Science.gov

Sample records for measurements indispensable tools

  1. Machine learning: an indispensable tool in bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Inza, Iñaki; Calvo, Borja; Armañanzas, Rubén; Bengoetxea, Endika; Larrañaga, Pedro; Lozano, José A

    2010-01-01

    The increase in the number and complexity of biological databases has raised the need for modern and powerful data analysis tools and techniques. In order to fulfill these requirements, the machine learning discipline has become an everyday tool in bio-laboratories. The use of machine learning techniques has been extended to a wide spectrum of bioinformatics applications. It is broadly used to investigate the underlying mechanisms and interactions between biological molecules in many diseases, and it is an essential tool in any biomarker discovery process. In this chapter, we provide a basic taxonomy of machine learning algorithms, and the characteristics of main data preprocessing, supervised classification, and clustering techniques are shown. Feature selection, classifier evaluation, and two supervised classification topics that have a deep impact on current bioinformatics are presented. We make the interested reader aware of a set of popular web resources, open source software tools, and benchmarking data repositories that are frequently used by the machine learning community. PMID:19957143

  2. Modelling as an indispensible research tool in the information society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Science and society would be well advised to develop a different relationship as the information revolution penetrates all aspects of modern life. Rather than produce clear answers to clear questions in a top-down manner, land-use issues related to the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) present "wicked"problems involving different, strongly opiniated, stakeholders with conflicting ideas and interests and risk-averse politicians. The Dutch government has invited its citizens to develop a "science agenda", defining future research needs, implicitly suggesting that the research community is unable to do so. Time, therefore, for a pro-active approach to more convincingly define our:"societal license to research". For soil science this could imply a focus on the SDGs , considering soils as living, characteristically different, dynamic bodies in a landscape, to be mapped in ways that allow generation of suitable modelling data. Models allow a dynamic characterization of water- and nutrient regimes and plant growth in soils both for actual and future conditions, reflecting e.g. effects of climate or land-use change or alternative management practices. Engaging modern stakeholders in a bottom-up manner implies continuous involvement and "joint learning" from project initiation to completion, where modelling results act as building blocks to explore alternative scenarios. Modern techniques allow very rapid calculations and innovative visualization. Everything is possible but only modelling can articulate the economic, social and environmental consequences of each scenario, demonstrating in a pro-active manner the crucial and indispensible role of research. But choices are to be made by stakeholders and reluctant policy makers and certainly not by scientists who should carefully guard their independance. Only clear results in the end are convincing proof for the impact of science, requiring therefore continued involvement of scientists up to the very end of projects. To

  3. Intraoperative neurophysiological mapping and monitoring in spinal tumor surgery: sirens or indispensable tools?

    PubMed

    Scibilia, Antonino; Terranova, Carmen; Rizzo, Vincenzo; Raffa, Giovanni; Morelli, Adolfo; Esposito, Felice; Mallamace, Raffaella; Buda, Gaetano; Conti, Alfredo; Quartarone, Angelo; Germanò, Antonino

    2016-08-01

    Spinal tumor (ST) surgery carries the risk of new neurological deficits in the postoperative period. Intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring and mapping (IONM) represents an effective method of identifying and monitoring in real time the functional integrity of both the spinal cord (SC) and the nerve roots (NRs). Despite consensus favoring the use of IONM in ST surgery, in this era of evidence-based medicine, there is still a need to demonstrate the effective role of IONM in ST surgery in achieving an oncological cure, optimizing patient safety, and considering medicolegal aspects. Thus, neurosurgeons are asked to establish which techniques are considered indispensable. In the present study, the authors focused on the rationale for and the accuracy (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) of IONM in ST surgery in light of more recent evidence in the literature, with specific emphasis on the role of IONM in reducing the incidence of postoperative neurological deficits. This review confirms the role of IONM as a useful tool in the workup for ST surgery. Individual monitoring and mapping techniques are clearly not sufficient to account for the complex function of the SC and NRs. Conversely, multimodal IONM is highly sensitive and specific for anticipating neurological injury during ST surgery and represents an important tool for preserving neuronal structures and achieving an optimal postoperative functional outcome. PMID:27476842

  4. Is Language Planning an Indispensable Tool for Developing Nations? The Case of Cameroon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enoch, Tabe Florence Ako

    2000-01-01

    Suggest that because language planning is a tool in the service of many different latent goals, it rarely conforms to a rational paradigm of decision-making or problem-solving. This article presents a linguistic profile of Cameroon. (Author/VWL)

  5. Women Empowerment and Participation in Economic Activities: Indispensable Tools for Self-Reliance and Development of Nigerian Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    E. N., Ekesionye; A. N., Okolo

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine women empowerment and participation in economic activities as tools for self-reliance and development of the Nigerian society. Research questions and hypothesis were used to guide the study. Structured questionnaire was used as the major instrument for data collection. Copies of questionnaires were…

  6. Measurement and Research Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1997

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on measurement and research tools for human resource development (HRD). "The 'Best Fit' Training: Measure Employee Learning Style Strengths" (Daniel L. Parry) discusses a study of the physiological aspect of sensory intake known as modality, more specifically, modality as measured by the…

  7. Measuring Light with Useful Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Gina; Hebert, Paulette; Frazier, Robert Scott; Knag, Mihyun

    2013-01-01

    Lighting, a necessary part of our home and work environment, is often considered as an afterthought. This article describes tools that Extension educators (Agriculture, Family and Consumer Sciences, and 4-H) can use to measure light levels. 4-H youth may also participate. These tools include light meters and Illuminating Engineering Society (IES)…

  8. Human CD1 dimeric proteins as indispensable tools for research on CD1-binding lipids and CD1-restricted T cells

    PubMed Central

    Shiratsuchi, Takayuki; Schneck, Jonathan; Kawamura, Akira; Tsuji, Moriya

    2009-01-01

    Antigen presenting molecules play an important role in both innate and adoptive immune responses by priming and activating T cells. Among them, CD1 molecules have been identified to present both exogenous and endogenous lipid antigens to CD1-restricted T cells. The involvement of CD1-restricted T cells in autoimmune diseases and in defense against infectious diseases, however, remains largely unknown. Identifying novel antigenic lipids that bind to CD1 molecules and understanding the role of CD1-restricted T cells should lead to the successful development of vaccines, because the lipids can be used as antigens and also as adjuvants. In this paper, we have constructed functional recombinant human CD1 dimeric proteins and established a competitive ELISA assay to measure the lipid binding to CD1 molecules using the CD1 dimers. By using the competitive ELISA assay, we were able to show that the lipid extracts from murine malaria parasites can actually be loaded onto CD1 molecules. In addition, we have demonstrated that artificial antigen-presenting cells, which consist of magnetic beads coated with CD1d dimer and anti-CD28 antibody, stimulated and expanded human invariant NKT cells as efficiently as autologous immature DCs. A set of the tools presented in the current study should be valuable for screening various CD1 molecule-binding lipid antigens and for isolating CD1-restricted T cells. PMID:19374905

  9. Zinc - an indispensable micronutrient.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish; Patni, Babita; Shankhdhar, Deepti; Shankhdhar, S C

    2013-01-01

    Availability of Zn to plant is hampered by its immobile nature and adverse soil conditions. Thus, Zn deficiency is observed even though high amount is available in soil. Root-shoot barrier, a major controller of zinc transport in plant is highly affected by changes in the anatomical structure of conducting tissue and adverse soil conditions like pH, clay content, calcium carbonate content, etc. Zn deficiency results in severe yield losses and in acute cases plant death. Zn deficiency in edible plant parts results in micronutrient malnutrition leading to stunted growth and improper sexual development in humans. To overcome this problem several strategies have been used to enrich Zn availability in edible plant parts, including nutrient management, biotechnological tools, and classical and molecular breeding approaches. PMID:24381434

  10. Tools for measuring surface cleanliness

    DOEpatents

    Schroder, Mark Stewart; Woodmansee, Donald Ernest; Beadie, Douglas Frank

    2002-01-01

    A procedure and tools for quantifying surface cleanliness are described. Cleanliness of a target surface is quantified by wiping a prescribed area of the surface with a flexible, bright white cloth swatch, preferably mounted on a special tool. The cloth picks up a substantial amount of any particulate surface contamination. The amount of contamination is determined by measuring the reflectivity loss of the cloth before and after wiping on the contaminated system and comparing that loss to a previous calibration with similar contamination. In the alternative, a visual comparison of the contaminated cloth to a contamination key provides an indication of the surface cleanliness.

  11. Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer Film Thickness Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, S. A.

    1983-05-01

    The Normal Incidence Spectrophotometer (NIS) Measurement Tool is used to automatically measure the thickness of transparent films on silicon wafers. Under the control of an IBM. System 7 computer, both, wafer handling and the thickness measurement are performed. automatically. Wafers are transported through the tool on a covered airtrack, and after posi-tioning in a vacuum, chuck, are moved under the measurement head to pre-programmed measurement sites. Reflectivity data from the wafer surface, as a function of wavelength, is used by a software algorithm to calculate film, thickness. This tool is used on advanced manufacturing lines at IBM in both. East Fishkill, N.Y. and Burlington, Vt.

  12. Niobium and tantalum: indispensable twins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, Klaus; Papp, John

    2014-01-01

    Niobium and tantalum are transition metals almost always paired together in nature. These “twins” are difficult to separate because of their shared physical and chemical properties. In 1801, English chemist Charles Hatchett uncovered an unknown element in a mineral sample of columbite; John Winthrop found the sample in a Massachusetts mine and sent it to the British Museum in London in 1734. The name columbium, which Hatchet named the new element, came from the poetic name for North America—Columbia—and was used interchangeably for niobium until 1949, when the name niobium became official. Swedish scientist Anders Ekberg discovered tantalum in 1802, but it was confused with niobium, because of their twinned properties, until 1864, when it was recognized as a separate element. Niobium is a lustrous, gray, ductile metal with a high melting point, relatively low density, and superconductor properties. Tantalum is a dark blue-gray, dense, ductile, very hard, and easily fabricated metal. It is highly conductive to heat and electricity and renowned for its resistance to acidic corrosion. These special properties determine their primary uses and make niobium and tantalum indispensable.

  13. Surface roughness measurement of tooling spheres for laser measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Reed, Paul W.

    2001-02-01

    The usage of chrome or highly polished precision tooling (reference) spheres is common in the calibration and operational characterization of measurement systems such as a Coordinate Measurement Machine (CMM). The usage of a three-dimensional, (3D) laser triangulation, non-contact measurement system on CMMs and other scanning systems pose several obstacles. The highly specular mirror finish on the tooling sphere provides an accurate mechanical entity that has adverse results with laser sensors. The development of tooling spheres with a diffuse surface would benefit laser based measurement systems. The surface roughness and reflectivity properties have an effect on the laser measurements' accuracy. Efforts to develop spheres and establish meaningful measurements of spheres with modified surface finishes are investigated.

  14. Performance measurement: A tool for program control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Nancy

    1994-01-01

    Performance measurement is a management tool for planning, monitoring, and controlling as aspects of program and project management--cost, schedule, and technical requirements. It is a means (concept and approach) to a desired end (effective program planning and control). To reach the desired end, however, performance measurement must be applied and used appropriately, with full knowledge and recognition of its power and of its limitations--what it can and cannot do for the project manager. What is the potential of this management tool? What does performance measurement do that a traditional plan vs. actual technique cannot do? Performance measurement provides an improvement over the customary comparison of how much money was spent (actual cost) vs. how much was planned to be spent based on a schedule of activities (work planned). This commonly used plan vs. actual comparison does not allow one to know from the numerical data if the actual cost incurred was for work intended to be done.

  15. Tools for Measuring and Improving Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurow, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains the need for meaningful performance measures in libraries and the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach to data collection. Five tools representing different stages of a TQM inquiry are covered (i.e., the Shewhart Cycle, flowcharts, cause-and-effect diagrams, Pareto charts, and control charts), and benchmarking is addressed. (Contains…

  16. Measurement tools needed for pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.S. )

    1994-03-01

    Pollution prevention concepts are gathering momentum, and will impact manufacturing and the commercial environmental industry significantly. Management tools that accurately measure, document and prioritize pollution prevention programs are critically needed at the corporate and national levels. Numerous environmental information management systems are available to catalog and track waste flows. However, companies also need to measure the effectiveness of waste minimization programs. An accurate way to measure and document progress would allow companies to prioritize programs with the greatest impact and display environmental progress to the public. Few proprietary software programs interface environmental data with financial and productivity databases to measure the effectiveness of pollution prevention programs.

