SEQUENTIAL TESTING OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS IN INTER-RATER RELIABILITY STUDIES
Jin, Mei; Liu, Aiyi; Chen, Zhen; Li, Zhaohai
2014-01-01
Inter-rater reliability is usually assessed by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient. Using two-way analysis of variance to model raters and subjects as random effects, we derive group sequential testing procedures for the design and analysis of reliability studies in which multiple raters evaluate multiple subjects. Compared with the conventional fixed sample procedures, the group sequential test has smaller average sample number. The performance of the proposed technique is examined using simulation studies and critical values are tabulated for a range of two-stage design parameters. The methods are exemplified using data from the Physician Reliability Study for diagnosis of endometriosis. PMID:25525316
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kachchaf, Rachel; Solano-Flores, Guillermo
2012-01-01
We examined how rater language background affects the scoring of short-answer, open-ended test items in the assessment of English language learners (ELLs). Four native English and four native Spanish-speaking certified bilingual teachers scored 107 responses of fourth- and fifth-grade Spanish-speaking ELLs to mathematics items administered in…
How Good Are Our Raters? Rater Errors in Clinical Skills Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Yudkowsky, Rachel
2006-01-01
A multi-faceted Rasch measurement (MFRM) model was used to analyze a clinical skills assessment of 173 fourth-year medical students in a Midwestern medical school to investigate four types of rater errors: leniency, inconsistency, halo, and restriction of range. Each student performed six clinical tasks with six standardized patients (SPs), who…
Examining rating quality in writing assessment: rater agreement, error, and accuracy.
Wind, Stefanie A; Engelhard, George
2012-01-01
The use of performance assessments in which human raters evaluate student achievement has become increasingly prevalent in high-stakes assessment systems such as those associated with recent policy initiatives (e.g., Race to the Top). In this study, indices of rating quality are compared between two measurement perspectives. Within the context of a large-scale writing assessment, this study focuses on the alignment between indices of rater agreement, error, and accuracy based on traditional and Rasch measurement theory perspectives. Major empirical findings suggest that Rasch-based indices of model-data fit for ratings provide information about raters that is comparable to direct measures of accuracy. The use of easily obtained approximations of direct accuracy measures holds significant implications for monitoring rating quality in large-scale rater-mediated performance assessments. PMID:23270978
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raymond, Mark R.; Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.
2011-01-01
Prior research indicates that the overall reliability of performance ratings can be improved by using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression to adjust for rater effects. The present investigation extends previous work by evaluating the impact of OLS adjustment on standard errors of measurement ("SEM") at specific score levels. In addition, a…
Do Raters Demonstrate Halo Error When Scoring a Series of Responses?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ridge, Kirk
This study investigated whether raters in two different training groups would demonstrate halo error when each rater scored all five responses to five different mathematics performance-based items from each student. One group of 20 raters was trained by an experienced scoring director with item-specific scoring rubrics and the opportunity to…
Examining Rater Errors in the Assessment of Written Composition with a Many-Faceted Rasch Model.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Engelhard, George, Jr.
1994-01-01
Rater errors (rater severity, halo effect, central tendency, and restriction of range) are described, and criteria are presented for evaluating rating quality based on a many-faceted Rasch (FACETS) model. Ratings of 264 compositions from the Eighth Grade Writing Test in Georgia by 15 raters illustrate the discussion. (SLD)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Lafave, Mark R.; Katz, Larry
2011-01-01
This study was designed to test the intra- and inter-rater reliability of the University of North Carolina's Balance Error Scoring System in 9- and 10-year-old children. Additionally, a modified version of the Balance Error Scoring System was tested to determine if it was more sensitive in this population ("raw scores"). Forty-six normally…
Longitudinal Rater Modeling with Splines
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dobria, Lidia
2011-01-01
Performance assessments rely on the expert judgment of raters for the measurement of the quality of responses, and raters unavoidably introduce error in the scoring process. Defined as the tendency of a rater to assign higher or lower ratings, on average, than those assigned by other raters, even after accounting for differences in examinee…
Agreement Measure Comparisons between Two Independent Sets of Raters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.
1997-01-01
Describes a FORTRAN software program that calculates the probability of an observed difference between agreement measures obtained from two independent sets of raters. An example illustrates the use of the DIFFER program in evaluating undergraduate essays. (Author/SLD)
Lang, W Steve; Wilkerson, Judy R; Rea, Dorothy C; Quinn, David; Batchelder, Heather L; Englehart, Dierdre S; Jennings, Kelly J
2014-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which raters' subjectivity impacts measures of teacher dispositions using the Dispositions Assessments Aligned with Teacher Standards (DAATS) battery. This is an important component of the collection of evidence of validity and reliability of inferences made using the scale. It also provides needed support for the use of subjective affective measures in teacher training and other professional preparation programs, since these measures are often feared to be unreliable because of rater effect. It demonstrates the advantages of using the Multi-Faceted Rasch Model as a better alternative to the typical methods used in preparation programs, such as Cohen's Kappa. DAATS instruments require subjective scoring using a six-point rating scale derived from the affective taxonomy as defined by Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia (1956). Rater effect is a serious challenge and can worsen or drift over time. Errors in rater judgment can impact the accuracy of ratings, and these effects are common, but can be lessened through training of raters and monitoring of their efforts. This effort uses the multifaceted Rasch measurement models (MFRM) to detect and understand the nature of these effects. PMID:24992248
Measuring the Joint Agreement between Multiple Raters and a Standard.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.
1997-01-01
A FORTRAN subroutine is presented to calculate a generalized measure of agreement between multiple raters and a set of correct responses at any level of measurement and among multiple responses, along with the associated probability value, under the null hypothesis. (Author)
Measuring Essay Assessment: Intra-Rater and Inter-Rater Reliability
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kayapinar, Ulas
2014-01-01
Problem Statement: There have been many attempts to research the effective assessment of writing ability, and many proposals for how this might be done. In this sense, rater reliability plays a crucial role for making vital decisions about testees in different turning points of both educational and professional life. Intra-rater and inter-rater…
Kappa coefficient: a popular measure of rater agreement
TANG, Wan; HU, Jun; ZHANG, Hui; WU, Pan; HE, Hua
2015-01-01
Summary In mental health and psychosocial studies it is often necessary to report on the between-rater agreement of measures used in the study. This paper discusses the concept of agreement, highlighting its fundamental difference from correlation. Several examples demonstrate how to compute the kappa coefficient – a popular statistic for measuring agreement – both by hand and by using statistical software packages such as SAS and SPSS. Real study data are used to illustrate how to use and interpret this coefficient in clinical research and practice. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the coefficient. PMID:25852260
Kappa coefficient: a popular measure of rater agreement.
Tang, Wan; Hu, Jun; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Pan; He, Hua
2015-02-25
In mental health and psychosocial studies it is often necessary to report on the between-rater agreement of measures used in the study. This paper discusses the concept of agreement, highlighting its fundamental difference from correlation. Several examples demonstrate how to compute the kappa coefficient - a popular statistic for measuring agreement - both by hand and by using statistical software packages such as SAS and SPSS. Real study data are used to illustrate how to use and interpret this coefficient in clinical research and practice. The article concludes with a discussion of the limitations of the coefficient. PMID:25852260
Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements
Martinho, Natalia M.; Marques, Joseane; Silva, Valéria R.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Botelho, Simone
2015-01-01
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9) participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96), average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97), and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92) dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice. PMID:25993624
A Simulation Study of Rater Agreement Measures with 2x2 Contingency Tables
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ato, Manuel; Lopez, Juan Jose; Benavente, Ana
2011-01-01
A comparison between six rater agreement measures obtained using three different approaches was achieved by means of a simulation study. Rater coefficients suggested by Bennet's [sigma] (1954), Scott's [pi] (1955), Cohen's [kappa] (1960) and Gwet's [gamma] (2008) were selected to represent the classical, descriptive approach, [alpha] agreement…
Yoo, Won-Gyu
2016-07-01
[Purpose] This study investigated intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males participated. Intra-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the values under three conditions of measurement using a tympanic thermometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess intra-rater reliability. [Results] According to the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, reliability could be ranked according to the conditions of measurement. [Conclusion] The results showed that self-measurement of body temperature is more precise when combined with common sense and basic education about the anatomy of the eardrum. PMID:27512269
Yoo, Won-gyu
2016-01-01
[Purpose] This study investigated intra-rater reliability when using a tympanic thermometer under different self-measurement conditions. [Subjects and Methods] Ten males participated. Intra-rater reliability was assessed by comparing the values under three conditions of measurement using a tympanic thermometer. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess intra-rater reliability. [Results] According to the intraclass correlation coefficient analysis, reliability could be ranked according to the conditions of measurement. [Conclusion] The results showed that self-measurement of body temperature is more precise when combined with common sense and basic education about the anatomy of the eardrum. PMID:27512269
Analysis of Rater Severity on Written Expression Exam Using Many Faceted Rasch Measurement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Prieto, Gerardo; Nieto, Eloísa
2014-01-01
This paper describes how a Many Faceted Rasch Measurement (MFRM) approach can be applied to performance assessment focusing on rater analysis. The article provides an introduction to MFRM, a description of MFRM analysis procedures, and an example to illustrate how to examine the effects of various sources of variability on test takers'…
Noninvariant Measurement in Rater-Mediated Assessments of Teaching Quality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelcey, Ben
2014-01-01
Valid and reliable measurement of teaching is essential to evaluating and improving teacher effectiveness and advancing large-scale policy-relevant research in education (Raudenbush & Sadoff, 2008). One increasingly common component of teaching evaluations is the direct observation of teachers in their classrooms. Classroom observations have…
Measuring Rater Reliability on a Special Education Observation Tool
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Semmelroth, Carrie Lisa; Johnson, Evelyn
2014-01-01
This study used generalizability theory to measure reliability on the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation tool designed to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness. At the time of this study, the RESET tool included three evidence-based instructional practices (direct, explicit instruction; whole-group…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henderson, Robert K.
1999-12-01
It is widely accepted in the electronics industry that measurement gauge error variation should be no larger than 10% of the related specification window. In a previous paper, 'What Amount of Measurement Error is Too Much?', the author used a framework from the process industries to evaluate the impact of measurement error variation in terms of both customer and supplier risk (i.e., Non-conformance and Yield Loss). Application of this framework in its simplest form suggested that in many circumstances the 10% criterion might be more stringent than is reasonably necessary. This paper reviews the framework and results of the earlier work, then examines some of the possible extensions to this framework suggested in that paper, including variance component models and sampling plans applicable in the photomask and semiconductor businesses. The potential impact of imperfect process control practices will be examined as well.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, David; VanBrackle, Lewis
2012-01-01
Raters of Georgia's (USA) state-mandated college-level writing exam, which is intended to ensure a minimal university-level writing competency, are trained to grade holistically when assessing these exams. A guiding principle in holistic grading is to not focus exclusively on any one aspect of writing but rather to give equal weight to style,…
Compact disk error measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.
1993-01-01
The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.
Measuring the Pain Area: An Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability Study Using Image Analysis Software.
Dos Reis, Felipe Jose Jandre; de Barros E Silva, Veronica; de Lucena, Raphaela Nunes; Mendes Cardoso, Bruno Alexandre; Nogueira, Leandro Calazans
2016-01-01
Pain drawings have frequently been used for clinical information and research. The aim of this study was to investigate intra- and inter-rater reliability of area measurements performed on pain drawings. Our secondary objective was to verify the reliability when using computers with different screen sizes, both with and without mouse hardware. Pain drawings were completed by patients with chronic neck pain or neck-shoulder-arm pain. Four independent examiners participated in the study. Examiners A and B used the same computer with a 16-inch screen and wired mouse hardware. Examiner C used a notebook with a 16-inch screen and no mouse hardware, and Examiner D used a computer with an 11.6-inch screen and a wireless mouse. Image measurements were obtained using GIMP and NIH ImageJ computer programs. The length of all the images was measured using GIMP software to a set scale in ImageJ. Thus, each marked area was encircled and the total surface area (cm(2) ) was calculated for each pain drawing measurement. A total of 117 areas were identified and 52 pain drawings were analyzed. The intrarater reliability between all examiners was high (ICC = 0.989). The inter-rater reliability was also high. No significant differences were observed when using different screen sizes or when using or not using the mouse hardware. This suggests that the precision of these measurements is acceptable for the use of this method as a measurement tool in clinical practice and research. PMID:25490926
Measurement Errors in Organizational Surveys.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dutka, Solomon; Frankel, Lester R.
1993-01-01
Describes three classes of measurement techniques: (1) interviewing methods; (2) record retrieval procedures; and (3) observation methods. Discusses primary reasons for measurement error. Concludes that, although measurement error can be defined and controlled for, there are other design factors that also must be considered. (CFR)
The Effects of Rater Training on Inter-Rater Agreement
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pufpaff, Lisa A.; Clarke, Laura; Jones, Ruth E.
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the effects of rater training on the rubric-based scoring of three preservice teacher candidate performance assessments. This project sought to evaluate the consistency of ratings assigned to student learning outcome measures being used for program accreditation and to explore the need for rater training in order to increase…
Human errors and measurement uncertainty
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuselman, Ilya; Pennecchi, Francesca
2015-04-01
Evaluating the residual risk of human errors in a measurement and testing laboratory, remaining after the error reduction by the laboratory quality system, and quantifying the consequences of this risk for the quality of the measurement/test results are discussed based on expert judgments and Monte Carlo simulations. A procedure for evaluation of the contribution of the residual risk to the measurement uncertainty budget is proposed. Examples are provided using earlier published sets of expert judgments on human errors in pH measurement of groundwater, elemental analysis of geological samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and multi-residue analysis of pesticides in fruits and vegetables. The human error contribution to the measurement uncertainty budget in the examples was not negligible, yet also not dominant. This was assessed as a good risk management result.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Daniel L.; Beretvas, S. Natasha
2015-01-01
This study examines the use of cross-classified random effects models (CCrem) and cross-classified multiple membership random effects models (CCMMrem) to model rater bias and estimate teacher effectiveness. Effect estimates are compared using CTT versus item response theory (IRT) scaling methods and three models (i.e., conventional multilevel…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nolan, R. O.; And Others
The Final Report, Volume 1, covers research results of the Michigan State University Driver Performance Measurement Project. This volume (Volume 2) constitutes a guide for training observers/raters in the driver performance measurement procedures developed in this research by MSU. The guide includes a training course plan and content materials…
2014-01-01
Background Concurrent validity and intra-rater reliability using a customized Android phone application to measure cervical-spine range-of-motion (ROM) has not been previously validated against a gold-standard three-dimensional motion analysis (3DMA) system. Findings Twenty-one healthy individuals (age:31 ± 9.1 years, male:11) participated, with 16 re-examined for intra-rater reliability 1–7 days later. An Android phone was fixed on a helmet, which was then securely fastened on the participant’s head. Cervical-spine ROM in flexion, extension, lateral flexion and rotation were performed in sitting with concurrent measurements obtained from both a 3DMA system and the phone. The phone demonstrated moderate to excellent (ICC = 0.53-0.98, Spearman ρ = 0.52-0.98) concurrent validity for ROM measurements in cervical flexion, extension, lateral-flexion and rotation. However, cervical rotation demonstrated both proportional and fixed bias. Excellent intra-rater reliability was demonstrated for cervical flexion, extension and lateral flexion (ICC = 0.82-0.90), but poor for right- and left-rotation (ICC = 0.05-0.33) using the phone. Possible reasons for the outcome are that flexion, extension and lateral-flexion measurements are detected by gravity-dependent accelerometers while rotation measurements are detected by the magnetometer which can be adversely affected by surrounding magnetic fields. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the tested Android phone application is valid and reliable to measure ROM of the cervical-spine in flexion, extension and lateral-flexion but not in rotation likely due to magnetic interference. The clinical implication of this study is that therapists should be mindful of the plane of measurement when using the Android phone to measure ROM of the cervical-spine. PMID:24742001
A Family of Rater Accuracy Models.
Wolfe, Edward W; Jiao, Hong; Song, Tian
2015-01-01
Engelhard (1996) proposed a rater accuracy model (RAM) as a means of evaluating rater accuracy in rating data, but very little research exists to determine the efficacy of that model. The RAM requires a transformation of the raw score data to accuracy measures by comparing rater-assigned scores to true scores. Indices computed based on raw scores also exist for measuring rater effects, but these indices ignore deviations of rater-assigned scores from true scores. This paper demonstrates the efficacy of two versions of the RAM (based on dichotomized and polytomized deviations of rater-assigned scores from true scores) to two versions of raw score rater effect models (i.e., a Rasch partial credit model, PCM, and a Rasch rating scale model, RSM). Simulated data are used to demonstrate the efficacy with which these four models detect and differentiate three rater effects: severity, centrality, and inaccuracy. Results indicate that the RAMs are able to detect, but not differentiate, rater severity and inaccuracy, but not rater centrality. The PCM and RSM, on the other hand, are able to both detect and differentiate all three of these rater effects. However, the RSM and PCM do not take into account true scores and may, therefore, be misleading when pervasive trends exist in the rater-assigned data. PMID:26075664
2010-01-01
Background The COSMIN checklist is a tool for evaluating the methodological quality of studies on measurement properties of health-related patient-reported outcomes. The aim of this study is to determine the inter-rater agreement and reliability of each item score of the COSMIN checklist (n = 114). Methods 75 articles evaluating measurement properties were randomly selected from the bibliographic database compiled by the Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Group, Oxford, UK. Raters were asked to assess the methodological quality of three articles, using the COSMIN checklist. In a one-way design, percentage agreement and intraclass kappa coefficients or quadratic-weighted kappa coefficients were calculated for each item. Results 88 raters participated. Of the 75 selected articles, 26 articles were rated by four to six participants, and 49 by two or three participants. Overall, percentage agreement was appropriate (68% was above 80% agreement), and the kappa coefficients for the COSMIN items were low (61% was below 0.40, 6% was above 0.75). Reasons for low inter-rater agreement were need for subjective judgement, and accustom to different standards, terminology and definitions. Conclusions Results indicated that raters often choose the same response option, but that it is difficult on item level to distinguish between articles. When using the COSMIN checklist in a systematic review, we recommend getting some training and experience, completing it by two independent raters, and reaching consensus on one final rating. Instructions for using the checklist are improved. PMID:20860789
Measurement error in geometric morphometrics.
Fruciano, Carmelo
2016-06-01
Geometric morphometrics-a set of methods for the statistical analysis of shape once saluted as a revolutionary advancement in the analysis of morphology -is now mature and routinely used in ecology and evolution. However, a factor often disregarded in empirical studies is the presence and the extent of measurement error. This is potentially a very serious issue because random measurement error can inflate the amount of variance and, since many statistical analyses are based on the amount of "explained" relative to "residual" variance, can result in loss of statistical power. On the other hand, systematic bias can affect statistical analyses by biasing the results (i.e. variation due to bias is incorporated in the analysis and treated as biologically-meaningful variation). Here, I briefly review common sources of error in geometric morphometrics. I then review the most commonly used methods to measure and account for both random and non-random measurement error, providing a worked example using a real dataset. PMID:27038025
Mitchell, Sandra A.; Jacobsohn, David; Thormann Powers, Kimberly E.; Carpenter, Paul A.; Flowers, Mary E.D.; Cowen, Edward W.; Schubert, Mark; Turner, Maria; Lee, Stephanie J.; Martin, Paul; Bishop, Michael R.; Baird, Kristin; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Boyd, Kevin; Fall-Dickson, Jane M.; Gerber, Lynn H.; Guadagnini, Jean-Pierre; Imanguli, Matin; Krumlauf, Michael C.; Lawley, Leslie; Li, Li; Reeve, Bryce B.; Clayton, Janine Austin; Vogelsang, Georgia B.; Pavletic, Steven Z.
2011-01-01
The lack of standardized criteria for measuring therapeutic response is a major obstacle to the development of new therapeutic agents for chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria for evaluating therapeutic response were published in 2006. We report the results of four consecutive pilot trials evaluating the feasibility and estimating the inter-rater reliability and minimum detectable change of these response criteria. Hematology-oncology clinicians with limited experience in applying the NIH cGVHD response criteria (n=34), participated in a 2.5 hour training session on response evaluation in cGVHD. Feasibility and inter-rater reliability between subspecialty cGVHD experts and this panel of clinician raters were examined in a sample of 25 children and adults with cGVHD. The minimum detectable change was calculated using the standard error of measurement. Clinicians’ impressions of the brief training session, the photo atlas, and the response criteria documentation tools were generally favorable. Performing and documenting the full set of response evaluations required a median of 21 minutes (range 12 to 60 minutes) per rater. The Schirmer tear test required the greatest time of any single test (median 9 minutes). Overall, inter-rater agreement for skin and oral manifestations was modest, however, in the third and fourth trials, the agreement between clinicians and experts for all dimensions except movable sclerosis approached satisfactory values. In the final two trials, the threshold for defining change exceeding measurement error was 19–22% body surface area (BSA) for erythema, 18–26% BSA for movable sclerosis, 17–21% BSA for nonmovable sclerosis, and 2.1–2.6 points on the 15 point NIH Oral cGHVD scale. Agreement between clinician-expert pairs was moderate to substantial for the measures of functional capacity and for the gastrointestinal and global cGVHD rating scales. These results suggest that
Biomechanical measures in participants with shoulder pain: Intra-rater reliability.
Michener, Lori A; Elmore, Kevin A; Darter, Benjamin J; Timmons, Mark K
2016-04-01
Biomechanical measures are used to characterize the mechanisms of treatment for shoulder pain. The objective was to characterize test-retest reliability and measurement error of shoulder surface electromyographic(sEMG) and kinematic measures. Individuals(n = 12) with subacromial pain syndrome were tested at 2 visits. Five repetitions of shoulder scapular plane elevation were performed while collecting sEMG of the upper trapezius(UT), middle trapezius(MT), lower trapezius(LT), serratus anterior(SA) middle-deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles during ascending and descending phases. Simultaneously, electromagnetic sensors measured 3-dimensional kinematics of scapular internal/external rotation, upward/downward rotation, posterior/anterior tilt, and clavicular elevation/depression and clavicular protraction/retraction. Kinematic and sEMG variables were reduced for the total phase of ascending and descending elevation (30°-120°, 120°-30°), at 30° intervals for sEMG, and at every 30° discrete kinematic angle. The intraclass correlation coefficients(ICC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.99 for sEMG and 0.23-0.95 for kinematics. Correspondingly, the standard error of the measurement(SEM) and minimal detectable change(MDC) for sEMG measures varied from 2.3% to 103.8% of a reference contraction(REF-contraction). For kinematics, the SEM and MDC varied from 1.4° to 5.9°. Between-day reliability was good to very good, except for scapular internal/external rotation kinematics, and sEMG for the LT, UT, and SA. sEMG error values were highest (>25%REF-contraction) for most of the LT, UT, and SA variables. Kinematic error values indicate changes or differences of 2°-3° are meaningful, except for upward/downward rotation and internal/external rotation with MDCs of 4°-6°. Generally, data from the total phase of movement had better reliability and lower error than the data from sEMG interval or kinematic discrete angles. PMID:26578162
Measuring Test Measurement Error: A General Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boyd, Donald; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James
2013-01-01
Test-based accountability as well as value-added asessments and much experimental and quasi-experimental research in education rely on achievement tests to measure student skills and knowledge. Yet, we know little regarding fundamental properties of these tests, an important example being the extent of measurement error and its implications for…
A Generalization of Cohen's Kappa Agreement Measure to Interval Measurement and Multiple Raters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Berry, Kenneth J.; Mielke, Paul W., Jr.
1988-01-01
Cohen's kappa statistic is frequently used to measure agreement between two observers using categorical polytomies. Cohen's statistic is: shown to be inherently multivariate in nature; expanded to analyze ordinal and interval data; and extended to over two observers. A non-asymptotic test of significance is provided for the generalized statistic.…
How Well Do Raters Agree on the Development Stage of Caenorhabditis elegans?
Ferguson, Annabel A.; Bilonick, Richard A.; Buchanich, Jeanine M.; Marsh, Gary M.; Fisher, Alfred L.
2015-01-01
The assessment of inter-rater reliability is a topic that is infrequently addressed in Caenorhabditis elegans research, despite the existence of sophisticated statistical methods and the strong interest in the field in obtaining reliable and accurate data. This study applies statistical modeling as a robust means of analyzing the performance of worm researchers measuring the stage of worm development in terms of the two independent factors that comprise “agreement”, which are (1) accuracy, representing trueness, a lack of systematic differences, or lack of bias, and (2) precision, representing reliability or the extent to which random differences are small. In our study, multiple raters assessed the same sample of worms to determine the developmental stage of each animal, and we collected data linking each scorer with their assessment for each worm. To describe the agreement of the raters, we developed a structural equation model with latent variables and thresholds, which assumes that all the raters are jointly scoring each worm. This common factor model separately quantifies the two aspects of agreement. The stage-specific thresholds examine accuracy and characterize the relative biases of each rater during the scoring process. The factor loadings for each rater examine the precision and characterizes the random error of the rater. Within our group, we found that the overall agreement was good, while certain adjustments in particular raters would have decreased systematic differences. Hence, the use of developmental stage as an experimental outcome can be both accurate and precise. PMID:26172989
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bock, Douglas G.; And Others
1984-01-01
This study (1) demonstrates the negative impact of profanity in a public speech and (2) sheds light on the conceptualization of the term "rating error." Implications for classroom teaching are discussed. (PD)
Better Stability with Measurement Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argun, Aykut; Volpe, Giovanni
2016-06-01
Often it is desirable to stabilize a system around an optimal state. This can be effectively accomplished using feedback control, where the system deviation from the desired state is measured in order to determine the magnitude of the restoring force to be applied. Contrary to conventional wisdom, i.e. that a more precise measurement is expected to improve the system stability, here we demonstrate that a certain degree of measurement error can improve the system stability. We exemplify the implications of this finding with numerical examples drawn from various fields, such as the operation of a temperature controller, the confinement of a microscopic particle, the localization of a target by a microswimmer, and the control of a population.
Better Stability with Measurement Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Argun, Aykut; Volpe, Giovanni
2016-04-01
Often it is desirable to stabilize a system around an optimal state. This can be effectively accomplished using feedback control, where the system deviation from the desired state is measured in order to determine the magnitude of the restoring force to be applied. Contrary to conventional wisdom, i.e. that a more precise measurement is expected to improve the system stability, here we demonstrate that a certain degree of measurement error can improve the system stability. We exemplify the implications of this finding with numerical examples drawn from various fields, such as the operation of a temperature controller, the confinement of a microscopic particle, the localization of a target by a microswimmer, and the control of a population.
Waugh, Shirley Moore; Bergquist-Beringer, Sandra
2016-06-01
In this descriptive multi-site study, we examined inter-rater agreement on 11 National Database of Nursing Quality Indicators(®) (NDNQI(®) ) pressure ulcer (PrU) risk and prevention measures. One hundred twenty raters at 36 hospitals captured data from 1,637 patient records. At each hospital, agreement between the most experienced rater and each other team rater was calculated for each measure. In the ratings studied, 528 patients were rated as "at risk" for PrU and, therefore, were included in calculations of agreement for the prevention measures. Prevalence-adjusted kappa (PAK) was used to interpret inter-rater agreement because prevalence of single responses was high. The PAK values for eight measures indicated "substantial" to "near perfect" agreement between most experienced and other team raters: Skin assessment on admission (.977, 95% CI [.966-.989]), PrU risk assessment on admission (.978, 95% CI [.964-.993]), Time since last risk assessment (.790, 95% CI [.729-.852]), Risk assessment method (.997, 95% CI [.991-1.0]), Risk status (.877, 95% CI [.838-.917]), Any prevention (.856, 95% CI [.76-.943]), Skin assessment (.956, 95% CI [.904-1.0]), and Pressure-redistribution surface use (.839, 95% CI [.763-.916]). For three intervention measures, PAK values fell below the recommended value of ≥.610: Routine repositioning (.577, 95% CI [.494-.661]), Nutritional support (.500, 95% CI [.418-.581]), and Moisture management (.556, 95% CI [.469-.643]). Areas of disagreement were identified. Findings provide support for the reliability of 8 of the 11 measures. Further clarification of data collection procedures is needed to improve reliability for the less reliable measures. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27038340
Comparison of Models and Indices for Detecting Rater Centrality.
Wolfe, Edward W; Song, Tian
2015-01-01
To date, much of the research concerning rater effects has focused on rater severity/leniency. Consequently, other potentially important rater effects have largely ignored by those conducting operational scoring projects. This simulation study compares four rater centrality indices (rater fit, residual-expected correlations, rater slope, and rater threshold variance) in terms of their Type I and Type II error rates under varying levels of centrality magnitude, centrality pervasiveness, and rating scale construction when each of four latent trait models is fitted to the simulated data (Rasch rating scale and partial credit models and the generalized rating scale and partial credit models). Results indicate that the residual-expected correlation may be most appropriately sensitive to rater centrality under most conditions. PMID:26753219
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Douglas, Scott Roy
2015-01-01
Independent confirmation that vocabulary in use unfolds across levels of performance as expected can contribute to a more complete understanding of validity in standardized English language tests. This study examined the relationship between Lexical Frequency Profiling (LFP) measures and rater judgements of test-takers' overall levels of…
Tuvblad, Catherine; Bezdjian, Serena; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.
2014-01-01
No study has yet examined the genetic and environmental influences on psychopathic personality across different raters and method of assessment. Participants were part of a community sample of male and female twins born between 1990 and 1995. The Child Psychopathy Scale (CPS) and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) were administered to the twins and their parents when the twins were 14 to 15 years old. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL:YV) was administered and scored by trained testers. Results showed that a one-factor common pathway model was the best fit for the data. Genetic influences explained 69% of the variance in the latent psychopathic personality factor, while non-shared environmental influences explained 31%. Measurement-specific genetic effects accounted for between 9% and 35% of the total variance in each of the measures, except for PCL:YV where all genetic influences were in common with the other measures. Measure-specific non-shared environmental influences were found for all measures, explaining between 17% and 56% of the variance. These findings provide further evidence of the heritability in psychopathic personality among adolescents, although these effects vary across the way in which these traits are measured, in terms of both informant and instrument used. PMID:24796343
Impact of Measurement Error on Synchrophasor Applications
Liu, Yilu; Gracia, Jose R.; Ewing, Paul D.; Zhao, Jiecheng; Tan, Jin; Wu, Ling; Zhan, Lingwei
2015-07-01
Phasor measurement units (PMUs), a type of synchrophasor, are powerful diagnostic tools that can help avert catastrophic failures in the power grid. Because of this, PMU measurement errors are particularly worrisome. This report examines the internal and external factors contributing to PMU phase angle and frequency measurement errors and gives a reasonable explanation for them. It also analyzes the impact of those measurement errors on several synchrophasor applications: event location detection, oscillation detection, islanding detection, and dynamic line rating. The primary finding is that dynamic line rating is more likely to be influenced by measurement error. Other findings include the possibility of reporting nonoscillatory activity as an oscillation as the result of error, failing to detect oscillations submerged by error, and the unlikely impact of error on event location and islanding detection.
Schless, Simon-Henri; Desloovere, Kaat; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Huenaerts, Catherine; Bar-On, Lynn
2015-01-01
Aim Despite the impact of spasticity, there is a lack of objective, clinically reliable and valid tools for its assessment. This study aims to evaluate the reliability of various performance- and spasticity-related parameters collected with a manually controlled instrumented spasticity assessment in four lower limb muscles in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Method The lateral gastrocnemius, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris and hip adductors of 12 children with spastic CP (12.8 years, ±4.13 years, bilateral/unilateral involvement n=7/5) were passively stretched in the sagittal plane at incremental velocities. Muscle activity, joint motion, and torque were synchronously recorded using electromyography, inertial sensors, and a force/torque load-cell. Reliability was assessed on three levels: (1) intra- and (2) inter-rater within session, and (3) intra-rater between session. Results Parameters were found to be reliable in all three analyses, with 90% containing intra-class correlation coefficients >0.6, and 70% of standard error of measurement values <20% of the mean values. The most reliable analysis was intra-rater within session, followed by intra-rater between session, and then inter-rater within session. The Adds evaluation had a slightly lower level of reliability than that of the other muscles. Conclusions Limited intrinsic/extrinsic errors were introduced by repeated stretch repetitions. The parameters were more reliable when the same rater, rather than different raters performed the evaluation. Standardisation and training should be further improved to reduce extrinsic error when different raters perform the measurement. Errors were also muscle specific, or related to the measurement set-up. They need to be accounted for, in particular when assessing pre-post interventions or longitudinal follow-up. The parameters of the instrumented spasticity assessment demonstrate a wide range of applications for both research and clinical environments in the
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kahraman, Nilufer; Brown, Crystal B.
2015-01-01
Psychometric models based on structural equation modeling framework are commonly used in many multiple-choice test settings to assess measurement invariance of test items across examinee subpopulations. The premise of the current article is that they may also be useful in the context of performance assessment tests to test measurement invariance…
Conditional Standard Error of Measurement in Prediction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodruff, David
1990-01-01
A method of estimating conditional standard error of measurement at specific score/ability levels is described that avoids theoretical problems identified for previous methods. The method focuses on variance of observed scores conditional on a fixed value of an observed parallel measurement, decomposing these variances into true and error parts.…
Minimizing noise-temperature measurement errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stelzried, C. T.
1992-01-01
An analysis of noise-temperature measurement errors of low-noise amplifiers was performed. Results of this analysis can be used to optimize measurement schemes for minimum errors. For the cases evaluated, the effective noise temperature (Te) of a Ka-band maser can be measured most accurately by switching between an ambient and a 2-K cooled load without an isolation attenuator. A measurement accuracy of 0.3 K was obtained for this example.
Honing in on the Social Phenotype in Williams Syndrome Using Multiple Measures and Multiple Raters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Klein-Tasman, Bonita P.; Li-Barber, Kirsten T.; Magargee, Erin T.
2011-01-01
The behavioral phenotype of Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by difficulties with establishment and maintenance of friendships despite high levels of interest in social interaction. Here, parents and teachers rated 84 children with WS ages 4-16 years using two commonly-used measures assessing aspects of social functioning: the Social Skills…
Connors, Brenda L.; Rende, Richard; Colton, Timothy J.
2014-01-01
The unique yield of collecting observational data on human movement has received increasing attention in a number of domains, including the study of decision-making style. As such, interest has grown in the nuances of core methodological issues, including the best ways of assessing inter-rater reliability. In this paper we focus on one key topic – the distinction between establishing reliability for the patterning of behaviors as opposed to the computation of raw counts – and suggest that reliability for each be compared empirically rather than determined a priori. We illustrate by assessing inter-rater reliability for key outcome measures derived from movement pattern analysis (MPA), an observational methodology that records body movements as indicators of decision-making style with demonstrated predictive validity. While reliability ranged from moderate to good for raw counts of behaviors reflecting each of two Overall Factors generated within MPA (Assertion and Perspective), inter-rater reliability for patterning (proportional indicators of each factor) was significantly higher and excellent (ICC = 0.89). Furthermore, patterning, as compared to raw counts, provided better prediction of observable decision-making process assessed in the laboratory. These analyses support the utility of using an empirical approach to inform the consideration of measuring patterning versus discrete behavioral counts of behaviors when determining inter-rater reliability of observable behavior. They also speak to the substantial reliability that may be achieved via application of theoretically grounded observational systems such as MPA that reveal thinking and action motivations via visible movement patterns. PMID:24999336
Honing in on the Social Phenotype in Williams Syndrome Using Multiple Measures and Multiple Raters
Li-Barber, Kirsten T.; Magargee, Erin T.
2010-01-01
The behavioral phenotype of Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by difficulties with establishment and maintenance of friendships despite high levels of interest in social interaction. Here, parents and teachers rated 84 children with WS ages 4–16 years using two commonly-used measures assessing aspects of social functioning: the Social Skills Rating System and the Social Responsiveness Scale. Mean prosocial functioning fell in the low average to average range, whereas social reciprocity was perceived to be an area of significant difficulty for many children. Concordance between parent and teacher ratings was high. Patterns of social functioning are discussed. Findings highlight the importance of parsing the construct of social skills to gain a nuanced understanding of the social phenotype in WS. PMID:20614173
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schuster, Christof
2004-01-01
This article presents a formula for weighted kappa in terms of rater means, rater variances, and the rater covariance that is particularly helpful in emphasizing that weighted kappa is an absolute agreement measure in the sense that it is sensitive to differences in rater's marginal distributions. Specifically, rater mean differences will decrease…
Protecting weak measurements against systematic errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pang, Shengshi; Alonso, Jose Raul Gonzalez; Brun, Todd A.; Jordan, Andrew N.
2016-07-01
In this work, we consider the systematic error of quantum metrology by weak measurements under decoherence. We derive the systematic error of maximum likelihood estimation in general to the first-order approximation of a small deviation in the probability distribution and study the robustness of standard weak measurement and postselected weak measurements against systematic errors. We show that, with a large weak value, the systematic error of a postselected weak measurement when the probe undergoes decoherence can be significantly lower than that of a standard weak measurement. This indicates another advantage of weak-value amplification in improving the performance of parameter estimation. We illustrate the results by an exact numerical simulation of decoherence arising from a bosonic mode and compare it to the first-order analytical result we obtain.
Measuring Cyclic Error in Laser Heterodyne Interferometers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ryan, Daniel; Abramovici, Alexander; Zhao, Feng; Dekens, Frank; An, Xin; Azizi, Alireza; Chapsky, Jacob; Halverson, Peter
2010-01-01
An improved method and apparatus have been devised for measuring cyclic errors in the readouts of laser heterodyne interferometers that are configured and operated as displacement gauges. The cyclic errors arise as a consequence of mixing of spurious optical and electrical signals in beam launchers that are subsystems of such interferometers. The conventional approach to measurement of cyclic error involves phase measurements and yields values precise to within about 10 pm over air optical paths at laser wavelengths in the visible and near infrared. The present approach, which involves amplitude measurements instead of phase measurements, yields values precise to about .0.1 microns . about 100 times the precision of the conventional approach. In a displacement gauge of the type of interest here, the laser heterodyne interferometer is used to measure any change in distance along an optical axis between two corner-cube retroreflectors. One of the corner-cube retroreflectors is mounted on a piezoelectric transducer (see figure), which is used to introduce a low-frequency periodic displacement that can be measured by the gauges. The transducer is excited at a frequency of 9 Hz by a triangular waveform to generate a 9-Hz triangular-wave displacement having an amplitude of 25 microns. The displacement gives rise to both amplitude and phase modulation of the heterodyne signals in the gauges. The modulation includes cyclic error components, and the magnitude of the cyclic-error component of the phase modulation is what one needs to measure in order to determine the magnitude of the cyclic displacement error. The precision attainable in the conventional (phase measurement) approach to measuring cyclic error is limited because the phase measurements are af-
Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Made Operational
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oswald, Fred B.
2002-01-01
A system directly measuring the transmission error between the meshing spur or helical gears was installed at the NASA Glenn Research Center and made operational in August 2001. This system employs light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the two gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. The device is capable of resolution better than 0.1 mm (one thousandth the thickness of a human hair). The measured transmission error can be displayed in a "map" that shows how the transmission error varies with the gear rotation or it can be converted to spectra to show the components at the meshing frequencies. Accurate transmission error data will help researchers better understand the mechanisms that cause gear noise and vibration and will lead to The Design Unit at the University of Newcastle in England specifically designed the new system for NASA. It is the only device in the United States that can measure dynamic transmission error at high rotational speeds. The new system will be used to develop new techniques to reduce dynamic transmission error along with the resulting noise and vibration of aeronautical transmissions.
Reducing Measurement Error in Student Achievement Estimation
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico
2008-01-01
The achievement level is a variable measured with error, that can be estimated by means of the Rasch model. Teacher grades also measure the achievement level but they are expressed on a different scale. This paper proposes a method for combining these two scores to obtain a synthetic measure of the achievement level based on the theory developed…
Measurement error analysis of taxi meter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Hong; Li, Dan; Li, Hang; Zhang, Da-Jian; Hou, Ming-Feng; Zhang, Shi-pu
2011-12-01
The error test of the taximeter is divided into two aspects: (1) the test about time error of the taximeter (2) distance test about the usage error of the machine. The paper first gives the working principle of the meter and the principle of error verification device. Based on JJG517 - 2009 "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", the paper focuses on analyzing the machine error and test error of taxi meter. And the detect methods of time error and distance error are discussed as well. In the same conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class A) are evaluated, while in different conditions, standard uncertainty components (Class B) are also evaluated and measured repeatedly. By the comparison and analysis of the results, the meter accords with JJG517-2009, "Taximeter Verification Regulation ", thereby it improves the accuracy and efficiency largely. In actual situation, the meter not only makes up the lack of accuracy, but also makes sure the deal between drivers and passengers fair. Absolutely it enriches the value of the taxi as a way of transportation.
Technical approaches for measurement of human errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Clement, W. F.; Heffley, R. K.; Jewell, W. F.; Mcruer, D. T.
1980-01-01
Human error is a significant contributing factor in a very high proportion of civil transport, general aviation, and rotorcraft accidents. The technical details of a variety of proven approaches for the measurement of human errors in the context of the national airspace system are presented. Unobtrusive measurements suitable for cockpit operations and procedures in part of full mission simulation are emphasized. Procedure, system performance, and human operator centered measurements are discussed as they apply to the manual control, communication, supervisory, and monitoring tasks which are relevant to aviation operations.
Neutron multiplication error in TRU waste measurements
Veilleux, John; Stanfield, Sean B; Wachter, Joe; Ceo, Bob
2009-01-01
Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) in neutron assays of transuranic waste (TRU) are comprised of several components including counting statistics, matrix and source distribution, calibration inaccuracy, background effects, and neutron multiplication error. While a minor component for low plutonium masses, neutron multiplication error is often the major contributor to the TMU for items containing more than 140 g of weapons grade plutonium. Neutron multiplication arises when neutrons from spontaneous fission and other nuclear events induce fissions in other fissile isotopes in the waste, thereby multiplying the overall coincidence neutron response in passive neutron measurements. Since passive neutron counters cannot differentiate between spontaneous and induced fission neutrons, multiplication can lead to positive bias in the measurements. Although neutron multiplication can only result in a positive bias, it has, for the purpose of mathematical simplicity, generally been treated as an error that can lead to either a positive or negative result in the TMU. While the factors that contribute to neutron multiplication include the total mass of fissile nuclides, the presence of moderating material in the matrix, the concentration and geometry of the fissile sources, and other factors; measurement uncertainty is generally determined as a function of the fissile mass in most TMU software calculations because this is the only quantity determined by the passive neutron measurement. Neutron multiplication error has a particularly pernicious consequence for TRU waste analysis because the measured Fissile Gram Equivalent (FGE) plus twice the TMU error must be less than 200 for TRU waste packaged in 55-gal drums and less than 325 for boxed waste. For this reason, large errors due to neutron multiplication can lead to increased rejections of TRU waste containers. This report will attempt to better define the error term due to neutron multiplication and arrive at values that are
Measurement System Characterization in the Presence of Measurement Errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Commo, Sean A.
2012-01-01
In the calibration of a measurement system, data are collected in order to estimate a mathematical model between one or more factors of interest and a response. Ordinary least squares is a method employed to estimate the regression coefficients in the model. The method assumes that the factors are known without error; yet, it is implicitly known that the factors contain some uncertainty. In the literature, this uncertainty is known as measurement error. The measurement error affects both the estimates of the model coefficients and the prediction, or residual, errors. There are some methods, such as orthogonal least squares, that are employed in situations where measurement errors exist, but these methods do not directly incorporate the magnitude of the measurement errors. This research proposes a new method, known as modified least squares, that combines the principles of least squares with knowledge about the measurement errors. This knowledge is expressed in terms of the variance ratio - the ratio of response error variance to measurement error variance.
Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Measurement Error Models
Tekwe, Carmen D.; Carter, Randy L.; Cullings, Harry M.; Carroll, Raymond J.
2014-01-01
Multiple Indicators, Multiple Causes Models (MIMIC) are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times however when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are: (1) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model, (2) to develop likelihood based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model, (3) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535
Multiple indicators, multiple causes measurement error models.
Tekwe, Carmen D; Carter, Randy L; Cullings, Harry M; Carroll, Raymond J
2014-11-10
Multiple indicators, multiple causes (MIMIC) models are often employed by researchers studying the effects of an unobservable latent variable on a set of outcomes, when causes of the latent variable are observed. There are times, however, when the causes of the latent variable are not observed because measurements of the causal variable are contaminated by measurement error. The objectives of this paper are as follows: (i) to develop a novel model by extending the classical linear MIMIC model to allow both Berkson and classical measurement errors, defining the MIMIC measurement error (MIMIC ME) model; (ii) to develop likelihood-based estimation methods for the MIMIC ME model; and (iii) to apply the newly defined MIMIC ME model to atomic bomb survivor data to study the impact of dyslipidemia and radiation dose on the physical manifestations of dyslipidemia. As a by-product of our work, we also obtain a data-driven estimate of the variance of the classical measurement error associated with an estimate of the amount of radiation dose received by atomic bomb survivors at the time of their exposure. PMID:24962535
New Gear Transmission Error Measurement System Designed
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oswald, Fred B.
2001-01-01
The prime source of vibration and noise in a gear system is the transmission error between the meshing gears. Transmission error is caused by manufacturing inaccuracy, mounting errors, and elastic deflections under load. Gear designers often attempt to compensate for transmission error by modifying gear teeth. This is done traditionally by a rough "rule of thumb" or more recently under the guidance of an analytical code. In order for a designer to have confidence in a code, the code must be validated through experiment. NASA Glenn Research Center contracted with the Design Unit of the University of Newcastle in England for a system to measure the transmission error of spur and helical test gears in the NASA Gear Noise Rig. The new system measures transmission error optically by means of light beams directed by lenses and prisms through gratings mounted on the gear shafts. The amount of light that passes through both gratings is directly proportional to the transmission error of the gears. A photodetector circuit converts the light to an analog electrical signal. To increase accuracy and reduce "noise" due to transverse vibration, there are parallel light paths at the top and bottom of the gears. The two signals are subtracted via differential amplifiers in the electronics package. The output of the system is 40 mV/mm, giving a resolution in the time domain of better than 0.1 mm, and discrimination in the frequency domain of better than 0.01 mm. The new system will be used to validate gear analytical codes and to investigate mechanisms that produce vibration and noise in parallel axis gears.
Algorithmic Error Correction of Impedance Measuring Sensors
Starostenko, Oleg; Alarcon-Aquino, Vicente; Hernandez, Wilmar; Sergiyenko, Oleg; Tyrsa, Vira
2009-01-01
This paper describes novel design concepts and some advanced techniques proposed for increasing the accuracy of low cost impedance measuring devices without reduction of operational speed. The proposed structural method for algorithmic error correction and iterating correction method provide linearization of transfer functions of the measuring sensor and signal conditioning converter, which contribute the principal additive and relative measurement errors. Some measuring systems have been implemented in order to estimate in practice the performance of the proposed methods. Particularly, a measuring system for analysis of C-V, G-V characteristics has been designed and constructed. It has been tested during technological process control of charge-coupled device CCD manufacturing. The obtained results are discussed in order to define a reasonable range of applied methods, their utility, and performance. PMID:22303177
Sources of Error in UV Radiation Measurements
Larason, Thomas C.; Cromer, Christopher L.
2001-01-01
Increasing commercial, scientific, and technical applications involving ultraviolet (UV) radiation have led to the demand for improved understanding of the performance of instrumentation used to measure this radiation. There has been an effort by manufacturers of UV measuring devices (meters) to produce simple, optically filtered sensor systems to accomplish the varied measurement needs. We address common sources of measurement errors using these meters. The uncertainty in the calibration of the instrument depends on the response of the UV meter to the spectrum of the sources used and its similarity to the spectrum of the quantity to be measured. In addition, large errors can occur due to out-of-band, non-linear, and non-ideal geometric or spatial response of the UV meters. Finally, in many applications, how well the response of the UV meter approximates the presumed action spectrum needs to be understood for optimal use of the meters.
Improving Localization Accuracy: Successive Measurements Error Modeling
Abu Ali, Najah; Abu-Elkheir, Mervat
2015-01-01
Vehicle self-localization is an essential requirement for many of the safety applications envisioned for vehicular networks. The mathematical models used in current vehicular localization schemes focus on modeling the localization error itself, and overlook the potential correlation between successive localization measurement errors. In this paper, we first investigate the existence of correlation between successive positioning measurements, and then incorporate this correlation into the modeling positioning error. We use the Yule Walker equations to determine the degree of correlation between a vehicle’s future position and its past positions, and then propose a p-order Gauss–Markov model to predict the future position of a vehicle from its past p positions. We investigate the existence of correlation for two datasets representing the mobility traces of two vehicles over a period of time. We prove the existence of correlation between successive measurements in the two datasets, and show that the time correlation between measurements can have a value up to four minutes. Through simulations, we validate the robustness of our model and show that it is possible to use the first-order Gauss–Markov model, which has the least complexity, and still maintain an accurate estimation of a vehicle’s future location over time using only its current position. Our model can assist in providing better modeling of positioning errors and can be used as a prediction tool to improve the performance of classical localization algorithms such as the Kalman filter. PMID:26140345
Relationships of Measurement Error and Prediction Error in Observed-Score Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim
2012-01-01
The focus of this paper is assessing the impact of measurement errors on the prediction error of an observed-score regression. Measures are presented and described for decomposing the linear regression's prediction error variance into parts attributable to the true score variance and the error variances of the dependent variable and the predictor…
Generalized Geometric Error Correction in Coordinate Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hermann, Gyula
Software compensation of geometric errors in coordinate measuring is hot subject because it results the decrease of manufacturing costs. The paper gives a summary of the results and achievements of earlier works on the subject. In order to improve these results a method is adapted to capture simultaneously the new coordinate frames in order use exact transformation values at discrete points of the measuring volume. The interpolation techniques published in the literature have the draw back that they could not maintain the orthogonality of the rotational part of the transformation matrices. The paper gives a technique, based on quaternions, which avoid this problem and leads to better results.
Rater Effects in Clinical Performance Ratings of Surgery Residents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Iramaneerat, Cherdsak; Myford, Carol M.
2006-01-01
A multi-faceted Rasch measurement (MFRM) approach was used to analyze clinical performance ratings of 24 first-year residents in one surgery residency program in Thailand to investigate three types of rater effects: leniency, rater inconsistency, and restriction of range. Faculty from 14 surgical services rated the clinical performance of…
A Comparison of Assessment Methods and Raters in Product Creativity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lu, Chia-Chen; Luh, Ding-Bang
2012-01-01
Although previous studies have attempted to use different experiences of raters to rate product creativity by adopting the Consensus Assessment Method (CAT) approach, the validity of replacing CAT with another measurement tool has not been adequately tested. This study aimed to compare raters with different levels of experience (expert ves.…
Laser measurement and analysis of reposition error in polishing systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Weisen; Wang, Junhua; Xu, Min; He, Xiaoying
2015-10-01
In this paper, robotic reposition error measurement method based on laser interference remote positioning is presented, the geometric error is analyzed in the polishing system based on robot and the mathematical model of the tilt error is presented. Studies show that less than 1 mm error is mainly caused by the tilt error with small incident angle. Marking spot position with interference fringe enhances greatly the error measurement precision, the measurement precision of tilt error can reach 5 um. Measurement results show that reposition error of the polishing system is mainly from the tilt error caused by the motor A, repositioning precision is greatly increased after polishing system improvement. The measurement method has important applications in the actual error measurement with low cost, simple operation.
[Therapeutic errors and dose measuring devices].
García-Tornel, S; Torrent, M L; Sentís, J; Estella, G; Estruch, M A
1982-06-01
In order to investigate the possibilities of therapeutical error in syrups administration, authors have measured the capacity of 158 home spoons (x +/- SD). They classified spoons in four groups: group I (table spoons), 49 units (11.65 +/- 2.10 cc); group II (tea spoons), 41 units (4.70+/-1.04 cc); group III (coffee spoons), 41 units (2.60 +/- 0.59 cc), and group IV (miscellaneous), 27 units. They have compared the first three groups with theoreticals values of 15, 5 and 2.5 cc, respectively, ensuring, in the first group, significant statistical differences. In this way, they analyzed information that paediatricians receive from "vademecums", which they usually consult and have studied two points: If syrup has a meter or not, and if it indicates drug concentration or not. Only a 18% of the syrups have a meter and about 88% of the drugs indicate their concentration (mg/cc). They conclude that to prevent errors of dosage, the pharmacological industry must include meters in their products. If they haven't the safest thing is to use syringes. PMID:7125401
Rater Effects: Ego Engagement in Rater Decision-Making
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wiseman, Cynthia S.
