanisms. Ten multiparous cows were assigned at parturition to unilateral frequent milking [UFM; twice daily milking of the left udder half (2x), or 4 times daily milking of the right udder half (4x)] for d 1 to 21 of lactation. After treatment, cows were milked twice daily for the remainder of lactation. At the first milking after calving, milk yield from individual quarters was measured to verify that udder halves produced equal amounts of milk prior to treatment. Thereafter, individual quarters were milked on d 3 and 7, weekly for the first 5 wk of lactation, and once every 3 mo for the remainder of lactation. During UFM, cows produced 3.9 +/- 0.7 kg/d more from the side milked 4x than the side milked 2x. Upon cessation of treatment, milk production from the side milked 4x decreased, but remained at 1.8 +/- 0.5 kg/d more than the side milked 2x for the remainder of lactation. After milk yield was corrected to the equivalent of a whole-udder basis, acute milk yield responses to frequent milking were found to be consistent with previous reports. Moreover, we observed greater persistency in the milk yield response, which lasted throughout lactation. We conclude that both immediate and persistent effects on milk production of frequent milking during early lactation are regulated at the level of the mammary gland. Our results demonstrate that UFM is a valid and efficient model for investigating the effects of frequent milking during early lactation in dairy cows.

  18. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  19. Milk protein composition and stability changes affected by iron in water sources.

    PubMed

    Wang, Aili; Duncan, Susan E; Knowlton, Katharine F; Ray, William K; Dietrich, Andrea M

    2016-06-01

    Water makes up more than 80% of the total weight of milk. However, the influence of water chemistry on the milk proteome has not been extensively studied. The objective was to evaluate interaction of water-sourced iron (low, medium, and high levels) on milk proteome and implications on milk oxidative state and mineral content. Protein composition, oxidative stability, and mineral composition of milk were investigated under conditions of iron ingestion through bovine drinking water (infused) as well as direct iron addition to commercial milk in 2 studies. Four ruminally cannulated cows each received aqueous infusions (based on water consumption of 100L) of 0, 2, 5, and 12.5mg/L Fe(2+) as ferrous lactate, resulting in doses of 0, 200, 500 or 1,250mg of Fe/d, in a 4×4Latin square design for a 14-d period. For comparison, ferrous sulfate solution was directly added into commercial retail milk at the same concentrations: control (0mg of Fe/L), low (2mg of Fe/L), medium (5mg of Fe/L), and high (12.5mg of Fe/L). Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis was applied to characterize milk protein composition. Oxidative stability of milk was evaluated by the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay for malondialdehyde, and mineral content was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For milk from both abomasal infusion of ferrous lactate and direct addition of ferrous sulfate, an iron concentration as low as 2mg of Fe/L was able to cause oxidative stress in dairy cattle and infused milk, respectively. Abomasal infusion affected both caseins and whey proteins in the milk, whereas direct addition mainly influenced caseins. Although abomasal iron infusion did not significantly affect oxidation state and mineral balance (except iron), it induced oxidized off-flavor and partial degradation of whey proteins. Direct

  20. Molt frequency of the isopod Porcellio scaber, as a measure of zinc-contaminated food

    SciTech Connect

    Drobne, D.; Strus, J.

    1996-02-01

    The effect of zinc-contaminated leaf litter (250--10,000 {micro}g/g dry wt.) diets on molting in Porcellio scaber, a terrestrial isopod was measured under controlled conditions. The duration of the premolt stage, the period between two successive ecdyses and the rate of molting, was followed during the exposure. Increased zinc concentration in the food caused prolongation of the molt cycle and decreased molt frequency. The duration of the premolt stage was not changed. Molt cycle was not affected drastically due to food deprivation. The application of molt cycle response to contaminated food in toxicity tests is discussed.

  1. Impact of the removal of chocolate milk from school milk programs for children in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Phillips, Theodosia; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2015-03-01

    Studies in the United States report inclusion of flavoured milk in the diets of children and youth improves nutrient intakes. No research has investigated the contribution of flavoured milk to overall milk intake or the milk preferences of Canadian children. The objective of the study was to measure milk consumption (plain milk and flavoured milk) by children in an elementary school environment and investigate factors contributing to milk choice. A mixed-method research design was applied across 6 schools for 12 weeks. Milk waste was measured in grades 1-8 for 12 weeks. Weeks 1-4 (phase 1) and 9-12 (phase 3) provided both plain milk and flavoured milk as chocolate milk while weeks 5-8 (phase 2) provided plain milk only. Beverage Frequency Questionnaires were used in each phase (in grades 5-8 only) to assess usual beverage consumption. Statistical nutrient modelling was conducted to determine the effects of removing chocolate milk during phase 2 as a milk choice. Later, focus groups were conducted with students in grades 5-8 to determine what influences them to choose/not choose to drink milk. Total milk intake decreased by 12.3% when chocolate milk was removed from the schools (26.6% ± 5.2% to 14.31% ± 1.6%, p < 0.001). Milk choice was influenced by environmental factors as well as taste, cost, convenience, and variety. Total milk intake was associated with location (p = 0.035) and cost (p < 0.001), with rural students and/or those students receiving free milk drinking the greatest amount of milk. Nutrient modelling revealed chocolate milk is more cost-efficient and convenient at providing nutrients than alternative food/drink combinations.

  2. Hyperspectral sensing based analysis for determining milk adulteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimbahune, Sanjay; Ghouse, Syed M.; B. S., Mithun; Shinde, Sujit; Jha, Amit Kumar

    2016-05-01

    This research work was designed to evaluate the suitability and applicability of hyperspectral radiometry technology for robustly detecting adulterants in diary milk. The most common milk adulterants are (a) soda, (b) urea, (c) water and (d) detergents. The main contribution of this paper is to build a mathematical model to enable quantifying the degree of common adulterants present in milk. Data was collected using a portable spectroradiometer (Eko MS-720) which measures the spectral irradiance in the range from visible to near-infrared irradiance (350 nm 1050 nm) using samples of milk contaminated with four different adulterants (soda, urea, water and detergent) with known degree of contamination deliberately added in milk. In this study, we used the data in the range of 350 - 1050 nm to identify spectral signatures of different adulterants with different degree of concentration. Data cleansing, in the form of pre-processing was followed by machine learning techniques to create a model to capture the adulterants and also the degree of adulteration. Linear regression along with wrapper subset eval as attribute evaluator and best first search as search option was found to create the best model. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Correlation Coefficient (CC) metrics were used to select the best model. The best model for detecting the degree of adulteration due to soda, urea, water and detergent in milk was found to have an RMSE of 0.027, 0.0069, 0.0382 and 0.0281 respectively while CC was 0.9919, 0.9997, 0.9887 and 0.9938 respectively. The preliminary experimental results demonstrate the effective use of spectroradiometer and machine learning technique in reliably detecting adulterants in milk.

  3. Exposure of infants to ochratoxin A with breast milk.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, K; Blaszkewicz, M; Campos, V; Vega, M; Degen, G H

    2014-03-01

    The nephrotoxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a worldwide contaminant in food commodities and also found frequently in human biological fluids. Dietary contaminants ingested by nursing mothers can appear in breast milk. But the rate of lactational transfer of OTA has not been investigated so far at various stages of breastfeeding. Therefore, and to investigate OTA exposure of Chilean infants, we conducted a longitudinally designed study in mother-child pairs (n = 21) with parallel collection of maternal blood, milk and of infant urine samples over a period of up to 6 months. Validated analytical methods were applied to determine OTA concentrations in all biological samples (n = 134). OTA was detected in almost all maternal blood plasma, at concentrations ranging between 72 and 639 ng/L. The OTA concentrations in breast milk were on average one quarter of those measured in plasma (M/P ratio 0.25). Interestingly, a higher fraction of circulating OTA was excreted in colostrum (M/P 0.4) than with mature milk (M/P ≤ 0.2). Infants exposure was calculated as daily intake from our new data for OTA levels in breast milk, and taking into account milk consumption and body weight as additional variables: Chilean infants have an average intake of 12.7 ± 9.1 ng/kg bw during the first 6 days after delivery while intake with mature milk results in average values close to 5.0 ng/kg bw/day. Their OTA exposure is discussed in the context of tolerable intake values suggested by different scientific bodies. Moreover, the study design enabled a comparison of OTA intake and infant urine concentrations over the breastfeeding period. The statistical analysis of n = 27 paired values showed a good correlation (r = 0.57) for this type of studies and thereby confirms that urinary OTA analysis in infants is a valid biomarker of exposure. PMID:24270973

  4. Preparing contamination-free mica substrates for surface characterization, force measurements, and imaging.

    PubMed

    Israelachvili, Jacob N; Alcantar, Norma A; Maeda, Nobuo; Mates, Thomas E; Ruths, Marina

    2004-04-27

    Due to its perfect cleavage that provides large areas of molecularly smooth, chemically inert surfaces, mica is the most commonly used natural substrate in measurements with the surface forces apparatus (SFA), in atomic force microscopy (AFM), and in many adsorption studies. However, preparing mica surfaces that are truly clean is not easy since mica is a high-energy surface that readily adsorbs water, organic contaminants, and gases from the atmosphere. Mica can also become charged on cleaving, which makes it prone to picking up oppositely charged particles or mica flakes from the surroundings. High refractive index particles, such as metals, will adhere to mica through van der Waals forces. Recent articles have demonstrated that particle contamination is obtained when inappropriate cutting and handling procedures for the mica are used. In this paper, we show that both particle and other critical contamination is easy to detect and provide proper steps to take during the sample preparation process. PMID:15875391

  5. Naphthalene contamination of sterilized milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene bottles. Part 2. Effect of naphthalene vapour in air.

    PubMed

    Lau, O W; Wong, S K; Leung, K S

    1995-04-01

    A survey on naphthalene vapour in air was conducted, revealing that the ambient atmosphere contained concentrations of naphthalene in the range of 0.005-0.100 mg m-3. The level of naphthalene vapour in air increased to 0.35 and 4.00 mg m-3 in places exposed to lacquer paint and naphthalene-based moth-repellent, respectively. The effect of naphthalene vapour in air on milk drinks contained in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) bottles was assessed. A mathematical model was suggested to describe the migration of naphthalene from the atmosphere into milk. The model was proved to be valid for milk drinks exposed to naphthalene-based moth-repellent during storage. Moreover, the extent of migration was found to increase with the fat content of foods, which might be ascribed to an increase in diffusion, in addition to the kinetic factor, that affects naphthalene migration.

  6. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma.

  7. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry measurement of isotope ratios in depleted uranium contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Seltzer, Michael D

    2003-09-01

    Laser ablation of pressed soil pellets was examined as a means of direct sample introduction to enable inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) screening of soils for residual depleted uranium (DU) contamination. Differentiation between depleted uranium, an anthropogenic contaminant, and naturally occurring uranium was accomplished on the basis of measured 235U/238U isotope ratios. The amount of sample preparation required for laser ablation is considerably less than that typically required for aqueous sample introduction. The amount of hazardous laboratory waste generated is diminished accordingly. During the present investigation, 235U/238U isotope ratios measured for field samples were in good agreement with those derived from gamma spectrometry measurements. However, substantial compensation was required to mitigate the effects of impaired pulse counting attributed to sample inhomogeneity and sporadic introduction of uranium analyte into the plasma. PMID:14611049

  8. [Study on the deteriorating course of fresh milk by laser-induced fluorescence spectra].

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Yu, C Q; Li, J Z; Yan, J X

    2001-12-01

    Along with the development of living standard, people's demand for food quality and food hygiene also rises. People demand food not only with rich nutrition, inexpensive price, but also with safety. So food hygiene test is paid common attention of society. Milk is a nourishing food and is loved by people. Sour milk goods from milk is also in great demand. But nourishing foods are good for growing many microbes. Fresh milk and sour milk are easy contaminated by microbes and go bad. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology is an important part of modern optics. It is broadly applied in biomedicine, diagnostics, test of food hygiene, environment protecting, owing to its high sensitivity, high speed, automation, untouched testing. In this paper, we attempted to LIF technology to test milk food quality. We used the third harmonics pulsed Nd:YAG laser (355 nm) as the exciting source, and a multi-track spectrometer as the detector and measured the intensities of apply LIF of fresh milk and sour milk during their deteriorating course. Test system and test method are introduced, fluorescence spectra of deteriorating course are also attached. The test result makes clear that there are close connection between deteriorating course and fluorescence spectra.

  9. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically acquiring ...

  10. Application of Passive Sampling for Measuring Dissolved Concentrations of Organic Contaminants in the Water Column at Three U.S. EPA Marine Superfund Sites.

    EPA Science Inventory

    At contaminated sediment sites, including U.S. EPA Superfund sites, it is critical to measure water column concentrations of freely dissolved contaminants to understand the complete exposure of aquatic organisms to hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs). Historically, acquiring...

  11. Measurement of 90Sr in contaminated Fukushima soils using liquid scintillation counter.

    PubMed

    Kavasi, N; Sahoo, S K; Arae, H; Yoshida, S; Sorimachi, A; Tokonami, S

    2015-11-01

    A method based on liquid scintillation counting system has been developed for the measurement of (90)Sr in Fukushima soil samples due to contamination of (134)Cs and (137)Cs. Three soil samples were collected within 30 km radius from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP). Activity concentration of (134)Cs and (137)Cs were measured using a gamma spectroscopy system with high-purity germanium detector. (90)Sr contamination is little elevated but comparable with the background contamination level that originated from atmospheric nuclear weapon tests, whereas radiocesium contamination has increased significantly. Activity concentration of (90)Sr in the soil samples varied in the range of 10.4±0.6-22.0±1.2 Bq kg(-1). Activity concentrations of (134)Cs and (137)Cs in the soil samples were in the range of 28.2±0.2-56.3±0.2 kBq kg(-1) and 35.2±0.1-70.2±0.2 kBq kg(-1), respectively (reference date for decay correction is 1 December 2011). PMID:25956786

  12. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Elless, M P; Armstrong, A Q; Lee, S Y

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the U.S. Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the U.S. Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment. We recommend that characterization and measurement of target radionuclides/metals solubilities should also be required by the regulatory

  13. Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) measurements for monitoring toluene contamination in clayey soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustra, A.; Slater, L. D.; Ntarlagiannis, D.

    2010-12-01

    The Spectral Induced Polarization (SIP) method has previously shown potential for detecting hydrocarbons in the subsurface when clay minerals are present. However, results from recent studies of soils containing hydrocarbon contaminants are inconclusive, and further research is needed. In an effort to better constrain the sensitivity of SIP to toluene contamination in clayey soils, samples consisting of mixtures of quartzitic sand and montmorillonite (5 and 10% by weight) were contaminated with varying amounts of toluene (5, 10 and 20% by weight) and saturated with sodium nitrate solution (0.003 mol/L). The SIP response of the various samples was monitored for a period of about 40 days. An important aspect of this experimental work was to minimize measurement errors related with the experimental set up and uncertainty in the interpretation of effects of hydrocarbon presence that will result from any variations in sample packing. Errors from the experimental setup (electrodes, sample holder and data acquisition device) varied from 0.02 mrad (at 0.01 Hz) to 9 mrad (at 1000 Hz), as determined from calibration measurements on water samples with known electrical properties. Variations associated with the packing effect (based on repeated sample packs) were from 0.1 mrad (at 0.01 Hz) to 11 mrad (at 1000 Hz). The real and imaginary conductivities at specified frequencies and the integral chargeability and time constant (obtained from a Debye decomposition fitting) were correlated to toluene and clay content. Repeated SIP measurements suggest that the toluene contaminated samples may take significant time to come into equilibrium. Low frequency SIP measurements are significantly related to toluene content only during early stages of contamination, when the dependence of SIP on clay concentration is apparently suppressed. At later time, progress towards a steady state SIP response (interpreted to indicate equilibrium surface chemistry) results in loss of a significant

  14. Success of interventions in mastitis problems with Staphylococcus aureus after the introduction of an automatic milking system.

    PubMed

    Ruf, J; Johler, S; Merz, A; Stalder, U; Hässig, M

    2015-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is often the cause of mastitis problems in dairy herds and causes great economic losses. In this study, isolates from a dairy herd with a known S. aureus mastitis problem were examined by means of molecular methods (spa typing, PFGE, and DNA microarray) to investigate their epidemiological relationship and the success of intervention measures. The investigated dairy farm has a herd size of 60 cows and uses a fully automated milking system for milk production. A S. aureus strain, which contaminated the automated milking system and was subsequently spread among the herd through the latter, was suspected to be the origin of the mastitis problem within the herd. Thanks to the applied molecular methods, the common origin of the S. aureus isolates from the collected milk and swab samples could be shown. By culling chronically infected cows, optimising dry cow management and ensuring reliable intermediate cluster disinfection, the bulk milk somatic cell count improved. PMID:26753327

  15. Bacteriological examination of milk and milk products sold in Harare.

    PubMed

    Igumbor, E O; Obi, C L; Milingo, T

    2000-01-01

    A study to assess the bacteriological quality of milk and ice cream was conducted using the direct plate count method and the methylene blue dye reduction test. A total of 105 milk and 95 ice cream samples were obtained form two factories (depots) and distributing supermarkets (outlets) in Harare. Under the methylene blue test, all milk and ice cream samples passed the hour and 2 hour tests respectively. However, 99% of the milk and 69% of the ice cream samples reduced the dye after 5.5 and 4 hrs respectively. The results from the direct plate counts revealed the presence of both pathogens and non-pathogens. The median plate counts in the milk and ice cream were found 400 cfu / ml and 100 cfu / ml respectively. Organisms isolated in both samples and in all outlets were similar, these included Bacillus spp. Coagulase Staphlococcus spp., microcuccus spp., Steptococcus spp., Diphthroids, Fusiform bacterial Klebsiella spp., and Citrobacter spp. No significant differences were found in the plate counts of the samples obtained from the depots and outlets for the milk (P = 0.542, df = 1)) and ice cream samples (P = 0.377, df = 1). Results further revealed that there was no significant difference in isolates obtained form strawberry ice cream (0.0096). The study has therefore, revealed that milk and milk product sold in various outlets in Harare contained a variety of bacteria of public health importance and also that the methylene blue dye reduction test is not reliable for the detection of bacterial contaminants in dairy products. It is thus suggested that the use of methylene blue dyes be adapted in combination with other tests such as the plate count in assessing bacterial contaminants in milk products.

  16. Characterization and solubility measurements of uranium-contaminated soils to support risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Elless, M.P.; Armstrong, A.Q.; Lee, S.Y.

    1997-05-01

    Remediation of uranium-contaminated soils is considered a high priority by the US Department of Energy because these soils, if left untreated, represent a hazard to the environment and human health. Because the risk to human health is a function of the solubility of uranium in the soils, the objectives of this work are to measure the uranium solubility of two contaminated soils, before and after remedial treatment, and determine the health risk associated with these soils. Two carbonate-rich, uranium-contaminated soils from the US Department of Energy Fernald Environmental Management Project facility near Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as two nearby background soils were characterized and their uranium solubility measured in a 75-d solubility experiment using acid rain, groundwater, lung serum, and stomach acid simulants. Results show that the soluble uranium levels of each soil by each simulant are greatly influenced by their contamination source term. Risk calculations and biokinetic modeling based on the solubility data show that the risks from the soil ingestion and groundwater ingestion pathways are the predominant contributors to the total carcinogenic risk, whereas the risk from the soil inhalation pathway is the smallest contributor to this risk. However, kidney toxicity was the greater health concern of the Fernald Environmental Management Project soils, primarily from undiluted ingestion of the groundwater solution following contact with the contaminated soils. Sensitivity analyses indicate that uranium solubility is a key parameter in defining kidney toxicity; therefore, without proper consideration of the solubility of radionuclides/metals in untreated and treated soils, important factors may be overlooked which may result in soil cleanup goals or limits which are not protective of human health and the environment.

  17. ISSUES IN UNDERSTANDING DERMAL EXPOSURES RESULTING FROM CONTACT WITH CONTAMINATED SURFACES, MEASURING SURFACE CONTAMINATION, AND CHARACTERIZING TRANSFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although monitoring for surface contamination in work with radioactive materials and dermal monitoring of pesticide exposure to agricultural workers have been standard practice for 50 years, regular surface sampling and dermal monitoring methods have only been applied to indust...

  18. MIR Solar Array Return Experiment: Power Performance Measurements and Molecular Contamination Analysis Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, James; Kinard, William; Brinker, David; Scheiman, David; Banks, Bruce; Albyn, Keith; Hornung, Steve; See, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A solar array segment was recently removed from the Mir core module and returned for ground-based analysis. The segment, which is similar to the ones the Russians have provided for the FGB and Service Modules, was microscopically examined and disassembled by US and Russian science teams. Laboratory analyses have shown the segment to he heavily contaminated by an organic silicone coating, which was converted to an organic silicate film by reactions with atomic oxygen within the. orbital flight environment. The source of the contaminant was a silicone polymer used by the Russians as an adhesive and bonding agent during segment construction. During its life cycle, the array experienced a reduction in power performance from approx. 12%, when it was new and first deployed, to approx. 5%, when it was taken out of service. However, current-voltage measurements of three contaminated cells and three pristine, Russian standard cells have shown that very little degradation in solar array performance was due to the silicate contaminants on the solar cell surfaces. The primary sources of performance degradation is attributed to "thermal hot-spotting" or electrical arcing; orbital debris and micrometeoroid impacts; and possibly to the degradation of the solar cells and interconnects caused by radiation damage from high energy protons and electrons.

  19. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques.

  20. Designer milk.

    PubMed

    Sabikhi, Latha

    2007-01-01

    Dairy biotechnology is fast gaining ground in the area of altering milk composition for processing and/or animal and human health by employing nutritional and genetic approaches. Modification of the primary structure of casein, alteration in the lipid profile, increased protein recovery, milk containing nutraceuticals, and replacement for infant formula offer several advantages in the area of processing. Less fat in milk, altered fatty acid profiles to include more healthy fatty acids such as CLA and omega-fats, improved amino acid profiles, more protein, less lactose, and absence of beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) are some opportunities of "designing" milk for human health benefits. Transgenic technology has also produced farm animals that secrete in their milk, human lactoferrin, lysozyme, and lipase so as to simulate human milk in terms of quality and quantity of these elements that are protective to infants. Cow milk allergenicity in children could be reduced by eliminating the beta-LG gene from bovines. Animals that produce milk containing therapeutic agents such as insulin, plasma proteins, drugs, and vaccines for human health have been genetically engineered. In order to cater to animal health, transgenic animals that express in their mammary glands, various components that work against mastitis have been generated. The ultimate acceptability of the "designer" products will depend on ethical issues such as animal welfare and safety, besides better health benefits and increased profitability of products manufactured by the novel techniques. PMID:17900499

  1. Sewage contamination in the upper Mississippi River as measured by the fecal sterol, coprostanol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, J.H.; Leenheer, J.A.; Barber, L.B.; Amy, G.L.; Chapra, S.C.

    1995-01-01

    The molecular sewage indicator, coprostanol, was measured in bed sediments of the Mississippi River for the purpose of determining sewage contamination. Coprostanol is a non-ionic, non-polar, organic molecule that associates with sediments in surface waters, and concentrations of coprostanol in bed sediments provide an indication of long-term sewage loads. Because coprostanol concentrations are dependent on particle size and percent organic carbon, a ratio between coprostanol (sewage sources) and cholestanol + cholesterol (sewage and non-sewage sources) was used to remove the biases related to particle size and percent organic carbon. The dynamics of contaminant transport in the Upper Mississippi River are influenced by both hydrologic and geochemical parameters. A mass balance model incorporating environmental parameters such as river and tributary discharge, suspended sediment concentration, fraction of organic carbon, sedimentation rates, municipal discharges and coprostanol decay rates was developed that describes coprostanol concentrations and therefore, expected patterns of municipal sewage effects on the Upper Mississippi River. Comparison of the computed and the measured coprostanol concentrations provides insight into the complex hydrologic and geochemical processes of contaminant transport and the ability to link measured chemical concentrations with hydrologic characteristics of the Mississippi River.

  2. Use of microbial beta-lactamase to destroy penicillin added to milk.

    PubMed

    Korycka-Dahl, M; Richardson, T; Bradley, R L

    1985-08-01

    A simple method is described for destruction of penicillin residues in bulk milk to an undetectable amount (less than .003 U/ml) with commercially available crude beta-lactamase enzyme. Milk containing .1 or .5 U/ml penicillin G was treated with .01 to 1.0 mU/ml of beta-lactamase (Bacillus cereus) for up to 96 h. The Bacillus stearothermophilus var. calidolactis assay was used to quantify penicillin in milk between .003 to 1.0 U/ml. The .5 U/ml of penicillin G was reduced to an undetectable amount within 18 h at 4 degrees C by 1.0 mU/ml of beta-lactamase. The development of titratable acidity over 5 to 6 h in contaminated milks treated with beta-lactamase and inoculated with Streptococcus thermophilus GH, Streptococcus cremoris, Streptococcus lactis, or a commercial starter culture was the same as for control milk samples containing no additives or only enzyme. Pilot-scale manufacture of Swiss and Cheddar cheeses from contaminated milks treated with beta-lactamase yielded cheeses of comparable quality, to control cheeses produced from penicillin-free milk. There were no delays in acid production as judged from pH measurements during production and ripening of the cheeses. About 50% of beta-lactamase activity added to milk remained after pasteurization at 63 degrees C for 30 min. The safety for human consumption of cheese containing small quantities of penicillin degradation products from milk treated with beta-lactamase remains to be established.

  3. EVALUATION OF DIOXIN IN U.S. COW'S MILK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Milk fat is likely to be among the highest dietary sources of exposure to persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic (PBT) contaminants, thus it is important to understand PBT levels in milk. Schaum had previously reported on concentrations of 21 PBTs in the United States milk suppl...

  4. Measurement of Microbially Induced Transformation of Magnetic Iron Minerals in Soils Allows Localization of Hydrocarbon Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappler, A.; Porsch, K.; Rijal, M.; Appel, E.

    2007-12-01

    Soil contamination by crude oil and other hydrocarbons represents a severe environmental problem, but often the location and extent of contamination is not known. Hydrocarbons, or their degradation products, can stimulate iron-metabolizing microorganisms, leading to the formation or dissolution of (magnetic) iron minerals and an associated change of soil magnetic properties. Therefore, the screening of soil magnetic properties has the potential to serve as an efficient and inexpensive tool to localize such contaminations. In order to identify the influence of different biogeochemical factors on the microbially influenced changes of magnetic iron minerals after hydrocarbon contamination, oil spills were simulated in laboratory batch experiments. The parameters tested in these experiments included soils with different bedrocks, type and amount of added hydrocarbon, and microbiological parameters (sterile and autochthonous microorganisms). In order to follow the changes of the soil magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility of the samples was measured weekly. First results show that changes in the magnetic mineralogy are caused by microbial activity, as sterile samples showed no changes. In the microbially active set-ups, the magnetic susceptibility increased or decreased up to 10% in comparison to the initial magnetic susceptibility within a few weeks. In one iron-rich soil even a decrease of the magnetic susceptibility of ~40% was observed. Although the amount and type of hydrocarbons did not effect the changes in magnetic susceptibility, DGGE fingerprints revealed that they influenced microbial communities. These results show that the magnetic susceptibility changes in the presence of hydrocarbons and that this change is microbially induced. This suggests that the screening of soil magnetic properties can be applied to localize and assess hydrocarbon contamination. In order to understand the biogeochemical processes better, the change of the iron mineralogy

  5. Interim measure conceptual design for remediation of source area contamination at Agra, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2007-07-31

    This document presents a conceptual design for the implementation of a non-emergency interim measure (IM) at the site of the grain storage facility formerly operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Agra, Kansas. The IM is recommended to mitigate localized carbon tetrachloride contamination in the vadose zone soils at the former CCC/USDA facility and eliminate ongoing soil-to-groundwater contamination. The objectives of this IM conceptual design report include the following: 1. Obtain written acknowledgement from the Kansas Department of Health and the Environment (KDHE) that remediation on the former CCC/USDA property is required. 2. Provide information (IM description, justification for the IM, and project schedule) that the KDHE can include in a pending fact sheet. 3. Obtain KDHE approval for the IM conceptual design, so that the CCC/USDA can initiate a formal request for access to the privately owned property and proceed with preparation of a remedial design plan (RDP). Investigations conducted on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne 2006) have demonstrated that soil and groundwater at the Agra site are contaminated with carbon tetrachloride. The levels in groundwater exceed the Kansas Tier 2 Risk-Based Screening Level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5.0 {micro}g/L for this compound. The soil and groundwater contamination identified at the former CCC/USDA facility currently poses no unacceptable health risks.