  17. Software for Use with Optoelectronic Measuring Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Kim C.

    2004-01-01

    A computer program has been written to facilitate and accelerate the process of measurement by use of the apparatus described in "Optoelectronic Tool Adds Scale Marks to Photographic Images" (KSC-12201). The tool contains four laser diodes that generate parallel beams of light spaced apart at a known distance. The beams of light are used to project bright spots that serve as scale marks that become incorporated into photographic images (including film and electronic images). The sizes of objects depicted in the images can readily be measured by reference to the scale marks. The computer program is applicable to a scene that contains the laser spots and that has been imaged in a square pixel format that can be imported into a graphical user interface (GUI) generated by the program. It is assumed that the laser spots and the distance(s) to be measured all lie in the same plane and that the plane is perpendicular to the line of sight of the camera used to record the image

  18. Tool 3D geometry measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Ni, Jun; Sun, Yi; Lin, Xuewen

    2001-10-01

    A new non-contact tool 3D geometry measurement system based on machine vision is described. In this system, analytical and optimization methods are used respectively to achieve system calibration, which can determine the rotation center of the drill. The data merging method is fully studied which can translate the scattered different groups of raw data in sensor coordinates into drill coordinates and get 3-D topography of the drill body. Corresponding data processing methods for drill geometry are also studied. Statistical methods are used to remove the outliers. Laplacian of Gaussian operator are used to detect the boundary on drill cross-section and drill tip profile. The arithmetic method for calculating the parameters is introduced. The initial measurement results are presented. The cross-section profile, drill tips geometry are shown. Pictures of drill wear on drill tip are given. Parameters extracted from the cross-section are listed. Compared with the measurement results using CMM, the difference between this drill geometry measurement system and CMM is, Radius of drill: 0.020mm, Helix angle: 1.310, Web thickness: 0.034mm.

  19. Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning

    SciTech Connect

    Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

    1988-12-01

    A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

  20. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  1. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality. PMID:27258266

  2. Plant Metabolomics: An Indispensable System Biology Tool for Plant Science.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jun; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing; Shi, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    As genomes of many plant species have been sequenced, demand for functional genomics has dramatically accelerated the improvement of other omics including metabolomics. Despite a large amount of metabolites still remaining to be identified, metabolomics has contributed significantly not only to the understanding of plant physiology and biology from the view of small chemical molecules that reflect the end point of biological activities, but also in past decades to the attempts to improve plant behavior under both normal and stressed conditions. Hereby, we summarize the current knowledge on the genetic and biochemical mechanisms underlying plant growth, development, and stress responses, focusing further on the contributions of metabolomics to practical applications in crop quality improvement and food safety assessment, as well as plant metabolic engineering. We also highlight the current challenges and future perspectives in this inspiring area, with the aim to stimulate further studies leading to better crop improvement of yield and quality.

  3. Hand-Held Electronic Gap-Measuring Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, F. E.; Thompson, F. W.; Aragon, L. A.; Harrington, D. B.

    1985-01-01

    Repetitive measurements simplified by tool based on LVDT operation. With fingers in open position, Gap-measuring tool rests on digital readout instrument. With fingers inserted in gap, separation alters inductance of linear variable-differential transformer in plastic handle. Originally developed for measuring gaps between surface tiles of Space Shuttle orbiter, tool reduces measurement time from 20 minutes per tile to 2 minutes. Also reduces possibility of damage to tiles during measurement. Tool has potential applications in mass production; helps ensure proper gap dimensions in assembly of refrigerator and car doors and also used to measure dimensions of components and to verify positional accuracy of components during progressive assembly operations.

  4. Making Psychologists in Schools Indispensable: Critical Questions & Emerging Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talley, Ronda C., Ed.; And Others

    Making psychologists in schools indispensable is essential if psychology in education is going to survive and prosper during the 21st century. This book presents the reflections of 27 leaders in the field of school psychology on the issue of what can make psychologists in schools indispensable. Chapters are: Becoming Indispensable Through Mental…

  5. Contour-measuring tool for composite layups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontes, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    Simple handtool helps form contours and complex shapes from laminae of resin-impregnated fabric. Tool, which consists of yoke having ballpoint pen and spindle and gage, is placed so that it straddles model. As toll is moved, pen draws constant thickness focus that is used as template.

  6. MEASURING FITNESS IN FEMALE GYMNASTS: THE GYMNASTICS FUNCTIONAL MEASUREMENT TOOL

    PubMed Central

    Kenyon, Lisa K.; Casey, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: A reliable and valid method of measuring and monitoring a gymnast's total physical fitness level is needed to assist female gymnasts in achieving healthy, injury-free participation in the sport. The Gymnastics Functional Measurement Tool (GFMT) was previously designed as a field-test to assess physical fitness in female competitive gymnasts. The purpose of this study was to further develop the GFMT by establishing a scoring system for individual test items and to initiate the process of establishing the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the GFMT. Methods: A total of 105 competitive female gymnasts ages 6-18 underwent testing using the GFMT. Fifty of these subjects underwent re-testing one week later in order to assess test-retest reliability. Construct validity was assessed using a simple regression analysis between total GFMT scores and the gymnasts' competition level to calculate the coefficient of determination (r2). Test-retest reliability was analyzed using Model 1 Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). Statistical significance was set at the p<0.05 level. Results: The relationship between total GFMT scores and subjects' current USAG competitive level was found to be good (r2 = 0.60). Reliability testing of the GFMT total score showed good test-retest reliability over a one week period (ICC=0.97). Test-retest reliability of the individual component items was good (ICC = 0.80-0.92). Conclusions: The results of this study provide initial support for the construct validity and test-retest reliability of the GFMT. PMID:22530187

  7. Functional Measurement: An Incredibly Flexible Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullet, Etienne; Morales Martinez, Guadalupe Elizabeth; Makris, Ioannis; Roge, Bernadette; Munoz Sastre, Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Functional Measurement (FM) has been applied to a variety of settings that can be considered as "extreme" settings; that is, settings involving participants with severe cognitive disabilities or involving unusual stimulus material. FM has, as instance, been successfully applied for analyzing (a) numerosity judgments among children as young as 3…

  8. Analytical Tools for Cloudscope Ice Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnott, W. Patrick

    1998-01-01

    The cloudscope is a ground or aircraft instrument for viewing ice crystals impacted on a sapphire window. It is essentially a simple optical microscope with an attached compact CCD video camera whose output is recorded on a Hi-8 mm video cassette recorder equipped with digital time and date recording capability. In aircraft operation the window is at a stagnation point of the flow so adiabatic compression heats the window to sublimate the ice crystals so that later impacting crystals can be imaged as well. A film heater is used for ground based operation to provide sublimation, and it can also be used to provide extra heat for aircraft operation. The compact video camera can be focused manually by the operator, and a beam splitter - miniature bulb combination provide illumination for night operation. Several shutter speeds are available to accommodate daytime illumination conditions by direct sunlight. The video images can be directly used to qualitatively assess the crystal content of cirrus clouds and contrails. Quantitative size spectra are obtained with the tools described in this report. Selected portions of the video images are digitized using a PCI bus frame grabber to form a short movie segment or stack using NIH (National Institute of Health) Image software with custom macros developed at DRI. The stack can be Fourier transform filtered with custom, easy to design filters to reduce most objectionable video artifacts. Particle quantification of each slice of the stack is performed using digital image analysis. Data recorded for each particle include particle number and centroid, frame number in the stack, particle area, perimeter, equivalent ellipse maximum and minimum radii, ellipse angle, and pixel number. Each valid particle in the stack is stamped with a unique number. This output can be used to obtain a semiquantitative appreciation of the crystal content. The particle information becomes the raw input for a subsequent program (FORTRAN) that

  9. PIV as a temperature measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oweis, Ghanem F.

    2015-11-01

    In particle image velocimetry (PIV), a camera records time-lapse snapshot images of the positions of particles embedded in a fluid, which faithfully trace the flow path. Cross correlating sequential particle image pairs results in 2D maps of the particle displacement and velocity fields. Here, the same PIV method is extended to temperature measurements in viscoelastic material. The motivation originates in a need for tissue temperature measurements in hyperthermia therapies such as laser ablation eye surgery and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) tumor ablation. Micron sized particles are embedded in an optically clear tissue mimicking phantom, illuminated with a laser sheet, and imaged with a CCD camera. When the phantom is subjected to heating from a focused ultrasound beam, the particles remain stationary, but not their spatial distribution in the recorded images. The images manifest particle displacements commensurate with alterations in the temperature distribution from heating. The underlying principle behind the thermometric capability of PIV is discussed. Temperature changes can be detected with high sensitivity, and the method works best with spatially localized temperature distributions.

  10. Development of Tool Edge Temperature Measurement Method in Wet Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Hideto; Tanaka, Ryutaro; Hosokawa, Akira; Ueda, Takashi; Furumoto, Tatsuaki

    In this paper, the measurement method of tool edge temperature using a two-color pyrometer with an optical fiber in wet cutting is proposed. Using the proposed method, the high pressure air supplied from the small hole where an optical fiber is inserted prevents coolant from adhering to the optical fiber edge and makes temperature measuring possible. The influence of this supplied air pressure on the tool edge temperature is negligible in the 0.05Mpa to 0.6MPa range. In this way, the temperature of CBN and PCD tool edge is measured in wet cutting of Ti-6Al-4V. As a result, the tool edge temperature increases rapidly with the increase of cutting speed. In dry cutting, PCD tool edge temperature is almost 100 °C lower compared with CBN tool edge temperature. By coolant supply, PCD tool edge temperature decreases greatly. For example, when cutting speed is set at 300m/min, PCD tool edge temperature decreases by 350°C, while CBN tool edge temperature decreases by only 70°C.

  11. Measuring Rater Reliability on a Special Education Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmelroth, Carrie Lisa; Johnson, Evelyn

    2014-01-01

    This study used generalizability theory to measure reliability on the Recognizing Effective Special Education Teachers (RESET) observation tool designed to evaluate special education teacher effectiveness. At the time of this study, the RESET tool included three evidence-based instructional practices (direct, explicit instruction; whole-group…

  12. Three-dimensional measurement and characterization of grinding tool topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Changcai; Blunt, Liam; Jiang, Xiangqian; Xu, Xipeng; Huang, Hui; Ye, Ruifang

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive 3-dimensional measurement and characterization method for grinding tool topography was developed. A stylus instrument (SOMICRONIC, France) was used to measure the surface of a metal-bonded diamond grinding tool. The sampled data was input the software SurfStand developed by Centre for Precision Technology (CPT) for reconstruction and further characterization of the surface. Roughness parameters pertaining to the general surface and specific feature parameters relating to the grinding grits, such as height and angle peak curvature have been calculated. The methodology of measurement has been compared with that using an optical microscope. The comparison shows that the three-dimensional characterization has distinct advantages for grinding tool topography assessment. It is precise, convenient and comprehensive so it is suitable for precision measurement and analysis where an understanding of the grinding tool and its cutting ability are required.

  13. Measurement Learning Trajectories: A Tool for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCool, Jenni K.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the ways in which a teacher developed conceptions of measurement teaching and learning as she collaborated with a researcher to learn and implement a measurement learning trajectory with two of her students. Teachers need tools that effectively address the content area of measurement and can be used to improve their…

  14. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  15. Measuring fault tolerance with the FTAPE fault injection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The major parts of the tool include a system-wide fault-injector, a workload generator, and a workload activity measurement tool. The workload creates high stress conditions on the machine. Using stress-based injection, the fault injector is able to utilize knowledge of the workload activity to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio, performance degradation, and number of system crashes are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  16. Combining growth curves when a longitudinal study switches measurement tools

    PubMed Central

    Oleson, Jacob J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; Walker, Elizabeth; Dunn, Camille

    2014-01-01

    When longitudinal studies are performed to investigate the growth of traits in children, the measurement tool being used to quantify the trait may need to change as the subjects age throughout the study. Changing the measurement tool at some point in the longitudinal study makes the analysis of that growth challenging which, in turn, makes it difficult to determine what other factors influence the growth rate. We developed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework that relates the growth curves per individual for each of the different measurement tools and allows for covariates to influence the shapes of the curves by borrowing strength across curves. The method is motivated by and demonstrated by speech perception outcome measurements of children who were implanted with cochlear implants. Researchers are interested in assessing the impact of age at implantation, and comparing the growth rates of children who are implanted under the age of two versus those implanted between the ages of two and four. PMID:24821002

  17. Development of a New Measurement Tool for Individualism and Collectivism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulruf, Boaz; Hattie, John; Dixon, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    A new measurement tool for individualism and collectivism has been developed to address critical methodological issues in this field of social psychology. This new measure, the Auckland Individualism and Collectivism Scale (AICS), defines three dimensions of individualism: (a) responsibility (acknowledging one's responsibility for one's actions),…

  18. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  19. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1995-01-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  20. FTAPE: A fault injection tool to measure fault tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Timothy K.; Iyer, Ravishankar K.