2012-01-01
The decision-making behaviors of 8 raters when scoring 39 persuasive and 39 narrative essays written by second language learners were examined, first using Rasch analysis and then, through think aloud protocols. Results based on Rasch analysis and think aloud protocols recorded by raters as they were scoring holistically and analytically suggested…
Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version of Rose Angina Questionnaire.
Hassan, N B; Choudhury, S R; Naing, L; Conroy, R M; Rahman, A R A
2007-01-01
The objective of the study is to translate the Rose Questionnaire (RQ) into a Bahasa Melayu version and adapt it cross-culturally, and to measure its inter-rater and intrarater reliability. This cross sectional study was conducted in the respondents' homes or workplaces in Kelantan, Malaysia. One hundred respondents aged 30 and above with different socio-demographic status were interviewed for face validity. For each inter-rater and intra-rater reliability, a sample of 150 respondents was interviewed. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliabilities were assessed by Cohen's kappa. The overall inter-rater agreements by the five pair of interviewers at point one and two were 0.86, and intrarater reliability by the five interviewers on the seven-item questionnaire at poinone and two was 0.88, as measured by kappa coefficient. The translated Malay version of RQ demonstrated an almost perfect inter-rater and intra-rater reliability and further validation such as sensitivity and specificity analysis of this translated questionnaire is highly recommended. PMID:18333302
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gyagenda, Ismail S.; Engelhard, George, Jr.
The purpose of this study was to describe the Rasch model for measurement and apply the model to examine the relationship between raters, domains of written compositions, and student writing ability. Twenty raters were randomly selected from a group of 87 operational raters contracted to rate essays as part of the 1993 field test of the Georgia…
Yan, Ying; Yi, Grace Y
2016-07-01
Covariate measurement error occurs commonly in survival analysis. Under the proportional hazards model, measurement error effects have been well studied, and various inference methods have been developed to correct for error effects under such a model. In contrast, error-contaminated survival data under the additive hazards model have received relatively less attention. In this paper, we investigate this problem by exploring measurement error effects on parameter estimation and the change of the hazard function. New insights of measurement error effects are revealed, as opposed to well-documented results for the Cox proportional hazards model. We propose a class of bias correction estimators that embraces certain existing estimators as special cases. In addition, we exploit the regression calibration method to reduce measurement error effects. Theoretical results for the developed methods are established, and numerical assessments are conducted to illustrate the finite sample performance of our methods. PMID:26328545
Measuring Systematic Error with Curve Fits
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rupright, Mark E.
2011-01-01
Systematic errors are often unavoidable in the introductory physics laboratory. As has been demonstrated in many papers in this journal, such errors can present a fundamental problem for data analysis, particularly when comparing the data to a given model. In this paper I give three examples in which my students use popular curve-fitting software…
Error analysis and data reduction for interferometric surface measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Ping
High-precision optical systems are generally tested using interferometry, since it often is the only way to achieve the desired measurement precision and accuracy. Interferometers can generally measure a surface to an accuracy of one hundredth of a wave. In order to achieve an accuracy to the next order of magnitude, one thousandth of a wave, each error source in the measurement must be characterized and calibrated. Errors in interferometric measurements are classified into random errors and systematic errors. An approach to estimate random errors in the measurement is provided, based on the variation in the data. Systematic errors, such as retrace error, imaging distortion, and error due to diffraction effects, are also studied in this dissertation. Methods to estimate the first order geometric error and errors due to diffraction effects are presented. Interferometer phase modulation transfer function (MTF) is another intrinsic error. The phase MTF of an infrared interferometer is measured with a phase Siemens star, and a Wiener filter is designed to recover the middle spatial frequency information. Map registration is required when there are two maps tested in different systems and one of these two maps needs to be subtracted from the other. Incorrect mapping causes wavefront errors. A smoothing filter method is presented which can reduce the sensitivity to registration error and improve the overall measurement accuracy. Interferometric optical testing with computer-generated holograms (CGH) is widely used for measuring aspheric surfaces. The accuracy of the drawn pattern on a hologram decides the accuracy of the measurement. Uncertainties in the CGH manufacturing process introduce errors in holograms and then the generated wavefront. An optimal design of the CGH is provided which can reduce the sensitivity to fabrication errors and give good diffraction efficiency for both chrome-on-glass and phase etched CGHs.
The Relative Error Magnitude in Three Measures of Change.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zimmerman, Donald W.; Williams, Richard H.
1982-01-01
Formulas for the standard error of measurement of three measures of change (simple differences; residualized difference scores; and a measure introduced by Tucker, Damarin, and Messick) are derived. A practical guide for determining the relative error of the three measures is developed. (Author/JKS)
Rapid mapping of volumetric machine errors using distance measurements
Krulewich, D.A.
1998-04-01
This paper describes a relatively inexpensive, fast, and easy to execute approach to maping the volumetric errors of a machine tool, coordinate measuring machine, or robot. An error map is used to characterize a machine or to improve its accuracy by compensating for the systematic errors. The method consists of three steps: (1) models the relationship between volumetric error and the current state of the machine, (2) acquiring error data based on distance measurements throughout the work volume; and (3)fitting the error model using the nonlinear equation for the distance. The error model is formulated from the kinematic relationship among the six degrees of freedom of error an each moving axis. Expressing each parametric error as function of position each is combined to predict the error between the functional point and workpiece, also as a function of position. A series of distances between several fixed base locations and various functional points in the work volume is measured using a Laser Ball Bar (LBB). Each measured distance is a non-linear function dependent on the commanded location of the machine, the machine error, and the location of the base locations. Using the error model, the non-linear equation is solved producing a fit for the error model Also note that, given approximate distances between each pair of base locations, the exact base locations in the machine coordinate system determined during the non-linear filling procedure. Furthermore, with the use of 2048 more than three base locations, bias error in the measuring instrument can be removed The volumetric errors of three-axis commercial machining center have been mapped using this procedure. In this study, only errors associated with the nominal position of the machine were considered Other errors such as thermally induced and load induced errors were not considered although the mathematical model has the ability to account for these errors. Due to the proprietary nature of the projects we are
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Srsen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Masa; Vrecar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krusec, Klavdija
2012-01-01
The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine…
MEASURING LOCAL GRADIENT AND SKEW QUADRUPOLE ERRORS IN RHIC IRS.
CARDONA,J.; PEGGS,S.; PILAT,R.; PTITSYN,V.
2004-07-05
The measurement of local linear errors at RHIC interaction regions using an ''action and phase'' analysis of difference orbits has already been presented. This paper evaluates the accuracy of this technique using difference orbits that were taken when known gradient errors and skew quadrupole errors were intentionally introduced. It also presents action and phase analysis of simulated orbits when controlled errors are intentionally placed in a RHIC simulation model.
Modeling Errors in Daily Precipitation Measurements: Additive or Multiplicative?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tian, Yudong; Huffman, George J.; Adler, Robert F.; Tang, Ling; Sapiano, Matthew; Maggioni, Viviana; Wu, Huan
2013-01-01
The definition and quantification of uncertainty depend on the error model used. For uncertainties in precipitation measurements, two types of error models have been widely adopted: the additive error model and the multiplicative error model. This leads to incompatible specifications of uncertainties and impedes intercomparison and application.In this letter, we assess the suitability of both models for satellite-based daily precipitation measurements in an effort to clarify the uncertainty representation. Three criteria were employed to evaluate the applicability of either model: (1) better separation of the systematic and random errors; (2) applicability to the large range of variability in daily precipitation; and (3) better predictive skills. It is found that the multiplicative error model is a much better choice under all three criteria. It extracted the systematic errors more cleanly, was more consistent with the large variability of precipitation measurements, and produced superior predictions of the error characteristics. The additive error model had several weaknesses, such as non constant variance resulting from systematic errors leaking into random errors, and the lack of prediction capability. Therefore, the multiplicative error model is a better choice.
Measurement of errors in clinical laboratories.
Agarwal, Rachna
2013-07-01
Laboratories have a major impact on patient safety as 80-90 % of all the diagnosis are made on the basis of laboratory tests. Laboratory errors have a reported frequency of 0.012-0.6 % of all test results. Patient safety is a managerial issue which can be enhanced by implementing active system to identify and monitor quality failures. This can be facilitated by reactive method which includes incident reporting followed by root cause analysis. This leads to identification and correction of weaknesses in policies and procedures in the system. Another way is proactive method like Failure Mode and Effect Analysis. In this focus is on entire examination process, anticipating major adverse events and pre-emptively prevent them from occurring. It is used for prospective risk analysis of high-risk processes to reduce the chance of errors in the laboratory and other patient care areas. PMID:24426216
Miller, Amy H; Cummings, Nydia; Tomlinson, Jamie
2013-01-01
Teaching evidence-based practice (EBP) skills is a core component in the education of health care professionals. Methods to assess individual student development of these skills are not well studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) for the modified Fresno Test (MFT) of Competence in EBP in first-year physical therapy students. Using a test-retest design, the MFT was administered two times to 35 participating first-year physical therapy students. Tests were scored by two trained physical therapist educators. Mean test scores clustered near the middle of the 232 point scoring range, 107 points (SD 14.9) and 103 points (SD 18.9). Inter-rater reliability [ICC (2, 1)] for scorers was 0.83 (95%CI 0.74-0.96). Intra-rater reliability was 0.85 (95%CI 0.60-0.97) and 0.94 (95%CI 0.86-0.99). Test-retest reliability [ICC (2, 1)] was 0.46 (95%CI 0.16-0.69), with a calculated SEM of 11 points, a confidence in a single measurement of 18.2 points, and MDC90 (90% confidence) of 25.7 points. Knowledge about estimates of SEM and MDC for specific student populations is important to assess change in individual student performance on the modified FT. PMID:24013248
Mode error analysis of impedance measurement using twin wires
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Liang-Sheng; Yoshiro, Irie; Liu, Yu-Dong; Wang, Sheng
2015-03-01
Both longitudinal and transverse coupling impedance for some critical components need to be measured for accelerator design. The twin wires method is widely used to measure longitudinal and transverse impedance on the bench. A mode error is induced when the twin wires method is used with a two-port network analyzer. Here, the mode error is analyzed theoretically and an example analysis is given. Moreover, the mode error in the measurement is a few percent when a hybrid with no less than 25 dB isolation and a splitter with no less than 20 dB magnitude error are used. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (11175193, 11275221)
Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint
Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.
2012-04-01
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.
Virtual Raters for Reproducible and Objective Assessments in Radiology.
Kleesiek, Jens; Petersen, Jens; Döring, Markus; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Köthe, Ullrich; Wick, Wolfgang; Hamprecht, Fred A; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin
2016-01-01
Volumetric measurements in radiologic images are important for monitoring tumor growth and treatment response. To make these more reproducible and objective we introduce the concept of virtual raters (VRs). A virtual rater is obtained by combining knowledge of machine-learning algorithms trained with past annotations of multiple human raters with the instantaneous rating of one human expert. Thus, he is virtually guided by several experts. To evaluate the approach we perform experiments with multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Next to gross tumor volume (GTV) we also investigate subcategories like edema, contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. The first data set consists of N = 71 longitudinal follow-up scans of 15 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GB). The second data set comprises N = 30 scans of low- and high-grade gliomas. For comparison we computed Pearson Correlation, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dice score. Virtual raters always lead to an improvement w.r.t. inter- and intra-rater agreement. Comparing the 2D Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) measurements to the volumetric measurements of the virtual raters results in one-third of the cases in a deviating rating. Hence, we believe that our approach will have an impact on the evaluation of clinical studies as well as on routine imaging diagnostics. PMID:27118379
Virtual Raters for Reproducible and Objective Assessments in Radiology
Kleesiek, Jens; Petersen, Jens; Döring, Markus; Maier-Hein, Klaus; Köthe, Ullrich; Wick, Wolfgang; Hamprecht, Fred A.; Bendszus, Martin; Biller, Armin
2016-01-01
Volumetric measurements in radiologic images are important for monitoring tumor growth and treatment response. To make these more reproducible and objective we introduce the concept of virtual raters (VRs). A virtual rater is obtained by combining knowledge of machine-learning algorithms trained with past annotations of multiple human raters with the instantaneous rating of one human expert. Thus, he is virtually guided by several experts. To evaluate the approach we perform experiments with multi-channel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Next to gross tumor volume (GTV) we also investigate subcategories like edema, contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing tumor. The first data set consists of N = 71 longitudinal follow-up scans of 15 patients suffering from glioblastoma (GB). The second data set comprises N = 30 scans of low- and high-grade gliomas. For comparison we computed Pearson Correlation, Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dice score. Virtual raters always lead to an improvement w.r.t. inter- and intra-rater agreement. Comparing the 2D Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) measurements to the volumetric measurements of the virtual raters results in one-third of the cases in a deviating rating. Hence, we believe that our approach will have an impact on the evaluation of clinical studies as well as on routine imaging diagnostics. PMID:27118379
Pressure Change Measurement Leak Testing Errors
Pryor, Jeff M; Walker, William C
2014-01-01
A pressure change test is a common leak testing method used in construction and Non-Destructive Examination (NDE). The test is known as being a fast, simple, and easy to apply evaluation method. While this method may be fairly quick to conduct and require simple instrumentation, the engineering behind this type of test is more complex than is apparent on the surface. This paper intends to discuss some of the more common errors made during the application of a pressure change test and give the test engineer insight into how to correctly compensate for these factors. The principals discussed here apply to ideal gases such as air or other monoatomic or diatomic gasses; however these same principals can be applied to polyatomic gasses or liquid flow rate with altered formula specific to those types of tests using the same methodology.
Body Shape Preferences: Associations with Rater Body Shape and Sociosexuality
Price, Michael E.; Pound, Nicholas; Dunn, James; Hopkins, Sian; Kang, Jinsheng
2013-01-01
There is accumulating evidence of condition-dependent mate choice in many species, that is, individual preferences varying in strength according to the condition of the chooser. In humans, for example, people with more attractive faces/bodies, and who are higher in sociosexuality, exhibit stronger preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex faces/bodies. However, previous studies have tended to use only relatively simple, isolated measures of rater attractiveness. Here we use 3D body scanning technology to examine associations between strength of rater preferences for attractive traits in opposite-sex bodies, and raters’ body shape, self-perceived attractiveness, and sociosexuality. For 118 raters and 80 stimuli models, we used a 3D scanner to extract body measurements associated with attractiveness (male waist-chest ratio [WCR], female waist-hip ratio [WHR], and volume-height index [VHI] in both sexes) and also measured rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality. As expected, WHR and VHI were important predictors of female body attractiveness, while WCR and VHI were important predictors of male body attractiveness. Results indicated that male rater sociosexuality scores were positively associated with strength of preference for attractive (low) VHI and attractive (low) WHR in female bodies. Moreover, male rater self-perceived attractiveness was positively associated with strength of preference for low VHI in female bodies. The only evidence of condition-dependent preferences in females was a positive association between attractive VHI in female raters and preferences for attractive (low) WCR in male bodies. No other significant associations were observed in either sex between aspects of rater body shape and strength of preferences for attractive opposite-sex body traits. These results suggest that among male raters, rater self-perceived attractiveness and sociosexuality are important predictors of preference strength for attractive opposite
Temperature error in radiation thermometry caused by emissivity and reflectance measurement error.
Corwin, R R; Rodenburghii, A
1994-04-01
A general expression for the temperature error caused by emissivity uncertainty is developed, and it is concluded that lower-wavelength systems provide significantly less temperature error. A technique to measure the normal emissivity is proposed that uses a normally incident light beam and an aperture to collect a portion of the energy reflected from the surface and to measure essentially both the specular component and the biangular reflectance at the edge of the aperture. The theoretical results show that the aperture size need not be substantial to provide reasonably low temperature errors for a broad class of materials and surface reflectance conditions. PMID:20885529
Using neural nets to measure ocular refractive errors: a proposal
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Netto, Antonio V.; Ferreira de Oliveira, Maria C.
2002-12-01
We propose the development of a functional system for diagnosing and measuring ocular refractive errors in the human eye (astigmatism, hypermetropia and myopia) by automatically analyzing images of the human ocular globe acquired with the Hartmann-Schack (HS) technique. HS images are to be input into a system capable of recognizing the presence of a refractive error and outputting a measure of such an error. The system should pre-process and image supplied by the acquisition technique and then use artificial neural networks combined with fuzzy logic to extract the necessary information and output an automated diagnosis of the refractive errors that may be present in the ocular globe under exam.
Phase error compensation methods for high-accuracy profile measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Zewei; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang; Zhang, Zonghua; Jiang, Hao; Yin, Yongkai; Huang, Shujun
2016-04-01
In a phase-shifting algorithm-based fringe projection profilometry, the nonlinear intensity response, called the gamma effect, of the projector-camera setup is a major source of error in phase retrieval. This paper proposes two novel, accurate approaches to realize both active and passive phase error compensation based on a universal phase error model which is suitable for a arbitrary phase-shifting step. The experimental results on phase error compensation and profile measurement of standard components verified the validity and accuracy of the two proposed approaches which are robust when faced with changeable measurement conditions.
Measurement error in biomarkers: sources, assessment, and impact on studies.
White, Emily
2011-01-01
Measurement error in a biomarker refers to the error of a biomarker measure applied in a specific way to a specific population, versus the true (etiologic) exposure. In epidemiologic studies, this error includes not only laboratory error, but also errors (variations) introduced during specimen collection and storage, and due to day-to-day, month-to-month, and year-to-year within-subject variability of the biomarker. Validity and reliability studies that aim to assess the degree of biomarker error for use of a specific biomarker in epidemiologic studies must be properly designed to measure all of these sources of error. Validity studies compare the biomarker to be used in an epidemiologic study to a perfect measure in a group of subjects. The parameters used to quantify the error in a binary marker are sensitivity and specificity. For continuous biomarkers, the parameters used are bias (the mean difference between the biomarker and the true exposure) and the validity coefficient (correlation of the biomarker with the true exposure). Often a perfect measure of the exposure is not available, so reliability (repeatability) studies are conducted. These are analysed using kappa for binary biomarkers and the intraclass correlation coefficient for continuous biomarkers. Equations are given which use these parameters from validity or reliability studies to estimate the impact of nondifferential biomarker measurement error on the risk ratio in an epidemiologic study that will use the biomarker. Under nondifferential error, the attenuation of the risk ratio is towards the null and is often quite substantial, even for reasonably accurate biomarker measures. Differential biomarker error between cases and controls can bias the risk ratio in any direction and completely invalidate an epidemiologic study. PMID:22997860
The error analysis and online measurement of linear slide motion error in machine tools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, H.; Hong, M. S.; Li, Z. J.; Wei, Y. L.; Xiong, S. B.
2002-06-01
A new accurate two-probe time domain method is put forward to measure the straight-going component motion error in machine tools. The characteristics of non-periodic and non-closing in the straightness profile error are liable to bring about higher-order harmonic component distortion in the measurement results. However, this distortion can be avoided by the new accurate two-probe time domain method through the symmetry continuation algorithm, uniformity and least squares method. The harmonic suppression is analysed in detail through modern control theory. Both the straight-going component motion error in machine tools and the profile error in a workpiece that is manufactured on this machine can be measured at the same time. All of this information is available to diagnose the origin of faults in machine tools. The analysis result is proved to be correct through experiment.
System Measures Errors Between Time-Code Signals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cree, David; Venkatesh, C. N.
1993-01-01
System measures timing errors between signals produced by three asynchronous time-code generators. Errors between 1-second clock pulses resolved to 2 microseconds. Basic principle of computation of timing errors as follows: central processing unit in microcontroller constantly monitors time data received from time-code generators for changes in 1-second time-code intervals. In response to any such change, microprocessor buffers count of 16-bit internal timer.
Contouring error compensation on a micro coordinate measuring machine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Kuang-Chao; Wang, Hung-Yu; Ye, Jyun-Kuan
2011-12-01
In recent years, three-dimensional measurements of nano-technology researches have received a great attention in the world. Based on the high accuracy demand, the error compensation of measurement machine is very important. In this study, a high precision Micro-CMM (coordinate measuring machine) has been developed which is composed of a coplanar stage for reducing the Abbé error in the vertical direction, the linear diffraction grating interferometer (LDGI) as the position feedback sensor in nanometer resolution, and ultrasonic motors for position control. This paper presents the error compensation strategy including "Home accuracy" and "Position accuracy" in both axes. For the home error compensation, we utilize a commercial DVD pick-up head and its S-curve principle to accurately search the origin of each axis. For the positioning error compensation, the absolute positions relative to the home are calibrated by laser interferometer and the error budget table is stored for feed forward error compensation. Contouring error can thus be compensated if both the compensation of both X and Y positioning errors are applied. Experiments show the contouring accuracy can be controlled to within 50nm after compensation.
Rater agreement of visual lameness assessment in horses during lungeing
Hammarberg, M.; Egenvall, A.; Pfau, T.
2015-01-01
Summary Reasons for performing study Lungeing is an important part of lameness examinations as the circular path may accentuate low‐grade lameness. Movement asymmetries related to the circular path, to compensatory movements and to pain make the lameness evaluation complex. Scientific studies have shown high inter‐rater variation when assessing lameness during straight line movement. Objectives The aim was to estimate inter‐ and intra‐rater agreement of equine veterinarians evaluating lameness from videos of sound and lame horses during lungeing and to investigate the influence of veterinarians’ experience and the objective degree of movement asymmetry on rater agreement. Study design Cross‐sectional observational study. Methods Video recordings and quantitative gait analysis with inertial sensors were performed in 23 riding horses of various breeds. The horses were examined at trot on a straight line and during lungeing on soft or hard surfaces in both directions. One video sequence was recorded per condition and the horses were classified as forelimb lame, hindlimb lame or sound from objective straight line symmetry measurements. Equine veterinarians (n = 86), including 43 with >5 years of orthopaedic experience, participated in a web‐based survey and were asked to identify the lamest limb on 60 videos, including 10 repeats. The agreements between (inter‐rater) and within (intra‐rater) veterinarians were analysed with κ statistics (Fleiss, Cohen). Results Inter‐rater agreement κ was 0.31 (0.38/0.25 for experienced/less experienced) and higher for forelimb (0.33) than for hindlimb lameness (0.11) or soundness (0.08) evaluation. Median intra‐rater agreement κ was 0.57. Conclusions Inter‐rater agreement was poor for less experienced raters, and for all raters when evaluating hindlimb lameness. Since identification of the lame limb/limbs is a prerequisite for successful diagnosis, treatment and recovery, the high inter‐rater variation
Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan
2012-01-01
Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…
Investigation of Measurement Errors in Doppler Global Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.
1999-01-01
While the initial development phase of Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) has been successfully completed, there remains a critical next phase to be conducted, namely the determination of an error budget to provide quantitative bounds for measurements obtained by this technology. This paper describes a laboratory investigation that consisted of a detailed interrogation of potential error sources to determine their contribution to the overall DGV error budget. A few sources of error were obvious; e.g., iodine vapor adsorption lines, optical systems, and camera characteristics. However, additional non-obvious sources were also discovered; e.g., laser frequency and single-frequency stability, media scattering characteristics, and interference fringes. This paper describes each identified error source, its effect on the overall error budget, and where possible, corrective procedures to reduce or eliminate its effect.
Non-Gaussian Error Distributions of LMC Distance Moduli Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crandall, Sara; Ratra, Bharat
2015-12-01
We construct error distributions for a compilation of 232 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) distance moduli values from de Grijs et al. that give an LMC distance modulus of (m - M)0 = 18.49 ± 0.13 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error). Central estimates found from weighted mean and median statistics are used to construct the error distributions. The weighted mean error distribution is non-Gaussian—flatter and broader than Gaussian—with more (less) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of unaccounted-for systematic uncertainties. The median statistics error distribution, which does not make use of the individual measurement errors, is also non-Gaussian—more peaked than Gaussian—with less (more) probability in the tails (center) than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution; this could be the consequence of publication bias and/or the non-independence of the measurements. We also construct the error distributions of 247 SMC distance moduli values from de Grijs & Bono. We find a central estimate of {(m-M)}0=18.94+/- 0.14 mag (median and 1σ symmetrized error), and similar probabilities for the error distributions.
Aliasing errors in measurements of beam position and ellipticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekdahl, Carl
2005-09-01
Beam position monitors (BPMs) are used in accelerators and ion experiments to measure currents, position, and azimuthal asymmetry. These usually consist of discrete arrays of electromagnetic field detectors, with detectors located at several equally spaced azimuthal positions at the beam tube wall. The discrete nature of these arrays introduces systematic errors into the data, independent of uncertainties resulting from signal noise, lack of recording dynamic range, etc. Computer simulations were used to understand and quantify these aliasing errors. If required, aliasing errors can be significantly reduced by employing more than the usual four detectors in the BPMs. These simulations show that the error in measurements of the centroid position of a large beam is indistinguishable from the error in the position of a filament. The simulations also show that aliasing errors in the measurement of beam ellipticity are very large unless the beam is accurately centered. The simulations were used to quantify the aliasing errors in beam parameter measurements during early experiments on the DARHT-II accelerator, demonstrating that they affected the measurements only slightly, if at all.
Effects of a rater training on rating accuracy in a physical examination skills assessment
Weitz, Gunther; Vinzentius, Christian; Twesten, Christoph; Lehnert, Hendrik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik; König, Inke R.
2014-01-01
Background: The accuracy and reproducibility of medical skills assessment is generally low. Rater training has little or no effect. Our knowledge in this field, however, relies on studies involving video ratings of overall clinical performances. We hypothesised that a rater training focussing on the frame of reference could improve accuracy in grading the curricular assessment of a highly standardised physical head-to-toe examination. Methods: Twenty-one raters assessed the performance of 242 third-year medical students. Eleven raters had been randomly assigned to undergo a brief frame-of-reference training a few days before the assessment. 218 encounters were successfully recorded on video and re-assessed independently by three additional observers. Accuracy was defined as the concordance between the raters' grade and the median of the observers' grade. After the assessment, both students and raters filled in a questionnaire about their views on the assessment. Results: Rater training did not have a measurable influence on accuracy. However, trained raters rated significantly more stringently than untrained raters, and their overall stringency was closer to the stringency of the observers. The questionnaire indicated a higher awareness of the halo effect in the trained raters group. Although the self-assessment of the students mirrored the assessment of the raters in both groups, the students assessed by trained raters felt more discontent with their grade. Conclusions: While training had some marginal effects, it failed to have an impact on the individual accuracy. These results in real-life encounters are consistent with previous studies on rater training using video assessments of clinical performances. The high degree of standardisation in this study was not suitable to harmonize the trained raters’ grading. The data support the notion that the process of appraising medical performance is highly individual. A frame-of-reference training as applied does not
Error tolerance of topological codes with independent bit-flip and measurement errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrist, Ruben S.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.; Bombin, H.; Martin-Delgado, M. A.
2016-07-01
Topological quantum error correction codes are currently among the most promising candidates for efficiently dealing with the decoherence effects inherently present in quantum devices. Numerically, their theoretical error threshold can be calculated by mapping the underlying quantum problem to a related classical statistical-mechanical spin system with quenched disorder. Here, we present results for the general fault-tolerant regime, where we consider both qubit and measurement errors. However, unlike in previous studies, here we vary the strength of the different error sources independently. Our results highlight peculiar differences between toric and color codes. This study complements previous results published in New J. Phys. 13, 083006 (2011), 10.1088/1367-2630/13/8/083006.
Temperature measurement error simulation of the pure rotational Raman lidar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Jingyu; Huang, Yong; Wang, Zhirui; Yi, Fan; Shen, Jianglin; Jia, Xiaoxing; Chen, Huabin; Yang, Chuan; Zhang, Mingyang
2015-11-01
Temperature represents the atmospheric thermodynamic state. Measure the atmospheric temperature accurately and precisely is very important to understand the physics of the atmospheric process. Lidar has some advantages in the atmospheric temperature measurement. Based on the lidar equation and the theory of pure rotational Raman (PRR), we've simulated the temperature measurement errors of the double-grating-polychromator (DGP) based PRR lidar. First of all, without considering the attenuation terms of the atmospheric transmittance and the range in the lidar equation, we've simulated the temperature measurement errors which are influenced by the beam splitting system parameters, such as the center wavelength, the receiving bandwidth and the atmospheric temperature. We analyzed three types of the temperature measurement errors in theory. We've proposed several design methods for the beam splitting system to reduce the temperature measurement errors. Secondly, we simulated the temperature measurement error profiles by the lidar equation. As the lidar power-aperture product is determined, the main target of our lidar system is to reduce the statistical and the leakage errors.
Measuring worst-case errors in a robot workcell
Simon, R.W.; Brost, R.C.; Kholwadwala, D.K.
1997-10-01
Errors in model parameters, sensing, and control are inevitably present in real robot systems. These errors must be considered in order to automatically plan robust solutions to many manipulation tasks. Lozano-Perez, Mason, and Taylor proposed a formal method for synthesizing robust actions in the presence of uncertainty; this method has been extended by several subsequent researchers. All of these results presume the existence of worst-case error bounds that describe the maximum possible deviation between the robot`s model of the world and reality. This paper examines the problem of measuring these error bounds for a real robot workcell. These measurements are difficult, because of the desire to completely contain all possible deviations while avoiding bounds that are overly conservative. The authors present a detailed description of a series of experiments that characterize and quantify the possible errors in visual sensing and motion control for a robot workcell equipped with standard industrial robot hardware. In addition to providing a means for measuring these specific errors, these experiments shed light on the general problem of measuring worst-case errors.
Aerial measurement error with a dot planimeter: Some experimental estimates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yuill, R. S.
1971-01-01
A shape analysis is presented which utilizes a computer to simulate a multiplicity of dot grids mathematically. Results indicate that the number of dots placed over an area to be measured provides the entire correlation with accuracy of measurement, the indices of shape being of little significance. Equations and graphs are provided from which the average expected error, and the maximum range of error, for various numbers of dot points can be read.
Space acceleration measurement system triaxial sensor head error budget
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, John E.; Peters, Rex B.; Finley, Brian D.
1992-01-01
The objective of the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) is to measure and record the microgravity environment for a given experiment aboard the Space Shuttle. To accomplish this, SAMS uses remote triaxial sensor heads (TSH) that can be mounted directly on or near an experiment. The errors of the TSH are reduced by calibrating it before and after each flight. The associated error budget for the calibration procedure is discussed here.
Identification and Minimization of Errors in Doppler Global Velocimetry Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.
2000-01-01
A systematic laboratory investigation was conducted to identify potential measurement error sources in Doppler Global Velocimetry technology. Once identified, methods were developed to eliminate or at least minimize the effects of these errors. The areas considered included the Iodine vapor cell, optical alignment, scattered light characteristics, noise sources, and the laser. Upon completion the demonstrated measurement uncertainty was reduced to 0.5 m/sec.
Examination of Rater Training Effect and Rater Eligibility in L2 Performance Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kondo, Yusuke
2010-01-01
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of rater training in an L2 performance assessment and to examine the eligibility of L2 users of English as raters in L2 performance assessment. Rater training was conducted in order for raters to clearly understand the criteria, the evaluation items, and the evaluation procedure. In this…
Comparing Measurement Error between Two Different Methods of Measurement of Various Magnitudes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zavorsky, Gerald S.
2010-01-01
Measurement error is a common problem in several fields of research such as medicine, physiology, and exercise science. The standard deviation of repeated measurements on the same person is the measurement error. One way of presenting measurement error is called the repeatability, which is 2.77 multiplied by the within subject standard deviation.…
Measurement error caused by spatial misalignment in environmental epidemiology
Gryparis, Alexandros; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Zeka, Ariana; Schwartz, Joel; Coull, Brent A.
2009-01-01
In many environmental epidemiology studies, the locations and/or times of exposure measurements and health assessments do not match. In such settings, health effects analyses often use the predictions from an exposure model as a covariate in a regression model. Such exposure predictions contain some measurement error as the predicted values do not equal the true exposures. We provide a framework for spatial measurement error modeling, showing that smoothing induces a Berkson-type measurement error with nondiagonal error structure. From this viewpoint, we review the existing approaches to estimation in a linear regression health model, including direct use of the spatial predictions and exposure simulation, and explore some modified approaches, including Bayesian models and out-of-sample regression calibration, motivated by measurement error principles. We then extend this work to the generalized linear model framework for health outcomes. Based on analytical considerations and simulation results, we compare the performance of all these approaches under several spatial models for exposure. Our comparisons underscore several important points. First, exposure simulation can perform very poorly under certain realistic scenarios. Second, the relative performance of the different methods depends on the nature of the underlying exposure surface. Third, traditional measurement error concepts can help to explain the relative practical performance of the different methods. We apply the methods to data on the association between levels of particulate matter and birth weight in the greater Boston area. PMID:18927119
Methods to Assess Measurement Error in Questionnaires of Sedentary Behavior
Sampson, Joshua N; Matthews, Charles E; Freedman, Laurence; Carroll, Raymond J.; Kipnis, Victor
2015-01-01
Sedentary behavior has already been associated with mortality, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Questionnaires are an affordable tool for measuring sedentary behavior in large epidemiological studies. Here, we introduce and evaluate two statistical methods for quantifying measurement error in questionnaires. Accurate estimates are needed for assessing questionnaire quality. The two methods would be applied to validation studies that measure a sedentary behavior by both questionnaire and accelerometer on multiple days. The first method fits a reduced model by assuming the accelerometer is without error, while the second method fits a more complete model that allows both measures to have error. Because accelerometers tend to be highly accurate, we show that ignoring the accelerometer’s measurement error, can result in more accurate estimates of measurement error in some scenarios. In this manuscript, we derive asymptotic approximations for the Mean-Squared Error of the estimated parameters from both methods, evaluate their dependence on study design and behavior characteristics, and offer an R package so investigators can make an informed choice between the two methods. We demonstrate the difference between the two methods in a recent validation study comparing Previous Day Recalls (PDR) to an accelerometer-based ActivPal. PMID:27340315
Error-tradeoff and error-disturbance relations for incompatible quantum measurements.
Branciard, Cyril
2013-04-23
Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is one of the main tenets of quantum theory. Nevertheless, and despite its fundamental importance for our understanding of quantum foundations, there has been some confusion in its interpretation: Although Heisenberg's first argument was that the measurement of one observable on a quantum state necessarily disturbs another incompatible observable, standard uncertainty relations typically bound the indeterminacy of the outcomes when either one or the other observable is measured. In this paper, we quantify precisely Heisenberg's intuition. Even if two incompatible observables cannot be measured together, one can still approximate their joint measurement, at the price of introducing some errors with respect to the ideal measurement of each of them. We present a tight relation characterizing the optimal tradeoff between the error on one observable vs. the error on the other. As a particular case, our approach allows us to characterize the disturbance of an observable induced by the approximate measurement of another one; we also derive a stronger error-disturbance relation for this scenario. PMID:23564344
How Do Raters Judge Spoken Vocabulary?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Li, Hui
2016-01-01
The aim of the study was to investigate how raters come to their decisions when judging spoken vocabulary. Segmental rating was introduced to quantify raters' decision-making process. It is hoped that this simulated study brings fresh insight to future methodological considerations with spoken data. Twenty trainee raters assessed five Chinese…
Errors Associated with the Direct Measurement of Radionuclides in Wounds
Hickman, D P
2006-03-02
Work in radiation areas can occasionally result in accidental wounds containing radioactive materials. When a wound is incurred within a radiological area, the presence of radioactivity in the wound needs to be confirmed to determine if additional remedial action needs to be taken. Commonly used radiation area monitoring equipment is poorly suited for measurement of radioactive material buried within the tissue of the wound. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) In Vivo Measurement Facility has constructed a portable wound counter that provides sufficient detection of radioactivity in wounds as shown in Fig. 1. The LLNL wound measurement system is specifically designed to measure low energy photons that are emitted from uranium and transuranium radionuclides. The portable wound counting system uses a 2.5cm diameter by 1mm thick NaI(Tl) detector. The detector is connected to a Canberra NaI InSpector{trademark}. The InSpector interfaces with an IBM ThinkPad laptop computer, which operates under Genie 2000 software. The wound counting system is maintained and used at the LLNL In Vivo Measurement Facility. The hardware is designed to be portable and is occasionally deployed to respond to the LLNL Health Services facility or local hospitals for examination of personnel that may have radioactive materials within a wound. The typical detection levels in using the LLNL portable wound counter in a low background area is 0.4 nCi to 0.6 nCi assuming a near zero mass source. This paper documents the systematic errors associated with in vivo measurement of radioactive materials buried within wounds using the LLNL portable wound measurement system. These errors are divided into two basic categories, calibration errors and in vivo wound measurement errors. Within these categories, there are errors associated with particle self-absorption of photons, overlying tissue thickness, source distribution within the wound, and count errors. These errors have been examined and
Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy
Gil-Pita, Roberto
2016-01-01
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible. PMID:27362862
Detection and Classification of Measurement Errors in Bioimpedance Spectroscopy.
Ayllón, David; Gil-Pita, Roberto; Seoane, Fernando
2016-01-01
Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement errors may be caused by parasitic stray capacitance, impedance mismatch, cross-talking or their very likely combination. An accurate detection and identification is of extreme importance for further analysis because in some cases and for some applications, certain measurement artifacts can be corrected, minimized or even avoided. In this paper we present a robust method to detect the presence of measurement artifacts and identify what kind of measurement error is present in BIS measurements. The method is based on supervised machine learning and uses a novel set of generalist features for measurement characterization in different immittance planes. Experimental validation has been carried out using a database of complex spectra BIS measurements obtained from different BIS applications and containing six different types of errors, as well as error-free measurements. The method obtained a low classification error (0.33%) and has shown good generalization. Since both the features and the classification schema are relatively simple, the implementation of this pre-processing task in the current hardware of bioimpedance spectrometers is possible. PMID:27362862
Measurement uncertainty evaluation of conicity error inspected on CMM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Dongxia; Song, Aiguo; Wen, Xiulan; Xu, Youxiong; Qiao, Guifang
2016-01-01
The cone is widely used in mechanical design for rotation, centering and fixing. Whether the conicity error can be measured and evaluated accurately will directly influence its assembly accuracy and working performance. According to the new generation geometrical product specification(GPS), the error and its measurement uncertainty should be evaluated together. The mathematical model of the minimum zone conicity error is established and an improved immune evolutionary algorithm(IIEA) is proposed to search for the conicity error. In the IIEA, initial antibodies are firstly generated by using quasi-random sequences and two kinds of affinities are calculated. Then, each antibody clone is generated and they are self-adaptively mutated so as to maintain diversity. Similar antibody is suppressed and new random antibody is generated. Because the mathematical model of conicity error is strongly nonlinear and the input quantities are not independent, it is difficult to use Guide to the expression of uncertainty in the measurement(GUM) method to evaluate measurement uncertainty. Adaptive Monte Carlo method(AMCM) is proposed to estimate measurement uncertainty in which the number of Monte Carlo trials is selected adaptively and the quality of the numerical results is directly controlled. The cone parts was machined on lathe CK6140 and measured on Miracle NC 454 Coordinate Measuring Machine(CMM). The experiment results confirm that the proposed method not only can search for the approximate solution of the minimum zone conicity error(MZCE) rapidly and precisely, but also can evaluate measurement uncertainty and give control variables with an expected numerical tolerance. The conicity errors computed by the proposed method are 20%-40% less than those computed by NC454 CMM software and the evaluation accuracy improves significantly.
Laser tracker error determination using a network measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hughes, Ben; Forbes, Alistair; Lewis, Andrew; Sun, Wenjuan; Veal, Dan; Nasr, Karim
2011-04-01
We report on a fast, easily implemented method to determine all the geometrical alignment errors of a laser tracker, to high precision. The technique requires no specialist equipment and can be performed in less than an hour. The technique is based on the determination of parameters of a geometric model of the laser tracker, using measurements of a set of fixed target locations, from multiple locations of the tracker. After fitting of the model parameters to the observed data, the model can be used to perform error correction of the raw laser tracker data or to derive correction parameters in the format of the tracker manufacturer's internal error map. In addition to determination of the model parameters, the method also determines the uncertainties and correlations associated with the parameters. We have tested the technique on a commercial laser tracker in the following way. We disabled the tracker's internal error compensation, and used a five-position, fifteen-target network to estimate all the geometric errors of the instrument. Using the error map generated from this network test, the tracker was able to pass a full performance validation test, conducted according to a recognized specification standard (ASME B89.4.19-2006). We conclude that the error correction determined from the network test is as effective as the manufacturer's own error correction methodologies.
Errors and correction of precipitation measurements in China
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhihua; Li, Mingqin
2007-05-01
In order to discover the range of various errors in Chinese precipitation measurements and seek a correction method, 30 precipitation evaluation stations were set up countrywide before 1993. All the stations are reference stations in China. To seek a correction method for wind-induced error, a precipitation correction instrument called the “horizontal precipitation gauge” was devised beforehand. Field intercomparison observations regarding 29,000 precipitation events have been conducted using one pit gauge, two elevated operational gauges and one horizontal gauge at the above 30 stations. The range of precipitation measurement errors in China is obtained by analysis of intercomparison measurement results. The distribution of random errors and systematic errors in precipitation measurements are studied in this paper. A correction method, especially for wind-induced errors, is developed. The results prove that a correlation of power function exists between the precipitation amount caught by the horizontal gauge and the absolute difference of observations implemented by the operational gauge and pit gauge. The correlation coefficient is 0.99. For operational observations, precipitation correction can be carried out only by parallel observation with a horizontal precipitation gauge. The precipitation accuracy after correction approaches that of the pit gauge. The correction method developed is simple and feasible.
Harris-Hayes, Marcie; Commean, Paul K.; Patterson, Jacqueline D.; Clohisy, John C.; Hillen, Travis J.
2014-01-01
The objective of this study was to develop comprehensive and reliable radiation-free methods to quantify femoral and acetabular morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-two hips [16 subjects, 6 with intra-articular hip disorder (IAHD); 10 controls] were included. A 1.5-T magnetic resonance system was used to obtain three-dimensional fat-suppressed gradient-echo images at the pelvis and distal femora. After acquisition, pelvic images were post-processed to correct for coronal, axial and sagittal rotation. Measurements performed included acetabular version (AV), femoral version (FV), lateral center-edge angle (LCEA), femoral neck angle (FNA) and alpha angle (AA) at 3, 2, 1 and 12 a.m. Two experienced raters, a musculoskeletal radiologist and an orthopedic physical therapist, and a novice rater, a research assistant, completed reliability testing. Raters measured all hips twice with minimum 2 weeks between sessions. Intra-class Correlation Coefficients (ICCs) were used to determine rater reliability; standard error of measurements was reported to estimate the reasonable limits of the expected error in the different raters’ scores. Inter-rater reliability was good to excellent for all raters for AV, FV, FNA and LCEA (ICCs: 0.82–0.98); good to excellent between experienced raters (ICCs: 0.78–0.86) and poor to good between novice and experienced raters (ICCs: 0.23–0.78) for AA. Intra-rater reliability was good to excellent for all raters for AV, FV and FNA (ICCs: 0.93–0.99); for one experienced and novice rater for LCEA (ICCs: 0.84–0.89); moderate to excellent for the experienced raters for AA (ICCs: 0.72-0.89). Intra-rater reliability was poor for the second experienced rater for LCEA (ICC: 0.56), due to a single measurement error and for the novice rater for AA (ICCs: 0.17–0.38). We described MRI methods to comprehensively assess femoral and acetabular morphology. Measurements such as AV, FV and FNA and the LCEA can be made reliably by
Poulos, Natalie S.; Pasch, Keryn E.
2015-01-01
Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently collect primary data within the food environment. For the reliability study, two teams of data collectors documented all FB advertising and establishments within one half-mile of six middle schools. Inter-rater reliability was calculated overall and by advertisement or establishment category using percent agreement. A total of 824 advertisements (n=233), establishment advertisements (n=499), and establishments (n=92) were documented (range=8–229 per school). Overall inter-rater reliability of the developed tool ranged from 69–89% for advertisements and establishments. Results suggest that the developed tool is highly reliable and effective for documenting the outdoor FB environment. PMID:26022774
Poulos, Natalie S; Pasch, Keryn E
2015-07-01
Few studies of the food environment have collected primary data, and even fewer have reported reliability of the tool used. This study focused on the development of an innovative electronic data collection tool used to document outdoor food and beverage (FB) advertising and establishments near 43 middle and high schools in the Outdoor MEDIA Study. Tool development used GIS based mapping, an electronic data collection form on handheld devices, and an easily adaptable interface to efficiently collect primary data within the food environment. For the reliability study, two teams of data collectors documented all FB advertising and establishments within one half-mile of six middle schools. Inter-rater reliability was calculated overall and by advertisement or establishment category using percent agreement. A total of 824 advertisements (n=233), establishment advertisements (n=499), and establishments (n=92) were documented (range=8-229 per school). Overall inter-rater reliability of the developed tool ranged from 69-89% for advertisements and establishments. Results suggest that the developed tool is highly reliable and effective for documenting the outdoor FB environment. PMID:26022774
Angular bias errors in three-component laser velocimeter measurements
Chen, C.Y.; Kim, P.J.; Walker, D.T.
1996-09-01
For three-component laser velocimeter systems, the change in projected area of the coincident measurement volume for different flow directions will introduce an angular bias in naturally sampled data. In this study, the effect of turbulence level and orientation of the measurement volumes on angular bias errors was examined. The operation of a typical three-component laser velocimeter was simulated using a Monte Carlo technique. Results for the specific configuration examined show that for turbulence levels less than 10% no significant bias errors in the mean velocities will occur and errors in the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) velocities will be less than 3% for all orientations. For turbulence levels less than 30%, component mean velocity bias errors less than 5% of the mean velocity vector magnitude can be attained with proper orientation of the measurement volume; however, the r.m.s. velocities may be in error as much as 10%. For turbulence levels above 50%, there is no orientation which will yield accurate estimates of all three mean velocities; component mean velocity errors as large as 15% of the mean velocity vector magnitude may be encountered.
Multiscale measurement error models for aggregated small area health data.
Aregay, Mehreteab; Lawson, Andrew B; Faes, Christel; Kirby, Russell S; Carroll, Rachel; Watjou, Kevin
2016-08-01
Spatial data are often aggregated from a finer (smaller) to a coarser (larger) geographical level. The process of data aggregation induces a scaling effect which smoothes the variation in the data. To address the scaling problem, multiscale models that link the convolution models at different scale levels via the shared random effect have been proposed. One of the main goals in aggregated health data is to investigate the relationship between predictors and an outcome at different geographical levels. In this paper, we extend multiscale models to examine whether a predictor effect at a finer level hold true at a coarser level. To adjust for predictor uncertainty due to aggregation, we applied measurement error models in the framework of multiscale approach. To assess the benefit of using multiscale measurement error models, we compare the performance of multiscale models with and without measurement error in both real and simulated data. We found that ignoring the measurement error in multiscale models underestimates the regression coefficient, while it overestimates the variance of the spatially structured random effect. On the other hand, accounting for the measurement error in multiscale models provides a better model fit and unbiased parameter estimates. PMID:27566773
A new indirect measure of diffusion model error
Kumar, A.; Morel, J. E.; Adams, M. L.
2013-07-01
We define a new indirect measure of the diffusion model error called the diffusion model error source. When this model error source is added to the diffusion equation, the transport solution for the angular-integrated intensity is obtained. This source represents a means by which a transport code can be used to generate information relating to the adequacy of diffusion theory for any given problem without actually solving the diffusion equation. The generation of this source does not relate in any way to acceleration of the iterative convergence of transport solutions. Perhaps the most well-known indirect measure of the diffusion model error is the variable-Eddington tensor. This tensor provides a great deal of information about the angular dependence of the angular intensity solution, but it is not always simple to interpret. In contrast, our diffusion model error source is a scalar that is conceptually easy to understand. In addition to defining the diffusion model error source analytically, we show how to generate this source numerically relative to the S{sub n} radiative transfer equations with linear-discontinuous spatial discretization. This numerical source is computationally tested and shown to reproduce the Sn solution for a Marshak-wave problem. (authors)
Error Evaluation of Methyl Bromide Aerodynamic Flux Measurements
Majewski, M.S.
1997-01-01
Methyl bromide volatilization fluxes were calculated for a tarped and a nontarped field using 2 and 4 hour sampling periods. These field measurements were averaged in 8, 12, and 24 hour increments to simulate longer sampling periods. The daily flux profiles were progressively smoothed and the cumulative volatility losses increased by 20 to 30% with each longer sampling period. Error associated with the original flux measurements was determined from linear regressions of measured wind speed and air concentration as a function of height, and averaged approximately 50%. The high errors resulted from long application times, which resulted in a nonuniform source strength; and variable tarp permeability, which is influenced by temperature, moisture, and thickness. The increase in cumulative volatilization losses that resulted from longer sampling periods were within the experimental error of the flux determination method.
Objective and Subjective Refractive Error Measurements in Monkeys
Hung, Li-Fang; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Wensveen, Janice M.; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Smith, Earl L.
2011-01-01
Purpose To better understand the functional significance of refractive-error measures obtained using common objective methods in laboratory animals, we compared objective and subjective measures of refractive error in adolescent rhesus monkeys. Methods The subjects were 20 adolescent monkeys. Spherical-equivalent spectacle-plane refractive corrections were measured by retinoscopy and autorefraction while the animals were cyclopleged and anesthetized. The eye’s axial dimensions were measured by A-Scan ultrasonography. Subjective measures of the eye’s refractive state, with and without cycloplegia, were obtained using psychophysical methods. Specifically, we measured spatial contrast sensitivity as a function of spectacle lens power for relatively high spatial frequency gratings. The lens power that produced the highest contrast sensitivity was taken as the subjective refraction. Results Retinoscopy and autorefraction consistently yielded higher amounts of hyperopia relative to subjective measurements obtained with or without cycloplegia. The subjective refractions were not affected by cycloplegia and on average were 1.42 ± 0.61 D and 1.24 ± 0.62 D less hyperopic than the retinoscopy and autorefraction measurements, respectively. Repeating the retinoscopy and subjective measurements through 3 mm artificial pupils produced similar differences. Conclusions The results show that commonly used objective methods for assessing refractive errors in monkeys significantly overestimate the degree of hyperopia. It is likely that multiple factors contributed to the hyperopic bias associated with these objective measurements. However, the magnitude of the hyperopic bias was in general agreement with the “small-eye artifact” of retinoscopy. PMID:22198796
Non-Gaussian error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crandall, Sara; Houston, Stephen; Ratra, Bharat
2015-07-01
We construct the error distribution of 7Li abundance measurements for 66 observations (with error bars) used by Spite et al. (2012) that give A(Li) = 2.21 ± 0.065 (median and 1σ symmetrized error). This error distribution is somewhat non-Gaussian, with larger probability in the tails than is predicted by a Gaussian distribution. The 95.4% confidence limits are 3.0σ in terms of the quoted errors. We fit the data to four commonly used distributions: Gaussian, Cauchy, Student’s t and double exponential with the center of the distribution found with both weighted mean and median statistics. It is reasonably well described by a widened n = 8 Student’s t distribution. Assuming Gaussianity, the observed A(Li) is 6.5σ away from that expected from standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) given the Planck observations. Accounting for the non-Gaussianity of the observed A(Li) error distribution reduces the discrepancy to 4.9σ, which is still significant.
Cumulative Measurement Errors for Dynamic Testing of Space Flight Hardware
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winnitoy, Susan
2012-01-01
measurements during hardware motion and contact. While performing dynamic testing of an active docking system, researchers found that the data from the motion platform, test hardware and two external measurement systems exhibited frame offsets and rotational errors. While the errors were relatively small when considering the motion scale overall, they substantially exceeded the individual accuracies for each component. After evaluating both the static and dynamic measurements, researchers found that the static measurements introduced significantly more error into the system than the dynamic measurements even though, in theory, the static measurement errors should be smaller than the dynamic. In several cases, the magnitude of the errors varied widely for the static measurements. Upon further investigation, researchers found the larger errors to be a consequence of hardware alignment issues, frame location and measurement technique whereas the smaller errors were dependent on the number of measurement points. This paper details and quantifies the individual and cumulative errors of the docking system and describes methods for reducing the overall measurement error. The overall quality of the dynamic docking tests for flight hardware verification was improved by implementing these error reductions.