  6. Validation of two innovative methods to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Mark N; Close, Murray E; Yoon, Hyouk; Huang, Junqi; Flintoft, Mark J; Kim, Sehjong; Enfield, Carl

    2009-04-15

    The ability to quantify the mass flux of a groundwater contaminant that is leaching from a source area is critical to enable us to: (1) evaluate the risk posed by the contamination source and prioritize cleanup, (2) evaluate the effectiveness of source remediation technologies or natural attenuation processes, and (3) quantify a source term for use in models that may be applied to predict maximum contaminant concentrations in downstream wells. Recently, a number of new methods have been developed and subsequently applied to measure contaminant mass flux in groundwater in the field. However, none of these methods has been validated at larger than the laboratory-scale through a comparison of measured mass flux and a known flux that has been introduced into flowing groundwater. A couple of innovative flux measurement methods, the tandem circulation well (TCW) and modified integral pumping test (MIPT) methods, have recently been proposed. The TCW method can measure mass flux integrated over a large subsurface volume without extracting water. The TCW method may be implemented using two different techniques. One technique, the multi-dipole technique, is relatively simple and inexpensive, only requiring measurement of heads, while the second technique requires conducting a tracer test. The MIPT method is an easily implemented method of obtaining volume-integrated flux measurements. In the current study, flux measurements obtained using these two methods are compared with known mass fluxes in a three-dimensional, artificial aquifer. Experiments in the artificial aquifer show that the TCW multi-dipole and tracer test techniques accurately estimated flux, within 2% and 16%, respectively; although the good results obtained using the multi-dipole technique may be fortuitous. The MIPT method was not as accurate as the TCW method, underestimating flux by as much as 70%. MIPT method inaccuracies may be due to the fact that the method assumptions (two-dimensional steady

  7. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica isolates from bulk tank milk and milk filters in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-typhoid Salmonella is frequently associated with dairy cattle and their environment. Despite well-developed milking hygiene protocols, fecal contamination can occur and Salmonella has often been isolated from bulk milk. Salmonella isolates were recovered from US bulk tank milk as part of the NAH...

  8. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future. PMID:26789364

  9. Mitigation measures for chromium-VI contaminated groundwater - The role of endophytic bacteria in rhizofiltration.

    PubMed

    Dimitroula, Helen; Syranidou, Evdokia; Manousaki, Eleni; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A constructed wetland pilot with Juncus acutus L. plants was investigated for its rhizofiltration efficiency in treating Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater. Measurements of Cr(VI) and total Cr were performed to estimate the rate of removal. In addition, Cr concentration in plant tissues was measured and the role of endophytic bacteria on plant's tolerance to Cr(VI) toxicity was investigated. The results support that J. acutus is able to rhizofiltrate Cr(VI) from contaminated water with up to 140μg/L while Cr content analysis in plant tissues revealed that the majority of Cr was accumulated by the plants. Moreover, two leaf (Acidovorax sp. strain U3 and Ralstonia sp. strain U36) isolated endophytic bacteria were found to tolerated 100mg/L Cr(VI) while nine root isolates showed resistance to 500mg/L Cr(VI). The endophytic bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain R16 and Ochrobactrum sp. strain R24 were chosen for Cr(VI) reduction assays. All four strains exhibited a strong potential to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) aerobically. Among them Pseudomonas sp. strain R16 was found able to completely reduced 100mg/L Cr(VI) after 150h of incubation. These results suggest that J. acutus is an excellent choice for CWs whose function is the removal of Cr(VI) from contaminated groundwater for subsequent use in crop irrigation. PMID:25160056

  10. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify α and β particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through α spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pb –210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by α spectroscopy and the β decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.

  11. Measurement of Radioactive Contamination in the High-Resistivity Silicon CCDs of the DAMIC Experiment

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.

    2015-08-25

    We present measurements of radioactive contamination in the high-resistivity silicon charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used by the DAMIC experiment to search for dark matter particles. Novel analysis methods, which exploit the unique spatial resolution of CCDs, were developed to identify α and β particles. Uranium and thorium contamination in the CCD bulk was measured through α spectroscopy, with an upper limit on the 238U (232Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg-1 d-1 at 95% CL. We also searched for pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks separated in time by up to tens of days, as expected from 32Si –32P or 210Pbmore » –210Bi sequences of b decays. The decay rate of 32Si was found to be 80+110-65 (95% CI). An upper limit of ~35 kg -1 d-1 (95% CL) on the 210Pb decay rate was obtained independently by α spectroscopy and the β decay sequence search. Furthermore, these levels of radioactive contamination are sufficiently low for the successful operation of CCDs in the forthcoming 100 g DAMIC detector.« less

  12. The aftermath of the Fukushima nuclear accident: Measures to contain groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Adrian H; Marui, Atsunao

    2016-03-15

    Several measures are being implemented to control groundwater contamination at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant. This paper presents an overview of work undertaken to contain the spread of radionuclides, and to mitigate releases to the ocean via hydrological pathways. As a first response, contaminated water is being held in tanks while awaiting treatment. Limited storage capacity and the risk of leakage make the measure unsustainable in the long term. Thus, an impervious barrier has been combined with a drain system to minimize the discharge of groundwater offshore. Caesium in seawater at the plant port has largely dropped, although some elevated concentrations are occasionally recorded. Moreover, a dissimilar decline of the radioactivity in fish could indicate additional sources of radionuclides intake. An underground frozen shield is also being constructed around the reactors. This structure would reduce inflows to the reactors and limit the interaction between fresh and contaminated waters. Additional strategies include groundwater abstraction and paving of surfaces to lower water levels and further restrict the mobilisation of radionuclides. Technical difficulties and public distrust pose an unprecedented challenge to the site remediation. Nevertheless, the knowledge acquired during the initial work offers opportunities for better planning and more rigorous decisions in the future.

  13. Measurement of radioactive contamination in the CCD’s of the DAMIC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.; Amidei, D.; Bertou, X.; Bole, D.; Butner, M.; Cancelo, G.; Castañeda Vásquez, A.; Chavarria, A. E.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Dixon, S.; D'Olivo, J. C.; Estrada, J.; Fernandez Moroni, G.; Hernández Torres, K. P.; Izraelevitch, F.; Kavner, A.; Kilminster, B.; Lawson, I.; Liao, J.; López, M.; Molina, J.; Moreno-Granados, G.; Pena, J.; Privitera, P.; Sarkis, Y.; Scarpine, V.; Schwarz, T.; Sofo Haro, M.; Tiffenberg, J.; Torres Machado, D.; Trillaud, F.; Yol, X.; Zhou, J.

    2016-05-01

    DAMIC (Dark Matter in CCDs) is an experiment searching for dark matter particles employing fully-depleted charge-coupled devices. Using the bulk silicon which composes the detector as target, we expect to observe coherent WIMP-nucleus elastic scattering. Although located in the SNOLAB laboratory, 2 km below the surface, the CCDs are not completely free of radioactive contamination, in particular coming from radon daughters or from the detector itself. We present novel techniques for the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the bulk silicon and on the surface of DAMIC CCDs. Limits on the Uranium and Thorium contamination as well as on the cosmogenic isotope 32 Si, intrinsically present on the detector, were performed. We have obtained upper limits on the 238 TJ (232 Th) decay rate of 5 (15) kg_1 d_1 at 95% CL. Pairs of spatially correlated electron tracks expected from 32 Si-32 P and 210 Pb-210 Bi beta decays were also measured. We have found a decay rate of 80+l10 -65 kg_1 d_1 for 32 Si and an upper limit of - 35 kg-1 d-1 for 210 Pb, both at 95% CL.

  14. Mitigation measures for chromium-VI contaminated groundwater - The role of endophytic bacteria in rhizofiltration.

    PubMed

    Dimitroula, Helen; Syranidou, Evdokia; Manousaki, Eleni; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P; Karatzas, George P; Kalogerakis, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A constructed wetland pilot with Juncus acutus L. plants was investigated for its rhizofiltration efficiency in treating Cr(VI)-contaminated groundwater. Measurements of Cr(VI) and total Cr were performed to estimate the rate of removal. In addition, Cr concentration in plant tissues was measured and the role of endophytic bacteria on plant's tolerance to Cr(VI) toxicity was investigated. The results support that J. acutus is able to rhizofiltrate Cr(VI) from contaminated water with up to 140μg/L while Cr content analysis in plant tissues revealed that the majority of Cr was accumulated by the plants. Moreover, two leaf (Acidovorax sp. strain U3 and Ralstonia sp. strain U36) isolated endophytic bacteria were found to tolerated 100mg/L Cr(VI) while nine root isolates showed resistance to 500mg/L Cr(VI). The endophytic bacteria Pseudomonas sp. strain R16 and Ochrobactrum sp. strain R24 were chosen for Cr(VI) reduction assays. All four strains exhibited a strong potential to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) aerobically. Among them Pseudomonas sp. strain R16 was found able to completely reduced 100mg/L Cr(VI) after 150h of incubation. These results suggest that J. acutus is an excellent choice for CWs whose function is the removal of Cr(VI) from contaminated groundwater for subsequent use in crop irrigation.

  15. Transfer of /sup 131/I and /sup 95m/Tc from pasture to goat milk

    SciTech Connect

    Bondietti, E.A.; Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Field measurements were made in 1983 on the transfer of /sup 131/I and /sup 95m/Tc from spray-contaminated pasture to goat's milk. The transfer of /sup 131/I to milk was similar to that used for mathematical models in US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guide 1.109, which was derived from stall-feeding experiments using capsulized doses. Compared to /sup 131/I, the /sup 95m/Tc transferred to milk was about 5600 times less. The lower transfer resulted from both immobilization of technetium on pasture prior to ingestion as well as reduced gastrointestinal absorption. The results show that the food chain transfer of technetium to milk is much less than that previously expected based on inferences made from metabolism studies. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  16. A stable isotope dilution method for measuring bioavailability of organic contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Gan, Jay

    2014-01-01

    Methods for determining bioavailability of organic contaminants suffer various operational limitations. We explored the use of stable isotope labeled references in developing an isotope dilution method (IDM) to measure the exchangeable pool (E) of pyrene and bifenthrin as an approximation of their bioavailability in sediments. The exchange of deuterated bifenthrin or pyrene with its native counterpart was completed within 48 h. The derived E was 38–82% for pyrene and 28–59% for bifenthrin. Regression between E and the sum of rapid and slow desorption fractions obtained from sequential desorption showed a slope close to 1.0. The ability of IDM to predict bioavailability was further shown from a strong relationship (r2 > 0.93) between E and bioaccumulation into Chironomus tentans. Given the abundance of stable isotope labeled references and their relatively easy analysis, the IDM has the potential to become a readily adoptable tool for estimating organic contaminants bioaccessibility in various matrices. PMID:23434573

  17. Correlation between environmental relative moldiness index (ERMI) values in French dwellings and other measures of fungal contamination

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) is a DNA-based metric developed to describe the fungal contamination in US dwellings. Our goal was to determine if the ERMI values in dwellings in north western France were correlated with other measures of fungal contamination. D...

  18. Comparison of Eh and H2 measurements for delineating redox processes in a contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Adriaens, Peter; Henry, Mark A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of oxidation−reduction potential (Eh) and concentrations of dissolved hydrogen (H2) were made in a shallow groundwater system contaminated with solvents and jet fuel to delineate the zonation of redox processes. Eh measurements ranged from +69 to −158 mV in a cross section of the contaminated plume and accurately delineated oxic from anoxic groundwater. Plotting measured Eh and pH values on an equilibrium stability diagram indicated that Fe(III) reduction was the predominant redox process in the anoxic zone and did not indicate the presence of methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. In contrast, measurements of H2concentrations indicated that methanogenesis predominated in heavily contaminated sediments near the water table surface (H2 ∼ 7.0 nM) and that the methanogenic zone was surrounded by distinct sulfate-reducing (H2 ∼ 1−4 nM) and Fe(III)-reducing (H2 ∼ 0.1−0.8 nM) zones. The presence of methanogenesis, sulfate reduction, and Fe(III) reduction was confirmed by the distribution of dissolved oxygen, sulfate, Fe(II), and methane in groundwater. These results show that H2 concentrations were more useful for identifying anoxic redox processes than Ehmeasurements in this groundwater system. However, H2-based redox zone delineations are more reliable when H2 concentrations are interpreted in the context of electron-acceptor (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate) availability and the presence of final products [Fe(II), sulfide, methane] of microbial metabolism.

  19. Comparison of digestion procedures and methods for quantification of trace lead in breast milk by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J.; Jayawardene, Innocent; Lupoli, Nicola; Barnes, Ramon M.; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of lead in breast milk is an important public health consideration and can be technically quite challenging. The reliable and accurate determination of trace lead in human breast milk is difficult for several reasons including: potential for contamination during sample collection, storage, and analysis; complexities related to the high fat content of human milk; and poor analytic sensitivity at low concentrations. Breast milk lead levels from previous published studies should therefore be reviewed with caution. Due to the difficulty in identifying a method that would successfully digest samples with 100% efficiency, we evaluated three different digestion procedures including: (1) dry ashing in a muffle furnace, (2) microwave oven digestion, and (3) digestion in high pressure asher. High temperature, high pressure asher digestion was selected as the procedure of choice for the breast milk samples. Trace lead analysis was performed using isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measured lead concentrations in breast milk samples (n = 200) from Mexico ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 ng ml−1. The precision for these measurements ranged from 0.27–7.8% RSD. Use of strict contamination control techniques and of a very powerful digestion procedure, along with an ID-ICP-MS method for lead determination, enables us to measure trace lead levels as low as 0.2 ng ml−1 in milk (instrument detection limit = 0.01 ng ml−1). PMID:24808927

  20. Comparison of digestion procedures and methods for quantification of trace lead in breast milk by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Jayawardene, Innocent; Lupoli, Nicola; Barnes, Ramon M; Hernandez-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Ettinger, Adrienne S

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of lead in breast milk is an important public health consideration and can be technically quite challenging. The reliable and accurate determination of trace lead in human breast milk is difficult for several reasons including: potential for contamination during sample collection, storage, and analysis; complexities related to the high fat content of human milk; and poor analytic sensitivity at low concentrations. Breast milk lead levels from previous published studies should therefore be reviewed with caution. Due to the difficulty in identifying a method that would successfully digest samples with 100% efficiency, we evaluated three different digestion procedures including: (1) dry ashing in a muffle furnace, (2) microwave oven digestion, and (3) digestion in high pressure asher. High temperature, high pressure asher digestion was selected as the procedure of choice for the breast milk samples. Trace lead analysis was performed using isotope dilution (ID) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Measured lead concentrations in breast milk samples (n = 200) from Mexico ranged from 0.2 to 6.7 ng ml(-1). The precision for these measurements ranged from 0.27-7.8% RSD. Use of strict contamination control techniques and of a very powerful digestion procedure, along with an ID-ICP-MS method for lead determination, enables us to measure trace lead levels as low as 0.2 ng ml(-1) in milk (instrument detection limit = 0.01 ng ml(-1)). PMID:24808927

  1. [Automatic milking systems--quality assurance of milk for drinking].

    PubMed

    Redetzky, R; Hamann, J

    2004-07-01

    German consumers trust the safety and the quality of milk and milk products. Compared with other animal products, e. g. meat and meat products, their confidence is justified in so far as milk and milk products cause only few foodborne diseases in Germany, although 80 percent of all German cows develop at least one case of mastitis per lactation. Due to financial reasons, more and more German dairy farmers are forced to initiate a time-saving rationalization of their workflow. Therefore, automatic milking systems (AMS) are used increasingly, even though the costs of purchase result in a slow pick-up in sales. Moreover, AMS do not comply with legal requirements. Thus, an additional regular, the so called "catalogue of measures", had to be enacted to ensure the hygienic harmlessness of milk produced by AMS. This is the first time, that udder health at individual cow level was related to milk quality beyond merely clinical signs. Together with technical innovations for an improved health monitoring at cow and herd level as well as the implementation of quality assurance programs based on prevention, this improvement offers good prospects to produce not only a hygienically harmless, but also a physiologically composed milk and therefore a qualitatively high-grade milk from healthy cows. Being the vehicle of the most recent improvements in technology, AMS do have the potential to make a crucial contribution to this development.

  2. Environmental Chemicals in Breast Milk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the information available on environmental chemicals in breast milk is focused on persistent, lipophilic chemicals; the database on levels of these chemicals has expanded substantially since the 1950s. Currently, various types of chemicals are measured in breast milk and ...

  3. Real-time measurement of nonvolatile residue contamination in cleanroom environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mogan, Paul A.

    1994-10-01

    A Real-Time Instrument for the detection of non-volatile residues (NVR) was developed under an SBIR Phase I contract for the NASA Contamination Monitoring Laboratory at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. A prototype device was fabricated and field tested in the Operations and Checkout Building and at the Orbiter Processing Facility at KSC. During the field testing, the data from the instrument was compared to standard KSC non-volatile residue measurements which are based on ASTM 1234/1235. Time fluctuations, unique to the real time measurement process, were also correlated to activity logs for the facility. The prototype instrument has already been applied commercially in the semiconductor industry to study NVR contamination in the plastic boats that wafers are stored and transported in during processing. This technology is being evaluated for use in the Hubble Space Telescope refurbishment mission to monitor NVR deposition during integration and processing prior to launch. This paper will discuss the temperature controlled SAW NVR instrument development program as well as the field testing done at KSC. Application to measurements of non-volatile residue in operational environments and comparisons with KSC NVR measurements will be made.

  4. Mitigation of the impact of terrestrial contamination on organic measurements from the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Inge L; Canham, John S; Conrad, Pamela G; Errigo, Therese; Katz, Ira; Mahaffy, Paul R

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which is planned to follow the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Phoenix lander to the surface of Mars, is to explore and assess quantitatively a site on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Specific goals include an assessment of the past or present biological potential of the target environment and a characterization of its geology and geochemistry. Included in the 10 investigations of the MSL rover is the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, which is designed to obtain trace organic measurements, measure water and other volatiles, and measure several light isotopes with experiment sequences designed for both atmospheric and solid-phase samples. SAM integrates a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer supported by sample manipulation tools both within and external to the suite. The sub-part-per-billion sensitivity of the suite for trace species, particularly organic molecules, along with a mobile platform that will contain many kilograms of organic materials, presents a considerable challenge due to the potential for terrestrial contamination to mask the signal of martian organics. We describe the effort presently underway to understand and mitigate, wherever possible within the resource constraints of the mission, terrestrial contamination in MSL and SAM measurements.

  5. Mitigation of the impact of terrestrial contamination on organic measurements from the Mars Science Laboratory.

    PubMed

    ten Kate, Inge L; Canham, John S; Conrad, Pamela G; Errigo, Therese; Katz, Ira; Mahaffy, Paul R

    2008-06-01

    The objective of the 2009 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL), which is planned to follow the Mars Exploration Rovers and the Phoenix lander to the surface of Mars, is to explore and assess quantitatively a site on Mars as a potential habitat for present or past life. Specific goals include an assessment of the past or present biological potential of the target environment and a characterization of its geology and geochemistry. Included in the 10 investigations of the MSL rover is the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite, which is designed to obtain trace organic measurements, measure water and other volatiles, and measure several light isotopes with experiment sequences designed for both atmospheric and solid-phase samples. SAM integrates a gas chromatograph, a mass spectrometer, and a tunable laser spectrometer supported by sample manipulation tools both within and external to the suite. The sub-part-per-billion sensitivity of the suite for trace species, particularly organic molecules, along with a mobile platform that will contain many kilograms of organic materials, presents a considerable challenge due to the potential for terrestrial contamination to mask the signal of martian organics. We describe the effort presently underway to understand and mitigate, wherever possible within the resource constraints of the mission, terrestrial contamination in MSL and SAM measurements. PMID:18558810

  6. Effects of Heterogeneities, Sampling Frequencies, Tools and Methods on Uncertainties in Subsurface Contaminant Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; McNab, W. W.

    2007-12-01

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) is particularly important for contaminants which are mitigated by natural processes of dilution, dispersion, and degradation. At many sites, LTM can require decades of expensive sampling at tens or even hundreds of existing monitoring wells, resulting in hundreds of thousands, or millions of dollars per year for sampling and data management. Therefore, contaminant sampling tools, methods and frequencies are chosen to minimize waste and data management costs while ensuring a reliable and informative time-history of contaminant measurement for regulatory compliance. The interplay play between cause (i.e. subsurface heterogeneities, sampling techniques, measurement frequencies) and effect (unreliable data and measurements gap) has been overlooked in many field applications which can lead to inconsistencies in time- histories of contaminant samples. In this study we address the relationship between cause and effect for different hydrogeological sampling settings: porous and fractured media. A numerical model has been developed using AMR-FEM to solve the physicochemical processes that take place in the aquifer and the monitoring well. In the latter, the flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations while in the former the flow is governed by the diffusivity equation; both are fully coupled to mimic stressed conditions and to assess the effect of dynamic sampling tool on the formation surrounding the monitoring well. First of all, different sampling tools (i.e., Easy Pump, Snapper Grab Sampler) were simulated in a monitoring well screened in different homogeneous layered aquifers to assess their effect on the sampling measurements. Secondly, in order to make the computer runs more CPU efficient the flow in the monitoring well was replaced by its counterpart flow in porous media with infinite permeability and the new model was used to simulate the effect of heterogeneities, sampling depth, sampling tool and sampling frequencies on the

  7. Measurement and control of the air contamination generated in a medical cyclotron facility for PET radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Calandrino, R; del Vecchio, A; Todde, S; Fazio, F

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the data concerning the contamination of the exhausted air from the hot cells dedicated to the large-scale synthesis of positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals. Two cyclotrons are currently operating in Ospedale San Raffaele for the routine production of C and F. They are linked with four radiochemistry laboratories by means of shielded radioisotope delivery lines. The above labs are dedicated both to the large scale preparation and to the research and development of PET radiopharmaceuticals. The department hosts four CT-PET scanners, which operate with a mean patient workload of 40 per day. Radiosyntheses are performed using automated modules located in 10 hot cells. The air outlets are monitored online by a 2-inch NaI(Tl) counter in a Marinelli geometry counting volume. Contamination values up to 10(5) Bq L(-1) have been measured at the hot cell exit point during the synthesis. The corresponding concentrations at the point of release in atmosphere are largely above the threshold of 1.29 Bq L(-1), defined by national regulations as the limit for free environmental release. A shielded gas storage system controlled by a dedicated, customized software program has thus been installed to prevent the potentially hazardous release of gaseous radioactive contaminants. The system has allowed us to maintain the effective dose to neighboring population groups below the limit of 10 muSv y(-1).

  8. Milk Allergy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the word “Milk” on the label. Read all product labels carefully before purchasing and consuming any item. Ingredients ... following the circled K or U on a product label indicates the presence of milk protein or a ...

  9. Aflatoxin M1 in milk powders: processing, homogeneity and stability testing of certified reference materials.

    PubMed

    Josephs, R D; Ulberth, F; Van Egmond, H P; Emons, H

    2005-09-01

    As part of the certification campaign of three candidate reference materials for the determination of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in whole milk powders, homogeneity, short- and long-term stability tests of naturally contaminated milk powders have been performed. The homogeneity of two AfM1-contaminated milk powders was studied by taking samples at regular intervals of the filling sequences and analysing in triplicate for their AfM1 contents by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FLD) using random stratified sampling schemes. The homogeneity testing of an AfM1 'blank' milk powder material was performed by determining the nitrogen content because AfM1 levels were below the limit of detection of the most sensitive determination method. The short-term stability of AfM1-contaminated milk powders was evaluated at three different storage temperatures (4, 18 and 40 degrees C). After storage times of 0, 1, 2 and 4 weeks, samples were investigated using LC-FLD. The long-term stability study comprised of measurements after 0, 6, 12 and 18 months after storage at -20 and 4 degrees C. Analyses were done by LC-FLD. Based on the homogeneity tests, the materials were sufficiently homogenous to serve as certified reference materials. Corresponding uncertainty contributions of 0.23-0.89% were calculated for the homogeneity. The stability measurements showed no significant trends for both short- and long-term stability studies. The long-term stability uncertainties of the AfM1-contaminated milk powders were 7.4 and 6.3%, respectively, for a shelf-life of 6 years and storage at -20 degrees C. Supplementary stability monitoring schemes over a long period of several years are currently ongoing.

  10. Got milk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While celebrities wear white “milk moustaches” in a popular U.S. advertising campaign to promote the drinking of milk, they should also be concerned about the decreased amount of calcium available to many trees.Calcium levels in forest soils have decreased at locations in 10 states in the eastern United States, according to a new report by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) released in time for National Arbor Day on April 30.

  11. Detection and measurement of surface contamination by multiple antineoplastic drugs using multiplex bead assay

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jerome P; Sammons, Deborah L; Robertson, Shirley A; Pretty, Jack; Debord, D Gayle; Connor, Thomas H; Snawder, John

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Contamination of workplace surfaces by antineoplastic drugs presents an exposure risk for healthcare workers. Traditional instrumental methods to detect contamination such as liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are sensitive and accurate but expensive. Since immunochemical methods may be cheaper and faster than instrumental methods, we wanted to explore their use for routine drug residue detection for preventing worker exposure. Methods In this study we examined the feasibility of using fluorescence covalent microbead immunosorbent assay (FCMIA) for simultaneous detection and semi-quantitative measurement of three antineoplastic drugs (5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, and doxorubicin). The concentration ranges for the assay were 0–1000 ng/ml for 5-fluorouracil, 0–100 ng/ml for paclitaxel, and 0–2 ng/ml for doxorubicin. The surface sampling technique involved wiping a loaded surface with a swab wetted with wash buffer, extracting the swab in storage/blocking buffer, and measuring drugs in the extract using FCMIA. Results There was no significant cross reactivity between these drugs at the ranges studied indicated by a lack of response in the assay to cross analytes. The limit of detection (LOD) for 5-fluorouracil on the surface studied was 0.93 ng/cm2 with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 2.8 ng/cm2, the LOD for paclitaxel was 0.57 ng/cm2 with an LOQ of 2.06 ng/cm2, and the LOD for doxorubicin was 0.0036 ng/cm2 with an LOQ of 0.013 ng/cm2. Conclusion The use of FCMIA with a simple sampling technique has potential for low cost simultaneous detection and semi-quantitative measurement of surface contamination from multiple antineoplastic drugs. PMID:25293722

  12. Determination of 137Cs contamination depth distribution in building structures using geostatistical modeling of ISOCS measurements.

    PubMed

    Boden, Sven; Rogiers, Bart; Jacques, Diederik

    2013-09-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear building structures usually leads to large amounts of low level radioactive waste. Using a reliable method to determine the contamination depth is indispensable prior to the start of decontamination works and also for minimizing the radioactive waste volume and the total workload. The method described in this paper is based on geostatistical modeling of in situ gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements using the multiple photo peak method. The method has been tested on the floor of the waste gas surge tank room within the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) decommissioning project and has delivered adequate results.

  13. Elimination of directional wave spectrum contamination from noise in elevation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, E. J.; Hancock, D. W., III; Hines, D. E.; Swift, R. N.; Scott, J. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Surface Contour Radar (SCR) is a 36-GHz computer-controlled airborne radar which generates a false-color-coded elevation map of the sea surface below the aircraft in real time, and can routinely produce ocean directional wave spectra with post-flight data processing which have much higher angular resolution than pitch-and-roll buoys. The SCR range measurements are not error-free and the resulting errors in the elevations corrupt the directional wave spectrum. This paper presents a technique for eliminating that contamination.

  14. Determination of 137Cs contamination depth distribution in building structures using geostatistical modeling of ISOCS measurements.