    1994-07-01

    The paper introduces FTAPE (Fault Tolerance And Performance Evaluator), a tool that can be used to compare fault-tolerant computers. The tool combines system-wide fault injection with a controllable workload. A workload generator is used to create high stress conditions for the machine. Faults are injected based on this workload activity in order to ensure a high level of fault propagation. The errors/fault ratio and performance degradation are presented as measures of fault tolerance.

  1. Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool - 12006

    SciTech Connect

    Messick, Chuck; Pham, Minh; Smith, Ron; Isiminger, Dave

    2012-07-01

    The Region 3 Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool is used by the National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA), United States Department of Energy, Radiological Assistance Program, Region 3, to respond to emergency radiological situations. The tool automates the flight planning package process while decreasing Aerial Measuring System response times and decreases the potential for human error. Deployment of the Region Three Aerial Measurement System Flight Planning Tool has resulted in an immediate improvement to the flight planning process in that time required for mission planning has been reduced from 1.5 hours to 15 minutes. Anecdotally, the RAP team reports that the rate of usable data acquired during surveys has improved from 40-60 percent to over 90 percent since they began using the tool. Though the primary product of the flight planning tool is a pdf format document for use by the aircraft flight crew, the RAP team has begun carrying their laptop computer on the aircraft during missions. By connecting a Global Positioning System (GPS) device to the laptop and using ESRI ArcMap's GPS tool bar to overlay the aircraft position directly on the flight plan in real time, the RAP team can evaluate and correct the aircraft position as the mission is executed. (authors)

  2. Absorber Alignment Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    As we pursue efforts to lower the capital and installation costs of parabolic trough solar collectors, it is essential to maintain high optical performance. While there are many optical tools available to measure the reflector slope errors of parabolic trough solar collectors, there are few tools to measure the absorber alignment. A new method is presented here to measure the absorber alignment in two dimensions to within 0.5 cm. The absorber alignment is measured using a digital camera and four photogrammetric targets. Physical contact with the receiver absorber or glass is not necessary. The alignment of the absorber is measured along its full length so that sagging of the absorber can be quantified with this technique. The resulting absorber alignment measurement provides critical information required to accurately determine the intercept factor of a collector.

  3. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications*

    PubMed Central

    Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Petraco, N

    2016-01-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. PMID:27182440

  4. [Factor Analysis: Principles to Evaluate Measurement Tools for Mental Health].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi Celina

    2012-09-01

    The validation of a measurement tool in mental health is a complex process that usually starts by estimating reliability, to later approach its validity. Factor analysis is a way to know the number of dimensions, domains or factors of a measuring tool, generally related to the construct validity of the scale. The analysis could be exploratory or confirmatory, and helps in the selection of the items with better performance. For an acceptable factor analysis, it is necessary to follow some steps and recommendations, conduct some statistical tests, and rely on a proper sample of participants. PMID:26572119

  5. [Factor Analysis: Principles to Evaluate Measurement Tools for Mental Health].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Herazo, Edwin; Oviedo, Heidi Celina

    2012-09-01

    The validation of a measurement tool in mental health is a complex process that usually starts by estimating reliability, to later approach its validity. Factor analysis is a way to know the number of dimensions, domains or factors of a measuring tool, generally related to the construct validity of the scale. The analysis could be exploratory or confirmatory, and helps in the selection of the items with better performance. For an acceptable factor analysis, it is necessary to follow some steps and recommendations, conduct some statistical tests, and rely on a proper sample of participants.

  6. Consequential Validity and the Transformation of Tests from Measurement Tools to Policy Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welner, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Recent U.S. policy has brought a shift in assessment use, from measurement tools to policy levers. In particular, testing has become a core part of teacher evaluation policies in many states, with test results becoming akin to a job evaluation. Purpose: To explore the notion of consequential validity in assessment use and…

  7. Measurement and Research Tools. Symposium 37. [AHRD Conference, 2001].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This symposium on measurement and research tools consists of three presentations. "An Examination of the Multiple Intelligences Developmental Assessment Scales (MIDAS)" (Albert Wiswell et al.) explores MIDAS's psychometric saliency. Findings indicates this instrument represents an incomplete attempt to develop a valid assessment of multiple…

  8. MSU-Test: A Tool for Measuring Students' Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chansirisira, Pacharawit; Nuangchalerm, Prasart; Morakot, Nongnit; Khamkong, Surasak

    2011-01-01

    The study aims to employ MSU-test as a tool to measure Mahasarakham student in secondary and high school levels to achieve their learning potential. The importance of this study will help university understanding school potential and provide information to increase students' score. Two thousand and seven hundred eight nine students participated in…

  9. Linking nursing unit's culture to organizational effectiveness: a measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Casida, Jesus

    2008-01-01

    Organizational culture consists of the deep underlying assumptions, beliefs, and values that are shared by members of the organization and typically operate unconsciously. The four organizational culture traits of the Denison Organizational Culture Model (DOCM) are characteristics of organizational effectiveness, which include adaptability, involvement, consistency, and mission. Effective organizations demonstrate high levels of the four cultural traits which reflect their ability to balance the dynamic tension between the need for stability and the need for flexibility within the organization. The Denison Organizational Culture Survey (DOCS) is a measurement tool that was founded on the theoretical framework of the DOCM, and in the field of business, is one of the most commonly used tools for measuring organizational culture. The DOCS offers a promising approach to operationalizing and measuring the link between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness in the context of nursing units.

  10. Slope Error Measurement Tool for Solar Parabolic Trough Collectors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Stynes, J. K.; Ihas, B.

    2012-04-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed an optical measurement tool for parabolic solar collectors that measures the combined errors due to absorber misalignment and reflector slope error. The combined absorber alignment and reflector slope errors are measured using a digital camera to photograph the reflected image of the absorber in the collector. Previous work using the image of the reflection of the absorber finds the reflector slope errors from the reflection of the absorber and an independent measurement of the absorber location. The accuracy of the reflector slope error measurement is thus dependent on the accuracy of the absorber location measurement. By measuring the combined reflector-absorber errors, the uncertainty in the absorber location measurement is eliminated. The related performance merit, the intercept factor, depends on the combined effects of the absorber alignment and reflector slope errors. Measuring the combined effect provides a simpler measurement and a more accurate input to the intercept factor estimate. The minimal equipment and setup required for this measurement technique make it ideal for field measurements.

  11. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Song, J.; Petraco, N.

    2016-03-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to specify adequately the experimental procedure. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

  12. Data assimilation tool to reconstruct particle flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien A.; Maget, Vincent; Lazaro, Didier; Sandberg, Ingmar

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 MAARBLE project, the Salammbô code and an ensemble Kalman filter is being used to reproduce the electron radiation belt dynamics during storms: (1) The ONERA data assimilation tool has been improved to ingest count rates instead of flux when the instrument response function is available. As an example, the ESA/SREM radiation monitor has complex response functions (proton and electron events are mixed, and for a given specie the instrument responds to a broad range of energies with different efficiencies) which makes very challenging to get fluxes out of count rates. (2) INTEGRAL/SREM, GIOVE-B/SREM, XMM/ERMD and GOES/SEM data assimilation is performed to reproduce with high fidelity the electron belt dynamics during magnetic storms. (3) Because the outputs of the tool are phase space densities, it is then possible to reconstruct INTEGRAL/SREM and GIOVE-B/SREM fluxes time series. In the present talk, an overview of the data assimilation tool will be given. The advantage of using assimilation tool to reconstruct particle flux measurements will be discussed. MAARBLE has received fundings from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-.2010-1, SP1 Cooperation, Collaborative project) under grant agreement n284520. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the European Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  13. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Safety Inhibit Timeline Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dion, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Observatory is a joint mission under the partnership by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Japan. The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has the lead management responsibility for NASA on GPM. The GPM program will measure precipitation on a global basis with sufficient quality, Earth coverage, and sampling to improve prediction of the Earth's climate, weather, and specific components of the global water cycle. As part of the development process, NASA built the spacecraft (built in-house at GSFC) and provided one instrument (GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) developed by Ball Aerospace) JAXA provided the launch vehicle (H2-A by MHI) and provided one instrument (Dual-Frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR) developed by NTSpace). Each instrument developer provided a safety assessment which was incorporated into the NASA GPM Safety Hazard Assessment. Inhibit design was reviewed for hazardous subsystems which included the High Gain Antenna System (HGAS) deployment, solar array deployment, transmitter turn on, propulsion system release, GMI deployment, and DPR radar turn on. The safety inhibits for these listed hazards are controlled by software. GPM developed a "pathfinder" approach for reviewing software that controls the electrical inhibits. This is one of the first GSFC in-house programs that extensively used software controls. The GPM safety team developed a methodology to document software safety as part of the standard hazard report. As part of this process a new tool "safety inhibit time line" was created for management of inhibits and their controls during spacecraft buildup and testing during 1& Tat GSFC and at the Range in Japan. In addition to understanding inhibits and controls during 1& T the tool allows the safety analyst to better communicate with others the changes in inhibit states with each phase of hardware and software testing. The tool was very

  14. ``Tools for Astrometry": A Windows-based Research Tool for Asteroid Discovery and Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, G. A.; Marschall, L. A.; Good, R. F.; Hayden, M. B.; Cooper, P. R.

    1998-12-01

    We have developed a Windows-based interactive digital astrometry package with a simple, ergonomic interface, designed for the discovery, measurement, and recording of asteroid positions by individual observers. The software, "Tools For Astrometry", will handle FITS and SBIG format images up to 2048 x 2048 (or larger, depending on RAM), and provides features for blinking images or subframes of images, and measurement of positions and magnitudes against both the HST Guide Star Catalog and the USNO SA-1 catalog,. In addition, the program can calculate ephemerides from element tables, including the Lowell Asteroid Database available online, can generate charts of star-fields showing the motion of asteroids from the ephemeris superimposed against the background star field, can project motions of measured asteroids ahead several days using linear interpolation for purposes of reacquisition, and can calculate projected baselines for asteroid parallax measurements. Images, charts, and tables of ephemerides can printed as well as displayed, and reports can be generated in the standard format of the IAU Minor Planet Center. The software is designed ergonomically, and one can go from raw images to completed astrometric report in a matter of minutes. The software is an extension of software developed for introductory astronomy laboratories by Project CLEA, which is supported by grants from Gettysburg College and the National Science Foundation.

  15. New critical dimension uniformity measurement concept based reticle inspection tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Kangjoon; Kim, MunSik; Kim, Sang Chul; Shin, JaeCheon; Kim, ChangYeol; Miller, John; Dayal, Aditya; Hutchinson, Trent; Park, KiHun

    2010-05-01

    The Critical Dimension Uniformity (CDU) specification on photo-mask is getting increasingly tighter which each successive node. The ITRS roadmap for optical masks indicates that, the CDU (3 sigma) for dense lines for binary or attenuated phase shift mask is 3.4nm for 45nm half-pitch (45HP) node and will go down to 2.4nm for 32HP node. The current variability in mask shop processes results in CDU variation across the photo-mask of ~2-3nm. Hence, we are entering in a phase where the mask CDU specification is approaching the limit of the capability of the current POR (process on record). Hence, mask shops have started exploring more active mechanisms to improve or compensate for the CDU of the masks. A typical application is in feeding back the CDU data to adjust the mask writer dose and compensate for non-uniformity in the CDs, resulting in improved quality of subsequent masks. Another option is to feed the CD uniformity information forward into the wafer FAB and adjust the scanner dose to correct for reticle non-uniformity. For these purposes mask makers prefer a dense measurement of CDs across the reticle in a short time. Mask makers are currently using the CD-SEM tool for data collection. While the resolution of SEM data ensures its position as the industry standard, an output map of CDU from a reticle inspection tool has the advantage of denser sampling over larger areas on the mask. High NA reticle inspection systems scan the entire reticle at high throughput, and are ideally suited for collecting CDU data on a dense grid. In this paper, we describe the basic theory of a new, reticle inspection-based CDU tool, and results on advanced memory masks. We discuss possible applications of CDU maps for optimizing the mask manufacturing and wafer production processes.