A Surgery Oral Examination: Interrater Agreement and the Influence of Rater Characteristics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Burchard, Kenneth W.; And Others
1995-01-01
A study measured interrater reliability among 140 United States and Canadian surgery exam raters and the influences of age, years in practice, and experience as an examiner on individual scores. Results indicate three aspects of examinee performance influenced scores: verbal style, dress, and content of answers. No rater characteristic…
A Bayesian Approach to Ranking and Rater Evaluation: An Application to Grant Reviews
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cao, Jing; Stokes, S. Lynne; Zhang, Song
2010-01-01
We develop a Bayesian hierarchical model for the analysis of ordinal data from multirater ranking studies. The model for a rater's score includes four latent factors: one is a latent item trait determining the true order of items and the other three are the rater's performance characteristics, including bias, discrimination, and measurement error…
Wave-front measurement errors from restricted concentric subdomains.
Goldberg, K A; Geary, K
2001-09-01
In interferometry and optical testing, system wave-front measurements that are analyzed on a restricted subdomain of the full pupil can include predictable systematic errors. In nearly all cases, the measured rms wave-front error and the magnitudes of the individual aberration polynomial coefficients underestimate the wave-front error magnitudes present in the full-pupil domain. We present an analytic method to determine the relationships between the coefficients of aberration polynomials defined on the full-pupil domain and those defined on a restricted concentric subdomain. In this way, systematic wave-front measurement errors introduced by subregion selection are investigated. Using vector and matrix representations for the wave-front aberration coefficients, we generalize the method to the study of arbitrary input wave fronts and subdomain sizes. While wave-front measurements on a restricted subdomain are insufficient for predicting the wave front of the full-pupil domain, studying the relationship between known full-pupil wave fronts and subdomain wave fronts allows us to set subdomain size limits for arbitrary measurement fidelity. PMID:11551047
Optimal measurement strategies for effective suppression of drift errors.
Yashchuk, Valeriy V
2009-11-01
Drifting of experimental setups with change in temperature or other environmental conditions is the limiting factor of many, if not all, precision measurements. The measurement error due to a drift is, in some sense, in-between random noise and systematic error. In the general case, the error contribution of a drift cannot be averaged out using a number of measurements identically carried out over a reasonable time. In contrast to systematic errors, drifts are usually not stable enough for a precise calibration. Here a rather general method for effective suppression of the spurious effects caused by slow drifts in a large variety of instruments and experimental setups is described. An analytical derivation of an identity, describing the optimal measurement strategies suitable for suppressing the contribution of a slow drift described with a certain order polynomial function, is presented. A recursion rule as well as a general mathematical proof of the identity is given. The effectiveness of the discussed method is illustrated with an application of the derived optimal scanning strategies to precise surface slope measurements with a surface profiler. PMID:19947751
Optimal measurement strategies for effective suppression of drift errors
Yashchuk, Valeriy V.
2009-04-16
Drifting of experimental set-ups with change of temperature or other environmental conditions is the limiting factor of many, if not all, precision measurements. The measurement error due to a drift is, in some sense, in-between random noise and systematic error. In the general case, the error contribution of a drift cannot be averaged out using a number of measurements identically carried out over a reasonable time. In contrast to systematic errors, drifts are usually not stable enough for a precise calibration. Here a rather general method for effective suppression of the spurious effects caused by slow drifts in a large variety of instruments and experimental set-ups is described. An analytical derivation of an identity, describing the optimal measurement strategies suitable for suppressing the contribution of a slow drift described with a certain order polynomial function, is presented. A recursion rule as well as a general mathematical proof of the identity is given. The effectiveness of the discussed method is illustrated with an application of the derived optimal scanning strategies to precise surface slope measurements with a surface profiler.
Fairus, Fariza Zainudin; Joseph, Leonard Henry; Omar, Baharudin; Ahmad, Johan; Sulaiman, Riza
2016-01-01
Background The understanding of vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during walking and half-squatting is necessary and commonly utilised during the rehabilitation period. The purpose of this study was to establish measurement reproducibility of VGRF that reports the minimal detectable changes (MDC) during walking and half-squatting activity among healthy male adults. Methods 14 male adults of average age, 24.88 (5.24) years old, were enlisted in this study. The VGRF was assessed using the force plates which were embedded into a customised walking platform. Participants were required to carry out three trials of gait and half-squat. Each participant completed the two measurements within a day, approximately four hours apart. Results Measurements of VGRF between sessions presented an excellent VGRF data for walking (ICC Left = 0.88, ICC Right = 0.89). High reliability of VGRF was also noted during the half-squat activity (ICC Left = 0.95, ICC Right = 0.90). The standard errors of measurement (SEM) of VGRF during the walking and half-squat activity are less than 8.35 Nm/kg and 4.67 Nm/kg for the gait and half-squat task respectively. Conclusion The equipment set-up and measurement procedure used to quantify VGRF during walking and half-squatting among healthy males displayed excellent reliability. Researcher should consider using this method to measure the VGRF during functional performance assessment. PMID:27547111
Estimation of discretization errors in contact pressure measurements.
Fregly, Benjamin J; Sawyer, W Gregory
2003-04-01
Contact pressure measurements in total knee replacements are often made using a discrete sensor such as the Tekscan K-Scan sensor. However, no method currently exists for predicting the magnitude of sensor discretization errors in contact force, peak pressure, average pressure, and contact area, making it difficult to evaluate the accuracy of such measurements. This study identifies a non-dimensional area variable, defined as the ratio of the number of perimeter elements to the total number of elements with pressure, which can be used to predict these errors. The variable was evaluated by simulating discrete pressure sensors subjected to Hertzian and uniform pressure distributions with two different calibration procedures. The simulations systematically varied the size of the sensor elements, the contact ellipse aspect ratio, and the ellipse's location on the sensor grid. In addition, contact pressure measurements made with a K-Scan sensor on four different total knee designs were used to evaluate the magnitude of discretization errors under practical conditions. The simulations predicted a strong power law relationship (r(2)>0.89) between worst-case discretization errors and the proposed non-dimensional area variable. In the total knee experiments, predicted discretization errors were on the order of 1-4% for contact force and peak pressure and 3-9% for average pressure and contact area. These errors are comparable to those arising from inserting a sensor into the joint space or truncating pressures with pressure sensitive film. The reported power law regression coefficients provide a simple way to estimate the accuracy of experimental measurements made with discrete pressure sensors when the contact patch is approximately elliptical. PMID:12600352
The effect of measurement error on surveillance metrics
Weaver, Brian Phillip; Hamada, Michael S.
2012-04-24
The purpose of this manuscript is to describe different simulation studies that CCS-6 has performed for the purpose of understanding the effects of measurement error on the surveillance metrics. We assume that the measured items come from a larger population of items. We denote the random variable associate with an item's value of an attribute of interest as X and that X {approx} N({mu}, {sigma}{sup 2}). This distribution represents the variability in the population of interest and we wish to make inference on the parameters {mu} and {sigma} or on some function of these parameters. When an item X is selected from the larger population, a measurement is made on some attribute of it. This measurement is made with error and the true value of X is not observed. The rest of this section presents simulation results for different measurement cases encountered.
Three Approximations of Standard Error of Measurement: An Empirical Approach.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garvin, Alfred D.
Three successively simpler formulas for approximating the standard error of measurement were derived by applying successively more simplifying assumptions to the standard formula based on the standard deviation and the Kuder-Richardson formula 20 estimate of reliability. The accuracy of each of these three formulas, with respect to the standard…
GY SAMPLING THEORY IN ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES 2: SUBSAMPLING ERROR MEASUREMENTS
Sampling can be a significant source of error in the measurement process. The characterization and cleanup of hazardous waste sites require data that meet site-specific levels of acceptable quality if scientifically supportable decisions are to be made. In support of this effort,...
Nonparametric Item Response Curve Estimation with Correction for Measurement Error
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Hongwen; Sinharay, Sandip
2011-01-01
Nonparametric or kernel regression estimation of item response curves (IRCs) is often used in item analysis in testing programs. These estimates are biased when the observed scores are used as the regressor because the observed scores are contaminated by measurement error. Accuracy of this estimation is a concern theoretically and operationally.…
Bayesian conformity assessment in presence of systematic measurement errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carobbi, Carlo; Pennecchi, Francesca
2016-04-01
Conformity assessment of the distribution of the values of a quantity is investigated by using a Bayesian approach. The effect of systematic, non-negligible measurement errors is taken into account. The analysis is general, in the sense that the probability distribution of the quantity can be of any kind, that is even different from the ubiquitous normal distribution, and the measurement model function, linking the measurand with the observable and non-observable influence quantities, can be non-linear. Further, any joint probability density function can be used to model the available knowledge about the systematic errors. It is demonstrated that the result of the Bayesian analysis here developed reduces to the standard result (obtained through a frequentistic approach) when the systematic measurement errors are negligible. A consolidated frequentistic extension of such standard result, aimed at including the effect of a systematic measurement error, is directly compared with the Bayesian result, whose superiority is demonstrated. Application of the results here obtained to the derivation of the operating characteristic curves used for sampling plans for inspection by variables is also introduced.
Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Albers, Ulrike; Mata, Esmeralda; Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose A.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Gusi, Narcis; Villa, Gerardo; Aznar, Susana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Casajús, Jose A.; Ara, Ignacio
2012-01-01
Background The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. Purpose To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. Materials and Methods A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain) participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. Results For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs) were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. Conclusion The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population. PMID:22860013
Comparing measurement errors for formants in synthetic and natural vowels.
Shadle, Christine H; Nam, Hosung; Whalen, D H
2016-02-01
The measurement of formant frequencies of vowels is among the most common measurements in speech studies, but measurements are known to be biased by the particular fundamental frequency (F0) exciting the formants. Approaches to reducing the errors were assessed in two experiments. In the first, synthetic vowels were constructed with five different first formant (F1) values and nine different F0 values; formant bandwidths, and higher formant frequencies, were constant. Input formant values were compared to manual measurements and automatic measures using the linear prediction coding-Burg algorithm, linear prediction closed-phase covariance, the weighted linear prediction-attenuated main excitation (WLP-AME) algorithm [Alku, Pohjalainen, Vainio, Laukkanen, and Story (2013). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 134(2), 1295-1313], spectra smoothed cepstrally and by averaging repeated discrete Fourier transforms. Formants were also measured manually from pruned reassigned spectrograms (RSs) [Fulop (2011). Speech Spectrum Analysis (Springer, Berlin)]. All but WLP-AME and RS had large errors in the direction of the strongest harmonic; the smallest errors occur with WLP-AME and RS. In the second experiment, these methods were used on vowels in isolated words spoken by four speakers. Results for the natural speech show that F0 bias affects all automatic methods, including WLP-AME; only the formants measured manually from RS appeared to be accurate. In addition, RS coped better with weaker formants and glottal fry. PMID:26936555
Inter-tester Agreement in Refractive Error Measurements
Huang, Jiayan; Maguire, Maureen G.; Ciner, Elise; Kulp, Marjean T.; Quinn, Graham E.; Orel-Bixler, Deborah; Cyert, Lynn A.; Moore, Bruce; Ying, Gui-Shuang
2014-01-01
Purpose To determine the inter-tester agreement of refractive error measurements between lay and nurse screeners using the Retinomax Autorefractor (Retinomax) and the SureSight Vision Screener (SureSight). Methods Trained lay and nurse screeners measured refractive error in 1452 preschoolers (3- to 5-years old) using the Retinomax and the SureSight in a random order for screeners and instruments. Inter-tester agreement between lay and nurse screeners was assessed for sphere, cylinder and spherical equivalent (SE) using the mean difference and the 95% limits of agreement. The mean inter-tester difference (lay minus nurse) was compared between groups defined based on child’s age, cycloplegic refractive error, and the reading’s confidence number using analysis of variance. The limits of agreement were compared between groups using the Brown-Forsythe test. Inter-eye correlation was accounted for in all analyses. Results The mean inter-tester differences (95% limits of agreement) were −0.04 (−1.63, 1.54) Diopter (D) sphere, 0.00 (−0.52, 0.51) D cylinder, and −0.04 (1.65, 1.56) D SE for the Retinomax; and 0.05 (−1.48, 1.58) D sphere, 0.01 (−0.58, 0.60) D cylinder, and 0.06 (−1.45, 1.57) D SE for the SureSight. For either instrument, the mean inter-tester differences in sphere and SE did not differ by the child’s age, cycloplegic refractive error, or the reading’s confidence number. However, for both instruments, the limits of agreement were wider when eyes had significant refractive error or the reading’s confidence number was below the manufacturer’s recommended value. Conclusions Among Head Start preschool children, trained lay and nurse screeners agree well in measuring refractive error using the Retinomax or the SureSight. Both instruments had similar inter-tester agreement in refractive error measurements independent of the child’s age. Significant refractive error and a reading with low confidence number were associated with worse inter
Error Correction for Foot Clearance in Real-Time Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wahab, Y.; Bakar, N. A.; Mazalan, M.
2014-04-01
Mobility performance level, fall related injuries, unrevealed disease and aging stage can be detected through examination of gait pattern. The gait pattern is normally directly related to the lower limb performance condition in addition to other significant factors. For that reason, the foot is the most important part for gait analysis in-situ measurement system and thus directly affects the gait pattern. This paper reviews the development of ultrasonic system with error correction using inertial measurement unit for gait analysis in real life measurement of foot clearance. This paper begins with the related literature where the necessity of measurement is introduced. Follow by the methodology section, problem and solution. Next, this paper explains the experimental setup for the error correction using the proposed instrumentation, results and discussion. Finally, this paper shares the planned future works.
Errors in ellipsometry measurements made with a photoelastic modulator
Modine, F.A.; Jellison, G.E. Jr; Gruzalski, G.R.
1983-07-01
The equations governing ellipsometry measurements made with a photoelastic modulator are presented in a simple but general form. These equations are used to study the propagation of both systematic and random errors, and an assessment of the accuracy of the ellipsometer is made. A basis is provided for choosing among various ellipsommeter configurations, measurement procedures, and methods of data analysis. Several new insights into the performance of this type of ellipsometer are supplied.
Effects of measurement errors on microwave antenna holography
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rochblatt, David J.; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya
1991-01-01
The effects of measurement errors appearing during the implementation of the microwave holographic technique are investigated in detail, and many representative results are presented based on computer simulations. The numerical results are tailored for cases applicable to the utilization of the holographic technique for the NASA's Deep Space Network antennas, although the methodology of analysis is applicable to any antenna. Many system measurement topics are presented and summarized.
Estimation of coherent error sources from stabilizer measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orsucci, Davide; Tiersch, Markus; Briegel, Hans J.
2016-04-01
In the context of measurement-based quantum computation a way of maintaining the coherence of a graph state is to measure its stabilizer operators. Aside from performing quantum error correction, it is possible to exploit the information gained from these measurements to characterize and then counteract a coherent source of errors; that is, to determine all the parameters of an error channel that applies a fixed—but unknown—unitary operation to the physical qubits. Such a channel is generated, e.g., by local stray fields that act on the qubits. We study the case in which each qubit of a given graph state may see a different error channel and we focus on channels given by a rotation on the Bloch sphere around either the x ̂, the y ̂, or the z ̂ axis, for which analytical results can be given in a compact form. The possibility of reconstructing the channels at all qubits depends nontrivially on the topology of the graph state. We prove via perturbation methods that the reconstruction process is robust and supplement the analytic results with numerical evidence.
Rating Written Performance: What Do Raters Do and Why?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kuiken, Folkert; Vedder, Ineke
2014-01-01
This study investigates the relationship in L2 writing between raters' judgments of communicative adequacy and linguistic complexity by means of six-point Likert scales, and general measures of linguistic performance. The participants were 39 learners of Italian and 32 of Dutch, who wrote two short argumentative essays. The same writing tasks…
Weight-Based Classification of Raters and Rater Cognition in an EFL Speaking Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Hongwen
2015-01-01
This study is an attempt to classify raters according to their weighting patterns and explore systematic differences between rater types in the rating process. In the context of an EFL speaking test, 126 raters were classified into three types--form-oriented, balanced, and content-oriented--through cluster analyses of their weighting patterns…
Variance Estimation of Nominal-Scale Inter-Rater Reliability with Random Selection of Raters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gwet, Kilem Li
2008-01-01
Most inter-rater reliability studies using nominal scales suggest the existence of two populations of inference: the population of subjects (collection of objects or persons to be rated) and that of raters. Consequently, the sampling variance of the inter-rater reliability coefficient can be seen as a result of the combined effect of the sampling…
Effects of Marking Method and Rater Experience on ESL Essay Scores and Rater Performance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barkaoui, Khaled
2011-01-01
This study examined the effects of marking method and rater experience on ESL (English as a Second Language) essay test scores and rater performance. Each of 31 novice and 29 experienced raters rated a sample of ESL essays both holistically and analytically. Essay scores were analysed using a multi-faceted Rasch model to compare test-takers'…
A Hierarchical Rater Model for Constructed Responses, with a Signal Detection Rater Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeCarlo, Lawrence T.; Kim, YoungKoung; Johnson, Matthew S.
2011-01-01
The hierarchical rater model (HRM) recognizes the hierarchical structure of data that arises when raters score constructed response items. In this approach, raters' scores are not viewed as being direct indicators of examinee proficiency but rather as indicators of essay quality; the (latent categorical) quality of an examinee's essay in turn…
Surface measurement errors using commercial scanning white light interferometers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, F.; Leach, R. K.; Petzing, J.; Coupland, J. M.
2008-01-01
This paper examines the performance of commercial scanning white light interferometers in a range of measurement tasks. A step height artefact is used to investigate the response of the instruments at a discontinuity, while gratings with sinusoidal and rectangular profiles are used to investigate the effects of surface gradient and spatial frequency. Results are compared with measurements made with tapping mode atomic force microscopy and discrepancies are discussed with reference to error mechanisms put forward in the published literature. As expected, it is found that most instruments report errors when used in regions close to a discontinuity or those with a surface gradient that is large compared to the acceptance angle of the objective lens. Amongst other findings, however, we report systematic errors that are observed when the surface gradient is considerably smaller. Although these errors are typically less than the mean wavelength, they are significant compared to the vertical resolution of the instrument and indicate that current scanning white light interferometers should be used with some caution if sub-wavelength accuracy is required.
Error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements
Thomas Edwin Beechem; Yates, Luke; Graham, Samuel
2015-04-22
We investigated error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements via finite element based numerical simulation of two geometries often employed -- Joule-heating of a wire and laser-heating of a suspended wafer. Using this methodology, the accuracy and precision of the Raman-derived thermal conductivity are shown to depend on (1) assumptions within the analytical model used in the deduction of thermal conductivity, (2) uncertainty in the quantification of heat flux and temperature, and (3) the evolution of thermomechanical stress during testing. Apart from the influence of stress, errors of 5% coupled with uncertainties of ±15% are achievable for most materials under conditions typical of Raman thermometry experiments. Error can increase to >20%, however, for materials having highly temperature dependent thermal conductivities or, in some materials, when thermomechanical stress develops concurrent with the heating. A dimensionless parameter -- termed the Raman stress factor -- is derived to identify when stress effects will induce large levels of error. Together, the results compare the utility of Raman based conductivity measurements relative to more established techniques while at the same time identifying situations where its use is most efficacious.
Error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements
Thomas Edwin Beechem; Yates, Luke; Graham, Samuel
2015-04-22
We investigated error and uncertainty in Raman thermal conductivity measurements via finite element based numerical simulation of two geometries often employed -- Joule-heating of a wire and laser-heating of a suspended wafer. Using this methodology, the accuracy and precision of the Raman-derived thermal conductivity are shown to depend on (1) assumptions within the analytical model used in the deduction of thermal conductivity, (2) uncertainty in the quantification of heat flux and temperature, and (3) the evolution of thermomechanical stress during testing. Apart from the influence of stress, errors of 5% coupled with uncertainties of ±15% are achievable for most materialsmore » under conditions typical of Raman thermometry experiments. Error can increase to >20%, however, for materials having highly temperature dependent thermal conductivities or, in some materials, when thermomechanical stress develops concurrent with the heating. A dimensionless parameter -- termed the Raman stress factor -- is derived to identify when stress effects will induce large levels of error. Together, the results compare the utility of Raman based conductivity measurements relative to more established techniques while at the same time identifying situations where its use is most efficacious.« less
Reducing Errors by Use of Redundancy in Gravity Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulikov, Igor; Zak, Michail
2004-01-01
A methodology for improving gravity-gradient measurement data exploits the constraints imposed upon the components of the gravity-gradient tensor by the conditions of integrability needed for reconstruction of the gravitational potential. These constraints are derived from the basic equation for the gravitational potential and from mathematical identities that apply to the gravitational potential and its partial derivatives with respect to spatial coordinates. Consider the gravitational potential in a Cartesian coordinate system {x1,x2,x3}. If one measures all the components of the gravity-gradient tensor at all points of interest within a region of space in which one seeks to characterize the gravitational field, one obtains redundant information. One could utilize the constraints to select a minimum (that is, nonredundant) set of measurements from which the gravitational potential could be reconstructed. Alternatively, one could exploit the redundancy to reduce errors from noisy measurements. A convenient example is that of the selection of a minimum set of measurements to characterize the gravitational field at n3 points (where n is an integer) in a cube. Without the benefit of such a selection, it would be necessary to make 9n3 measurements because the gravitygradient tensor has 9 components at each point. The problem of utilizing the redundancy to reduce errors in noisy measurements is an optimization problem: Given a set of noisy values of the components of the gravity-gradient tensor at the measurement points, one seeks a set of corrected values - a set that is optimum in that it minimizes some measure of error (e.g., the sum of squares of the differences between the corrected and noisy measurement values) while taking account of the fact that the constraints must apply to the exact values. The problem as thus posed leads to a vector equation that can be solved to obtain the corrected values.
Sedrez, Juliana A.; Candotti, Cláudia T.; Rosa, Maria I. Z.; Medeiros, Fernanda S.; Marques, Mariana T.; Loss, Jefferson F.
2016-01-01
Introduction: The early evaluation of the spine in children is desirable because it is at this stage of development that the greatest changes in the body structures occur. Objective: To determine the test-retest, intra- and inter-rater reliability of the Flexicurve instrument for the evaluation of spinal curvatures in children. Method: Forty children ranging from 5 to 15 years of age were evaluated by two independent evaluators using the Flexicurve to model the spine. The agreement was evaluated using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM), and Minimal Detectable Change (MDC). Results: In relation to thoracic kyphosis, the Flexicurve was shown to have excellent correlation in terms of test-retest reliability (ICC2,2=0.87) and moderate correlation in terms of intra-(ICC2,2=0.68) and inter-rater reliability (ICC2,2=0.72). In relation to lumbar lordosis, it was shown to have moderate correlation in terms of test-retest reliability (ICC2,2=0.66) and intra- (ICC2,2=0.50) and inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.56). Conclusion: This evaluation of the reliability of the Flexicurve allows its use in school screening. However, to monitor spinal curvatures in the sagittal plane in children, complementary clinical measures are necessary. Further studies are required to investigate the concurrent validity of the instrument in order to identify its diagnostic capacity. PMID:26786078
Paulsen, Robert; Gallu, Tommaso; Gilkey, David; Reiser, Raoul; Murgia, Lelia; Rosecrance, John
2015-11-01
The purpose of this study was to characterize the inter-rater reliability of two physical exposure assessment methods of the upper extremity, the Strain Index (SI) and Occupational Repetitive Actions (OCRA) Checklist. These methods are commonly used in occupational health studies and by occupational health practitioners. Seven raters used the SI and OCRA Checklist to assess task-level physical exposures to the upper extremity of workers performing 21 cheese manufacturing tasks. Inter-rater reliability was characterized using a single-measure, agreement-based intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Inter-rater reliability of SI assessments was moderate to good (ICC = 0.59, 95% CI: 0.45-0.73), a similar finding to prior studies. Inter-rater reliability of OCRA Checklist assessments was excellent (ICC = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.70-0.89). Task complexity had a small, but non-significant, effect on inter-rater reliability SI and OCRA Checklist scores. Both the SI and OCRA Checklist assessments possess adequate inter-rater reliability for the purposes of occupational health research and practice. The OCRA Checklist inter-rater reliability scores were among the highest reported in the literature for semi-quantitative physical exposure assessment tools of the upper extremity. The OCRA Checklist however, required more training time and time to conduct the risk assessments compared to the SI. PMID:26154218
Systematic errors in precipitation measurements with different rain gauge sensors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sungmin, O.; Foelsche, Ulrich
2015-04-01
Ground-level rain gauges provide the most direct measurement of precipitation and therefore such precipitation measurement datasets are often utilized for the evaluation of precipitation estimates via remote sensing and in climate model simulations. However, measured precipitation by means of national standard gauge networks is constrained by their spatial density. For this reason, in order to accurately measure precipitation it is of essential importance to understand the performance and reliability of rain gauges. This study is aimed to assess the systematic errors between measurements taken with different rain gauge sensors. We will mainly address extreme precipitation events as these are connected with high uncertainties in the measurements. Precipitation datasets for the study are available from WegenerNet, a dense network of 151 meteorological stations within an area of about 20 km × 15 km centred near the city of Feldbach in the southeast of Austria. The WegenerNet has a horizontal resolution of about 1.4-km and employs 'tripping bucket' rain gauges for precipitation measurements with three different types of sensors; a reference station provides measurements from all types of sensors. The results will illustrate systematic errors via the comparison of the precipitation datasets gained with different types of sensors. The analyses will be carried out by direct comparison between the datasets from the reference station. In addition, the dependence of the systematic errors on meteorological conditions, e.g. precipitation intensity and wind speed, will be investigated to assess the feasibility of applying the WegenerNet datasets for the study of extreme precipitation events. The study can be regarded as a pre-processing research to further studies in hydro-meteorological applications, which require high-resolution precipitation datasets, such as satellite/radar-derived precipitation validation and hydrodynamic modelling.
Minimax Mean-Squared Error Location Estimation Using TOA Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Chih-Chang; Chang, Ann-Chen
This letter deals with mobile location estimation based on a minimax mean-squared error (MSE) algorithm using time-of-arrival (TOA) measurements for mitigating the nonline-of-sight (NLOS) effects in cellular systems. Simulation results are provided for illustrating the minimax MSE estimator yields good performance than the other least squares and weighted least squares estimators under relatively low signal-to-noise ratio and moderately NLOS conditions.
Detecting correlated errors in state-preparation-and-measurement tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jackson, Christopher; van Enk, S. J.
2015-10-01
Whereas in standard quantum-state tomography one estimates an unknown state by performing various measurements with known devices, and whereas in detector tomography one estimates the positive-operator-valued-measurement elements of a measurement device by subjecting to it various known states, we consider here the case of SPAM (state preparation and measurement) tomography where neither the states nor the measurement device are assumed known. For d -dimensional systems measured by d -outcome detectors, we find there are at most d2(d2-1 ) "gauge" parameters that can never be determined by any such experiment, irrespective of the number of unknown states and unknown devices. For the case d =2 we find gauge-invariant quantities that can be accessed directly experimentally and that can be used to detect and describe SPAM errors. In particular, we identify conditions whose violations detect the presence of correlations between SPAM errors. From the perspective of SPAM tomography, standard quantum-state tomography and detector tomography are protocols that fix the gauge parameters through the assumption that some set of fiducial measurements is known or that some set of fiducial states is known, respectively.
PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS OF THE MEASURED ALIGNMENT ERRORS FOR RHIC.
PILAT,F.; HEMMER,M.; PTITSIN,V.; TEPIKIAN,S.; TRBOJEVIC,D.
1999-03-29
All elements of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have been installed in ideal survey locations, which are defined as the optimum locations of the fiducials with respect to the positions generated by the design. The alignment process included the presurvey of all elements which could affect the beams. During this procedure a special attention was paid to the precise determination of the quadrupole centers as well as the roll angles of the quadrupoles and dipoles. After installation the machine has been surveyed and the resulting as-built measured position of the fiducials have been stored and structured in the survey database. We describe how the alignment errors, inferred by comparison of ideal and as-built data, have been processed and analyzed by including them in the RHIC modeling software. The RHIC model, which also includes individual measured errors for all magnets in the machine and is automatically generated from databases, allows the study of the impact of the measured alignment errors on the machine.
Effects of Assigning Raters to Items
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sykes, Robert C.; Ito, Kyoko; Wang, Zhen
2008-01-01
Student responses to a large number of constructed response items in three Math and three Reading tests were scored on two occasions using three ways of assigning raters: single reader scoring, a different reader for each response (item-specific), and three readers each scoring a rater item block (RIB) containing approximately one-third of a…
Agreement between Two Independent Groups of Raters
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vanbelle, Sophie; Albert, Adelin
2009-01-01
We propose a coefficient of agreement to assess the degree of concordance between two independent groups of raters classifying items on a nominal scale. This coefficient, defined on a population-based model, extends the classical Cohen's kappa coefficient for quantifying agreement between two raters. Weighted and intraclass versions of the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero
2011-01-01
This paper proposes a structural analysis for generalized linear models when some explanatory variables are measured with error and the measurement error variance is a function of the true variables. The focus is on latent variables investigated on the basis of questionnaires and estimated using item response theory models. Latent variable…
Correlates of Halo Error in Teacher Evaluation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moritsch, Brian G.; Suter, W. Newton
1988-01-01
An analysis of 300 undergraduate psychology student ratings of teachers was undertaken to assess the magnitude of halo error and a variety of rater, ratee, and course characteristics. The raters' halo errors were significantly related to student effort in the course, previous experience with the instructor, and class level. (TJH)
Uncertainty in measurement and total error - are they so incompatible?
Farrance, Ian; Badrick, Tony; Sikaris, Kenneth A
2016-08-01
There appears to be a growing debate with regard to the use of "Westgard style" total error and "GUM style" uncertainty in measurement. Some may argue that the two approaches are irreconcilable. The recent appearance of an article "Quality goals at the crossroads: growing, going, or gone" on the well-regarded Westgard Internet site requires some comment. In particular, a number of assertions which relate to ISO 15189 and uncertainty in measurement appear misleading. An alternate view of the key issues raised by Westergard may serve to guide and enlighten others who may accept such statements at face value. PMID:27227711
Considering Measurement Model Parameter Errors in Static and Dynamic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Woodbury, Drew P.; Majji, Manoranjan; Junkins, John L.
2011-07-01
In static systems, state values are estimated using traditional least squares techniques based on a redundant set of measurements. Inaccuracies in measurement model parameter estimates can lead to significant errors in the state estimates. This paper describes a technique that considers these parameters in a modified least squares framework. It is also shown that this framework leads to the minimum variance solution. Both batch and sequential (recursive) least squares methods are described. One static system and one dynamic system are used as examples to show the benefits of the consider least squares methodology.
Error reduction techniques for measuring long synchrotron mirrors
Irick, S.
1998-07-01
Many instruments and techniques are used for measuring long mirror surfaces. A Fizeau interferometer may be used to measure mirrors much longer than the interferometer aperture size by using grazing incidence at the mirror surface and analyzing the light reflected from a flat end mirror. Advantages of this technique are data acquisition speed and use of a common instrument. Disadvantages are reduced sampling interval, uncertainty of tangential position, and sagittal/tangential aspect ratio other than unity. Also, deep aspheric surfaces cannot be measured on a Fizeau interferometer without a specially made fringe nulling holographic plate. Other scanning instruments have been developed for measuring height, slope, or curvature profiles of the surface, but lack accuracy for very long scans required for X-ray synchrotron mirrors. The Long Trace Profiler (LTP) was developed specifically for long x-ray mirror measurement, and still outperforms other instruments, especially for aspheres. Thus, this paper focuses on error reduction techniques for the LTP.
Factors Affecting Blood Glucose Monitoring: Sources of Errors in Measurement
Ginsberg, Barry H.
2009-01-01
Glucose monitoring has become an integral part of diabetes care but has some limitations in accuracy. Accuracy may be limited due to strip manufacturing variances, strip storage, and aging. They may also be due to limitations on the environment such as temperature or altitude or to patient factors such as improper coding, incorrect hand washing, altered hematocrit, or naturally occurring interfering substances. Finally, exogenous interfering substances may contribute errors to the system evaluation of blood glucose. In this review, I discuss the measurement of error in blood glucose, the sources of error, and their mechanism and potential solutions to improve accuracy in the hands of the patient. I also discuss the clinical measurement of system accuracy and methods of judging the suitability of clinical trials and finally some methods of overcoming the inaccuracies. I have included comments about additional information or education that could be done today by manufacturers in the appropriate sections. Areas that require additional work are discussed in the final section. PMID:20144340
Error analysis and modeling for the time grating length measurement system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gao, Zhonghua; Fen, Jiqin; Zheng, Fangyan; Chen, Ziran; Peng, Donglin; Liu, Xiaokang
2013-10-01
Through analyzing errors of the length measurement system in which a linear time grating was the principal measuring component, we found that the study on the error law was very important to reduce system errors and optimize the system structure. Mainly error sources in the length measuring system, including the time grating sensor, slide way, and cantilever, were studied; and therefore total errors were obtained. Meanwhile we erected the mathematic model of errors of the length measurement system. Using the error model, we calibrated system errors being in the length measurement system. Also, we developed a set of experimental devices in which a laser interferometer was used to calibrate the length measurement system errors. After error calibrating, the accuracy of the measurement system was improved from original 36um/m to 14um/m. The fact that experiment results are consistent with the simulation results shows that the error mathematic model is suitable for the length measuring system.
Improving optical bench radius measurements using stage error motion data
Schmitz, Tony L.; Gardner, Neil; Vaughn, Matthew; Medicus, Kate; Davies, Angela
2008-12-20
We describe the application of a vector-based radius approach to optical bench radius measurements in the presence of imperfect stage motions. In this approach, the radius is defined using a vector equation and homogeneous transformation matrix formulism. This is in contrast to the typical technique, where the displacement between the confocal and cat's eye null positions alone is used to determine the test optic radius. An important aspect of the vector-based radius definition is the intrinsic correction for measurement biases, such as straightness errors in the stage motion and cosine misalignment between the stage and displacement gauge axis, which lead to an artificially small radius value if the traditional approach is employed. Measurement techniques and results are provided for the stage error motions, which are then combined with the setup geometry through the analysis to determine the radius of curvature for a spherical artifact. Comparisons are shown between the new vector-based radius calculation, traditional radius computation, and a low uncertainty mechanical measurement. Additionally, the measurement uncertainty for the vector-based approach is determined using Monte Carlo simulation and compared to experimental results.
Propagation of Radiosonde Pressure Sensor Errors to Ozonesonde Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stauffer, R. M.; Morris, G.A.; Thompson, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Nalli, N. R.
2014-01-01
Several previous studies highlight pressure (or equivalently, pressure altitude) discrepancies between the radiosonde pressure sensor and that derived from a GPS flown with the radiosonde. The offsets vary during the ascent both in absolute and percent pressure differences. To investigate this problem further, a total of 731 radiosonde-ozonesonde launches from the Southern Hemisphere subtropics to Northern mid-latitudes are considered, with launches between 2005 - 2013 from both longer-term and campaign-based intensive stations. Five series of radiosondes from two manufacturers (International Met Systems: iMet, iMet-P, iMet-S, and Vaisala: RS80-15N and RS92-SGP) are analyzed to determine the magnitude of the pressure offset. Additionally, electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes from three manufacturers (Science Pump Corporation; SPC and ENSCI-Droplet Measurement Technologies; DMT) are analyzed to quantify the effects these offsets have on the calculation of ECC ozone (O3) mixing ratio profiles (O3MR) from the ozonesonde-measured partial pressure. Approximately half of all offsets are 0.6 hPa in the free troposphere, with nearly a third 1.0 hPa at 26 km, where the 1.0 hPa error represents 5 persent of the total atmospheric pressure. Pressure offsets have negligible effects on O3MR below 20 km (96 percent of launches lie within 5 percent O3MR error at 20 km). Ozone mixing ratio errors above 10 hPa (30 km), can approach greater than 10 percent ( 25 percent of launches that reach 30 km exceed this threshold). These errors cause disagreement between the integrated ozonesonde-only column O3 from the GPS and radiosonde pressure profile by an average of +6.5 DU. Comparisons of total column O3 between the GPS and radiosonde pressure profiles yield average differences of +1.1 DU when the O3 is integrated to burst with addition of the McPeters and Labow (2012) above-burst O3 column climatology. Total column differences are reduced to an average of -0.5 DU when
Propagation of radiosonde pressure sensor errors to ozonesonde measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauffer, R. M.; Morris, G. A.; Thompson, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Coetzee, G. J. R.; Nalli, N. R.
2014-01-01
Several previous studies highlight pressure (or equivalently, pressure altitude) discrepancies between the radiosonde pressure sensor and that derived from a GPS flown with the radiosonde. The offsets vary during the ascent both in absolute and percent pressure differences. To investigate this problem further, a total of 731 radiosonde/ozonesonde launches from the Southern Hemisphere subtropics to northern mid-latitudes are considered, with launches between 2005 and 2013 from both longer term and campaign-based intensive stations. Five series of radiosondes from two manufacturers (International Met Systems: iMet, iMet-P, iMet-S, and Vaisala: RS80-15N and RS92-SGP) are analyzed to determine the magnitude of the pressure offset. Additionally, electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes from three manufacturers (Science Pump Corporation; SPC and ENSCI/Droplet Measurement Technologies; DMT) are analyzed to quantify the effects these offsets have on the calculation of ECC ozone (O3) mixing ratio profiles (O3MR) from the ozonesonde-measured partial pressure. Approximately half of all offsets are > ±0.6 hPa in the free troposphere, with nearly a third > ±1.0 hPa at 26 km, where the 1.0 hPa error represents ~ 5% of the total atmospheric pressure. Pressure offsets have negligible effects on O3MR below 20 km (96% of launches lie within ±5% O3MR error at 20 km). Ozone mixing ratio errors above 10 hPa (~ 30 km), can approach greater than ±10% (> 25% of launches that reach 30 km exceed this threshold). These errors cause disagreement between the integrated ozonesonde-only column O3 from the GPS and radiosonde pressure profile by an average of +6.5 DU. Comparisons of total column O3 between the GPS and radiosonde pressure profiles yield average differences of +1.1 DU when the O3 is integrated to burst with addition of the McPeters and Labow (2012) above-burst O3 column climatology. Total column differences are reduced to an average of -0.5 DU when the O3 profile is
Data Reconciliation and Gross Error Detection: A Filtered Measurement Test
Himour, Y.
2008-06-12
Measured process data commonly contain inaccuracies because the measurements are obtained using imperfect instruments. As well as random errors one can expect systematic bias caused by miscalibrated instruments or outliers caused by process peaks such as sudden power fluctuations. Data reconciliation is the adjustment of a set of process data based on a model of the process so that the derived estimates conform to natural laws. In this paper, we will explore a predictor-corrector filter based on data reconciliation, and then a modified version of the measurement test is combined with the studied filter to detect probable outliers that can affect process measurements. The strategy presented is tested using dynamic simulation of an inverted pendulum.
Analysis of Spherical Form Errors to Coordinate Measuring Machine Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Mu-Chen
Coordinates measuring machines (CMMs) are commonly utilized to take measurement data from manufactured surfaces for inspection purposes. The measurement data are then used to evaluate the geometric form errors associated with the surface. Traditionally, the evaluation of spherical form errors involves an optimization process of fitting a substitute sphere to the sampled points. This paper proposes the computational strategies for sphericity with respect to ASME Y14.5M-1994 standard. The proposed methods consider the trade-off between the accuracy of sphericity and the efficiency of inspection. Two approaches of computational metrology based on genetic algorithms (GAs) are proposed to explore the optimality of sphericity measurements and the sphericity feasibility analysis, respectively. The proposed algorithms are verified by using several CMM data sets. Observing from the computational results, the proposed algorithms are practical for on-line implementation to the sphericity evaluation. Using the GA-based computational techniques, the accuracy of sphericity assessment and the efficiency of sphericity feasibility analysis are agreeable.
Patient motion tracking in the presence of measurement errors.
Haidegger, Tamás; Benyó, Zoltán; Kazanzides, Peter
2009-01-01
The primary aim of computer-integrated surgical systems is to provide physicians with superior surgical tools for better patient outcome. Robotic technology is capable of both minimally invasive surgery and microsurgery, offering remarkable advantages for the surgeon and the patient. Current systems allow for sub-millimeter intraoperative spatial positioning, however certain limitations still remain. Measurement noise and unintended changes in the operating room environment can result in major errors. Positioning errors are a significant danger to patients in procedures involving robots and other automated devices. We have developed a new robotic system at the Johns Hopkins University to support cranial drilling in neurosurgery procedures. The robot provides advanced visualization and safety features. The generic algorithm described in this paper allows for automated compensation of patient motion through optical tracking and Kalman filtering. When applied to the neurosurgery setup, preliminary results show that it is possible to identify patient motion within 700 ms, and apply the appropriate compensation with an average of 1.24 mm positioning error after 2 s of setup time. PMID:19964394
Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) - Understanding Sampling Errors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choukulkar, A.; Brewer, W. A.; Banta, R. M.; Hardesty, M.; Pichugina, Y.; Senff, Christoph; Sandberg, S.; Weickmann, A.; Carroll, B.; Delgado, R.; Muschinski, A.
2016-06-01
Coherent Doppler LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) has been widely used to provide measurements of several boundary layer parameters such as profiles of wind speed, wind direction, vertical velocity statistics, mixing layer heights and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE). An important aspect of providing this wide range of meteorological data is to properly characterize the uncertainty associated with these measurements. With the above intent in mind, the Lidar Uncertainty Measurement Experiment (LUMEX) was conducted at Erie, Colorado during the period June 23rd to July 13th, 2014. The major goals of this experiment were the following:
This experiment brought together 5 Doppler lidars, both commercial and research grade, for a period of three weeks for a comprehensive intercomparison study. The Doppler lidars were deployed at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) site in Erie, site of a 300 m meteorological tower. This tower was instrumented with six sonic anemometers at levels from 50 m to 300 m with 50 m vertical spacing. A brief overview of the experiment outline and deployment will be presented. Results from the sampling error analysis and its implications on scanning strategy will be discussed.
Inter- and intra-rater reliability of the GAITRite system among individuals with sub-acute stroke.
Wong, Jennifer S; Jasani, Hardika; Poon, Vivien; Inness, Elizabeth L; McIlroy, William E; Mansfield, Avril
2014-01-01
Technology-based assessment tools with semi-automated processing, such as pressure-sensitive mats used for gait assessment, may be considered to be objective; therefore it may be assumed that rater reliability is not a concern. However, user input is often required and rater reliability must be determined. The purpose of this study was to assess the inter- and intra-rater reliability of spatial and temporal characteristics of gait in stroke patients using the GAITRite system. Forty-six individuals with stroke attending in-patient rehabilitation walked across the pressure-sensitive mat 2-4 times at preferred walking speeds, with or without a gait aid. Five raters independently processed gait data. Three raters re-processed the data after a delay of at least one month. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% confidence intervals of the ICC were determined for velocity, step time, step length, and step width. Inter-rater reliability for velocity, step time, and step length were high (ICC>0.90). Intra-rater reliability was generally greater than inter-rater reliability (from 0.81 to >0.99 for inter-rater versus 0.77 to >0.99 for intra-rater reliability). Overall, this study suggests that GAITRite is a reliable assessment tool; however, there still remains subjectivity in processing the data, resulting in no patients with perfect agreement between raters. Additional logic checking within the processing software or standardization of training could help to reduce potential errors in processing. PMID:24630463
Propagation of radiosonde pressure sensor errors to ozonesonde measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stauffer, R. M.; Morris, G. A.; Thompson, A. M.; Joseph, E.; Coetzee, G. J. R.
2013-08-01
Several previous studies highlight pressure (or equivalently, pressure altitude) discrepancies between the radiosonde pressure sensor and that derived from a GPS flown with the radiosonde. The offsets vary during the ascent both in absolute and percent pressure differences. To investigate this, a total of 501 radiosonde/ozonesonde launches from the Southern Hemisphere subtropics to northern mid-latitudes are considered, with launches between 2006-2013 from both historical and campaign-based intensive stations. Three types of electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesonde manufacturers (Science Pump Corporation; SPC and ENSCI/Droplet Measurement Technologies; DMT) and five series of radiosondes from two manufacturers (International Met Systems: iMet, iMet-P, iMet-S, and Vaisala: RS80 and RS92) are analyzed to determine the magnitude of the pressure offset and the effects these offsets have on the calculation of ECC ozone (O3) mixing ratio profiles (O3MR) from the ozonesonde-measured partial pressure. Approximately half of all offsets are > ±0.7 hPa in the free troposphere, with nearly a quarter > ±1.0 hPa at 26 km, where the 1.0 hPa error represents ~5% of the total atmospheric pressure. Pressure offsets have negligible effects on O3MR below 20 km (98% of launches lie within ±5% O3MR error at 20 km). Ozone mixing ratio errors in the 7-15 hPa layer (29-32 km), a region critical for detection of long-term O3 trends, can approach greater than ±10% (>25% of launches that reach 30 km exceed this threshold). Comparisons of total column O3 yield average differences of +1.6 DU (-1.1 to +4.9 DU 10th to 90th percentiles) when the O3 is integrated to burst with addition of the McPeters and Labow (2012) above-burst O3 column climatology. Total column differences are reduced to an average of +0.1 DU (-1.1 to +2.2 DU) when the O3 profile is integrated to 10 hPa with subsequent addition of the O3 climatology above 10 hPa. The RS92 radiosondes are clearly distinguishable
A Bayesian Measurment Error Model for Misaligned Radiographic Data
Lennox, Kristin P.; Glascoe, Lee G.
2013-09-06
An understanding of the inherent variability in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) data is essential to tasks such as statistical process control and the validation of radiographic simulation tools. The data present unique challenges to variability analysis due to the relatively low resolution of radiographs, and also due to minor variations from run to run which can result in misalignment or magnification changes between repeated measurements of a sample. Positioning changes artificially inflate the variability of the data in ways that mask true physical phenomena. We present a novel Bayesian nonparametric regression model that incorporates both additive and multiplicative measurement error inmore » addition to heteroscedasticity to address this problem. We also use this model to assess the effects of sample thickness and sample position on measurement variability for an aluminum specimen. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.« less
A Bayesian Measurment Error Model for Misaligned Radiographic Data
Lennox, Kristin P.; Glascoe, Lee G.
2013-09-06
An understanding of the inherent variability in micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) data is essential to tasks such as statistical process control and the validation of radiographic simulation tools. The data present unique challenges to variability analysis due to the relatively low resolution of radiographs, and also due to minor variations from run to run which can result in misalignment or magnification changes between repeated measurements of a sample. Positioning changes artificially inflate the variability of the data in ways that mask true physical phenomena. We present a novel Bayesian nonparametric regression model that incorporates both additive and multiplicative measurement error in addition to heteroscedasticity to address this problem. We also use this model to assess the effects of sample thickness and sample position on measurement variability for an aluminum specimen. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.
Measurements of Aperture Averaging on Bit-Error-Rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bastin, Gary L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Nelson, Richard A.; Ferrell, Bobby A.; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Chin, Peter G.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Burdge, Geoffrey L.; Wayne, David; Pescatore, Robert
2005-01-01
We report on measurements made at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at Kennedy Space Center of receiver aperture averaging effects on a propagating optical Gaussian beam wave over a propagation path of 1,000 in. A commercially available instrument with both transmit and receive apertures was used to transmit a modulated laser beam operating at 1550 nm through a transmit aperture of 2.54 cm. An identical model of the same instrument was used as a receiver with a single aperture that was varied in size up to 20 cm to measure the effect of receiver aperture averaging on Bit Error Rate. Simultaneous measurements were also made with a scintillometer instrument and local weather station instruments to characterize atmospheric conditions along the propagation path during the experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Qing; Zhang, Chunsong; Huang, Jiayong; Wu, Di; Liu, Jing
2009-11-01
The error source of the external diameter measurement system based on the double optical path parallel light projection method are the non-parallelism of the double optical path, aberration distortion of the projection lens, the edge of the projection profile of the cylinder which is affected by aperture size of the illuminating beam, light intensity variation and the counting error in the circuit. The screw pair drive is applied to achieve the up-and-down movement in the system. The precision of up-and-down movement mainly lies on the Abbe Error which is caused by the offset between the centerline and the mobile line of the capacitive-gate ruler, the heeling error of the guide mechanism, and the error which is caused by the dilatometric change of parts resulted from the temperature change. Rotary mechanism is achieved by stepper motor and gear drive. The precision of the rotary mechanism is determined by the stepping angle error of the stepper motor, the gear transmission error, and the heeling error of the piston relative to the rotation axis. The method of error modification is putting a component in the optical path to get the error curve, which is then used in the point-by-point modification by software compensation.
Rater Wealth Predicts Perceptions of Outgroup Competence
Chan, Wayne; McCrae, Robert R.; Rogers, Darrin L.; Weimer, Amy A.; Greenberg, David M.; Terracciano, Antonio
2011-01-01
National income has a pervasive influence on the perception of ingroup stereotypes, with high status and wealthy targets perceived as more competent. In two studies we investigated the degree to which economic wealth of raters related to perceptions of outgroup competence. Raters’ economic wealth predicted trait ratings when 1) raters in 48 other cultures rated Americans’ competence and 2) Mexican Americans rated Anglo Americans’ competence. Rater wealth also predicted ratings of interpersonal warmth on the culture level. In conclusion, raters’ economic wealth, either nationally or individually, is significantly associated with perception of outgroup members, supporting the notion that ingroup conditions or stereotypes function as frames of reference in evaluating outgroup traits. PMID:22379232
Effects of measurement error on estimating biological half-life
Caudill, S.P.; Pirkle, J.L.; Michalek, J.E. )
1992-10-01
Direct computation of the observed biological half-life of a toxic compound in a person can lead to an undefined estimate when subsequent concentration measurements are greater than or equal to previous measurements. The likelihood of such an occurrence depends upon the length of time between measurements and the variance (intra-subject biological and inter-sample analytical) associated with the measurements. If the compound is lipophilic the subject's percentage of body fat at the times of measurement can also affect this likelihood. We present formulas for computing a model-predicted half-life estimate and its variance; and we derive expressions for the effect of sample size, measurement error, time between measurements, and any relevant covariates on the variability in model-predicted half-life estimates. We also use statistical modeling to estimate the probability of obtaining an undefined half-life estimate and to compute the expected number of undefined half-life estimates for a sample from a study population. Finally, we illustrate our methods using data from a study of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure among 36 members of Operation Ranch Hand, the Air Force unit responsible for the aerial spraying of Agent Orange in Vietnam.
Sampling errors in the measurement of rain and hail parameters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gertzman, H. S.; Atlas, D.
1977-01-01
Attention is given to a general derivation of the fractional standard deviation (FSD) of any integrated property X such that X(D) = cD to the n. This work extends that of Joss and Waldvogel (1969). The equation is applicable to measuring integrated properties of cloud, rain or hail populations (such as water content, precipitation rate, kinetic energy, or radar reflectivity) which are subject to statistical sampling errors due to the Poisson distributed fluctuations of particles sampled in each particle size interval and the weighted sum of the associated variances in proportion to their contribution to the integral parameter to be measured. Universal curves are presented which are applicable to the exponential size distribution permitting FSD estimation of any parameters from n = 0 to n = 6. The equations and curves also permit corrections for finite upper limits in the size spectrum and a realistic fall speed law.
Errors in Potassium Measurement: A Laboratory Perspective for the Clinician
Asirvatham, Jaya R; Moses, Viju; Bjornson, Loring
2013-01-01
Errors in potassium measurement can cause pseudohyperkalemia, where serum potassium is falsely elevated. Usually, these are recognized either by the laboratory or the clinician. However, the same factors that cause pseudohyperkalemia can mask hypokalemia by pushing measured values into the reference interval. These cases require a high-index of suspicion by the clinician as they cannot be easily identified in the laboratory. This article discusses the causes and mechanisms of spuriously elevated potassium, and current recommendations to minimize those factors. “Reverse” pseudohyperkalemia and the role of correction factors are also discussed. Relevant articles were identified by a literature search performed on PubMed using the terms “pseudohyperkalemia,” “reverse pseudohyperkalemia,” “factitious hyperkalemia,” “spurious hyperkalemia,” and “masked hypokalemia.” PMID:23724399
Aerogel Antennas Communications Study Using Error Vector Magnitude Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miranda, Felix A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Meador, Mary Ann B.
2014-01-01
This presentation discusses an aerogel antennas communication study using error vector magnitude (EVM) measurements. The study was performed using 2x4 element polyimide (PI) aerogel-based phased arrays designed for operation at 5 GHz as transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) antennas separated by a line of sight (LOS) distance of 8.5 meters. The results of the EVM measurements demonstrate that polyimide aerogel antennas work appropriately to support digital communication links with typically used modulation schemes such as QPSK and 4 DQPSK. As such, PI aerogel antennas with higher gain, larger bandwidth and lower mass than typically used microwave laminates could be suitable to enable aerospace-to- ground communication links with enough channel capacity to support voice, data and video links from CubeSats, unmanned air vehicles (UAV), and commercial aircraft.