    PubMed

    Boden, Sven; Rogiers, Bart; Jacques, Diederik

    2013-09-01

    Decommissioning of nuclear building structures usually leads to large amounts of low level radioactive waste. Using a reliable method to determine the contamination depth is indispensable prior to the start of decontamination works and also for minimizing the radioactive waste volume and the total workload. The method described in this paper is based on geostatistical modeling of in situ gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements using the multiple photo peak method. The method has been tested on the floor of the waste gas surge tank room within the BR3 (Belgian Reactor 3) decommissioning project and has delivered adequate results. PMID:23722072

  15. An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors.

    PubMed

    Aprile, E; Yoon, T; Loose, A; Goetzke, L W; Zelevinsky, T

    2013-09-01

    We have developed an atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system to measure Kr in Xe at the part per trillion (ppt) level, a prerequisite for the sensitivity achievable with liquid xenon dark matter detectors beyond the current generation. Since Ar and Kr have similar laser cooling wavelengths, the apparatus has been tested with Ar to avoid contamination prior to measuring Xe samples. A radio-frequency plasma discharge generates a beam of metastable atoms which is optically collimated, slowed, and trapped using standard magneto-optical techniques. Based on the measured overall system efficiency of 1.2 × 10(-8) (detection mode), we expect the ATTA system to reach the design goal sensitivity to ppt concentrations of Kr in Xe in <2 h.

  16. An atom trap trace analysis system for measuring krypton contamination in xenon dark matter detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Aprile, E.; Yoon, T.; Loose, A.; Goetzke, L. W.; Zelevinsky, T.

    2013-09-15

    We have developed an atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system to measure Kr in Xe at the part per trillion (ppt) level, a prerequisite for the sensitivity achievable with liquid xenon dark matter detectors beyond the current generation. Since Ar and Kr have similar laser cooling wavelengths, the apparatus has been tested with Ar to avoid contamination prior to measuring Xe samples. A radio-frequency plasma discharge generates a beam of metastable atoms which is optically collimated, slowed, and trapped using standard magneto-optical techniques. Based on the measured overall system efficiency of 1.2 × 10{sup −8} (detection mode), we expect the ATTA system to reach the design goal sensitivity to ppt concentrations of Kr in Xe in <2 h.

  17. Field-scale evaluation of the passive flux meter for simultaneous measurement of groundwater and contaminant fluxes.

    PubMed

    Annable, Michael D; Hatfield, Kirk; Cho, Jaehyun; Klammler, Harald; Parker, Beth L; Cherry, John A; Rao, P Suresh C

    2005-09-15

    A new method, passive flux meter (PFM), has been developed and field-tested for simultaneously measuring contaminant and groundwater fluxes in the saturated zone at hazardous waste sites. The PFM approach uses a sorptive permeable medium placed in either a borehole or monitoring well to intercept contaminated groundwater and release "resident" tracers. The sorbent pack is placed in a groundwater flow field for a specified exposure time and then recovered for extraction and analysis. By quantifying the mass fraction of resident tracers lost and the mass of contaminant sorbed, groundwater and contaminant fluxes are calculated. Here, we assessed the performance of PFMs at the Canadian Forces Base Borden field site in Ontario, Canada. Two field tests were conducted under imposed groundwater flow fields: (1) radial flow to a well and (2) linear flow in a test channel confined by sheet pile walls on three sides. Both tests demonstrate that the local fluxes measured by PFM and averaged overthe screen interval were within 15% of imposed groundwaterflow and within 30% of measured contaminant mass flux. Patterns in depth variations in groundwater and contaminant fluxes, determined by the PFM approach, allow for site characterization at a higher spatial resolution. These results support the PMF method as a potential innovative alternative for measuring groundwater and contaminant fluxes in screened wells.

  18. Evaluating LNAPL contamination using GPR signal attenuation analysis and dielectric property measurements: practical implications for hydrological studies.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Nigel J

    2007-10-30

    Groundwater and sub-surface contamination by Light Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (LNAPLs) is one of the industrial world's most pressing environmental issues and a thorough understanding of the hydrological, physical and bio-chemical properties of the sub-surface is key to determining the spatial and temporal development of any particular contamination event. Non-invasive geophysical techniques (such as electrical resistivity, electromagnetic conductivity, Ground-Penetrating Radar, etc.) have proved to be successful sub-surface investigation and characterisation tools with Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR) being particularly popular. Recent studies have shown that the spatial/temporal variation in GPR signal attenuation can provide important information on the electrical properties of the sub-surface materials that, in turn, can be used to assess the physical and hydrological nature of the pore fluids and associated contaminants. Unfortunately, a high percentage of current LNAPL-related GPR studies focus on contaminant mapping only, with little emphasis being placed on characterising the hydrological properties (e.g., determining contaminant saturation index, etc.). By comparing laboratory-based, dielectric measurements of LNAPL contaminated materials with the GPR signal attenuation observed in both contaminated and 'clean' areas of an LNAPL contaminated site, new insights have been gained into the nature of contaminant distribution/saturation and the likely signal attenuation mechanisms. The results show that, despite some practical limitations of the analysis technique, meaningful hydrological interpretations can be obtained on the contaminant properties, saturation index and bio-degradation processes. A generalised attenuation/saturation model has been developed that describes the physical and attenuation enhancement characteristics of the contaminated areas and reveals that the most significant attenuation is related to smeared zone surrounding the seasonally changing

  19. Evaluation of TENORMs field measurement with actual activity concentration in contaminated soil matrices.

    PubMed

    Saint-Fort, Roger; Alboiu, Mirtyll; Hettiaratchi, Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The occurrence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORMs) concentrated through anthropogenic processes in contaminated soils at oil and gas facilities represent one of the most challenging issues facing the Canadian and US oil and gas industry today. Natural occurring radioactivity materials (NORMs) field survey techniques are widely used as a rapid and cost-effective method for ascertaining NORMs risks associated with contaminated soils and waste matrices as well other components comprising the environment. Because of potentially significant liability issues with Norms if not properly managed, the development of quantitative relationships between TENORMs field measurement techniques and laboratory analysis present a practical approach in facilitating the interim safe decision process since laboratory results can take days. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships between direct measurements of field radioactivity and various laboratory batch techniques using data collection technologies for NORM and actual laboratory radioactivity concentrations. The significance of selected soil characteristics that may improve or confound these relationships in the formulation of empirical models was also achieved as an objective. The soil samples used in this study were collected from 4 different locations in western Canada and represented a wide range in terms of their selected chemical and physical properties. Multiple regression analyses for both field and batch data showed a high level of correlation between radionuclides Ra-226 and Ra-228 as a function of data collection technologies and relevant soil parameters. All R2 values for the empirical models were greater than 0.80 and significant at P<0.05. The creation of these empirical models could be valuable in improving predictability of radium contamination in soils and therefore, reduce analytical costs as well as environmental liabilities.

  20. Australian children who drink milk (plain or flavored) have higher milk and micronutrient intakes but similar body mass index to those who do not drink milk.

    PubMed

    Fayet, Flavia; Ridges, Leisa A; Wright, Jutta K; Petocz, Peter

    2013-02-01

    In Australia, 60% of children (9-16 years) are not meeting the estimated average requirement (EAR) for calcium, and milk is an important dietary source of calcium. We hypothesized that milk drinking (plain or flavored) would be associated with higher milk and nutrient intake among Australian children. Nutrient intakes reported via 24-hour recalls and anthropometric measurements collected from the 2007 Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey were analyzed. Children and adolescents (cross sectional, n = 4487, 2-16 years) were classified into 4 categories according to milk intake: (i) exclusively plain milk drinkers, (ii) flavored (flavored and plain) milk drinkers, (iii) nondrinkers of milk (no plain or flavored milk as beverage), and (iv) nonconsumers of milk (total milk intake is 0 g). Total daily milk, energy and nutrient intake, body mass index, and waist circumference were compared between categories of milk drinking by analysis of variance models. Results of this study show that milk drinkers (plain or flavored) had a significantly higher total milk intake than did nondrinkers of milk. Milk drinking was associated with higher intakes of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and iodine in comparison with nondrinkers of milk and nonconsumers of milk (P < .05). Milk drinkers (exclusively plain or flavored) were more likely to meet the EAR for calcium than nondrinkers and nonconsumers of milk, whereas flavored milk drinkers were more likely to meet the EAR for calcium than exclusively plain milk drinkers. In particular, among children aged 9 to 16 years, flavored milk drinkers were 1.7 times more likely to meet the EAR for calcium than plain milk drinkers (P < .001). Although flavored milk drinkers had higher total sugar and energy intakes than did exclusively plain milk drinkers and nonconsumers of milk (P < .05), no between-group differences were observed in body mass index, waist circumference, or physical activity level. In

  1. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    PubMed

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased. PMID:15052494

  2. Land treatment of PAH-contaminated soil: Performance measured by chemical and toxicity assays

    SciTech Connect

    Sayles, G.D.; Acheson, C.M.; Kupferle, M.J.; Shan, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Meier, J.R.; Chang, L.; Brenner, R.C.

    1999-12-01

    The performance of a soil remediation process can be determined by measuring the reduction in target soil contaminant concentrations and by assessing the treatment's ability to lower soil toxicity. Land treatment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil from a former wood-treating site was simulated at pilot scale in temperature-controlled sol pans. Nineteen two- through six-ring PAHs were monitored with time (initial total PAHs = 2,800 mg/kg). Twenty-five weeks of treatment yielded a final total PAH level of 1,160 mg/kg. Statistically significant decreases in concentrations were seen in total, two-, three-, and four-ring PAHs. Carcinogenic and five- and six-ring PAHs showed no significant change in concentration. Land treatment resulted in significant toxicity reduction based on root elongation, Allium chromosomal aberration, and solid-phase Microtox bioassays. Acute toxicity, as measured by the earthworm survival assay, was significantly reduced and completely removed. The Ames spiral plate mutagenicity assay revealed that the untreated soil was slightly mutagenic and that treatment may have reduced mutagenicity. The variety of results generated from the chemical and toxicity assays emphasize the need for conducting a battery of such tests to fully understand soil remediation processes.

  3. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Pastura, Valéria Fonseca; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-01

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called "garimpagem", that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  4. Environmental Education in Brazil: Preventive Measures to Avoid Contamination with U and Th

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Pastura, Valeria Fonseca da; Wieland, Patricia

    2008-08-07

    Aiming at increasing awareness of radiation health effects, environmental issues and preventive measures, the Nuclear Energy National Commission (CNEN) launched in 2004 an education and public outreach programme for mine workers, students, teachers, governmental leaders, labor representatives and members of communities nearby small mining sites at the North and Northeast regions. Many Brazilian conventional mines present a significant risk of exposure to radiation due to Uranium and Thorium. CNEN inspects the mines but there are several small mining sites dedicated to open pit short term mineral extraction, called 'garimpagem', that are of difficult control. Therefore, information at large about preventive measures to avoid contamination during exploration, transportation and storage is necessary. CNEN developed an educational campaign which includes a series of open seminars, talks, folders, booklets and posters. The objective of this paper is to present the Brazilian educational campaign to avoid contamination risks at those small mineral exploration sites and its results. This campaign is a joint task that receives collaboration of other organizations such as federal police, schools and universities.

  5. Measurements of air contaminants during the Cerro Grande fire at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Eberhart, Craig

    2010-08-01

    Ambient air sampling for radioactive air contaminants was continued throughout the Cerro Grande fire that burned part of Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the fire, samples were collected more frequently than normal because buildup of smoke particles on the filters was decreasing the air flow. Overall, actual sampling time was 96% of the total possible sampling time for the May 2000 samples. To evaluate potential human exposure to air contaminants, the samples were analyzed as soon as possible and for additional specific radionuclides. Analyses showed that the smoke from the fire included resuspended radon decay products that had been accumulating for many years on the vegetation and the forest floor that burned. Concentrations of plutonium, americium, and depleted uranium were also measurable, but at locations and concentrations comparable to non-fire periods. A continuous particulate matter sampler measured concentrations that exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for PM-10 (particles less than 10 micrometers in diameter). These high concentrations were caused by smoke from the fire when it was close to the sampler.

  6. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

    2012-04-01

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to δ2H and δ18O measurement errors (Δδ2H and Δδ18O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, mBB, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, mNB. These metrics are used to correct for Δδ2H and Δδ18O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and Δδ18O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while Δδ2H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with mNB. Using the isotope error versus mNB and mBB curves, Δδ2H and Δδ18O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 ‰ and 0.25 ‰ respectively, while Δδ2H and Δδ18O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 ‰ and 0.22 ‰. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant waters, soil extracts, wastewater, and alcoholic beverages. The general technique

  7. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes.

    PubMed

    Brian Leen, J; Berman, Elena S F; Liebson, Lindsay; Gupta, Manish

    2012-04-01

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurement errors (Δδ(2)H and Δδ(18)O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m(BB), and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m(NB). These metrics are used to correct for Δδ(2)H and Δδ(18)O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and Δδ(18)O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while Δδ(2)H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m(NB). Using the isotope error versus m(NB) and m(BB) curves, Δδ(2)H and Δδ(18)O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 [per thousand] and 0.25 [per thousand] respectively, while Δδ(2)H and Δδ(18)O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 [per thousand] and 0.22 [per thousand]. Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the properly calibrated interference metrics can be used to correct for polluted samples and extend off-axis ICOS measurements of liquid water to include plant

  8. Spectral contaminant identifier for off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy measurements of liquid water isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Leen, J.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Liebson, Lindsay

    2012-04-15

    Developments in cavity-enhanced absorption spectrometry have made it possible to measure water isotopes using faster, more cost-effective field-deployable instrumentation. Several groups have attempted to extend this technology to measure water extracted from plants and found that other extracted organics absorb light at frequencies similar to that absorbed by the water isotopomers, leading to {delta}{sup 2}H and {delta}{sup 18}O measurement errors ({Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O). In this note, the off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (ICOS) spectra of stable isotopes in liquid water is analyzed to determine the presence of interfering absorbers that lead to erroneous isotope measurements. The baseline offset of the spectra is used to calculate a broadband spectral metric, m{sub BB}, and the mean subtracted fit residuals in two regions of interest are used to determine a narrowband metric, m{sub NB}. These metrics are used to correct for {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O. The method was tested on 14 instruments and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O was found to scale linearly with contaminant concentration for both narrowband (e.g., methanol) and broadband (e.g., ethanol) absorbers, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H scaled linearly with narrowband and as a polynomial with broadband absorbers. Additionally, the isotope errors scaled logarithmically with m{sub NB}. Using the isotope error versus m{sub NB} and m{sub BB} curves, {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O resulting from methanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 0.93 per mille and 0.25 per mille respectively, while {Delta}{delta}{sup 2}H and {Delta}{delta}{sup 18}O from ethanol contamination were corrected to a maximum mean absolute error of 1.22 per mille and 0.22 per mille . Large variation between instruments indicates that the sensitivities must be calibrated for each individual isotope analyzer. These results suggest that the

  9. Milk and Soy Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Kattan, Jacob D.; Cocco, Renata R.; Järvinen, Kirsi M.

    2011-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Cow’s milk allergy (CMA) affects 2% to 3% of young children and presents with a wide range of immunoglobulin E (IgE-) and non-IgE-mediated clinical syndromes, which have a significant economic and lifestyle impact. Definitive diagnosis is based on a supervised oral food challenge (OFC), but convincing clinical history, skin prick testing, and measurement of cow’s milk (CM)-specific IgE can aid in the diagnosis of IgE-mediated CMA and occasionally eliminate the need for OFCs. It is logical that a review of CMA would be linked to a review of soy allergy, as soy formula is often an alternative source of nutrition for infants who do not tolerate cow’s milk. The close resemblance between the proteins from soy and other related plants like peanut, and the resulting cross-reactivity and lack of predictive values for clinical reactivity, often make the diagnosis of soy allergy far more challenging. This review examines the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, natural history and diagnosis of cow’s milk and soy allergy. Cross-reactivity and management of milk allergy are also discussed. PMID:21453810

  10. Cultivable microbial communities in raw cow milk and potential transfers from stables of sixteen French farms.

    PubMed

    Vacheyrou, Mallory; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Guyot, Philippe; Cassagne, Carole; Piarroux, Renaud; Bouton, Yvette

    2011-04-29

    The indigenous microflora in raw milk plays an important role in the diversity of cheese flavours and may protect against the growth of pathogens, but the sources of contamination and the factors that might affect the microbial communities in milk are not well known. The objectives of this study were to broaden knowledge of the microbial composition of milk and to assess microbial transfers from the stable to the milk. Air (collected in milking parlour and stable), dust (passively collected using plastic box), cow teat surface, and hay and milk samples were collected in 16 French farms with either stanchion barn or freestall barn configurations and plated on various culture media. Bacterial and fungal colonies were identified using phenotypic and DNA sequencing methods. Results showed that most of the fungal species and environmental bacteria found in the milk were also found in the stable and the milking parlour environments, indicating large microbial transfer from stable to milking parlour then to milk. However, milk from the stanchion barns were more contaminated than milk from freestall barns. Contrasting with other bacterial and fungal species, useful cheese-making bacteria--lactobacilli and PAB--were frequently identified in the milk and on the teat surface but were rarely found in other environments. In conclusion, milk contamination by the stable environment is considerable, even if it is lower in farms with a milking parlour. Besides this environmental contamination, the teat surface remains the main source of useful cheese-making bacteria.

  11. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  12. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  13. 21 CFR 866.5170 - Breast milk immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Breast milk immunological test system. 866.5170... milk immunological test system. (a) Identification. A breast milk immunological test system is a device that consists of the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the breast milk proteins....

  14. Results from raw milk microbiological tests do not predict the shelf-life performance of commercially pasteurized fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Martin, N H; Ranieri, M L; Murphy, S C; Ralyea, R D; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2011-03-01

    Analytical tools that accurately predict the performance of raw milk following its manufacture into commercial food products are of economic interest to the dairy industry. To evaluate the ability of currently applied raw milk microbiological tests to predict the quality of commercially pasteurized fluid milk products, samples of raw milk and 2% fat pasteurized milk were obtained from 4 New York State fluid milk processors for a 1-yr period. Raw milk samples were examined using a variety of tests commonly applied to raw milk, including somatic cell count, standard plate count, psychrotrophic bacteria count, ropy milk test, coliform count, preliminary incubation count, laboratory pasteurization count, and spore pasteurization count. Differential and selective media were used to identify groups of bacteria present in raw milk. Pasteurized milk samples were held at 6°C for 21 d and evaluated for standard plate count, coliform count, and sensory quality throughout shelf-life. Bacterial isolates from select raw and pasteurized milk tests were identified using 16S ribosomal DNA sequencing. Linear regression analysis of raw milk test results versus results reflecting pasteurized milk quality consistently showed low R(2) values (<0.45); the majority of R(2) values were <0.25, indicating small relationship between the results from the raw milk tests and results from tests used to evaluate pasteurized milk quality. Our findings suggest the need for new raw milk tests that measure the specific biological barriers that limit shelf-life and quality of fluid milk products.

  15. Microbiological Evaluation of Ultra-High-Temperature (UHT)-Treated Milk Close to Expiry Date and Routine Home Practices for Preservation of Milk

    PubMed Central

    Jeppu, Udayalaxmi; Jayaram, Namitha; Satya, Sneha; Purayil, Amrutha Kandathil

    2015-01-01

    Background: As milk is an excellent medium for growth of microorganisms, milk gets contaminated very easily leading to its early spoilage and to milk-borne diseases. Objectives: To compare the quality of pasteurized milk with milk cooker-treated milk and to compare the quality of fresh ultra-high-temperature (UHT) milk with that of UHT milk close to expiry date. Materials and Methods: Samples of pasteurized milk, milk heated in milk cooker, fresh UHT milk, and UHT milk nearing expiry date were tested by methylene blue reduction test, coliform test, and colony count test. The results were analyzed statistically using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11.5. Results: All milk samples passed the methylene blue test and UHT-treated milk passed the coliform test also. Out of the 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples, seven (23.3%) passed the coliform test; but the same after milk cooker treatment, 16 (53.3%) passed the coliform test (P < 0.05). Fourteen (46.6%) out of 30 fresh pasteurized milk samples failed the colony count test, but the same after milk cooker treatment only eight (26.6%) failed the test (P = 0.583). Only seven out of the 60 UHT milk samples failed the colony count test and out of these six (20%) were close to expiry date (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Milk cooker-treated milk appears to be safer than the fresh pasteurized milk. Fresh UHT-treated milk is safer then UHT milk close to expiry date. PMID:26170541

  16. Estimation of hydrocarbon biodegradation rates in gasoline-contaminated sediment from measured respiration rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, R.J.; Baehr, A.L.; Lahvis, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    An open microcosm method for quantifying microbial respiration and estimating biodegradation rates of hydrocarbons in gasoline-contaminated sediment samples has been developed and validated. Stainless-steel bioreactors are filled with soil or sediment samples, and the vapor-phase composition (concentrations of oxygen (O2), nitrogen (N2), carbon dioxide (CO2), and selected hydrocarbons) is monitored over time. Replacement gas is added as the vapor sample is taken, and selection of the replacement gas composition facilitates real-time decision-making regarding environmental conditions within the bioreactor. This capability allows for maintenance of field conditions over time, which is not possible in closed microcosms. Reaction rates of CO2 and O2 are calculated from the vapor-phase composition time series. Rates of hydrocarbon biodegradation are either measured directly from the hydrocarbon mass balance, or estimated from CO2 and O2 reaction rates and assumed reaction stoichiometries. Open microcosm experiments using sediments spiked with toluene and p-xylene were conducted to validate the stoichiometric assumptions. Respiration rates calculated from O2 consumption and from CO2 production provide estimates of toluene and p- xylene degradation rates within about ??50% of measured values when complete mineralization stoichiometry is assumed. Measured values ranged from 851.1 to 965.1 g m-3 year-1 for toluene, and 407.2-942.3 g m-3 year-1 for p- xylene. Contaminated sediment samples from a gasoline-spill site were used in a second set of microcosm experiments. Here, reaction rates of O2 and CO2 were measured and used to estimate hydrocarbon respiration rates. Total hydrocarbon reaction rates ranged from 49.0 g m-3 year-1 in uncontaminated (background) to 1040.4 g m-3 year-1 for highly contaminated sediment, based on CO2 production data. These rate estimates were similar to those obtained independently from in situ CO2 vertical gradient and flux determinations at the

  17. Measurement of the residual contamination of post-weaning facilities for pigs and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Madec, F; Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Maris, P

    1999-02-01

    A survey was designed in France to assess residual contamination in post-weaning rooms within the 2 h prior to restocking when all the pigs of the previous batch had been removed (all in-all out) and after application of the 'in use' cleaning procedures. The protocol was based on the results of a pilot study and was considered 'a good compromise'. Special agar plates (Rodac plates) with a prominent agar medium surface were prepared and used to collect the bacteria. They were applied by impression onto the floors and the partitions between the pens. In all, 24 plates were applied per room. The culture medium was VRBG which mainly permits the growth of enterobacteria. The plates were incubated for 24 h (37 degrees C) and the Colony-Forming Units (CFU) counted. After sampling, measurements were made and information collected from the farmer to obtain potential explanations for the resulting microbiological data. The same scientist sampled 129 post-weaning rooms with slatted floors. Of the 3045 plates, 18.4% were negative and 12.8% were heavily colonized (> 300 CFU). A score combining six criteria based on the counts was produced, and indicated a wide spread of the rooms. The profile of circumstances associated with the different levels of the score was extracted. The following points should be respected to achieve low residual contamination: removal of the slurry from the pit below the slatted floor; damping to be started soon after pig removal; prolonged damping; thorough washing; disinfecting soon after washing; and attention to the recommended dosage of disinfectant. Smooth surfaces were found to be less contaminated than rough ones. It is concluded that cleaning and disinfecting operations must not be considered as minor tasks and should clearly be integrated into the process of pig production. PMID:10085772

  18. Measurement of the residual contamination of post-weaning facilities for pigs and related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Madec, F; Humbert, F; Salvat, G; Maris, P

    1999-02-01

    A survey was designed in France to assess residual contamination in post-weaning rooms within the 2 h prior to restocking when all the pigs of the previous batch had been removed (all in-all out) and after application of the 'in use' cleaning procedures. The protocol was based on the results of a pilot study and was considered 'a good compromise'. Special agar plates (Rodac plates) with a prominent agar medium surface were prepared and used to collect the bacteria. They were applied by impression onto the floors and the partitions between the pens. In all, 24 plates were applied per room. The culture medium was VRBG which mainly permits the growth of enterobacteria. The plates were incubated for 24 h (37 degrees C) and the Colony-Forming Units (CFU) counted. After sampling, measurements were made and information collected from the farmer to obtain potential explanations for the resulting microbiological data. The same scientist sampled 129 post-weaning rooms with slatted floors. Of the 3045 plates, 18.4% were negative and 12.8% were heavily colonized (> 300 CFU). A score combining six criteria based on the counts was produced, and indicated a wide spread of the rooms. The profile of circumstances associated with the different levels of the score was extracted. The following points should be respected to achieve low residual contamination: removal of the slurry from the pit below the slatted floor; damping to be started soon after pig removal; prolonged damping; thorough washing; disinfecting soon after washing; and attention to the recommended dosage of disinfectant. Smooth surfaces were found to be less contaminated than rough ones. It is concluded that cleaning and disinfecting operations must not be considered as minor tasks and should clearly be integrated into the process of pig production.

  19. Measuring the release of organic contaminants from melting snow under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Torsten; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2006-05-15

    The release of organic contaminants from a melting snowpack may result in temporary concentration peaks in receiving water bodies and respective pulse exposure of aquatic organisms. It is thus of considerable interest to gain a mechanistic and quantitative understanding of the processes determining the dynamic behavior of organic chemicals during snowmelt. Uniformly structured and contaminated snow was produced with the help of a newly designed snow gun and exposed to predetermined temperature conditions in a temperature-controlled cold room. The dry density and liquid water content during four freeze-thaw cycles was recorded continuously at different layers within the snowpack using time domain reflectometry, providing information on meltwater production and propagation as well as snow metamorphism. Fractionated meltwater samples were filtered and the dissolved and particle phase analyzed for five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry. The distribution of the PAHs between the dissolved and particulate fractions of the meltwater was strongly related to their hydrophobicity. Particle-bound PAHs were released late during the snowmelt, whereas PAHs in the dissolved phase were released uniformly during a two day melting period. Even though conductivity measurements indicated a preferential early elution of ions in the first meltwater fractions, no such "first flush" behavior was observed for soluble PAH. The developed laboratory-based approach opens up for the first time the possibility of reproducible experiments on organic contaminant behavior in snow. Future experiments will explore, in detail, how the properties of organic chemicals, the physical and chemical properties of the snowpack, and the temperature variations before and during the time of melting interact to determine the timing of chemical release from a snowpack. PMID:16749700

  20. Genetic and environmental relationships of different measures of individual cheese yield and curd nutrients recovery with coagulation properties of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between various cheesemaking-related traits, namely the well-known traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the new curd firming and syneresis traits, the cheese yield, and the curd nutrient recoveries or whey losses (all measured at the individual level). Data were obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds. A 2-L milk sample was collected once from each animal and assessed for 10 phenotypes related to changes in curd firmness (CF) over time, plus 7 cheesemaking traits. The CF-related traits included 4 traditional single-point lactodynamographic properties [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min); time to a CF of 20mm, min; and the CF 30 and 45 min after rennet addition (a30 and a45, respectively)], 4 parameters used to model the 360 CF data recorded over time for each milk sample [the potential asymptotic CF at infinite time (CFP, mm); the CF instant rate constant, % × min(-1); the syneresis instant rate constant, % × min(-1); and the RCT obtained from modeling individual samples], and 2 traits calculated from individual equations [the maximum CF(CFmax, mm); and the time at CFmax, min]. The cheesemaking traits included 3 cheese yield traits (weights of the fresh curd, curd solids and curd moisture as percent of the weights of the processed milk) and 4 milk nutrient recoveries in the curd (calculated as the percent ratios between a given nutrient in the curd versus that in the processed milk). Bayesian methodology-based multivariate analyses were used to estimate the phenotypic, additive genetic, herd/date, and residual relationships between the aforementioned traits, whereas statistical inferences were based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of concern. The a45, CFP, and CFmax traits were genetically associated with all of the percent cheese yield traits (the additive genetic correlations varied from 0.752 to 0.855 for a45; 0.496 to 0.583 for CFP; and 0.750 to 0

  1. Genetic and environmental relationships of different measures of individual cheese yield and curd nutrients recovery with coagulation properties of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between various cheesemaking-related traits, namely the well-known traditional milk coagulation properties (MCP), the new curd firming and syneresis traits, the cheese yield, and the curd nutrient recoveries or whey losses (all measured at the individual level). Data were obtained from 1,167 Brown Swiss cows reared in 85 herds. A 2-L milk sample was collected once from each animal and assessed for 10 phenotypes related to changes in curd firmness (CF) over time, plus 7 cheesemaking traits. The CF-related traits included 4 traditional single-point lactodynamographic properties [rennet coagulation time (RCT, min); time to a CF of 20mm, min; and the CF 30 and 45 min after rennet addition (a30 and a45, respectively)], 4 parameters used to model the 360 CF data recorded over time for each milk sample [the potential asymptotic CF at infinite time (CFP, mm); the CF instant rate constant, % × min(-1); the syneresis instant rate constant, % × min(-1); and the RCT obtained from modeling individual samples], and 2 traits calculated from individual equations [the maximum CF(CFmax, mm); and the time at CFmax, min]. The cheesemaking traits included 3 cheese yield traits (weights of the fresh curd, curd solids and curd moisture as percent of the weights of the processed milk) and 4 milk nutrient recoveries in the curd (calculated as the percent ratios between a given nutrient in the curd versus that in the processed milk). Bayesian methodology-based multivariate analyses were used to estimate the phenotypic, additive genetic, herd/date, and residual relationships between the aforementioned traits, whereas statistical inferences were based on the marginal posterior distributions of the parameters of concern. The a45, CFP, and CFmax traits were genetically associated with all of the percent cheese yield traits (the additive genetic correlations varied from 0.752 to 0.855 for a45; 0.496 to 0.583 for CFP; and 0.750 to 0

  2. Hot Topic: Brown marmorated stink bug odor compounds do not transfer into milk by feeding bug-contaminated corn silage to lactating dairy cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, is an emerging invasive species of grave concern to agriculture as a polyphagous plant pest with potential negative impact on the dairy industry. We sought to determine the risk of including BMSB contaminated silage in lactating dairy cow ratio...