  16. Biomimetic Signal Processing Using the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abawi, Ahmad T.; Hursky, Paul; Porter, Michael B.; Tiemann, Chris; Martin, Stephen

    2004-11-01

    In this paper data recorded on the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT) during a target echolocation experiment are used to 1) find ways to separate target echoes from clutter echoes, 2) analyze target returns and 3) find features in target returns that distinguish them from clutter returns. The BMT is an instrumentation package used in dolphin echolocation experiments developed at SPAWARSYSCEN. It can be held by the dolphin using a bite-plate during echolocation experiments and records the movement and echolocation strategy of a target-hunting dolphin without interfering with its motion through the search field. The BMT was developed to record a variety of data from a free-swimming dolphin engaged in a bottom target detection task. These data include the three dimensional location of the dolphin, including its heading, pitch roll and velocity as well as passive acoustic data recorded on three channels. The outgoing dolphin click is recorded on one channel and the resulting echoes are recorded on the two remaining channels. For each outgoing click the BMT records a large number of echoes that come from the entire ensonified field. Given the large number of transmitted clicks and the returned echoes, it is almost impossible to find a target return from the recorded data on the BMT. As a means of separating target echoes from those of clutter, an echo-mapping tool was developed. This tool produces an echomap on which echoes from targets (and other regular objects such as surface buoys, the side of a boat and so on) stack together as tracks, while echoes from clutter are scattered. Once these tracks are identified, the retuned echoes can easily be extracted for further analysis.

  17. Measuring vaccine hesitancy: The development of a survey tool.

    PubMed

    Larson, Heidi J; Jarrett, Caitlin; Schulz, William S; Chaudhuri, Mohuya; Zhou, Yuqing; Dube, Eve; Schuster, Melanie; MacDonald, Noni E; Wilson, Rose

    2015-08-14

    In March 2012, the SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy was convened to define the term "vaccine hesitancy", as well as to map the determinants of vaccine hesitancy and develop tools to measure and address the nature and scale of hesitancy in settings where it is becoming more evident. The definition of vaccine hesitancy and a matrix of determinants guided the development of a survey tool to assess the nature and scale of hesitancy issues. Additionally, vaccine hesitancy questions were piloted in the annual WHO-UNICEF joint reporting form, completed by National Immunization Managers globally. The objective of characterizing the nature and scale of vaccine hesitancy issues is to better inform the development of appropriate strategies and policies to address the concerns expressed, and to sustain confidence in vaccination. The Working Group developed a matrix of the determinants of vaccine hesitancy informed by a systematic review of peer reviewed and grey literature, and by the expertise of the working group. The matrix mapped the key factors influencing the decision to accept, delay or reject some or all vaccines under three categories: contextual, individual and group, and vaccine-specific. These categories framed the menu of survey questions presented in this paper to help diagnose and address vaccine hesitancy.

  18. Disassembling "evapotranspiration" in-situ with a complex measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chormanski, Jaroslaw; Kleniewska, Malgorzata; Berezowski, Tomasz; Sporak-Wasilewska, Sylwia; Okruszko, Tomasz; Szatylowicz, Jan; Batelaan, Okke

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present a complex tool for measuring water fluxes in wetland ecosystems. The tool was designed to quantify processes related to interception storage on plants leafs. The measurements are conducted by combining readings from various instruments, including: eddy covariance tower (EC), field spectrometer, SapFlow system, rain gauges above and under canopy, soil moisture probes and other. The idea of this set-up is to provide continuous measurement of overall water flux from the ecosystem (EC tower), intercepted water volume and timing (field spectrometers), through-fall (rain gauges above and under canopy), transpiration (SapFlow), evaporation and soil moisture (soil moisture probes). Disassembling the water flux to the above components allows giving more insight to the interception related processes and differentiates them from the total evapotranspiration. The measurements are conducted in the Upper Biebrza Basin (NE Poland). The study area is part of the valley and is covered by peat soils (mainly peat moss with the exception of areas near the river) and receives no inundations waters of the Biebrza. The plant community of Agrostietum-Carici caninae has a dominant share here creating an up to 0.6 km wide belt along the river. The area is covered also by Caricion lasiocarpae as well as meadows and pastures Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, Phragmitetum communis. Sedges form a hummock pattern characteristic for the sedge communities in natural river valleys with wetland vegetation. The main result of the measurement set-up will be the analyzed characteristics and dynamics of interception storage for sedge ecosystems and a developed methodology for interception monitoring by use spectral reflectance technique. This will give a new insight to processes of evapotranspiration in wetlands and its components transpiration, evaporation from interception and evaporation from soil. Moreover, other important results of this project will be the estimation of energy and

  19. APMS: An Integrated Set of Tools for Measuring Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Reynard, William D. (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data. The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data-analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS will offer to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software, a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality, and data interchangeability, among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs of air crews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as air crews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but through

  20. Lilith: a tool for constraining new physics from Higgs measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Dumont, Béranger

    2015-09-01

    The properties of the observed Higgs boson with mass around 125 GeV can be affected in a variety of ways by new physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The wealth of experimental results, targeting the different combinations for the production and decay of a Higgs boson, makes it a non-trivial task to assess the patibility of a non-SM-like Higgs boson with all available results. In this paper we present Lilith, a new public tool for constraining new physics from signal strength measurements performed at the LHC and the Tevatron. Lilith is a Python library that can also be used in C and C++/ ROOT programs. The Higgs likelihood is based on experimental results stored in an easily extensible XML database, and is evaluated from the user input, given in XML format in terms of reduced couplings or signal strengths.The results of Lilith can be used to constrain a wide class of new physics scenarios.

  1. Tool Measures Depths of Defects on a Case Tang Joint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ream, M. Bryan; Montgomery, Ronald B.; Mecham, Brent A.; Keirstead, Bums W.

    2005-01-01

    A special-purpose tool has been developed for measuring the depths of defects on an O-ring seal surface. The surface lies in a specially shaped ringlike fitting, called a capture feature tang, located on an end of a cylindrical segment of a case that contains a solid-fuel booster rocket motor for launching a space shuttle. The capture feature tang is a part of a tang-and-clevis, O-ring joint between the case segment and a similar, adjacent cylindrical case segment. When the segments are joined, the tang makes an interference fit with the clevis and squeezes the O-ring at the side of the gap.

  2. Slim hole MWD tool accurately measures downhole annular pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Burban, B.; Delahaye, T. )

    1994-02-14

    Measurement-while-drilling of downhole pressure accurately determines annular pressure losses from circulation and drillstring rotation and helps monitor swab and surge pressures during tripping. In early 1993, two slim-hole wells (3.4 in. and 3 in. diameter) were drilled with continuous real-time electromagnetic wave transmission of downhole temperature and annular pressure. The data were obtained during all stages of the drilling operation and proved useful for operations personnel. The use of real-time measurements demonstrated the characteristic hydraulic effects of pressure surges induced by drillstring rotation in the small slim-hole annulus under field conditions. The interest in this information is not restricted to the slim-hole geometry. Monitoring or estimating downhole pressure is a key element for drilling operations. Except in special cases, no real-time measurements of downhole annular pressure during drilling and tripping have been used on an operational basis. The hydraulic effects are significant in conventional-geometry wells (3 1/2-in. drill pipe in a 6-in. hole). This paper describes the tool and the results from the field test.

  3. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool - the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) - devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs.

  4. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  5. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs.

  6. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal.

    PubMed

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool - the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) - devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  7. A measuring tool for tree-rings analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumilov, Oleg; Kanatjev, Alexander; Kasatkina, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A special tool has been created for the annual tree-ring widths measurement and analysis. It consists of professional scanner, computer system and software. This created complex in many aspects does not yield the similar systems (LINTAB, WinDENDRO), but in comparison to manual measurement systems, it offers a number of advantages: productivity gain, possibility of archiving the results of the measurements at any stage of the processing, operator comfort. It has been developed a new software, allowing processing of samples of different types (cores, saw cuts), including those which is difficult to process, having got a complex wood structure (inhomogeneity of growing in different directions, missed, light and false rings etc.). This software can analyze pictures made with optical scanners, analog or digital cameras. The complex software program was created on programming language C++, being compatible with modern operating systems like Windows X. Annual ring widths are measured along paths traced interactively. These paths can have any orientation and can be created so that ring widths are measured perpendicular to ring boundaries. A graphic of ring-widths in function of the year is displayed on a screen during the analysis and it can be used for visual and numerical cross-dating and comparison with other series or master-chronologies. Ring widths are saved to the text files in a special format, and those files are converted to the format accepted for data conservation in the International Tree-Ring Data Bank. The created complex is universal in application that will allow its use for decision of the different problems in biology and ecology. With help of this complex it has been reconstructed a long-term juniper (1328-2004) and pine (1445-2005) tree-ring chronologies on the base of samples collected at Kola Peninsula (northwestern Russia).

  8. A tool for measuring the bending length in thin wires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzini, M.; Cagnoli, G.; Cesarini, E.; Losurdo, G.; Martelli, F.; Piergiovanni, F.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.

    2013-03-01

    Great effort is currently being put into the development and construction of the second generation, advanced gravitational wave detectors, Advanced Virgo and Advanced LIGO. The development of new low thermal noise suspensions of mirrors, based on the experience gained in the previous experiments, is part of this task. Quasi-monolithic suspensions with fused silica wires avoid the problem of rubbing friction introduced by steel cradle arrangements by directly welding the wires to silica blocks bonded to the mirror. Moreover, the mechanical loss level introduced by silica (ϕfs ˜ 10-7 in thin fused silica wires) is by far less than the one associated with steel. The low frequency dynamical behaviour of the suspension can be computed and optimized, provided that the wire bending shape under pendulum motion is known. Due to the production process, fused silica wires are thicker near the two ends (necks), so that analytical bending computations are very complicated. We developed a tool to directly measure the low frequency bending parameters of fused silica wires, and we tested it on the wires produced for the Virgo+ monolithic suspensions. The working principle and a set of test measurements are presented and explained.

  9. Cylindrical surface profile and diameter measuring tool and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, James R. (Inventor); Kissel, Ralph R. (Inventor); Smith, Earnest C. (Inventor); Oliver, Charles E. (Inventor); Redmon, John W., Sr. (Inventor); Wallace, Charles C. (Inventor); Swanson, Charles P. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A tool is shown having a cross beam assembly made of beams joined by a center box structure. The assembly is adapted to be mounted by brackets to the outer end of a cylindrical case. The center box structure has a vertical shaft rotatably mounted therein and extending beneath the assembly. Secured to the vertical shaft is a radius arm which is adapted to rotate with the shaft. On the longer end of the radius arm is a measuring tip which contacts the cylindrical surface to be measured and which provides an electric signal representing the radius of the cylindrical surface from the center of rotation of the radius arm. An electric servomotor rotates the vertical shaft and an electronic resolver provides an electric signal representing the angle of rotation of the shaft. The electric signals are provided to a computer station which has software for its computer to calculate and print out the continuous circumference profile of the cylindrical surface, and give its true diameter and the deviations from the ideal circle.

  10. Cylindrical surface profile and diameter measuring tool and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Currie, James R. (Inventor); Kissel, Ralph R. (Inventor); Oliver, Charles E. (Inventor); Smith, Earnest C. (Inventor); Redmon, John W. (Inventor); Wallace, Charles C. (Inventor); Swanson, Charles P. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A tool is shown having a cross beam assembly (15) made of beams (18, 19, 20, 21) joined by a center box structure (23). The assembly (15) is adapted to be mounted by brackets (16) to the outer end of a cylindrical case (11). The center box structure (23) has a vertical shaft (25) rotatably mounted therein and extending beneath the assembly (15). Secured to the vertical shaft (25) is a radius arm (28) which is adapted to rotate with shaft (25). On the longer end of the radius arm (28) is a measuring tip (30) which contacts the cylindrical surface to be measured and which provides an electric signal representing the radius of the cylindrical surface from the center of rotation of the radius arm (28). An electric servomotor (49) rotates the vertical shaft (25) and an electronic resolver (61) provides an electric signal representing the angle of rotation of the shaft (25). The electric signals are provided to a computer station (73) which has software for its computer to calculate and print out the continuous circumference profile of the cylindrical surface, and give its true diameter and the deviations from the ideal circle.

  11. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  12. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  13. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  14. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  15. 48 CFR 252.225-7015 - Restriction on acquisition of hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of hand or measuring tools. 252.225-7015 Section 252.225-7015 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.225-7015 Restriction on acquisition of hand or... Hand or Measuring Tools (JUN 2005) Hand or measuring tools delivered under this contract shall...

  16. Dolphin echolocation strategies studied with the Biosonar Measurement Tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houser, Dorian S.; Martin, Steve W.; Phillips, Michael; Bauer, Eric; Moore, Patrick W.