Aerogel Antennas Communications Study Using Error Vector Magnitude Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miranda, Felix A.; Mueller, Carl H.; Meador, Mary Ann B.
2014-01-01
This paper discusses an aerogel antennas communication study using error vector magnitude (EVM) measurements. The study was performed using 4x2 element polyimide (PI) aerogel-based phased arrays designed for operation at 5 GHz as transmit (Tx) and receive (Rx) antennas separated by a line of sight (LOS) distance of 8.5 meters. The results of the EVM measurements demonstrate that polyimide aerogel antennas work appropriately to support digital communication links with typically used modulation schemes such as QPSK and pi/4 DQPSK. As such, PI aerogel antennas with higher gain, larger bandwidth and lower mass than typically used microwave laminates could be suitable to enable aerospace-to-ground communication links with enough channel capacity to support voice, data and video links from cubesats, unmanned air vehicles (UAV), and commercial aircraft.
Characterization of measurement error sources in Doppler global velocimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Schwartz, Richard J.
2001-04-01
Doppler global velocimetry uses the absorption characteristics of iodine vapour to provide instantaneous three-component measurements of flow velocity within a plane defined by a laser light sheet. Although the technology is straightforward, its utilization as a flow diagnostics tool requires hardening of the optical system and careful attention to detail during data acquisition and processing if routine use in wind tunnel applications is to be achieved. A development programme that reaches these goals is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted on each technology element to determine methods that increase measurement accuracy and repeatability. Enhancements resulting from these investigations included methods to ensure iodine vapour calibration stability, single frequency operation of the laser and image alignment to sub-pixel accuracies. Methods were also developed to improve system calibration, and eliminate spatial variations of optical frequency in the laser output, spatial variations in optical transmissivity and perspective and optical distortions in the data images. Each of these enhancements is described and experimental examples given to illustrate the improved measurement performance obtained by the enhancement. The culmination of this investigation was the measured velocity profile of a rotating wheel resulting in a 1.75% error in the mean with a standard deviation of 0.5 m s-1. Comparing measurements of a jet flow with corresponding Pitot measurements validated the use of these methods for flow field applications.
Characterization of Measurement Error Sources in Doppler Global Velocimetry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Meyers, James F.; Lee, Joseph W.; Schwartz, Richard J.
2001-01-01
Doppler global velocimetry uses the absorption characteristics of iodine vapor to provide instantaneous three-component measurements of flow velocity within a plane defined by a laser light sheet. Although the technology is straightforward, its utilization as a flow diagnostics tool requires hardening of the optical system and careful attention to detail during data acquisition and processing if routine use in wind tunnel applications is to be achieved. A development program that reaches these goals is presented. Theoretical and experimental investigations were conducted on each technology element to determine methods that increase measurement accuracy and repeatability. Enhancements resulting from these investigations included methods to ensure iodine vapor calibration stability, single frequency operation of the laser and image alignment to sub-pixel accuracies. Methods were also developed to improve system calibration, and eliminate spatial variations of optical frequency in the laser output, spatial variations in optical transmissivity and perspective and optical distortions in the data images. Each of these enhancements is described and experimental examples given to illustrate the improved measurement performance obtained by the enhancement. The culmination of this investigation was the measured velocity profile of a rotating wheel resulting in a 1.75% error in the mean with a standard deviation of 0.5 m/s. Comparing measurements of a jet flow with corresponding Pitot measurements validated the use of these methods for flow field applications.
Effects of measurement error on horizontal hydraulic gradient estimates.
Devlin, J F; McElwee, C D
2007-01-01
During the design of a natural gradient tracer experiment, it was noticed that the hydraulic gradient was too small to measure reliably on an approximately 500-m(2) site. Additional wells were installed to increase the monitored area to 26,500 m(2), and wells were instrumented with pressure transducers. The resulting monitoring system was capable of measuring heads with a precision of +/-1.3 x 10(-2) m. This measurement error was incorporated into Monte Carlo calculations, in which only hydraulic head values were varied between realizations. The standard deviation in the estimated gradient and the flow direction angle from the x-axis (east direction) were calculated. The data yielded an average hydraulic gradient of 4.5 x 10(-4)+/-25% with a flow direction of 56 degrees southeast +/-18 degrees, with the variations representing 1 standard deviation. Further Monte Carlo calculations investigated the effects of number of wells, aspect ratio of the monitored area, and the size of the monitored area on the previously mentioned uncertainties. The exercise showed that monitored areas must exceed a size determined by the magnitude of the measurement error if meaningful gradient estimates and flow directions are to be obtained. The aspect ratio of the monitored zone should be as close to 1 as possible, although departures as great as 0.5 to 2 did not degrade the quality of the data unduly. Numbers of wells beyond three to five provided little advantage. These conclusions were supported for the general case with a preliminary theoretical analysis. PMID:17257340
Anderson, K.K.
1994-05-01
Measurement error modeling is a statistical approach to the estimation of unknown model parameters which takes into account the measurement errors in all of the data. Approaches which ignore the measurement errors in so-called independent variables may yield inferior estimates of unknown model parameters. At the same time, experiment-wide variables (such as physical constants) are often treated as known without error, when in fact they were produced from prior experiments. Realistic assessments of the associated uncertainties in the experiment-wide variables can be utilized to improve the estimation of unknown model parameters. A maximum likelihood approach to incorporate measurements of experiment-wide variables and their associated uncertainties is presented here. An iterative algorithm is presented which yields estimates of unknown model parameters and their estimated covariance matrix. Further, the algorithm can be used to assess the sensitivity of the estimates and their estimated covariance matrix to the given experiment-wide variables and their associated uncertainties.
Hosseinifar, Mohammad; Akbari, Asghar; Ghiasi, Fateme
2015-01-01
Introduction: Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) must be valuable method for research and rehabilitation. So, the reliability of its measurements must be determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability of RUSI for measurement of multifidus (MF) muscles cross section areas (CSAs), bladder wall diameter, and thickness of MF muscles between 2 sessions in healthy subjects. Method: Fifteen healthy subjects through simple non-probability sampling participated in this single-group repeated-measures reliability study. MF muscles thickness at rest and during contraction, MF muscles CSAs at rest, and bladder diameters at rest and during pelvic floor muscles (PFM) contraction were measured through RUSI. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to determine intra-rater reliability of variables. Finding: The results showed that intra-class correlation Coefficient (ICCs) values with 95% confidence interval (CI) and the standard error of the measurement (SEM) were good to excellent agreement for a single investigator between measurement occasions. The intra-rater reliability for the bladder wall displacement was high (ICCs for rest and PFM contraction state: 0.96 and 0.95 respectively), for the MF muscles CSAs at the L4 level was good to high (ICCs 0.75 and 0.91 for right (Rt) and left (Lt) side respectively), and for the thickness of MF muscles at two levels, at rest and during two tasks was moderate to high (ICCs: 0.64 to 0.87). Conclusion: The Trans-Abdominal (TA) method of RUSI is a reliable method to quantify the PFM contraction in healthy subjects. Also, the RUSI is a reliable method to measure the MF muscles CSAs, the MF muscles thickness at rest and during functional tasks in healthy subjects. PMID:26153153
On modeling animal movements using Brownian motion with measurement error.
Pozdnyakov, Vladimir; Meyer, Thomas; Wang, Yu-Bo; Yan, Jun
2014-02-01
Modeling animal movements with Brownian motion (or more generally by a Gaussian process) has a long tradition in ecological studies. The recent Brownian bridge movement model (BBMM), which incorporates measurement errors, has been quickly adopted by ecologists because of its simplicity and tractability. We discuss some nontrivial properties of the discrete-time stochastic process that results from observing a Brownian motion with added normal noise at discrete times. In particular, we demonstrate that the observed sequence of random variables is not Markov. Consequently the expected occupation time between two successively observed locations does not depend on just those two observations; the whole path must be taken into account. Nonetheless, the exact likelihood function of the observed time series remains tractable; it requires only sparse matrix computations. The likelihood-based estimation procedure is described in detail and compared to the BBMM estimation. PMID:24669719
Horizon sensor errors calculated by computer models compared with errors measured in orbit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ward, K. A.; Hogan, R.; Andary, J.
1982-01-01
Using a computer program to model the earth's horizon and to duplicate the signal processing procedure employed by the ESA (Earth Sensor Assembly), errors due to radiance variation have been computed for a particular time of the year. Errors actually occurring in flight at the same time of year are inferred from integrated rate gyro data for a satellite of the TIROS series of NASA weather satellites (NOAA-A). The predicted performance is compared with actual flight history.
Horizon Sensor Errors Calculated By Computer Models Compared With Errors Measured In Orbit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ward, Kenneth A.; Hogan, Roger; Andary, James
1982-06-01
Using a computer program to model the earth's horizon and to duplicate the signal processing procedure employed by the ESA (Earth Sensor Assembly), errors due to radiance variation have been computed for a particular time of the year. Errors actually occurring in flight at the same time of year are inferred from integrated rate gyro data for a satellite of the TIROS series of NASA weather satellites (NOAA-7). The k)recLicted performance is compared with actual flight history.
Age Matters, and so May Raters: Rater Differences in the Assessment of Foreign Accents
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Huang, Becky H.; Jun, Sun-Ah
2015-01-01
Research on the age of learning effect on second language learners' foreign accents utilizes human judgments to determine speech production outcomes. Inferences drawn from analyses of these ratings are then used to inform theories. The present study focuses on rater differences in the age of learning effect research. Three groups of raters who…
Exploring Measurement Error with Cookies: A Real and Virtual Approach via Interactive Excel
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sinex, Scott A; Gage, Barbara A.; Beck, Peggy J.
2007-01-01
A simple, guided-inquiry investigation using stacked sandwich cookies is employed to develop a simple linear mathematical model and to explore measurement error by incorporating errors as part of the investigation. Both random and systematic errors are presented. The model and errors are then investigated further by engaging with an interactive…
Three-way partitioning of sea surface temperature measurement error
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chelton, D.
1983-01-01
Given any set of three 2 degree binned anomaly sea surface temperature (SST) data sets by three different sensors, estimates of the mean square error of each sensor estimate is made. The above formalism performed on every possible triplet of sensors. A separate table of error estimates is then constructed for each sensor.
Accuracy and Repeatability of Refractive Error Measurements by Photorefractometry
Rajavi, Zhale; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Baghini, Ahmad Shojaei; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sheibani, Koroush; Norouzi, Ghazal
2015-01-01
Purpose: To determine the accuracy of photorefraction and autorefraction as compared to cycloautorefraction and to detect the repeatability of photorefraction. Methods: This diagnostic study included the right eyes of 86 children aged 7-12 years. Refractive status was measured using photorefraction (PlusoptiX SO4, GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany) and autorefraction (Topcon RM800, USA) with and without cycloplegia. Photorefraction for each eye was performed three times to assess repeatability. Results: The overall agreement between photorefraction and cycloautorefraction was over 81% for all refractive errors. Photorefractometry had acceptable sensitivity and specificity for myopia and astigmatism. There was no statistically significant difference considering myopia and astigmatism in all comparisons, while the difference was significant for hyperopia using both amblyogenic (P = 0.006) and nonamblyogenic criteria (P = 0.001). A myopic shift of 1.21 diopter (D) and 1.58 D occurred with photorefraction in nonamblyogenic and amblyogenic hyperopia, respectively. Using revised cut-off points of + 1.12 D and + 2.6 D instead of + 2.00 D and + 3.50 D improved the sensitivity of photorefractometry to 84.62% and 69.23%, respectively. The repeatability of photorefraction for measurement of myopia, astigmatism and hyperopia was acceptable (intra-cluster correlation [ICC]: 0.98, 0.94 and 0.77, respectively). Autorefraction results were significantly different from cycloautorefraction in hyperopia (P < 0.0001), but comparable in myopia and astigmatism. Also, noncycloglegic autorefraction results were similar to photorefraction in this study. Conclusion: Although photorefraction was accurate for measurement of myopia and astigmatism, its sensitivity for hyperopia was low which could be improved by considering revised cut-off points. Considering cut-off points, photorefraction can be used as a screening method. PMID:26730305
Predictors of Measurement Error in Energy Intake During Pregnancy
Nowicki, Eric; Siega-Riz, Anna-Maria; Herring, Amy; He, Ka; Stuebe, Alison; Olshan, Andy
2011-01-01
Nutrition plays a critical role in maternal and fetal health; however, research on error in the measurement of energy intake during pregnancy is limited. The authors analyzed data on 998 women living in central North Carolina with singleton pregnancies during 2001–2005. Second-trimester diet was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Estimated energy requirements were calculated using Institute of Medicine prediction equations, with adjustment for energy costs during the second trimester. Implausible values for daily energy intake were determined using confidence limits of agreement for energy intake/estimated energy requirements. Prevalences of low energy reporting (LER) and high energy reporting (HER) were 32.8% and 12.9%, respectively. In a multivariable analysis, pregravid body mass index was related to both LER and HER; LER was higher in both overweight (odds ratio = 1.96, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.02; P = 0.031) and obese (odds ratio = 3.29, 95% confidence interval: 2.33, 4.65; P < 0.001) women than in normal-weight counterparts. Other predictors of LER included marriage and higher levels of physical activity. HER was higher among subjects who were underweight, African-American, and less educated and subjects who had higher depressive symptom scores. LER and HER are prevalent during pregnancy. Identifying their predictors may improve data collection and analytic methods for reducing systematic bias in the study of diet and reproductive outcomes. PMID:21273398
Large-scale spatial angle measurement and the pointing error analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Wen-jian; Chen, Zhi-bin; Ma, Dong-xi; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xian-hong; Qin, Meng-ze
2016-05-01
A large-scale spatial angle measurement method is proposed based on inertial reference. Common measurement reference is established in inertial space, and the spatial vector coordinates of each measured axis in inertial space are measured by using autocollimation tracking and inertial measurement technology. According to the spatial coordinates of each test vector axis, the measurement of large-scale spatial angle is easily realized. The pointing error of tracking device based on the two mirrors in the measurement system is studied, and the influence of different installation errors to the pointing error is analyzed. This research can lay a foundation for error allocation, calibration and compensation for the measurement system.
Implications of Three Causal Models for the Measurement of Halo Error.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fisicaro, Sebastiano A.; Lance, Charles E.
1990-01-01
Three conceptual definitions of halo error are reviewed in the context of causal models of halo error. A corrected correlational measurement of halo error is derived, and the traditional and corrected measures are compared empirically for a 1986 study of 52 undergraduate students' ratings of a lecturer's performance. (SLD)
Examining rating scales using Rasch and Mokken models for rater-mediated assessments.
Wind, Stephanie A
2014-01-01
A variety of methods for evaluating the psychometric quality of rater-mediated assessments have been proposed, including rater effects based on latent trait models (e.g., Engelhard, 2013; Wolfe, 2009). Although information about rater effects contributes to the interpretation and use of rater-assigned scores, it is also important to consider ratings in terms of the structure of the rating scale on which scores are assigned. Further, concern with the validity of rater-assigned scores necessitates investigation of these quality control indices within student subgroups, such as gender, language, and race/ethnicity groups. Using a set of guidelines for evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales adapted from Linacre (1999, 2004), this study demonstrates methods that can be used to examine rating scale functioning within and across student subgroups with indicators from Rasch measurement theory (Rasch, 1960) and Mokken scale analysis (Mokken, 1971). Specifically, this study illustrates indices of rating scale effectiveness based on Rasch models and models adapted from Mokken scaling, and considers whether the two approaches to evaluating the interpretation and use of rating scales lead to comparable conclusions within the context of a large-scale rater-mediated writing assessment. Major findings suggest that indices of rating scale effectiveness based on a parametric and nonparametric approach provide related, but slightly different, information about the structure of rating scales. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed. PMID:24950531
Worster, Andrew; Kulasegaram, Kulamakan; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Vallera, Teresa; Upadhye, Suneel; Sherbino, Jonathan; Haynes, R. Brian
2011-01-01
Background Studies published in general and specialty medical journals have the potential to improve emergency medicine (EM) practice, but there can be delayed awareness of this evidence because emergency physicians (EPs) are unlikely to read most of these journals. Also, not all published studies are intended for or ready for clinical practice application. The authors developed “Best Evidence in Emergency Medicine” (BEEM) to ameliorate these problems by searching for, identifying, appraising, and translating potentially practice-changing studies for EPs. An initial step in the BEEM process is the BEEM rater scale, a novel tool for EPs to collectively evaluate the relative clinical relevance of EM-related studies found in more than 120 journals. The BEEM rater process was designed to serve as a clinical relevance filter to identify those studies with the greatest potential to affect EM practice. Therefore, only those studies identified by BEEM raters as having the highest clinical relevance are selected for the subsequent critical appraisal process and, if found methodologically sound, are promoted as the best evidence in EM. Objectives The primary objective was to measure inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the BEEM rater scale. Secondary objectives were to determine the minimum number of EP raters needed for the BEEM rater scale to achieve acceptable reliability and to compare performance of the scale against a previously published evidence rating system, the McMaster Online Rating of Evidence (MORE), in an EP population. Methods The authors electronically distributed the title, conclusion, and a PubMed link for 23 recently published studies related to EM to a volunteer group of 134 EPs. The volunteers answered two demographic questions and rated the articles using one of two randomly assigned seven-point Likert scales, the BEEM rater scale (n = 68) or the MORE scale (n = 66), over two separate administrations. The IRR of each scale was measured using
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.
2014-08-01
The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterize and illustrate in two-dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a "virtual mission" for a 300 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River at its confluence with the Purus River, using a hydraulic model to provide water surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimension height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water surface elevation measurements for the Amazon mainstem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths of greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-section averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1% average overall error in discharge, respectively.
Colloquium: Quantum root-mean-square error and measurement uncertainty relations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busch, Paul; Lahti, Pekka; Werner, Reinhard F.
2014-10-01
Recent years have witnessed a controversy over Heisenberg's famous error-disturbance relation. Here the conflict is resolved by way of an analysis of the possible conceptualizations of measurement error and disturbance in quantum mechanics. Two approaches to adapting the classic notion of root-mean-square error to quantum measurements are discussed. One is based on the concept of a noise operator; its natural operational content is that of a mean deviation of the values of two observables measured jointly, and thus its applicability is limited to cases where such joint measurements are available. The second error measure quantifies the differences between two probability distributions obtained in separate runs of measurements and is of unrestricted applicability. We show that there are no nontrivial unconditional joint-measurement bounds for state-dependent errors in the conceptual framework discussed here, while Heisenberg-type measurement uncertainty relations for state-independent errors have been proven.
A heteroscedastic measurement error model for method comparison data with replicate measurements.
Nawarathna, Lakshika S; Choudhary, Pankaj K
2015-03-30
Measurement error models offer a flexible framework for modeling data collected in studies comparing methods of quantitative measurement. These models generally make two simplifying assumptions: (i) the measurements are homoscedastic, and (ii) the unobservable true values of the methods are linearly related. One or both of these assumptions may be violated in practice. In particular, error variabilities of the methods may depend on the magnitude of measurement, or the true values may be nonlinearly related. Data with these features call for a heteroscedastic measurement error model that allows nonlinear relationships in the true values. We present such a model for the case when the measurements are replicated, discuss its fitting, and explain how to evaluate similarity of measurement methods and agreement between them, which are two common goals of data analysis, under this model. Model fitting involves dealing with lack of a closed form for the likelihood function. We consider estimation methods that approximate either the likelihood or the model to yield approximate maximum likelihood estimates. The fitting methods are evaluated in a simulation study. The proposed methodology is used to analyze a cholesterol dataset. PMID:25614299
Du, Zhengchun; Wu, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jianguo
2016-01-01
The use of three-dimensional (3D) data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS). First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS. PMID:27213385
Du, Zhengchun; Wu, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jianguo
2016-01-01
The use of three-dimensional (3D) data in the industrial measurement field is becoming increasingly popular because of the rapid development of laser scanning techniques based on the time-of-flight principle. However, the accuracy and uncertainty of these types of measurement methods are seldom investigated. In this study, a mathematical uncertainty evaluation model for the diameter measurement of standard cylindroid components has been proposed and applied to a 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS). First, a single-point error ellipsoid analysis for the LRMS was established. An error ellipsoid model and algorithm for diameter measurement of cylindroid components was then proposed based on the single-point error ellipsoid. Finally, four experiments were conducted using the LRMS to measure the diameter of a standard cylinder in the laboratory. The experimental results of the uncertainty evaluation consistently matched well with the predictions. The proposed uncertainty evaluation model for cylindrical diameters can provide a reliable method for actual measurements and support further accuracy improvement of the LRMS. PMID:27213385
Measurement of four-degree-of-freedom error motions based on non-diffracting beam
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhai, Zhongsheng; Lv, Qinghua; Wang, Xuanze; Shang, Yiyuan; Yang, Liangen; Kuang, Zheng; Bennett, Peter
2016-05-01
A measuring method for the determination of error motions of linear stages based on non-diffracting beams (NDB) is presented. A right-angle prism and a beam splitter are adopted as the measuring head, which is fixed on the moving stage in order to sense the straightness and angular errors. Two CCDs are used to capture the NDB patterns that are carrying the errors. Four different types error s, the vertical straightness error and three rotational errors (the pitch, roll and yaw errors), can be separated and distinguished through theoretical analysis of the shift in the centre positions in the two cameras. Simulation results show that the proposed method using NDB can measure four-degrees-of-freedom errors for the linear stage.
Tilt error in cryospheric surface radiation measurements at high latitudes: a model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogren, W. S.; Burkhart, J. F.; Kylling, A.
2015-08-01
We have evaluated the magnitude and makeup of error in cryospheric radiation observations due to small sensor misalignment in in-situ measurements of solar irradiance. This error is examined through simulation of diffuse and direct irradiance arriving at a detector with a cosine-response foreoptic. Emphasis is placed on assessing total error over the solar shortwave spectrum from 250 to 4500 nm, as well as supporting investigation over other relevant shortwave spectral ranges. The total measurement error introduced by sensor tilt is dominated by the direct component. For a typical high latitude albedo measurement with a solar zenith angle of 60°, a sensor tilted by 1, 3, and 5° can respectively introduce up to 2.6, 7.7, and 12.8 % error into the measured irradiance and similar errors in the derived albedo. Depending on the daily range of solar azimuth and zenith angles, significant measurement error can persist also in integrated daily irradiance and albedo.
Neutron-induced soft error rate measurements in semiconductor memories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ünlü, Kenan; Narayanan, Vijaykrishnan; Çetiner, Sacit M.; Degalahal, Vijay; Irwin, Mary J.
2007-08-01
Soft error rate (SER) testing of devices have been performed using the neutron beam at the Radiation Science and Engineering Center at Penn State University. The soft error susceptibility for different memory chips working at different technology nodes and operating voltages is determined. The effect of 10B on SER as an in situ excess charge source is observed. The effect of higher-energy neutrons on circuit operation will be published later. Penn State Breazeale Nuclear Reactor was used as the neutron source in the experiments. The high neutron flux allows for accelerated testing of the SER phenomenon. The experiments and analyses have been performed only on soft errors due to thermal neutrons. Various memory chips manufactured by different vendors were tested at various supply voltages and reactor power levels. The effect of 10B reaction caused by thermal neutron absorption on SER is discussed.
The impact of response measurement error on the analysis of designed experiments
Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela; Hamada, Michael Scott; Burr, Thomas Lee
2015-12-21
This study considers the analysis of designed experiments when there is measurement error in the true response or so-called response measurement error. We consider both additive and multiplicative response measurement errors. Through a simulation study, we investigate the impact of ignoring the response measurement error in the analysis, that is, by using a standard analysis based on t-tests. In addition, we examine the role of repeat measurements in improving the quality of estimation and prediction in the presence of response measurement error. We also study a Bayesian approach that accounts for the response measurement error directly through the specification of the model, and allows including additional information about variability in the analysis. We consider the impact on power, prediction, and optimization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
The impact of response measurement error on the analysis of designed experiments
Anderson-Cook, Christine Michaela; Hamada, Michael Scott; Burr, Thomas Lee
2015-12-21
This study considers the analysis of designed experiments when there is measurement error in the true response or so-called response measurement error. We consider both additive and multiplicative response measurement errors. Through a simulation study, we investigate the impact of ignoring the response measurement error in the analysis, that is, by using a standard analysis based on t-tests. In addition, we examine the role of repeat measurements in improving the quality of estimation and prediction in the presence of response measurement error. We also study a Bayesian approach that accounts for the response measurement error directly through the specification ofmore » the model, and allows including additional information about variability in the analysis. We consider the impact on power, prediction, and optimization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.« less
Direct Behavior Rating: Considerations for Rater Accuracy
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harrison, Sayward E.; Riley-Tillman, T. Chris; Chafouleas, Sandra M.
2014-01-01
Direct behavior rating (DBR) offers users a flexible, feasible method for the collection of behavioral data. Previous research has supported the validity of using DBR to rate three target behaviors: academic engagement, disruptive behavior, and compliance. However, the effect of the base rate of behavior on rater accuracy has not been established.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xiaolong; Yang, Li
2015-10-01
Based on the theory of infrared radiation and of the infrared thermography, the mathematical correction model of the infrared radiation temperature measurement of semitransparent object is developed taking account by the effects of the atmosphere, surroundings, radiation of transmissivity and many other factors. The effects of the emissivity, transmissivity and measurement error are analysed on temperature measurement error of the infrared thermography. The measurement error of semitransparent object are compared with that of opaque object. The countermeasures to reduce the measurement error are also discussed.
Total error vs. measurement uncertainty: revolution or evolution?
Oosterhuis, Wytze P; Theodorsson, Elvar
2016-02-01
The first strategic EFLM conference "Defining analytical performance goals, 15 years after the Stockholm Conference" was held in the autumn of 2014 in Milan. It maintained the Stockholm 1999 hierarchy of performance goals but rearranged them and established five task and finish groups to work on topics related to analytical performance goals including one on the "total error" theory. Jim Westgard recently wrote a comprehensive overview of performance goals and of the total error theory critical of the results and intentions of the Milan 2014 conference. The "total error" theory originated by Jim Westgard and co-workers has a dominating influence on the theory and practice of clinical chemistry but is not accepted in other fields of metrology. The generally accepted uncertainty theory, however, suffers from complex mathematics and conceived impracticability in clinical chemistry. The pros and cons of the total error theory need to be debated, making way for methods that can incorporate all relevant causes of uncertainty when making medical diagnoses and monitoring treatment effects. This development should preferably proceed not as a revolution but as an evolution. PMID:26540227
Canonical Correlation Analysis that Incorporates Measurement and Sampling Error Considerations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Thompson, Bruce; Daniel, Larry
Multivariate methods are being used with increasing frequency in educational research because these methods control "experimentwise" error rate inflation, and because the methods best honor the nature of the reality to which the researcher wishes to generalize. This paper: explains the basic logic of canonical analysis; illustrates that canonical…
Errors of Measurement and Standard Setting in Mastery Testing.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kane, Michael; Wilson, Jennifer
This paper evaluates the magnitude of the total error in estimates of the difference between an examinee's domain score and the cutoff score. An observed score based on a random sample of items from the domain, and an estimated cutoff score derived from a judgmental standard setting procedure are assumed. The work of Brennan and Lockwood (1980) is…
Automated Essay Scoring With e-rater[R] V.2
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Attali, Yigal; Burstein, Jill
2006-01-01
E-rater[R] has been used by the Educational Testing Service for automated essay scoring since 1999. This paper describes a new version of e-rater (V.2) that is different from other automated essay scoring systems in several important respects. The main innovations of e-rater V.2 are a small, intuitive, and meaningful set of features used for…
Rater Cognition Research: Some Possible Directions for the Future
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Myford, Carol M.
2012-01-01
Over the last several decades, researchers have studied many and varied aspects of rater cognition. Those interested in pursuing basic research have focused on gaining an understanding of raters' thought processes as they score different types of performances and products, striving to understand how raters' mental representations and the cognitive…
Training the Raters: A Key to Effective Performance Appraisal.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Martin, David C.; Bartol, Kathryn M.
1986-01-01
Although appropriate rater behaviors are critical to the success of any performance appraisal system, raters frequently receive little or no training regarding how to carry out their role successfully. This article outlines the major elements that should be included in an effective rater training program. Suggested training approaches and the need…
Cognitive Representations in Raters' Assessment of Teacher Portfolios
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
van der Schaaf, Marieke; Stokking, Karel; Verloop, Nico
2005-01-01
Portfolios are frequently used to assess teachers' competences. In portfolio assessment, the issue of rater reliability is a notorious problem. To improve the quality of assessments insight into raters' judgment processes is crucial. Using a mixed quantitative and qualitative approach we studied cognitive processes underlying raters' judgments and…
An Investigation of Rater Cognition in the Assessment of Projects
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Crisp, Victoria
2012-01-01
In the United Kingdom, the majority of national assessments involve human raters. The processes by which raters determine the scores to award are central to the assessment process and affect the extent to which valid inferences can be made from assessment outcomes. Thus, understanding rater cognition has become a growing area of research in the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Shear, Benjamin R.; Zumbo, Bruno D.
2013-01-01
Type I error rates in multiple regression, and hence the chance for false positive research findings, can be drastically inflated when multiple regression models are used to analyze data that contain random measurement error. This article shows the potential for inflated Type I error rates in commonly encountered scenarios and provides new…
La Haye, R.J.
1997-02-01
The existing theoretical and experimental basis for predicting the levels of resonant static error field at different components m,n that stop plasma rotation and produce a locked mode is reviewed. For ITER ohmic discharges, the slow rotation of the very large plasma is predicted to incur a locked mode (and subsequent disastrous large magnetic islands) at a simultaneous weighted error field ({Sigma}{sub 1}{sup 3}w{sub m1}B{sup 2}{sub rm1}){sup {1/2}}/B{sub T} {ge} 1.9 x 10{sup -5}. Here the weights w{sub m1} are empirically determined from measurements on DIII-D to be w{sub 11} = 0. 2, w{sub 21} = 1.0, and w{sub 31} = 0. 8 and point out the relative importance of different error field components. This could be greatly obviated by application of counter injected neutral beams (which adds fluid flow to the natural ohmic electron drift). The addition of 5 MW of 1 MeV beams at 45{degrees} injection would increase the error field limit by a factor of 5; 13 MW would produce a factor of 10 improvement. Co-injection beams would also be effective but not as much as counter-injection as the co direction opposes the intrinsic rotation while the counter direction adds to it. A means for measuring individual PF and TF coil total axisymmetric field error to less than 1 in 10,000 is described. This would allow alignment of coils to mm accuracy and with correction coils make possible the very low levels of error field needed.
(Sample) Size Matters: Defining Error in Planktic Foraminiferal Isotope Measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowery, C.; Fraass, A. J.
2015-12-01
Planktic foraminifera have been used as carriers of stable isotopic signals since the pioneering work of Urey and Emiliani. In those heady days, instrumental limitations required hundreds of individual foraminiferal tests to return a usable value. This had the fortunate side-effect of smoothing any seasonal to decadal changes within the planktic foram population, which generally turns over monthly, removing that potential noise from each sample. With the advent of more sensitive mass spectrometers, smaller sample sizes have now become standard. This has been a tremendous advantage, allowing longer time series with the same investment of time and energy. Unfortunately, the use of smaller numbers of individuals to generate a data point has lessened the amount of time averaging in the isotopic analysis and decreased precision in paleoceanographic datasets. With fewer individuals per sample, the differences between individual specimens will result in larger variation, and therefore error, and less precise values for each sample. Unfortunately, most workers (the authors included) do not make a habit of reporting the error associated with their sample size. We have created an open-source model in R to quantify the effect of sample sizes under various realistic and highly modifiable parameters (calcification depth, diagenesis in a subset of the population, improper identification, vital effects, mass, etc.). For example, a sample in which only 1 in 10 specimens is diagenetically altered can be off by >0.3‰ δ18O VPDB or ~1°C. Additionally, and perhaps more importantly, we show that under unrealistically ideal conditions (perfect preservation, etc.) it takes ~5 individuals from the mixed-layer to achieve an error of less than 0.1‰. Including just the unavoidable vital effects inflates that number to ~10 individuals to achieve ~0.1‰. Combining these errors with the typical machine error inherent in mass spectrometers make this a vital consideration moving forward.
Oremus, Carolina; Hall, Geoffrey B C; McKinnon, Margaret C
2012-01-01
Introduction Quality assessment of included studies is an important component of systematic reviews. Objective The authors investigated inter-rater and test–retest reliability for quality assessments conducted by inexperienced student raters. Design Student raters received a training session on quality assessment using the Jadad Scale for randomised controlled trials and the Newcastle–Ottawa Scale (NOS) for observational studies. Raters were randomly assigned into five pairs and they each independently rated the quality of 13–20 articles. These articles were drawn from a pool of 78 papers examining cognitive impairment following electroconvulsive therapy to treat major depressive disorder. The articles were randomly distributed to the raters. Two months later, each rater re-assessed the quality of half of their assigned articles. Setting McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study Program. Participants 10 students taking McMaster Integrative Neuroscience Discovery and Study Program courses. Main outcome measures The authors measured inter-rater reliability using κ and the intraclass correlation coefficient type 2,1 or ICC(2,1). The authors measured test–retest reliability using ICC(2,1). Results Inter-rater reliability varied by scale question. For the six-item Jadad Scale, question-specific κs ranged from 0.13 (95% CI −0.11 to 0.37) to 0.56 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.83). The ranges were −0.14 (95% CI −0.28 to 0.00) to 0.39 (95% CI −0.02 to 0.81) for the NOS cohort and −0.20 (95% CI −0.49 to 0.09) to 1.00 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.00) for the NOS case–control. For overall scores on the six-item Jadad Scale, ICC(2,1)s for inter-rater and test–retest reliability (accounting for systematic differences between raters) were 0.32 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.52) and 0.55 (95% CI 0.41 to 0.67), respectively. Corresponding ICC(2,1)s for the NOS cohort were −0.19 (95% CI −0.67 to 0.35) and 0.62 (95% CI 0.25 to 0.83), and for the NOS case–control, the ICC(2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, M. D.; Durand, M.; Jung, H. C.; Alsdorf, D.
2015-04-01
The Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, scheduled for launch in 2020, will provide a step-change improvement in the measurement of terrestrial surface-water storage and dynamics. In particular, it will provide the first, routine two-dimensional measurements of water-surface elevations. In this paper, we aimed to (i) characterise and illustrate in two dimensions the errors which may be found in SWOT swath measurements of terrestrial surface water, (ii) simulate the spatio-temporal sampling scheme of SWOT for the Amazon, and (iii) assess the impact of each of these on estimates of water-surface slope and river discharge which may be obtained from SWOT imagery. We based our analysis on a virtual mission for a ~260 km reach of the central Amazon (Solimões) River, using a hydraulic model to provide water-surface elevations according to SWOT spatio-temporal sampling to which errors were added based on a two-dimensional height error spectrum derived from the SWOT design requirements. We thereby obtained water-surface elevation measurements for the Amazon main stem as may be observed by SWOT. Using these measurements, we derived estimates of river slope and discharge and compared them to those obtained directly from the hydraulic model. We found that cross-channel and along-reach averaging of SWOT measurements using reach lengths greater than 4 km for the Solimões and 7.5 km for Purus reduced the effect of systematic height errors, enabling discharge to be reproduced accurately from the water height, assuming known bathymetry and friction. Using cross-sectional averaging and 20 km reach lengths, results show Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency values of 0.99 for the Solimões and 0.88 for the Purus, with 2.6 and 19.1 % average overall error in discharge, respectively. We extend the results to other rivers worldwide and infer that SWOT-derived discharge estimates may be more accurate for rivers with larger channel widths (permitting a greater level of cross
Steinsvåg, Kjersti; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E; Kromhout, Hans
2007-01-01
Objectives To evaluate the reliability of an expert team assessing exposure to carcinogens in the offshore petroleum industry and to study how the information provided influenced the agreement among raters. Methods Eight experts individually assessed the likelihood of exposure for combinations of 17 carcinogens, 27 job categories and four time periods (1970–1979, 1980–1989, 1990–1999 and 2000–2005). Each rater assessed 1836 combinations based on summary documents on carcinogenic agents, which included descriptions of sources of exposure and products, descriptions of work processes carried out within the different job categories, and monitoring data. Inter‐rater agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa index and single and average score intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) (ICC(2,1) and ICC(2,8), respectively). Differences in inter‐rater agreement for time periods, raters, International Agency for Research on Cancer groups and the amount of information provided were consequently studied. Results Overall, 18% of the combinations were denoted as possible exposure, and 14% scored probable exposure. Stratified by the 17 carcinogenic agents, the probable exposure prevalence ranged from 3.8% for refractory ceramic fibres to 30% for crude oil. Overall mean kappa was 0.42 (ICC(2,1) = 0.62 and ICC(2,8) = 0.93). Providing limited quantitative measurement data was associated with less agreement than for equally well described carcinogens without sampling data. Conclusion The overall κ and single‐score ICC indicate that the raters agree on exposure estimates well above the chance level. The levels of inter‐rater agreement were higher than in other comparable studies. The average score ICC indicates reliable mean estimates and implies that sufficient raters were involved. The raters seemed to have enough documentation on which to base their estimates, but provision of limited monitoring data leads to more incongruence among raters. Having real
An Empirical Study of the Relative Error Magnitude in Three Measures of Change.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Williams, Richard H.; And Others
1984-01-01
This paper describes the procedures and results of two studies designed to yield empirical comparisons of the error magnitude in three change measures: the simple gain score, the residualized difference score, and the base free measure (Tucker et al). Residualized scores possessed smaller standard errors of measurement. (Author/BS)
Error analysis of rigid body posture measurement system based on circular feature points
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huo, Ju; Cui, Jishan; Yang, Ning
2015-02-01
For monocular vision pose parameters determine the problem, feature-based target feature points on the plane quadrilateral, an improved two-stage iterative algorithm is proposed to improve the optimization of rigid body posture measurement calculating model. Monocular vision rigid body posture measurement system is designed; experimentally in each coordinate system determined coordinate a unified method to unify the each feature point measure coordinates; theoretical analysis sources of error from rigid body posture measurement system simulation experiments. Combined with the actual experimental analysis system under the condition of simulation error of pose accuracy of measurement, gives the comprehensive error of measurement system, for improving measurement precision of certain theoretical guiding significance.
Rater Characteristics and Rater Bias: Implications for Training.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lumley, Tom; McNamara, T. F.
Recent developments in multi-faceted Rasch measurement (Linacre, 1989) have made possible new kinds of investigations of aspects of performance assessments. Bias analysis, interactions between elements of any facet, can also be analyzed, which permits investigation of the way a particular aspect of the test situation may elicit a consistently…
Mishra, Vipanchi; Roch, Sylvia G
2013-01-01
Much of the prior research investigating the influence of cultural values on performance ratings has focused either on conducting cross-national comparisons among raters or using cultural level individualism/collectivism scales to measure the effects of cultural values on performance ratings. Recent research has shown that there is considerable within country variation in cultural values, i.e. people in one country can be more individualistic or collectivistic in nature. Taking the latter perspective, the present study used Markus and Kitayama's (1991) conceptualization of independent and interdependent self-construals as measures of individual variations in cultural values to investigate within culture variations in performance ratings. Results suggest that rater self-construal has a significant influence on overall performance evaluations; specifically, raters with a highly interdependent self-construal tend to show a preference for interdependent ratees, whereas raters high on independent self-construal do not show a preference for specific type of ratees when making overall performance evaluations. Although rater self-construal significantly influenced overall performance evaluations, no such effects were observed for specific dimension ratings. Implications of these results for performance appraisal research and practice are discussed. PMID:23885636
Compensation method for the alignment angle error of a gear axis in profile deviation measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Suping; Liu, Yongsheng; Wang, Huiyi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryuhei
2013-05-01
In the precision measurement of involute helical gears, the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error of a gear measuring machine, will affect the measurement accuracy of profile deviation. A model of the involute helical gear is established under the condition that the alignment angle error of the gear axis exists. Based on the measurement theory of profile deviation, without changing the initial measurement method and data process of the gear measuring machine, a compensation method is proposed for the alignment angle error of the gear axis that is included in profile deviation measurement results. Using this method, the alignment angle error of the gear axis can be compensated for precisely. Some experiments that compare the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis after compensation for the initial alignment angle error were performed to verify the accuracy and feasibility of this method. Experimental results show that the residual alignment angle error of a gear axis included in the profile deviation measurement results is decreased by more than 85% after compensation, and this compensation method significantly improves the measurement accuracy of the profile deviation of involute helical gear.
Analysis of measured data of human body based on error correcting frequency
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Aiyan; Peipei, Gao; Shang, Xiaomei
2014-04-01
Anthropometry is to measure all parts of human body surface, and the measured data is the basis of analysis and study of the human body, establishment and modification of garment size and formulation and implementation of online clothing store. In this paper, several groups of the measured data are gained, and analysis of data error is gotten by analyzing the error frequency and using analysis of variance method in mathematical statistics method. Determination of the measured data accuracy and the difficulty of measured parts of human body, further studies of the causes of data errors, and summarization of the key points to minimize errors possibly are also mentioned in the paper. This paper analyses the measured data based on error frequency, and in a way , it provides certain reference elements to promote the garment industry development.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonilha, Heather S.; Dawson, Amy; McGrattan, Katlyn
2012-02-01
Mucus aggregation on the vocal folds, a common complaint amongst persons with voice disorders, has been visually rated on four parameters: type, pooling, thickness, and location. Rater training is used to improve the reliability and accuracy of these ratings. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of training on rater reliability, accuracy and response time. Two raters scored mucus aggregation from 120 stroboscopic exams after a brief introductory session and again after a thorough training session. Reliability and accuracy were calculated in percent agreement. Two-tail paired t-tests were used to assess differences in reaction time for ratings before and after training. Inter-rater reliability improved from 79% pre-training to 92% post-training. Intra-rater reliability improved from 77% to 91% for Rater 1 and 80% to 88% for Rater 2 following training. Accuracy improved from 80% to 96% for Rater 1 and 76% to 95% for Rater 2 from pre- to post-training. Reaction time decreased for both raters (p=0.025). These findings further our understanding of observer performance on judgments of laryngeal mucus. These results suggest that rater training increases reliability and accuracy while decreasing reaction time. Future studies should assess the relationship of these judgments and voice changes.
Detecting bit-flip errors in a logical qubit using stabilizer measurements
Ristè, D.; Poletto, S.; Huang, M.-Z.; Bruno, A.; Vesterinen, V.; Saira, O.-P.; DiCarlo, L.
2015-01-01
Quantum data are susceptible to decoherence induced by the environment and to errors in the hardware processing it. A future fault-tolerant quantum computer will use quantum error correction to actively protect against both. In the smallest error correction codes, the information in one logical qubit is encoded in a two-dimensional subspace of a larger Hilbert space of multiple physical qubits. For each code, a set of non-demolition multi-qubit measurements, termed stabilizers, can discretize and signal physical qubit errors without collapsing the encoded information. Here using a five-qubit superconducting processor, we realize the two parity measurements comprising the stabilizers of the three-qubit repetition code protecting one logical qubit from physical bit-flip errors. While increased physical qubit coherence times and shorter quantum error correction blocks are required to actively safeguard the quantum information, this demonstration is a critical step towards larger codes based on multiple parity measurements. PMID:25923318
Error analysis in the measurement of average power with application to switching controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Maisel, J. E.
1979-01-01
The behavior of the power measurement error due to the frequency responses of first order transfer functions between the input sinusoidal voltage, input sinusoidal current and the signal multiplier was studied. It was concluded that this measurement error can be minimized if the frequency responses of the first order transfer functions are identical.
Comparing Graphical and Verbal Representations of Measurement Error in Test Score Reports
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zwick, Rebecca; Zapata-Rivera, Diego; Hegarty, Mary
2014-01-01
Research has shown that many educators do not understand the terminology or displays used in test score reports and that measurement error is a particularly challenging concept. We investigated graphical and verbal methods of representing measurement error associated with individual student scores. We created four alternative score reports, each…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, ChangHwan; Tamborini, Christopher R.
2012-01-01
Few studies have considered how earnings inequality estimates may be affected by measurement error in self-reported earnings in surveys. Utilizing restricted-use data that links workers in the Survey of Income and Program Participation with their W-2 earnings records, we examine the effect of measurement error on estimates of racial earnings…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Chuanzhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Yangchao
2016-02-01
The paper designs a roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error, which takes eccentricity, probe offset, radius of tip head of probe, and tilt error into account for roundness measurement of cylindrical components. The effects of the systematic errors and radius of components are analysed in the roundness measurement. The proposed method is built on the instrument with a high precision rotating spindle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiment with the standard cylindrical component, which is measured on a roundness measuring machine. Compared to the traditional limacon measurement model, the accuracy of roundness measurement can be increased by about 2.2 μm using the proposed roundness measurement model for the object with a large radius of around 37 mm. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of roundness measurement and can be used for error separation, calibration, and comparison, especially for cylindrical components with a large radius.
Sun, Chuanzhi; Wang, Lei; Tan, Jiubin; Zhao, Bo; Tang, Yangchao
2016-02-01
The paper designs a roundness measurement model with multi-systematic error, which takes eccentricity, probe offset, radius of tip head of probe, and tilt error into account for roundness measurement of cylindrical components. The effects of the systematic errors and radius of components are analysed in the roundness measurement. The proposed method is built on the instrument with a high precision rotating spindle. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by experiment with the standard cylindrical component, which is measured on a roundness measuring machine. Compared to the traditional limacon measurement model, the accuracy of roundness measurement can be increased by about 2.2 μm using the proposed roundness measurement model for the object with a large radius of around 37 mm. The proposed method can improve the accuracy of roundness measurement and can be used for error separation, calibration, and comparison, especially for cylindrical components with a large radius. PMID:26931894
Schöberl, Iris; Kortekaas, Kim; Schöberl, Franz F; Kotrschal, Kurt
2015-12-01
Dog heart rate (HR) is characterized by a respiratory sinus arrhythmia, and therefore makes an automatic algorithm for error correction of HR measurements hard to apply. Here, we present a new method of error correction for HR data collected with the Polar system, including (1) visual inspection of the data, (2) a standardized way to decide with the aid of an algorithm whether or not a value is an outlier (i.e., "error"), and (3) the subsequent removal of this error from the data set. We applied our new error correction method to the HR data of 24 dogs and compared the uncorrected and corrected data, as well as the algorithm-supported visual error correction (AVEC) with the Polar error correction. The results showed that fewer values were identified as errors after AVEC than after the Polar error correction (p < .001). After AVEC, the HR standard deviation and variability (HRV; i.e., RMSSD, pNN50, and SDNN) were significantly greater than after correction by the Polar tool (all p < .001). Furthermore, the HR data strings with deleted values seemed to be closer to the original data than were those with inserted means. We concluded that our method of error correction is more suitable for dog HR and HR variability than is the customized Polar error correction, especially because AVEC decreases the likelihood of Type I errors, preserves the natural variability in HR, and does not lead to a time shift in the data. PMID:25540125
A measurement methodology for dynamic angle of sight errors in hardware-in-the-loop simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wen-pan; Wu, Jun-hui; Gan, Lin; Zhao, Hong-peng; Liang, Wei-wei
2015-10-01
In order to precisely measure dynamic angle of sight for hardware-in-the-loop simulation, a dynamic measurement methodology was established and a set of measurement system was built. The errors and drifts, such as synchronization delay, CCD measurement error and drift, laser spot error on diffuse reflection plane and optics axis drift of laser, were measured and analyzed. First, by analyzing and measuring synchronization time between laser and time of controlling data, an error control method was devised and lowered synchronization delay to 21μs. Then, the relationship between CCD device and laser spot position was calibrated precisely and fitted by two-dimension surface fitting. CCD measurement error and drift were controlled below 0.26mrad. Next, angular resolution was calculated, and laser spot error on diffuse reflection plane was estimated to be 0.065mrad. Finally, optics axis drift of laser was analyzed and measured which did not exceed 0.06mrad. The measurement results indicate that the maximum of errors and drifts of the measurement methodology is less than 0.275mrad. The methodology can satisfy the measurement on dynamic angle of sight of higher precision and lager scale.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chien-Hung; Jywe, Wen-Yuh; Lee, Hau-Wei
2004-09-01
A new spindle error measurement system has been developed in this paper. It employs a design development rotational fixture with a built-in laser diode and four batteries to replace a precision reference master ball or cylinder used in the traditional method. Two measuring devices with two position sensitive detectors (one is designed for the measurement of the compound X-axis and Y-axis errors and the other is designed with a lens for the measurement of the tilt angular errors) are fixed on the machine table to detect the laser point position from the laser diode in the rotational fixture. When the spindle rotates, the spindle error changes the direction of the laser beam. The laser beam is then divided into two separated beams by a beam splitter. The two separated beams are projected onto the two measuring devices and are detected by two position sensitive detectors, respectively. Thus, the compound motion errors and the tilt angular errors of the spindle can be obtained. Theoretical analysis and experimental tests are presented in this paper to separate the compound errors into two radial errors and tilt angular errors. This system is proposed as a new instrument and method for spindle metrology.
Error-measure for anisotropic grid-adaptation in turbulence-resolving simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toosi, Siavash; Larsson, Johan
2015-11-01
Grid-adaptation requires an error-measure that identifies where the grid should be refined. In the case of turbulence-resolving simulations (DES, LES, DNS), a simple error-measure is the small-scale resolved energy, which scales with both the modeled subgrid-stresses and the numerical truncation errors in many situations. Since this is a scalar measure, it does not carry any information on the anisotropy of the optimal grid-refinement. The purpose of this work is to introduce a new error-measure for turbulence-resolving simulations that is capable of predicting nearly-optimal anisotropic grids. Turbulent channel flow at Reτ ~ 300 is used to assess the performance of the proposed error-measure. The formulation is geometrically general, applicable to any type of unstructured grid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konings, A. G.; Gruber, A.; Mccoll, K. A.; Alemohammad, S. H.; Entekhabi, D.
2015-12-01
Validating large-scale estimates of geophysical variables by comparing them to in situ measurements neglects the fact that these in situ measurements are not generally representative of the larger area. That is, in situ measurements contain some `representativeness error'. They also have their own sensor errors. The naïve approach of characterizing the errors of a remote sensing or modeling dataset by comparison to in situ measurements thus leads to error estimates that are spuriously inflated by the representativeness and other errors in the in situ measurements. Nevertheless, this naïve approach is still very common in the literature. In this work, we introduce an alternative estimator of the large-scale dataset error that explicitly takes into account the fact that the in situ measurements have some unknown error. The performance of the two estimators is then compared in the context of soil moisture datasets under different conditions for the true soil moisture climatology and dataset biases. The new estimator is shown to lead to a more accurate characterization of the dataset errors under the most common conditions. If a third dataset is available, the principles of the triple collocation method can be used to determine the errors of both the large-scale estimates and in situ measurements. However, triple collocation requires that the errors in all datasets are uncorrelated with each other and with the truth. We show that even when the assumptions of triple collocation are violated, a triple collocation-based validation approach may still be more accurate than a naïve comparison to in situ measurements that neglects representativeness errors.
Compensation method for the alignment angle error in pitch deviation measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yongsheng; Fang, Suping; Wang, Huiyi; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Takeda, Ryohei
2016-05-01
When measuring the tooth flank of an involute helical gear by gear measuring center (GMC), the alignment angle error of a gear axis, which was caused by the assembly error and manufacturing error of the GMC, will affect the measurement accuracy of pitch deviation of the gear tooth flank. Based on the model of the involute helical gear and the tooth flank measurement theory, a method is proposed to compensate the alignment angle error that is included in the measurement results of pitch deviation, without changing the initial measurement method of the GMC. Simulation experiments are done to verify the compensation method and the results show that after compensation, the alignment angle error of the gear axis included in measurement results of pitch deviation declines significantly, more than 90% of the alignment angle errors are compensated, and the residual alignment angle errors in pitch deviation measurement results are less than 0.1 μm. It shows that the proposed method can improve the measurement accuracy of the GMC when measuring the pitch deviation of involute helical gear.
Correction of motion measurement errors beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar
Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas
2008-06-24
Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.
State-independent error-disturbance trade-off for measurement operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, S. S.; Wu, Shengjun; Chau, H. F.