  3. The influence of governmental mitigation measures on contamination characteristics of PM(2.5) in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    Beijing, the capital of China, has become one of the most air-polluted cities due to its rapid economic growth. Weekly PM2.5 samples-collected continuously from 2007 to 2010-were used to study the contamination characteristics of atmospheric particles and effects of governmental mitigation measures especially since the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. PM2.5 mass concentrations during the sampling period were reduced compared to the previous studies before 2005, although they were still too high in comparison with environmental standards of China and many other countries as well as WHO standards. Results of principle component analysis show that elements of primary anthropogenic origin had an obvious decline while elements mainly from the natural environment kept a relatively stable course. The governmental macro-control measures influenced both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, but they also led to some pollution peaks prior to implementation of the respective measures. Some element concentrations correlated to the restrictiveness of relative measures, especially during different traffic restrictions. The comparison with other countries and international standards shows that there is a long way to go in order to improve air quality in Beijing, and that governmental mitigation measures need to be continued and reinforced. PMID:24887192

  4. The influence of governmental mitigation measures on contamination characteristics of PM(2.5) in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Schleicher, Nina; Chen, Yizhen; Chai, Fahe; Norra, Stefan

    2014-08-15

    Beijing, the capital of China, has become one of the most air-polluted cities due to its rapid economic growth. Weekly PM2.5 samples-collected continuously from 2007 to 2010-were used to study the contamination characteristics of atmospheric particles and effects of governmental mitigation measures especially since the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. PM2.5 mass concentrations during the sampling period were reduced compared to the previous studies before 2005, although they were still too high in comparison with environmental standards of China and many other countries as well as WHO standards. Results of principle component analysis show that elements of primary anthropogenic origin had an obvious decline while elements mainly from the natural environment kept a relatively stable course. The governmental macro-control measures influenced both anthropogenic and geogenic sources, but they also led to some pollution peaks prior to implementation of the respective measures. Some element concentrations correlated to the restrictiveness of relative measures, especially during different traffic restrictions. The comparison with other countries and international standards shows that there is a long way to go in order to improve air quality in Beijing, and that governmental mitigation measures need to be continued and reinforced.

  5. Tracing the dispersion of contaminated sediment with plutonium isotope measurements in coastal catchments of Fukushima Prefecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, Olivier; Pointurier, Fabien; Onda, Yuichi; Chartin, Caroline; Hubert, Amélie; Lepage, Hugo; Pottin, Anne-Claire; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Laceby, J. Patrick; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident led to important releases of radionuclides into the environment, and trace levels of plutonium (Pu) were detected in northeastern Japan. However, measurement of Pu isotopic atom and activity ratios is required to differentiate between the contributions of global nuclear test fallout and FDNPP emissions. In this study, we measured Pu isotopic ratios in recently deposited sediments along rivers draining the most contaminated part of the inland radioactive plume. To this end, we carried out a thorough chemical purification and concentration of Pu from sediment samples (5 g dry material) and precise isotopic measurements using a double-focusing sector field ICP-MS. Results showed that the entire range of measured Pu isotopes (i.e., 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu, and 242Pu) were detected in all samples, although in extremely low concentrations. The 241Pu/239Pu atom ratios measured in sediment deposits (0.0017-0.0884) were significantly higher than the corresponding values attributed to the global fallout (0.00113±0.00008 on average in the Northern Hemisphere between 31°-71°N). The results indicated the presence of Pu from FDNPP, in slight excess compared to the Pu background from global fallout, representing up to ca. 60% of Pu in the analyzed samples. These results demonstrate that this radionuclide has been transported relatively long distances (45 km) from FDNPP and deposited in rivers representing a potential source of Pu to the ocean.

  6. Contamination measurements during IUS thermal vacuum tests in a large space chamber. [IUS equipment support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mullen, C. R.; Shaw, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    The levels of contamination that originate from inside the IUS equipment support section (ESS) due to outgassing from electronics components and wiring operating at elevated temperatures (80-160 F) were investigated. Pressure was measured inside and outside the ESS. Mass deposition measurements were made with quartz crystal microbalances (QCM) facing into and away from ESS vents. The OCM's were operated at -50 C and -180 C using thermoelectrically and cryogenically cooled QCM's. Gaseous nitrogen flow inside the ESS was used to obtain the effective molecular flow vent area of the ESS, which was evaluated to be 359 sq cm (56 sq in) compared to the 978 sq cm (150 sq in) estimated by an earlier atmosphere pressure billowing test. The total outgassing rate of the ESS materials at a temperature of 60 C (140 F) decays with a time constant of 11.5 hours based on pressure measurements during the hot cycle. A time constant of 22 hours was estimated for the fraction of the outgassing which will condense on a -50 C surface. In contrast, the time constant is only 10.1 hours for the outgassing material which condenses on a surface at -180 C. A surface at -180 C collects approximately one half of the material vented from the ESS which impinges on it. Pressure measurements show very good correlation with the mass deposition measurements.

  7. Microbiological Assessment of Raw Goat Milk Collected from Sardinian Herds

    PubMed Central

    Carusillo, Francesca; Rosu, Valentina; Fancello, Cipriana; Pirino, Tonino; Bandino, Ennio

    2014-01-01

    With Regulation EC 853/04, the European Parliament and the Council laid down general rules for food business operators regarding the hygiene of foodstuffs. In particular, the regulation established ≤1.500.000 cfu/mL as the maximum-tolerated value for total bacterial count in raw goat milk. Moreover, in order to enhance the hygiene of dairy farms, the Sardinia Region has funded the F measure programme which provides rewards for farmers showing improvements in herd management and animal welfare practices. This work aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw goat milk samples collected during the F measure enforcement. A total of 536 raw goat samples, collected from dairy farms in the Sardinian province of Nuoro and Ogliastra, were analised for total bacterial count at 30°C. Results showed that total bacterial count was ≤1.500.000 ufc/mL in 456 (85.1%) raw milk goat samples, most of them (80.2%) with a total bacterial contamination <500.000 cfu/mL. This study confirms the hygienic good quality of raw goat milk collected from Sardinian dairy farms. PMID:27800332

  8. Measuring rates of biodegradation in a contaminated aquifer using field and laboratory methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Lovley, D.R.; Vroblesky, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    Rates of biodegradation were measured in a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer using a combination of field and laboratory methods. These methods are based on tracking concentration changes of substrates (both electron donors and acceptors) or final products of microbial metabolism over time. Ground water at the study site (Hanahan, South Carolina) is anoxic, and sulfate reduction it the predominant terminal electron accepting process. Laboratory studies conducted with sediment cored from the site showed that 14C-toluene was mineralized to 14CO2 with a first-order degradation rate constant (ktol) of- 0.01 d-1 under sulfate-reducing conditions. Under nitrate-amended, Fe(III)-amended, or nonamended (methanogenic) conditions, toluene was not significantly mineralized. 14C-Benzene was degraded at low but measurable rates (kbrn= 0.003 d-1) under sulfate-reducing conditions whereas degradation under methanogenic conditions was negligible. These results illustrate the extreme sensitivity of laboratory-measured biodegradation rates to terminal electron-accepting conditions, and show the necessity of carefully matching experimental conditions to in situ conditions. Concentration decreases of toluene along aquifer flowpaths, when the uncertainty of ground-water flow velocities was considered, indicated ktol values ranging from -0.0075 to -0.03 d-1. Concentration decreases of sulfate and concentration increase of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), when normalized for assumed stoichiometric oxidation of toluene coupled to sulfate reduction, yielded a kso4 range of -0.005 to -0.02 d-1, and a kDIC value range of +0.00075 to -0.003 d-1. Because both laboratory and field methods have numerous sources of uncertainty, a combination of these methods is the most appropriate procedure for evaluating biodegradation rate constants in contaminated ground-water systems.

  9. Nanomanufacturing concerns about measurements made in the SEM II: specimen contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postek, Michael T.; Vladár, András. E.; Purushotham, Kavuri P.

    2013-09-01

    The scanning electron microscope (SEM) has gone through a tremendous evolution to become a critical tool for many and diverse scientific and industrial applications. The improvements that have been made have significantly improved the overall SEM performance and have made the instrument far easier to operate. But, ease of operation also fosters operator complacency. In addition, the user friendliness has reduced the "apparent" need for more thorough operator training for using of these instruments. Therefore, this overall attitude has fostered the concept that the SEM is just another expensive digital camera or another peripheral device for a computer. Hence, a person using the instrument may be lulled into thinking that all of the potential pitfalls have been eliminated and they believe everything they see on the micrograph is always correct. But, this may not be the case. The first paper in this series, discussed some of the issues related to signal generation in the SEM, instrument calibration, electron beam interactions and the need for physics-based modelling to accurately understand the actual image formation mechanisms. All these were summed together in a discussion of how these issues effect measurements made with the instrument. This second paper, discusses another major issue confronting the microscopist: specimen contamination. Over the years, NIST has done a great deal of research into the issue of sample contamination and its removal and elimination and some of this work is reviewed and discussed here.

  10. Anthrax letters: personal exposure, building contamination, and effectiveness of immediate mitigation measures.

    PubMed

    Kournikakis, Bill; Ho, Jim; Duncan, Scott

    2010-02-01

    This report is the first detailed and quantitative study of potential mitigation procedures intended to deal with anthrax letters using a simulated anthrax letter release within an actual office building. Spore aerosols were created by opening letters containing 0.1 g of dry powdered Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Culturable aerosol samples were collected using slit-to-agar and filter-based samplers. Five test scenarios were designed to determine whether simple mitigation procedures or activities carried out by the person who opened the letter made a significant difference to aerosol concentrations in comparison to a control scenario where no activity took place. Surface contamination of the letter opener was measured at 10 body points for Scenarios 1 to 4. A sixth scenario, based on published Centers for Disease Control and Prevention anthrax letter response guidelines, used letters containing 1 g of spores. Results demonstrated that the spore aerosol spread throughout the building in less than 4.5 min. Potential mitigation techniques such as closing the office door or shutting off the ventilation system were not effective. Activities carried out by the letter opener including moving, walking to another location, and spraying water onto the contaminated desk with a hand sprayer all resulted in significantly higher aerosol concentrations in comparison to control. The potential total inhalational hazard for the letter opener during the five test scenarios ranged from 4.1 x 10(5) to 1.6 x 10(6) colony forming units (CFU) compared to 3.9 x 10(5) CFU for the control. Surface contamination of the letter opener (Scenarios 1 to 4) was highest on the right hip (4.8 x 10(4) to 1.0 x 10(5) CFU/cm(- 2)) and lowest on the right or left side of the head (2.2 x 10(2) to 3.7 x 10(3) CFU/cm(-2)). The statistically based methodology used in this study provided the means to objectively assess anthrax letter protocols to determine their effectiveness under realistic conditions

  11. Transfer of Cs-137 from grass and wilted grass silage to milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vreman, K; van der Struijs, T D; van den Hoek, J; Berende, P L; Goedhart, P W

    1989-09-01

    Deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Netherlands made it possible to collect contaminated fresh grass and first cut wilted grass silage. These contaminated roughages were used in transfer experiments with lactating dairy cows to determine transfer coefficients and half-lives for Cs-137 in milk. The experimental design was based on three consecutive periods: a preliminary period to determine the background concentration of the isotope in milk, a contamination period to determine the magnitude of accumulation and finally a depletion period to measure the rate at which the activity concentration of Cs-137 in milk declined after continuous feeding. The average transfer coefficient (Fmilk) for cows fed on contaminated dried grass under steady-state conditions was 0.002 d/kg and for cows fed on slightly contaminated second cut fresh grass 0.006 d/kg. The highest transfer coefficients were obtained for cows fed on contaminated grass silage for 119 days, which also included the dry period of about two months. For the first five days after calving the Fmilk values varied from 0.0066 to 0.0091 d/kg. There were no significant differences in transfer coefficients between cows in early lactation (third month of lactation), cows in late lactation (the last month of the lactation period) and cows fed on both contaminated grass silage and uncontaminated maize silage simultaneously. Half-life values for the rate of decline of the isotope in milk during the depletion period were estimated on the basis of a mathematical model with two exponential components. These components were characterized by half-lives of 0.5 to 3.5 days and 10 to 46 days. PMID:2814441

  12. Transfer of Cs-137 from grass and wilted grass silage to milk of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vreman, K; van der Struijs, T D; van den Hoek, J; Berende, P L; Goedhart, P W

    1989-09-01

    Deposition of radiocaesium from the Chernobyl reactor accident on the Netherlands made it possible to collect contaminated fresh grass and first cut wilted grass silage. These contaminated roughages were used in transfer experiments with lactating dairy cows to determine transfer coefficients and half-lives for Cs-137 in milk. The experimental design was based on three consecutive periods: a preliminary period to determine the background concentration of the isotope in milk, a contamination period to determine the magnitude of accumulation and finally a depletion period to measure the rate at which the activity concentration of Cs-137 in milk declined after continuous feeding. The average transfer coefficient (Fmilk) for cows fed on contaminated dried grass under steady-state conditions was 0.002 d/kg and for cows fed on slightly contaminated second cut fresh grass 0.006 d/kg. The highest transfer coefficients were obtained for cows fed on contaminated grass silage for 119 days, which also included the dry period of about two months. For the first five days after calving the Fmilk values varied from 0.0066 to 0.0091 d/kg. There were no significant differences in transfer coefficients between cows in early lactation (third month of lactation), cows in late lactation (the last month of the lactation period) and cows fed on both contaminated grass silage and uncontaminated maize silage simultaneously. Half-life values for the rate of decline of the isotope in milk during the depletion period were estimated on the basis of a mathematical model with two exponential components. These components were characterized by half-lives of 0.5 to 3.5 days and 10 to 46 days.

  13. Public health and the safety of milk and milk products from sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Klinger, I; Rosenthal, I

    1997-08-01

    Goats and sheep rank third and fourth in terms of global milk production from different species, but unlike cow milk, which has stringent hygiene and quality regulations, microbiological standards for the production and distribution of goat milk and sheep milk are more relaxed. Difficulties in managing the sanitary quality of sheep and goat milk derive from a series of factors including the low level of production per head, the milking system, the difficulty involved in machine milking, the conditions under which the herds or flocks are raised, adverse climatic conditions and the spread of production over a wide geographic area. Fresh goat milk is consumed by infants and others with allergies to cow milk and is also used for on-farm manufactured cheese, with or without thermal treatment. The high fat content and peculiar taste of cheeses made from ewe milk are also very popular. These cheese varieties, which are mostly still of 'artisan-type', are not covered by regulatory definitions and the dispute over the use of raw versus pasteurised milk is still alive. However, in documented intoxications recorded after the consumption of cheese, there has always been evidence of incorrect temperature control during pasteurisation, the deliberate addition of raw milk, or contamination during storage. Compositional differences between the milk from cows, ewes and goats (chemical composition of lipids, phosphatase level, freezing point, natural bacterial inhibitor levels, somatic cell count, etc.) preclude the nondiscriminatory use of bovine standards for regulatory purposes. Quality standards adjusted for the specifics of ewe/goat milk should be considered. The production of safe cheese is linked to a series of conditions which ensure consumer health, primarily pasteurisation. In the absence of pasteurisation, all cheeses made from raw milk should be subjected to strict periodic controls.

  14. Factors associated with coliform count in unpasteurized bulk milk.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, J C F; Reinemann, D J; Ruegg, P L

    2011-06-01

    associated with CC, as estimated in milk before storage in tankers or bulk tanks, and highlight the importance of proper and consistent milking machine washes in minimizing bulk milk coliform contamination. The nature of the associations between liner CC, rate of cluster washes, rate of milking units fall-offs, and ILCC indicates that managing and monitoring such events has the potential for improving bacteriological quality of farm bulk milk. PMID:21605737

  15. Milk production and economic measures in confinement or pasture systems using seasonally calved Holstein and Jersey cows.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Benson, G A; Washburn, S P; Green, J T

    2002-01-01

    This 4-yr study examined total lactation performance of dairy cows in two feeding systems: pasture-based and confinement. Spring and fall calving herds were used and each seasonal herd had 36 cows on pasture and 36 cows in confinement with 282 Holstein and 222 Jersey cows included over seven seasonal replicates. Pasture-fed cows received variable amounts of grain and baled haylage depending upon pasture availability. Confinement cows received a total mixed ration with corn silage as the primary forage. Data were collected on milk production, feed costs, and other costs. Pasture-fed cows produced 11.1% less milk than confinement cows. Across treatments, Jerseys produced 23.3% less milk than Holsteins, but calving season and various interactions were not significant. Feed costs averaged $0.95/cow per day lower for pastured cows than confinement cows. Feed costs were lower for Jerseys than Holsteins and for cows calving in spring. Income over feed costs averaged $7.05 +/- 0.34 for confinement Holsteins, $6.89 +/- 0.34 for pastured Holsteins, $5.68 +/- 0.34 for confinement Jerseys, and $5.36 +/- 0.34 for pastured Jerseys; effects of breed were significant but treatment, season, and interactions were not. Economic factors such as labor for animal care, manure handling, forage management, and cow culling rates favored pastured cows. Higher fertility and lower mastitis among Jerseys partially offsets lower income over feed cost compared with Holsteins. Milk production was lower in this study for pasture-based systems but lower feed costs, lower culling costs, and other economic factors indicate that pasture-based systems can be competitive with confinement systems.

  16. Analyses of uranium and actinium gamma spectra: an application to measurements of environmental contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Momeni, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    A system for the reduction of the complex gamma spectra of nuclides in the uranium, actinium, and thorium series, tailored to calculation of line intensities, analyses of errors, and identification of nuclides is described. This system provides an efficient technique for characterizing contamination in the environs of uranium mines and mills. Identification of the nuclides and calculation of their concentrations require accurate knowledge of gamma energies and absolute quantum intensities. For some spectral lines, there are no reported measurements of absolute quantum intensities and in some cases where reports are available the measured intensities are not in agreement. In order to improve this data base, the spectra of gamma rays (of nuclides in the uranium and actinium series) with energies between 40 and 1400 keV were measured using high-resolution germanium detectors. A brief description of the spectroscopy system, computational algorithms for deconvolution, and methods of calibration for energy and efficiency, are described. The measured energies and absolute quantum intensities are compared with those reported in the literature.

  17. Ultrasonic Cross-Correlation Flow Measurement: Theory, Noise Contamination Mechanisms, and a Noise Mitigation Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, D.M.; Lysak, P.D.; Capone, D.E.; Brown, W.L.; Askari, V.

    2006-07-01

    Based on past experience with ultrasonic cross-correlation flow meters in power plant environments, the presence of spatially correlated noise due to pressure waves, vibration, or sources other than transport of turbulent eddies will cause a bias in the time delays measured by the meter. Several techniques were developed to detect the existence of such correlated noise and correct for its effect at plant conditions. An analytical and experimental investigation was performed to further understand the basic physics of the noise mechanisms. The dominant error mechanisms investigated in this work were speed of sound perturbations due to pressure fluctuations and beam path length changes due to wall vibration. An analytical model was formulated which estimates the signal level of the flow meter based on the turbulent velocity field. From this model, an estimate of the system noise which would cause contamination could be determined. A test at a water tunnel facility was performed in order to evaluate the noise mechanisms. During this test, measurements were taken with and without controlled noise sources. Pressure and acceleration measurements were used to evaluate a coherent noise removal technique developed to mitigate the impact of noise in the ultrasonic cross-correlation flow measurement. The coherent noise removal technique was shown to be effective in removing noise during the water tunnel test. (authors)

  18. Measuring fuel contamination using high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Farrington, S.P.; Bratton, W.L.; Akard, M.L.

    1995-10-01

    Decision processes during characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites are greatly retarded by the turnaround time and expense incurred through the use of conventional sampling and laboratory analyses. Furthermore, conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between and among sampling devices and containers. While on-site analysis by conventional gas chromatography can reduce analytical turnaround time, time-consuming sample preparation procedures are still often required, and the potential for loss of VOC is not reduced. This report describes the development of a high speed gas chromatography and cone penetration testing system which can detect and measure subsurface fuel contamination in situ during the cone penetration process.

  19. Measurement of helium isotopes in soil gas as an indicator of tritium groundwater contamination.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Khris B; Dresel, P Evan; Evans, John C; McMahon, William J; Poreda, Robert

    2006-05-01

    The focus of this study was to define the shape and extent of tritium groundwater contamination emanating from a legacy burial ground and to identify vadose zone sources of tritium using helium isotopes (3He and 4He) in soil gas. Helium isotopes were measured in soil-gas samples collected from 70 sampling points around the perimeter and downgradient of a burial ground that contains buried radioactive solid waste. The soil-gas samples were analyzed for helium isotopes using rare gas mass spectrometry. 3He/4He ratios, reported as normalized to the air ratio (RA), were used to locate the tritium groundwater plume emanating from the burial ground. The 3He (excess) suggested that the general location of the tritium source is within the burial ground. This study clearly demonstrated the efficacy of the 3He method for application to similar sites elsewhere within the DOE weapons complex.

  20. Nurturing and breast-feeding: exposure to chemicals in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Somogyi, A; Beck, H

    1993-01-01

    All chemicals that are not normal constituents of human milk should be considered undesirable contaminants. In the present review, the following substances detected in human milk are considered: persistent organochlorine pesticides; polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB); polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDF); polybrominated compounds; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH); trace elements; mycotoxins; nitrate, nitrite, nitrosamines; nicotine, caffeine, ethanol; and drugs. The levels of most of these substances found in human milk were within a range that would not constitute health hazards for breast-fed infants. For many of these, there is a comfortable safety margin. This applies also to organochlorine pesticides and PCB, particularly since, as a result of their discontinued use, the levels of these compounds have clearly declined in recent years. On the other hand, the aflatoxin burden mediated through breast milk, at least in certain tropical countries, appears to pose a definite health hazard. Detailed reference are given on the contamination of human milk with PCDD/PCDF which has to be considered as a matter of concern from the viewpoint of preventive public health. Although the low PCDD/PCDF levels found in the adipose tissue of infants indicate that there is no appreciable health risk emanating from these substances for breast-fed infants, appropriate measures to reduce the current rate of their emission into the environment have to be taken. PMID:8243405

  1. Assessment of the application of bioanalytical tools as surrogate measure of chemical contaminants in recycled water.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Laingam, Somprasong; Prochazka, Erik; Froscio, Suzanne; Trinh, Trang; Chapman, Heather F; Humpage, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The growing use of recycled water in large urban centres requires comprehensive public health risk assessment and management, an important aspect of which is the assessment and management of residual trace chemical substances. Bioanalytical methods such as in vitro bioassays may be ideal screening tools that can detect a wide range of contaminants based on their biological effect. In this study, we applied thirteen in vitro assays selected explicitly for their ability to detect molecular and cellular effects relevant to potential chemical exposure via drinking water as a means of screening for chemical contaminants from recycled water at 9 Australian water reclamation plants, in parallel to more targeted direct chemical analysis of 39 priority compounds. The selected assays provided measures of primary non-specific (cytotoxicity to various cell types), specific (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and endocrine receptor-mediated effects) and reactive toxicity (mutagenicity and genotoxicity), as well as markers of adaptive stress response (modulation of cytokine production) and xenobiotic metabolism (liver enzyme induction). Chemical and bioassay analyses were in agreement and complementary to each other: the results show that source water (treated wastewater) contained high levels of biologically active compounds, with positive results in almost all bioassays. The quality of the product water (reclaimed water) was only marginally better after ultrafiltration or dissolved air floatation/filtration, but greatly improved after reverse osmosis often reducing biological activity to below detection limit. The bioassays were able to detect activity at concentrations below current chemical method detection limits and provided a sum measure of all biologically active compounds for that bioassay, thus providing an additional degree of confidence in water quality.

  2. Applying the common sense model to measure representations of arsenic contaminated well water.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J; Baumann, Linda C; Brown, Roger L

    2008-09-01

    Theory-based research is needed to understand how people respond to environmental health risk information. Both the common sense model (CSM) of self-regulation and the mental models approach propose that information shapes individuals' personal understandings that, in turn, influence their decisions and actions. We compare these frameworks and explain how the CSM was applied to describe and measure mental representations of arsenic contaminated well water. Educational information, key informant interviews, and environmental risk literature were used to develop survey items to measure dimensions of cognitive representations (identity, cause, timeline, consequences, control) and emotional representations. Surveys mailed to 1,067 private well users with moderate and elevated arsenic levels yielded an 84 % response rate (n = 897). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of data from the elevated arsenic group identified a factor structure that retained the CSM representational structure and was consistent across moderate and elevated arsenic groups. The CSM has utility for describing and measuring representations of environmental health risks, thus supporting its application to environmental health risk communication research.

  3. Status and trends in concentrations of contaminants and measures of biological stress in San Francisco Bay. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Long, E.; MacDonald, D.; Matta, M.B.; VanNess, K.; Buchman, M.

    1988-05-01

    Under the National Status and Trends (NS T) Program, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) monitors the occurrence of certain contaminants and indicators of biological stress at approximately 200 sites in the United States. The Program was initiated in 1984 to provide an internally consistent data base for assessing the condition of parts of the Nation's coastal and estuarine environments. The Program thus far has focused largely upon generation of chemical contaminant data for sediments, fish, and bivalves, and certain analyses of these data. The results of the initial analyses are summarized in progress reports (NOAA, 1987a and b). The objectives of the report are to: (1) portray geographic trends in the concentrations of contaminants and the prevalence of selected measures of biological effects; (2) portray temporal trends in concentrations of contaminants and prevalence of selected measures of biological effects; (3) relate selected measures of biological effects to the concentrations of contaminants; and (4) compare the trends observed in available historical data to compatible recent measurements made by NOAA in San Francisco Bay. These objectives will be met through evaluation of data collected by NOAA and the many others who have studied the conditions in San Fransisco Bay. Some of the data from the NOAA NS T Program will be reported for the first time in the report.