    2003-10-01

    Two free-swimming dolphins (Tt722 and Tt673) were trained to carry the Biosonar Measurement Tool (BMT) during open water, proud target searches in order to explore echolocation behavior without the constraints of traditional experimental designs. The BMT recorded the angular motion, depth, and velocity of the dolphin as well as echolocation clicks and echoes returning from insonified targets. Mean search time for Tt722 was 24.6+/-7.3 s and 6.5+/-3.0 s for Tt673 on target present trials, the former strategy resulting in the lower false alarm rate. The majority of clicks exceeded 195 dB re: 1 μPa throughout all trials for both animals but each demonstrated preferences for particular frequency bands of echolocation. Considering all trials, only 3.6% of all clicks produced by Tt722 contained peak frequencies greater than 60 kHz whereas Tt673 produced clicks with peak frequencies above 60 kHz 20.4% of the time. Distinctive frequency bands in the distribution of clicks were notable: bands for Tt673 occurred at 38, 54, and 69 kHz with less defined higher order bands; bands for Tt722 occurred at 25, 35, and 40 kHz. Distinctive frequency bands suggest a preferential use or mechanical constraint on harmonically related click frequencies.

  17. Monitoring measurement tools: new methods for driving continuous improvements in fleet measurement uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Sendelbach, Matthew; Fiege, Ron; Zaitz, Mary; Shneyder, Dmitriy; Strocchia-rivera, Carlos; Munoz, Andres; Rangarajan, Srinivasan; Muth, William; Brendler, Andrew; Banke, Bill; Schulz, Bernd; Hartig, Carsten; Hoeft, Jon-Tobias; Vaid, Alok; Kelling, Mark; Bunday, Benjamin; Allgair, John

    2009-03-01

    Ever shrinking measurement uncertainty requirements are difficult to achieve for a typical metrology toolset, especially over the entire expected life of the fleet. Many times, acceptable performance can be demonstrated during brief evaluation periods on a tool or two in the fleet. Over time and across the rest of the fleet, the most demanding processes often have measurement uncertainty concerns that prevent optimal process control, thereby limiting premium part yield, especially on the most aggressive technology nodes. Current metrology statistical process control (SPC) monitoring techniques focus on maintaining the performance of the fleet where toolset control chart limits are derived from a stable time period. These tools are prevented from measuring product when a statistical deviation is detected. Lastly, these charts are primarily concerned with daily fluctuations and do not consider the overall measurement uncertainty. It is possible that the control charts implemented for a given toolset suggest a healthy fleet while many of these demanding processes continue to suffer measurement uncertainty issues. This is especially true when extendibility is expected in a given generation of toolset. With this said, there is a need to continually improve the measurement uncertainty of the fleet until it can no longer meet the needed requirements at which point new technology needs to be entertained. This paper explores new methods in analyzing existing SPC monitor data to assess the measurement performance of the fleet and look for opportunities to drive improvements. Long term monitor data from a fleet of overlay and scatterometry tools will be analyzed. The paper also discusses using other methods besides SPC monitors to ensure the fleet stays matched; a set of SPC monitors provides a good baseline of fleet stability but it cannot represent all measurement scenarios happening in product recipes. The analyses presented deal with measurement uncertainty on non-measurement

  18. [Living wills under close scrutiny: Medical consultation is indispensable].

    PubMed

    Schöffner, M; Schmidt, K W; Benzenhöfer, U; Sahm, S

    2012-03-01

    Since September 2009 the handling of living wills has been regulated by law. Even though a medical consultation is not imperative for the drawing up of a living will, first surveys have shown that medical information about clinical pictures and treatment options lead to an important specification of living wills. For the first time in Germany, a questionnaire has been developed to investigate the impact of medical consultations on the content of living wills. It revealed that nearly all the people surveyed who had already drawn up a living will wished to change the content of their completed will after attending the seminar because the previous version was no longer in accordance with their wishes. In the light of the frequent difficulties in hospitals concerning how to apply a living will to an actual clinical situation, we believe structured medical consultations to be indispensable.

  19. Measurement Model for Division as a Tool in Computing Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramovich, Sergei; Strock, Tracy

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a spreadsheet in a mathematics teacher education course. It shows how the tool can serve as a link between seemingly disconnected mathematical concepts. The didactical triad of using a spreadsheet as an agent, consumer, and amplifier of mathematical activities allows for an extended investigation of simple yet…

  20. Assessing Educational Processes Using Total-Quality-Management Measurement Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macchia, Peter, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of the use of Total Quality Management (TQM) assessment tools in educational settings highlights and gives examples of fishbone diagrams, or cause and effect charts; Pareto diagrams; control charts; histograms and check sheets; scatter diagrams; and flowcharts. Variation and quality are discussed in terms of continuous process…

  1. Measuring food and nutrition security: tools and considerations for use among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Fielden, Sarah J; Anema, Aranka; Fergusson, Pamela; Muldoon, Katherine; Grede, Nils; de Pee, Saskia

    2014-10-01

    As an increasing number of countries implement integrated food and nutrition security (FNS) and HIV programs, global stakeholders need clarity on how to best measure FNS at the individual and household level. This paper reviews prominent FNS measurement tools, and describes considerations for interpretation in the context of HIV. There exist a range of FNS measurement tools and many have been adapted for use in HIV-endemic settings. Considerations in selecting appropriate tools include sub-types (food sufficiency, dietary diversity and food safety); scope/level of application; and available resources. Tools need to reflect both the needs of PLHIV and affected households and FNS program objectives. Generalized food sufficiency and dietary diversity tools may provide adequate measures of FNS in PLHIV for programmatic applications. Food consumption measurement tools provide further data for clinical or research applications. Measurement of food safety is an important, but underdeveloped aspect of assessment, especially for PLHIV.

  2. Development of an Outcome Measurement Tool for a Teen Parent Wraparound Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Derrick; Carney, Karen J.; Blackman-Urteaga, Laura; Savas, Sue Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article chronicles the search for and development of an outcome measurement tool for teen parents receiving community-based wraparound services. The criteria for selecting functional assessment tools available in the literature is presented along with the barriers experienced in using two of these well-cited tools. The rationale for in-house…

  3. Improving Students' Understanding of Quantum Measurement. II. Development of Research-Based Learning Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Guangtian; Singh, Chandralekha

    2012-01-01

    We describe the development and implementation of research-based learning tools such as the Quantum Interactive Learning Tutorials and peer-instruction tools to reduce students' common difficulties with issues related to measurement in quantum mechanics. A preliminary evaluation shows that these learning tools are effective in improving students'…

  4. The promise of exergames as tools to measure physical health.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Exergames are popular video games that combine physical activity with digital gaming. To measure effects of exergame play on physical outcomes and health behaviors, most studies use external measures including accelerometry, indirect calorimetry, heart rate monitors, and written surveys. These measures may reduce external validity by burdening participants during gameplay. Many exergames have the capability to measure activity levels unobtrusively through monitors built into game equipment, and preliminary analysis indicates that exergame measures are significantly correlated with external measures of caloric expenditure, duration of play, and balance. Exergames also have unique capabilities to measure additional data, such as the game challenges, player movement, and levels of performance that affect aerobic activity. Researchers could capitalize on the data collected by the exergame itself, providing an efficient, unobtrusive, comprehensive measure of physical activity during exergame play.

  5. Systematic Review of the Measurement Properties of Tools Used to Measure Behaviour Problems in Young Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Hanratty, Jennifer; Livingstone, Nuala; Robalino, Shannon; Terwee, Caroline B.; Glod, Magdalena; Oono, Inalegwu P.; Rodgers, Jacqui; Macdonald, Geraldine; McConachie, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Behaviour problems are common in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). There are many different tools used to measure behavior problems but little is known about their validity for the population. Objectives To evaluate the measurement properties of behaviour problems tools used in evaluation of intervention or observational research studies with children with ASD up to the age of six years. Methods Behaviour measurement tools were identified as part of a larger, two stage, systematic review. First, sixteen major electronic databases, as well as grey literature and research registers were searched, and tools used listed and categorized. Second, using methodological filters, we searched for articles examining the measurement properties of the tools in use with young children with ASD in ERIC, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO. The quality of these papers was then evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Results We identified twelve tools which had been used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD, and fifteen studies which investigated the measurement properties of six of these tools. There was no evidence available for the remaining six tools. Two questionnaires were found to be the most robust in their measurement properties, the Child Behavior Checklist and the Home Situations Questionnaire—Pervasive Developmental Disorders version. Conclusions We found patchy evidence on reliability and validity, for only a few of the tools used to measure behaviour problems in young children with ASD. More systematic research is required on measurement properties of tools for use in this population, in particular to establish responsiveness to change which is essential in measurement of outcomes of intervention. PROSPERO Registration Number CRD42012002223 PMID:26659821

  6. A web-based tool for ranking landslide mitigation measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacasse, S.; Vaciago, G.; Choi, Y. J.; Kalsnes, B.

    2012-04-01

    As part of the research done in the European project SafeLand "Living with landslide risk in Europe: Assessment, effects of global change, and risk management strategies", a compendium of structural and non-structural mitigation measures for different landslide types in Europe was prepared, and the measures were assembled into a web-based "toolbox". Emphasis was placed on providing a rational and flexible framework applicable to existing and future mitigation measures. The purpose of web-based toolbox is to assist decision-making and to guide the user in the choice of the most appropriate mitigation measures. The mitigation measures were classified into three categories, describing whether the mitigation measures addressed the landslide hazard, the vulnerability or the elements at risk themselves. The measures considered include structural measures reducing hazard and non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences (or vulnerability and exposure of elements at risk). The structural measures include surface protection and control of surface erosion; measures modifying the slope geometry and/or mass distribution; measures modifying surface water regime - surface drainage; measures mo¬difying groundwater regime - deep drainage; measured modifying the mechanical charac¬teristics of unstable mass; transfer of loads to more competent strata; retaining structures (to modify slope geometry and/or to transfer stress to compe¬tent layer); deviating the path of landslide debris; dissipating the energy of debris flows; and arresting and containing landslide debris or rock fall. The non-structural mitigation measures, reducing either the hazard or the consequences: early warning systems; restricting or discouraging construction activities; increasing resistance or coping capacity of elements at risk; relocation of elements at risk; sharing of risk through insurance. The measures are described in the toolbox with fact sheets providing a

  7. The estimation of total measurement uncertainty in a multiple metrology tool environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwu, Justin J.; Pham, Thao J.; Dulay, Sukhbir; Lopez, Andrew; Wilkens, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The appropriate definition and identification of total measurement uncertainty from a group of metrology tools is becoming ever important as process tolerances continue to shrink in today's data storage and semiconductor manufacturing environments. The precision-to-tolerance ratio needs to be properly defined and minimized in order to maintain capable process control. The task of identifying components contributing the total measurement uncertainty therefore poses a major challenge for both the metrology tool manufacture's and the system owners on the customer side. In this paper, two models are proposed to perform the estimation of total measurement uncertainty component and the corresponding precision-to-tolerance ratio estimation with the methodology of the analysis of variance. Two models are developed to suit the measurement characteristics difference. The first is a crossed model designed for the nondestructive measurements and the second is a nested model developed for the measurement environments where sample destruction is unavoidable. The models analyze precision components from an individual tool as well as the entire tool group so that the error from matching is accounted for. Optical overlay and CDSEM tools were both selected for study and the measurement data were used for precision analysis. The error contribution from the bias identification was performed using a CDAFM as a reference and a CDSEM as tool under test. The methodologies developed in this paper serve as a guide for the metrology tool manufacturers and tool users to systematically estimate the total measurement uncertainty and the related improvement for precise process control.

  8. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  9. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  10. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  11. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  12. 48 CFR 225.7002 - Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools. 225.7002 Section 225.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations... 225.7002 Restrictions on food, clothing, fabrics, and hand or measuring tools....