2016-05-01
In general, classical measurement statistics of a quantum measurement is disturbed by performing an additional incompatible quantum measurement beforehand. Using this observation, we introduce a state-independent definition of disturbance by relating it to the distinguishability problem between two classical statistical distributions - one resulting from a single quantum measurement and the other from a succession of two quantum measurements. Interestingly, we find an error-disturbance trade-off relation for any measurements in two-dimensional Hilbert space and for measurements with mutually unbiased bases in any finite-dimensional Hilbert space. This relation shows that error should be reduced to zero in order to minimize the sum of error and disturbance. We conjecture that a similar trade-off relation with a slightly relaxed definition of error can be generalized to any measurements in an arbitrary finite-dimensional Hilbert space.
Sources of strain-measurement error in flag-based extensometry
Luecke, W.E.; French, J.D.
1996-06-01
This paper examines the sources of error in strain measurement using flag-based extensometry that uses either scanning laser or electrooptical extensometers. These errors fall into two groups: errors in measuring the true gauge length of the specimen, which arise from the method of attachment of the flags, and errors arising from unanticipated distortions of the specimen during testing. The sources of errors of the first type include gauge-length errors from nonparallel flags and uncertainties in the true attachment point of the flag. During the test, strain-measurement errors of the second type can arise from horizontal translation of non-parallel flags, flag rotation that is induced by slippage, and flag motion from bending of the gauge length. Proper care can minimize the effect of these potential errors, so that flag-based extensometry can give accurate strain measurement, if appropriate precautions are taken. Measurements on silicon nitride indicate that the strain measurements are accurate to better than 10%.
Lewis, Jeremy S; Valentine, Rachel E
2007-01-01
Background Postural abnormality and muscle imbalance are thought to contribute to pain and a loss of normal function in the upper body. A shortened pectoralis minor muscle is commonly identified as part of this imbalance. Clinical tests have been recommended to test for shortening of this muscle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-rater reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the pectoralis minor length test. Methods Measurements were made in 45 subjects with and 45 subjects without shoulder symptoms. Measurements were made with the subjects lying in supine. In this position the linear distance from the treatment table to the posterior aspect of the acromion was measured on two occasions (separated by a minimum of 30 minutes and additional data collection on other subjects to reduce bias) by one rater. The reliability of the measurements was analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% confidence intervals (CI) and standard error of measurement (SEM). The diagnostic accuracy of the test was investigated by determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios of the test against a 'gold standard' reference. The assessor remained 'blinded' to data input and the measurements were staggered to reduce examiner bias. Results The pectoralis minor length test was found to have excellent intra-rater reliability for dominant and non-dominant side of the subjects without symptoms, and for the painfree and painful side of the subjects with symptoms. The values calculated for the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios suggest this test performed in the manner investigated in this study and recommended in the literature, lacks diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that although the pectoralis minor length test demonstrates acceptable clinical reliability, its lack of specificity suggests that clinicians using this test to inform the clinical reasoning process with
Calibration for the errors resulted from aberration in long focal length measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Jiang; Luo, Jia; He, Fan; Bai, Jian; Wang, Kaiwei; Hou, Xiyun; Hou, Changlun
2014-09-01
In this paper, a high-accuracy calibration method for errors resulted from aberration in long focal length measurement, is presented. Generally, Gaussian Equation is used for calculation without consideration of the errors caused by aberration. However, the errors are the key factor affecting the accuracy in the measurement system of a large aperture and long focal length lens. We creatively introduce an effective way to calibrate the errors, with detailed analysis of the long focal length measurement based on divergent light and Talbot interferometry. Aberration errors are simulated by Zemax. Then, we achieve auto-correction with the help of Visual C++ software and the experimental results reveal that the relative accuracy is better than 0.01%.By comparing modified values with experimental results obtained in knife-edge testing measurement, the proposed method is proved to be highly effective and reliable.
Measurement error analysis of Brillouin lidar system using F-P etalon and ICCD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yao, Yuan; Niu, Qunjie; Liang, Kun
2016-09-01
Brillouin lidar system using Fabry-Pérot (F-P) etalon and Intensified Charge Coupled Device (ICCD) is capable of real time remote measuring of properties like temperature of seawater. The measurement accuracy is determined by two key parameters, Brillouin frequency shift and Brillouin linewidth. Three major errors, namely the laser frequency instability, the calibration error of F-P etalon and the random shot noise are discussed. Theoretical analysis combined with simulation results showed that the laser and F-P etalon will cause about 4 MHz error to both Brillouin shift and linewidth, and random noise bring more error to linewidth than frequency shift. A comprehensive and comparative analysis of the overall errors under various conditions proved that colder ocean(10 °C) is more accurately measured with Brillouin linewidth, and warmer ocean (30 °C) is better measured with Brillouin shift.
Errors in anthropometric measurements in neonates and infants.
Harrison, D; Harker, H; Heese, H D; Mann, M D; Berelowitz, J
2001-05-01
The accuracy of methods used in Cape Town hospitals and clinics for the measurement of weight, length and age in neonates and infants became suspect during a survey of 12 local authority and 5 private sector clinics in 1994-1995 (Harrison et al. 1998). A descriptive prospective study to determine the accuracy of these methods in neonates at four maternity hospitals [2 public and 2 private] and infants at four child health clinics of the Cape Town City Council was carried out. The main outcome measures were an assessment of three currently used methods namely to measure crown-heel length with a measuring board, a mat and a tape measure; a comparison of weight differences when an infant is fully clothed, naked and in napkin only; and the differences in age estimated by calendar dates and by a specially designed electronic calculator. The results showed that the current methods which are used to measure infants in Cape Town vary widely from one institution to another. Many measurements are inaccurate and there is a real need for uniformity and accuracy. This can only be implemented by an effective education program so as to ensure that accurate measurements are used in monitoring the health of young children in Cape Town and elsewhere. PMID:11885471
Quantifying Error in Survey Measures of School and Classroom Environments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schweig, Jonathan David
2014-01-01
Developing indicators that reflect important aspects of school and classroom environments has become central in a nationwide effort to develop comprehensive programs that measure teacher quality and effectiveness. Formulating teacher evaluation policy necessitates accurate and reliable methods for measuring these environmental variables. This…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raczynski, Kevin R.; Cohen, Allan S.; Engelhard, George, Jr.; Lu, Zhenqiu
2015-01-01
There is a large body of research on the effectiveness of rater training methods in the industrial and organizational psychology literature. Less has been reported in the measurement literature on large-scale writing assessments. This study compared the effectiveness of two widely used rater training methods--self-paced and collaborative…
Method of error analysis for phase-measuring algorithms applied to photoelasticity.
Quiroga, J A; González-Cano, A
1998-07-10
We present a method of error analysis that can be applied for phase-measuring algorithms applied to photoelasticity. We calculate the contributions to the measurement error of the different elements of a circular polariscope as perturbations of the Jones matrices associated with each element. The Jones matrix of the real polariscope can then be calculated as a sum of the nominal matrix and a series of contributions that depend on the errors associated with each element separately. We apply this method to the analysis of phase-measuring algorithms for the determination of isoclinics and isochromatics, including comparisons with real measurements. PMID:18285900
Tilt error in cryospheric surface radiation measurements at high latitudes: a model study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogren, Wiley Steven; Faulkner Burkhart, John; Kylling, Arve
2016-03-01
We have evaluated the magnitude and makeup of error in cryospheric radiation observations due to small sensor misalignment in in situ measurements of solar irradiance. This error is examined through simulation of diffuse and direct irradiance arriving at a detector with a cosine-response fore optic. Emphasis is placed on assessing total error over the solar shortwave spectrum from 250 to 4500 nm, as well as supporting investigation over other relevant shortwave spectral ranges. The total measurement error introduced by sensor tilt is dominated by the direct component. For a typical high-latitude albedo measurement with a solar zenith angle of 60°, a sensor tilted by 1, 3, and 5° can, respectively introduce up to 2.7, 8.1, and 13.5 % error into the measured irradiance and similar errors in the derived albedo. Depending on the daily range of solar azimuth and zenith angles, significant measurement error can persist also in integrated daily irradiance and albedo. Simulations including a cloud layer demonstrate decreasing tilt error with increasing cloud optical depth.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Honggang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Jiang, Hao; Chen, Xiuguo; Li, Weiqi; Liu, Shiyuan
2015-06-01
Dual-rotating compensator Mueller matrix ellipsometer (DRC-MME) has been designed and applied as a powerful tool for the characterization of thin films and nanostructures. The compensators are indispensable optical components and their performances affect the precision and accuracy of DRC-MME significantly. Biplates made of birefringent crystals are commonly used compensators in the DRC-MME, and their optical axes invariably have tilt errors due to imperfect fabrication and improper installation in practice. The axis tilt error between the rotation axis and the light beam will lead to a continuous vibration in the retardance of the rotating biplate, which further results in significant measurement errors in the Mueller matrix. In this paper, we propose a simple but valid formula for the retardance calculation under arbitrary tilt angle and azimuth angle to analyze the axis tilt errors in biplates. We further study the relations between the measurement errors in the Mueller matrix and the biplate axis tilt through simulations and experiments. We find that the axis tilt errors mainly affect the cross-talk from linear polarization to circular polarization and vice versa. In addition, the measurement errors in Mueller matrix increase acceleratively with the axis tilt errors in biplates, and the optimal retardance for reducing these errors is about 80°. This work can be expected to provide some guidences for the selection, installation and commissioning of the biplate compensator in DRC-MME design.
Slide error measurement of a large-scale ultra-precision lathe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Jung Chul; Gao, Wei; Noh, Young Jin; Hwang, Joo Ho; Oh, Jeoung Seok; Park, Chun Hong
2010-08-01
This paper presents the measurement of the slide error of a large-scale ultra-precision lathe with an effective fabricating length of 2000 mm. A cylinder workpiece with a diameter of 320 mm and a length of 1500 mm was mounted on the spindle of the lathe with its rotational axis along the Z-direction. Two capacitive displacement probes with a measurement range of 100 μm were mounted on the slide of lathe with its moving axis along the Z-direction. The displacement probes were placed on the two sides of the cylinder workpiece over the horizontal plane (XZ-plane). The cylinder workpiece, which was rotated by the spindle, was scanned by the displacement probes moved by the slide. The X-directional horizontal slide error can be accurately evaluated from the probe outputs by using a proposed rotatingreversal method through separating the influences of the form error of the cylinder workpiece and the rotational error of the spindle. In addition to the out-of-straightness error component, the parallelism error component with respect to the spindle axis, can also be evaluated. The out-of-straightness error component and the parallelism error component of the slide error were measured to be 3.3 μm and 1.68 arc-seconds over a slide travel range of 1450.08 mm, respectively.
Mints, M.Ya.; Chinkov, V.N.
1995-09-01
Rational algorithms for measuring the harmonic coefficient in microprocessor instruments for measuring nonlinear distortions based on digital processing of the codes of the instantaneous values of the signal being investigated are described and the errors of such instruments are obtained.
Modal Correction Method For Dynamically Induced Errors In Wind-Tunnel Model Attitude Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Buehrle, R. D.; Young, C. P., Jr.
1995-01-01
This paper describes a method for correcting the dynamically induced bias errors in wind tunnel model attitude measurements using measured modal properties of the model system. At NASA Langley Research Center, the predominant instrumentation used to measure model attitude is a servo-accelerometer device that senses the model attitude with respect to the local vertical. Under smooth wind tunnel operating conditions, this inertial device can measure the model attitude with an accuracy of 0.01 degree. During wind tunnel tests when the model is responding at high dynamic amplitudes, the inertial device also senses the centrifugal acceleration associated with model vibration. This centrifugal acceleration results in a bias error in the model attitude measurement. A study of the response of a cantilevered model system to a simulated dynamic environment shows significant bias error in the model attitude measurement can occur and is vibration mode and amplitude dependent. For each vibration mode contributing to the bias error, the error is estimated from the measured modal properties and tangential accelerations at the model attitude device. Linear superposition is used to combine the bias estimates for individual modes to determine the overall bias error as a function of time. The modal correction model predicts the bias error to a high degree of accuracy for the vibration modes characterized in the simulated dynamic environment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez de León, F. C.; Meroño Pérez, P. A.
2010-07-01
The traditional method for measuring the velocity and the angular vibration in the shaft of rotating machines using incremental encoders is based on counting the pulses at given time intervals. This method is generically called the time interval measurement system (TIMS). A variant of this method that we have developed in this work consists of measuring the corresponding time of each pulse from the encoder and sampling the signal by means of an A/D converter as if it were an analog signal, that is to say, in discrete time. For this reason, we have denominated this method as the discrete time interval measurement system (DTIMS). This measurement system provides a substantial improvement in the precision and frequency resolution compared with the traditional method of counting pulses. In addition, this method permits modification of the width of some pulses in order to obtain a mark-phase on every lap. This paper explains the theoretical fundamentals of the DTIMS and its application for measuring the angular vibrations of rotating machines. It also displays the required relationship between the sampling rate of the signal, the number of pulses of the encoder and the rotating velocity in order to obtain the required resolution and to delimit the methodological errors in the measurement.
Ambient Temperature Changes and the Impact to Time Measurement Error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogrizovic, V.; Gucevic, J.; Delcev, S.
2012-12-01
Measurements in Geodetic Astronomy are mainly outdoors and performed during a night, when the temperature often decreases very quickly. The time-keeping during a measuring session is provided by collecting UTC time ticks from a GPS receiver and transferring them to a laptop computer. An interrupt handler routine processes received UTC impulses in real-time and calculates the clock parameters. The characteristics of the computer quartz clock are influenced by temperature changes of the environment. We exposed the laptop to different environmental temperature conditions, and calculate the clock parameters for each environmental model. The results show that the laptop used for time-keeping in outdoor measurements should be kept in a stable temperature environment, at temperatures near 20° C.
Exhaled Nitric Oxide: Sources of Error in Offline Measurement
LINN, WILLIAM S.; AVILA, MARISELA; GONG, HENRY
2007-01-01
Delayed offline measurement of exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), although useful in environmental and clinical research, is limited by the instability of stored breath samples. The authors characterized sources of instability with the goal of minimizing them. Breath and other air samples were stored under various conditions, and NO levels were measured repeatedly over 1–7 d. Concentration change rates varied positively with temperature and negatively with initial NO level, thus “stable” levels reflected a balance of NO-adding and NO-removing processes. Storage under refrigeration for a standardized period of time can optimize offline eNO measurement, although samples at room temperature are effectively stable for several hours. PMID:16268114
Error Sources in the ETA Energy Analyzer Measurement
Nexsen, W E
2004-12-13
At present the ETA beam energy as measured by the ETA energy analyzer and the DARHT spectrometer differ by {approx}12%. This discrepancy is due to two sources, an overestimate of the effective length of the ETA energy analyzer bending-field, and data reduction methods that are not valid. The discrepancy can be eliminated if we return to the original process of measuring the angular deflection of the beam and use a value of 43.2cm for the effective length of the axial field profile.
Rocheleau, Carissa M; Lawson, Christina C; Waters, Martha A; Hein, Misty J; Stewart, Patricia A; Correa, Adolfo; Echeverria, Diana; Reefhuis, Jennita
2011-12-01
Because direct measurements of past occupational exposures are rarely available in population-based case-control studies, exposure assessment of job histories by multiple expert raters is frequently used; however, the subjective nature of this method makes measuring reliability an important quality control step. We evaluated inter-rater reliability of 7729 retrospective jobs reported in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Jobs were classified as exposed, unexposed, or exposure unknown by two independent industrial hygienists; exposed jobs were further evaluated for intensity, frequency, and routes. Exposure prevalence ranged from 0.1-9.8%. Inter-rater reliability for exposure (yes/no), assessed by kappa coefficients, was fair to good for cadmium (κ = 0.46), chlorinated solvents (κ = 0.59), cobalt (κ = 0.54), glycol ethers (κ = 0.50), nickel compounds (κ = 0.65), oil mists (κ = 0.63), and Stoddard Solvent (κ = 0.55); PAHs (κ = 0.24) and elemental nickel (κ = 0.37) had poor agreement. After a consensus conference resolved disagreements, an additional 4962 jobs were evaluated. Inter-rater reliability improved or stayed the same for cadmium (κ = 0.51), chlorinated solvents (κ = 0.81), oil mists (κ = 0.63), PAHs (κ = 0.52), and Stoddard solvent (κ = 0.92) in the second job set. Inter-rater reliability varied by exposure agent and prevalence, demonstrating the importance of measuring reliability in studies using a multiple expert rater method of exposure assessment. PMID:22074298
Improving surface energy balance closure by reducing errors in soil heat flux measurement
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The flux plate method is the most commonly employed method for measuring soil heat flux (G) in surface energy balance studies. Although relatively simple to use, the flux plate method is susceptible to significant errors. Two of the most common errors are heat flow divergence around the plate and fa...
Measurement, Sampling, and Equating Errors in Large-Scale Assessments
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wu, Margaret
2010-01-01
In large-scale assessments, such as state-wide testing programs, national sample-based assessments, and international comparative studies, there are many steps involved in the measurement and reporting of student achievement. There are always sources of inaccuracies in each of the steps. It is of interest to identify the source and magnitude of…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fratini, G.; McDermitt, D. K.; Papale, D.
2013-08-01
Errors in gas concentration measurements by infrared gas analysers can occur during eddy-covariance campaigns, associated with actual or apparent instrumental drifts or to biases due to thermal expansion, dirt contamination, aging of components or errors in field operations. If occurring on long time scales (hours to days), these errors are normally ignored during flux computation, under the assumption that errors in mean gas concentrations do not affect the estimation of turbulent fluctuations and, hence, of covariances. By analysing instrument theory of operation, and using numerical simulations and field data, we show that this is not the case for instruments with curvilinear calibrations; we further show that if not appropriately accounted for, concentration biases can lead to roughly proportional systematic flux errors, where the fractional errors in fluxes are about 30-40% the fractional errors in concentrations. We quantify these errors and characterize their dependency on main determinants. We then propose a correction procedure that largely - potentially completely - eliminates these errors. The correction, to be applied during flux computation, is based on knowledge of instrument calibration curves and on field or laboratory calibration data. Finally, we demonstrate the occurrence of such errors and validate the correction procedure by means of a field experiment, and accordingly provide recommendations for in situ operations. The correction described in this paper will soon be available in the EddyPro software (www.licor.com/eddypro).
Error analysis in stereo vision for location measurement of 3D point
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yunting; Zhang, Jun; Tian, Jinwen
2015-12-01
Location measurement of 3D point in stereo vision is subjected to different sources of uncertainty that propagate to the final result. For current methods of error analysis, most of them are based on ideal intersection model to calculate the uncertainty region of point location via intersecting two fields of view of pixel that may produce loose bounds. Besides, only a few of sources of error such as pixel error or camera position are taken into account in the process of analysis. In this paper we present a straightforward and available method to estimate the location error that is taken most of source of error into account. We summed up and simplified all the input errors to five parameters by rotation transformation. Then we use the fast algorithm of midpoint method to deduce the mathematical relationships between target point and the parameters. Thus, the expectations and covariance matrix of 3D point location would be obtained, which can constitute the uncertainty region of point location. Afterwards, we turned back to the error propagation of the primitive input errors in the stereo system and throughout the whole analysis process from primitive input errors to localization error. Our method has the same level of computational complexity as the state-of-the-art method. Finally, extensive experiments are performed to verify the performance of our methods.
Some aspects of error influences in interferometric measurements of optical surface forms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schulz, M.; Wiegmann, A.
2011-05-01
Interferometry is often used to measure the form of optical surfaces. While interferometry is generally expected to give high accuracy results, a variety of error influences exist which have to be considered. Some typical error influences which are often underestimated will be discussed in this paper. In flatness metrology, the main error influences are imperfections of the reference surfaces, specimen support or cavity influences. For non-flat surfaces like aspheres or free form surfaces, in particular the influence of errors from the determination of the lateral coordinates becomes very important. Sub-aperture interferometry copes with stitching errors, which can be reduced by Traceable Multi Sensor subaperture methods where the influence of the imaging system of the interferometer may dominate the error budget. This can be similar for other types of interferometers.
Measurement error of surface-mounted fiber Bragg grating temperature sensor.
Yi, Liu; Zude, Zhou; Erlong, Zhang; Jun, Zhang; Yuegang, Tan; Mingyao, Liu
2014-06-01
Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors are extensively used to measure surface temperatures. However, the temperature gradient effect of a surface-mounted FBG sensor is often overlooked. A surface-type temperature standard setup was prepared in this study to investigate the measurement errors of FBG temperature sensors. Experimental results show that the measurement error of a bare fiber sensor has an obvious linear relationship with surface temperature, with the largest error achieved at 8.1 °C. Sensors packaged with heat conduction grease generate smaller measurement errors than do bare FBG sensors and commercial thermal resistors. Thus, high-quality packaged methods and proper modes of fixation can effectively improve the accuracy of FBG sensors in measuring surface temperatures. PMID:24985840
van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Hobert, Markus A.; Maetzler, Walter; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Galindo-Garre, Francisca; Terwee, Caroline B.
2016-01-01
Background The “Timed Up and Go” (TUG) is a widely used measure of physical functioning in older people and in neurological populations, including Parkinson’s Disease. When using an inertial sensor measurement system (instrumented TUG [iTUG]), the individual components of the iTUG and the trunk kinematics can be measured separately, which may provide relevant additional information. Objective The aim of this study was to determine intra-rater, inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the iTUG in patients with Parkinson’s Disease. Methods Twenty eight PD patients, aged 50 years or older, were included. For the iTUG the DynaPort Hybrid (McRoberts, The Hague, The Netherlands) was worn at the lower back. The device measured acceleration and angular velocity in three directions at a rate of 100 samples/s. Patients performed the iTUG five times on two consecutive days. Repeated measurements by the same rater on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by different raters on the same day were used to calculate intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. Repeated measurements by the same rater on different days were used to calculate test-retest reliability. Results Nineteen ICC values (15%) were ≥ 0.9 which is considered as excellent reliability. Sixty four ICC values (49%) were ≥ 0.70 and < 0.90 which is considered as good reliability. Thirty one ICC values (24%) were ≥ 0.50 and < 0.70, indicating moderate reliability. Sixteen ICC values (12%) were ≥ 0.30 and < 0.50 indicating poor reliability. Two ICT values (2%) were < 0.30 indicating very poor reliability. Conclusions In conclusion, in patients with Parkinson’s disease the intra-rater, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability of the individual components of the instrumented TUG (iTUG) was excellent to good for total duration and for turning durations, and good to low for the sub durations and for the kinematics of the SiSt and StSi. The results of this fully
Measurement of size error in industrial CT system with Calotte cube
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, DaoDang; Chen, XiXi; Wang, FuMin; Shi, YuShu; Kong, Ming; Zhao, Jun
2015-02-01
A measurement method with calotte cube was proposed to realize the high-precision calibration of size error in industrial computer tomography (CT) system. Using the traceability of calotte cube, the measurement of the repeatability error, probing error and length measurement error of industrial CT system was carried out to increase the acceptance of CT as a metrological method. The main error factors, including the material absorption, projection number and integration time and so on, had been studied in detail. Experimental results show that the proposed measurement method provides a feasible way to measure the size error of industrial CT system. Compared with the measurement results with invar 27- sphere gauge, a high accuracy in the order of microns is realized with the proposed method based on calotte cube. Differing from the invar 27-sphere gauge method, the material particularity of calotte cube (material of metallic titanium) could introduce beam hardening effect, the study on the influence of material absorption and structural specificity on the measurement, which provides significant reference for the measurement of metallic samples, is necessary.
Tilt Error in Cryospheric Surface Radiation Measurements at High Latitudes: A Model Study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogren, W.; Kylling, A.; Burkhart, J. F.
2015-12-01
We have evaluated the magnitude and makeup of error in cryospheric radiation observations due to small sensor misalignment in in-situ measurements of solar irradiance. This error is examined through simulation of diffuse and direct irradiance arriving at a detector with a cosine-response foreoptic. Emphasis is placed on assessing total error over the solar shortwave spectrum from 250nm to 4500nm, as well as supporting investigation over other relevant shortwave spectral ranges. The total measurement error introduced by sensor tilt is dominated by the direct component. For a typical high latitude albedo measurement with a solar zenith angle of 60◦, a sensor tilted by 1, 3, and 5◦ can respectively introduce up to 2.6, 7.7, and 12.8% error into the measured irradiance and similar errors in the derived albedo. Depending on the daily range of solar azimuth and zenith angles, significant measurement error can persist also in integrated daily irradiance and albedo.
Bateson, Thomas F; Wright, J Michael
2010-08-01
Environmental epidemiologic studies are often hierarchical in nature if they estimate individuals' personal exposures using ambient metrics. Local samples are indirect surrogate measures of true local pollutant concentrations which estimate true personal exposures. These ambient metrics include classical-type nondifferential measurement error. The authors simulated subjects' true exposures and their corresponding surrogate exposures as the mean of local samples and assessed the amount of bias attributable to classical and Berkson measurement error on odds ratios, assuming that the logit of risk depends on true individual-level exposure. The authors calibrated surrogate exposures using scalar transformation functions based on observed within- and between-locality variances and compared regression-calibrated results with naive results using surrogate exposures. The authors further assessed the performance of regression calibration in the presence of Berkson-type error. Following calibration, bias due to classical-type measurement error, resulting in as much as 50% attenuation in naive regression estimates, was eliminated. Berkson-type error appeared to attenuate logistic regression results less than 1%. This regression calibration method reduces effects of classical measurement error that are typical of epidemiologic studies using multiple local surrogate exposures as indirect surrogate exposures for unobserved individual exposures. Berkson-type error did not alter the performance of regression calibration. This regression calibration method does not require a supplemental validation study to compute an attenuation factor. PMID:20573838
Statistical methods for biodosimetry in the presence of both Berkson and classical measurement error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Austin
In radiation epidemiology, the true dose received by those exposed cannot be assessed directly. Physical dosimetry uses a deterministic function of the source term, distance and shielding to estimate dose. For the atomic bomb survivors, the physical dosimetry system is well established. The classical measurement errors plaguing the location and shielding inputs to the physical dosimetry system are well known. Adjusting for the associated biases requires an estimate for the classical measurement error variance, for which no data-driven estimate exists. In this case, an instrumental variable solution is the most viable option to overcome the classical measurement error indeterminacy. Biological indicators of dose may serve as instrumental variables. Specification of the biodosimeter dose-response model requires identification of the radiosensitivity variables, for which we develop statistical definitions and variables. More recently, researchers have recognized Berkson error in the dose estimates, introduced by averaging assumptions for many components in the physical dosimetry system. We show that Berkson error induces a bias in the instrumental variable estimate of the dose-response coefficient, and then address the estimation problem. This model is specified by developing an instrumental variable mixed measurement error likelihood function, which is then maximized using a Monte Carlo EM Algorithm. These methods produce dose estimates that incorporate information from both physical and biological indicators of dose, as well as the first instrumental variable based data-driven estimate for the classical measurement error variance.
Measurement Invariance of the Chinese Gifted Rating Scales: Teacher and Parent Forms
Petscher, Yaacov; Li, Huijun
2015-01-01
The Gifted Rating Scales–School Form (GRS-S) has been validated in several countries; however, no study has examined the rater invariance of this measure. The present study built on previous validity studies and examined configural and metric invariance between parent and teacher raters using the Chinese version of the GRS-S Teacher and Parent Forms. Analyses were conducted from a Jöreskog tradition, with testing of hypotheses related to group invariance. Model fit indices (i.e., comparative fit index [CFI], root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA], χ2/df) supported equivalence in factor structure and standardized loadings between raters. Additionally, hypothesis testing revealed equivalence in loadings for raters. Implications of the results, as well as limitations and directions for future research, are discussed. PMID:26346633
Improving Creativity Performance Assessment: A Rater Effect Examination with Many Facet Rasch Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hung, Su-Pin; Chen, Po-Hsi; Chen, Hsueh-Chih
2012-01-01
Product assessment is widely applied in creative studies, typically as an important dependent measure. Within this context, this study had 2 purposes. First, the focus of this research was on methods for investigating possible rater effects, an issue that has not received a great deal of attention in past creativity studies. Second, the…
The Equivalence of Multiple Rater Kappa Statistics and Intraclass Correlation Coefficients.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rae, Gordon
1988-01-01
Using the Gini-Light-Margolin concept of "partioning" variance for qualitative data, correspondences are established between various kappa statistics and intraclass correlation coefficients under general conditions (multiple raters and polychotomous category systems). A measure of marginal symmetry for multiple ratings. (Author/TJH)
Stray signal requirements for compact range reflectors based on RCS measurement errors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Teh-Hong; Burnside, Walter D.
1991-01-01
The authors present a performance criterion for compact range reflectors such that their edge diffracted stray signal levels meet a reasonable radar cross section (RCS) measurement error requirement. It is shown by example that one of the significant error sources is the diffracted fields emanating from the edges or junctions of the reflector. This measurement error is demonstrated by placing a diagonal square flat plate in the target zone and rotating it to appropriate angles. These angles are determined by bisecting the plane wave and stray signal directions. This results in a peak bistatic measurement of the edge diffracted stray signal. It is proposed that the diagonal flat plate be used to evaluate new reflector designs as well as existing systems. A reasonable stray signal performance level has been developed so that new reflector systems can be characterized in terms of an RCS measurement error requirement.
Image pre-filtering for measurement error reduction in digital image correlation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Yihao; Sun, Chen; Song, Yuntao; Chen, Jubing
2015-02-01
In digital image correlation, the sub-pixel intensity interpolation causes a systematic error in the measured displacements. The error increases toward high-frequency component of the speckle pattern. In practice, a captured image is usually corrupted by additive white noise. The noise introduces additional energy in the high frequencies and therefore raises the systematic error. Meanwhile, the noise also elevates the random error which increases with the noise power. In order to reduce the systematic error and the random error of the measurements, we apply a pre-filtering to the images prior to the correlation so that the high-frequency contents are suppressed. Two spatial-domain filters (binomial and Gaussian) and two frequency-domain filters (Butterworth and Wiener) are tested on speckle images undergoing both simulated and real-world translations. By evaluating the errors of the various combinations of speckle patterns, interpolators, noise levels, and filter configurations, we come to the following conclusions. All the four filters are able to reduce the systematic error. Meanwhile, the random error can also be reduced if the signal power is mainly distributed around DC. For high-frequency speckle patterns, the low-pass filters (binomial, Gaussian and Butterworth) slightly increase the random error and Butterworth filter produces the lowest random error among them. By using Wiener filter with over-estimated noise power, the random error can be reduced but the resultant systematic error is higher than that of low-pass filters. In general, Butterworth filter is recommended for error reduction due to its flexibility of passband selection and maximal preservation of the allowed frequencies. Binomial filter enables efficient implementation and thus becomes a good option if computational cost is a critical issue. While used together with pre-filtering, B-spline interpolator produces lower systematic error than bicubic interpolator and similar level of the random
Li, Tao; Yuan, Gannan; Li, Wang
2016-01-01
The derivation of a conventional error model for the miniature gyroscope-based measurement while drilling (MGWD) system is based on the assumption that the errors of attitude are small enough so that the direction cosine matrix (DCM) can be approximated or simplified by the errors of small-angle attitude. However, the simplification of the DCM would introduce errors to the navigation solutions of the MGWD system if the initial alignment cannot provide precise attitude, especially for the low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors operated in harsh multilateral horizontal downhole drilling environments. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear error model (NNEM) by the introduction of the error of DCM, and the NNEM can reduce the propagated errors under large-angle attitude error conditions. The zero velocity and zero position are the reference points and the innovations in the states estimation of particle filter (PF) and Kalman filter (KF). The experimental results illustrate that the performance of PF is better than KF and the PF with NNEM can effectively restrain the errors of system states, especially for the azimuth, velocity, and height in the quasi-stationary condition. PMID:26999130
Li, Tao; Yuan, Gannan; Li, Wang
2016-01-01
The derivation of a conventional error model for the miniature gyroscope-based measurement while drilling (MGWD) system is based on the assumption that the errors of attitude are small enough so that the direction cosine matrix (DCM) can be approximated or simplified by the errors of small-angle attitude. However, the simplification of the DCM would introduce errors to the navigation solutions of the MGWD system if the initial alignment cannot provide precise attitude, especially for the low-cost microelectromechanical system (MEMS) sensors operated in harsh multilateral horizontal downhole drilling environments. This paper proposes a novel nonlinear error model (NNEM) by the introduction of the error of DCM, and the NNEM can reduce the propagated errors under large-angle attitude error conditions. The zero velocity and zero position are the reference points and the innovations in the states estimation of particle filter (PF) and Kalman filter (KF). The experimental results illustrate that the performance of PF is better than KF and the PF with NNEM can effectively restrain the errors of system states, especially for the azimuth, velocity, and height in the quasi-stationary condition. PMID:26999130
Errors in measuring sagittal arch kinematics of the human foot with digital fluoroscopy.
Wearing, Scott C; Smeathers, James E; Yates, Bede; Sullivan, Patrick M; Urry, Stephen R; Dubois, Philip
2005-04-01
Although fluoroscopy has been used to evaluate motion of the foot during gait, the accuracy and precision of fluoroscopic measures of osseous structures of the foot has not been reported in the literature. This study reports on a series of experiments that quantify the magnitude and sources of error involved in digital fluoroscopic measurements of the medial longitudinal arch. The findings indicate that with a global distortion correction procedure, errors arising from image distortion can be reduced threefold to 0.2 degrees for angular measurements and to 0.1 mm for linear measures. The limits of agreement for repeated angular measures of the calcaneus and first metatarsal were +/-0.5 degrees and +/-0.6 degrees , indicating that measurement error was primarily associated with the manual process of digitisation. While the magnitude of the residual error constitutes about +/-2.5% of the expected 20 degrees of movement of the calcaneus and first metatarsal, out-of-plane rotation may potentially contribute the greatest source of error in fluoroscopic measures of the foot. However, even at the extremes of angular displacement (15 degrees ) reported for the calcaneum during running gait, the root mean square (RMS) error was only about 1 degrees . Thus, errors associated with fluoroscopic imaging of the foot appear to be negligible when compared to those arising from skin movement artefact, which typically range between 1.5 and 4 mm (equating to errors of 2 degrees to 17 degrees for angular measures). Fluoroscopy, therefore, may be a useful technique for analysing the sagittal movement of the medial longitudinal arch during the contact phase of walking. PMID:15760749
On the errors in measuring the particle density by the light absorption method
Ochkin, V. N.
2015-04-15
The accuracy of absorption measurements of the density of particles in a given quantum state as a function of the light absorption coefficient is analyzed. Errors caused by the finite accuracy in measuring the intensity of the light passing through a medium in the presence of different types of noise in the recorded signal are considered. Optimal values of the absorption coefficient and the factors capable of multiplying errors when deviating from these values are determined.
Kim, Yangjin; Hibino, Kenichi; Sugita, Naohiko; Mitsuishi, Mamoru
2016-08-10
In this research, the susceptibility of the phase-shifting algorithms to the random intensity error is formulated and estimated. The susceptibility of the random intensity error of conventional windowed phase-shifting algorithms is discussed, and the 7N-6 phase-shifting algorithm is developed to minimize the random intensity error using the characteristic polynomial theory. Finally, the surface shape of the transparent wedge plate is measured using a wavelength-tuning Fizeau interferometer and the 7N-6 algorithm. The experimental results indicate that the surface shape measurement accuracy for the transparent plate is 2.5 nm. PMID:27534496
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houser, Donald R.; Oswald, Fred B.; Valco, Mark J.; Drago, Raymond J.; Lenski, Joseph W., Jr.
1994-01-01
Measured sound power data from eight different spur, single and double helical gear designs are compared with predictions of transmission error by the Load Distribution Program. The sound power data was taken from the recent Army-funded Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission project. Tests were conducted in the NASA gear noise rig. Results of both test data and transmission error predictions are made for each harmonic of mesh frequency at several operating conditions. In general, the transmission error predictions compare favorably with the measured noise levels.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saxton, Emily; Belanger, Secret; Becker, William
2012-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the Critical Thinking Analytic Rubric (CTAR). The CTAR is composed of 6 rubric categories: interpretation, analysis, evaluation, inference, explanation, and disposition. To investigate inter-rater reliability, two trained raters scored four sets of…
Error Analysis of Cine Phase Contrast MRI Velocity Measurements used for Strain Calculation
Jensen, Elisabeth R.; Morrow, Duane A.; Felmlee, Joel P.; Odegard, Gregory M.; Kaufman, Kenton R.
2014-01-01
Cine Phase Contrast (CPC) MRI offers unique insight into localized skeletal muscle behavior by providing the ability to quantify muscle strain distribution during cyclic motion. Muscle strain is obtained by temporally integrating and spatially differentiating CPC-encoded velocity. The aim of this study was to quantify measurement accuracy and precision and to describe error propagation into displacement and strain. Using an MRI-compatible jig to move a B-gel phantom within a 1.5T MRI bore, CPC-encoded velocities were collected. The three orthogonal encoding gradients (through plane, frequency, and phase) were evaluated independently in post-processing. Two systematic error types were corrected: eddy current-induced bias and calibration-type error. Measurement accuracy and precision were quantified before and after removal of systematic error. Through plane- and frequency-encoded data accuracy were within 0.4mm/s after removal of systematic error – a 70% improvement over the raw data. Corrected phase-encoded data accuracy was within 1.3mm/s. Measured random error was between 1 to 1.4mm/s, which followed the theoretical prediction. Propagation of random measurement error into displacement and strain was found to depend on the number of tracked time segments, time segment duration, mesh size, and dimensional order. To verify this, theoretical predictions were compared to experimentally calculated displacement and strain error. For the parameters tested, experimental and theoretical results aligned well. Random strain error approximately halved with a two-fold mesh size increase, as predicted. Displacement and strain accuracy were within 2.6mm and 3.3%, respectively. These results can be used to predict the accuracy and precision of displacement and strain in user-specific applications. PMID:25433567
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2014-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
Shi, Yun; Xu, Peiliang; Peng, Junhuan; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan
2013-01-01
Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS) adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM) have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM. PMID:24434880
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Lv, Wei
2011-05-01
A displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification are discussed in this paper. The displacement sensor consists of an electric induction transducer with high resolution and a voice coil motor (VCM). The measuring principles, structure, method enlarging measuring range, signal process of the sensor are discussed. The main error sources such as parallelism error and incline of framework by unequal length of leaf springs, rigidity of measuring rods, shape error of stylus, friction between iron core and other parts, damping of leaf springs, variation of voltage, linearity of induction transducer, resolution and stability are analyzed. A measuring system for surface topography with large measuring range is constructed based on the displacement sensor and 2D moving platform. Measuring precision and stability of the measuring system is verified. Measuring force of the sensor in measurement process of surface topography can be controlled at μN level and hardly changes. It has been used in measurement of bearing ball, bullet mark, etc. It has measuring range up to 2mm and precision of nm level.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Liangen; Wang, Xuanze; Lv, Wei
2010-12-01
A displacement sensor with controlled measuring force and its error analysis and precision verification are discussed in this paper. The displacement sensor consists of an electric induction transducer with high resolution and a voice coil motor (VCM). The measuring principles, structure, method enlarging measuring range, signal process of the sensor are discussed. The main error sources such as parallelism error and incline of framework by unequal length of leaf springs, rigidity of measuring rods, shape error of stylus, friction between iron core and other parts, damping of leaf springs, variation of voltage, linearity of induction transducer, resolution and stability are analyzed. A measuring system for surface topography with large measuring range is constructed based on the displacement sensor and 2D moving platform. Measuring precision and stability of the measuring system is verified. Measuring force of the sensor in measurement process of surface topography can be controlled at μN level and hardly changes. It has been used in measurement of bearing ball, bullet mark, etc. It has measuring range up to 2mm and precision of nm level.
Rater Strategies for Reaching Agreement on Pupil Text Quality
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Jølle, Lennart
2015-01-01
Novice members of a Norwegian national rater panel tasked with assessing Year 8 pupils' written texts were studied during three successive preparation sessions (2011-2012). The purpose was to investigate how the raters successfully make use of different decision-making strategies in an assessment situation where pre-set criteria and standards give…
Individual Feedback to Enhance Rater Training: Does It Work?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Elder, Cathie; Knoch, Ute; Barkhuizen, Gary; von Randow, Janet
2005-01-01
Research on the utility of feedback to raters in the form of performance reports has produced mixed findings (Lunt, Morton, & Wigglesworth, 1994; Wigglesworth, 1993) and has thus far been trialled only in oral assessment contexts. This article reports on a study investigating raters' attitudes and responsiveness to feedback on their ratings of an…
Nystrom, E.A.; Oberg, K.A.; Rehmann, C.R.
2002-01-01
Acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) provide a promising method for measuring surface-water turbulence because they can provide data from a large spatial range in a relatively short time with relative ease. Some potential sources of errors in turbulence measurements made with ADCPs include inaccuracy of Doppler-shift measurements, poor temporal and spatial measurement resolution, and inaccuracy of multi-dimensional velocities resolved from one-dimensional velocities measured at separate locations. Results from laboratory measurements of mean velocity and turbulence statistics made with two pulse-coherent ADCPs in 0.87 meters of water are used to illustrate several of inherent sources of error in ADCP turbulence measurements. Results show that processing algorithms and beam configurations have important effects on turbulence measurements. ADCPs can provide reasonable estimates of many turbulence parameters; however, the accuracy of turbulence measurements made with commercially available ADCPs is often poor in comparison to standard measurement techniques.
Correcting for Measurement Error in Time-Varying Covariates in Marginal Structural Models.
Kyle, Ryan P; Moodie, Erica E M; Klein, Marina B; Abrahamowicz, Michał
2016-08-01
Unbiased estimation of causal parameters from marginal structural models (MSMs) requires a fundamental assumption of no unmeasured confounding. Unfortunately, the time-varying covariates used to obtain inverse probability weights are often error-prone. Although substantial measurement error in important confounders is known to undermine control of confounders in conventional unweighted regression models, this issue has received comparatively limited attention in the MSM literature. Here we propose a novel application of the simulation-extrapolation (SIMEX) procedure to address measurement error in time-varying covariates, and we compare 2 approaches. The direct approach to SIMEX-based correction targets outcome model parameters, while the indirect approach corrects the weights estimated using the exposure model. We assess the performance of the proposed methods in simulations under different clinically plausible assumptions. The simulations demonstrate that measurement errors in time-dependent covariates may induce substantial bias in MSM estimators of causal effects of time-varying exposures, and that both proposed SIMEX approaches yield practically unbiased estimates in scenarios featuring low-to-moderate degrees of error. We illustrate the proposed approach in a simple analysis of the relationship between sustained virological response and liver fibrosis progression among persons infected with hepatitis C virus, while accounting for measurement error in γ-glutamyltransferase, using data collected in the Canadian Co-infection Cohort Study from 2003 to 2014. PMID:27416840
Measurement error in environmental epidemiology and the shape of exposure-response curves.
Rhomberg, Lorenz R; Chandalia, Juhi K; Long, Christopher M; Goodman, Julie E
2011-09-01
Both classical and Berkson exposure measurement errors as encountered in environmental epidemiology data can result in biases in fitted exposure-response relationships that are large enough to affect the interpretation and use of the apparent exposure-response shapes in risk assessment applications. A variety of sources of potential measurement error exist in the process of estimating individual exposures to environmental contaminants, and the authors review the evaluation in the literature of the magnitudes and patterns of exposure measurement errors that prevail in actual practice. It is well known among statisticians that random errors in the values of independent variables (such as exposure in exposure-response curves) may tend to bias regression results. For increasing curves, this effect tends to flatten and apparently linearize what is in truth a steeper and perhaps more curvilinear or even threshold-bearing relationship. The degree of bias is tied to the magnitude of the measurement error in the independent variables. It has been shown that the degree of bias known to apply to actual studies is sufficient to produce a false linear result, and that although nonparametric smoothing and other error-mitigating techniques may assist in identifying a threshold, they do not guarantee detection of a threshold. The consequences of this could be great, as it could lead to a misallocation of resources towards regulations that do not offer any benefit to public health. PMID:21823979
Theoretical and Experimental Errors for In Situ Measurements of Plant Water Potential 1
Shackel, Kenneth A.
1984-01-01
Errors in psychrometrically determined values of leaf water potential caused by tissue resistance to water vapor exchange and by lack of thermal equilibrium were evaluated using commercial in situ psychrometers (Wescor Inc., Logan, UT) on leaves of Tradescantia virginiana (L.). Theoretical errors in the dewpoint method of operation for these sensors were demonstrated. After correction for these errors, in situ measurements of leaf water potential indicated substantial errors caused by tissue resistance to water vapor exchange (4 to 6% reduction in apparent water potential per second of cooling time used) resulting from humidity depletions in the psychrometer chamber during the Peltier condensation process. These errors were avoided by use of a modified procedure for dewpoint measurement. Large changes in apparent water potential were caused by leaf and psychrometer exposure to moderate levels of irradiance. These changes were correlated with relatively small shifts in psychrometer zero offsets (−0.6 to −1.0 megapascals per microvolt), indicating substantial errors caused by nonisothermal conditions between the leaf and the psychrometer. Explicit correction for these errors is not possible with the current psychrometer design. PMID:16663701
Moroni, Rossana; Blomstedt, Paul; Wilhelm, Lars; Reinikainen, Tapani; Sippola, Erkki; Corander, Jukka
2010-10-10
Headspace gas chromatographic measurements of ethanol content in blood specimens from suspect drunk drivers are routinely carried out in forensic laboratories. In the widely established standard statistical framework, measurement errors in such data are represented by Gaussian distributions for the population of blood specimens at any given level of ethanol content. It is known that the variance of measurement errors increases as a function of the level of ethanol content and the standard statistical approach addresses this issue by replacing the unknown population variances by estimates derived from large sample using a linear regression model. Appropriate statistical analysis of the systematic and random components in the measurement errors is necessary in order to guarantee legally sound security corrections reported to the police authority. Here we address this issue by developing a novel statistical approach that takes into account any potential non-linearity in the relationship between the level of ethanol content and the variability of measurement errors. Our method is based on standard non-parametric kernel techniques for density estimation using a large database of laboratory measurements for blood specimens. Furthermore, we address also the issue of systematic errors in the measurement process by a statistical model that incorporates the sign of the error term in the security correction calculations. Analysis of a set of certified reference materials (CRMs) blood samples demonstrates the importance of explicitly handling the direction of the systematic errors in establishing the statistical uncertainty about the true level of ethanol content. Use of our statistical framework to aid quality control in the laboratory is also discussed. PMID:20494532
Error reduction by combining strapdown inertial measurement units in a baseball stitch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tracy, Leah
A poor musical performance is rarely due to an inferior instrument. When a device is under performing, the temptation is to find a better device or a new technology to achieve performance objectives; however, another solution may be improving how existing technology is used through a better understanding of device characteristics, i.e., learning to play the instrument better. This thesis explores improving position and attitude estimates of inertial navigation systems (INS) through an understanding of inertial sensor errors, manipulating inertial measurement units (IMUs) to reduce that error and multisensor fusion of multiple IMUs to reduce error in a GPS denied environment.
Error Reduction Methods for Integrated-path Differential-absorption Lidar Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Jeffrey R.; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T.
2012-01-01
We report new modeling and error reduction methods for differential-absorption optical-depth (DAOD) measurements of atmospheric constituents using direct-detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidars. Errors from laser frequency noise are quantified in terms of the line center fluctuation and spectral line shape of the laser pulses, revealing relationships verified experimentally. A significant DAOD bias is removed by introducing a correction factor. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations can be reduced to tolerable levels by incorporating altimetry knowledge and "log after averaging", or by pointing the laser and receiver to a fixed surface spot during each wavelength cycle to shorten the time of "averaging before log".
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Ting-Yi; Huang, Szu-Jung; Fu, Huang-Wen; Chang, Ho-Ping; Chang, Cheng-Hsiang; Hwang, Ching-Shiang
2016-08-01
The effect of an APPLE II-type elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) on the beam dynamics were investigated using active and passive methods. To reduce the tune shift and improve the injection efficiency, dynamic multipole errors were compensated using L-shaped iron shims, which resulted in stable top-up operation for a minimum gap. The skew quadrupole error was compensated using a multipole corrector, which was located downstream of the EPU for minimizing betatron coupling, and it ensured the enhancement of the synchrotron radiation brightness. The investigation methods, a numerical simulation algorithm, a multipole error correction method, and the beam-based measurement results are discussed.
Burr, T; Croft, S; Krieger, T; Martin, K; Norman, C; Walsh, S
2016-02-01
One example of top-down uncertainty quantification (UQ) involves comparing two or more measurements on each of multiple items. One example of bottom-up UQ expresses a measurement result as a function of one or more input variables that have associated errors, such as a measured count rate, which individually (or collectively) can be evaluated for impact on the uncertainty in the resulting measured value. In practice, it is often found that top-down UQ exhibits larger error variances than bottom-up UQ, because some error sources are present in the fielded assay methods used in top-down UQ that are not present (or not recognized) in the assay studies used in bottom-up UQ. One would like better consistency between the two approaches in order to claim understanding of the measurement process. The purpose of this paper is to refine bottom-up uncertainty estimation by using calibration information so that if there are no unknown error sources, the refined bottom-up uncertainty estimate will agree with the top-down uncertainty estimate to within a specified tolerance. Then, in practice, if the top-down uncertainty estimate is larger than the refined bottom-up uncertainty estimate by more than the specified tolerance, there must be omitted sources of error beyond those predicted from calibration uncertainty. The paper develops a refined bottom-up uncertainty approach for four cases of simple linear calibration: (1) inverse regression with negligible error in predictors, (2) inverse regression with non-negligible error in predictors, (3) classical regression followed by inversion with negligible error in predictors, and (4) classical regression followed by inversion with non-negligible errors in predictors. Our illustrations are of general interest, but are drawn from our experience with nuclear material assay by non-destructive assay. The main example we use is gamma spectroscopy that applies the enrichment meter principle. Previous papers that ignore error in predictors
Effect of patient positions on measurement errors of the knee-joint space on radiographs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gilewska, Grazyna
2001-08-01
Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most important health problems these days. It is one of the most frequent causes of pain and disability of middle-aged and old people. Nowadays the radiograph is the most economic and available tool to evaluate changes in OA. Error of performance of radiographs of knee joint is the basic problem of their evaluation for clinical research. The purpose of evaluation of such radiographs in my study was measuring the knee-joint space on several radiographs performed at defined intervals. Attempt at evaluating errors caused by a radiologist of a patient was presented in this study. These errors resulted mainly from either incorrect conditions of performance or from a patient's fault. Once we have information about size of the errors, we will be able to assess which of these elements have the greatest influence on accuracy and repeatability of measurements of knee-joint space. And consequently we will be able to minimize their sources.
Hjarbaek, John; Eshoej, Henrik; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Vobbe, Jette; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit
2016-01-01
Aim To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of measuring structural changes in the tendon of patients, clinically diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy (cases) and healthy participants (controls), on ultrasound (US) images captured by standardised procedures. Methods A total of 40 participants (24 patients) were included for assessing inter-rater reliability of measurements of fibrillar disruption, neovascularity, as well as the number and total length of calcifications and tendon thickness. Linear weighted κ, intraclass correlation (ICC), SEM, limits of agreement (LOA) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were used to evaluate reliability. Results ‘Moderate—almost perfect’ κ was found for grading fibrillar disruption, neovascularity and number of calcifications (k 0.60–0.96). For total length of calcifications and tendon thickness, ICC was ‘excellent’ (0.85–0.90), with SEM(Agreement) ranging from 0.63 to 2.94 mm and MDC(group) ranging from 0.28 to 1.29 mm. In general, SEM, LOA and MDC showed larger variation for calcifications than for tendon thickness. Conclusions Inter-rater reliability was moderate to almost perfect when a standardised procedure was applied for measuring structural changes on captured US images and movie sequences of relevance for patients with supraspinatus tendinopathy. Future studies should test intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the method in vivo for use in clinical practice, in addition to validation against a gold standard, such as MRI. Trial registration number NCT01984203; Pre-results. PMID:27221128
Interobserver error involved in independent attempts to measure cusp base areas of Pan M1s.