  4. Simultaneous measurements of wire electrode surface contamination and corona discharge characteristics in an air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Kanazawa, Seiji; Ohkubo, Toshikazu; Nomoto, Yukiharu; Adachi, Takayoshi; Chang, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Contamination of the corona wire in a wire-to-plate type air-cleaning electrostatic precipitator is studied experimentally. In order to enhance the contamination of wire, air containing dusts is directly supplied to a part of the wire electrode. Spores of Lycopodium and cigarette smoke particles are used as test dusts. Simultaneous measurements of wire electrode optical images and corona discharge modes are carried out during contamination processes. Results show that corona discharge modes and optical emission from the wire electrode change with time due to the surface contamination. In the case of cigarette smoke, after a time elapsed, streamer coronas appear due to the buildup of smoke particles on the wire surface. After the first streamer generation, the corona current fluctuates with time because the formation and diminution of the projections occur alternately at the different parts on the wire electrode surface.

  5. [Disinfectants and main sanitary and preventive measures for protection of ventilation and air-conditioning systems from Legionella contamination].

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, V N; Golov, E A; Khramov, M V; Diatlov, I A

    2008-01-01

    The study was devoted to selection and assessment of disinfecting preparations for prevention of contamination by Legionella. Using system of criteria for quality assessment of disinfectants, seven newdomestic ones belonging to quaternary ammonium compounds class or to oxygen-containing preparations and designed for disinfecting of air-conditioning and ventilation systems were selected. Antibacterial and disinfecting activities of working solutions of disinfectants were tested in laboratory on the test-surfaces and test-objects of premises' air-conditioning and ventilation systems contaminated with Legionella. High antimicrobial and disinfecting activity of new preparations "Dezactiv-M", "ExtraDez", "Emital-Garant", "Aquasept Plus", "Samarovka", "Freesept", and "Ecobreeze Oxy" during their exposure on objects and materials contaminated with Legionella was shown. Main sanitary and preventive measures for defending of air-conditioning and ventilation systems from contamination by Legionella species were presented.

  6. Development and Application of the Remote Food Photography Method to Measure Food Intake in Exclusively Milk Fed Infants: A Laboratory-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Altazan, Abby D.; Gilmore, L. Anne; Burton, Jeffrey H.; Ragusa, Shelly A.; Apolzan, John W.; Martin, Corby K.; Redman, Leanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate methods of assessing food intake in infants are needed to assess the relationship between infant feeding practices and risk of childhood obesity. Current methods are either subjective or have limited ability for use beyond clinical research settings. Objective To assess the accuracy of the RFPM to evaluate simulated milk intake including energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intake compared to direct weighing within a controlled study. Methods Individuals were recruited to prepare three 2 fl oz, 4 fl oz, 6 fl oz, and 8 fl oz servings of infant formula and to capture photographs at different stages of preparation (dry powdered formula, prepared formula, and liquid waste) using the SmartIntake® application. Gram weights of the bottles were obtained by the RFPM and direct weighing. Using the United States Department of Agriculture National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient values were generated from gram weights. Results Intake of formula prepared from powder measured by the RFPM was equivalent to weighed intake within 7.5% equivalence bounds among all servings and each serving size. The mean difference between methods varied among servings sizes with the RFPM underestimating intake by 1.6 ± 0.4 kcals in 2 fl oz servings, 4.8 ± 0.6 kcals in 4 fl oz servings, and 6.2 ± 1.0 kcals in 6 fl oz servings, and overestimating intake by 0.1 ± 1.2 kcals in 8 fl oz servings. Bland-Altman analysis showed that the RFPM overestimated intake at lower levels food intake and underestimated intake at higher levels. Considering photographs of only the prepared formula bottle and the bottle with formula waste to simulate ready-to-feed formula and human breast milk, intake estimated by the RFPM was equivalent to the directly weighed intake within 7.5% for all servings. Conclusions The RFPM has higher accuracy than subjective methods and similar accuracy as compared to the objective methods in estimating simulated

  7. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    PubMed

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat.

  8. Adequacy of the Measurement Capability of Fatty Acid Compositions and Sterol Profiles to Determine Authenticity of Milk Fat Through Formulation of Adulterated Butter.

    PubMed

    Soha, Sahel; Mortazavian, Amir M; Piravi-Vanak, Zahra; Mohammadifar, Mohammad A; Sahafar, Hamed; Nanvazadeh, Sara

    2015-01-01

    In this research a comparison has been made between the fatty acid and sterol compositions of Iranian pure butter and three samples of adulterated butter. These samples were formulated using edible vegetable fats/oils with similar milk fat structures including palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil to determine the authenticity of milk fat. The amount of vegetable fats/oils used in the formulation of the adulterated butter was 10%. The adulterated samples were formulated so that their fatty acid profiles were comforted with acceptable levels of pure butter as specified by the Iranian national standard. Based on the type of the vegetable oil/fat, fatty acids such as C4:0, C12:0 and C18:2 were used as indicators for the adulterated formulations. According to the standard method of ISO, the analysis was performed using gas chromatography. The cholesterol contents were 99.71% in pure butter (B1), and 97.61%, 98.48% and 97.98% of the total sterols in the samples adulterated with palm olein, palm kernel and coconut oil (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Contents of the main phytosterol profiles such as β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol were also determined. The β-sitosterol content, as an indicator of phytosterols, was 0% in pure butter, and 1.81%, 1.67% and 2.16%, of the total sterols in the adulterated samples (B2, B3 and B4), respectively. Our findings indicate that fatty acid profiles are not an efficient indicator for butter authentication. Despite the increase in phytosterols and the reduction in cholesterol and with regard to the conformity of the sterol profiles of the edible fats/oils used in the formulations with Codex standards, lower cholesterol and higher phytosterols contents should have been observed. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient to verify the authenticity of the milk fat in butter. It can therefore be concluded that sterol measurement is insufficient in verifying the authenticity of milk fat. PMID:26246145

  9. Agent Orange Exposure and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Scialli, Anthony R; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Agent Orange was sprayed in parts of southern Vietnam during the U.S.-Vietnam war and was a mixture of two chlorophenoxy herbicides. The mixture was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD and other dioxins and furans are measurable in the milk of Vietnamese women. We explored whether the TCDD in milk from these women was from Agent Orange and whether lactational exposure can be a mode of transgenerational effects of TCDD from Agent Orange. A review of the world's literature on milk concentrations of polychlorinated compounds showed the presence of TCDD and other dioxins and furans in all countries that have been assessed. The congener profile of these chemicals, that is, the proportion of different congeners in the sample, can be used to assess the source of milk contamination. Measurements in most countries, including contemporary measurements in Vietnam, are consistent with non-Agent Orange exposure sources, including industrial activities and incineration of waste. Models and supporting human data suggest that TCDD from breastfeeding does not persist in a child past adolescence and that the adult body burden of TCDD is independent of whether the individual was breast- or bottle-fed as a child. These findings suggest that exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam did not result in persistent transgenerational exposure through human milk.

  10. Agent Orange Exposure and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin (TCDD) in Human Milk.

    PubMed

    Scialli, Anthony R; Watkins, Deborah K; Ginevan, Michael E

    2015-06-01

    Agent Orange was sprayed in parts of southern Vietnam during the U.S.-Vietnam war and was a mixture of two chlorophenoxy herbicides. The mixture was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). TCDD and other dioxins and furans are measurable in the milk of Vietnamese women. We explored whether the TCDD in milk from these women was from Agent Orange and whether lactational exposure can be a mode of transgenerational effects of TCDD from Agent Orange. A review of the world's literature on milk concentrations of polychlorinated compounds showed the presence of TCDD and other dioxins and furans in all countries that have been assessed. The congener profile of these chemicals, that is, the proportion of different congeners in the sample, can be used to assess the source of milk contamination. Measurements in most countries, including contemporary measurements in Vietnam, are consistent with non-Agent Orange exposure sources, including industrial activities and incineration of waste. Models and supporting human data suggest that TCDD from breastfeeding does not persist in a child past adolescence and that the adult body burden of TCDD is independent of whether the individual was breast- or bottle-fed as a child. These findings suggest that exposure to Agent Orange in Vietnam did not result in persistent transgenerational exposure through human milk. PMID:26195119

  11. Use of a marker organism in poultry processing to identify sites of cross-contamination and evaluate possible control measures.

    PubMed

    Mead, G C; Hudson, W R; Hinton, M H

    1994-07-01

    1. Nine different sites at a poultry processing plant were selected in the course of a hazard analysis to investigate the degree of microbial cross-contamination that could occur during processing and the effectiveness of possible control measures. 2. At each site, carcases, equipment or working surfaces were inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli K12; transmission of the organism among carcases being processed was followed qualitatively and, where appropriate, quantitatively. 3. The degree of cross-contamination and the extent to which it could be controlled by the proposed measures varied from one site to another. PMID:7953779

  12. Geltape method for measurement of work related surface contamination with cobalt containing dust: correlation between surface contamination and airborne exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Poulsen, O M; Olsen, E; Christensen, J M; Vinzent, P; Petersen, O H

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The geltape method is a new method for optical measurement of total amount of dust on surfaces. The objectives were to study the potential applicability of this method to measurements of work related cobalt exposure during painting of plates with cobalt dye. METHODS--Consecutive series of work related geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside and outside the ventilation cabins of two plate painters during two full working days. The amount of dust picked up by the geltapes was measured optically with a field monitor. Also, personal air samples were collected on filters at the different work processes. In the laboratory the contents of cobalt on the geltape prints and the filters were measured with inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. RESULTS--The key results were: (a) when the geltape prints were taken from surfaces inside the cabins the optically measured area of the geltapes covered with total dust (area (%)) correlated well with the chemically measured amount of cobalt present on the geltapes. Linear correlation coefficient (R2) was 0.91 for geltape prints taken on the floor and 0.94 for prints taken on the ceiling; (b) the cumulative airborne cobalt exposure, calculated from data on work related exposure by personal sampling, correlated with the area (%) of geltape prints taken from the ceiling of the cabin (R2 = 0.98); (c) the geltape method could be used to distinguish both between work processes with different levels of cobalt exposure, and between plate painters subjected to significant differences in airborne cobalt exposure. CONCLUSION--The geltape method could produce measures of the work related exposures as well as whole day exposure for cobalt. The geltape results correlated with measurements of personal airborne cobalt exposure. In this industry the profile of exposure is well-defined in time, and it seems reasonable to apply this fast and low cost method in routine exposure surveillance to obtain a more detailed

  13. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  14. Development of techniques for advanced optical contamination measurement with internal reflection spectroscopy, phase 1, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of monitoring volatile contaminants in a large space simulation chamber using techniques of internal reflection spectroscopy was demonstrated analytically and experimentally. The infrared spectral region was selected as the operational spectral range in order to provide unique identification of the contaminants along with sufficient sensitivity to detect trace contaminant concentrations. It was determined theoretically that a monolayer of the contaminants could be detected and identified using optimized experimental procedures. This ability was verified experimentally. Procedures were developed to correct the attenuated total reflectance spectra for thick sample distortion. However, by using two different element designs the need for such correction can be avoided.

  15. Interference of Cerebrospinal Fluid Total Protein Measurement by Povidone-Iodine Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Gounden, Verena; Sacks, David B; Zhao, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background A falsely high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) total protein (TP) result measured by pyrogallol red (PGR) method was suspected to be caused by preparation of the collection site with povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine) solution. Methods CSF TP was evaluated for interference in samples with different final concentrations of PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) or iodine alone (up to 0.025% iodine) using three methods: PGR, modified biuret and benzethonium chloride (BZTC). Interference exceeding ±20% of the baseline value is considered clinically significant according the criterion defined by College of American Pathologists. Results There was a positive interference with the PGR method and a negative inference for the BZTC method in CSF samples spiked with PVP-iodine. The PVP-iodine (up to 0.25% PVP and 0.025% iodine) did not cause a clinically significant interference with the modified biuret method. PVP alone without iodine caused a positive interference with the PGR method but did not interfere with the modified biuret or the BZTC method. When the samples were spiked with iodine alone, none of the three methods was affected (change < 20%) by iodine concentration up to 0.025%. Conclusions Contamination of CSF specimens with PVP-iodine can lead to interference with CSF TP measurements using PGR or BZTC methods. PMID:25446880

  16. Effects of feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Korosteleva, S N; Smith, T K; Boermans, H J

    2009-04-01

    A previous study in dairy cows showed some effect of feed contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on metabolism and immunity. A subsequent experiment investigated the effect of feedborne Fusarium mycotoxins on some immune functions in more detail. A total mixed ration (TMR) containing a blend of feedstuffs naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins was fed for 63 d to 12 mid-lactation Holstein cows with an average milk production of 36 kg/d in a completely randomized design with repeated measures including 1) control TMR and 2) contaminated TMR. Wheat, corn, hay, and corn silage were the contaminated feedstuffs. Deoxynivalenol was the major contaminant and was found in TMR at 3.5 mg/kg of dry matter. The parameters measured were 1) performance: body weight, body condition score, dry matter intake, milk production, composition and somatic cell count; 2) health: blood serum chemistry, hematology, coagulation profile, and rumen fluid ammonia levels; 3) immune function: total serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM), specific antibody response to ovalbumin, and neutrophil phagocytosis. Dry matter intake, body weight, milk production, and milk composition were not affected by diet. Neutrophil phagocytosis was depressed throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Serum sodium concentrations and osmolality were significantly elevated throughout the experiment in cows fed the contaminated diet. Primary antibody response to ovalbumin immunization was higher in cows fed the contaminated diet compared with controls. It was concluded that feed naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins can affect metabolic parameters and immune function of dairy cows.

  17. Evaluation of milk enzymes and electrolytes, plasma metabolites, and oxidative status in twin cows milked in an automatic milking system or twice daily in a conventional milking parlor.

    PubMed

    Abeni, F; Terzano, M G; Speroni, M; Migliorati, L; Capelletti, M; Calza, F; Bianchi, L; Pirlo, G

    2008-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of automatic milking (AM) on milk enzymes and minerals related to mammary epithelial integrity in comparison with twice-daily conventional milking (CM). One cow from each of 6 pairs of twins was assigned to be milked with AM or with CM throughout first lactation. Milk production was recorded and milk samples were collected at 4, 11, 18, 25, 32, and 39 wk of lactation (WOL) to determine fat and protein content, somatic cell count, pH, plasminogen (pl) and plasmin (Pl) activities, Na, K, and Cl. Body condition score was monitored; blood samples were collected to determine energy-related metabolites in the first third of lactation (14 WOL), and plasma oxidative status throughout lactation. Overall mean and standard deviation of milking frequency (MF) in AM were 2.69 and 0.88, respectively. Milk production, fat and protein contents, and somatic cell count did not differ between milking systems. The pl and pl+Pl activities were lesser in AM than in CM. Milk pH was greater in AM than in CM. Milk Na, K, Na/K ratio, and Cl did not differ across the whole lactation. Milk pH had a positive correlation with milk Pl activity (r = 0.41), Na (r = 0.37), and Cl (r = 0.40) concentration, and negative correlation with the log(10) of pl/Pl ratio (r = -0.47). The milk Na/K ratio had a positive correlation (r = 0.55) with milk Pl activity. Milking system (MS) did not seem to affect mammary epithelial permeability. The differences in enzymatic (proteolytic) activity due to the MS, probably related to daily MF, lead one to suppose that the quality of the protein fraction for the cheese-making process was preserved better with AM than with CM, even if differences in pH might negatively interfere. No difference was detected in BCS, and in plasma concentration of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, whereas plasma cholesterol concentration during the first 10 WOL was lesser in AM than CM. Oxidative status, measured by plasma

  18. Effect of commercial hauling practices and tanker cleaning treatments on raw milk microbiological quality.

    PubMed

    Darchuk, Emily M; Waite-Cusic, Joy; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-10-01

    revealed differences between cleaning efficacy at the 2 facilities. Although the differences in efficacy did not influence tanker milk quality within our study, variability in sanitation may provide a source of contamination that could negatively affect raw milk quality in other areas. Based on this study, current hauling practices appear to be effective in mitigating any measurable effect on raw milk quality; however, further investigation is needed before making industry-wide recommendations.

  19. Effects of consumption of oat milk, soya milk, or cow's milk on plasma lipids and antioxidative capacity in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Onning, G; Akesson, B; Oste, R; Lundquist, I

    1998-01-01

    A drink based on oats has been developed with new technology. In this study the effects of this oat milk, soya milk and cow's milk on plasma lipid, glucose, insulin, and antioxidant status (measured as the ability of serum to suppress the formation of the radical cation ABTS*+) were compared in 24 healthy men and women. Half of the subjects (group A) consumed 0.75-1 liters/day of oat milk and soya milk for 4 weeks each, and the other half (group B) consumed oat milk and cow's milk for two 4-week periods. In the combined groups A plus B the oat milk regimen resulted in decreased plasma cholesterol (4%) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (9%) levels as compared with baseline, but no changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglyceride values were observed. Also soya milk consumption resulted in decreased LDL cholesterol concentrations. The only significant plasma lipid change observed during consumption of cow's milk was an increase in HDL cholesterol. No consistent changes in body weight, fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, and antioxidant status occurred after consumption of any milk regimen. A significant correlation between baseline antioxidant status and total plasma cholesterol was found (r = -0.56). It is proposed that the high content of beta-glucans in oat milk was responsible for the decreased plasma cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations, but the effect could also be due to a replacement of saturated fat in the customary diet by unsaturated fat. It is concluded that oat milk can be used as an alternative to other milk drinks by subjects who would benefit from reduced LDL cholesterol values.

  20. Evaluation and study of advanced optical contamination, deposition, measurement, and removal techniques. [including computer programs and ultraviolet reflection analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linford, R. M. F.; Allen, T. H.; Dillow, C. F.

    1975-01-01

    A program is described to design, fabricate and install an experimental work chamber assembly (WCA) to provide a wide range of experimental capability. The WCA incorporates several techniques for studying the kinetics of contaminant films and their effect on optical surfaces. It incorporates the capability for depositing both optical and contaminant films on temperature-controlled samples, and for in-situ measurements of the vacuum ultraviolet reflectance. Ellipsometer optics are mounted on the chamber for film thickness determinations, and other features include access ports for radiation sources and instrumentation. Several supporting studies were conducted to define specific chamber requirements, to determine the sensitivity of the measurement techniques to be incorporated in the chamber, and to establish procedures for handling samples prior to their installation in the chamber. A bibliography and literature survey of contamination-related articles is included.

  1. Equilibrium Partitioning Approach for Assessing Toxicity of Contaminants in Sediments: Linking Measured Concentrations to Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    A variety of approaches exist for assessing the degree, extent and/or risk of metals contamination in sediments. Selection of the “correct” approach depends on the nature of the question being asked (e.g., the degree of metals contamination in marine sediments may be estimated by...

  2. Collection and measurement of atmospheric contaminants during Skylab AM/MDA unmanned altitude chamber test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The analytical data obtained from both cryogenic and grab sampling of the atmosphere of the Skylab AM/MDA during an 84 hour unmanned chamber run are reported. The level of contaminants found at different points of the test chamber are tabulated. The results indicate that there was no clear trend of increasing or decreasing contaminant levels during the test run.

  3. Identification of Reprocessed Depleted Uranium in Contaminated Sediments From Cs-137 Activity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnason, J. G.; Bopp, R. F.

    2006-05-01

    Measurements of U series isotopes and fission products can be used to distinguish the relative contributions of natural and anthropogenic sources in U-contaminated sites. Anthropogenic sources include enriched uranium, depleted uranium (DU) byproduct from ore enrichment, and DU byproduct from spent fuel reprocessing. From 1958 to 1984 the National Lead industries plant in Colonie, New York, USA, emitted more than four metric tons of uranium as microscopic uranium oxide aerosols within a 1 km radius of the plant. Previous studies of a 3-m-long sediment core from Patroon Reservoir, located 1 km downstream of the plant, indicate that between 1.8 and 1.0 m depth, U concentrations are more than 100 times natural background and consist of 25 to 95 percent depleted uranium based on alpha spectroscopy. We measured 18 samples by gamma spectroscopy to better constrain the chronology of the core. Cesium-137 shows two activity peaks, one at approximately 2.0 m and another, broader peak between 1.5 and 1.0 m depth. The lower peak corresponds to the global fallout maximum of the mid 1960's and indicates a 5.5-6 cm/yr sedimentation rate that is consistent with the excess Pb-210 profile. In contrast, the upper Cs-137 peak corresponds to the interval containing DU, and suggests that there is a DU component derived from spent nuclear fuel. This hypothesis is consistent with a published report of U-236 detected in DU particles collected in air filters 15 km away at the Knolls Atomic Power Lab during the time of plant operation. It can be further tested through high resolution isotopic measurements of U-236 in the sediments themselves. Depleted uranium derived from spent fuel and containing U-236 will have higher total activity than DU derived from U ore and, as a result, could represent a greater hazard in the environment.

  4. Measuring eco-efficiency of contaminated soil management at the regional level.

    PubMed

    Kielenniva, Nea; Antikainen, Riina; Sorvari, Jaana

    2012-10-30

    Eco-efficiency and sustainable development are the key environmental topics and goals for today's society that we should strive for in all activities, including contaminated soil management (CSM). However, particularly at the regional level, CSM is studied to a lesser extent from this perspective and practical means to monitor and assess sustainability or eco-efficiency are not widely available. This study aims to fill this gap by developing indicators to measure and monitor the development of regional eco-efficiency of CSM. The indicators can be used to support decision-making at the regional level since many CSM decisions, such as prioritisation of sites and the number of soil treatment and storing facilities, are made regionally. To start with, we surveyed the methods available for determining eco-efficiency and suitable indicators to monitor and measure the development of CSM regionally. We used life cycle analysis (LCA) and material flow analysis (MFA) to identify factors that the environmental indicators should cover, and also involved economic indicators. We ended up with a selection of 28 indicators, which can be classed into three different categories: background indicators, environmental indicators and economic indicators. We further demonstrated the use of the indicators by applying data from three different regions in Finland, and evaluated their suitability. On the basis of the results we recommended 15 indicators for continuous follow-up and decision-making purposes. Even though these indicators are suitable for monitoring and measuring the eco-efficiency of CSM at the regional level, unfortunately we found several data gaps related to the actual remediation projects which impede their use in practice. The data collection practices therefore need to be regionally developed.

  5. Metal availability in a highly contaminated, dredged-sediment disposal site: field measurements and geochemical modeling.

    PubMed

    Lions, Julie; Guérin, Valérie; Bataillard, Philippe; van der Lee, Jan; Laboudigue, Agnès

    2010-09-01

    Two complementary approaches were used to characterize arsenic and metal mobilizations from a dredged-sediment disposal site: a detailed field study combined with hydrogeochemical modeling. Contaminants in sediments were found to be mainly present as sulfides subject to oxidation. Secondary phases (carbonates, sulfates, (hydr)oxides) were also observed. Oxidative processes occurred at different rates depending on physicochemical conditions and contaminant contents in the sediment. Two distinct areas were identified on the site, each corresponding to a specific contaminant mobility behavior. In a reducing area, Fe and As were highly soluble and illustrated anoxic behavior. In well-oxygenated material, groundwater was highly contaminated in Zn, Cd and Pb. A third zone in which sediments and groundwater were less contaminated was also characterized. This study enabled us to prioritize remediation work, which should aim to limit infiltration and long-term environmental impact.

  6. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    PubMed

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  7. Short communication: Typing and tracking Bacillaceae in raw milk and milk powder using pyroprinting.

    PubMed

    VanderKelen, Jennifer J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Laubscher, Andrea; Black, Michael W; Goodman, Anya L; Montana, Aldrin K; Dekhtyar, Alexander M; Jimenez-Flores, Rafael; Kitts, Christopher L

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of fluid and processed milk products with endospore-forming bacteria, such as Bacillaceae, affect milk quality and longevity. Contaminants come from a variety of sources, including the dairy farm environment, transportation equipment, or milk processing machinery. Tracking the origin of bacterial contamination to allow specifically targeted remediation efforts depends on a reliable strain-typing method that is reproducible, fast, easy to use, and amenable to computerized analysis. Our objective was to adapt a recently developed genotype-based Escherichia coli strain-typing method, called pyroprinting, for use in a microbial source-tracking study to follow endospore-forming bacillus bacteria from raw milk to powdered milk. A collection of endospores was isolated from both raw milk and its finished powder, and, after germination, the vegetative cells were subject to the pyroprinting protocol. Briefly, a ribosomal DNA intergenic transcribed spacer present in multiple copies in Bacillaceae genomes was amplified by the PCR. This multicopy locus generated a mixed PCR product that was subsequently subject to pyrosequencing, a quantitative real-time sequencing method. Through a series of enzymatic reactions, each nucleotide incorporation event produces a photon of light that is quantified at each nucleotide dispensation. The pattern of light peaks generated from this mixed template reaction is called a pyroprint. Isolates with pyroprints that match with a Pearson correlation of 0.99 or greater are considered to be in the same group. The pyroprint also contains some sequence data useful for presumptive species-level identification. This method identified groups with isolates from raw milk only, from powdered milk only, or from both sources. This study confirms pyroprinting as a rapid, reproducible, automatically digitized tool that can be used to distinguish bacterial strains into taxonomically relevant groups and, thus, indicate probable origins of bacterial

  8. Evaluation of uncertainties in in situ and ex situ gamma measurements on land areas with low contamination levels.

    PubMed

    Rostron, Peter D; Heathcote, John A; Ramsey, Michael H

    2015-06-01

    Previous work on the characterisation of land areas with moderate contamination levels showed that in situ measurements made with a gamma detector can achieve lower levels of the random component of uncertainty than laboratory measurements of extracted samples. This was found when the variance caused by small-scale lateral heterogeneity of contaminants was included in the uncertainty estimation. The present paper documents the results of applying the same techniques of uncertainty estimation to an area with contamination levels that were lower by a factor of 10. If the same counting times were used, it would be expected that both measurement types would be affected by higher levels of random uncertainty in the individual measurements because of increased uncertainty from counting statistics and other factors such as interpretation of gamma spectra. However, when uncertainty due to sampling was included, it was found that both measurements methods were subject to similar combined uncertainties at individual locations. Using an assumption of the depth distributions of radionuclides that was supported by ex situ measurements, in situ measurements were able to produce averaging estimates with an approximate reduction of 50% in the standard error on the mean at ~50% of the cost of the ex situ measurements.

  9. Relating rejection of trace organic contaminants to membrane properties in forward osmosis: measurements, modelling and implications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-02-01

    This study elucidates the relationship between membrane properties and the rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in forward osmosis (FO). An asymmetric cellulose triacetate (CTA) and a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide FO membrane were used for this investigation. The effective average pore radius (rp), selective barrier thickness over porosity parameter (l/ε), surface charge, support layer structural parameter (S), pure water permeability coefficient (A) and salt (NaCl) permeability coefficient (B) of the two membranes were systematically characterised. Results show that measured rejection of TrOCs as a function of permeate water flux can be well described by the pore hindrance transport model. This observation represents the first successful application of this model, which was developed for pressure-driven nanofiltration, to an osmotically-driven membrane process. The rejection of charged TrOCs by the CTA and TFC membranes was high and was governed by both electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance. The TFC membrane exhibited higher rejection of neutral TrOCs with low molecular weight than the CTA membrane, although the estimated pore size of the TFC membrane (0.42 nm) was slightly larger than that of the CTA membrane (0.37 nm). This higher rejection of neutral TrOCs by the TFC membrane is likely attributed to its active layer properties, namely a more effective active layer structure, as indicated by a larger l/ε parameter, and pore hydration induced by the negative surface charge.