  13. The Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS): An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Connor, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data, The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS offers to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software; a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality and data interchangeability among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs-of aircrews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as aircrews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but also through

  14. Seismic tomography as a tool for measuring stress in mines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, Douglas F.; Williams, T.J.; Denton, D.K.; Friedel, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    Spokane Research Center personnel have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to monitor the behavior of a rock mass, detect hazardous ground conditions and assess the mechanical integrity of a rock mass affected by mining. Seismic tomography can be a valuable tool for determining relative stress in deep, >1,220-m (>4,000-ft), underground pillars. If high-stress areas are detected, they can be destressed prior to development or they can be avoided. High-stress areas can be monitored with successive seismic surveys to determine if stress decreases to a level where development can be initiated safely. There are several benefits to using seismic tomography to identify high stress in deep underground pillars. The technique is reliable, cost-effective, efficient and noninvasive. Also, investigators can monitor large rock masses, as well as monitor pillars during the mining cycle. By identifying areas of high stress, engineers will be able to assure that miners are working in a safer environment.Spokane Research Center personnel have been investigating the use of seismic tomography to monitor the behavior of a rock mass, detect hazardous ground conditions and assess the mechanical integrity of a rock mass affected by mining. Seismic tomography can be a valuable tool for determining relative stress in deep, >1,200-m (>4,000-ft), underground pillars. If high-stress areas are detected, they can be destressed prior to development or they can be avoided. High-stress areas can be monitored with successive seismic surveys to determine if stress decreases to a level where development can be initiated safely. There are several benefits to using seismic tomography to identify high stress in deep underground pillars. The technique is reliable, cost-effective, efficient and noninvasive. Also, investigators can monitor large rock masses, as well as monitor pillars during the mining cycle. By identifying areas of high stress. engineers will be able to assure that miners are

  15. PARSEC --- many purposes measuring tool for photographic astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeev, A. V.; Sergeeva, T. P.

    The automatic measuring PARSEC is intended for the determination of the precise coordinates of images on photonegativ glass plates with simultaneous precise photometry of them. The complex is a very effective system capable to measure the plates with density of background up to 1.5 D and with the wide range of the image sharpency. It gives the positions and diameters of images in real time mode (on-line) with the speed up to 800 images per hour. The repeatability of determination of coordinates gives r.m.s. deviations from plus or minus 0.4 to plus or minus 0.7 mkm for the images of the test-plate and from plus or minus 0.6 to plus or minus 2.0 mkm for images on astroplates of the various quality. The r.m.s. deviations for magnitude determination are from plus or minus 0^m.01 to plus or minus 0^m.02. Modular structure of PARSEC software provides the flexibility of functioning of the complex and gives the opportunity to develop various measuring modes. At the present time PARSEC has three basic modes of measurements: Fully Automatic Measuring Mode, Automatic Installation and Registration Mode, Automatic Registration Mode. The main application of PARSEC is astrometry: the measurements of about 2000 plates of the Photographic Review of Northern Sky is expected to be finished this year. Nevertheless it can be used as precise photometer for some astrophysical investigations. The specialized photometric catalogue of about 1500 stars was created with accuracy of 0^m.08 - 0^m.14 in 1991 year. Applications of PARSEC in biology, medicine, geodesy and optical researches are also possible. The original systems of readout of coordinates - Interpolators have been realized in PARSEC. They determine the positions in units of 0.3 mkm. Such Interpolators can be used in developments of precise readout systems for wide range of astronomy purposes as well as in optical technologies, geodetic devices, mechanical engineering.

  16. [Scientific information systems: tools for measures of biomedical research impact].

    PubMed

    Navarrete Cortés, José; Banqueri Ozáez, Jesús

    2008-12-01

    The present article provides an analysis and description of the use of scientific information systems as instruments to measure and monitor results and investigative activity in biomedicine. Based on the current situation concerning the use and implementation of these systems, we offer a detailed description of the actors of these systems and propose a functional architecture for this class of software. In addition, the instruments that these types of systems offer for the measurement of the impact of the results of research are described in depth, as these instruments can help in decision making. Finally, a selection of national and international scientific information systems are listed and reviewed. PMID:19631827

  17. The multicultural jigsaw puzzle: category indispensability and acceptance of immigrants' cultural rights.

    PubMed

    Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja; Smeekes, Anouk

    2014-11-01

    This research introduces and examines the relatively novel concept of category indispensability. It is examined whether the perception of subgroup indispensability for the identity of a superordinate category is associated with majority members' acceptance of minority rights. We investigated the role of perceived national category indispensability of immigrants for native's acceptances of immigrants' expressive cultural rights. The general hypothesis tested is that higher perceived category indispensability of immigrant groups is associated with higher acceptance. Results from four studies provide support for this hypothesis among native Dutch participants living in the Netherlands. Furthermore, the relationship was found to be mediated by a sense of common dual belonging and by deprovincialization beliefs.

  18. Some new measures of entropy, useful tools in biocomputing.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Angel

    2010-01-01

    The basic problem rooted in Information Theory (IT) foundations (Shannon, Bell Syst Tech J 27:379-423 and 623-656, 1948; Volkenstein, Entropy and Information. Series: Progress in Mathematical Physics, 2009) is to reconstruct, as closely as possible, the input signal after observing the received output signal.The Shannon information measure is the only possible one in this context, but it must be clear that it is only valid within the more restricted scope of coding problems that C. E. Shannon himself had seen in his lifetime (Shannon, Bell Syst Tech J 27:379-423 and 623-656, 1948). As pointed out by Alfred Rényi (1961), in his essential paper (Rényi, Proc. of the 4th Berkeley Symposium on Mathematics, Statistics and Probability, 547-561, 1961) on generalized information measures, for other sorts of problems other quantities may serve just as well as measures of information, or even better. This would be supported either by their operational significance or by a set of natural postulates characterizing them, or preferably by both. Thus, the idea of generalized entropies arises in scientific literature.We analyze here some new measures of Entropy, very useful to be applied on Biocomputing (Ulanowicz and Hannon, Proc R Soc Lond B 232:181-192, 1987; Volkenstein, Entropy and Information. Series: Progress in Mathematical Physics, 2009).

  19. Digital Photography as a Tool to Measure School Cafeteria Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background: Assessing actual consumption of school cafeteria meals presents challenges, given recall problems of children, the cost of direct observation, and the time constraints in the school cafeteria setting. This study assesses the use of digital photography as a technique to measure what elementary-aged students select and actually consume…

  20. Designing Light Beam Transmittance Measuring Tool Using a Laser Pointer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuroso, H.; Kurniawan, W.; Marwoto, P.

    2016-08-01

    A simple instrument used for measuring light beam transmittance percentage made of window film has been developed. The instrument uses a laser pointer of 405 nm and 650 nm ±10% as a light source. Its accuracy approaches 80%. Transmittance data was found by comparing the light beam before and after passing the window film. The light intensity measuring unit was deleted by splitting the light source into two beams through a beam splitter. The light beam was changed into resistance by a NORP12 LDR sensor designed at a circuit of voltage divider rule of Khirchoff's laws. This conversion system will produce light beam intensity received by the sensor to become an equal voltage. This voltage will, then, be presented on the computer screen in the form of a real time graph via a 2.0 USB data transfer.

  1. Cold denaturation as a tool to measure protein stability.

    PubMed

    Sanfelice, Domenico; Temussi, Piero Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Protein stability is an important issue for the interpretation of a wide variety of biological problems but its assessment is at times difficult. The most common parameter employed to describe protein stability is the temperature of melting, at which the populations of folded and unfolded species are identical. This parameter may yield ambiguous results. It would always be preferable to measure the whole stability curve. The calculation of this curve is greatly facilitated whenever it is possible to observe cold denaturation. Using Yfh1, one of the few proteins whose cold denaturation occurs at neutral pH and low ionic strength, we could measure the variation of its full stability curve under several environmental conditions. Here we show the advantages of gauging stability as a function of external variables using stability curves.

  2. Measurement, Certification, and Quality: Meeting Enduring Challenges with Modern Tools.

    PubMed

    Wachter, Robert M

    2016-09-01

    The author, a former chair of the ABIM, describes the challenges that the board certification enterprise is experiencing as medicine shifts from being a paper-based to a digital industry. While there are clearly threats to board certification, he argues that boards can remain highly relevant if they focus on areas in which they can make unique contributions, such as the measurement of cognitive skills, diagnostic accuracy, "keeping up," and procedural skills. PMID:27550005

  3. Comsol Simulations as a Tool in Validating a Measurement Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakka, Antti; Sairanen, Hannu; Heinonen, Martti; Högström, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The Centre for Metrology and Accreditation (MIKES) is developing a temperature-humidity calibration system for radiosondes. The target minimum air temperature and dew-point temperature are -80° C and -90° C, respectively. When operating in this range, a major limiting factor is the time of stabilization which is mainly affected by the design of the measurement chamber. To find an optimal geometry for the chamber, we developed a numerical simulation method taking into account heat and mass transfer in the chamber. This paper describes the method and its experimental validation using two stainless steel chambers with different geometries. The numerical simulation was carried out using Comsol Multiphysics simulation software. Equilibrium states of dry air flow at -70° C with different inlet air flow rates were used to determine the geometry of the chamber. It was revealed that the flow is very unstable despite having relatively small Reynolds number values. Humidity saturation abilities of the new chamber were studied by simulating water vapor diffusion in the chamber in time-dependent mode. The differences in time of humidity stabilization after a step change were determined for both the new chamber model and the MIKES Relative Humidity Generator III (MRHG) model. These simulations were used as a validation of the simulation method along with experimental measurements using a spectroscopic hygrometer. Humidity saturation stabilization simulations proved the new chamber to be the faster of the two, which was confirmed by experimental measurements.

  4. [Tool for measuring occupational stress: a nurses' stress inventory].

    PubMed

    Stacciarini, J M; Tróccoli, B T

    2000-12-01

    We present an exploratory study aiming at constructing an inventory to measure occupational stress in nurses ("Inventário de Estresse em Enfermeiros"--IEE). A set of items was initially constructed from previously defined categories based on interviews with nurses and then improved through semantic analysis by referees and a pilot-test with nursing students. A sample of 461 nurses--workers from the public services of the Federal District--who answered the IEE was used in the study. Factorial analysis indicated the presence of a second-order global factor and three first-order factors: Interpersonal Relationships, Stressful Career Roles and Intrinsic Job Factors.

  5. Crimped tool marks measurement using structured laser analysis: II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-12-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to 20 centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft components, a coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly, the crimp mark is checked. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements were: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic/inspector, the readings must be accurate, and the system is non destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the tube and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum of 50.8 microns (0.0020 inch). The system uses computer vision, and custom software written in C++. A low cost frame grabber is used. This paper shows the final production prototype system and its configuration for factory testing. This paper discusses the design and testing of the system.

  6. Identifying audiences of e-infrastructures--tools for measuring impact.

    PubMed

    Duin, Daphne; King, David; van den Besselaar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research evaluation should take into account the intended scholarly and non-scholarly audiences of the research output. This holds too for research infrastructures, which often aim at serving a large variety of audiences. With research and research infrastructures moving to the web, new possibilities are emerging for evaluation metrics. This paper proposes a feasible indicator for measuring the scope of audiences who use web-based e-infrastructures, as well as the frequency of use. In order to apply this indicator, a method is needed for classifying visitors to e-infrastructures into relevant user categories. The paper proposes such a method, based on an inductive logic program and a bayesian classifier. The method is tested, showing that the visitors are efficiently classified with 90% accuracy into the selected categories. Consequently, the method can be used to evaluate the use of the e-infrastructure within and outside academia.