Bailey, Shara E; Pilbrow, Varsha C; Wood, Bernard A
2004-10-01
Cusp base areas measured from digitized images increase the amount of detailed quantitative information one can collect from post-canine crown morphology. Although this method is gaining wide usage for taxonomic analyses of extant and extinct hominoids, the techniques for digitizing images and taking measurements differ between researchers. The aim of this study was to investigate interobserver error in order to help assess the reliability of cusp base area measurement within extant and extinct hominoid taxa. Two of the authors measured individual cusp base areas and total cusp base area of 23 maxillary first molars (M(1)) of Pan. From these, relative cusp base areas were calculated. No statistically significant interobserver differences were found for either absolute or relative cusp base areas. On average the hypocone and paracone showed the least interobserver error (< 1%) whereas the protocone and metacone showed the most (2.6-4.5%). We suggest that the larger measurement error in the metacone/protocone is due primarily to either weakly defined fissure patterns and/or the presence of accessory occlusal features. Overall, levels of interobserver error are similar to those found for intraobserver error. The results of our study suggest that if certain prescribed standards are employed then cusp and crown base areas measured by different individuals can be pooled into a single database. PMID:15447691
Determination of error measurement by means of the basic magnetization curve
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lankin, M. V.; Lankin, A. M.
2016-04-01
The article describes the implementation of the methodology for determining the error search by means of the basic magnetization curve of electric cutting machines. The basic magnetization curve of the integrated operation of the electric characteristic allows one to define a fault type. In the process of measurement the definition of error calculation of the basic magnetization curve plays a major role as in accuracies of a particular characteristic can have a deleterious effect.
Muralikrishnan, B; Blackburn, C; Sawyer, D; Phillips, S; Bridges, R
2010-01-01
We describe a method to estimate the scale errors in the horizontal angle encoder of a laser tracker in this paper. The method does not require expensive instrumentation such as a rotary stage or even a calibrated artifact. An uncalibrated but stable length is realized between two targets mounted on stands that are at tracker height. The tracker measures the distance between these two targets from different azimuthal positions (say, in intervals of 20° over 360°). Each target is measured in both front face and back face. Low order harmonic scale errors can be estimated from this data and may then be used to correct the encoder's error map to improve the tracker's angle measurement accuracy. We have demonstrated this for the second order harmonic in this paper. It is important to compensate for even order harmonics as their influence cannot be removed by averaging front face and back face measurements whereas odd orders can be removed by averaging. We tested six trackers from three different manufacturers. Two of those trackers are newer models introduced at the time of writing of this paper. For older trackers from two manufacturers, the length errors in a 7.75 m horizontal length placed 7 m away from a tracker were of the order of ± 65 μm before correcting the error map. They reduced to less than ± 25 μm after correcting the error map for second order scale errors. Newer trackers from the same manufacturers did not show this error. An older tracker from a third manufacturer also did not show this error. PMID:27134789
Measurement of electromagnetic tracking error in a navigated breast surgery setup
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harish, Vinyas; Baksh, Aidan; Ungi, Tamas; Lasso, Andras; Baum, Zachary; Gauvin, Gabrielle; Engel, Jay; Rudan, John; Fichtinger, Gabor
2016-03-01
PURPOSE: The measurement of tracking error is crucial to ensure the safety and feasibility of electromagnetically tracked, image-guided procedures. Measurement should occur in a clinical environment because electromagnetic field distortion depends on positioning relative to the field generator and metal objects. However, we could not find an accessible and open-source system for calibration, error measurement, and visualization. We developed such a system and tested it in a navigated breast surgery setup. METHODS: A pointer tool was designed for concurrent electromagnetic and optical tracking. Software modules were developed for automatic calibration of the measurement system, real-time error visualization, and analysis. The system was taken to an operating room to test for field distortion in a navigated breast surgery setup. Positional and rotational electromagnetic tracking errors were then calculated using optical tracking as a ground truth. RESULTS: Our system is quick to set up and can be rapidly deployed. The process from calibration to visualization also only takes a few minutes. Field distortion was measured in the presence of various surgical equipment. Positional and rotational error in a clean field was approximately 0.90 mm and 0.31°. The presence of a surgical table, an electrosurgical cautery, and anesthesia machine increased the error by up to a few tenths of a millimeter and tenth of a degree. CONCLUSION: In a navigated breast surgery setup, measurement and visualization of tracking error defines a safe working area in the presence of surgical equipment. Our system is available as an extension for the open-source 3D Slicer platform.
Evaluation of TRMM Ground-Validation Radar-Rain Errors Using Rain Gauge Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, Jianxin; Wolff, David B.
2009-01-01
Ground-validation (GV) radar-rain products are often utilized for validation of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) spaced-based rain estimates, and hence, quantitative evaluation of the GV radar-rain product error characteristics is vital. This study uses quality-controlled gauge data to compare with TRMM GV radar rain rates in an effort to provide such error characteristics. The results show that significant differences of concurrent radar-gauge rain rates exist at various time scales ranging from 5 min to 1 day, despite lower overall long-term bias. However, the differences between the radar area-averaged rain rates and gauge point rain rates cannot be explained as due to radar error only. The error variance separation method is adapted to partition the variance of radar-gauge differences into the gauge area-point error variance and radar rain estimation error variance. The results provide relatively reliable quantitative uncertainty evaluation of TRMM GV radar rain estimates at various times scales, and are helpful to better understand the differences between measured radar and gauge rain rates. It is envisaged that this study will contribute to better utilization of GV radar rain products to validate versatile spaced-based rain estimates from TRMM, as well as the proposed Global Precipitation Measurement, and other satellites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin
2016-09-01
To meet the very demanding requirements for space gravity detection, the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as the key payload needs to offer the relative position of the proof mass with extraordinarily high precision and low disturbance. The position determination and error analysis for the GRS with a spherical proof mass is addressed. Firstly the concept of measuring the freely falling proof mass with optical shadow sensors is presented. Then, based on the optical signal model, the general formula for position determination is derived. Two types of measurement system are proposed, for which the analytical solution to the three-dimensional position can be attained. Thirdly, with the assumption of Gaussian beams, the error propagation models for the variation of spot size and optical power, the effect of beam divergence, the chattering of beam center, and the deviation of beam direction are given respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations taken into account of the model uncertainty of beam divergence, spherical edge and beam diffraction are carried out to validate the performance of the error propagation models. The results show that these models can be used to estimate the effect of error source with an acceptable accuracy which is better than 20%. Moreover, the simulation for the three-dimensional position determination with one of the proposed measurement system shows that the position error is just comparable to the error of the output of each sensor.
Rater Agreement on Interpersonal Psychotherapy Problem Areas
Markowitz, John C.; Leon, Andrew C.; Miller, Nina L.; Cherry, Sabrina; Clougherty, Kathleen F.; Villalobos, Liliana
2000-01-01
There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737
Rater agreement on interpersonal psychotherapy problem areas.
Markowitz, J C; Leon, A C; Miller, N L; Cherry, S; Clougherty, K F; Villalobos, L
2000-01-01
There has been much outcome research on interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) but little investigation of its components. This study assessed interrater reliability of IPT therapists in identifying interpersonal problem areas and treatment foci from audiotapes of initial treatment sessions. Three IPT research psychotherapists assessed up to 18 audiotapes of dysthymic patients, using the Interpersonal Problem Area Rating Scale. Cohen's kappa was used to examine concordance between raters. Kappas for presence or absence of each of the four IPT problem areas were 0.87 (grief), 0.58 (role dispute), 1.0 (role transition), and 0.48 (interpersonal deficits). Kappa for agreement on a clinical focus was 0.82. IPT therapists agreed closely in rating problem areas and potential treatment foci, providing empirical support for potential therapist consistency in this treatment approach. PMID:10896737
Estimation of bias errors in angle-of-arrival measurements using platform motion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grindlay, A.
1981-08-01
An algorithm has been developed to estimate the bias errors in angle-of-arrival measurements made by electromagnetic detection devices on-board a pitching and rolling platform. The algorithm assumes that continuous exact measurements of the platform's roll and pitch conditions are available. When the roll and pitch conditions are used to transform deck-plane angular measurements of a nearly fixed target's position to a stabilized coordinate system, the resulting stabilized coordinates (azimuth and elevation) should not vary with changes in the roll and pitch conditions. If changes do occur they are a result of bias errors in the measurement system and the algorithm which has been developed uses these changes to estimate the sense and magnitude of angular bias errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burnecki, Krzysztof; Kepten, Eldad; Garini, Yuval; Sikora, Grzegorz; Weron, Aleksander
2015-06-01
Accurately characterizing the anomalous diffusion of a tracer particle has become a central issue in biophysics. However, measurement errors raise difficulty in the characterization of single trajectories, which is usually performed through the time-averaged mean square displacement (TAMSD). In this paper, we study a fractionally integrated moving average (FIMA) process as an appropriate model for anomalous diffusion data with measurement errors. We compare FIMA and traditional TAMSD estimators for the anomalous diffusion exponent. The ability of the FIMA framework to characterize dynamics in a wide range of anomalous exponents and noise levels through the simulation of a toy model (fractional Brownian motion disturbed by Gaussian white noise) is discussed. Comparison to the TAMSD technique, shows that FIMA estimation is superior in many scenarios. This is expected to enable new measurement regimes for single particle tracking (SPT) experiments even in the presence of high measurement errors.
Burnecki, Krzysztof; Kepten, Eldad; Garini, Yuval; Sikora, Grzegorz; Weron, Aleksander
2015-01-01
Accurately characterizing the anomalous diffusion of a tracer particle has become a central issue in biophysics. However, measurement errors raise difficulty in the characterization of single trajectories, which is usually performed through the time-averaged mean square displacement (TAMSD). In this paper, we study a fractionally integrated moving average (FIMA) process as an appropriate model for anomalous diffusion data with measurement errors. We compare FIMA and traditional TAMSD estimators for the anomalous diffusion exponent. The ability of the FIMA framework to characterize dynamics in a wide range of anomalous exponents and noise levels through the simulation of a toy model (fractional Brownian motion disturbed by Gaussian white noise) is discussed. Comparison to the TAMSD technique, shows that FIMA estimation is superior in many scenarios. This is expected to enable new measurement regimes for single particle tracking (SPT) experiments even in the presence of high measurement errors. PMID:26065707
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grauer, Jared A.; Morelli, Eugene A.
2013-01-01
A nonlinear simulation of the NASA Generic Transport Model was used to investigate the effects of errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry on the accuracy of dynamic models identified from flight data. Measurements from a typical system identification maneuver were systematically and progressively deteriorated and then used to estimate stability and control derivatives within a Monte Carlo analysis. Based on the results, recommendations were provided for maximum allowable errors in sensor measurements, mass properties, and aircraft geometry to achieve desired levels of dynamic modeling accuracy. Results using other flight conditions, parameter estimation methods, and a full-scale F-16 nonlinear aircraft simulation were compared with these recommendations.
Estimation of bias errors in measured airplane responses using maximum likelihood method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klein, Vladiaslav; Morgan, Dan R.
1987-01-01
A maximum likelihood method is used for estimation of unknown bias errors in measured airplane responses. The mathematical model of an airplane is represented by six-degrees-of-freedom kinematic equations. In these equations the input variables are replaced by their measured values which are assumed to be without random errors. The resulting algorithm is verified with a simulation and flight test data. The maximum likelihood estimates from in-flight measured data are compared with those obtained by using a nonlinear-fixed-interval-smoother and an extended Kalmar filter.
Pollack, A. Z.; Perkins, N. J.; Mumford, S. L.; Ye, A.; Schisterman, E. F.
2013-01-01
Utilizing multiple biomarkers is increasingly common in epidemiology. However, the combined impact of correlated exposure measurement error, unmeasured confounding, interaction, and limits of detection (LODs) on inference for multiple biomarkers is unknown. We conducted data-driven simulations evaluating bias from correlated measurement error with varying reliability coefficients (R), odds ratios (ORs), levels of correlation between exposures and error, LODs, and interactions. Blood cadmium and lead levels in relation to anovulation served as the motivating example, based on findings from the BioCycle Study (2005–2007). For most scenarios, main-effect estimates for cadmium and lead with increasing levels of positively correlated measurement error created increasing downward or upward bias for OR > 1.00 and OR < 1.00, respectively, that was also a function of effect size. Some scenarios showed bias for cadmium away from the null. Results subject to LODs were similar. Bias for main and interaction effects ranged from −130% to 36% and from −144% to 84%, respectively. A closed-form continuous outcome case solution provides a useful tool for estimating the bias in logistic regression. Investigators should consider how measurement error and LODs may bias findings when examining biomarkers measured in the same medium, prepared with the same process, or analyzed using the same method. PMID:23221725
Pollack, A Z; Perkins, N J; Mumford, S L; Ye, A; Schisterman, E F
2013-01-01
Utilizing multiple biomarkers is increasingly common in epidemiology. However, the combined impact of correlated exposure measurement error, unmeasured confounding, interaction, and limits of detection (LODs) on inference for multiple biomarkers is unknown. We conducted data-driven simulations evaluating bias from correlated measurement error with varying reliability coefficients (R), odds ratios (ORs), levels of correlation between exposures and error, LODs, and interactions. Blood cadmium and lead levels in relation to anovulation served as the motivating example, based on findings from the BioCycle Study (2005-2007). For most scenarios, main-effect estimates for cadmium and lead with increasing levels of positively correlated measurement error created increasing downward or upward bias for OR > 1.00 and OR < 1.00, respectively, that was also a function of effect size. Some scenarios showed bias for cadmium away from the null. Results subject to LODs were similar. Bias for main and interaction effects ranged from -130% to 36% and from -144% to 84%, respectively. A closed-form continuous outcome case solution provides a useful tool for estimating the bias in logistic regression. Investigators should consider how measurement error and LODs may bias findings when examining biomarkers measured in the same medium, prepared with the same process, or analyzed using the same method. PMID:23221725
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shedekar, Vinayak S.; King, Kevin W.; Fausey, Norman R.; Soboyejo, Alfred B. O.; Harmel, R. Daren; Brown, Larry C.
2016-09-01
Three different models of tipping bucket rain gauges (TBRs), viz. HS-TB3 (Hydrological Services Pty Ltd.), ISCO-674 (Isco, Inc.) and TR-525 (Texas Electronics, Inc.), were calibrated in the lab to quantify measurement errors across a range of rainfall intensities (5 mm·h- 1 to 250 mm·h- 1) and three different volumetric settings. Instantaneous and cumulative values of simulated rainfall were recorded at 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20-min intervals. All three TBR models showed a substantial deviation (α = 0.05) in measurements from actual rainfall depths, with increasing underestimation errors at greater rainfall intensities. Simple linear regression equations were developed for each TBR to correct the TBR readings based on measured intensities (R2 > 0.98). Additionally, two dynamic calibration techniques, viz. quadratic model (R2 > 0.7) and T vs. 1/Q model (R2 = > 0.98), were tested and found to be useful in situations when the volumetric settings of TBRs are unknown. The correction models were successfully applied to correct field-collected rainfall data from respective TBR models. The calibration parameters of correction models were found to be highly sensitive to changes in volumetric calibration of TBRs. Overall, the HS-TB3 model (with a better protected tipping bucket mechanism, and consistent measurement errors across a range of rainfall intensities) was found to be the most reliable and consistent for rainfall measurements, followed by the ISCO-674 (with susceptibility to clogging and relatively smaller measurement errors across a range of rainfall intensities) and the TR-525 (with high susceptibility to clogging and frequent changes in volumetric calibration, and highly intensity-dependent measurement errors). The study demonstrated that corrections based on dynamic and volumetric calibration can only help minimize-but not completely eliminate the measurement errors. The findings from this study will be useful for correcting field data from TBRs; and may have major
SYSTEMATIC CONTINUUM ERRORS IN THE Ly{alpha} FOREST AND THE MEASURED TEMPERATURE-DENSITY RELATION
Lee, Khee-Gan
2012-07-10
Continuum fitting uncertainties are a major source of error in estimates of the temperature-density relation (usually parameterized as a power-law, T {proportional_to} {Delta}{sup {gamma}-1}) of the intergalactic medium through the flux probability distribution function (PDF) of the Ly{alpha} forest. Using a simple order-of-magnitude calculation, we show that few percent-level systematic errors in the placement of the quasar continuum due to, e.g., a uniform low-absorption Gunn-Peterson component could lead to errors in {gamma} of the order of unity. This is quantified further using a simple semi-analytic model of the Ly{alpha} forest flux PDF. We find that under(over)estimates in the continuum level can lead to a lower (higher) measured value of {gamma}. By fitting models to mock data realizations generated with current observational errors, we find that continuum errors can cause a systematic bias in the estimated temperature-density relation of ({delta}({gamma})) Almost-Equal-To -0.1, while the error is increased to {sigma}{sub {gamma}} Almost-Equal-To 0.2 compared to {sigma}{sub {gamma}} Almost-Equal-To 0.1 in the absence of continuum errors.
Discontinuity, bubbles, and translucence: major error factors in food color measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
MacDougall, Douglas B.
2002-06-01
Four samples of breakfast cereals exhibiting discontinuity, two samples of baked goods with bubbles and two translucent drinks were measured to show the degree of differences that exist between their colors measured in CIELAB and their visual equivalence to the nearest NCS atlas color. Presentation variables and the contribution of light scatter to the size of the errors were examined.
Advancing the science of measurement of diagnostic errors in healthcare: the Safer Dx framework
Singh, Hardeep; Sittig, Dean F
2015-01-01
Diagnostic errors are major contributors to harmful patient outcomes, yet they remain a relatively understudied and unmeasured area of patient safety. Although they are estimated to affect about 12 million Americans each year in ambulatory care settings alone, both the conceptual and pragmatic scientific foundation for their measurement is under-developed. Health care organizations do not have the tools and strategies to measure diagnostic safety and most have not integrated diagnostic error into their existing patient safety programs. Further progress toward reducing diagnostic errors will hinge on our ability to overcome measurement-related challenges. In order to lay a robust groundwork for measurement and monitoring techniques to ensure diagnostic safety, we recently developed a multifaceted framework to advance the science of measuring diagnostic errors (The Safer Dx framework). In this paper, we describe how the framework serves as a conceptual foundation for system-wide safety measurement, monitoring and improvement of diagnostic error. The framework accounts for the complex adaptive sociotechnical system in which diagnosis takes place (the structure), the distributed process dimensions in which diagnoses evolve beyond the doctor's visit (the process) and the outcomes of a correct and timely “safe diagnosis” as well as patient and health care outcomes (the outcomes). We posit that the Safer Dx framework can be used by a variety of stakeholders including researchers, clinicians, health care organizations and policymakers, to stimulate both retrospective and more proactive measurement of diagnostic errors. The feedback and learning that would result will help develop subsequent interventions that lead to safer diagnosis, improved value of health care delivery and improved patient outcomes. PMID:25589094
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahn, Charlene Sonja
Quantum mechanical applications range from quantum computers to quantum key distribution to teleportation. In these applications, quantum error correction is extremely important for protecting quantum states against decoherence. Here I present two main results regarding quantum error correction protocols. The first main topic I address is the development of continuous-time quantum error correction protocols via combination with techniques from quantum control. These protocols rely on weak measurement and Hamiltonian feedback instead of the projective measurements and unitary gates usually assumed by canonical quantum error correction. I show that a subclass of these protocols can be understood as a quantum feedback protocol, and analytically analyze the general case using the stabilizer formalism; I show that in this case perfect feedback can perfectly protect a stabilizer subspace. I also show through numerical simulations that another subclass of these protocols does better than canonical quantum error correction when the time between corrections is limited. The second main topic is development of improved overhead results for fault-tolerant computation. In particular, through analysis of topological quantum error correcting codes, it will be shown that the required blowup in depth of a noisy circuit performing a fault-tolerant computation can be reduced to a factor of O(log log L), an improvement over previous results. Showing this requires investigation into a local method of performing fault-tolerant correction on a topological code of arbitrary dimension.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuttle, M. E.; Brinson, H. F.
1986-01-01
The impact of flight error in measured viscoelastic parameters on subsequent long-term viscoelastic predictions is numerically evaluated using the Schapery nonlinear viscoelastic model. Of the seven Schapery parameters, the results indicated that long-term predictions were most sensitive to errors in the power law parameter n. Although errors in the other parameters were significant as well, errors in n dominated all other factors at long times. The process of selecting an appropriate short-term test cycle so as to insure an accurate long-term prediction was considered, and a short-term test cycle was selected using material properties typical for T300/5208 graphite-epoxy at 149 C. The process of selection is described, and its individual steps are itemized.
Estimating smooth distribution function in the presence of heteroscedastic measurement errors
Wang, Xiao-Feng; Fan, Zhaozhi; Wang, Bin
2009-01-01
Measurement error occurs in many biomedical fields. The challenges arise when errors are heteroscedastic since we literally have only one observation for each error distribution. This paper concerns the estimation of smooth distribution function when data are contaminated with heteroscedastic errors. We study two types of methods to recover the unknown distribution function: a Fourier-type deconvolution method and a simulation extrapolation (SIMEX) method. The asymptotics of the two estimators are explored and the asymptotic pointwise confidence bands of the SIMEX estimator are obtained. The finite sample performances of the two estimators are evaluated through a simulation study. Finally, we illustrate the methods with medical rehabilitation data from a neuro-muscular electrical stimulation experiment. PMID:20160998
Covariate measurement error correction methods in mediation analysis with failure time data.
Zhao, Shanshan; Prentice, Ross L
2014-12-01
Mediation analysis is important for understanding the mechanisms whereby one variable causes changes in another. Measurement error could obscure the ability of the potential mediator to explain such changes. This article focuses on developing correction methods for measurement error in the mediator with failure time outcomes. We consider a broad definition of measurement error, including technical error, and error associated with temporal variation. The underlying model with the "true" mediator is assumed to be of the Cox proportional hazards model form. The induced hazard ratio for the observed mediator no longer has a simple form independent of the baseline hazard function, due to the conditioning event. We propose a mean-variance regression calibration approach and a follow-up time regression calibration approach, to approximate the partial likelihood for the induced hazard function. Both methods demonstrate value in assessing mediation effects in simulation studies. These methods are generalized to multiple biomarkers and to both case-cohort and nested case-control sampling designs. We apply these correction methods to the Women's Health Initiative hormone therapy trials to understand the mediation effect of several serum sex hormone measures on the relationship between postmenopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer risk. PMID:25139469
Wu Yan; Shannon, Mark A.
2006-04-15
The dependence of the contact potential difference (CPD) reading on the ac driving amplitude in scanning Kelvin probe microscope (SKPM) hinders researchers from quantifying true material properties. We show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that an ac driving amplitude dependence in the SKPM measurement can come from a systematic error, and it is common for all tip sample systems as long as there is a nonzero tracking error in the feedback control loop of the instrument. We further propose a methodology to detect and to correct the ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in SKPM measurements. The true contact potential difference can be found by applying a linear regression to the measured CPD versus one over ac driving amplitude data. Two scenarios are studied: (a) when the surface being scanned by SKPM is not semiconducting and there is an ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error; (b) when a semiconductor surface is probed and asymmetric band bending occurs when the systematic error is present. Experiments are conducted using a commercial SKPM and CPD measurement results of two systems: platinum-iridium/gap/gold and platinum-iridium/gap/thermal oxide/silicon are discussed.
Exact sampling of the unobserved covariates in Bayesian spline models for measurement error problems
Carroll, Raymond J.
2015-01-01
In truncated polynomial spline or B-spline models where the covariates are measured with error, a fully Bayesian approach to model fitting requires the covariates and model parameters to be sampled at every Markov chain Monte Carlo iteration. Sampling the unobserved covariates poses a major computational problem and usually Gibbs sampling is not possible. This forces the practitioner to use a Metropolis–Hastings step which might suffer from unacceptable performance due to poor mixing and might require careful tuning. In this article we show for the cases of truncated polynomial spline or B-spline models of degree equal to one, the complete conditional distribution of the covariates measured with error is available explicitly as a mixture of double-truncated normals, thereby enabling a Gibbs sampling scheme. We demonstrate via a simulation study that our technique performs favorably in terms of computational efficiency and statistical performance. Our results indicate up to 62 and 54 % increase in mean integrated squared error efficiency when compared to existing alternatives while using truncated polynomial splines and B-splines respectively. Furthermore, there is evidence that the gain in efficiency increases with the measurement error variance, indicating the proposed method is a particularly valuable tool for challenging applications that present high measurement error. We conclude with a demonstration on a nutritional epidemiology data set from the NIH-AARP study and by pointing out some possible extensions of the current work. PMID:27418743
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrott, T. L.; Smith, C. D.
1977-01-01
The effect of random and systematic errors associated with the measurement of normal incidence acoustic impedance in a zero-mean-flow environment was investigated by the transmission line method. The influence of random measurement errors in the reflection coefficients and pressure minima positions was investigated by computing fractional standard deviations of the normalized impedance. Both the standard techniques of random process theory and a simplified technique were used. Over a wavelength range of 68 to 10 cm random measurement errors in the reflection coefficients and pressure minima positions could be described adequately by normal probability distributions with standard deviations of 0.001 and 0.0098 cm, respectively. An error propagation technique based on the observed concentration of the probability density functions was found to give essentially the same results but with a computation time of about 1 percent of that required for the standard technique. The results suggest that careful experimental design reduces the effect of random measurement errors to insignificant levels for moderate ranges of test specimen impedance component magnitudes. Most of the observed random scatter can be attributed to lack of control by the mounting arrangement over mechanical boundary conditions of the test sample.
Measurement error models in chemical mass balance analysis of air quality data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, William F.; Gunst, Richard F.
The chemical mass balance (CMB) equations have been used to apportion observed pollutant concentrations to their various pollution sources. Typical analyses incorporate estimated pollution source profiles, estimated source profile error variances, and error variances associated with the ambient measurement process. Often the CMB model is fit to the data using an iteratively re-weighted least-squares algorithm to obtain the effective variance solution. We consider the chemical mass balance model within the framework of the statistical measurement error model (e.g., Fuller, W.A., Measurement Error Models, Wiley, NewYork, 1987), and we illustrate that the models assumed by each of the approaches to the CMB equations are in fact special cases of a general measurement error model. We compare alternative source contribution estimators with the commonly used effective variance estimator when standard assumptions are valid and when such assumptions are violated. Four approaches for source contribution estimation and inference are compared using computer simulation: weighted least squares (with standard errors adjusted for source profile error), the effective variance approach of Watson et al. (Atmos, Environ., 18, 1984, 1347), the Britt and Luecke (Technometrics, 15, 1973, 233) approach, and a method of moments approach given in Fuller (1987, p. 193). For the scenarios we consider, the simplistic weighted least-squares approach performs as well as the more widely used effective variance solution in most cases, and is slightly superior to the effective variance solution when source profile variability is large. The four estimation approaches are illustrated using real PM 2.5 data from Fresno and the conclusions drawn from the computer simulation are validated.
Study on position error of fiber positioning measurement system for LAMOST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao; Xing, Xiaozheng; Teng, Yong; Hu, Hongzhuan
2006-06-01
An investigation on measuring precision of the measurement system is carried on, which is applied to optical fiber positioning system for LAMOST. In the fiber positioning system, geometrical coordinates of fibers need to be measured in order to verify the precision of fiber positioning and it is one of the most pivotal problems. The measurement system consists of an area CCD sensor, an image acquisition card, a lens and a computer. Temperature, vibration, lens aberration and CCD itself will probably cause measuring error. As fiber positioning is a dynamic process and fibers are reversing, this will make additional error. The paper focuses on analyzing the influence to measuring precision which is made by different status of fibers. The fibers are stuck to keep the relative positions steady which can rotate around the same point. The distances between fibers are measured under different experimental conditions. Then the influence of fibers' status can be obtained from the change of distances. Influence to position error made by different factors is analyzed according to the theory and experiments. Position error would be decreased by changing a lens aperture setting and polishing fibers.
Systematic errors in the measurement of emissivity caused by directional effects.
Kribus, Abraham; Vishnevetsky, Irna; Rotenberg, Eyal; Yakir, Dan
2003-04-01
Accurate knowledge of surface emissivity is essential for applications in remote sensing (remote temperature measurement), radiative transport, and modeling of environmental energy balances. Direct measurements of surface emissivity are difficult when there is considerable background radiation at the same wavelength as the emitted radiation. This occurs, for example, when objects at temperatures near room temperature are measured in a terrestrial environment by use ofthe infrared 8-14-microm band.This problem is usually treated by assumption of a perfectly diffuse surface or of diffuse background radiation. However, real surfaces and actual background radiation are not diffuse; therefore there will be a systematic measurement error. It is demonstrated that, in some cases, the deviations from a diffuse behavior lead to large errors in the measured emissivity. Past measurements made with simplifying assumptions should therefore be reevaluated and corrected. Recommendations are presented for improving experimental procedures in emissivity measurement. PMID:12683764
Martin, D.L.
1992-01-01
Water-leaving radiances and phytoplankton pigment concentrations are calculated from Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) total radiance measurements by separating atmospheric Rayleigh and aerosol radiances from the total radiance signal measured at the satellite. Multiple scattering interactions between Rayleigh and aerosol components together with other meteorologically-moderated radiances cause systematic errors in calculated water-leaving radiances and produce errors in retrieved phytoplankton pigment concentrations. This thesis developed techniques which minimize the effects of these systematic errors in Level IIA CZCS imagery. Results of previous radiative transfer modeling by Gordon and Castano are extended to predict the pixel-specific magnitude of systematic errors caused by Rayleigh-aerosol multiple scattering interactions. CZCS orbital passes in which the ocean is viewed through a modeled, physically realistic atmosphere are simulated mathematically and radiance-retrieval errors are calculated for a range of aerosol optical depths. Pixels which exceed an error threshold in the simulated CZCS image are rejected in a corresponding actual image. Meteorological phenomena also cause artifactual errors in CZCS-derived phytoplankton pigment concentration imagery. Unless data contaminated with these effects are masked and excluded from analysis, they will be interpreted as containing valid biological information and will contribute significantly to erroneous estimates of phytoplankton temporal and spatial variability. A method is developed which minimizes these errors through a sequence of quality-control procedures including the calculation of variable cloud-threshold radiances, the computation of the extent of electronic overshoot from bright reflectors, and the imposition of a buffer zone around clouds to exclude contaminated data.
Baxter, Lisa K.; Chang, Howard H.
2014-01-01
Background: Using multipollutant models to understand combined health effects of exposure to multiple pollutants is becoming more common. However, complex relationships between pollutants and differing degrees of exposure error across pollutants can make health effect estimates from multipollutant models difficult to interpret. Objectives: We aimed to quantify relationships between multiple pollutants and their associated exposure errors across metrics of exposure and to use empirical values to evaluate potential attenuation of coefficients in epidemiologic models. Methods: We used three daily exposure metrics (central-site measurements, air quality model estimates, and population exposure model estimates) for 193 ZIP codes in the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area from 1999 through 2002 for PM2.5 and its components (EC and SO4), as well as O3, CO, and NOx, to construct three types of exposure error: δspatial (comparing air quality model estimates to central-site measurements), δpopulation (comparing population exposure model estimates to air quality model estimates), and δtotal (comparing population exposure model estimates to central-site measurements). We compared exposure metrics and exposure errors within and across pollutants and derived attenuation factors (ratio of observed to true coefficient for pollutant of interest) for single- and bipollutant model coefficients. Results: Pollutant concentrations and their exposure errors were moderately to highly correlated (typically, > 0.5), especially for CO, NOx, and EC (i.e., “local” pollutants); correlations differed across exposure metrics and types of exposure error. Spatial variability was evident, with variance of exposure error for local pollutants ranging from 0.25 to 0.83 for δspatial and δtotal. The attenuation of model coefficients in single- and bipollutant epidemiologic models relative to the true value differed across types of exposure error, pollutants, and space. Conclusions: Under a
Impact of Measurement Error on Testing Genetic Association with Quantitative Traits
Liao, Jiemin; Li, Xiang; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wang, Jie Jin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Tai, E. Shyong; Aung, Tin; Teo, Yik-Ying; Cheng, Ching-Yu
2014-01-01
Measurement error of a phenotypic trait reduces the power to detect genetic associations. We examined the impact of sample size, allele frequency and effect size in presence of measurement error for quantitative traits. The statistical power to detect genetic association with phenotype mean and variability was investigated analytically. The non-centrality parameter for a non-central F distribution was derived and verified using computer simulations. We obtained equivalent formulas for the cost of phenotype measurement error. Effects of differences in measurements were examined in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of two grading scales for cataract and a replication study of genetic variants influencing blood pressure. The mean absolute difference between the analytic power and simulation power for comparison of phenotypic means and variances was less than 0.005, and the absolute difference did not exceed 0.02. To maintain the same power, a one standard deviation (SD) in measurement error of a standard normal distributed trait required a one-fold increase in sample size for comparison of means, and a three-fold increase in sample size for comparison of variances. GWAS results revealed almost no overlap in the significant SNPs (p<10−5) for the two cataract grading scales while replication results in genetic variants of blood pressure displayed no significant differences between averaged blood pressure measurements and single blood pressure measurements. We have developed a framework for researchers to quantify power in the presence of measurement error, which will be applicable to studies of phenotypes in which the measurement is highly variable. PMID:24475218
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Televantou, Ioulia; Marsh, Herbert W.; Kyriakides, Leonidas; Nagengast, Benjamin; Fletcher, John; Malmberg, Lars-Erik
2015-01-01
The main objective of this study was to quantify the impact of failing to account for measurement error on school compositional effects. Multilevel structural equation models were incorporated to control for measurement error and/or sampling error. Study 1, a large sample of English primary students in Years 1 and 4, revealed a significantly…
Influence of video compression on the measurement error of the television system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotnik, A. V.; Yarishev, S. N.; Korotaev, V. V.
2015-05-01
Video data require a very large memory capacity. Optimal ratio quality / volume video encoding method is one of the most actual problem due to the urgent need to transfer large amounts of video over various networks. The technology of digital TV signal compression reduces the amount of data used for video stream representation. Video compression allows effective reduce the stream required for transmission and storage. It is important to take into account the uncertainties caused by compression of the video signal in the case of television measuring systems using. There are a lot digital compression methods. The aim of proposed work is research of video compression influence on the measurement error in television systems. Measurement error of the object parameter is the main characteristic of television measuring systems. Accuracy characterizes the difference between the measured value abd the actual parameter value. Errors caused by the optical system can be selected as a source of error in the television systems measurements. Method of the received video signal processing is also a source of error. Presence of error leads to large distortions in case of compression with constant data stream rate. Presence of errors increases the amount of data required to transmit or record an image frame in case of constant quality. The purpose of the intra-coding is reducing of the spatial redundancy within a frame (or field) of television image. This redundancy caused by the strong correlation between the elements of the image. It is possible to convert an array of image samples into a matrix of coefficients that are not correlated with each other, if one can find corresponding orthogonal transformation. It is possible to apply entropy coding to these uncorrelated coefficients and achieve a reduction in the digital stream. One can select such transformation that most of the matrix coefficients will be almost zero for typical images . Excluding these zero coefficients also
Kimberley, Teresa Jacobson; Borich, Michael R.; Prochaska, Kristina D.; Mundfrom, Shannon L.; Perkins, Ariel E.; Poepping, Joseph M.
2009-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe a clearly defined manual method for calculating cortical silent period (CSP) length that can be employed successfully and reliably by raters after minimal training in subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD) and healthy subjects. A secondary purpose was to explore intra-subject variability of the CSP in subjects with FHD vs. healthy subjects. Methods Two raters previously naïve to CSP identification and one experienced rater independently analyzed 170 CSP measurements collected in six subjects with focal hand dystonia (FHD) and nine healthy subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to quantify inter-rater reliability within the two groups of subjects. The relative variability of CSP in each group was calculated by coefficient of variation (CV). Relative variation between raters within repeated measures of individual subjects was also quantified by CV. Results Reliability measures were as follows: mean of three raters: all subjects: ICC= 0.976; within healthy subjects: ICC=0.965; in subjects with FHD: ICC= 0.956. The median within-subject variability for the healthy group was CV=7.33% and in subjects with FHD: CV= 11.78%. The median variability of calculating individual subject CSP duration between raters was CV=10.23% in subjects with dystonia and CV=10.46% in healthy subjects. Conclusions Manual calculation of CSP results in excellent reliability between raters of varied levels of experience. Healthy subjects display less variability in CSP. Despite greater variability, the CSP in impaired subjects can be reliably calculated across raters. PMID:19686807
Correction of Abbe error in involute gear measurement using a laser interferometric system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Hu; Xue, Zi; Yang, Guoliang
2015-10-01
For correction of Abbe error in involute gear measurement, a laser interferometric measuring system is applied, in this system, the laser beam is split into two paths, one path is arranged tangent to the base circle of gear for measurement of profile, another path is arranged parallel to the gear axis for measurement of helix, two cube-corner reflectors are attached at the end of probe stylus closing to the tip, by this approach, the length offset between probe tip and reference scale is minimized , finally, the Abbe error is decreased. On another hand, the laser measuring error is caused by bending of stylus, the mathematic relationship between amount of bending and probe deflection is deduced. To determine the parameters in this mathematic relationship, two sizes of stylus are used for experiments. Experiments are carried out in a range of +/-0.8mm for probe deflection. Results show that the amount of stylus bending is linear with deflection of probe, the laser measuring error caused by stylus bending will be smaller than 0.3μm after correction.
Liu, Shi Qiang; Zhu, Rong
2016-01-01
Errors compensation of micromachined-inertial-measurement-units (MIMU) is essential in practical applications. This paper presents a new compensation method using a neural-network-based identification for MIMU, which capably solves the universal problems of cross-coupling, misalignment, eccentricity, and other deterministic errors existing in a three-dimensional integrated system. Using a neural network to model a complex multivariate and nonlinear coupling system, the errors could be readily compensated through a comprehensive calibration. In this paper, we also present a thermal-gas MIMU based on thermal expansion, which measures three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations using only three thermal-gas inertial sensors, each of which capably measures one-axis angular rate and one-axis acceleration simultaneously in one chip. The developed MIMU (100 × 100 × 100 mm3) possesses the advantages of simple structure, high shock resistance, and large measuring ranges (three-axes angular rates of ±4000°/s and three-axes accelerations of ±10 g) compared with conventional MIMU, due to using gas medium instead of mechanical proof mass as the key moving and sensing elements. However, the gas MIMU suffers from cross-coupling effects, which corrupt the system accuracy. The proposed compensation method is, therefore, applied to compensate the system errors of the MIMU. Experiments validate the effectiveness of the compensation, and the measurement errors of three-axis angular rates and three-axis accelerations are reduced to less than 1% and 3% of uncompensated errors in the rotation range of ±600°/s and the acceleration range of ±1 g, respectively. PMID:26840314
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Xiushui; Fei, Yetai; Wang, Hongtao; Ying, Zhongyang; Li, Guang
2006-11-01
Modern manufacturing increasingly places a high requirement on the speed and accuracy of Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs). Measuring speed has become one of the key factors in evaluating the performance of CMMs. In high speed measuring, dynamic error will have a greater influence on accuracy. This paper tests the dynamic error of CMM's measuring system under different measuring positions and speeds using the dual frequency laser interferometer. Based on measured data, the modeling of synthetic dynamic errors is set up adopting the dual linear returns method. Comparing with the measured data, the relative error of modeling is between 15% to 20%, the returns equation is prominent at α=0.01 level, verified by "F". Based on the modeling of synthetic dynamic errors under different measuring positions and speeds, the measuring system dynamic error of CMMs is corrected and reduced.
Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad.
Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal
2016-05-01
We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM's autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror's slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror. PMID:27250374
Observation of spectrum effect on the measurement of intrinsic error field on EAST
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hui-Hui; Sun, You-Wen; Qian, Jin-Ping; Shi, Tong-Hui; Shen, Biao; Gu, Shuai; Liu, Yue-Qiang; Guo, Wen-Feng; Chu, Nan; He, Kai-Yang; Jia, Man-Ni; Chen, Da-Long; Xue, Min-Min; Ren, Jie; Wang, Yong; Sheng, Zhi-Cai; Xiao, Bing-Jia; Luo, Zheng-Ping; Liu, Yong; Liu, Hai-Qing; Zhao, Hai-Lin; Zeng, Long; Gong, Xian-Zu; Liang, Yun-Feng; Wan, Bao-Nian; The EAST Team
2016-06-01
Intrinsic error field on EAST is measured using the ‘compass scan’ technique with different n = 1 magnetic perturbation coil configurations in ohmically heated discharges. The intrinsic error field measured using a non-resonant dominated spectrum with even connection of the upper and lower resonant magnetic perturbation coils is of the order {{b}r2,1}/{{B}\\text{T}}≃ {{10}-5} and the toroidal phase of intrinsic error field is around {{60}{^\\circ}} . A clear difference between the results using the two coil configurations, resonant and non-resonant dominated spectra, is observed. The ‘resonant’ and ‘non-resonant’ terminology is based on vacuum modeling. The penetration thresholds of the non-resonant dominated cases are much smaller than that of the resonant cases. The difference of penetration thresholds between the resonant and non-resonant cases is reduced by plasma response modeling using the MARS-F code.
Barshan, Billur
2008-01-01
An objective error criterion is proposed for evaluating the accuracy of maps of unknown environments acquired by making range measurements with different sensing modalities and processing them with different techniques. The criterion can also be used for the assessment of goodness of fit of curves or shapes fitted to map points. A demonstrative example from ultrasonic mapping is given based on experimentally acquired time-of-flight measurements and compared with a very accurate laser map, considered as absolute reference. The results of the proposed criterion are compared with the Hausdorff metric and the median error criterion results. The error criterion is sufficiently general and flexible that it can be applied to discrete point maps acquired with other mapping techniques and sensing modalities as well.
An error compensation method of laser displacement sensor in the inclined surface measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Feng; Xiong, Zhongxing; Li, Bin
2015-10-01
Laser triangulation displacement sensor is an important tool in non-contact displacement measurement which has been widely used in the filed of freeform surface measurement. However, measurement accuracy of such optical sensors is very likely to be influenced by the geometrical shape and face properties of the inspected surfaces. This study presents an error compensation method for the measurement of inclined surfaces using a 1D laser displacement sensor. The effect of the incident angle on the measurement results was investigated by analyzing the laser spot projected on the inclined surface. Both the shape and the light intensity distribution of the spot will be influenced by the incident angle, which lead to the measurement error. As the beam light spot size is different at different measurement position according to Gaussian beam propagating laws, the light spot projectted on the inclinde surface will be an ellipse approximatively. It's important to note that this ellipse isn't full symmetrical because the spot size of Gaussian beam is different at different position. By analyzing the laws of the shape change, the error compensation model can be established. This method is verified through the measurement of an ceramic plane mounted on a high-accuracy 5-axis Mikron UCP 800 Duro milling center. The results show that the method is effective in increasing the measurement accuracy.
Design considerations for case series models with exposure onset measurement error
Mohammed, Sandra M.; Dalrymple, Lorien S.; Şentürk, Damla; Nguyen, Danh V.
2014-01-01
Summary The case series model allows for estimation of the relative incidence of events, such as cardiovascular events, within a pre-specified time window after an exposure, such as an infection. The method requires only cases (individuals with events) and controls for all fixed/time-invariant confounders. The measurement error case series model extends the original case series model to handle imperfect data, where the timing of an infection (exposure) is not known precisely. In this work, we propose a method for power/sample size determination for the measurement error case series model. Extensive simulation studies are used to assess the accuracy of the proposed sample size formulas. We also examine the magnitude of the relative loss of power due to exposure onset measurement error, compared to the ideal situation where the time of exposure is measured precisely. To facilitate the design of case series studies, we provide publicly available web-based tools for determining power/sample size for both the measurement error case series model as well as the standard case series model. PMID:22911898
Wide-aperture laser beam measurement using transmission diffuser: errors modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsak, Ivan S.
2015-06-01
Instrumental errors of measurement wide-aperture laser beam diameter were modeled to build measurement setup and justify its metrological characteristics. Modeled setup is based on CCD camera and transmission diffuser. This method is appropriate for precision measurement of large laser beam width from 10 mm up to 1000 mm. It is impossible to measure such beams with other methods based on slit, pinhole, knife edge or direct CCD camera measurement. The method is suitable for continuous and pulsed laser irradiation. However, transmission diffuser method has poor metrological justification required in field of wide aperture beam forming system verification. Considering the fact of non-availability of a standard of wide-aperture flat top beam modelling is preferred way to provide basic reference points for development measurement system. Modelling was conducted in MathCAD. Super-Lorentz distribution with shape parameter 6-12 was used as a model of the beam. Using theoretical evaluations there was found that the key parameters influencing on error are: relative beam size, spatial non-uniformity of the diffuser, lens distortion, physical vignetting, CCD spatial resolution and, effective camera ADC resolution. Errors were modeled for 90% of power beam diameter criteria. 12-order Super-Lorentz distribution was primary model, because it precisely meets experimental distribution at the output of test beam forming system, although other orders were also used. The analytic expressions were obtained analyzing the modelling results for each influencing data. Attainability of <1% error based on choice of parameters of expression was shown. The choice was based on parameters of commercially available components of the setup. The method can provide up to 0.1% error in case of using calibration procedures and multiple measurements.
[Errors in medicine. Causes, impact and improvement measures to improve patient safety].
Waeschle, R M; Bauer, M; Schmidt, C E
2015-09-01
The guarantee of quality of care and patient safety is of major importance in hospitals even though increased economic pressure and work intensification are ubiquitously present. Nevertheless, adverse events still occur in 3-4 % of hospital stays and of these 25-50 % are estimated to be avoidable. The identification of possible causes of error and the development of measures for the prevention of medical errors are essential for patient safety. The implementation and continuous development of a constructive culture of error tolerance are fundamental.The origins of errors can be differentiated into systemic latent and individual active causes and components of both categories are typically involved when an error occurs. Systemic causes are, for example out of date structural environments, lack of clinical standards and low personnel density. These causes arise far away from the patient, e.g. management decisions and can remain unrecognized for a long time. Individual causes involve, e.g. confirmation bias, error of fixation and prospective memory failure. These causes have a direct impact on patient care and can result in immediate injury to patients. Stress, unclear information, complex systems and a lack of professional experience can promote individual causes. Awareness of possible causes of error is a fundamental precondition to establishing appropriate countermeasures.Error prevention should include actions directly affecting the causes of error and includes checklists and standard operating procedures (SOP) to avoid fixation and prospective memory failure and team resource management to improve communication and the generation of collective mental models. Critical incident reporting systems (CIRS) provide the opportunity to learn from previous incidents without resulting in injury to patients. Information technology (IT) support systems, such as the computerized physician order entry system, assist in the prevention of medication errors by providing
Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark
2015-07-23
Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we propose a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mebratu, Derssie; Kegege, Obadiah; Shaw, Harry
2016-01-01
Digital signal transmits via a carrier wave, demodulates at a receiver and locates an ideal constellation position. However, a noise distortion, carrier leakage and phase noise divert an actual constellation position of a signal and locate to a new position. In order to assess a source of noise and carrier leakage, Bit Error Rate (BER) measurement technique is also used to evaluate the number of erroneous bit per bit transmitted signal. In addition, we present, Error Vector Magnitude (EVM), which measures an ideal and a new position, assesses a source of signal distortion, and evaluates a wireless communication system's performance with a single metric. Applying EVM technique, we also measure the performance of a User Services Subsystem Component Replacement (USSCR) modem. Furthermore, we propose EVM measurement technique in the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite system (TDRS) to measure and evaluate a channel impairment between a ground (transmitter) and the terminal (receiver) at White Sands Complex.
Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark
2015-07-23
Numerous methods are available to measure the spatial frequency response (SFR) of an optical system. A recent change to the ISO 12233 photography resolution standard includes a sinusoidal Siemens star test target. We take the sinusoidal Siemens star proposed by the ISO 12233 standard, measure system SFR, and perform an analysis of errors induced by incorrectly identifying the center of a test target. We show a closed-form solution for the radial profile intensity measurement given an incorrectly determined center and describe how this error reduces the measured SFR of the system. As a result, using the closed-form solution, we proposemore » a two-step process by which test target centers are corrected and the measured SFR is restored to the nominal, correctly centered values.« less
Dong, Zhichao; Cheng, Haobo; Feng, Yunpeng; Su, Jingshi; Wu, Hengyu; Tam, Hon-Yuen
2015-07-01
This study presents a subaperture stitching method to calibrate system errors of several ∼2 m large scale 3D profile measurement instruments (PMIs). The calibration process was carried out by measuring a Φ460 mm standard flat sample multiple times at different sites of the PMI with a length gauge; then the subaperture data were stitched together using a sequential or simultaneous stitching algorithm that minimizes the inconsistency (i.e., difference) of the discrete data in the overlapped areas. The system error can be used to compensate the measurement results of not only large flats, but also spheres and aspheres. The feasibility of the calibration was validated by measuring a Φ1070 mm aspheric mirror, which can raise the measurement accuracy of PMIs and provide more reliable 3D surface profiles for guiding grinding, lapping, and even initial polishing processes. PMID:26193139
Point cloud uncertainty analysis for laser radar measurement system based on error ellipsoid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhengchun, Du; Zhaoyong, Wu; Jianguo, Yang
2016-04-01
Three-dimensional laser scanning has become an increasingly popular measurement method in industrial fields as it provides a non-contact means of measuring large objects, whereas the conventional methods are contact-based. However, the data acquisition process is subject to many interference factors, which inevitably cause errors. Therefore, it is necessary to precisely evaluate the accuracy of the measurement results. In this study, an error-ellipsoid-based uncertainty model was applied to 3D laser radar measurement system (LRMS) data. First, a spatial point uncertainty distribution map was constructed according to the error ellipsoid attributes. The single-point uncertainty ellipsoid model was then extended to point-point, point-plane, and plane-plane situations, and the corresponding distance uncertainty models were derived. Finally, verification experiments were performed by using an LRMS to measure the height of a cubic object, and the measurement accuracies were evaluated. The results show that the plane-plane distance uncertainties determined based on the ellipsoid model are comparable to those obtained by actual distance measurements. Thus, this model offers solid theoretical support to enable further LRMS measurement accuracy improvement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Z. C.; Lv, C. F.; Hong, M. S.
2006-10-01
A new error modelling and identification method based on the cross grid encoder is proposed in this paper. Generally, there are 21 error components in the geometric error of the 3 axis NC machine tools. However according our theoretical analysis, the squareness error among different guide ways affects not only the translation error component, but also the rotational ones. Therefore, a revised synthetic error model is developed. And the mapping relationship between the error component and radial motion error of round workpiece manufactured on the NC machine tools are deduced. This mapping relationship shows that the radial error of circular motion is the comprehensive function result of all the error components of link, worktable, sliding table and main spindle block. Aiming to overcome the solution singularity shortcoming of traditional error component identification method, a new multi-step identification method of error component by using the Cross Grid Encoder measurement technology is proposed based on the kinematic error model of NC machine tool. Firstly, the 12 translational error components of the NC machine tool are measured and identified by using the least square method (LSM) when the NC machine tools go linear motion in the three orthogonal planes: XOY plane, XOZ plane and YOZ plane. Secondly, the circular error tracks are measured when the NC machine tools go circular motion in the same above orthogonal planes by using the cross grid encoder Heidenhain KGM 182. Therefore 9 rotational errors can be identified by using LSM. Finally the experimental validation of the above modelling theory and identification method is carried out in the 3 axis CNC vertical machining centre Cincinnati 750 Arrow. The entire 21 error components have been successfully measured out by the above method. Research shows the multi-step modelling and identification method is very suitable for 'on machine measurement'.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pan, Tianshu; Yin, Yue
2012-01-01
In the discussion of mean square difference (MSD) and standard error of measurement (SEM), Barchard (2012) concluded that the MSD between 2 sets of test scores is greater than 2(SEM)[superscript 2] and SEM underestimates the score difference between 2 tests when the 2 tests are not parallel. This conclusion has limitations for 2 reasons. First,…
Fast error simulation of optical 3D measurements at translucent objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lutzke, P.; Kühmstedt, P.; Notni, G.
2012-09-01
The scan results of optical 3D measurements at translucent objects deviate from the real objects surface. This error is caused by the fact that light is scattered in the objects volume and is not exclusively reflected at its surface. A few approaches were made to separate the surface reflected light from the volume scattered. For smooth objects the surface reflected light is dominantly concentrated in specular direction and could only be observed from a point in this direction. Thus the separation either leads to measurement results only creating data for near specular directions or provides data from not well separated areas. To ensure the flexibility and precision of optical 3D measurement systems for translucent materials it is necessary to enhance the understanding of the error forming process. For this purpose a technique for simulating the 3D measurement at translucent objects is presented. A simple error model is shortly outlined and extended to an efficient simulation environment based upon ordinary raytracing methods. In comparison the results of a Monte-Carlo simulation are presented. Only a few material and object parameters are needed for the raytracing simulation approach. The attempt of in-system collection of these material and object specific parameters is illustrated. The main concept of developing an error-compensation method based on the simulation environment and the collected parameters is described. The complete procedure is using both, the surface reflected and the volume scattered light for further processing.