  10. Relating rejection of trace organic contaminants to membrane properties in forward osmosis: measurements, modelling and implications.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-02-01

    This study elucidates the relationship between membrane properties and the rejection of trace organic contaminants (TrOCs) in forward osmosis (FO). An asymmetric cellulose triacetate (CTA) and a thin-film composite (TFC) polyamide FO membrane were used for this investigation. The effective average pore radius (rp), selective barrier thickness over porosity parameter (l/ε), surface charge, support layer structural parameter (S), pure water permeability coefficient (A) and salt (NaCl) permeability coefficient (B) of the two membranes were systematically characterised. Results show that measured rejection of TrOCs as a function of permeate water flux can be well described by the pore hindrance transport model. This observation represents the first successful application of this model, which was developed for pressure-driven nanofiltration, to an osmotically-driven membrane process. The rejection of charged TrOCs by the CTA and TFC membranes was high and was governed by both electrostatic repulsion and steric hindrance. The TFC membrane exhibited higher rejection of neutral TrOCs with low molecular weight than the CTA membrane, although the estimated pore size of the TFC membrane (0.42 nm) was slightly larger than that of the CTA membrane (0.37 nm). This higher rejection of neutral TrOCs by the TFC membrane is likely attributed to its active layer properties, namely a more effective active layer structure, as indicated by a larger l/ε parameter, and pore hydration induced by the negative surface charge. PMID:24345822

  11. RESULTS FROM THE 2005 NATIONAL BEACHES STUDY: THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RAPIDLY MEASURED INDICATORS OF FECAL CONTAMINATION AND SWIMMING ASSOCIATED GASTROENTERITIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2003, the US EPA Office of Research and Development conducted studies at two Great Lakes beaches to evaluate the association between novel, rapid methods of measuring fecal contamination and swimming associated health effects. These results were presented at the 2004 Science F...

  12. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  13. Radionuclide contamination of foods imported into Iraq following the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident.

    PubMed

    Marouf, B A; al-Hadad, A K; Toma, N A; Tawfiq, N F; Mahmood, J A; Hasoon, M A

    1991-07-15

    Since early 1986, a monitoring program for radionuclides in imported foods has been carried out by the Iraqi Atomic Energy Commission. After the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident in the Soviet Union, the program was expanded; our laboratory was officially designated by the Iraqi Government to measure radionuclide activity concentrations in foodstuff imported from countries known to be severely contaminated by Chernobyl radioactive fallout. Gamma-spectrometric analysis was used. Food items such as powdered milk, lamb meat, poultry, cereals and grains imported into Iraq before the Chernobyl accident did not contain any detectable fission products. However, all lamb meat, 81% of the lentil, 44% of the powdered milk and chick-pea, and 17% of the roast beef samples were contaminated with 137Cs or 134Cs and 137Cs. The highest 137Cs contamination levels found were 82, 147, 420, 6 and 4 Bq kg-1, respectively. Contamination by 134Cs was approximately 50% of the values given above.

  14. Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air--method development and measurements of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lindgren, Torsten; Bakke, Berit; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2011-05-01

    Methods for measurements and the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils among flying personnel in the aviation industry are described. Different sampling methods were applied, including active within-day methods for OPs and VOCs, newly developed passive long-term sample methods (deposition of OPs to wipe surface areas and to activated charcoal cloths), and measurements of OPs in high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) recirculation filters (n = 6). In total, 95 and 72 within-day OP and VOC samples, respectively, have been collected during 47 flights in six different models of turbine jet engine, propeller and helicopter aircrafts (n = 40). In general, the OP air levels from the within-day samples were low. The most relevant OP in this regard originating from turbine and engine oils, tricresyl phosphate (TCP), was detected in only 4% of the samples (min-max contamination of the cabin and cockpit air, was an order of magnitude higher as compared to after engine replacement (p = 0.02).

  15. Organophosphates in aircraft cabin and cockpit air--method development and measurements of contaminants.

    PubMed

    Solbu, Kasper; Daae, Hanne Line; Olsen, Raymond; Thorud, Syvert; Ellingsen, Dag Gunnar; Lindgren, Torsten; Bakke, Berit; Lundanes, Elsa; Molander, Paal

    2011-05-01

    Methods for measurements and the potential for occupational exposure to organophosphates (OPs) originating from turbine and hydraulic oils among flying personnel in the aviation industry are described. Different sampling methods were applied, including active within-day methods for OPs and VOCs, newly developed passive long-term sample methods (deposition of OPs to wipe surface areas and to activated charcoal cloths), and measurements of OPs in high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) recirculation filters (n = 6). In total, 95 and 72 within-day OP and VOC samples, respectively, have been collected during 47 flights in six different models of turbine jet engine, propeller and helicopter aircrafts (n = 40). In general, the OP air levels from the within-day samples were low. The most relevant OP in this regard originating from turbine and engine oils, tricresyl phosphate (TCP), was detected in only 4% of the samples (min-max contamination of the cabin and cockpit air, was an order of magnitude higher as compared to after engine replacement (p = 0.02). PMID:21399836

  16. Somatic cells count in cow's bulk tank milk.

    PubMed

    Olechnowicz, Jan; Jaśkowski, Jedrzej M

    2012-06-01

    The objective of this study was therefore to present factors affecting somatic cell counts in bovine bulk milk as a result of intramammary infections as well as non-infectious factors. The paper presents also the impact of on-farm management practices on the level of bulk milk somatic cell counts and presents quality indicators in bulk tank milk. At the farm level bulk milk bacterial infection takes place through three main sources: bacterial contamination from the external surface of the udder and teats, from the surface of the milking equipment, and from mastitis microorganisms within the udder. The threshold of 200,000 cells/ml identifies bacteriological negative quarters of the udder. The counts of mammary pathogens in bulk tank milk are relatively low, on average not exceeding 1,000 cfu/ml. Environmental pathogens predominate in bulk tank milk samples with somatic cells count <300 × 10(3) ml. PMID:22230979

  17. Step behaviour and autonomic nervous system activity in multiparous dairy cows during milking in a herringbone milking system.

    PubMed

    Kézér, F L; Kovács, L; Tőzsér, J

    2015-08-01

    Behavioural and cardiac responses of multiparous dairy cows (n=24) during milking in a 2×4 stall herringbone milking system were evaluated in this study. Heart rate (HR), parasympathetic tone index (high frequency component, HF) of heart rate variability and sympathovagal balance indicator LF/HF ratio (the ratio of the low frequency (LF) and the HF component) were analysed. Measurement periods were established as follows: (1) standing calm (baseline), (2) udder preparation, (3) milking, (4) waiting after milking in the milking stall and (5) in the night (2 h after milking). Step behaviour was recorded and calculated per minute for the three phases of the milking process (udder preparation, milking and waiting after milking). HR was higher during udder preparation and milking compared with baseline (P=0.03, 0.027, respectively). HF was significantly lower than baseline levels during waiting in the milking stall after milking (P=0.009), however, during udder preparation, milking and 2 h after milking did not differ from baseline (P>0.05, in either case). LF/HF during the three phases of the milking process differed neither from baseline levels nor from each other. Steps occurred more often during waiting after milking than during udder preparation (P=0.042) or during milking (23; P=0.017). Our results suggest that the milking procedure itself was not stressful for these animals. After milking (following the removal of the last teat cup and before leaving the milking stall), both decreased parasympathetic tone (lower HF) and increased stepping rate indicated a sensitive period for animals during this phase.

  18. Assessment of contaminant levels and trophic relations at a World Heritage Site by measurements in a characteristic shorebird species

    SciTech Connect

    Schwemmer, Philipp; Covaci, Adrian; Das, Krishna; Lepoint, Gilles; Adler, Sven; Garthe, Stefan

    2015-01-15

    The River Elbe is responsible for influxes of contaminants into the Wadden Sea World Heritage Site. We investigated levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), oxychlordane (OxC), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hexachlorocyclohexanes (α-, β-, γ-HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in blood and feathers from Eurasian oystercatchers (Haematopus ostralegus; n=28) at the Elbe and compared it with a non-riverine site about 90 km further north. (1) Mean levels of all contaminants in feathers and serum were significantly higher at the river (∑PCBs: 27.6 ng/g feather, 37.0 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 5.3 ng/g feather, 4.4 ng/ml serum) compared with the non-riverine site (∑PCBs: 6.5 ng/g feather, 1.2 ng/ml serum; ∑DDTs: 1.4 ng/g feather, 0.5 ng/ml serum). Mean ∑HCH and HCB levels were <1.8 ng/g in feather and <1.8 ng/ml in serum at both sites. (2) Levels of most detectable compounds in serum and feathers were significantly related, but levels were not consistently higher in either tissue. (3) There was no significant relationship between trophic level in individual oystercatchers (expressed as δ15N) or the degree of terrestrial feeding (expressed as δ13C) and contaminant loads. (4) PBDEs were not detected in significant amounts at either site. The results of this study indicate that the outflow from one of Europe′s largest river systems is associated with significant historical contamination, reflected by the accumulation of contaminants in body tissues in a coastal benthivore predator. - Highlights: • Contaminants in Oystercatchers from the Elbe river and a non-riverine site were measured. • Mean levels of contaminants were higher at the river than at the non-riverine site. • Levels of most contaminants in serum and feathers were significantly related. • No relationship between trophic level (δ15N) and contaminant level was found. • One of Europe′s largest river systems is associated

  19. Measurement of 16 volatile organic compounds in restaurant air contaminated with environmental tobacco smoke.

    PubMed

    Vainiotalo, S; Väänänen, V; Vaaranrinta, R

    2008-11-01

    Tobacco smoke-related air pollutant levels were studied in ten Finnish restaurants. Markers of tobacco smoke were measured together with other compounds typical of tobacco smoke and indoor air. The measurements were carried out at stationary sampling points in smoking and non-smoking areas of the restaurants in 2005-2006, when at least half of the service area had to be non-smoking according to the Finnish Tobacco Act. The average concentrations (geometric mean, microg/m3) of the 16 airborne contaminants measured in the smoking area were: nicotine 18.1; toluene 10.6; isoprene 10.2; m,p-xylene 5.0; limonene 4.8; benzene 3.3; furfuryl aldehyde 3.2; 1,3-butadiene 2.7; 3-ethenylpyridine (3-EP) 2.5; phenol 2.1; ethyl benzene 1.7; pyridine 1.6; o-xylene 1.5; 3-picoline 1.4; styrene 1.2; and naphthalene 0.45. A good correlation (r=0.90-0.99, p<0.001) was obtained between tobacco-specific markers (3-EP and nicotine) and 1,3-butadiene, isoprene, pyridine, furfuryl aldehyde, 3-picoline, phenol, and styrene. A poor or no correlation (r=0.19-0.60) was obtained between 3-EP or nicotine and the rest of the compounds. The average concentrations of all compounds were significantly lower in the non-smoking area than in the smoking area (p<0.05). In the non-smoking area, the average concentration of 3-EP was 0.35 microg/m3 and that of nicotine 1.6 microg/m3. In three restaurants, the area design and ventilation were effective: the average level of 3-EP in the non-smoking section was <3% from that in the smoking section. In the other restaurants, tobacco smoke was spreading more freely and the corresponding value was 14-76%. A sensitive method was applied for the measurement of airborne 1,3-butadiene. The air samples were collected into Carbopack X adsorption tubes and analysed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass selective detection. The precision of the method was 4.2% (at 100 ng/sample) and the limit of quantification 0.02 microg/m3.

  20. Measurement of Thin-film Coating Hardness in the Presence of Contamination and Roughness: Implications for Tribology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demas, Nicholaos G.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Erck, Robert A.; Shareef, Iqbal

    2016-04-01

    Standard nanoindentation measurements on commercially available TiAlN, CrN, metal-containing diamond-like carbon, and TiN coatings, deposited on steel substrates were performed to determine coating hardness and elastic modulus. It was found that the coating surface roughness/morphology present after deposition can significantly affect the measurements of nanomechanical properties so that measurements of these properties on the as-deposited coating surface may be significantly different from the bulk. In addition, a surface measurement may produce a lower nanohardness due to the existence of a soft surface contamination layer. A simple method was developed to enable accurate measurement of the nanomechanical properties of coatings, while avoiding errors introduced by surface topography and the presence of superficial contamination layers on thin films. Friction and wear behavior, as well as the wear mechanisms in dry reciprocating sliding contact of the various coatings with a steel ball can be correlated to the surface attributes of each coating in terms of roughness and the presence of contamination layers, both of which are shown to also affect the nanohardness measurements.

  1. Fluorescent bioassays for toxic metals in milk and yoghurt

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background From a human health viewpoint, contaminated milk and its products could be a source of long-term exposure to toxic metals. Simple, inexpensive, and on-site assays would enable constant monitoring of their contents. Bioassays that can measure toxic metals in milk or yoghurt might reduce the risk. For this purpose, the green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged trans factors, ArsR-GFP and CadC-GFP, together with their cis elements were used to develop such bioassays. Results ArsR-GFP or CadC-GFP, which binds either toxic metal or DNA fragment including cis element, was directly mixed with cow’s milk or yoghurt within a neutral pH range. The fluorescence of GFP, which is reflected by the association/dissociation ratio between cis element and trans factor, significantly changed with increasing externally added As (III) or Cd (II) whereas smaller responses to externally added Pb (II) and Zn (II) were found. Preparation and dilution of whey fraction at low pH were essential to intrinsic zinc quantification using CadC-GFP. Using the extraction procedure and bioassay, intrinsic Zn (II) concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 4.8 mg/l for milk brands and from 1.2 to 2.9 mg/kg for yoghurt brands were determined, which correlated to those determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Conclusions GFP-tagged bacterial trans factors and cis elements can work in the neutralized whole composition and diluted whey fraction of milk and yoghurt. The feature of regulatory elements is advantageous for establishment of simple and rapid assays of toxic metals in dairy products. PMID:23098077

  2. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  3. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  4. Transfer of Chernobyl 134Cs and 137Cs in cows from silage to milk.

    PubMed

    Voors, P I; Van Weers, A W

    1989-09-01

    The transfer of Chernobyl Cs-134 and Cs-137 to milk in dairy cows from a diet, predominated by silage, was studied under normal farming conditions. The study was carried out in the period December 1986 till August 1987 and comprised three periods with different levels of radioactive contamination of the silage. Transfer coefficients for both radionuclides were derived from measured radiocaesium concentrations in the diet components and in mixed milk samples. Average silage intake was calculated on basis of total need which depends on milk production. The transfer coefficients calculated for Cs-134 and Cs-137 after a 6 weeks feeding period of high-level post-Chernobyl silage were 0.26 and 0.27% d/l, respectively. These results indicate that a transfer coefficient of 1.2% d/l, from tracer and fallout studies and recommended for predictive purposes, is a conservative estimate in view of the post-Chernobyl experience. The transfer of caesium isotopes from silage to milk in dairy cows is dynamically described with a simple two-compartment model of Pelletier and Voilleque. The most important choices of parameter values to be made in matching calculated and measured concentrations in milk, are those for F and u/m. F is the fraction of ingested activity that is excreted in milk plus urine, and u/m is the ratio between the transfer rates to urine and milk, respectively. The study was carried out with financial support from the Dutch Ministry of Agriculture and Fishery.

  5. Elevated levels of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk among Korean women: Current status and potential challenges.

    PubMed

    Kang, Habyeong; Choi, Kyungho; Lee, Haeng-Shin; Kim, Do-Hee; Park, Na-Youn; Kim, Sunmi; Kho, Younglim

    2016-07-01

    Breast milks can be contaminated with perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). Exposure to PFASs during early stages of life may lead to adverse health effects among breastfed infants. To date, perfluorootanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been most frequently measured PFASs in breast milks worldwide. Information on shorter carbon-chain PFASs in breast milk is scarce. In this study, breast milks were sampled from 264 Korean lactating women, and measured for seventeen PFASs, including ten perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), four perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and three perfluoroalkyl sulfonamides. PFOA and PFOS were detected in 98.5% of the breast milk samples, with median concentrations of 0.072 and 0.050ng/mL, respectively. Perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), and perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) were detected in higher frequencies, ranging between 67.4% and 81.8%. The concentrations of short carbon-chain PFCAs in breast milk such as PFPeA and PFHxA were the highest ever reported to date, and were comparable to that of PFOS. Concentrations of shorter chain PFCA in breast milk tended to be higher among the women with longer lactation period, while those of PFOA showed the opposite trend, suggesting a possibility that breastfeeding might be an important route of excretion for PFOA among lactating women. Fish consumption and the use of consumer products, e.g., skin care products, cosmetics and non-stick coated cooking utensils, were identified as significant predictors of PFAS concentrations in breast milk. Health risks associated with PFOA and PFOS exposure through breastfeeding were estimated negligible, however, risks of the short carbon-chain PFCAs could not be assessed because of lack of relevant toxicological information. Further efforts for source identification and exposure management measures for shorter chain PFCAs are necessary. PMID:27111244

  6. Cow's milk and children

    MedlinePlus

    Milk and children; Cow’s milk allergy - children; Lactose intolerance - children ... You may have heard that cow's milk should not be given to babies younger than 1 year old. This is because cow's milk doesn't provide enough of certain ...

  7. A new device for characterizing fracture networks and measuring groundwater and contaminant fluxes in fractured rock aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk; Newman, Mark A.; Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D.; Parker, Beth L.; Cherry, John A.; Perminova, Irina

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the fundamental theory and laboratory test results on a new device that is deployed in boreholes in fractured rock aquifers to characterize vertical distributions of water and contaminant fluxes, aquifer hydraulic properties, and fracture network properties (e.g., active fracture density and orientation). The device, a fractured rock passive flux meter (FRPFM), consists of an inflatable core assembled with upper and lower packers that isolate the zone of interest from vertical gradients within the borehole. The outer layer of the core consists of an elastic fabric mesh equilibrated with a visible dye which is used to provide visual indications of active fractures and measures of fracture location, orientation, groundwater flux, and the direction of that flux. Beneath the outer layer is a permeable sorbent that is preloaded with known amounts of water soluble tracers which are eluted at rates proportional to groundwater flow. This sorbent also captures target contaminants present in intercepted groundwater. The mass of contaminant sorbed is used to quantify cumulative contaminant flux; whereas, the mass fractions of resident tracers lost are used to provide measures of water flux. In this paper, the FRPFM is bench tested over a range of fracture velocities (2-20 m/day) using a single fracture flow apparatus (fracture aperture = 0.5 mm). Test results show a discoloration in visible dye corresponding to the location of the active fracture. The geometry of the discoloration can be used to discern fracture orientation as well as direction and magnitude of flow in the fracture. Average contaminant fluxes were measured within 16% and water fluxes within 25% of known imposed fluxes.

  8. Determination of Dornic Acidity as a Method to Select Donor Milk in a Milk Bank

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Lara, Nadia Raquel; Escuder-Vieco, Diana; Chaves-Sánchez, Fernando; De la Cruz-Bertolo, Javier; Pallas-Alonso, Carmen Rosa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Dornic acidity may be an indirect measurement of milk's bacteria content and its quality. There are no uniform criteria among different human milk banks on milk acceptance criteria. The main aim of this study is to report the correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk in order to validate the Dornic acidity value as an adequate method to select milk prior to its pasteurization. Materials and Methods From 105 pools, 4-mL samples of human milk were collected. Dornic acidity measurement and culture in blood and McConkey's agar cultures were performed. Based on Dornic acidity degrees, we classified milk into three quality categories: top quality (acidity <4°D), intermediate (acidity between 4°D and 7°D), and milk unsuitable to be consumed (acidity ≥8°D). Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to perform statistical analysis. Results Seventy percent of the samples had Dornic acidity under 4°D, and 88% had a value under 8°D. A weak positive correlation was observed between the bacterial growth in milk and Dornic acidity. The overall discrimination performance of Dornic acidity was higher for predicting growth of Gram-negative organisms. In milk with Dornic acidity of ≥4°D, such a measurement has a sensitivity of 100% for detecting all the samples with bacterial growth with Gram-negative bacteria of over 105 colony-forming units/mL. Conclusions The correlation between Dornic acidity and bacterial growth in donor milk is weak but positive. The measurement of Dornic acidity could be considered as a simple and economical method to select milk to pasteurize in a human milk bank based in quality and safety criteria. PMID:23373435

  9. Color Changes of UHT Milk During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V.; Lakić, Nada S.; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G.; Barać, Miroljub B.; Sikimić, Višnja M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study measurements of color parameters of UHT milk were performed, by using a MOM-color 100 photoelectric tristimulus colorimeter. Colors of UHT milk samples containing 3.2% and 1.6% milk fat, processed under industrial conditions, packed in polyethylene terephtalate (PET) based packages, and stored for 0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days at ambient temperature (20±5°C) were examined. Results are shown in four different systems that define measurement of color parameters expressed in: CIE, CIE L*a*b*, Hünter and ANLAB – Adams Nickerson systems. Average value of mean reflectance of UHT milk determined in CIE system statistically is highly significantly changed, (p < 0.01) depending on duration of storaging, percentage of milk fat, as well as on the interaction of the mentioned factors. For the UHT milk with 1.6% milk fat statistically significant (p < 0.05) decrease of psychometric chroma b* occurs after 60 days, and for milk with 3.2% milk fat established on 45th day of storage.

  10. Raman spectroscopy and imaging to detect contaminants for food safety applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study presents the use of Raman chemical imaging for the screening of dry milk powder for the presence of chemical contaminants and Raman spectroscopy for quantitative assessment of chemical contaminants in liquid milk. For image-based screening, melamine was mixed into dry milk at concentratio...

  11. Direct measurement of VOC diffusivities in tree tissues: impacts on tree-based phytoremediation and plant contamination.

    PubMed

    Baduru, Krishna K; Trapp, Stefan; Burken, Joel G

    2008-02-15

    Recent discoveries in the phytoremediation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) show that vapor-phase transport into roots leads to VOC removal from the vadose zone and diffusion and volatilization out of plants is an important fate following uptake. Volatilization to the atmosphere constitutes one fundamental terminal fate processes for VOCs that have been translocated from contaminated soil or groundwater, and diffusion constitutes the mass transfer mechanism to the plant-atmosphere interface. Therefore, VOC diffusion through woody plant tissues, that is, xylem, has a direct impact on contaminant fate in numerous vegetation-VOC interactions, including the phytoremediation of soil vapors and dissolved aqueous-phase contaminants. The diffusion of VOCs through freshly excised tree tissue was directly measured for common groundwater contaminants, chlorinated compounds such as trichloroethylene, perchloroethene, and tetrachloroethane and aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and methyl tert-butyl ether. All compounds tested are currently being treated at full scale with tree-based phytoremediation. Diffusivities were determined by modeling the diffusive transport data with a one-dimensional diffusive flux model, developed to mimic the experimental arrangement. Wood-water partition coefficients were also determined as needed for the model application. Diffusivities in xylem tissues were found to be inversely related to molecular weight, and values determined herein were compared to previous modeling on the basis of a tortuous diffusion path in woody tissues. The comparison validates the predictive model for the first time and allows prediction for other compounds on the basis of chemical molecular weight and specific plant properties such as water, lignin, and gas contents. This research provides new insight into phytoremediation efforts and into potential fruit contamination for fruit-bearing trees, specifically establishing diffusion rates from the

  12. Bulk tank milk surveillance as a measure to detect Coxiella burnetii shedding dairy goat herds in the Netherlands between 2009 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; Santman-Berends, I; Luttikholt, S; Moll, L; Van Engelen, E; Vellema, P

    2015-06-01

    In the period from 2005 to 2009, Coxiella burnetii was a cause of abortion waves at 28 dairy goat farms and 2 dairy sheep farms in the Netherlands. Two years after the first abortion waves, a large human Q fever outbreak started mainly in the same region, and aborting small ruminants were regarded as most probable source. To distinguish between infected and noninfected herds, a surveillance program started in October 2009, based on PCR testing of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples, which had never been described before. The aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of this surveillance program and to evaluate both the effect of culling of pregnant dairy goats on positive farms and of vaccination on BTM results. Bulk tank milk samples were tested for C. burnetii DNA using a real-time PCR, and results were analyzed in relation to vaccination, culling, and notifiable (officially reported to government) C. burnetii abortion records. In spring and autumn, BTM samples were also tested for antibodies using an ELISA, and results were evaluated in relation to the compulsory vaccination campaign. Between October 2009 and April 2014, 1,660 (5.6%) out of 29,875 BTM samples from 401 dairy goat farms tested positive for C. burnetii DNA. The percentage of positive samples dropped from 20.5% in 2009 to 0.3% in 2014. In a multivariable model, significantly higher odds of being PCR positive in the BTM surveillance program were found in farms of which all pregnant dairy goats were culled. Additionally, the risk for C. burnetii BTM PCR positivity significantly decreased after multiple vaccinations. Bulk tank milk ELISA results were significantly higher after vaccination than before. The ELISA results were higher after multiple vaccinations compared with a single vaccination, and ELISA results on officially declared infected farms were significantly higher compared with noninfected farms. In conclusion, BTM surveillance is an effective and useful tool to detect C. burnetii shedding

  13. Assessment of raw milk quality and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Ngasala, J Uma Bukuku; Nonga, Hezron Emmanuel; Mtambo, Mkumbukwa Madundo Angelo

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the quality of raw milk and stakeholders' awareness on milk-borne health risks and factors for poor milk hygiene in Arusha City and Meru District, Tanzania between October and December 2012. A total of 105 smallholder dairy farmers, milk vendors and milk retailers were interviewed, and milk samples were collected for physical, microbial and antibiotic residue analysis using standard procedures. Questionnaire results indicated high level of awareness (94 %) that drinking raw milk can predispose consumers to milk-borne diseases; nevertheless, 65 % of respondents consumed raw milk. Physicochemical analyses showed some of the milk had sediments (20 %), bad smell (21 %) and had clotted on alcohol test (27 %). About 36 % of milk samples had pH below 6.6, and 25 % had specific gravity below 1.028 g/ml. The mean total viable count (TVC) of milk from vendors is significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from retailers and smallholder dairy farmers. Generally, 65 % of milk samples assessed had a higher TVC than the level recommended (2.0 × 10(5) cfu/ml) by the East African Community (EAC) standards. Up to 91 % of the milk samples had bacterial growth that included Eschericia coli (66 %), Staphylococcus aureus (33 %), Corynebacterium (11 %) and Pseudomonas (10 %). All smallholder dairy farmers were aware of drug residues, but majority (57 %) were unaware of human health effects caused by veterinary drug residues in milk. Up to 97 % of respondents reported to comply with drug withdrawal periods. This possibly led to all milk samples analysed to be negative from detectable levels of antibiotic residues. It is concluded that the level of awareness on milk quality is high, although practices associated with milking and post-harvest handling predispose milk to bacterial contamination which is a public health risk to milk consumers.

  14. The Effect of Surface Contamination on Adhesive Forces as Measured by Contact Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    EMERSON,JOHN A.; GIUNTA,RACHEL K.; MILLER,GREGORY V.; SORENSEN,CHRISTOPHER R.; PEARSON,RAYMOND A.

    2000-12-18

    The contact adhesive forces between two surfaces, one being a soft hemisphere and the other being a hard plate, can readily be determined by applying an external compressive load to mate the two surfaces and subsequently applying a tensile load to peel the surfaces apart. The contact region is assumed the superposition of elastic Hertzian pressure and of the attractive surface forces that act only over the contact area. What are the effects of the degree of surface contamination on adhesive forces? Clean aluminum surfaces were coated with hexadecane as a controlled contaminant. The force required to pull an elastomeric hemisphere from a surface was determined by contact mechanics, via the JKR model, using a model siloxane network for the elastomeric contact sphere. Due to the dispersive nature of the elastomer surface, larger forces were required to pull the sphere from a contaminated surface than a clean aluminum oxide surface.

  15. Development of inspection techniques for quantitatively measuring surface contamination on SRM hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Law, R. D.

    1989-01-01

    A contaminant is any material or substance which is potentially undesirable or which may adversely affect any part, component, or assembly. Contamination control of SRM hardware surfaces is a serious concern, for both Thiokol and NASA, with particular concern for contaminants which may adversely affect bonding surfaces. The purpose of this study is to develop laboratory analytical techniques which will make it possible to certify the cleanliness of any designated surface, with special focus on particulates (dust, dirt, lint, etc.), oils (hydrocarbons, silicones, plasticizers, etc.), and greases (HD-2, fluorocarbon grease, etc.). The hardware surfaces of concern will include D6AC steel, aluminum alloys, anodized aluminum alloys, glass/phenolic, carbon/phenolic, NBR/asbestos-silica, and EPDM rubber.