  7. Identifying Audiences of E-Infrastructures - Tools for Measuring Impact

    PubMed Central

    van den Besselaar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Research evaluation should take into account the intended scholarly and non-scholarly audiences of the research output. This holds too for research infrastructures, which often aim at serving a large variety of audiences. With research and research infrastructures moving to the web, new possibilities are emerging for evaluation metrics. This paper proposes a feasible indicator for measuring the scope of audiences who use web-based e-infrastructures, as well as the frequency of use. In order to apply this indicator, a method is needed for classifying visitors to e-infrastructures into relevant user categories. The paper proposes such a method, based on an inductive logic program and a Bayesian classifier. The method is tested, showing that the visitors are efficiently classified with 90% accuracy into the selected categories. Consequently, the method can be used to evaluate the use of the e-infrastructure within and outside academia. PMID:23239995

  8. Isocyanide based [4+1] cycloaddition reactions: an indispensable tool in multi-component reactions (MCRs).

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tanpreet; Wadhwa, Preeti; Bagchi, Sourav; Sharma, Anuj

    2016-05-19

    The advent of cycloaddition reactions in the synthesis of heterocycles and their ever burgeoning applications in the fields of material chemistry, catalysis and drugs have been a profound scientific development. In particular, isocyanide based cycloaddition reactions have been harbingers of an exciting new chapter in the realms of organic synthesis. The emergence of numerous synthetic protocols utilizing formal cycloaddition of isocyanides with conjugated heterodienes has unleashed countless opportunities to design and synthesize diverse heterocyclic scaffolds. To date, there has not been any exclusive review on a formal [4+1] cycloaddition involving isocyanides. The present review highlights the journey of formal [4+1] cycloaddition reactions of isocyanides with diverse electrophilic substrates viz. oxadienes, azadienes, thioacyl imines, alkylidene amides, alkylidene hydrazines, α,β-unsaturated nitro compounds, α-thioxothioamides, nitroso alkenes, acyl imines, vinyl ketenes, vinyl isocyanates, etc. to afford functionalized pyrroles, imidazoles, furans, oxazoles, pyrazoles, etc. PMID:27063921

  9. Bioorthogonal Click Chemistry: An Indispensable Tool to Create Multifaceted Cell Culture Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, bioorthogonal click chemistry has led the field of biomaterial science into a new era of diversity and complexity by its extremely selective, versatile, and biocompatible nature. In this viewpoint, we seek to emphasize recent endeavors of exploiting this versatile chemistry toward the development of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels as cell culture scaffolds. In these cell-laden materials, the orthogonality of these reactions has played an effective role in allowing the creation of diverse biochemical patterns in complex biological environments that provide new found opportunities for researchers to delineate and control cellular phenotypes more precisely than ever. PMID:23336091

  10. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  11. Measuring Person-Centered Care: A Critical Comparative Review of Published Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvardsson, David; Innes, Anthea

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To present a critical comparative review of published tools measuring the person-centeredness of care for older people and people with dementia. Design and Methods: Included tools were identified by searches of PubMed, Cinahl, the Bradford Dementia Group database, and authors' files. The terms "Person-centered,"…

  12. The in-situ 3D measurement system combined with CNC machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Huijie; Jiang, Hongzhi; Li, Xudong; Sui, Shaochun; Tang, Limin; Liang, Xiaoyue; Diao, Xiaochun; Dai, Jiliang

    2013-06-01

    With the development of manufacturing industry, the in-situ 3D measurement for the machining workpieces in CNC machine tools is regarded as the new trend of efficient measurement. We introduce a 3D measurement system based on the stereovision and phase-shifting method combined with CNC machine tools, which can measure 3D profile of the machining workpieces between the key machining processes. The measurement system utilizes the method of high dynamic range fringe acquisition to solve the problem of saturation induced by specular lights reflected from shiny surfaces such as aluminum alloy workpiece or titanium alloy workpiece. We measured two workpieces of aluminum alloy on the CNC machine tools to demonstrate the effectiveness of the developed measurement system.

  13. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 1. UNIT X, USE OF MEASURING TOOLS IN DIESEL MAINTENANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 30-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE PRECISION MEASURING TOOLS USED IN DIESEL ENGINE MAINTENANCE. TOPICS ARE (1) LINEAR MEASURE, (2) MEASURING WITH RULES AND TAPES, (3) GETTING PRECISION WITH MICROMETERS, (4) DIAL INDICATORS, (5) TACHOMETERS, (6) TORQUE WRENCH, (7) THICKNESS (TECHER) GAGE, AND (8) VALVE…

  14. An Innovative High-Temperature High-Pressure Measurement While Drilling (MWD) Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Brian Boling

    2007-06-01

    Measurement while drilling (MWD) tools specified to 150 C (302 F) that provide wellbore surveys, real-time inclination, and natural gamma ray detection are a commodity item in the oilfield services industry. MWD tools specified to 175 C (347 F) that routinely demonstrate highly reliable operation are available from only a few service companies. Commercial MWD tools that reliably operate to 200 C (392 F) for extended periods of time and offer features like real-time gamma ray, retrievability, and reseatability are nonexistent. Need for these higher temperature tools will increase as wells become hotter in the search for new oil and gas resources. The goal of this project was to design a retrievable and reseatable high-pressure/high-temperature MWD tool with real-time continuous inclination, vibration detection, annular pressure, and gamma ray detection. This report describes the development of such a tool from concept, through feasibility, and into field testing and preliminary development planning. It describes the challenges encountered in the design of the tool, along with testing results and decisions about the commercial viability of the tool in the configuration in which it was developed. The decision was made not to commercialize the tool developed under this project because of a combination of battery technology problems and modulation power consumption at the required depths.

  15. A De Novo Tool to Measure the Preclinical Learning Climate of Medical Faculties in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Nilufer Demiral; Velipasaoglu, Serpil; Sahin, Hatice; Basusta, Bilge Uzun; Midik, Ozlem; Coskun, Ozlem; Budakoglu, Isil Irem; Mamakli, Sumer; Tengiz, Funda Ifakat; Durak, Halil Ibrahim; Ozan, Sema

    2015-01-01

    Although several scales are used to measure general and clinical learning climates, there are no scales that assess the preclinical learning climate. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop an effective measurement tool in order to assess the preclinical learning climate. In this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 3,540…

  16. Final Report: Geothermal dual acoustic tool for measurement of rock stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A.

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  17. Final Report. Geothermal Dual Acoustic Tool for Measurement of Rock Stress

    SciTech Connect

    Normann, Randy A

    2014-12-01

    This paper outlines the technology need for a rock formation stress measurement in future EGS wells. This paper reports on the results of work undertaken under a Phase I, DOE/SBIR on the feasibility to build an acoustic well logging tool for measuring rock formation stress.

  18. Universality of space civilizations and indispensible universality of the anthropic principle in cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idlis, G. M.

    2001-12-01

    The unity of natural science after Bohr and the uniform interconnected periodical systems in physics, chemistry, biology and psychology are discussed as the basis for the indispensible universality of the anthropic principle in cosmology.

  19. EFT fitter: a tool for interpreting measurements in the context of effective field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Nuno; Erdmann, Johannes; Grunwald, Cornelius; Kröninger, Kevin; Rosien, Nils-Arne

    2016-08-01

    Over the past years, the interpretation of measurements in the context of effective field theories has attracted much attention in the field of particle physics. We present a tool for interpreting sets of measurements in such models using a Bayesian ansatz by calculating the posterior probabilities of the corresponding free parameters numerically. An example is given, in which top-quark measurements are used to constrain anomalous couplings at the Wtb-vertex.

  20. A SOFTWARE TOOL TO COMPARE MEASURED AND SIMULATED BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Maile, Tobias; Bazjanac, Vladimir; O'Donnell, James; Garr, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    Building energy performance is often inadequate when compared to design goals. To link design goals to actual operation one can compare measured with simulated energy performance data. Our previously developed comparison approach is the Energy Performance Comparison Methodology (EPCM), which enables the identification of performance problems based on a comparison of measured and simulated performance data. In context of this method, we developed a software tool that provides graphing and data processing capabilities of the two performance data sets. The software tool called SEE IT (Stanford Energy Efficiency Information Tool) eliminates the need for manual generation of data plots and data reformatting. SEE IT makes the generation of time series, scatter and carpet plots independent of the source of data (measured or simulated) and provides a valuable tool for comparing measurements with simulation results. SEE IT also allows assigning data points on a predefined building object hierarchy and supports different versions of simulated performance data. This paper briefly introduces the EPCM, describes the SEE IT tool and illustrates its use in the context of a building case study.

  1. Measuring quality improvement in public health: the development and psychometric testing of a QI Maturity Tool.

    PubMed

    Joly, Brenda M; Booth, Maureen; Mittal, Prashant; Shaler, George

    2012-06-01

    There is growing interest and investment in improving the quality of public health services and outcomes. Following the lead of other sectors, efforts are underway to introduce systematic quality improvement (QI) tools and approaches to state and local public health agencies. Little is known, however, about how to describe and reliably measure the level of QI maturity within a public health agency. The authors describe the development of a QI Maturity Tool using research from the fields of organizational design, psychology, health care, and complexity theory. The 37-item assessment tool is based on four quality domains derived from the literature: (a) organizational culture, (b) capacity and competency, (c) practice, and (d) alignment and spread. The tool was designed to identify features of an organization that may be enhancing or impeding QI; monitor the impact of efforts to create a more favorable environment for QI; and define potential cohorts of public health agencies for evaluation purposes. The article presents initial steps in testing and validating the QI Maturity Tool including: (a) developing a theoretical framework, (b) assuring face and content validity, (c) determining the tool's reliability based on estimates of internal consistency, (d) assessing the dimensionality, and (f) determining the construct validity of the instrument. The authors conclude that there is preliminary evidence that the QI Maturity Tool is a promising instrument. Further work is underway to explore whether self-reported survey results align with an agency's actions and the products of their QI efforts.

  2. Measuring quality improvement in public health: the development and psychometric testing of a QI Maturity Tool.

    PubMed

    Joly, Brenda M; Booth, Maureen; Mittal, Prashant; Shaler, George

    2012-06-01

    There is growing interest and investment in improving the quality of public health services and outcomes. Following the lead of other sectors, efforts are underway to introduce systematic quality improvement (QI) tools and approaches to state and local public health agencies. Little is known, however, about how to describe and reliably measure the level of QI maturity within a public health agency. The authors describe the development of a QI Maturity Tool using research from the fields of organizational design, psychology, health care, and complexity theory. The 37-item assessment tool is based on four quality domains derived from the literature: (a) organizational culture, (b) capacity and competency, (c) practice, and (d) alignment and spread. The tool was designed to identify features of an organization that may be enhancing or impeding QI; monitor the impact of efforts to create a more favorable environment for QI; and define potential cohorts of public health agencies for evaluation purposes. The article presents initial steps in testing and validating the QI Maturity Tool including: (a) developing a theoretical framework, (b) assuring face and content validity, (c) determining the tool's reliability based on estimates of internal consistency, (d) assessing the dimensionality, and (f) determining the construct validity of the instrument. The authors conclude that there is preliminary evidence that the QI Maturity Tool is a promising instrument. Further work is underway to explore whether self-reported survey results align with an agency's actions and the products of their QI efforts. PMID:22315505

  3. Methods and apparatus for safely handling radioactive sources in measuring-while-drilling tools

    SciTech Connect

    Wraight, P.D.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a method for removing a chemical radioactive source from a MWD tool which is coupled in a drill string supported by a drilling rig while a borehole is drilled and includes logging means for measuring formation characteristics in response to irradiation of the adjacent formations by the radioactive source during the drilling operation. The steps of the method are: halting the drilling operation and then removing the drill string from the borehole for moving the MWD tool to a work station at the surface where the source is at a safe working distance from the drilling rig and will be accessible by way of one end of the MWD tool; positioning a radiation shield at a location adjacent to the one end of the MWD tool where the shield is ready for receiving the source as it is moved away from the other end of the MWD tool and then moving the source away from the other end of the MWD tool for enclosing the source within the shield; and once the source is enclosed within the shield; removing the shield together with the enclosed source from the MWD tool for transferring the enclosed source to another work station.

  4. Carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yu; Sha, Shuang

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes a new carrier-interleaved orthogonal multi-electrode multi-carrier resistivity-measurement tool used in a cylindrical borehole environment during oil-based mud drilling processes. The new tool is an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access-based contactless multi-measurand detection tool. The tool can measure formation resistivity in different azimuthal angles and elevational depths. It can measure many more measurands simultaneously in a specified bandwidth than the legacy frequency division multiplexing multi-measurand tool without a channel-select filter while avoiding inter-carrier interference. The paper also shows that formation resistivity is not sensitive to frequency in certain frequency bands. The average resistivity collected from N subcarriers can increase the measurement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) by N times given no amplitude clipping in the current-injection electrode. If the clipping limit is taken into account, with the phase rotation of each single carrier, the amplitude peak-to-average ratio can be reduced by 3 times, and the SNR can achieve a 9/N times gain over the single-carrier system. The carrier-interleaving technique is also introduced to counter the carrier frequency offset (CFO) effect, where the CFO will cause inter-pad interference. A qualitative analysis and simulations demonstrate that block-interleaving performs better than tone-interleaving when coping with a large CFO. The theoretical analysis also suggests that increasing the subcarrier number can increase the measurement speed or enhance elevational resolution without sacrificing receiver performance. The complex orthogonal multi-pad multi-carrier resistivity logging tool, in which all subcarriers are complex signals, can provide a larger available subcarrier pool than other types of transceivers.

  5. Utilization of Software Tools for Uncertainty Calculation in Measurement Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangl, Hubert; Zine-Zine, Mariam; Hoermaier, Klaus

    2015-02-01

    Despite its importance, uncertainty is often neglected by practitioners in the design of system even in safety critical applications. Thus, problems arising from uncertainty may only be identified late in the design process and thus lead to additional costs. Although there exists numerous tools to support uncertainty calculation, reasons for limited usage in early design phases may be low awareness of the existence of the tools and insufficient training in the practical application. We present a teaching philosophy that addresses uncertainty from the very beginning of teaching measurement science, in particular with respect to the utilization of software tools. The developed teaching material is based on the GUM method and makes use of uncertainty toolboxes in the simulation environment. Based on examples in measurement science education we discuss advantages and disadvantages of the proposed teaching philosophy and include feedback from students.