The Impact of Measurement Error on the Accuracy of Individual and Aggregate SGP
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McCaffrey, Daniel F.; Castellano, Katherine E.; Lockwood, J. R.
2015-01-01
Student growth percentiles (SGPs) express students' current observed scores as percentile ranks in the distribution of scores among students with the same prior-year scores. A common concern about SGPs at the student level, and mean or median SGPs (MGPs) at the aggregate level, is potential bias due to test measurement error (ME). Shang,…
Sensitivity of Force Specifications to the Errors in Measuring the Interface Force
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worth, Daniel
2000-01-01
Force-Limited Random Vibration Testing has been applied in the last several years at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and other NASA centers for various programs at the instrument and spacecraft level. Different techniques have been developed over the last few decades to estimate the dynamic forces that the test article under consideration will encounter in the flight environment. Some of these techniques are described in the handbook, NASA-HDBK-7004, and the monograph, NASA-RP-1403. This paper will show the effects of some measurement and calibration errors in force gauges. In some cases, the notches in the acceleration spectrum when a random vibration test is performed with measurement errors are the same as the notches produced during a test that has no measurement errors. The paper will also present the results Of tests that were used to validate this effect. Knowing the effect of measurement errors can allow tests to continue after force gauge failures or allow dummy gauges to be used in places that are inaccessible to a force gage.
Estimating Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Tests Composed of Testlets.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Guemin
The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriateness and implication of incorporating a testlet definition into the estimation of the conditional standard error of measurement (SEM) for tests composed of testlets. The five conditional SEM estimation methods used in this study were classified into two categories: item-based and…
Measurement Error in Nonparametric Item Response Curve Estimation. Research Report. ETS RR-11-28
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Guo, Hongwen; Sinharay, Sandip
2011-01-01
Nonparametric, or kernel, estimation of item response curve (IRC) is a concern theoretically and operationally. Accuracy of this estimation, often used in item analysis in testing programs, is biased when the observed scores are used as the regressor because the observed scores are contaminated by measurement error. In this study, we investigate…
Covariate Measurement Error Adjustment for Multilevel Models with Application to Educational Data
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Battauz, Michela; Bellio, Ruggero; Gori, Enrico
2011-01-01
This article proposes a multilevel model for the assessment of school effectiveness where the intake achievement is a predictor and the response variable is the achievement in the subsequent periods. The achievement is a latent variable that can be estimated on the basis of an item response theory model and hence subject to measurement error.…
Correlation Attenuation Due to Measurement Error: A New Approach Using the Bootstrap Procedure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Padilla, Miguel A.; Veprinsky, Anna
2012-01-01
Issues with correlation attenuation due to measurement error are well documented. More than a century ago, Spearman proposed a correction for attenuation. However, this correction has seen very little use since it can potentially inflate the true correlation beyond one. In addition, very little confidence interval (CI) research has been done for…
Measurement Error of Scores on the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale across Studies.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Capraro, Mary Margaret; Capraro, Robert M.; Henson, Robin K.
2001-01-01
Submitted the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (MARS) (F. Richardson and R. Suinn, 1972) to a reliability generalization analysis to characterize the variability of measurement error in MARS scores across administrations and identify characteristics predictive of score reliability variations. Results for 67 analyses generally support the internal…
A new method for dealing with measurement error in explanatory variables of regression models.
Freedman, Laurence S; Fainberg, Vitaly; Kipnis, Victor; Midthune, Douglas; Carroll, Raymond J
2004-03-01
We introduce a new method, moment reconstruction, of correcting for measurement error in covariates in regression models. The central idea is similar to regression calibration in that the values of the covariates that are measured with error are replaced by "adjusted" values. In regression calibration the adjusted value is the expectation of the true value conditional on the measured value. In moment reconstruction the adjusted value is the variance-preserving empirical Bayes estimate of the true value conditional on the outcome variable. The adjusted values thereby have the same first two moments and the same covariance with the outcome variable as the unobserved "true" covariate values. We show that moment reconstruction is equivalent to regression calibration in the case of linear regression, but leads to different results for logistic regression. For case-control studies with logistic regression and covariates that are normally distributed within cases and controls, we show that the resulting estimates of the regression coefficients are consistent. In simulations we demonstrate that for logistic regression, moment reconstruction carries less bias than regression calibration, and for case-control studies is superior in mean-square error to the standard regression calibration approach. Finally, we give an example of the use of moment reconstruction in linear discriminant analysis and a nonstandard problem where we wish to adjust a classification tree for measurement error in the explanatory variables. PMID:15032787
Using Computation Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes for Error Pattern Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dennis, Minyi Shih; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Olson, Christopher L.; Williams, Cara
2014-01-01
This article describes how "curriculum-based measurement--computation" (CBM-C) mathematics probes can be used in combination with "error pattern analysis" (EPA) to pinpoint difficulties in basic computation skills for students who struggle with learning mathematics. Both assessment procedures provide ongoing assessment data…
Rater Expertise in a Second Language Speaking Assessment: The Influence of Training and Experience
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Lawrence Edward
2012-01-01
Speaking performance tests typically employ raters to produce scores; accordingly, variability in raters' scoring decisions has important consequences for test reliability and validity. One such source of variability is the rater's level of expertise in scoring. Therefore, it is important to understand how raters' performance is…
A Qualitative Analysis of Rater Behavior on an L2 Speaking Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kim, Hyun Jung
2015-01-01
Human raters are normally involved in L2 performance assessment; as a result, rater behavior has been widely investigated to reduce rater effects on test scores and to provide validity arguments. Yet raters' cognition and use of rubrics in their actual rating have rarely been explored qualitatively in L2 speaking assessments. In this study three…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorontsov, Yurii I.
1994-01-01
The so-called standard quantum limits (SQL) of measurement errors of coordinate, momentum, amplitude of oscillations, energy, force etc. are due to back action of the meter on the system under test, whenever the meter responds to the coordinate of the system. These SQL are not fundamental and can be surmounted by various methods. In particular, in a coordinate measurement the SQL can be overcome by means of an appropriate correlation of conjugate meter variables. Conditions of quantum nonperturbing (nondemolition) and quasi-nonperturbing measurements of the energy of electromagnetic waves are discussed. Possible methods of these measurements are reviewed. Conditions for overcoming the SQL of wave energy measurement by the optical Kerr effect are analysed. The quantum limit of error of this measurement is discussed. The effects of dissipation, dispersion and generation of combination waves are considered. Results of experiments reported in the literature are discussed. The dependence of the quantum limit of detection of an external action upon a system on the initial state of the system is considered. The relation between the measurement error of an observable A and a perturbation of an observable B, when [A,B] is an operator, is examined.
Improved error separation technique for on-machine optical lens measurement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Xingyu; Bing, Guo; Zhao, Qingliang; Rao, Zhimin; Cheng, Kai; Mulenga, Kabwe
2016-04-01
This paper describes an improved error separation technique (EST) for on-machine surface profile measurement which can be applied to optical lenses on precision and ultra-precision machine tools. With only one precise probe and a linear stage, improved EST not only reduces measurement costs, but also shortens the sampling interval, which implies that this method can be used to measure the profile of small-bore lenses. The improved EST with stitching method can be applied to measure the profile of high-height lenses as well. Since the improvement is simple, most of the traditional EST can be modified by this method. The theoretical analysis and experimental results in this paper show that the improved EST eliminates the slide error successfully and generates an accurate lens profile.
Error analysis for the ground-based microwave ozone measurements during STOIC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Connor, Brian J.; Parrish, Alan; Tsou, Jung-Jung; McCormick, M. Patrick
1995-01-01
We present a formal error analysis and characterization of the microwave measurements made during the Stratospheric Ozone Intercomparison Campaign (STOIC). The most important error sources are found to be determination of the tropospheric opacity, the pressure-broadening coefficient of the observed line, and systematic variations in instrument response as a function of frequency ('baseline'). Net precision is 4-6% between 55 and 0.2 mbar, while accuracy is 6-10%. Resolution is 8-10 km below 3 mbar and increases to 17km at 0.2 mbar. We show the 'blind' microwave measurements from STOIC and make limited comparisons to other measurements. We use the averaging kernels of the microwave measurement to eliminate resolution and a priori effects from a comparison to SAGE 2. The STOIC results and comparisons are broadly consistent with the formal analysis.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harshman, Jordan; Yezierski, Ellen
2016-01-01
Determining the error of measurement is a necessity for researchers engaged in bench chemistry, chemistry education research (CER), and a multitude of other fields. Discussions regarding what constructs measurement error entails and how to best measure them have occurred, but the critiques about traditional measures have yielded few alternatives.…
Bradshaw, Corey J A; Sims, David W; Hays, Graeme C
2007-03-01
Recent advances in telemetry technology have created a wealth of tracking data available for many animal species moving over spatial scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers. Increasingly, such data sets are being used for quantitative movement analyses aimed at extracting fundamental biological signals such as optimal searching behavior and scale-dependent foraging decisions. We show here that the location error inherent in various tracking technologies reduces the ability to detect patterns of behavior within movements. Our analyses endeavored to set out a series of initial ground rules for ecologists to help ensure that sampling noise is not misinterpreted as a real biological signal. We simulated animal movement tracks using specialized random walks known as Lévy flights at three spatial scales of investigation: 100-km, 10-km, and 1-km maximum daily step lengths. The locations generated in the simulations were then blurred using known error distributions associated with commonly applied tracking methods: the Global Positioning System (GPS), Argos polar-orbiting satellites, and light-level geolocation. Deviations from the idealized Lévy flight pattern were assessed for each track after incrementing levels of location error were applied at each spatial scale, with additional assessments of the effect of error on scale-dependent movement patterns measured using fractal mean dimension and first-passage time (FPT) analyses. The accuracy of parameter estimation (Lévy mu, fractal mean D, and variance in FPT) declined precipitously at threshold errors relative to each spatial scale. At 100-km maximum daily step lengths, error standard deviations of > or = 10 km seriously eroded the biological patterns evident in the simulated tracks, with analogous thresholds at the 10-km and 1-km scales (error SD > or = 1.3 km and 0.07 km, respectively). Temporal subsampling of the simulated tracks maintained some elements of the biological signals depending on
Errors in polarization measurements due to static retardation in photoelastic modulators
Modine, F.A.; Jellison, G.E. Jr. )
1993-03-01
A mathematical description of photoelastic polarization modulators is developed for the general case in which the modulator exhibits a static retardation that is not colinear with the dynamic retardation of the modulator. Simplifying approximations are introduced which are appropriate to practical use of the modulators in polarization measurements. Measurement errors due to the modulator static retardation along with procedures for their elimination are described for reflection ellipsometers, linear dichrometers, and polarimeters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merhav, S.; Velger, M.
1991-01-01
A method based on complementary filtering is shown to be effective in compensating for the image stabilization error due to sampling delays of HMD position and orientation measurements. These delays would otherwise have prevented the stabilization of the image in HMDs. The method is also shown to improve the resolution of the head orientation measurement, particularly at low frequencies, thus providing smoother head control commands, which are essential for precise head pointing and teleoperation.
Effects of Spectral Error in Efficiency Measurements of GaInAs-Based Concentrator Solar Cells
Osterwald, C. R.; Wanlass, M. W.; Moriarty, T.; Steiner, M. A.; Emery, K. A.
2014-03-01
This technical report documents a particular error in efficiency measurements of triple-absorber concentrator solar cells caused by incorrect spectral irradiance -- specifically, one that occurs when the irradiance from unfiltered, pulsed xenon solar simulators into the GaInAs bottom subcell is too high. For cells designed so that the light-generated photocurrents in the three subcells are nearly equal, this condition can cause a large increase in the measured fill factor, which, in turn, causes a significant artificial increase in the efficiency. The error is readily apparent when the data under concentration are compared to measurements with correctly balanced photocurrents, and manifests itself as discontinuities in plots of fill factor and efficiency versus concentration ratio. In this work, we simulate the magnitudes and effects of this error with a device-level model of two concentrator cell designs, and demonstrate how a new Spectrolab, Inc., Model 460 Tunable-High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (T-HIPSS) can mitigate the error.
Measurement error in two-stage analyses, with application to air pollution epidemiology
Szpiro, Adam A.; Paciorek, Christopher J.
2014-01-01
Summary Public health researchers often estimate health effects of exposures (e.g., pollution, diet, lifestyle) that cannot be directly measured for study subjects. A common strategy in environmental epidemiology is to use a first-stage (exposure) model to estimate the exposure based on covariates and/or spatio-temporal proximity and to use predictions from the exposure model as the covariate of interest in the second-stage (health) model. This induces a complex form of measurement error. We propose an analytical framework and methodology that is robust to misspecification of the first-stage model and provides valid inference for the second-stage model parameter of interest. We decompose the measurement error into components analogous to classical and Berkson error and characterize properties of the estimator in the second-stage model if the first-stage model predictions are plugged in without correction. Specifically, we derive conditions for compatibility between the first- and second-stage models that guarantee consistency (and have direct and important real-world design implications), and we derive an asymptotic estimate of finite-sample bias when the compatibility conditions are satisfied. We propose a methodology that (1) corrects for finite-sample bias and (2) correctly estimates standard errors. We demonstrate the utility of our methodology in simulations and an example from air pollution epidemiology. PMID:24764691
A method of treating the non-grey error in total emittance measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heaney, J. B.; Henninger, J. H.
1971-01-01
In techniques for the rapid determination of total emittance, the sample is generally exposed to surroundings that are at a different temperature than the sample's surface. When the infrared spectral reflectance of the surface is spectrally selective, these techniques introduce an error into the total emittance values. Surfaces of aluminum overcoated with oxides of various thicknesses fall into this class. Because they are often used as temperature control coatings on satellites, their emittances must be accurately known. The magnitude of the error was calculated for Alzak and silicon oxide-coated aluminum and was shown to be dependent on the thickness of the oxide coating. The results demonstrate that, because the magnitude of the error is thickness-dependent, it is generally impossible or impractical to eliminate it by calibrating the measuring device.
Measurement and simulation of clock errors from resource-constrained embedded systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Collett, M. A.; Matthews, C. E.; Esward, T. J.; Whibberley, P. B.
2010-07-01
Resource-constrained embedded systems such as wireless sensor networks are becoming increasingly sought-after in a range of critical sensing applications. Hardware for such systems is typically developed as a general tool, intended for research and flexibility. These systems often have unexpected limitations and sources of error when being implemented for specific applications. We investigate via measurement and simulation the output of the onboard clock of a Crossbow MICAz testbed, comprising a quartz oscillator accessed via a combination of hardware and software. We show that the clock output available to the user suffers a number of instabilities and errors. Using a simple software simulation of the system based on a series of nested loops, we identify the source of each component of the error, finding that there is a 7.5 × 10-6 probability that a given oscillation from the governing crystal will be miscounted, resulting in frequency jitter over a 60 µHz range.
Error reduction methods for integrated-path differential-absorption lidar measurements.
Chen, Jeffrey R; Numata, Kenji; Wu, Stewart T
2012-07-01
We report new modeling and error reduction methods for differential-absorption optical-depth (DAOD) measurements of atmospheric constituents using direct-detection integrated-path differential-absorption lidars. Errors from laser frequency noise are quantified in terms of the line center fluctuation and spectral line shape of the laser pulses, revealing relationships verified experimentally. A significant DAOD bias is removed by introducing a correction factor. Errors from surface height and reflectance variations can be reduced to tolerable levels by incorporating altimetry knowledge and "log after averaging", or by pointing the laser and receiver to a fixed surface spot during each wavelength cycle to shorten the time of "averaging before log". PMID:22772254
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcia-Fernandez, Jorge
2016-03-01
The need for accurate documentation for the preservation of cultural heritage has prompted the use of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) in this discipline. Its study in the heritage context has been focused on opaque surfaces with lambertian reflectance, while translucent and anisotropic materials remain a major challenge. The use of TLS for the mentioned materials is subject to significant distortion in measure due to the optical properties under the laser stimulation. The distortion makes the measurement by range not suitable for digital modelling in a wide range of cases. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate and discuss the deficiencies and their resulting errors in marmorean surfaces documentation using TLS based on time-of-flight and phase-shift. Also proposed in this paper is the reduction of error in depth measurement by adjustment of the incidence laser beam. The analysis is conducted by controlled experiments.
Error reduction in gamma-spectrometric measurements of nuclear materials enrichment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaplatkina, D.; Semenov, A.; Tarasova, E.; Zakusilov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.
2016-06-01
The paper provides the analysis of the uncertainty in determining the uranium samples enrichment using non-destructive methods to ensure the functioning of the nuclear materials accounting and control system. The measurements were performed by a scintillation detector based on a sodium iodide crystal and the semiconductor germanium detector. Samples containing uranium oxide of different masses were used for the measurements. Statistical analysis of the results showed that the maximum enrichment error in a scintillation detector measurement can reach 82%. The bias correction, calculated from the data obtained by the semiconductor detector, reduces the error in the determination of uranium enrichment by 47.2% in average. Thus, the use of bias correction, calculated by the statistical methods, allows the use of scintillation detectors to account and control nuclear materials.
Topping, David J.; Wright, Scott A.
2016-01-01
these sites. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are presented for the general river application of the method.Quantification of errors in sediment-transport measurements made using this acoustical method is essential if the measurements are to be used effectively, for example, to evaluate uncertainty in long-term sediment loads and budgets. Several types of error analyses are presented to evaluate (1) the stability of acoustical calibrations over time, (2) the effect of neglecting backscatter from silt and clay, (3) the bias arising from changes in sand grain size, (4) the time-varying error in the method, and (5) the influence of nonrandom processes on error. Results indicate that (1) acoustical calibrations can be stable for long durations (multiple years), (2) neglecting backscatter from silt and clay can result in unacceptably high bias, (3) two frequencies are likely required to obtain sand-concentration measurements that are unbiased by changes in grain size, depending on site-specific conditions and acoustic frequency, (4) relative errors in silt-and-clay- and sand-concentration measurements decrease substantially as concentration increases, and (5) nonrandom errors may arise from slow changes in the spatial structure of suspended sediment that affect the relations between concentration in the acoustically ensonified part of the cross section and concentration in the entire river cross section. Taken together, the error analyses indicate that the two-frequency method produces unbiased measurements of suspended-silt-and-clay and sand concentration, with errors that are similar to, or larger than, those associated with conventional sampling methods.
SANG-a kernel density estimator incorporating information about the measurement error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayes, Robert
Analyzing nominally large data sets having a measurement error unique to each entry is evaluated with a novel technique. This work begins with a review of modern analytical methodologies such as histograming data, ANOVA, regression (weighted and unweighted) along with various error propagation and estimation techniques. It is shown that by assuming the errors obey a functional distribution (such as normal or Poisson), a superposition of the assumed forms then provides the most comprehensive and informative graphical depiction of the data set's statistical information. The resultant approach is evaluated only for normally distributed errors so that the method is effectively a Superposition Analysis of Normalized Gaussians (SANG). SANG is shown to be easily calculated and highly informative in a single graph from what would otherwise require multiple analysis and figures to accomplish the same result. The work is demonstrated using historical radiochemistry measurements from a transuranic waste geological repository's environmental monitoring program. This work paid for under NRC-HQ-84-14-G-0059.
Error Correction Method for Wind Speed Measured with Doppler Wind LIDAR at Low Altitude
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Bingyi; Feng, Changzhong; Liu, Zhishen
2014-11-01
For the purpose of obtaining global vertical wind profiles, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission Aeolus of European Space Agency (ESA), carrying the first spaceborne Doppler lidar ALADIN (Atmospheric LAser Doppler INstrument), is going to be launched in 2015. DLR (German Aerospace Center) developed the A2D (ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator) for the prelaunch validation. A ground-based wind lidar for wind profile and wind field scanning measurement developed by Ocean University of China is going to be used for the ground-based validation after the launch of Aeolus. In order to provide validation data with higher accuracy, an error correction method is investigated to improve the accuracy of low altitude wind data measured with Doppler lidar based on iodine absorption filter. The error due to nonlinear wind sensitivity is corrected, and the method for merging atmospheric return signal is improved. The correction method is validated by synchronous wind measurements with lidar and radiosonde. The results show that the accuracy of wind data measured with Doppler lidar at low altitude can be improved by the proposed error correction method.
Correction for dynamic bias error in transmission measurements of void fraction.
Andersson, P; Sundén, E Andersson; Svärd, S Jacobsson; Sjöstrand, H
2012-12-01
Dynamic bias errors occur in transmission measurements, such as X-ray, gamma, or neutron radiography or tomography. This is observed when the properties of the object are not stationary in time and its average properties are assessed. The nonlinear measurement response to changes in transmission within the time scale of the measurement implies a bias, which can be difficult to correct for. A typical example is the tomographic or radiographic mapping of void content in dynamic two-phase flow systems. In this work, the dynamic bias error is described and a method to make a first-order correction is derived. A prerequisite for this method is variance estimates of the system dynamics, which can be obtained using high-speed, time-resolved data acquisition. However, in the absence of such acquisition, a priori knowledge might be used to substitute the time resolved data. Using synthetic data, a void fraction measurement case study has been simulated to demonstrate the performance of the suggested method. The transmission length of the radiation in the object under study and the type of fluctuation of the void fraction have been varied. Significant decreases in the dynamic bias error were achieved to the expense of marginal decreases in precision. PMID:23278029
Error Analysis and Measurement Uncertainty for a Fiber Grating Strain-Temperature Sensor
Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wang, Jian-Neng
2010-01-01
A fiber grating sensor capable of distinguishing between temperature and strain, using a reference and a dual-wavelength fiber Bragg grating, is presented. Error analysis and measurement uncertainty for this sensor are studied theoretically and experimentally. The measured root mean squared errors for temperature T and strain ε were estimated to be 0.13 °C and 6 με, respectively. The maximum errors for temperature and strain were calculated as 0.00155 T + 2.90 × 10−6 ε and 3.59 × 10−5 ε + 0.01887 T, respectively. Using the estimation of expanded uncertainty at 95% confidence level with a coverage factor of k = 2.205, temperature and strain measurement uncertainties were evaluated as 2.60 °C and 32.05 με, respectively. For the first time, to our knowledge, we have demonstrated the feasibility of estimating the measurement uncertainty for simultaneous strain-temperature sensing with such a fiber grating sensor. PMID:22163567
An analysis of temperature-induced errors for an ultrasound distance measuring system. M. S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wenger, David Paul
1991-01-01
The presentation of research is provided in the following five chapters. Chapter 2 presents the necessary background information and definitions for general work with ultrasound and acoustics. It also discusses the basis for errors in the slant range measurements. Chapter 3 presents a method of problem solution and an analysis of the sensitivity of the equations to slant range measurement errors. It also presents various methods by which the error in the slant range measurements can be reduced to improve overall measurement accuracy. Chapter 4 provides a description of a type of experiment used to test the analytical solution and provides a discussion of its results. Chapter 5 discusses the setup of a prototype collision avoidance system, discusses its accuracy, and demonstrates various methods of improving the accuracy along with the improvements' ramifications. Finally, Chapter 6 provides a summary of the work and a discussion of conclusions drawn from it. Additionally, suggestions for further research are made to improve upon what has been presented here.
Correction for dynamic bias error in transmission measurements of void fraction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andersson, P.; Sundén, E. Andersson; Svärd, S. Jacobsson; Sjöstrand, H.
2012-12-01
Dynamic bias errors occur in transmission measurements, such as X-ray, gamma, or neutron radiography or tomography. This is observed when the properties of the object are not stationary in time and its average properties are assessed. The nonlinear measurement response to changes in transmission within the time scale of the measurement implies a bias, which can be difficult to correct for. A typical example is the tomographic or radiographic mapping of void content in dynamic two-phase flow systems. In this work, the dynamic bias error is described and a method to make a first-order correction is derived. A prerequisite for this method is variance estimates of the system dynamics, which can be obtained using high-speed, time-resolved data acquisition. However, in the absence of such acquisition, a priori knowledge might be used to substitute the time resolved data. Using synthetic data, a void fraction measurement case study has been simulated to demonstrate the performance of the suggested method. The transmission length of the radiation in the object under study and the type of fluctuation of the void fraction have been varied. Significant decreases in the dynamic bias error were achieved to the expense of marginal decreases in precision.
Farré, R; Rotger, M; Navajas, D
1997-03-01
The forced oscillation technique (FOT) allows the measurement of respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) and their associated coherence (gamma2). To avoid unreliable data, it is usual to reject Rrs and Xrs measurements with a gamma2 <0.95. This procedure makes it difficult to obtain acceptable data at the lowest frequencies of interest. The aim of this study was to derive expressions to compute the random error of Rrs and Xrs from gamma2 and the number (N) of data blocks involved in a FOT measurement. To this end, we developed theoretical equations for the variances and covariances of the pressure and flow auto- and cross-spectra used to compute Rrs and Xrs. Random errors of Rrs and Xrs were found to depend on the values of Rrs and Xrs, and to be proportional to ((1-gamma2)/(2 x N x gamma2))1/2. Reliable Rrs and Xrs data can be obtained in measurements with low gamma2 by enlarging the data recording (i.e. N). Therefore, the error equations derived may be useful to extend the frequency band of the forced oscillation technique to frequencies lower than usual, characterized by low coherence. PMID:9073006
Mooney, Stephen J.; Richards, Catherine A.; Rundle, Andrew G.
2015-01-01
BACKGROUND Multilevel studies of neighborhood impacts on health frequently aggregate individual-level data to create contextual measures. For example, percent of residents living in poverty and median household income are both aggregations of Census data on individual-level household income. Because household income is sensitive and complex, it is likely to be reported with error. METHODS To assess the impact of such error on effect estimates for neighborhood contextual factors, we conducted simulation studies to relate neighborhood measures derived from Census data to individual body mass index, varying the extent of non-differential misclassification/measurement error in the underlying Census data. We then explored the relationship between the form of variables chosen for neighborhood measure and outcome, modeling technique used, size and number of neighborhoods, and categorization of neighborhoods to the magnitude of bias. RESULTS For neighborhood contextual variables expressed as percentages (e.g. % of residents living in poverty), non-differential misclassification in the underlying individual-level Census data always biases the parameter estimate for the neighborhood variable away from the null. However, estimates of differences between quantiles of neighborhoods using such contextual variables are unbiased. Aggregation of the same underlying individual-level Census income data into a continuous variable, such as median household income, also introduces bias into the regression parameter. Such bias is non-negligible if the sampled groups are small. CONCLUSIONS Decisions regarding the construction and analysis of neighborhood contextual measures substantially alter the impact on study validity of measurement error in the data used to construct the contextual measure. PMID:24815303
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuutinen, Mikko; Virtanen, Toni; Häkkinen, Jukka
2016-03-01
Evaluating algorithms used to assess image and video quality requires performance measures. Traditional performance measures (e.g., Pearson's linear correlation coefficient, Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient, and root mean square error) compare quality predictions of algorithms to subjective mean opinion scores (mean opinion score/differential mean opinion score). We propose a subjective root-mean-square error (SRMSE) performance measure for evaluating the accuracy of algorithms used to assess image and video quality. The SRMSE performance measure takes into account dispersion between observers. The other important property of the SRMSE performance measure is its measurement scale, which is calibrated to units of the number of average observers. The results of the SRMSE performance measure indicate the extent to which the algorithm can replace the subjective experiment (as the number of observers). Furthermore, we have presented the concept of target values, which define the performance level of the ideal algorithm. We have calculated the target values for all sample sets of the CID2013, CVD2014, and LIVE multiply distorted image quality databases.The target values and MATLAB implementation of the SRMSE performance measure are available on the project page of this study.
Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Caffo, Brian S.; Di, Chong-Zhi; Punjabi, Naresh M.
2009-01-01
We introduce methods for signal and associated variability estimation based on hierarchical nonparametric smoothing with application to the Sleep Heart Health Study (SHHS). SHHS is the largest electroencephalographic (EEG) collection of sleep-related data, which contains, at each visit, two quasi-continuous EEG signals for each subject. The signal features extracted from EEG data are then used in second level analyses to investigate the relation between health, behavioral, or biometric outcomes and sleep. Using subject specific signals estimated with known variability in a second level regression becomes a nonstandard measurement error problem. We propose and implement methods that take into account cross-sectional and longitudinal measurement error. The research presented here forms the basis for EEG signal processing for the SHHS. PMID:20057925
Measurement error analysis of the 3D four-wheel aligner
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Qiancheng; Yang, Tianlong; Huang, Dongzhao; Ding, Xun
2013-10-01
Positioning parameters of four-wheel have significant effects on maneuverabilities, securities and energy saving abilities of automobiles. Aiming at this issue, the error factors of 3D four-wheel aligner, which exist in extracting image feature points, calibrating internal and exeternal parameters of cameras, calculating positional parameters and measuring target pose, are analyzed respectively based on the elaborations of structure and measurement principle of 3D four-wheel aligner, as well as toe-in and camber of four-wheel, kingpin inclination and caster, and other major positional parameters. After that, some technical solutions are proposed for reducing the above error factors, and on this basis, a new type of aligner is developed and marketed, it's highly estimated among customers because the technical indicators meet requirements well.
The effect of systematic errors on the hybridization of optical critical dimension measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Henn, Mark-Alexander; Barnes, Bryan M.; Zhang, Nien Fan; Zhou, Hui; Silver, Richard M.
2015-06-01
In hybrid metrology two or more measurements of the same measurand are combined to provide a more reliable result that ideally incorporates the individual strengths of each of the measurement methods. While these multiple measurements may come from dissimilar metrology methods such as optical critical dimension microscopy (OCD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we investigated the hybridization of similar OCD methods featuring a focus-resolved simulation study of systematic errors performed at orthogonal polarizations. Specifically, errors due to line edge and line width roughness (LER, LWR) and their superposition (LEWR) are known to contribute a systematic bias with inherent correlated errors. In order to investigate the sensitivity of the measurement to LEWR, we follow a modeling approach proposed by Kato et al. who studied the effect of LEWR on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and deep ultraviolet (DUV) scatterometry. Similar to their findings, we have observed that LEWR leads to a systematic bias in the simulated data. Since the critical dimensions (CDs) are determined by fitting the respective model data to the measurement data by minimizing the difference measure or chi square function, a proper description of the systematic bias is crucial to obtaining reliable results and to successful hybridization. In scatterometry, an analytical expression for the influence of LEWR on the measured orders can be derived, and accounting for this effect leads to a modification of the model function that not only depends on the critical dimensions but also on the magnitude of the roughness. For finite arrayed structures however, such an analytical expression cannot be derived. We demonstrate how to account for the systematic bias and that, if certain conditions are met, a significant improvement of the reliability of hybrid metrology for combining both dissimilar and similar measurement tools can be achieved.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roca, R.; Chambon, P.; jobard, I.; Viltard, N.
2012-04-01
Measuring rainfall requires a high density of observations, which, over the whole tropical elt, can only be provided from space. For several decades, the availability of satellite observations has greatly increased; thanks to newly implemented missions like the Megha-Tropiques mission and the forthcoming GPM constellation, measurements from space become available from a set of observing systems. In this work, we focus on rainfall error estimations at the 1 °/1-day accumulated scale, key scale of meteorological and hydrological studies. A novel methodology for quantitative precipitation estimation is introduced; its name is TAPEER (Tropical Amount of Precipitation with an Estimate of ERrors) and it aims to provide 1 °/1-day rain accumulations and associated errors over the whole Tropical belt. This approach is based on a combination of infrared imagery from a fleet of geostationary satellites and passive microwave derived rain rates from a constellation of low earth orbiting satellites. A three-stage disaggregation of error into sampling, algorithmic and calibration errors is performed; the magnitudes of the three terms are then estimated separately. A dedicated error model is used to evaluate sampling errors and a forward error propagation approach is used for an estimation of algorithmic and calibration errors. One of the main findings in this study is the large contribution of the sampling errors and the algorithmic errors of BRAIN on medium rain rates (2 mm h-1 to 10 mm h-1) in the total error budget.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianconi, A.
A short summary of results of recent simulations of (un) polarized Drell-Yan experiments is presented here. Dilepton production in pp, bar {p}p, π-p and π+p scattering is considered, for several kinematics corresponding to interesting regions for experiments at GSI, CERN-Compass and RHIC. A table of integrated cross sections, and a set of estimated error bars on measurements of azimuthal asymmetries (associated with collection of 5, 20 or 80 Kevents) are reported.
Magnetic field error measurement of the CEBAF (NIST) wiggler using the pulsed wire method
Wallace, Stephen; Colson, William; Neil, George; Harwood, Leigh
1993-07-01
The National Institute for Science and Technology (NIST) wiggler has been loaded to the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF). The pulsed wire method [R.W. Warren, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A272 (1988) 267] has been used to measure the field errors of the entrance wiggler half, and the net path deflection was calculated to be Δx ≈ 5.2 m.
Xiaoqing, Cheng; Lixin, Yi; Lingling, Liu; Guoqiang, Tang; Zhidong, Wang
2015-11-01
RaDeCC has proved to be a precise and standard way to measure (224)Ra and (223)Ra in water samples and successfully made radium a tracer of several environmental processes. In this paper, the relative errors of (224)Ra and (223)Ra measurement in water samples via a Radium Delayed Coincidence Count system are analyzed through performing coincidence correction calculations and error propagation. The calculated relative errors range of 2.6% ∼ 10.6% for (224)Ra and 9.6% ∼ 14.2% for (223)Ra. For different radium activities, effects of decay days and counting time on final radium relative errors are evaluated and the results show that these relative errors can decrease by adjusting the two measurement factors. Finally, to minimize propagated errors in Radium activity, a set of optimized RaDeCC measurement parameters are proposed. PMID:26233651
Guan, Yongtao; Li, Yehua; Sinha, Rajita
2011-01-01
In a cocaine dependence treatment study, we use linear and nonlinear regression models to model posttreatment cocaine craving scores and first cocaine relapse time. A subset of the covariates are summary statistics derived from baseline daily cocaine use trajectories, such as baseline cocaine use frequency and average daily use amount. These summary statistics are subject to estimation error and can therefore cause biased estimators for the regression coefficients. Unlike classical measurement error problems, the error we encounter here is heteroscedastic with an unknown distribution, and there are no replicates for the error-prone variables or instrumental variables. We propose two robust methods to correct for the bias: a computationally efficient method-of-moments-based method for linear regression models and a subsampling extrapolation method that is generally applicable to both linear and nonlinear regression models. Simulations and an application to the cocaine dependence treatment data are used to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed methods. Asymptotic theory and variance estimation for the proposed subsampling extrapolation method and some additional simulation results are described in the online supplementary material. PMID:21984854
Error analysis for retrieval of Venus' IR surface emissivity from VIRTIS/VEX measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kappel, David; Haus, Rainer; Arnold, Gabriele
2015-08-01
Venus' surface emissivity data in the infrared can serve to explore the planet's geology. The only global data with high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution and coverage at present is supplied by nightside emission measurements acquired by the Visible and InfraRed Thermal Imaging Spectrometer VIRTIS-M-IR (1.0 - 5.1 μm) aboard ESA's Venus Express. A radiative transfer simulation and a retrieval algorithm can be used to determine surface emissivity in the nightside spectral transparency windows located at 1.02, 1.10, and 1.18 μm. To obtain satisfactory fits to measured spectra, the retrieval pipeline also determines auxiliary parameters describing cloud properties from a certain spectral range. But spectral information content is limited, and emissivity is difficult to retrieve due to strong interferences from other parameters. Based on a selection of representative synthetic VIRTIS-M-IR spectra in the range 1.0 - 2.3 μm, this paper investigates emissivity retrieval errors that can be caused by interferences of atmospheric and surface parameters, by measurement noise, and by a priori data, and which retrieval pipeline leads to minimal errors. Retrieval of emissivity from a single spectrum is shown to fail due to extremely large errors, although the fits to the reference spectra are very good. Neglecting geologic activity, it is suggested to apply a multi-spectrum retrieval technique to retrieve emissivity relative to an initial value as a parameter that is common to several measured spectra that cover the same surface bin. Retrieved emissivity maps of targets with limited extension (a few thousand km) are then additively renormalized to remove spatially large scale deviations from the true emissivity map that are due to spatially slowly varying interfering parameters. Corresponding multi-spectrum retrieval errors are estimated by a statistical scaling of the single-spectrum retrieval errors and are listed for 25 measurement repetitions. For the best of the
Suppression of Systematic Errors of Electronic Distance Meters for Measurement of Short Distances.
Braun, Jaroslav; Štroner, Martin; Urban, Rudolf; Dvoček, Filip
2015-01-01
In modern industrial geodesy, high demands are placed on the final accuracy, with expectations currently falling below 1 mm. The measurement methodology and surveying instruments used have to be adjusted to meet these stringent requirements, especially the total stations as the most often used instruments. A standard deviation of the measured distance is the accuracy parameter, commonly between 1 and 2 mm. This parameter is often discussed in conjunction with the determination of the real accuracy of measurements at very short distances (5-50 m) because it is generally known that this accuracy cannot be increased by simply repeating the measurement because a considerable part of the error is systematic. This article describes the detailed testing of electronic distance meters to determine the absolute size of their systematic errors, their stability over time, their repeatability and the real accuracy of their distance measurement. Twenty instruments (total stations) have been tested, and more than 60,000 distances in total were measured to determine the accuracy and precision parameters of the distance meters. Based on the experiments' results, calibration procedures were designed, including a special correction function for each instrument, whose usage reduces the standard deviation of the measurement of distance by at least 50%. PMID:26258777
Suppression of Systematic Errors of Electronic Distance Meters for Measurement of Short Distances
Braun, Jaroslav; Štroner, Martin; Urban, Rudolf; Dvořáček, Filip
2015-01-01
In modern industrial geodesy, high demands are placed on the final accuracy, with expectations currently falling below 1 mm. The measurement methodology and surveying instruments used have to be adjusted to meet these stringent requirements, especially the total stations as the most often used instruments. A standard deviation of the measured distance is the accuracy parameter, commonly between 1 and 2 mm. This parameter is often discussed in conjunction with the determination of the real accuracy of measurements at very short distances (5–50 m) because it is generally known that this accuracy cannot be increased by simply repeating the measurement because a considerable part of the error is systematic. This article describes the detailed testing of electronic distance meters to determine the absolute size of their systematic errors, their stability over time, their repeatability and the real accuracy of their distance measurement. Twenty instruments (total stations) have been tested, and more than 60,000 distances in total were measured to determine the accuracy and precision parameters of the distance meters. Based on the experiments’ results, calibration procedures were designed, including a special correction function for each instrument, whose usage reduces the standard deviation of the measurement of distance by at least 50%. PMID:26258777
Sensitivity of Force Specifications to the Errors in Measuring the Interface Force
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worth, Daniel
1999-01-01
Force-Limited Random Vibration Testing has been applied in the last several years at NASA/GSFC for various programs at the instrument and system level. Different techniques have been developed over the last few decades to estimate the dynamic forces that the test article under consideration will encounter in the operational environment. Some of these techniques are described in the handbook, NASA-HDBK-7004, and the monograph, NASA-RP-1403. A key element in the ability to perform force-limited testing is multi-component force gauges. This paper will show how some measurement and calibration errors in force gauges are compensated for w en tie force specification is calculated. The resulting notches in the acceleration spectrum, when a random vibration test is performed, are the same as the notches produced during an uncompensated test that has no measurement errors. The paper will also present the results of tests that were used to validate this compensation. Knowing that the force specification can compensate for some measurement errors allows tests to continue after force gauge failures or allows dummy gauges to be used in places that are inaccessible.
Regression calibration method for correcting measurement-error bias in nutritional epidemiology.
Spiegelman, D; McDermott, A; Rosner, B
1997-04-01
Regression calibration is a statistical method for adjusting point and interval estimates of effect obtained from regression models commonly used in epidemiology for bias due to measurement error in assessing nutrients or other variables. Previous work developed regression calibration for use in estimating odds ratios from logistic regression. We extend this here to estimating incidence rate ratios from Cox proportional hazards models and regression slopes from linear-regression models. Regression calibration is appropriate when a gold standard is available in a validation study and a linear measurement error with constant variance applies or when replicate measurements are available in a reliability study and linear random within-person error can be assumed. In this paper, the method is illustrated by correction of rate ratios describing the relations between the incidence of breast cancer and dietary intakes of vitamin A, alcohol, and total energy in the Nurses' Health Study. An example using linear regression is based on estimation of the relation between ultradistal radius bone density and dietary intakes of caffeine, calcium, and total energy in the Massachusetts Women's Health Study. Software implementing these methods uses SAS macros. PMID:9094918
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fulton, C. L.; Harris, R. L., Jr.
1980-01-01
Factors that can affect oculometer measurements of pupil diameter are: horizontal (azimuth) and vertical (elevation) viewing angle of the pilot; refraction of the eye and cornea; changes in distance of eye to camera; illumination intensity of light on the eye; and counting sensitivity of scan lines used to measure diameter, and output voltage. To estimate the accuracy of the measurements, an artificial eye was designed and a series of runs performed with the oculometer system. When refraction effects are included, results show that pupil diameter is a parabolic function of the azimuth angle similar to the cosine function predicted by theory: this error can be accounted for by using a correction equation, reducing the error from 6% to 1.5% of the actual diameter. Elevation angle and illumination effects were found to be negligible. The effects of counting sensitivity and output voltage can be calculated directly from system documentation. The overall accuracy of the unmodified system is about 6%. After correcting for the azimuth angle errors, the overall accuracy is approximately 2%.
Interrater Reliability of the Record of Driving Errors (RODE)
Carr, David B.; Rutkoski, Kathleen; Xiong, Chengjie; Roe, Catherine M.
2015-01-01
The Record of Driving Errors (RODE) is a novel standardized tool designed to quantitatively document the specific types of driving errors that occur during a standardized performance-based road test. The purpose of this study was to determine interrater reliability between two occupational therapy driver rehabilitation specialists who quantitatively scored specific driving errors using the RODE in a sample of older adults diagnosed with dementia (n = 24). Intraclass correlation coefficients of major driving error and intervention categories indicated almost perfect agreement between raters. Using raters with adequate training and similar professional backgrounds, it is possible to have good interrater reliability using the RODE on a standardized road test. PMID:26122691
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Rong
2014-09-01
This study analyzes the measurement errors of three dimensional coordinates of binocular stereo vision for tomatoes based on three stereo matching methods, centroid-based matching, area-based matching, and combination matching to improve the localization accuracy of the binocular stereo vision system of tomato harvesting robots. Centroid-based matching was realized through the matching of the feature points of centroids of tomato regions. Area-based matching was realized based on the gray similarity between two neighborhoods of two pixels to be matched in stereo images. Combination matching was realized using the rough disparity acquired through centroid-based matching as the center of the dynamic disparity range which was used in area-based matching. After stereo matching, three dimensional coordinates of tomatoes were acquired using the triangle range finding principle. Test results based on 225 stereo images captured at the distances from 300 to 1000 mm of 3 tomatoes showed that the measurement errors of x coordinates were small, and can meet the need of harvesting robots. However, the measurement biases of y coordinates and depth values were large, and the measurement variation of depth values was also large. Therefore, the measurement biases of y coordinates and depth values, and the measurement variation of depth values should be corrected in the future researches.
Precision Measurements of the Cluster Red Sequence using an Error Corrected Gaussian Mixture Model
Hao, Jiangang; Koester, Benjamin P.; Mckay, Timothy A.; Rykoff, Eli S.; Rozo, Eduardo; Evrard, August; Annis, James; Becker, Matthew; Busha, Michael; Gerdes, David; Johnston, David E.; /Northwestern U. /Brookhaven
2009-07-01
The red sequence is an important feature of galaxy clusters and plays a crucial role in optical cluster detection. Measurement of the slope and scatter of the red sequence are affected both by selection of red sequence galaxies and measurement errors. In this paper, we describe a new error corrected Gaussian Mixture Model for red sequence galaxy identification. Using this technique, we can remove the effects of measurement error and extract unbiased information about the intrinsic properties of the red sequence. We use this method to select red sequence galaxies in each of the 13,823 clusters in the maxBCG catalog, and measure the red sequence ridgeline location and scatter of each. These measurements provide precise constraints on the variation of the average red galaxy populations in the observed frame with redshift. We find that the scatter of the red sequence ridgeline increases mildly with redshift, and that the slope decreases with redshift. We also observe that the slope does not strongly depend on cluster richness. Using similar methods, we show that this behavior is mirrored in a spectroscopic sample of field galaxies, further emphasizing that ridgeline properties are independent of environment. These precise measurements serve as an important observational check on simulations and mock galaxy catalogs. The observed trends in the slope and scatter of the red sequence ridgeline with redshift are clues to possible intrinsic evolution of the cluster red-sequence itself. Most importantly, the methods presented in this work lay the groundwork for further improvements in optically-based cluster cosmology.
An examination of errors in characteristic curve measurements of radiographic screen/film systems.
Wagner, L K; Barnes, G T; Bencomo, J A; Haus, A G
1983-01-01
The precision and accuracy achieved in the measurement of characteristic curves for radiographic screen/film systems is quantitatively investigated for three techniques: inverse square, kVp bootstrap, and step-wedge bootstrap. Precision of all techniques is generally better than +/- 1.5% while the agreement among all intensity-scale techniques is better than 2% over the useful exposure latitude. However, the accuracy of the sensitometry will depend on several factors, including linearity and energy dependence of the calibration instrument, that may introduce larger errors. Comparisons of time-scale and intensity-scale methods are made and a means of measuring reciprocity law failure is demonstrated. PMID:6877185
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flamant, Cyrille N.; Schwemmer, Geary K.; Korb, C. Laurence; Evans, Keith D.; Palm, Stephen P.
1999-01-01
Remote airborne measurements of the vertical and horizontal structure of the atmospheric pressure field in the lower troposphere are made with an oxygen differential absorption lidar (DIAL). A detailed analysis of this measurement technique is provided which includes corrections for imprecise knowledge of the detector background level, the oxygen absorption fine parameters, and variations in the laser output energy. In addition, we analyze other possible sources of systematic errors including spectral effects related to aerosol and molecular scattering interference by rotational Raman scattering and interference by isotopic oxygen fines.
Digitally modulated bit error rate measurement system for microwave component evaluation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shalkhauser, Mary Jo W.; Budinger, James M.
1989-01-01
The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a unique capability for evaluation of the microwave components of a digital communication system. This digitally modulated bit-error-rate (BER) measurement system (DMBERMS) features a continuous data digital BER test set, a data processor, a serial minimum shift keying (SMSK) modem, noise generation, and computer automation. Application of the DMBERMS has provided useful information for the evaluation of existing microwave components and of design goals for future components. The design and applications of this system for digitally modulated BER measurements are discussed.
McGlothlin, Anna; Stamey, James D; Seaman, John W
2008-02-01
We consider a Bayesian analysis for modeling a binary response that is subject to misclassification. Additionally, an explanatory variable is assumed to be unobservable, but measurements are available on its surrogate. A binary regression model is developed to incorporate the measurement error in the covariate as well as the misclassification in the response. Unlike existing methods, no model parameters need be assumed known. Markov chain Monte Carlo methods are utilized to perform the necessary computations. The methods developed are illustrated using atomic bomb survival data. A simulation experiment explores advantages of the approach. PMID:18283683
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Woodruff, David; Traynor, Anne; Cui, Zhongmin; Fang, Yu
2013-01-01
Professional standards for educational testing recommend that both the overall standard error of measurement and the conditional standard error of measurement (CSEM) be computed on the score scale used to report scores to examinees. Several methods have been developed to compute scale score CSEMs. This paper compares three methods, based on…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Worts, Diana; Sacker, Amanda; McDonough, Peggy
2010-01-01
This paper addresses a key methodological challenge in the modeling of individual poverty dynamics--the influence of measurement error. Taking the US and Britain as case studies and building on recent research that uses latent Markov models to reduce bias, we examine how measurement error can affect a range of important poverty estimates. Our data…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schochet, Peter Z.; Chiang, Hanley S.
2010-01-01
This paper addresses likely error rates for measuring teacher and school performance in the upper elementary grades using value-added models applied to student test score gain data. Using realistic performance measurement system schemes based on hypothesis testing, we develop error rate formulas based on OLS and Empirical Bayes estimators.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holler, Mirko; Raabe, Jörg
2015-05-01
The nonaxial interferometric position measurement of rotating objects can be performed by imaging the laser beam of the interferometer to a rotating mirror which can be a sphere or a cylinder. This, however, requires such rotating mirrors to be centered on the axis of rotation as a wobble would result in loss of the interference signal. We present a tracking-type interferometer that performs such measurement in a general case where the rotating mirror may wobble on the axis of rotation, or even where the axis of rotation may be translating in space. Aside from tracking, meaning to measure and follow the position of the rotating mirror, the interferometric measurement errors induced by the tracking motion of the interferometer itself are optically compensated, preserving nanometric measurement accuracy. As an example, we show the application of this interferometer in a scanning x-ray tomography instrument.
The effect of clock, media, and station location errors on Doppler measurement accuracy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, J. K.
1993-01-01
Doppler tracking by the Deep Space Network (DSN) is the primary radio metric data type used by navigation to determine the orbit of a spacecraft. The accuracy normally attributed to orbits determined exclusively with Doppler data is about 0.5 microradians in geocentric angle. Recently, the Doppler measurement system has evolved to a high degree of precision primarily because of tracking at X-band frequencies (7.2 to 8.5 GHz). However, the orbit determination system has not been able to fully utilize this improved measurement accuracy because of calibration errors associated with transmission media, the location of tracking stations on the Earth's surface, the orientation of the Earth as an observing platform, and timekeeping. With the introduction of Global Positioning System (GPS) data, it may be possible to remove a significant error associated with the troposphere. In this article, the effect of various calibration errors associated with transmission media, Earth platform parameters, and clocks are examined. With the introduction of GPS calibrations, it is predicted that a Doppler tracking accuracy of 0.05 microradians is achievable.
A study of GPS measurement errors due to noise and multipath interference for CGADS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Axelrad, Penina; MacDoran, Peter F.; Comp, Christopher J.
1996-01-01
This report describes a study performed by the Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research (CCAR) on GPS measurement errors in the Codeless GPS Attitude Determination System (CGADS) due to noise and multipath interference. Preliminary simulation models fo the CGADS receiver and orbital multipath are described. The standard FFT algorithms for processing the codeless data is described and two alternative algorithms - an auto-regressive/least squares (AR-LS) method, and a combined adaptive notch filter/least squares (ANF-ALS) method, are also presented. Effects of system noise, quantization, baseband frequency selection, and Doppler rates on the accuracy of phase estimates with each of the processing methods are shown. Typical electrical phase errors for the AR-LS method are 0.2 degrees, compared to 0.3 and 0.5 degrees for the FFT and ANF-ALS algorithms, respectively. Doppler rate was found to have the largest effect on the performance.
Strain gage measurement errors in the transient heating of structural components
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Richards, W. Lance
1993-01-01
Significant strain-gage errors may exist in measurements acquired in transient thermal environments if conventional correction methods are applied. Conventional correction theory was modified and a new experimental method was developed to correct indicated strain data for errors created in radiant heating environments ranging from 0.6 C/sec (1 F/sec) to over 56 C/sec (100 F/sec). In some cases the new and conventional methods differed by as much as 30 percent. Experimental and analytical results were compared to demonstrate the new technique. For heating conditions greater than 6 C/sec (10 F/sec), the indicated strain data corrected with the developed technique compared much better to analysis than the same data corrected with the conventional technique.
Indirect measurement of machine tool motion axis error with single laser tracker
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Zhaoyong; Li, Liangliang; Du, Zhengchun
2015-02-01
For high-precision machining, a convenient and accurate detection of motion error for machine tools is significant. Among common detection methods such as the ball-bar method, the laser tracker approach has received much more attention. As a high-accuracy measurement device, laser tracker is capable of long-distance and dynamic measurement, which increases much flexibility during the measurement process. However, existing methods are not so satisfactory in measurement cost, operability or applicability. Currently, a plausible method is called the single-station and time-sharing method, but it needs a large working area all around the machine tool, thus leaving itself not suitable for the machine tools surrounded by a protective cover. In this paper, a novel and convenient positioning error measurement approach by utilizing a single laser tracker is proposed, followed by two corresponding mathematical models including a laser-tracker base-point-coordinate model and a target-mirror-coordinates model. Also, an auxiliary apparatus for target mirrors to be placed on is designed, for which sensitivity analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation are conducted to optimize the dimension. Based on the method proposed, a real experiment using single API TRACKER 3 assisted by the auxiliary apparatus is carried out and a verification experiment using a traditional RENISHAW XL-80 interferometer is conducted under the same condition for comparison. Both results demonstrate a great increase in the Y-axis positioning error of machine tool. Theoretical and experimental studies together verify the feasibility of this method which has a more convenient operation and wider application in various kinds of machine tools.