  16. CombiSimilarity, an innovative method to compare environmental and health data sets with different attribute sizes example: eighteen Organochlorine Pesticides in soil and human breast milk samples.

    PubMed

    Bruggemann, Rainer; Scherb, Hagen; Schramm, Karl-Werner; Cok, Ismet; Voigt, Kristina

    2014-07-01

    Human health and the health of the environment have entwined. In this paper we underpin this position by presenting a modeling approach named CombiSimilarity, which has been developed by the first author in the software tool PyHasse comprising a wide variety of partial ordering tools. A case study of 18 Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) detected in soil as well as in human breast milk samples in the Taurus Mountains in Turkey is carried out. Seven soil samples and 44 breast milk samples were measured. We seek to answer the question whether the contamination pattern in breast milk is associated with the contamination pattern in soil by studying the mutual quantitative relationships of the chemicals involved. We could demonstrate that there is a similarity with respect to the concentration profiles between the soil and breast milk pollution. Therefore the hypothesis may be formulated that the concentrations of chemicals in the milk samples are strongly related to the soil contamination. This supports the concept that soil could be a surrogate for human exposure at background locations.

  17. Coxiella burnetii DNA in goat milk after vaccination with Coxevac(®).

    PubMed

    Hermans, Mirjam H A; Huijsmans, C Ronald J J; Schellekens, Jeroen J A; Savelkoul, Paul H M; Wever, Peter C

    2011-03-24

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a species of bacteria that is distributed globally. A large Q fever epidemic is currently spreading throughout the Netherlands with more than 3500 human cases notified from 2007 to 2009. Governmental measures to prevent further spread of the disease imposed in December 2009 included vaccination of all dairy goats and sheep and, in parallel, bulk tank milk testing to identify contaminated goat and sheep farms. When bulk tank milk was found to contain C. burnetii DNA, pregnant ruminants were culled. An important, but unsolved issue in this policy was whether vaccine-derived C. burnetii DNA is excreted in milk after vaccination. Using real time PCR and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping techniques, we show here that within hours and up to 9 days after vaccination with Coxevac(®), vaccine-derived C. burnetii DNA can be detected in the milk of dairy goats. This is the first report describing DNAlactia of vaccine-derived DNA after vaccination with a completely inactivated vaccine. This finding had implications for the Dutch policy to combat the Q fever epidemic. A 2-week interval was introduced between vaccination and bulk tank milk testing to identify infected farms.

  18. Staphylococcal food poisoning from sheep milk cheese.

    PubMed Central

    Bone, F. J.; Bogie, D.; Morgan-Jones, S. C.

    1989-01-01

    Cheese made from sheep milk was implicated in food-poisoning incidents in December 1984 and January 1985. Bacteriological examination of batches of cheese failed to reveal a viable pathogen but enterotoxin A produced by Staphylococcus aureus was present. This was the first time that enterotoxin was detected in a food produced in the UK which was associated with poisoning and from which viable Staph. aureus could not be isolated. Subsequent detailed examination of milk, yoghurt and cheese from the same producer revealed that contamination with Staph. aureus was associated with post-infection carriage as well as clinical illness in ewes on the farm. Strains producing enterotoxon. A were still intermittently present in the bulk milk used for cheese production nearly 2 years afterwards, apparently in the absence of clinical illness in the sheep. The possible effects of heat treatment are discussed. Any changes in legislation should cover all non-human mammalian milk used for human consumption. PMID:2691265

  19. A Space Experiment to Measure the Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers and Demonstrate a Technique to Identify Sources of Silicone Contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Baney-Barton, Elyse; Sechkar, Edward A.; Hunt, Patricia K.; Willoughby, Alan; Bemer, Meagan; Hope, Stephanie; Koo, Julie; Kaminski, Carolyn; Youngstrom, Erica

    1999-01-01

    A low Earth orbital space experiment entitled, "Polymers Erosion And Contamination Experiment", (PEACE) has been designed as a Get-Away Special (GAS Can) experiment to be accommodated as a Shuttle in-bay environmental exposure experiment. The first objective is to measure the atomic oxygen erosion yields of approximately 40 different polymeric materials by mass loss and erosion measurements using atomic force microscopy. The second objective is to evaluate the capability of identifying sources of silicone contamination through the use of a pin-hole contamination camera which utilizes environmental atomic oxygen to produce a contaminant source image on an optical substrate.

  20. Predicting wetland contamination from atmospheric deposition measurements of pesticides in the Canadian Prairie Pothole region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messing, Paul G.; Farenhorst, Annemieke; Waite, Don T.; McQueen, D. A. Ross; Sproull, James F.; Humphries, David A.; Thompson, Laura L.

    2011-12-01

    Although it has been suggested that atmospheric deposition alone can result in detectable levels of pesticides in wetlands of the Pairie Pothole Region of Canada, this is the first field study to compare the masses of pesticides entering wetlands by atmospheric deposition with those concentrations of pesticides detected in the water-column of prairie wetlands. Weekly air and bulk deposition samples were collected from May 26th to Sept. 15th, 2008 at the Manitoba Zero Tillage Research Association (MZTRA) Farm, Brandon, Manitoba, with four on-site wetlands (approximate sizes 0.15-0.45 ha) monitored every second week. Twelve pesticides were detected in the air, with MCPA (one of the three pesticides applied on the farm in 2008 in addition to clopyralid and glyphosate), triallate, and γ-HCH being detected every week. Calculations were performed to predict wetland pesticide concentrations based on bulk deposits alone for those pesticides that had detectable concentrations in the bulk deposition samples (in order of the highest total seasonal deposition mass to the lowest): MCPA, glyphosate, 2,4-D, clopyralid, bromoxynil, atrazine, dicamba, metolachlor, and mecoprop. The estimated concentrations were closest to actual concentrations for MCPA (Pearson correlation coefficient's = 0.91 to 0.98; p-values < 0.001) and predictions were also reasonable for a range of other herbicides, but a source other than atmospheric deposition was clearly relevant to detections of clopyralid in the wetland water-column. Although the types and levels of pesticides detected in the wetlands of the current study suggest that regional pesticide applications can contribute to pesticide surface water contamination following atmospheric transport and deposition, the greater frequency and concentrations of clopyralid, MCPA, and glyphosate detections in wetlands confirm that on-farm pesticide applications have a greater impact on on-site water quality. Beneficial management practices that reduce

  1. Real-time measurement of temperature variation during nanosecond pulsed-laser-induced contamination deposition.

    PubMed

    Kokkinos, Dimitrios; Gailly, Patrick; Georges, Marc P; Tzeremes, Georgios; Rochus, Pierre; Fleury-Frenette, Karl

    2015-12-20

    In this paper, a study of heat generation during UV laser-induced contamination (LIC) and potentially resulting subsequent thermal damage are presented. This becomes increasingly interesting when optics with delicate coatings are involved. During LIC, radiation can interact with outgassing molecules, both in the gas phase and at the surface, thus triggering chemical and photo-fixation reactions. This is a major hazard, in particular for laser units operating under vacuum conditions such as in space applications. The intense photon flux not only affects the contaminant deposition rate but also alters their chemical structure, which can increase their absorption coefficient. Over cumulative irradiation shots, these molecules formed deposits that increasingly absorb photons and produce heat as a by-product of de-excitation, eventually leading to thermal damage. One could better assess the risk of the latter with the knowledge of temperature during the contamination process. For this purpose, a thermoreflectance technique is used here to estimate the temperature variation from pulse to pulse during contamination deposition through the analysis of a temperature-dependent surface reflectance signal.

  2. MEASUREMENT AND USE OF CONTAMINANT FLUX AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR DNAPL REMEDIAL PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current remedial techniques are unable to completely eliminate all dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from source zone areas at most sites, and conflicting views on the benefits of partial DNAPL source zone remediation exist in the literature. A comparison of contaminant flux...

  3. Hydrogel-encapsulated soil: a tool to measure contaminant attenuation in situ.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Brian P; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B

    2010-04-15

    Hydrogel encapsulation presents a novel and powerful general method to observe many water-solid contaminant interactions in situ for a variety of aqueous media including groundwater, with a variety of nondestructive analytical methods, and with a variety of solids including contaminated soil. After intervals of groundwater immersion, polyacrylamide hydrogel-encapsulated solid specimens were retrieved, assayed nondestructively for uranium and other elements using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and replaced in groundwater for continued reaction. Desorption dynamics of uranium from contaminated soils and other solids, when moved to uncontaminated groundwater, were fit to a general two-component kinetic retention model with slow-release and fast-release fractions for the total uranium. In a group of Oak Ridge soils with varying ambient uranium contamination (169-1360 mg/kg), the uranium fraction retained under long-term in situ kinetic behavior was strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.89) with residual uranium after laboratory sequential extraction of water-soluble and cation-exchangeable fractions of the soils. To illustrate how potential remedial techniques can be compared to natural attenuation, thermal stabilization of one soil increased the size of its long-term in situ retained fraction from 50% to 88% of the total uranium and increased the half-life of that long-term retained fraction from 990 to 40000 days.

  4. Hydrogel-encapsulated soil: a tool to measure contaminant attenuation in situ.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Brian P; Brooks, Scott C; Watson, David B

    2010-04-15

    Hydrogel encapsulation presents a novel and powerful general method to observe many water-solid contaminant interactions in situ for a variety of aqueous media including groundwater, with a variety of nondestructive analytical methods, and with a variety of solids including contaminated soil. After intervals of groundwater immersion, polyacrylamide hydrogel-encapsulated solid specimens were retrieved, assayed nondestructively for uranium and other elements using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and replaced in groundwater for continued reaction. Desorption dynamics of uranium from contaminated soils and other solids, when moved to uncontaminated groundwater, were fit to a general two-component kinetic retention model with slow-release and fast-release fractions for the total uranium. In a group of Oak Ridge soils with varying ambient uranium contamination (169-1360 mg/kg), the uranium fraction retained under long-term in situ kinetic behavior was strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.89) with residual uranium after laboratory sequential extraction of water-soluble and cation-exchangeable fractions of the soils. To illustrate how potential remedial techniques can be compared to natural attenuation, thermal stabilization of one soil increased the size of its long-term in situ retained fraction from 50% to 88% of the total uranium and increased the half-life of that long-term retained fraction from 990 to 40000 days. PMID:20230051

  5. THE MEASUREMENT AND USE OF CONTAMINANT FLUX AS AN ASSESSMENT TOOL FOR DNAPL REMEDIAL PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current remedial techniques are unable to completely eliminate all dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) from source zone areas at most sites, and conflicting views on the benefits of partial DNAPL source zone remediation exist in the literature. A comparison of contaminant flux...

  6. FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF PRE- AND POST-REMEDIAL CONTAMINANT FLUX BY INTEGRAL PUMPING TESTS (WASHINGTON, DC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The complete removal of all dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contaminant from source zone areas has not been demonstrated with current remedial techniques, and conflicting views on the benefits of partial DNAPL source zone remediation have been expressed in the literature. ...

  7. A review of melanized (black) fungal contamination in pharmaceutical products--incidence, drug recall and control measures.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, R; Saleh Al-Aboody, M; Sandle, T

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of contamination of pharmaceutical products by melanized fungi and to consider control measures in relation to bioburden and cleanrooms. This study reviews and analyses pharmaceutical product recalls and offers incidence rates of fungal detection from a typical cleanrooms. The recalls include some serious cases which resulted in the loss of life. Of different types of fungal contamination incidences some of the most damaging have been due to melanized fungi ('black mould'), such as Exserohilum rostratum. The focus of the article is with melanized fungi. The study concludes that, from the review of recent pharmaceutical product recalls, fungal contamination is either increasingly common within cleanroom environments or the accuracy of sampling and the level of reporting has risen. The prevalence of melanized fungi in pharmaceutical facilities rests on specific virulence factors particular to these types of fungi, which are outlined. The article identifies a gap in the way that such fungi are screened for using available cultural methods. The article provides some control strategies, including assessing the suitability of disinfectants and biocides, for reducing the risk of melanized fungal incidences within the pharmaceutical facility. Understanding the fungal risk to pharmaceutical products remains a poorly understood and often overlooked aspect of pharmaceutical microbiology. This article helps to identify this risk and offer some guidance to those involved with pharmaceutical products manufacture in relation to bio-contamination control strategies.

  8. Development of a rapid multiplexed assay for the direct screening of antimicrobial residues in raw milk.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Terry F; McClintock, Laura; Dunn, John S; Husar, Gregory M; Lochhead, Michael J; Sarver, Ronald W; Klein, Frank E; Rice, Jennifer A; Campbell, Katrina; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial residues found to be present in milk can have both health and economic impacts. For these reasons, the widespread routine testing of milk is required. Due to delays with sample handling and test scheduling, laboratory-based tests are not always suited for making decisions about raw material intake and product release, especially when samples require shipping to a central testing facility. Therefore, rapid on-site screening tests that can produce results within a matter of minutes are required to facilitate rapid intake and product release processes. Such tests must be simple for use by non-technical staff. There is increasing momentum towards the development and implementation of multiplexing tests that can detect a range of important antimicrobial residues simultaneously. A simple in situ multiplexed planar waveguide device that can simultaneously detect chloramphenicol, streptomycin and desfuroylceftiofur in raw dairy milk, without sample preparation, has been developed. Samples are simply mixed with antibody prior to an aliquot being passed through the detection cartridge for 5 min before reading on a field-deployable portable instrument. Multiplexed calibration curves were produced in both buffer and raw milk. Buffer curves, for chloramphenicol, streptomycin and desfuroylceftiofur, showed linear ranges (inhibitory concentration (IC)20-IC80) of 0.1-0.9, 3-129 and 12-26 ng/ml, whilst linear range in milk was 0.13-0.74, 11-376 and 2-12 ng/ml, respectively, thus meeting European legislated concentration requirements for both chloramphenicol and streptomycin, in milk, without the need for any sample preparation. Desfuroylceftiofur-contaminated samples require only simple sample dilution to bring positive samples within the range of quantification. Assay repeatability and reproducibility were lower than 12 coefficient of variation (%CV), whilst blank raw milk samples (n = 9) showed repeatability ranging between 4.2 and 8.1%CV when measured on all

  9. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil. PMID:25242962

  10. Occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sgarioni, Sônia Aparecida; Hirata, Rosario Dominguez Crespo; Hirata, Mario Hiroyuki; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; de Prince, Karina Andrade; de Andrade Leite, Sergio Roberto; Filho, Dirceu Vedovello; Siqueira, Vera Lucia Dias; Caleffi-Ferracioli, Katiany Rizzieri; Cardoso, Rosilene Fressatti

    2014-01-01

    Milk is widely consumed in Brazil and can be the vehicle of agent transmission. In this study, was evaluated the occurrence of Mycobacterium bovis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in raw and pasteurized milk consumed in the northwestern region of Paraná, Brazil. Fifty-two milk samples (20 pasteurized and 32 raw) from dairy farms near the municipality of Maringa, Parana State, Brazil were collected. Milk samples were decontaminated using 5% oxalic acid method and cultured on Lowenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media at 35 °C and 30 °C, with and without 5-10% CO2. Mycobacteria isolates were identified by morphological features, PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Analysis (PCR-PRA) and Mycolic acids analysis. Thirteen (25%) raw and 2 (4%) pasteurized milk samples were positive for acid fast bacilli growth. Nine different species of NTM were isolated (M. nonchromogenicum, M. peregrinum, M. smegmatis, M. neoaurum, M. fortuitum, M. chelonae, M. flavescens, M. kansasii and M. scrofulaceum). M. bovis was not detected. Raw and pasteurized milk may be considered one source for NTM human infection. The paper reinforces the need for intensification of measures in order to avoid the milk contamination and consequently prevent diseases in the south of Brazil.

  11. Lead excretion in milk of accidentally exposed dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Karyn; Higgins, William; Thompson, Belinda; Ebel, Joseph G

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure in dairy cattle is associated with economic losses due to mortality and treatment costs, but with production animals there is also risk to the human food chain. The first objective of this study was to quantify the Pb concentration in milk from Pb-exposed cattle. The second objective was to correlate blood and milk Pb concentrations from individual cows. The third objective was long-term monitoring to determine the duration of milk contamination after exposure ceased. A dairy herd of more than 100 cows was accidentally exposed to Pb-contaminated feed. Milk and blood were collected for Pb analysis. Serial collection of milk samples continued for 2.5 years. The initial concentration of Pb in bulk tank milk was 0.0999 mg l⁻¹. The highest milk Pb concentration from an individual cow was 0.4657 mg l⁻¹ and the highest blood Pb concentration was 1.216 mg l⁻¹. One milk sample collected at the end of the study (day 922) contained 0.0117 mg Pb l⁻¹ of Pb. The calculated relationship between milk (y) and blood (x) Pb concentration was ln(y) = 3.4(x) - 2.21 (R² = 0.98).

  12. Effects of milk powders in milk chocolate.

    PubMed

    Liang, B; Hartel, R W

    2004-01-01

    The physical characteristics of milk powders used in chocolate can have significant impact on the processing conditions needed to make that chocolate and the physical and organoleptic properties of the finished product. Four milk powders with different particle characteristics (size, shape, density) and "free" milk fat levels (easily extracted with organic solvent) were evaluated for their effect on the processing conditions and characteristics of chocolates in which they were used. Many aspects of chocolate manufacture and storage (tempering conditions, melt rheology, hardness, bloom stability) were dependent on the level of free milk fat in the milk powder. However, particle characteristics of the milk powder also influenced the physical and sensory properties of the final products.

  13. Review of methods and measurements of selected hydrophobic organic contaminant aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, and air-water partition coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Bamford, H.A.; Baker, J.E.; Poster, D.L.

    1998-03-01

    Aqueous solubilities, vapor pressures, and Henry`s law constants for a wide range of organic contaminants of environmental interest are presented. Specifically, a discussion of methods used to measure these physical constants and resulting measurements are provided in an effort to examine the scope of physical constants reported in the scientific literature. Physical constants reviewed include those for 40 PAHs, 14 chlorinated aliphatics, 149 PCBs, 12 chlorinated benzenes, 16 dioxins, 63 furans, and 29 agrochemicals (a total of 323 compounds) and overall a total of 1,605 values are listed.

  14. Milk fat progesterone concentrations in goats and early pregnancy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Montigny, G; Millerioux, P; Jeanguyot, N; Humblot, P; Thibier, M

    1982-04-01

    Blood and milk samples from foremilk during afternoon milking, were simultaneously collected from 285 dairy goats. In experiment 1, fiva cyclic goats were sampled daily for 21 days. In experiment 2, 280 females from 9 flocks were submitted to sampling 21 days after insemination. In addition, some milk samples were divided in two parts, after which one was frozen and the other kept at +4 degrees C until assay. Progesterone concentrations were measured in blood, whole milk and milk fat by radioimmunoassay. No difference in whole milk or fat progesterone levels was found between frozen and refrigerated milk samples. Milk butterfat progesterone concentrations paralleled those in plasma or whole milk throughout the estrous cycle and ranged from about 20 ng/ml at estrus to about 400 ng/ml in mid-luteal phase. The ratio of mid-luteal phase progesterone levels to those seen in the estrous period was over 20 in fat and in blood. This ratio was very much lower in whole milk. Consequently the determination of pregnant and non-pregnant goats from the samples collected 21 days after service was very much easier and accuracy was better when the progesterone content was assayed from milk fat than from whole milk. It was concluded that early pregnancy diagnosis in goats can be done routinely by determination of progesterone levels in milk fat. PMID:16725705

  15. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water. PMID:24745034

  16. Hydrogel-encapsulated soil: A tool to measure contaminant attenuation in situ

    SciTech Connect

    Brooks, Scott C; Spalding, Brian Patrick; Watson, David B

    2010-01-01

    After intervals of groundwater immersion, polyacrylamide hydrogel-encapsulated solid specimens were retrieved, assayed non-destructively for uranium and other elements using x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and replaced in groundwater for continued reaction. Desorption dynamics of uranium from contaminated soils and other solids, when moved to uncontaminated groundwater, were fit to a general two-component kinetic retention model with slow-release and fast-release fractions of the total uranium. In a group of Oak Ridge soils with varying ambient uranium contamination (169-1360 mg/kg), the uranium fraction retained under long-term in situ kinetic behavior was strongly correlated (r2 = 0.89) with the residual uranium retained after laboratory sequential extraction of water-soluble and cation-exchangeable fractions of the same soils. To illustrate how potential remedial techniques can be compared to natural attenuation, thermal stabilization of one soil increased the size of its long-term retained fraction from 50 to 88% of the total uranium and increased the in situ retention half-life of the long-term retained fraction from 990 to 40,000 days. Hydrogel encapsulation presents a novel and powerful general method to observe many water-solids interactions in situ for a variety of aqueous media besides groundwater, with a variety of non-destructive analytical methods, and with a variety of solids besides contaminated soil.

  17. Practical measures for reducing the risk of environmental contamination in shale energy production.

    PubMed

    Ziemkiewicz, Paul; Quaranta, John D; McCawley, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Gas recovery from shale formations has been made possible by advances in horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technology. Rapid adoption of these methods has created a surge in natural gas production in the United States and increased public concern about its environmental and human health effects. We surveyed the environmental literature relevant to shale gas development and studied over fifteen well sites and impoundments in West Virginia to evaluate pollution caused by air emissions, light and noise during drilling. Our study also characterized liquid and solid waste streams generated by drilling and hydraulic fracturing and evaluated the integrity of impoundments used to store fluids produced by hydraulic fracturing. While most shale gas wells are completed with little or no environmental contamination, we found that many of the problems associated with shale gas development resulted from inattention to accepted engineering practices such as impoundment construction, improper liner installation and a lack of institutional controls. Recommendations are provided based on the literature and our field studies. They will address not all but a great many of the deficiencies that result in environmental release of contaminants from shale gas development. We also identified areas where new technologies are needed to fully address contaminant releases to air and water.

  18. Levels and Concentration Ratios of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Serum and Breast Milk in Japanese Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Kayoko; Harada, Kouji; Takenaka, Katsunobu; Uehara, Shigeki; Kono, Makoto; Shimizu, Takashi; Takasuga, Takumi; Senthilkumar, Kurunthachalam; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Koizumi, Akio

    2006-01-01

    Blood and/or breast milk have been used to assess human exposure to various environmental contaminants. Few studies have been available to compare the concentrations in one matrix with those in another. The goals of this study were to determine the current levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Japanese women, with analysis of the effects of lifestyle and dietary habits on these levels, and to develop a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) with which to predict the ratio of serum concentration to breast milk concentration. We measured PBDEs and PCBs in 89 paired samples of serum and breast milk collected in four regions of Japan in 2005. The geometric means of the total concentrations of PBDE (13 congeners) in milk and serum were 1.56 and 2.89 ng/g lipid, respectively, whereas those of total PCBs (15 congeners) were 63.9 and 37.5 ng/g lipid, respectively. The major determinant of total PBDE concentration in serum and milk was the geographic area within Japan, whereas nursing duration was the major determinant of PCB concentration. BDE-209 was the most predominant PBDE congener in serum but not in milk. The excretion of BDE 209 in milk was lower than that of BDE 47 and BDE 153. QSAR analysis revealed that two parameters, calculated octanol/water partition and number of hydrogen-bond acceptors, were significant descriptors. During the first weeks of lactation, the predicted partitioning of PBDE and PCB congeners from serum to milk agreed with the observed values. However, the prediction became weaker after 10 weeks of nursing. PMID:16882522

  19. PCBs and OCPs in human milk and selected foods from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang, China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gaofeng; Xu, Ying; Li, Wen; Han, Guanggen; Ling, Bo

    2007-06-01

    This study was conducted to measure the levels of 23 PCB congeners and 6 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in human milk and three food types collected from Luqiao and Pingqiao in Zhejiang Province, China. An effort was also made to explore the potential health risk for the mothers and breast-fed infants living in these two localities. Luqiao was selected as the sampling site because it is the largest place for the disassembly of obsolete transformers and electrical waste in China. Pingqiao, located 100 km NW of Luqiao, is not known to be a place for any electronic or electrical waste and hence was chosen as the control site. Both localities are important agricultural places in the province. The organochlorines were measured in the samples using the GC-muECD technique. Micro-EROD bioassay method was also used as a complement of the chemical analysis to estimate the TEQ levels of dioxin-like PCBs in human milk. The data showed that the human milk, rice, hen egg, and fish samples from Luqiao were more heavily contaminated with PCBs than those from Pingqiao, suggesting that the mothers and their breast-fed infants in Luqiao tended to receive greater exposure to PCBs than those living in Pingqiao. The OCP levels in the two localities were found comparable, suggesting that the major source of contamination with these pesticides was from their agricultural uses. Significant correlation (R2 = 0.87, P<0.001) of PCB TEQs was found between the bioassay and chemical analysis method, suggesting that micro-EROD is an effective method for comprehensive determination of TEQ levels in human milk. Comparison with literature data showed that the PCB levels in milk samples from Luqiao were significantly higher than those from localities in other Chinese provinces and comparable to those in developed or industrialized countries.

  20. Selenium content of milk and milk products of Turkey. II.

    PubMed

    Yanardağ, R; Orak, H

    1999-04-01

    Selenium content of 1028 milk and milk products of Turkey are presented in this study. The selenium content of human milk (colostrum, transitional, and mature milk), various kinds of milk [cow, sheep, goat, buffalo, paper boxes (3%, 1.5%, 0.012% fat), bottled milk, condensed milk (10% fat), mineral added milk (1.6%), and banana, strawberry, and chocolate milk] and milk products (kefir, yogurt, Ayran, various cheese, coffee cream, ice cream, butter, margarine, milk powder, and fruit yogurt) in Turkey were determined by a spectrofluorometric method. The selenium levels of cow milks collected from 57 cities in Turkey were also determined. Selenium levels in cow milk varied with geographical location in Turkey and were found to be lowest for Van and highest for Aksaray. The results [milk (cow, sheep, goat, buffalo and human) and milks products] were compared with literature data from different countries.

  1. Fluorescence sensor array for identification of commercial milk samples according to their thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Mungkarndee, Radeemada; Techakriengkrai, Ittipon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol

    2016-04-15

    Identification of processed milk is of importance for commercial and legal concerns. The fluorescence response patterns induced by fluorophore/protein interactions allow a possible discrimination of processed milk samples corresponding to their thermal treatment. The fluorescence responses of 4 fluorophores upon addition of commercial milk samples in 96-well plate are measured in the range of 400-600 nm using the excitation wavelength at 375 nm. The pattern recognition of the 53,126 fluorescence responses (4 fluorophores×41 wavelengths×4 thermally processed milks×3 brands×3 lots×3 bottles×3 repeats) are analyzed by multivariate statistical methods. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) successfully recognizes the milk samples according to their thermal processing, i.e. pasteurized milk, sterilized milk, UHT fresh milk and recombined milk (UHT milk having milk powder), with 100% classification accuracy in a cross validation using a leave-one-out technique. PMID:26616941

  2. Cow's milk - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002448.htm Cow's milk - infants To use the sharing features on this ... old, you should not feed your baby cow's milk, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). ...

  3. Breastfeeding and Breast Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Breastfeeding and Breast Milk: Condition Information​ ​​Breastfeeding, also called ...

  4. Comparison of surface contamination monitors for in vivo measurement of 131I in the thyroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, S. M.; Dantas, A. L. A.; Dantas, B. M.

    2016-07-01

    The routine handling of radiopharmaceuticals in nuclear medicine represents a significant risk of internal exposure to the staff. The IAEA recommends the implementation of monitoring plans for all workers subject to a risk of exposures above 1 mSv per year. However, in Brazil, such recommendation is practically unfeasible due to the lack of a sufficient number of qualified internal dosimetry services over the country. This work presents an alternative based on a simple and inexpensive methodology aimed to perform in vivo monitoring of 131I in the thyroid using portable surface contamination probes. Results show that all models evaluated in this work present enough sensitivity for the evaluation of accidental intakes.

  5. Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Milk: A Public Health Implication

    PubMed Central

    Akindolire, Muyiwa Ajoke; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti; Ateba, Collins Njie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and virulence genes determinants of S. aureus isolated from milk obtained from retail outlets of the North-West Province, South Africa. To achieve this, 200 samples of raw, bulk and pasteurised milk were obtained randomly from supermarkets, shops and some farms in the North-West Province between May 2012 and April 2013. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using morphological (Gram staining), biochemical (DNase, catalase, haemolysis and rapid slide agglutination) tests, protein profile analysis (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry) and molecular (nuc specific PCR) methods. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using the phenotypic agar diffusion method. Genes encoding enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins and collagen adhesins were also screened using PCR. Among all the samples examined, 30 of 40 raw milk samples (75%), 25 of 85 bulk milk samples (29%) and 10 of 75 pasteurised milk samples (13%) were positive for S. aureus. One hundred and fifty-six PCR-confirmed S. aureus isolates were obtained from 75 contaminated milk samples. A large proportion (60%–100%) of the isolates was resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin and erythromycin. On the contrary, low level resistance (8.3%–40%) was observed for gentamicin, kanamycin and sulphamethoxazole. Methicillin resistance was detected in 59% of the multidrug resistant isolates and this was a cause for concern. However, only a small proportion (20.6%) of these isolates possessed PBP2a which codes for Methicillin resistance in S. aureus. In addition, 32.7% of isolates possessed the sec gene whereas the sea, seb sed, see, cna, eta, etb genes were not detected. The findings of this study showed that raw, bulk and pasteurised milk in the North-West Province is contaminated with toxigenic and multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. There is a need to implement

  6. Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus aureus from Milk: A Public Health Implication.

    PubMed

    Akindolire, Muyiwa Ajoke; Babalola, Olubukola Oluranti; Ateba, Collins Njie

    2015-08-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence, antibiotic susceptibility profiles, and virulence genes determinants of S. aureus isolated from milk obtained from retail outlets of the North-West Province, South Africa. To achieve this, 200 samples of raw, bulk and pasteurised milk were obtained randomly from supermarkets, shops and some farms in the North-West Province between May 2012 and April 2013. S. aureus was isolated and positively identified using morphological (Gram staining), biochemical (DNase, catalase, haemolysis and rapid slide agglutination) tests, protein profile analysis (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry) and molecular (nuc specific PCR) methods. The antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates were determined using the phenotypic agar diffusion method. Genes encoding enterotoxins, exfoliative toxins and collagen adhesins were also screened using PCR. Among all the samples examined, 30 of 40 raw milk samples (75%), 25 of 85 bulk milk samples (29%) and 10 of 75 pasteurised milk samples (13%) were positive for S. aureus. One hundred and fifty-six PCR-confirmed S. aureus isolates were obtained from 75 contaminated milk samples. A large proportion (60%-100%) of the isolates was resistant to penicillin G, ampicillin, oxacillin, vancomycin, teicoplanin and erythromycin. On the contrary, low level resistance (8.3%-40%) was observed for gentamicin, kanamycin and sulphamethoxazole. Methicillin resistance was detected in 59% of the multidrug resistant isolates and this was a cause for concern. However, only a small proportion (20.6%) of these isolates possessed PBP2a which codes for Methicillin resistance in S. aureus. In addition, 32.7% of isolates possessed the sec gene whereas the sea, seb sed, see, cna, eta, etb genes were not detected. The findings of this study showed that raw, bulk and pasteurised milk in the North-West Province is contaminated with toxigenic and multi-drug resistant S. aureus strains. There is a need to implement

  7. Contamination study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. Barry; Herren, Kenneth A.

    1990-01-01

    The time dependence of the angular reflectance from molecularly contaminated optical surfaces in the Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) is measured. The light scattering measurements are accomplished in situ on optical surfaces in real time during deposition of molecular contaminants. The measurements are taken using non-coherent VUV sources with the predominant wavelengths being the Krypton resonance lines at 1236 and 1600 A. Detection of the scattered light is accomplished using a set of three solar blind VUV photomultipliers. An in-plane VUV BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions) experiment is described and details of the ongoing program to characterize optical materials exposed to the space environment is reported.

  8. Non-Destructive Measurements of the Characteristics of Radioactive Contamination of Near Surface Layers of Concrete and Ground with Collimated Spectrometric Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, V.N.; Danilovich, A.S.; Ignatov, S.M.; Volkovich, A.G.; Ivanov, O.P.; Stepanov, V.E.; Volkov, V.G.

    2006-07-01

    The remote radiometric method for estimation of the characteristics of concrete and ground contamination by gamma nuclides was investigated. The studies were carried out for possible realization of a method with two types of spectrometric detectors: 1) scintillator + PMT and 2) scintillator + photo diode. The measurements of Cs-137 contamination were considered, as most widespread gamma-contaminant. The mathematical model of the radiometric device was developed for studying of a method, optimization of device's parameters and search of all dependences necessary for method realization. The collimated radiometer with volume of the detector 20 cm{sup 3} has the limiting sensitivity - MMA = 0.5 {mu}Ci/m{sup 2} (19 kBq/m{sup 2}) at thickness of contaminated concrete layer 5 cm. The method can be realized for measurement of contamination of concrete and ground by other gamma radiating nuclides also. (authors)

  9. Indoor fungal contamination: health risks and measurement methods in hospitals, homes and workplaces.

    PubMed

    Méheust, Delphine; Le Cann, Pierre; Reboux, Gabriel; Millon, Laurence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Indoor fungal contamination has been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including infectious diseases, toxic effects and allergies. The diversity of fungi contributes to the complex role that they play in indoor environments and human diseases. Molds have a major impact on public health, and can cause different consequences in hospitals, homes and workplaces. This review presents the methods used to assess fungal contamination in these various environments, and discusses advantages and disadvantages for each method in consideration with different health risks. Air, dust and surface sampling strategies are compared, as well as the limits of various methods are used to detect and quantify fungal particles and fungal compounds. In addition to conventional microscopic and culture approaches, more recent chemical, immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are described. This article also identifies common needs for future multidisciplinary research and development projects in this field, with specific interests on viable fungi and fungal fragment detections. The determination of fungal load and the detection of species in environmental samples greatly depend on the strategy of sampling and analysis. Quantitative PCR was found useful to identify associations between specific fungi and common diseases. The next-generation sequencing methods may afford new perspectives in this area. PMID:23586944

  10. Sediment contamination and associates laboratory-measured bioaccumulation in New York/New Jersey waterways

    SciTech Connect

    Rosman, L.B.; Barrows, E.S.

    1995-12-31

    Sediments from 10 New York/New Jersey waterways within the Hudson-Raritan Estuary and Long Island Sound were collected to depths representative of dredging activity. Composited core sediments representing each waterway were analyzed for metals, PAHs, PCBs, and pesticides. To assess bioaccumulation, sand worms (Nereis virens) and blunt-nose clams (Macoma nasuta) were exposed for 28 days to sediment composites and to New York Bight sediment. Tissues were analyzed for the same constituents as the sediment samples. The results highlight the range and magnitude of sediment contamination in NY/NJ waterways. Concentrations of some metals in sediments, compared with NY Bight sediment, were at least 10 times higher. Total PAHs reached 30,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). The sum of DDT, DDD, and DDE, the dominant pesticides, exceeded 3,000{micro}g/kg (dry weight). Total PCBs approached 3,000 {micro}g/kg (dry weight). Tissues exposed to sediments from several waterways bioaccumulated organic compounds at concentrations 10 times greater than those exposed to New York Bight sediments. Metals were bioaccumulated to a lesser degree. The presence and extent of bioaccumulated contaminants, along with sediment chemistry and benthic toxicity, create a profile characterizing each waterway.

  11. Measurement of biodegradation rate constants of a water extract from petroleum-contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Li, K.Y.; Kane, A.J.; Wang, J.J.; Cawley, W.A. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    The study of biodegradation rate constants of petroleum products in water extract from contaminated soil presents an important component in the evaluation of bioremediation process. In this study, soil samples were gathered from an industrial site which was used for maintenance and storage of heavy equipment used in the oil and gas exploration and production industry. The petroleum contaminants were extracted from the soil using distilled water. This water extract was used as the substrate to acclimate a microbial community and also for the biological kinetic studies. Kinetic studies were carried out in batch reactors, and the biodegradation rates were monitored by a computer-controlled respirometer. The BOD data were analyzed by using the Monod equation. Experimental results give the average value of the maximum rate constant as 0.038 mg BOD/(mg VSS hr) and the average value of the substrate concentration of half rate as 746 mg BOD/l. A GC/MS analysis on the sample of the test solutions before and after 5 days of biological oxidation indicates that the hydrocarbons initially present in the solution were degraded.

  12. Indoor fungal contamination: health risks and measurement methods in hospitals, homes and workplaces.

    PubMed

    Méheust, Delphine; Le Cann, Pierre; Reboux, Gabriel; Millon, Laurence; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre

    2014-08-01

    Indoor fungal contamination has been associated with a wide range of adverse health effects, including infectious diseases, toxic effects and allergies. The diversity of fungi contributes to the complex role that they play in indoor environments and human diseases. Molds have a major impact on public health, and can cause different consequences in hospitals, homes and workplaces. This review presents the methods used to assess fungal contamination in these various environments, and discusses advantages and disadvantages for each method in consideration with different health risks. Air, dust and surface sampling strategies are compared, as well as the limits of various methods are used to detect and quantify fungal particles and fungal compounds. In addition to conventional microscopic and culture approaches, more recent chemical, immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods are described. This article also identifies common needs for future multidisciplinary research and development projects in this field, with specific interests on viable fungi and fungal fragment detections. The determination of fungal load and the detection of species in environmental samples greatly depend on the strategy of sampling and analysis. Quantitative PCR was found useful to identify associations between specific fungi and common diseases. The next-generation sequencing methods may afford new perspectives in this area.

  13. Use of chironomids (Diptera: Chironomidae) as bioindicators of contaminant stress: Biochemical, chromosomal and developmental measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ciborowski, J.J.H.; Cervi, L.; Sinasac, D.; Pardalis, G.; Day, K.

    1995-12-31

    Sublethal environmental stresses produce effects ranging from subtle biochemical changes that protect an organism from damage, through developmental effects that interfere with growth and compromise fitness. Benthic chironomids live in intimate contact with the sediments to which most persistent chemicals are bound. Their short life cycle and unique developmental and genetic structure make them excellent candidates as biological indicators of stress. The authors evaluated the short and long-term responses of Chironomus riparius larvae to contaminants. To determine short-term stress responses, third and fourth instar Chironomus larvae were exposed to up to 1.5 {micro}L/g creosote or up to 100 {micro}g/g Cd for 12 h. Creosote-exposed larvae exhibited proteins of a molecular weight consistent with production of heat shock proteins of the HSP 70 family. Exposure to Cd induced significant enlargement of Balbiani Rings of the 4th chromosome in chironomid salivary glands, indicative of increased transcription of RNA precursors to salivary mucoproteins. Chironomus larvae individually reared from second instar larvae at [Cd] up to 40 {micro}g/g sediment exhibited increased incidence of mentum deformities, and delayed development that resulted in larger size at pupation. Thus deformities are biologically relevant indicators of stress. Overall, the results confirm the potential of chironomids as relevant bioindicators of contaminant stress.

  14. Special Milk Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Agriculture, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Special Milk Program provides milk to children in schools, child care institutions and eligible camps that do not participate in other Federal child nutrition meal service programs. The program reimburses schools and institutions for the milk they serve. In 2008, 4,676 schools and residential child care institutions participated, along with…

  15. Milk Allergy in Infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Milk Allergy in Infants KidsHealth > For Parents > Milk Allergy ... español Alergia a la leche en bebés About Milk Allergy Almost all infants are fussy at times. ...

  16. A wireless electronic monitoring system for securing milk from farm to processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Womble, Phillip; Hopper, Lindsay; Thompson, Chris; Alexander, Suraj M.; Crist, William; Payne, Fred; Stombaugh, Tim; Paschal, Jon; Moore, Ryan; Luck, Brian; Tabayehnejab, Nasrin

    2008-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security and the Department of Health and Human Services have targeted bulk food contamination as a focus for attention. The contamination of bulk food poses a high consequence threat to our society. Milk transport falls into three of the 17 targeted NIPP (National Infrastructure Protection Plan) sectors including agriculture-food, public health, and commercial facilities. Minimal security safeguards have been developed for bulk milk transport. The current manual methods of securing milk are paper intensive and prone to errors. The bulk milk transportation sector requires a security enhancement that will both reduce recording errors and enable normal transport activities to occur while providing security against unauthorized access. Milk transportation companies currently use voluntary seal programs that utilize plastic, numbered seals on milk transport tank openings. Our group has developed a Milk Transport Security System which is an electromechanical access control and communication system that assures the secure transport of milk, milk samples, milk data, and security data between locations and specifically between dairy farms, transfer stations, receiving stations, and milk plants. It includes a security monitoring system installed on the milk transport tank, a hand held device, optional printers, data server, and security evaluation software. The system operates automatically and requires minimal or no attention by the bulk milk hauler/sampler. The system is compatible with existing milk transport infrastructure, and has the support of the milk producers, milk transportation companies, milk marketing agencies, and dairy processors. The security protocol developed is applicable for transport of other bulk foods both nationally and internationally. This system adds significantly to the national security infrastructure for bulk food transport. We are currently demonstrating the system in central Kentucky and will report on the results

  17. Absorption and backscatter of internal conversion electrons in the measurements of surface contamination of ¹³⁷Cs.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, A; Kawada, Y; Yamada, T; Unno, Y; Sato, Y; Hino, Y

    2013-11-01

    We measured 4π and 2π counting efficiencies for internal conversion electrons (ICEs), gross β-particles and also β-rays alone with various source conditions regarding absorber and backing foil thickness using e-X coincidence technique. Dominant differences regarding the penetration, attenuation and backscattering properties among ICEs and β-rays were revealed. Although the abundance of internal conversion electrons of (137)Cs-(137)Ba is only 9.35%, 60% of gross counts may be attributed to ICEs in worse source conditions. This information will be useful for radionuclide metrology and for surface contamination monitoring.

  18. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p < 0.001), and phase 2, 5.76% ± 0.29% vs. 0.78% ± 0.14% (p < 0.001), respectively). Fewer children chose reduced-sugar chocolate milk in phase 2 (p < 0.001). A greater percentage of younger students (grades 1-4) than older students (grades 5-8) purchased milk in both phases (phase 1, 11.10% ± 0.81% vs. 8.36% ± 0.74%, p = 0.020, and phase 2, 8.47% ± 0.43% vs. 4.62% ± 0.40%, p < 0.001, respectively); older children drank more milk at lunch. Schoolchildren preferred chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk. PMID:27120342

  19. Methods for measuring the toxicity and bioaccumulation of sediment-associated contaminants with freshwater invertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The procedures are described for testing freshwater organisms in the laboratory to evaluate the toxicity or bioaccumulation of contaminants associated with whole sediments. Sediments may be collected from the field or spiked with compounds in the laboratory. Toxicity methods are outlined for two organisms, the amphipod Hyalella azteca and the midge Chironomus tentans. The toxicity tests are conducted for 10 d in 300 ml chambers containing 100 ml of sediment and 175 ml of overlying water. Overlying water is renewed daily and test organisms are fed during the toxicity tests. The endpoint in the toxicity test with H. azteca is survival and the endpoints in the toxicity test with C. tentans are survival and growth. Procedures are primarily described for testing freshwater sediments; however, estaurine sediments (up to 15%) can also be tested with H. azteca. Guidance for conducting 28-d bioaccumulation tests with the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is provided in the manual.

  20. A qualitative screening and quantitative measurement of organic contaminants on different types of marine plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Robbens, Johan; De Witte, Bavo

    2015-11-01

    Chemical compounds present on plastic were characterised on different types of plastic litter and beached pellets, using a general GC-MS screening method. A variety of plastic related compounds, such as building blocks, antioxidants, additives and degradation products, were identified next to diverse environmental pollutants and biofilm compounds. A validated method for the analysis of PAHs and PCBs on beached pellets at the Belgian Coast, showed concentrations of ∑ 16 EPA-PAHs of 1076-3007 ng g(-1) plastic, while the concentrations of ∑ 7 OSPAR-PCBs ranged from 31 to 236 ng g(-1) plastic. The wide variety of plastic compounds retrieved in the general screening showed the importance of plastic as a potential source of contaminants and their degradation products.

  1. A qualitative screening and quantitative measurement of organic contaminants on different types of marine plastic debris.

    PubMed

    Gauquie, Johanna; Devriese, Lisa; Robbens, Johan; De Witte, Bavo

    2015-11-01

    Chemical compounds present on plastic were characterised on different types of plastic litter and beached pellets, using a general GC-MS screening method. A variety of plastic related compounds, such as building blocks, antioxidants, additives and degradation products, were identified next to diverse environmental pollutants and biofilm compounds. A validated method for the analysis of PAHs and PCBs on beached pellets at the Belgian Coast, showed concentrations of ∑ 16 EPA-PAHs of 1076-3007 ng g(-1) plastic, while the concentrations of ∑ 7 OSPAR-PCBs ranged from 31 to 236 ng g(-1) plastic. The wide variety of plastic compounds retrieved in the general screening showed the importance of plastic as a potential source of contaminants and their degradation products. PMID:26126190

  2. Biosolids-amended soils: Part II. Chemical lability as a measure of contaminant bioaccessability.

    PubMed

    Schwab, A P; Lewis, K; Banks, M K

    2006-10-01

    Biosolids recycling by amending agricultural soils has increased significantly over the last few decades. The presence of contaminants in small, bioavailable quantities has generated concerns about health threats resulting from accumulation of potential toxins in the food chain. In this study, land application of biosolids was evaluated for environmental risk. Chemical lability tests for metals were used for the test soils and included analyses for water soluble, exchangeable, and metals extractable by the physiologically based extraction test. Chemical extractions detected slight increases in labile metal concentrations for many of the treated soils, particularly those receiving long-term applications of 5 years or more. Significantly higher metal concentrations were observed in the soils that had been exposed to biosolids before the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Washington, D.C.) 503 Rule (U.S. EPA, 2004) was implemented. PMID:17120442

  3. Phage inhibition of Escherichia coli in ultrahigh-temperature-treated and raw milk.

    PubMed

    McLean, Sarah K; Dunn, Louise A; Palombo, Enzo A

    2013-11-01

    Escherichia coli can contaminate raw milk during the milking process or via environmental contamination in milk-processing facilities. Three bacteriophages, designated EC6, EC9, and EC11, were investigated for their ability to inhibit the growth of three strains of E. coli in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) treated and raw bovine milk. A cocktail of the three phages completely inhibited E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli O127:H6 in UHT milk at 25 °C and under refrigeration temperatures (5-9 °C). The phage cocktail produced similar results in raw milk; however, E. coli ATCC 25922 and O127:H6 in raw milk controls also declined to below the level of detection at both temperatures. This observation indicated that competition by the raw milk microbiota might have contributed to the decline in viable E. coli cells. A cocktail containing EC6 and EC9 completely inhibited E. coli O5:H-, an enterohemorrhagic strain, in UHT milk at both temperatures. In raw milk, the phage cocktail initially inhibited growth of E. coli O5:H- but regrowth occurred following incubation for 9 h at 25 °C and 144 h at 5-9 °C. In contrast to the other E. coli strains, O5:H- was not inhibited in the raw milk controls. This study demonstrates that bacteriophages are effective biocontrol agents against E. coli host strains in UHT and raw bovine milk at various storage temperatures. PMID:23909774

  4. Laboratory measurements of contaminant attenuation of uranium mill tailings leachates by sediments and clay liners

    SciTech Connect

    Serne, R.J.; Peterson, S.R.; Gee, G.W.

    1983-04-01

    We discuss FY82 progress on the development of laboratory tools to aid in the prediction of migration potential of contaminants present in acidic uranium mill tailings leachate. Further, empirical data on trace metal and radionuclide migration through a clay liner are presented. Acidic uranium mill tailings solution from a Wyoming mill was percolated through a composite sediment called Morton Ranch Clay liner. These laboratory columns and subsequent sediment extraction data show: (1) As, Cr, Pb, Ag, Th and V migrate very slowly; (2) U, Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn and similar transition metals are initially immobilized during acid neutralization but later are remobilized as the tailings solution exhausts the clay liner's acid buffering capacity. Such metals remain immobilized as long as the effluent pH remains above a pH value of 4 to 4.5, but they become mobile once the effluent pH drops below this range; and (3) fractions of the Se and Mo present in the influent tailings solution are very mobile. Possible controlling mechanisms for the pH-dependent immobilization-mobilization of the trace metals are discussed. More study is required to understand the controlling mechanisms for Se and Mo and Ra for which data were not successfully collected. Using several column lengths (from 4.5 to 65 cm) and pore volume residence times (from 0.8 to 40 days) we found no significant differences in contaminant migration rates or types and extent of controlling processes. Thus, we conclude that the laboratory results may be capable of extrapolation to actual disposal site conditions.

  5. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E; Geddes, Donna T; Hassiotou, Foteini

    2015-10-01

    MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column-based phenol-free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area.

  6. Human Milk MicroRNA and Total RNA Differ Depending on Milk Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Alsaweed, Mohammed; Hepworth, Anna R.; Lefèvre, Christophe; Hartmann, Peter E.; Geddes, Donna T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT MicroRNA have been recently discovered in human milk signifying potentially important functions for both the lactating breast and the infant. Whilst human milk microRNA have started to be explored, little data exist on the evaluation of sample processing, and analysis to ensure that a full spectrum of microRNA can be obtained. Human milk comprises three main fractions: cells, skim milk, and lipids. Typically, the skim milk fraction has been measured in isolation despite evidence that the lipid fraction may contain more microRNA. This study aimed to standardize isolation of microRNA and total RNA from all three fractions of human milk to determine the most appropriate sampling and analysis procedure for future studies. Three different methods from eight commercially available kits were tested for their efficacy in extracting total RNA and microRNA from the lipid, skim, and cell fractions of human milk. Each fraction yielded different concentrations of RNA and microRNA, with the highest quantities found in the cell and lipid fractions, and the lowest in skim milk. The column‐based phenol‐free method was the most efficient extraction method for all three milk fractions. Two microRNAs were expressed and validated in the three milk fractions by qPCR using the three recommended extraction kits for each fraction. High expression levels were identified in the skim and lipid milk factions for these microRNAs. These results suggest that careful consideration of both the human milk sample preparation and extraction protocols should be made prior to embarking upon research in this area. J. Cell. Biochem. 116: 2397–2407, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25925799

  7. Radioactive contamination processes during 14-21 March after the Fukushima accident: What does atmospheric electric field measurements tell us?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, M.; Yamauchi, M.; Makino, M.; Owada, T.; Miyagi, I.

    2012-04-01

    Ionizing radiation from the radioactive material is known to increase atmospheric electric conductivity, and hence to decrease vertical downward atmospheric DC electric field at ground level, or potential gradient (PG). In the past, the drop of PG has been observed after rain-induced radioactive fallout (wet contamination) after nuclear tests or after the Chernobyl disaster. After the nuclear accident Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP) that started 11 March 2011, the PG also at Kakioka, 150 km southwest from the FNPP, also dropped a by one order of magnitude. Unlike the past examples, the PG drop was two-stepped on 14 March and 20 March. Both correspond to two largest southward release of radioactive material according to the data from the radiation dose rate measurement network. We compare the Kakioka's PG data with the radiation dose rate data at different places to examine the fallout processes of both on 14 March and on 20 March. The former turned out to be dry contamination by surface wind, leaving a substantial amount of fallout floating near the ground. The latter turned out to be wet contamination by rain after transport by relatively low-altitude wind, and the majority of the fallout settled to the ground at this time. It is recommended that all nuclear power plant to have a network of PG observation surrounding the plant. Takeda, et al. (2011): Initial effect of the Fukushima accident on atmospheric electricity, Geophys. Res. Lett., 38, L15811, doi:10.1029/2011GL048511. Yamauchi, et al. (2012): Settlement process of radioactive dust to the ground inferred from the atmospheric electric field measurement, Ann. Geophys., 30, 49-56, doi:10.5194/angeo-30-49-2012.

  8. An atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) system for measuring ultra-low contamination by krypton in xenon dark matter detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Hyun

    The XENON dark matter experiment aims to detect hypothetical weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) scattering off nuclei within its liquid xenon (LXe) target. The trace 85Kr in the xenon target undergoes beta-decay with a 687 keV end point and 10.8 year halflife, which contributes background events and limits the sensitivity of the experiment. In order to achieve the desired sensitivity, the contamination by krypton is reduced to the part per trillion (ppt) level by cryogenic distillation. The conventional methods are not well suited for measuring the krypton contamination at such a low level. In this work, we have developed an atom trap trace analysis (ATTA) device to detect the ultra-low krypton concentration in the xenon target. This project was proposed to the National Science Foundation (NSF) as a Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) development [Aprile and Zelevinsky, 2009] and is funded by NSF and Columbia University. The ATTA method, originally developed at Argonne National Laboratory, uses standard laser cooling and trapping techniques, and counts single trapped atoms. Since the isotopic abundance of 85Kr in nature is 1.5 x 10-11, the 85Kr/Xe level is expected to be ˜10-23, which is beyond the capability of our method. Thus we detect the most abundant (57%) isotope 84Kr, and infer the 85Kr contamination from their known abundances. To avoid contamination by krypton, the setup is tested and optimized with 40 Ar which has a similar cooling wavelength to 84Kr. Two main challenges in this experiment are to obtain a trapping efficiency high enough to detect krypton impurities at the ppt level, and to achieve the resolution to discriminate single atoms. The device is specially designed and adjusted to meet these challenges. After achieving these criteria with argon gas, we precisely characterize the efficiency of the system using Kr-Xe mixtures with known ratios, and find that ˜90 minutes are required to trap one 84Kr atom at the 1-ppt Kr

  9. Glycobiology of human milk.

    PubMed

    Newburg, D S

    2013-07-01

    Glycans are characteristic components of milk, and each species has unique patterns of specific carbohydrates. Human milk is unusually rich in glycans, with the major components being lactose and oligosaccharides, representing approximately 6.8 and 1% of the milk, respectively. Other sources of glycans in human milk include monosaccharides, mucins, glycosaminoglycans, glycoproteins, glycopeptides, and glycolipids. In human milk, the presence and patterns of these glycans vary depending upon the stage of lactation and the maternal genes and their genetic polymorphisms that control glycosyl transferases. The synthesis of milk glycans utilizes a significant portion of the metabolic energy that the mother expends when producing her milk, but other than lactose, these glycans contribute little to the nutritional needs of the infant. The data herein support several functions. 1) Many human milk glycans inhibit pathogens from binding to the intestinal mucosa. 2) Human milk glycans attenuate inflammation. 3) Glycans also directly stimulate the growth of beneficial (mutualist) bacteria of the microbiota (formerly considered commensal microflora of the intestine); these mutualists and their fermentation products can, in turn, (a) inhibit pathogens, (b) modulate signaling and inflammation, and (c) the fermentation products can be absorbed and utilized as a source of dietary calories. These functions can help direct and support intestinal postnatal growth, development, and ontogeny of colonization. The many functions of the milk glycans may synergistically protect infants from disease. Hence, human milk glycans and their homologs may serve as novel prophylactic or therapeutic agents for a diverse range of deleterious conditions.

  10. REACH-ER: a tool to evaluate river basin remediation measures for contaminants at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, Ann; Haest, Pieter Jan; Broekx, Steven; Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Ducos, Geraldine; Blaha, Ludek; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in 2000 ensuring that all aquatic ecosystems meet ‘good status' by 2015. However, it is a major challenge for river basin managers to meet this requirement in river basins with a high population density as well as intensive agricultural and industrial activities. The EU financed AQUAREHAB project (FP7) specifically examines the ecological and economic impact of innovative rehabilitation technologies for multi-pressured degraded water bodies. For this purpose, a generic collaborative management tool ‘REACH-ER' is being developed that can be used by stakeholders, citizens and water managers to evaluate the ecological and economical effects of different remedial actions on waterbodies. The tool is built using databases from large scale models simulating the hydrological dynamics of the river basing and sub-basins, the costs of the measures and the effectiveness of the measures in terms of ecological impact. Knowledge rules are used to describe the relationships between these data in order to compute the flux concentrations or to compute the effectiveness of measures. The management tool specifically add