Isothermal calorimetry: impact of measurements error on heat of reaction and kinetic calculations.
Papadaki, Maria; Nawada, Hosadu P; Gao, Jun; Fergusson-Rees, Andrew; Smith, Michael
2007-04-11
Heat flow and power compensation calorimetry measures the power generation of a reaction via an energy balance over an appropriately designed isothermal reactor. However, the measurement of the power generated by a reaction is a relative measurement, and calibrations are used to eliminate the contribution of a number of unknown factors. In this work the effect of the error in the measurement of temperature of electric power used in the calibrations and the heat transfer coefficient and baseline is assessed. It has been shown that the error in all aforementioned quantities reflects on the baseline and it can have a very serious impact on the accuracy of the measurement. The influence of the fluctuation of ambient temperature has been evaluated and a means of a correction that reduces its impact has been implemented. The temperature of dosed material is affected by the heat loses if reaction is performed at high temperature and low dosing rate. An experimental methodology is presented that can provide means of assessment of the actual temperature of the dosed material. Depending on the reacting system, the heat of evaporation could be included in the baseline, especially if non-condensable gases are produced during the course of the reaction. PMID:16919873
Error analysis of Raman differential absorption lidar ozone measurements in ice clouds.
Reichardt, J
2000-11-20
A formalism for the error treatment of lidar ozone measurements with the Raman differential absorption lidar technique is presented. In the presence of clouds wavelength-dependent multiple scattering and cloud-particle extinction are the main sources of systematic errors in ozone measurements and necessitate a correction of the measured ozone profiles. Model calculations are performed to describe the influence of cirrus and polar stratospheric clouds on the ozone. It is found that it is sufficient to account for cloud-particle scattering and Rayleigh scattering in and above the cloud; boundary-layer aerosols and the atmospheric column below the cloud can be neglected for the ozone correction. Furthermore, if the extinction coefficient of the cloud is ?0.1 km(-1), the effect in the cloud is proportional to the effective particle extinction and to a particle correction function determined in the limit of negligible molecular scattering. The particle correction function depends on the scattering behavior of the cloud particles, the cloud geometric structure, and the lidar system parameters. Because of the differential extinction of light that has undergone one or more small-angle scattering processes within the cloud, the cloud effect on ozone extends to altitudes above the cloud. The various influencing parameters imply that the particle-related ozone correction has to be calculated for each individual measurement. Examples of ozone measurements in cirrus clouds are discussed. PMID:18354611
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cecinati, Francesca; Moreno Ródenas, Antonio Manuel; Rico-Ramirez, Miguel Angel; ten Veldhuis, Marie-claire; Han, Dawei
2016-04-01
In many research studies rain gauges are used as a reference point measurement for rainfall, because they can reach very good accuracy, especially compared to radar or microwave links, and their use is very widespread. In some applications rain gauge uncertainty is assumed to be small enough to be neglected. This can be done when rain gauges are accurate and their data is correctly managed. Unfortunately, in many operational networks the importance of accurate rainfall data and of data quality control can be underestimated; budget and best practice knowledge can be limiting factors in a correct rain gauge network management. In these cases, the accuracy of rain gauges can drastically drop and the uncertainty associated with the measurements cannot be neglected. This work proposes an approach based on three different kriging methods to integrate rain gauge measurement errors in the overall rainfall uncertainty estimation. In particular, rainfall products of different complexity are derived through 1) block kriging on a single rain gauge 2) ordinary kriging on a network of different rain gauges 3) kriging with external drift to integrate all the available rain gauges with radar rainfall information. The study area is the Eindhoven catchment, contributing to the river Dommel, in the southern part of the Netherlands. The area, 590 km2, is covered by high quality rain gauge measurements by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), which has one rain gauge inside the study area and six around it, and by lower quality rain gauge measurements by the Dommel Water Board and by the Eindhoven Municipality (six rain gauges in total). The integration of the rain gauge measurement error is accomplished in all the cases increasing the nugget of the semivariogram proportionally to the estimated error. Using different semivariogram models for the different networks allows for the separate characterisation of higher and lower quality rain gauges. For the kriging with
Doerry, Armin W.; Heard, Freddie E.; Cordaro, J. Thomas
2010-07-20
Motion measurement errors that extend beyond the range resolution of a synthetic aperture radar (SAR) can be corrected by effectively decreasing the range resolution of the SAR in order to permit measurement of the error. Range profiles can be compared across the slow-time dimension of the input data in order to estimate the error. Once the error has been determined, appropriate frequency and phase correction can be applied to the uncompressed input data, after which range and azimuth compression can be performed to produce a desired SAR image.
Evaluating Procedures for Reducing Measurement Error in Math Curriculum-Based Measurement Probes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Methe, Scott A.; Briesch, Amy M.; Hulac, David
2015-01-01
At present, it is unclear whether math curriculum-based measurement (M-CBM) procedures provide a dependable measure of student progress in math computation because support for its technical properties is based largely upon a body of correlational research. Recent investigations into the dependability of M-CBM scores have found that evaluating…
Random error analysis of marine xCO2 measurements in a coastal upwelling region
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reimer, Janet J.; Cueva, Alejandro; Gaxiola-Castro, Gilberto; Lara-Lara, Ruben; Vargas, Rodrigo
2016-04-01
Quantifying and identifying measurement error is an ongoing challenge for carbon cycle science to constrain measurable uncertainty related to the sources and sinks of CO2. One source of uncertainty in measurements is derived from random errors (ε); thus, it is important to quantify their magnitude and their relationship to environmental variability in order to constrain local-to-global carbon budgets. We applied a paired-observation method to determine ε associated with marine xCO2 in a coastal upwelling zone of an eastern boundary current. Continuous data (3-h resolution) from a mooring platform during upwelling and non-upwelling seasons was analyzed off of northern Baja California in the California Current. To test the rigor of the algorithm to calculate ε we propose a method for determining daily mean time series values that may be affected by ε. To do this we used either two or three variables in the function, but no significant differences for ε mean values were found due to the large variability in ε (-0.088 ± 27 ppm for two variables and -0.057 ± 28 ppm for three variables). Mean ε values were centered on zero, with low values of ε more frequent than greater values, and follow a double exponential distribution. Random error variability increased with higher magnitudes of xCO2, and in general, ε variability increased in relation to upwelling conditions (up to ∼9% of measurements). Increased ε during upwelling suggests the importance of meso-scale processes on ε variability and could have a large influence seasonal to annual CO2 estimates. This approach could be extended and modified to other marine carbonate system variables as part of data quality assurance/quality control and to quantify uncertainty (due to ε) from a wide variety of continuous oceanographic monitoring platforms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egertson, Jarrett D.; Eng, Jimmy K.; Bereman, Michael S.; Hsieh, Edward J.; Merrihew, Gennifer E.; MacCoss, Michael J.
2012-12-01
We report an algorithm designed for the calibration of low resolution peptide mass spectra. Our algorithm is implemented in a program called FineTune, which corrects systematic mass measurement error in 1 min, with no input required besides the mass spectra themselves. The mass measurement accuracy for a set of spectra collected on an LTQ-Velos improved 20-fold from -0.1776 ± 0.0010 m/z to 0.0078 ± 0.0006 m/z after calibration (avg ± 95 % confidence interval). The precision in mass measurement was improved due to the correction of non-linear variation in mass measurement accuracy across the m/z range.
Measured and predicted root-mean-square errors in square and triangular antenna mesh facets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fichter, W. B.
1989-01-01
Deflection shapes of square and equilateral triangular facets of two tricot-knit, gold plated molybdenum wire mesh antenna materials were measured and compared, on the basis of root mean square (rms) differences, with deflection shapes predicted by linear membrane theory, for several cases of biaxial mesh tension. The two mesh materials contained approximately 10 and 16 holes per linear inch, measured diagonally with respect to the course and wale directions. The deflection measurement system employed a non-contact eddy current proximity probe and an electromagnetic distance sensing probe in conjunction with a precision optical level. Despite experimental uncertainties, rms differences between measured and predicted deflection shapes suggest the following conclusions: that replacing flat antenna facets with facets conforming to parabolically curved structural members yields smaller rms surface error; that potential accuracy gains are greater for equilateral triangular facets than for square facets; and that linear membrane theory can be a useful tool in the design of tricot knit wire mesh antennas.
Probable errors in width distributions of sea ice leads measured along a transect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Key, J.; Peckham, S.
1991-01-01
The degree of error expected in the measurement of widths of sea ice leads along a single transect are examined in a probabilistic sense under assumed orientation and width distributions, where both isotropic and anisotropic lead orientations are examined. Methods are developed for estimating the distribution of 'actual' widths (measured perpendicular to the local lead orientation) knowing the 'apparent' width distribution (measured along the transect), and vice versa. The distribution of errors, defined as the difference between the actual and apparent lead width, can be estimated from the two width distributions, and all moments of this distribution can be determined. The problem is illustrated with Landsat imagery and the procedure is applied to a submarine sonar transect. Results are determined for a range of geometries, and indicate the importance of orientation information if data sampled along a transect are to be used for the description of lead geometries. While the application here is to sea ice leads, the methodology can be applied to measurements of any linear feature.
Measurement of the Non-common Vertex Error of a Double Corner Cube
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Azizi, Alireza; Marcin, Martin; Moore, Douglas; Moser, Steve; Negron, John; Paek, Eung-Gi; Ryan, Daniel; Abramovici, Alex; Best, Paul; Crossfield, Ian; Nemati, Bijan; Neville, Tim; Platt, B.; Wayne, Leonard
2006-01-01
The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) requires the control of the optical path of each interferometer with picometer accuracy. Laser metrology gauges are used to measure the path lengths to the fiiducial corner cubes at the siderostats. Due to the geometry of SIM a single corner cube does not have sufficient acceptance angle to work with all the gauges. Therefore SIM employs a double corner cube. Current fabrication methods are in fact not capable of producing such a double corner cube with vertices having sufficient commonality. The plan for SIM is to measure the non-commonalty of the vertices and correct for the error in orbit. SIM requires that the non-common vertex error (NCVE) of the double corner cube to be less than 6 (mu)m. The required accuracy for the knowledge of the NCVE is less than 1 (mu)m. This paper explains a method of measuring non-common vertices of a brassboard double corner cube with sub-micron accuracy. The results of such a measurement will be presented.
Noise and measurement errors in a practical two-state quantum bit commitment protocol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loura, Ricardo; Almeida, Álvaro J.; André, Paulo S.; Pinto, Armando N.; Mateus, Paulo; Paunković, Nikola
2014-05-01
We present a two-state practical quantum bit commitment protocol, the security of which is based on the current technological limitations, namely the nonexistence of either stable long-term quantum memories or nondemolition measurements. For an optical realization of the protocol, we model the errors, which occur due to the noise and equipment (source, fibers, and detectors) imperfections, accumulated during emission, transmission, and measurement of photons. The optical part is modeled as a combination of a depolarizing channel (white noise), unitary evolution (e.g., systematic rotation of the polarization axis of photons), and two other basis-dependent channels, namely the phase- and bit-flip channels. We analyze quantitatively the effects of noise using two common information-theoretic measures of probability distribution distinguishability: the fidelity and the relative entropy. In particular, we discuss the optimal cheating strategy and show that it is always advantageous for a cheating agent to add some amount of white noise—the particular effect not being present in standard quantum security protocols. We also analyze the protocol's security when the use of (im)perfect nondemolition measurements and noisy or bounded quantum memories is allowed. Finally, we discuss errors occurring due to a finite detector efficiency, dark counts, and imperfect single-photon sources, and we show that the effects are the same as those of standard quantum cryptography.
Kipnis, Victor; Freedman, Laurence S.; Carroll, Raymond J.; Midthune, Douglas
2015-01-01
SUMMARY Semicontinuous data in the form of a mixture of a large portion of zero values and continuously distributed positive values frequently arise in many areas of biostatistics. This study is motivated by the analysis of relationships between disease outcomes and intakes of episodically consumed dietary components. An important aspect of studies in nutritional epidemiology is that true diet is unobservable and commonly evaluated by food frequency questionnaires with substantial measurement error. Following the regression calibration approach for measurement error correction, unknown individual intakes in the risk model are replaced by their conditional expectations given mismeasured intakes and other model covariates. Those regression calibration predictors are estimated using short-term unbiased reference measurements in a calibration substudy. Since dietary intakes are often “energy-adjusted”, e.g., by using ratios of the intake of interest to total energy intake, the correct estimation of the regression calibration predictor for each energy-adjusted episodically consumed dietary component requires modeling short-term reference measurements of the component (a semicontinuous variable) and energy (a continuous variable) simultaneously in a bivariate model. In this paper, we develop such a bivariate model, together with its application to regression calibration. We illustrate the new methodology using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (Schatzkin et al., 2001, American Journal of Epidemiology 154, 1119–1125), and also evaluate its performance in a simulation study. PMID:26332011
Tidhar, Dorit; Armer, Jane M.; Deutscher, Daniel; Shyu, Chi-Ren; Azuri, Josef; Madsen, Richard
2015-01-01
Understanding whether a true change has occurred during the process of care is of utmost importance in lymphedema management secondary to cancer treatments. Decisions about when to order a garment, start an exercise program, and begin or end therapy are based primarily on measurements of limb volume, based on circumferences taken by physiotherapists using a flexible tape. This study aimed to assess intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements taken by physiotherapists of legs and arms with and without lymphedema and to evaluate whether there is a difference in reliability when measuring a healthy versus a lymphedematous limb. The intra-rater reliability of arm and leg measurements by trained physiotherapist were very high (scaled standard error of measurements (SEMs) for an arm and a leg volume were 0.82% and 0.64%, respectively) and a cut-point of 1% scaled SEM may be recommended as a threshold for acceptable reliability. Physiotherapists can rely on the same error when assessing lymphedematous or healthy limbs. For those who work in teams and share patients, practice is needed in synchronizing the measurements and regularly monitoring their inter-rater reliability. PMID:26437431
Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A.; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C.
2015-01-01
Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non-normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased type-I and type-II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally-technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in supplementary materials. PMID:26098126
Holsclaw, Tracy; Hallgren, Kevin A; Steyvers, Mark; Smyth, Padhraic; Atkins, David C
2015-12-01
Behavioral coding is increasingly used for studying mechanisms of change in psychosocial treatments for substance use disorders (SUDs). However, behavioral coding data typically include features that can be problematic in regression analyses, including measurement error in independent variables, non normal distributions of count outcome variables, and conflation of predictor and outcome variables with third variables, such as session length. Methodological research in econometrics has shown that these issues can lead to biased parameter estimates, inaccurate standard errors, and increased Type I and Type II error rates, yet these statistical issues are not widely known within SUD treatment research, or more generally, within psychotherapy coding research. Using minimally technical language intended for a broad audience of SUD treatment researchers, the present paper illustrates the nature in which these data issues are problematic. We draw on real-world data and simulation-based examples to illustrate how these data features can bias estimation of parameters and interpretation of models. A weighted negative binomial regression is introduced as an alternative to ordinary linear regression that appropriately addresses the data characteristics common to SUD treatment behavioral coding data. We conclude by demonstrating how to use and interpret these models with data from a study of motivational interviewing. SPSS and R syntax for weighted negative binomial regression models is included in online supplemental materials. PMID:26098126
Error prediction of LiF-TLD used for gamma dose measurement for BNCT.
Liu, H M; Liu, Y H
2011-12-01
To predict the neutron influence on various (6)LiF concentration in the LiF-TLD, the Monte Carlo code MCNP was adopted to simulate the energy deposition on a TLD chip with dimensions of 3.2×3.2×0.9 mm. By assuming that the TL response is proportional to the energy deposition on it, the percentage error of LiF-TLD used for gamma dose measurement in mixed (n, γ) fields can be written as: %Error=R(n)/R(g)×100%. Where R(n) and R(g) are the TL responses resulted from neutron and gamma, respectively. Taking the water phantom irradiated with the BNCT facility at the Tsing Hua Open-pool Reactor (THOR) as an example, the (6)LiF concentration for TLD-700 is 0.007%, the magnitude of the neutron flux is ~1×10(9) n/cm(2)/s, the neutron energy is ~4×10(-7) MeV (cadmium cut-off energy), the gamma dose rate is ~3 Gy/h, thus the percentage error can be predicted as 38%. PMID:21489808
Arakawa, H.; Kawano, Y.; Itami, K.
2012-10-15
A new method for the comparative verification of electron density measurements obtained with a tangential interferometer and a polarimeter during a discharge is proposed. The possible errors associated with the interferometer and polarimeter are classified by the time required for their identification. Based on the characteristics of the errors, the fringe shift error of the interferometer and the low-frequency noise of the polarimeter were identified and corrected for the JT-60U tangential interferometer/polarimeter system.
Gilbert, E.S.; Fix, J.J.
1996-08-01
This report addresses laboratory measurement error in estimates of external doses obtained from personnel dosimeters, and investigates the effects of these errors on linear dose-response analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of nuclear workers. These errors have the distinguishing feature that they are independent across time and across workers. Although the calculations made for this report were based on Hanford data, the overall conclusions are likely to be relevant for other epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to external radiation.
Hindasageri, V; Vedula, R P; Prabhu, S V
2013-02-01
Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively. PMID:23464237
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hindasageri, V.; Vedula, R. P.; Prabhu, S. V.
2013-02-01
Temperature measurement by thermocouples is prone to errors due to conduction and radiation losses and therefore has to be corrected for precise measurement. The temperature dependent emissivity of the thermocouple wires is measured by the use of thermal infrared camera. The measured emissivities are found to be 20%-40% lower than the theoretical values predicted from theory of electromagnetism. A transient technique is employed for finding the heat transfer coefficients for the lead wire and the bead of the thermocouple. This method does not require the data of thermal properties and velocity of the burnt gases. The heat transfer coefficients obtained from the present method have an average deviation of 20% from the available heat transfer correlations in literature for non-reacting convective flow over cylinders and spheres. The parametric study of thermocouple error using the numerical code confirmed the existence of a minimum wire length beyond which the conduction loss is a constant minimal. Temperature of premixed methane-air flames stabilised on 16 mm diameter tube burner is measured by three B-type thermocouples of wire diameters: 0.15 mm, 0.30 mm, and 0.60 mm. The measurements are made at three distances from the burner tip (thermocouple tip to burner tip/burner diameter = 2, 4, and 6) at an equivalence ratio of 1 for the tube Reynolds number varying from 1000 to 2200. These measured flame temperatures are corrected by the present numerical procedure, the multi-element method, and the extrapolation method. The flame temperatures estimated by the two-element method and extrapolation method deviate from numerical results within 2.5% and 4%, respectively.
Steele, Vaughn R; Anderson, Nathaniel E; Claus, Eric D; Bernat, Edward M; Rao, Vikram; Assaf, Michal; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A
2016-05-15
Error-related brain activity has become an increasingly important focus of cognitive neuroscience research utilizing both event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Given the significant time and resources required to collect these data, it is important for researchers to plan their experiments such that stable estimates of error-related processes can be achieved efficiently. Reliability of error-related brain measures will vary as a function of the number of error trials and the number of participants included in the averages. Unfortunately, systematic investigations of the number of events and participants required to achieve stability in error-related processing are sparse, and none have addressed variability in sample size. Our goal here is to provide data compiled from a large sample of healthy participants (n=180) performing a Go/NoGo task, resampled iteratively to demonstrate the relative stability of measures of error-related brain activity given a range of sample sizes and event numbers included in the averages. We examine ERP measures of error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) and error positivity (Pe), as well as event-related fMRI measures locked to False Alarms. We find that achieving stable estimates of ERP measures required four to six error trials and approximately 30 participants; fMRI measures required six to eight trials and approximately 40 participants. Fewer trials and participants were required for measures where additional data reduction techniques (i.e., principal component analysis and independent component analysis) were implemented. Ranges of reliability statistics for various sample sizes and numbers of trials are provided. We intend this to be a useful resource for those planning or evaluating ERP or fMRI investigations with tasks designed to measure error-processing. PMID:26908319
Anti-saccade error rates as a measure of attentional bias in cocaine dependent subjects.
Dias, Nadeeka R; Schmitz, Joy M; Rathnayaka, Nuvan; Red, Stuart D; Sereno, Anne B; Moeller, F Gerard; Lane, Scott D
2015-10-01
Cocaine-dependent (CD) subjects show attentional bias toward cocaine-related cues, and this form of cue-reactivity may be predictive of craving and relapse. Attentional bias has previously been assessed by models that present drug-relevant stimuli and measure physiological and behavioral reactivity (often reaction time). Studies of several CNS diseases outside of substance use disorders consistently report anti-saccade deficits, suggesting a compromise in the interplay between higher-order cortical processes in voluntary eye control (i.e., anti-saccades) and reflexive saccades driven more by involuntary midbrain perceptual input (i.e., pro-saccades). Here, we describe a novel attentional-bias task developed by using measurements of saccadic eye movements in the presence of cocaine-specific stimuli, combining previously unique research domains to capitalize on their respective experimental and conceptual strengths. CD subjects (N = 46) and healthy controls (N = 41) were tested on blocks of pro-saccade and anti-saccade trials featuring cocaine and neutral stimuli (pictures). Analyses of eye-movement data indicated (1) greater overall anti-saccade errors in the CD group; (2) greater attentional bias in CD subjects as measured by anti-saccade errors to cocaine-specific (relative to neutral) stimuli; and (3) no differences in pro-saccade error rates. Attentional bias was correlated with scores on the obsessive-compulsive cocaine scale. The results demonstrate increased saliency and differential attentional to cocaine cues by the CD group. The assay provides a sensitive index of saccadic (visual inhibitory) control, a specific index of attentional bias to drug-relevant cues, and preliminary insight into the visual circuitry that may contribute to drug-specific cue reactivity. PMID:26164486
High-speed communication detector characterization by bit error rate measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Green, S. I.
1978-01-01
Performance data taken on several candidate high data rate laser communications photodetectors is presented. Measurements of bit error rate versus signal level were made in both a 1064 nm system at 400 Mbps and a 532 nm system at 500 Mbps. RCA silicon avalanche photodiodes are superior at 1064 nm, but the Rockwell hybrid 3-5 avalanche photodiode preamplifiers offer potentially superior performance. Varian dynamic crossed field photomultipliers are superior at 532 nm, however, the RCA silicon avalanche photodiode is a close contender.
Research on photoelectric test and measurment for form and position error
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Jinsong
2002-09-01
Structure and principles of a photoelectric test and measurement system for form and position error are described. A special optical system using laser beam characteristics was designed to ensure the uniformity of the scanning speed. To meet the requirements of the system a precision mechanical system a servo-control system and an computing and data processing system are designed. As a result a high-speed efficiency and high precision non-contact auto-test is realized. This is a promotion to the development of "advanced manufacture technology".
Errors in short circuit measurements due to spectral mismatch between sunlight and solar simulators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curtis, H. B.
1976-01-01
Errors in short circuit current measurement were calculated for a variety of spectral mismatch conditions. The differences in spectral irradiance between terrestrial sunlight and three types of solar simulator were studied, as well as the differences in spectral response between three types of reference solar cells and various test cells. The simulators considered were a short arc xenon lamp AMO sunlight simulator, an ordinary quartz halogen lamp, and an ELH-type quartz halogen lamp. Three types of solar cells studied were a silicon cell, a cadmium sulfide cell and a gallium arsenide cell.
Lyles, Robert H; Van Domelen, Dane; Mitchell, Emily M; Schisterman, Enrique F
2015-11-01
Pooling biological specimens prior to performing expensive laboratory assays has been shown to be a cost effective approach for estimating parameters of interest. In addition to requiring specialized statistical techniques, however, the pooling of samples can introduce assay errors due to processing, possibly in addition to measurement error that may be present when the assay is applied to individual samples. Failure to account for these sources of error can result in biased parameter estimates and ultimately faulty inference. Prior research addressing biomarker mean and variance estimation advocates hybrid designs consisting of individual as well as pooled samples to account for measurement and processing (or pooling) error. We consider adapting this approach to the problem of estimating a covariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) relating a binary outcome to a continuous exposure or biomarker level assessed in pools. In particular, we explore the applicability of a discriminant function-based analysis that assumes normal residual, processing, and measurement errors. A potential advantage of this method is that maximum likelihood estimation of the desired adjusted log OR is straightforward and computationally convenient. Moreover, in the absence of measurement and processing error, the method yields an efficient unbiased estimator for the parameter of interest assuming normal residual errors. We illustrate the approach using real data from an ancillary study of the Collaborative Perinatal Project, and we use simulations to demonstrate the ability of the proposed estimators to alleviate bias due to measurement and processing error. PMID:26593934
Error in Dasibi flight measurements of atmospheric ozone due to instrument wall-loss
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ainsworth, J. E.; Hagemeyer, J. R.; Reed, E. I.
1981-01-01
Theory suggests that in laminar flow the percent loss of a trace constituent to the walls of a measuring instrument varies as P to the -2/3, where P is the total gas pressure. Preliminary laboratory ozone wall-loss measurements confirm this P to the -2/3 dependence. Accurate assessment of wall-loss is thus of particular importance for those balloon-borne instruments utilizing laminar flow at ambient pressure, since the ambient pressure decreases by a factor of 350 during ascent to 40 km. Measurements and extrapolations made for a Dasibi ozone monitor modified for balloon flight indicate that the wall-loss error at 40 km was between 6 and 30 percent and that the wall-loss error in the derived total ozone column-content for the region from the surface to 40 km altitude was between 2 and 10 percent. At 1000 mb, turbulence caused an order of magnitude increase in the Dasibi wall-loss.
Accounting for baseline differences and measurement error in the analysis of change over time.
Braun, Julia; Held, Leonhard; Ledergerber, Bruno
2014-01-15
If change over time is compared in several groups, it is important to take into account baseline values so that the comparison is carried out under the same preconditions. As the observed baseline measurements are distorted by measurement error, it may not be sufficient to include them as covariate. By fitting a longitudinal mixed-effects model to all data including the baseline observations and subsequently calculating the expected change conditional on the underlying baseline value, a solution to this problem has been provided recently so that groups with the same baseline characteristics can be compared. In this article, we present an extended approach where a broader set of models can be used. Specifically, it is possible to include any desired set of interactions between the time variable and the other covariates, and also, time-dependent covariates can be included. Additionally, we extend the method to adjust for baseline measurement error of other time-varying covariates. We apply the methodology to data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study to address the question if a joint infection with HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus leads to a slower increase of CD4 lymphocyte counts over time after the start of antiretroviral therapy. PMID:23900718
On error sources during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Evteev, B. F.
1991-01-01
The principal sources of errors during airborne measurements of the ambient electric field and charge are addressed. Results of their analysis are presented for critical survey. It is demonstrated that the volume electric charge has to be accounted for during such measurements, that charge being generated at the airframe and wing surface by droplets of clouds and precipitation colliding with the aircraft. The local effect of that space charge depends on the flight regime (air speed, altitude, particle size, and cloud elevation). Such a dependence is displayed in the relation between the collector conductivity of the aircraft discharging circuit - on one hand, and the sum of all the residual conductivities contributing to aircraft discharge - on the other. Arguments are given in favor of variability in the aircraft electric capacitance. Techniques are suggested for measuring from factors to describe the aircraft charge.
Rumenjak, Vlatko; Milardović, Stjepan; Kruhak, Ivan; Grabarić, Bozidar S
2003-09-01
The understanding of the most important sources of error in potentiometric blood analyser which might contribute to better instruments measurement repeatability is very often marginalized in fabrications and daily operation of some commercial blood analysers. In this paper ISEs-potentiometric measurements were performed and validated in Clinical Institute of Laboratory Diagnosis of the Zagreb University School of Medicine and Clinical Hospital Centre, using a carefully designed and constructed fully automated (computerised) homemade ISE-based blood electrolyte analyser constructed with an in-line five-channel flow-through measuring cell. The influence of electrolyte concentration of the salt bridge is reported. Special attention has been paid to the reference electrode design, and constructions which can operate in open liquid junction and membrane restricted liquid junction modes are described. PMID:12927687
The measurement error analysis when a pitot probe is used in supersonic air flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, XiWen; Hao, PengFei; Yao, ZhaoHui
2011-04-01
Pitot probes enable a simple and convenient way of measuring mean velocity in air flow. The contrastive numerical simulation between free supersonic airflow and pitot tube at different positions in supersonic air flow was performed using Navier-Stokes equations, the ENN scheme with time-dependent boundary conditions (TDBC) and the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. The physical experimental results including pitot pressure and shadowgraph are also presented. Numerical results coincide with the experimental data. The flow characteristics of the pitot probe on the supersonic flow structure show that the measurement gives actually the total pressure behind the detached shock wave by using the pitot probe to measure the total pressure. The measurement result of the distribution of the total pressure can still represent the real free jet flow. The similar features of the intersection and reflection of shock waves can be identified. The difference between the measurement results and the actual ones is smaller than 10%. When the pitot probe is used to measure the region of L=0-4 D, the measurement is smaller than the real one due to the increase of the shock wave strength. The difference becomes larger where the waves intersect. If the pitot probe is put at L=8 D-10 D, where the flow changes from supersonic to subsonic, the addition of the pitot probe turns the original supersonic flow region subsonic and causes bigger measurement errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Q.; Neethling, S. J.; Dobson, K. J.; Courtois, L.; Lee, P. D.
2015-04-01
X-ray micro-tomography (XMT) is increasingly used for the quantitative analysis of the volumes of features within the 3D images. As with any measurement, there will be error and uncertainty associated with these measurements. In this paper a method for quantifying both the systematic and random components of this error in the measured volume is presented. The systematic error is the offset between the actual and measured volume which is consistent between different measurements and can therefore be eliminated by appropriate calibration. In XMT measurements this is often caused by an inappropriate threshold value. The random error is not associated with any systematic offset in the measured volume and could be caused, for instance, by variations in the location of the specific object relative to the voxel grid. It can be eliminated by repeated measurements. It was found that both the systematic and random components of the error are a strong function of the size of the object measured relative to the voxel size. The relative error in the volume was found to follow approximately a power law relationship with the volume of the object, but with an exponent that implied, unexpectedly, that the relative error was proportional to the radius of the object for small objects, though the exponent did imply that the relative error was approximately proportional to the surface area of the object for larger objects. In an example application involving the size of mineral grains in an ore sample, the uncertainty associated with the random error in the volume is larger than the object itself for objects smaller than about 8 voxels and is greater than 10% for any object smaller than about 260 voxels. A methodology is presented for reducing the random error by combining the results from either multiple scans of the same object or scans of multiple similar objects, with an uncertainty of less than 5% requiring 12 objects of 100 voxels or 600 objects of 4 voxels. As the systematic
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fletcher, Jay W.
1990-01-01
A new method was developed for application of Kalman Filter/Smoothers to post-flight processing of helicopter flight test dynamic measurements. This processing includes checking for kinematic compatibility among the measurements, identification of a measurement error model, and reconstruction of both measured and unmeasured time histories. Emphasis is placed on identification of a parametric measurement error model which is valid for a set of flight test data. This is facilitated through a new method of concatenating several maneuver time histories. The method also includes a model structure determination step which ensures that a physically realistic parameterization has been achieved. Application of the method to a set of BO-105 flight test data is illustrated. The resulting minimally parameterized error model is shown to characterize the measurement errors of the entire data set with very little variation in the parameter values. Reconstructed time histories are shown to have increased bandwidths and signal to noise ratios.
Inter-rater reliability of three standardized functional tests in patients with low back pain
Tidstrand, Johan; Horneij, Eva
2009-01-01
Background Of all patients with low back pain, 85% are diagnosed as "non-specific lumbar pain". Lumbar instability has been described as one specific diagnosis which several authors have described as delayed muscular responses, impaired postural control as well as impaired muscular coordination among these patients. This has mostly been measured and evaluated in a laboratory setting. There are few standardized and evaluated functional tests, examining functional muscular coordination which are also applicable in the non-laboratory setting. In ordinary clinical work, tests of functional muscular coordination should be easy to apply. The aim of this present study was to therefore standardize and examine the inter-rater reliability of three functional tests of muscular functional coordination of the lumbar spine in patients with low back pain. Methods Nineteen consecutive individuals, ten men and nine women were included. (Mean age 42 years, SD ± 12 yrs). Two independent examiners assessed three tests: "single limb stance", "sitting on a Bobath ball with one leg lifted" and "unilateral pelvic lift" on the same occasion. The standardization procedure took altered positions of the spine or pelvis and compensatory movements of the free extremities into account. The inter-rater reliability was analyzed by Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) and by percentage agreement. Results The inter-rater reliability for the right and the left leg respectively was: for the single limb stance very good (κ: 0.88–1.0), for sitting on a Bobath ball good (κ: 0.79) and very good (κ: 0.88) and for the unilateral pelvic lift: good (κ: 0.61) and moderate (κ: 0.47). Conclusion The present study showed good to very good inter-rater reliability for two standardized tests, that is, the single-limb stance and sitting on a Bobath-ball with one leg lifted. Inter-rater reliability for the unilateral pelvic lift test was moderate to good. Validation of the tests in their ability to evaluate lumbar
2013-01-01
Background Two-dimensional strain measurements obtained by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) have been reported in both humans and dogs. Incorporation of this technique into canine clinical practice requires the availability of measurements from clinically normal dogs, ideally of the same breed, taken under normal clinical conditions. The aims of this prospective study were to assess if it is possible to obtain STE data during a routine echocardiographic examination in Irish Wolfhound dogs and that these data will provide reference values and an estimation of measurement error. Methods Fifty- four healthy mature Irish Wolfhounds were used. These were scanned under normal clinical conditions to obtain in one session both standard echocardiographic parameters and STE data. Measurement error was determined separately in 5 healthy mature Irish Wolfhounds. Results Eight dogs were rejected by the software algorithm for reasons of image quality, resulting in a total of 46 dogs (85.2%) being included in the statistical analysis. In 46 dogs it was possible to obtain STE data from three scanning planes, as well as to measure the rotation of the left ventricle at two levels and thus calculate the torsion of the heart. The mean peak radial strain at the cardiac apex (RS-apex) was 45.1 ± 10.4% (n = 44), and the mean peak radial strain at the base (RS-base) was 36.9 ± 14.7% (n = 46). The mean peak circumferential strain at the apex (CS-apex) was -24.8 ± 6.2% (n = 44), and the mean peak circumferential strain at the heart base (CS-base) was -15.9 ± 3.2% (n = 44). The mean peak longitudinal strain (LS) was -16.2 ± 3.0% (n = 46). The calculated mean peak torsion of the heart was 11.6 ± 5.1 degrees (n = 45). The measurement error was 24.8%, 26.4%, 11.5%, 6.7%, 9.0% and 10 degrees, for RS-apex, RS-base, CS-apex, CS-base, LS and torsion, respectively. Conclusions It is concluded that this technique can be included in a normal
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Micklewright, John; Schnepf, Sylke V.; Silva, Pedro N.
2012-01-01
Investigation of peer effects on achievement with sample survey data on schools may mean that only a random sample of the population of peers is observed for each individual. This generates measurement error in peer variables similar in form to the textbook case of errors-in-variables, resulting in the estimated peer group effects in an OLS…
Background: Exposure measurement error is a concern in long-term PM2.5 health studies using ambient concentrations as exposures. We assessed error magnitude by estimating calibration coefficients as the association between personal PM2.5 exposures from validation studies and typ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Taylor, S.; Wellemeyer, C.
1988-01-01
The Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument on the Nimbus-7 satellite provides the primary source of total ozone data for the study of total ozone in the polar regions of the earth. There are two types of instrument related errors: a slowly developing drift in the instrument calibration since the launch of the instrument in October 1978 and an increase in the measurement noise beginning April, 1984. It is estimated that by October 1987, the accumulated error in the TOMS total ozone measurement due to instrument drift is about 6 m-atm-cm. The sign of the error is such that the TOMS is slightly overpredicting the long-term decrease of the Antarctica ozone. The increase in the measurement noise is more difficult to quantify, affecting some measurements by as much as 10 D.U. and others not at all. A detailed analysis of this error and its potential impact on the studies of total ozone from TOMS will be provided. There are three categories of algorithmic errors: (1) error due the unusual shape of the ozone profile in the ozone hole; (2) error caused by very low atmospheric temperatures in the ozone hole affecting the ozone absorption cross-sections at the TOMS wavelengths; and (3) errors resulting from occasionally thick stratospheric clouds that sometimes reach to 20 km in the ozone hole.
Hollerbach, K.; Hollister, A.
1995-02-01
Measurements of human joint motion frequently involve the use of opto-electronic and other motion analysis systems where some type of makers are used to establish joint motion within a global reference coordinate frame. Typically, this global reference coordinate frame is chosen to be most convenient for the person carrying out the experiment in which the joint motion is measured, and Euler angles are chosen as the measure of joint motion. Results, however, may be quite arbitrary and therefore rendered meaningless if the reference frame is not properly chosen with respect to the physical joint axis. In order to make a proper choice of coordinate axes in the reference frame, one must take into consideration both the location and the orientation of die physical joint axis relative to the reference frame`s axes. In nature, joint axes can exist at any orientation and location relative to an arbitrarily chosen global reference frame. An axis that is not properly aligned with the global reference frame is therefore called an arbitrary axis. We demonstrate that errors result when measurements and calculations are made in a global reference frame that is arbitrarily placed and oriented, with little regard for the physical axis. Slight offsets of global reference frame produce significant errors in recording rotations about the joint axis. We conclude that, in order to be able to reach valid conclusions from joint motion measurements, the reference frame with respect to which all are taken must be brought to the physical axis; furthermore, one of the reference axes must be aligned with the physical axis. Any other choice of reference axes will result in misleading an often erroneous results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, I.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.; Donaldson Hanna, K. L.
2013-12-01
One of the key requirements for deriving surface properties from remote sensing instruments is to have a library of equivalent measurements of known samples. In the thermal infrared, constructing a spectral library for airless bodies such as the Moon and asteroids is complicated by the thermal environment present on these bodies, which can generate significant temperature gradients in the top millimetre of the sample. Such gradients can alter thermal infrared spectra, and therefore these conditions must be simulated in the laboratory to produce equivalent results to those of remote sensing instruments. We have constructed an experiment to achieve this, consisting of: (1) a chamber capable of maintaining a pressure of 1 x 10-5 mbar, (2) a solar-like halogen lamp to replicate surface heating by solar radiation, (3) a temperature controlled sample cup to provide equivalent at-depth heating, (4) a high-emissivity radiation shield, cooled to <150K, to simulate cold space, and (5) a Brüker IFS66v Fourier Transform Spectrometer, taking spectra from 2500-400cm-1 with 2cm-1 resolution. Meteorite, Apollo, terrestrial, and artificially weathered samples have all been measured recently in the chamber, which has required us to make some significant improvements in the design and calibration of the chamber, such as the addition of an intermediate calibration target, measured immediately before and after each sample, and a full examination of calibration errors. Monte Carlo analysis has been used to quantify the absolute uncertainty in the measured spectra, to investigate the extent to which small shifts in spectra can be attributed to the thermal environment over measurement uncertainty, allowing accurate error bars to be added to lunar emissivity spectra for the first time. Schematic of the airless-body simulation chamber, showing the main parts. The calibration target is moved into place via a linear actuator driven by a magnetic coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sawicki, J.; Kowalczyk, M.
2016-06-01
Aim of this study was to appoint values of collimation and horizontal axis errors of the laser scanner ZF 5006h owned by Department of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw University of Technology, and then to determine the effect of those errors on the results of measurements. An experiment has been performed, involving measurement of the test field , founded in the Main Hall of the Main Building of the Warsaw University of Technology, during which values of instrumental errors of interest were determined. Then, an universal computer program that automates the proposed algorithm and capable of applying corrections to measured target coordinates or even entire point clouds from individual stations, has been developed.
Chambless, Lloyd E; Davis, Vicki
2003-04-15
A simple general algorithm is described for correcting for bias caused by measurement error in independent variables in multivariate linear regression. This algorithm, using standard software, is then applied to several approaches to the analysis of change from baseline as a function of baseline value of the outcome measure plus other covariates, any of which might have measurement error. The algorithm may also be used when the independent variables differ by component of the multivariate independent variable. Simulations indicate that under various conditions bias is much reduced, as is mean squared error, and coverage of 95 per cent confidence intervals is good. PMID:12652553
Bard, D.; Chang, C.; Kahn, S. M.; Gilmore, K.; Marshall, S.; Kratochvil, J. M.; Huffenberger, K. M.; May, M.; AlSayyad, Y.; Connolly, A.; Gibson, R. R.; Jones, L.; Krughoff, S.; Ahmad, Z.; Bankert, J.; Grace, E.; Hannel, M.; Lorenz, S.; Haiman, Z.; Jernigan, J. G.; and others
2013-09-01
We study the effect of galaxy shape measurement errors on predicted cosmological constraints from the statistics of shear peak counts with the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST). We use the LSST Image Simulator in combination with cosmological N-body simulations to model realistic shear maps for different cosmological models. We include both galaxy shape noise and, for the first time, measurement errors on galaxy shapes. We find that the measurement errors considered have relatively little impact on the constraining power of shear peak counts for LSST.
Egerton, Tim; Skinner, Brendon
2016-01-01
Objective. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of a digital pelvic inclinometer (DPI) for measuring sagittal plane pelvic tilt in 18 young, healthy males and females. Method. The inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliabilities of the DPI for measuring pelvic tilt in standing on both the right and left sides of the pelvis were measured by two raters carrying out two rating sessions of the same subjects, three weeks apart. Results. For measuring pelvic tilt, inter-rater reliability was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.81–0.88), test–re-test reliability within a single rating session was designated as good on both sides (ICC = 0.88–0.95), and test–re-test reliability between two rating sessions was designated as moderate on the left side (ICC = 0.65) and good on the right side (ICC = 0.85). Conclusion. Inter-rater reliability and test–re-test reliability within a single rating session of the DPI in measuring pelvic tilt were both good, while test–re-test reliability between rating sessions was moderate-to-good. Caution is required regarding the interpretation of the test–re-test reliability within a single rating session, as the raters were not blinded. Further research is required to establish validity. PMID:27069812
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Wei-Chung; Hwang, Chi Hung; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Chuang, Tzu-Hung
2013-06-01
The digital image correlation (DIC) method has been well recognized as a simple, accurate and efficient method for mechanical behavior evaluation. However, very few researches have concentrated on the relationship between the characteristics of the camera lens and the measurement error of the DIC method. The modulation transfer function (MTF) has commonly used for evaluation of the resolution capability of camera lens. In practice, when the DIC method is used, it is possible that the captured images become too blur to analyze when the object is out of the focus of the camera lens or the object deviates from the line-of-view of the camera. In this paper, the traditional MTF calibration specimen was replaced by a pre-arranged speckle pattern on the specimen. For DIC images grabbed from several selected locations both approaching and departing from the focus of the camera lens, corresponding MTF curves were obtained from the pre-arranged speckle pattern. The displacement measurement errors of the DIC method were then estimated by those obtained MTF curves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilczynska, Michael R.; Webb, John K.; King, Julian A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Bainbridge, Matthew B.; Flambaum, Victor V.
2015-12-01
We present an analysis of 23 absorption systems along the lines of sight towards 18 quasars in the redshift range of 0.4 ≤ zabs ≤ 2.3 observed on the Very Large Telescope (VLT) using the Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES). Considering both statistical and systematic error contributions we find a robust estimate of the weighted mean deviation of the fine-structure constant from its current, laboratory value of Δα/α = (0.22 ± 0.23) × 10-5, consistent with the dipole variation reported in Webb et al. and King et al. This paper also examines modelling methodologies and systematic effects. In particular, we focus on the consequences of fitting quasar absorption systems with too few absorbing components and of selectively fitting only the stronger components in an absorption complex. We show that using insufficient continuum regions around an absorption complex causes a significant increase in the scatter of a sample of Δα/α measurements, thus unnecessarily reducing the overall precision. We further show that fitting absorption systems with too few velocity components also results in a significant increase in the scatter of Δα/α measurements, and in addition causes Δα/α error estimates to be systematically underestimated. These results thus identify some of the potential pitfalls in analysis techniques and provide a guide for future analyses.
Modeling work zone crash frequency by quantifying measurement errors in work zone length.
Yang, Hong; Ozbay, Kaan; Ozturk, Ozgur; Yildirimoglu, Mehmet
2013-06-01
Work zones are temporary traffic control zones that can potentially cause safety problems. Maintaining safety, while implementing necessary changes on roadways, is an important challenge traffic engineers and researchers have to confront. In this study, the risk factors in work zone safety evaluation were identified through the estimation of a crash frequency (CF) model. Measurement errors in explanatory variables of a CF model can lead to unreliable estimates of certain parameters. Among these, work zone length raises a major concern in this analysis because it may change as the construction schedule progresses generally without being properly documented. This paper proposes an improved modeling and estimation approach that involves the use of a measurement error (ME) model integrated with the traditional negative binomial (NB) model. The proposed approach was compared with the traditional NB approach. Both models were estimated using a large dataset that consists of 60 work zones in New Jersey. Results showed that the proposed improved approach outperformed the traditional approach in terms of goodness-of-fit statistics. Moreover it is shown that the use of the traditional NB approach in this context can lead to the overestimation of the effect of work zone length on the crash occurrence. PMID:23563145
Rogers, Baxter P.; Sheffield, Julia M.; Luksik, Andrew S.; Heckers, Stephan
2012-01-01
Hemispheric asymmetry of hippocampal volume is a common finding that has biological relevance, including associations with dementia and cognitive performance. However, a recent study has reported the possibility of systematic error in measurements of hippocampal asymmetry by magnetic resonance volumetry. We manually traced the volumes of the anterior and posterior hippocampus in 40 healthy people to measure systematic error related to image orientation. We found a bias due to the side of the screen on which the hippocampus was viewed, such that hippocampal volume was larger when traced on the left side of the screen than when traced on the right (p = 0.05). However, this bias was smaller than the anatomical right > left asymmetry of the anterior hippocampus. We found right > left asymmetry of hippocampal volume regardless of image presentation (radiological versus neurological). We conclude that manual segmentation protocols can minimize the effect of image orientation in the study of hippocampal volume asymmetry, but our confirmation that such bias exists suggests strategies to avoid it in future studies. PMID:23248580
Qualities of Judgmental Ratings by Four Rater Sources.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsui, Anne S.
Quality of performance data yielded by subjective judgment is of major concern to researchers in performance appraisal. However, some confusion exists in the analysis of quality on ratings obtained from different rating scale formats and from different raters. To clarify this confusion, a study was conducted to assess the quality of judgmental…
Prompt and Rater Effects in Second Language Writing Performance Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Gad S.
2009-01-01
Performance assessments have become the norm for evaluating language learners' writing abilities in international examinations of English proficiency. Two aspects of these assessments are usually systematically varied: test takers respond to different prompts, and their responses are read by different raters. This raises the possibility of undue…
Interrater Reliability of the OPI: Using Academic Trainee Raters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halleck, Gene B.
1996-01-01
This study investigated the interrater reliability of proficiency-level judgments of graduate student trainee raters on oral proficiency interviews (OPIs). Trainees' ratings were compared with the judgments of a certified American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) tester for 150 interviews. (Author/JL)
Expert and Naive Raters Using the PAG: Does it Matter?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cornelius, Edwin T.; And Others
1984-01-01
Questions the observed correlation between job experts and naive raters using the Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ); and conducts a replication of the Smith and Hakel study (1979) with college students (N=39). Concluded that PAQ ratings from job experts and college students are not equivalent and therefore are not interchangeable. (LLL)
Deriving Oral Assessment Scales across Different Tests and Rater Groups.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chalhoub-Deville, Micheline
1995-01-01
The purpose of this study was to derive the criteria/dimensions underlying learners' second-language oral ability scores across three tests: an oral interview, a narration, and a read-aloud. A stimulus tape of 18 speech samples was presented to 3 native speaker rater groups for evaluation. Results indicate that researchers might need to reconsider…
Estimating Rater Severity with Multilevel and Multidimensional Item Response Modeling.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wang, Wen-chung
Traditional approaches to the investigation of the objectivity of ratings for constructed-response items are based on classical test theory, which is item-dependent and sample-dependent. Item response theory overcomes this drawback by decomposing item difficulties into genuine difficulties and rater severity. In so doing, objectivity of ability…
Effects of Rater Characteristics and Scoring Methods on Speaking Assessment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Matsugu, Sawako
2013-01-01
Understanding the sources of variance in speaking assessment is important in Japan where society's high demand for English speaking skills is growing. Three challenges threaten fair assessment of speaking. First, in Japanese university speaking courses, teachers are typically the only raters, but teachers' knowledge of their students may…
An Examination of Rater Drift within a Generalizability Theory Framework
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Harik, Polina; Clauser, Brian E.; Grabovsky, Irina; Nungester, Ronald J.; Swanson, Dave; Nandakumar, Ratna
2009-01-01
The present study examined the long-term usefulness of estimated parameters used to adjust the scores from a performance assessment to account for differences in rater stringency. Ratings from four components of the USMLE[R] Step 2 Clinical Skills Examination data were analyzed. A generalizability-theory framework was used to examine the extent to…
Rating Format Effects on Rater Agreement and Reliability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Littlefield, John H.; Troendle, G. Roger
This study compares intra- and inter-rater agreement and reliability when using three different rating form formats to assess the same stimuli. One format requests assessment by marking detailed criteria without an overall judgement; the second format requests only an overall judgement without the use of detailed criteria; and the third format…
Workplace-Based Assessment: Effects of Rater Expertise
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Govaerts, M. J. B.; Schuwirth, L. W. T.; Van der Vleuten, C. P. M.; Muijtjens, A. M. M.
2011-01-01
Traditional psychometric approaches towards assessment tend to focus exclusively on quantitative properties of assessment outcomes. This may limit more meaningful educational approaches towards workplace-based assessment (WBA). Cognition-based models of WBA argue that assessment outcomes are determined by cognitive processes by raters which are…
CRC customer versus rater octane number requirement program (1990)
Not Available
1993-10-01
A CRC cooperative program was conducted to determine the difference in octane requirements between technical raters and 'customers' (the general driving public). The tests were conducted in two phases, with the second being a repeat of the first to verify the results obtained. The trained raters used the CRC E-15 procedure to determine the octane requirement of the vehicles while the customers' perception and objection to knock were determined through the use of a questionnaire. The customers' responses (perception and objection level) were based upon audible knock, acceleration performance, and after-run on a series of full-boiling-range customer/rater unleaded (FBRCU) reference-fuels. Data were analyzed from 168 1988-1991 model-year vehicles, with 126 of these tested in Phase II. The results showed that the customers, objections and perceptions were overwhelmingly based on knock, rather than acceleration performance or after-run. Two general methods, a population comparison and a delta analysis, were used to estimate the difference between customer and rater octane requirements. In the first method, the data were analyzed by comparing satisfaction curves for the technical and customer octane requirements (population comparison).
Determination of instrumentation errors from measured data using maximum likelihood method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keskar, D. A.; Klein, V.
1980-01-01
The maximum likelihood method is used for estimation of unknown initial conditions, constant bias and scale factor errors in measured flight data. The model for the system to be identified consists of the airplane six-degree-of-freedom kinematic equations, and the output equations specifying the measured variables. The estimation problem is formulated in a general way and then, for practical use, simplified by ignoring the effect of process noise. The algorithm developed is first applied to computer generated data having different levels of process noise for the demonstration of the robustness of the method. Then the real flight data are analyzed and the results compared with those obtained by the extended Kalman filter algorithm.
Pustovitov, V. D.
2008-01-15
The possibility is discussed of determining the amplitude and phase of a static resonant error field in a tokamak by means of dynamic magnetic measurements. The method proposed assumes measuring the plasma response to a varying external helical magnetic field with a small (a few gauss) amplitude. The case is considered in which the plasma is probed by square pulses with a duration much longer than the time of the transition process. The plasma response is assumed to be linear, with a proportionality coefficient being dependent on the plasma state. The analysis is carried out in a standard cylindrical approximation. The model is based on Maxwell's equations and Ohm's law and is thus capable of accounting for the interaction of large-scale modes with the conducting wall of the vacuum chamber. The method can be applied to existing tokamaks.
Two Models of Raters in a Structured Oral Examination: Does It Make a Difference?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Touchie, Claire; Humphrey-Murto, Susan; Ainslie, Martha; Myers, Kathryn; Wood, Timothy J.
2010-01-01
Oral examinations have become more standardized over recent years. Traditionally a small number of raters were used for this type of examination. Past studies suggested that more raters should improve reliability. We compared the results of a multi-station structured oral examination using two different rater models, those based in a station,…