  6. The Autism Impact Measure (AIM): Initial Development of a New Tool for Treatment Outcome Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanne, Stephen M.; Mazurek, Micah O.; Sikora, Darryn; Bellando, Jayne; Branum-Martin, Lee; Handen, Benjamin; Katz, Terry; Freedman, Brian; Powell, Mary Paige; Warren, Zachary

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes the development and psychometric properties of a new measure targeting sensitivity to change of core autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms, the Autism Impact Measure (AIM). The AIM uses a 2-week recall period with items rated on two corresponding 5-point scales (frequency and impact). Psychometric properties were…

  7. A quantitative tool for measuring the quality of medical training in emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simon M; Davis, Peyton; Davies, Llion

    2015-12-01

    The most common method of assessing the quality of medical education is through a selection of qualitative assessments, usually as part of a programme evaluation. Common qualitative assessments include measurements of students' and teachers' participation, outcome measures such as assessment results, and qualitative assessments such as interviews and questionnaires of students and teachers. Programme evaluation can therefore be a process that is both laborious and subject to accusations of a lack of objectivity. As a result, the development of a quantitative tool that could be used alongside a programme evaluation may be both useful and desirable. A pragmatic scoring system, utilizing routinely collected quantitative data, termed as the Quality Assessment Tool, was developed during the 2013 academic year within the setting of an Emergency Medicine training programme in the UK. This tool was tested against the standard assessment currently used for this programme to establish whether the quantitative tool correlated with the programme evaluation. Second, the individual items within the tool were investigated to identify any correlations with the current assessment of quality established by the programme evaluation. The Quality Assessment Tool appears to be correlated to the quality of training delivered at individual training sites in a single specialty. It certainly identifies those centres delivering the highest quality of training and also identifies those centres whose training is consistently of a lower standard. The assessment tool is less accurate at ranking those training centres whose training is merely 'satisfactory'; whether this is a result of the imprecision of the tool itself or a reflection of the subjective nature of the current assessment (i.e. whether the current evaluation system lacks validity) cannot be stated. In summary, it appears to be possible to use a single quantitative tool to reliably, and with validity, measure the quality of training

  8. A knowledge based search tool for performance measures in health care systems.

    PubMed

    Beyan, Oya D; Baykal, Nazife

    2012-02-01

    Performance measurement is vital for improving the health care systems. However, we are still far from having accepted performance measurement models. Researchers and developers are seeking comparable performance indicators. We developed an intelligent search tool to identify appropriate measures for specific requirements by matching diverse care settings. We reviewed the literature and analyzed 229 performance measurement studies published after 2000. These studies are evaluated with an original theoretical framework and stored in the database. A semantic network is designed for representing domain knowledge and supporting reasoning. We have applied knowledge based decision support techniques to cope with uncertainty problems. As a result we designed a tool which simplifies the performance indicator search process and provides most relevant indicators by employing knowledge based systems.

  9. Measuring New Media Literacies: Towards the Development of a Comprehensive Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literat, Ioana

    2014-01-01

    This study assesses the psychometric properties of a newly tested self-report assessment tool for media literacy, based on the twelve new media literacy skills (NMLs) developed by Jenkins et al. (2006). The sample (N = 327) consisted of normal volunteers who completed a comprehensive online survey that measured their NML skills, media exposure,…

  10. Measuring in Dynamic Geometry Environments as a Tool for Conjecturing and Proving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivero, Federica; Robutti, Ornella

    2007-01-01

    This paper sits within the research on the affordances of new technologies in the mathematics classroom and focuses on a specific feature that is available in dynamic geometry environments, i.e. measuring tools, within the context of conjecturing and proving in open geometry problems. We develop a classification of different modalities of…

  11. Assessment tools in obesity- psychological measures, diet, activity, and body composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global increase in the prevalence of obesity has led to an increased need for measurement tools for research, management and treatment of the obese person. The physical size limitations imposed by obesity, variations in body composition from that of normal weight, and a complex psychopathology a...

  12. Calibration of prismatic joints in multi-axis machine tools by a three lines measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abdul Wahid; Chen, Wuyi

    2008-10-01

    A three line calibration method for error quantification in a prismatic joint of a machine tool was proposed and implemented by using a laser interferometer as a working standard. It greatly simplified the measurement setup requirements and accelerated the calibration of prismatic joints. Moreover, it was highly economical by reducing the calibration time and eliminating the use of complex optics. The methodology was implemented on prismatic joints of a three axis CNC machine tool as per standard procedures and guide lines. Cubic spline technique was implemented as error modeling and results obtained were reported for its further use to compensate the errors for improving the accuracy in prismatic joints.

  13. An integrated data analysis tool for improving measurements on the MST RFP

    SciTech Connect

    Reusch, L. M. Galante, M. E.; Johnson, J. R.; McGarry, M. B.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Franz, P.; Stephens, H. D.

    2014-11-15

    Many plasma diagnostics contain complementary information. For example, the double-foil soft x-ray system (SXR) and the Thomson Scattering diagnostic (TS) on the Madison Symmetric Torus both measure electron temperature. The complementary information from these diagnostics can be combined using a systematic method based on integrated data analysis techniques, leading to more accurate and sensitive results. An integrated data analysis tool based on Bayesian probability theory was able to estimate electron temperatures that are consistent with both the SXR and TS diagnostics and more precise than either. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to increase the flexibility of the tool was implemented and benchmarked against a grid search method.

  14. An integrated data analysis tool for improving measurements on the MST RFPa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reusch, L. M.; Galante, M. E.; Franz, P.; Johnson, J. R.; McGarry, M. B.; Stephens, H. D.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2014-11-01

    Many plasma diagnostics contain complementary information. For example, the double-foil soft x-ray system (SXR) and the Thomson Scattering diagnostic (TS) on the Madison Symmetric Torus both measure electron temperature. The complementary information from these diagnostics can be combined using a systematic method based on integrated data analysis techniques, leading to more accurate and sensitive results. An integrated data analysis tool based on Bayesian probability theory was able to estimate electron temperatures that are consistent with both the SXR and TS diagnostics and more precise than either. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis to increase the flexibility of the tool was implemented and benchmarked against a grid search method.

  15. Measurement Variability of Vertical Scanning Interferometry Tool Used for Orbiter Window Defect Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padula, Santo, II

    2009-01-01

    The ability to sufficiently measure orbiter window defects to allow for window recertification has been an ongoing challenge for the orbiter vehicle program. The recent Columbia accident has forced even tighter constraints on the criteria that must be met in order to recertify windows for flight. As a result, new techniques are being investigated to improve the reliability, accuracy and resolution of the defect detection process. The methodology devised in this work, which is based on the utilization of a vertical scanning interferometric (VSI) tool, shows great promise for meeting the ever increasing requirements for defect detection. This methodology has the potential of a 10-100 fold greater resolution of the true defect depth than can be obtained from the currently employed micrometer based methodology. An added benefit is that it also produces a digital elevation map of the defect, thereby providing information about the defect morphology which can be utilized to ascertain the type of debris that induced the damage. However, in order to successfully implement such a tool, a greater understanding of the resolution capability and measurement repeatability must be obtained. This work focused on assessing the variability of the VSI-based measurement methodology and revealed that the VSI measurement tool was more repeatable and more precise than the current micrometer based approach, even in situations where operator variation could affect the measurement. The analysis also showed that the VSI technique was relatively insensitive to the hardware and software settings employed, making the technique extremely robust and desirable

  16. A Prospective Validation Study of a Rainbow Model of Integrated Care Measurement Tool in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Valentijn, Pim P.; Bautista, Mary Ann C.; Wei, Lim Yee; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The conceptual ambiguity of the integrated care concept precludes a full understanding of what constitutes a well-integrated health system, posing a significant challenge in measuring the level of integrated care. Most available measures have been developed from a disease-specific perspective and only measure certain aspects of integrated care. Based on the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care, which provides a detailed description of the complex concept of integrated care, a measurement tool has been developed to assess integrated care within a care system as a whole gathered from healthcare providers’ and managerial perspectives. This paper describes the methodology of a study seeking to validate the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care measurement tool within and across the Singapore Regional Health System. The Singapore Regional Health System is a recent national strategy developed to provide a better-integrated health system to deliver seamless and person-focused care to patients through a network of providers within a specified geographical region. Methods: The validation process includes the assessment of the content of the measure and its psychometric properties. Conclusion: If the measure is deemed to be valid, the study will provide the first opportunity to measure integrated care within Singapore Regional Health System with the results allowing insights in making recommendations for improving the Regional Health System and supporting international comparison.

  17. A Prospective Validation Study of a Rainbow Model of Integrated Care Measurement Tool in Singapore

    PubMed Central

    Valentijn, Pim P.; Bautista, Mary Ann C.; Wei, Lim Yee; Vrijhoef, Hubertus Johannes Maria

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The conceptual ambiguity of the integrated care concept precludes a full understanding of what constitutes a well-integrated health system, posing a significant challenge in measuring the level of integrated care. Most available measures have been developed from a disease-specific perspective and only measure certain aspects of integrated care. Based on the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care, which provides a detailed description of the complex concept of integrated care, a measurement tool has been developed to assess integrated care within a care system as a whole gathered from healthcare providers’ and managerial perspectives. This paper describes the methodology of a study seeking to validate the Rainbow Model of Integrated Care measurement tool within and across the Singapore Regional Health System. The Singapore Regional Health System is a recent national strategy developed to provide a better-integrated health system to deliver seamless and person-focused care to patients through a network of providers within a specified geographical region. Methods: The validation process includes the assessment of the content of the measure and its psychometric properties. Conclusion: If the measure is deemed to be valid, the study will provide the first opportunity to measure integrated care within Singapore Regional Health System with the results allowing insights in making recommendations for improving the Regional Health System and supporting international comparison. PMID:27616946

  18. Herring roe protein has a high digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Robert; Maathuis, Annet; de Jong, Aard; Mancinelli, Daniele; Berger, Alvin; Bellmann, Susann

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) can be determined based on dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments as replacement for invasive animal studies. We determined the in vitro DIAAS for immature herring eggs (roe) proteins in comparison with reference proteins. The true ileal digestibility of protein and indispensable amino acids (IAA) was measured under human conditions simulated in a gastrointestinal model (tiny-TIM). The in vitro true ileal digestibility of ovalbumin, cooked and raw chicken egg white, and casein was similar to that found in humans (r(2) = 0.96), providing a casual observation to support the validity of tiny-TIM. The digestibility of the immature herring egg proteins was 71% to 92%. The highest IAA digestibility was found for immature whole herring egg protein (55%-80%) in comparison to immature herring egg membrane and immature de-membraned herring protein (50%-70%). The DIAAS as recommended by FAO for children and adults, but measured in vitro, were 91% for immature whole herring egg protein (lysine first limiting), 71% for immature herring egg membrane protein (histidine first limiting), and 88% for immature herring egg de-membraned protein (sulfur AA first limiting). True ileal protein and amino acid digestibility can be determined in a dynamic gastrointestinal model, such as tiny-TIM, which can be used for estimating the DIAAS. Immature herring egg proteins, a previously underutilized resource, were determined to be an important and valuable source of IAA for human consumption.

  19. Herring roe protein has a high digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) using a dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal model.

    PubMed

    Havenaar, Robert; Maathuis, Annet; de Jong, Aard; Mancinelli, Daniele; Berger, Alvin; Bellmann, Susann

    2016-08-01

    It is hypothesized that the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS) can be determined based on dynamic in vitro gastrointestinal digestion experiments as replacement for invasive animal studies. We determined the in vitro DIAAS for immature herring eggs (roe) proteins in comparison with reference proteins. The true ileal digestibility of protein and indispensable amino acids (IAA) was measured under human conditions simulated in a gastrointestinal model (tiny-TIM). The in vitro true ileal digestibility of ovalbumin, cooked and raw chicken egg white, and casein was similar to that found in humans (r(2) = 0.96), providing a casual observation to support the validity of tiny-TIM. The digestibility of the immature herring egg proteins was 71% to 92%. The highest IAA digestibility was found for immature whole herring egg protein (55%-80%) in comparison to immature herring egg membrane and immature de-membraned herring protein (50%-70%). The DIAAS as recommended by FAO for children and adults, but measured in vitro, were 91% for immature whole herring egg protein (lysine first limiting), 71% for immature herring egg membrane protein (histidine first limiting), and 88% for immature herring egg de-membraned protein (sulfur AA first limiting). True ileal protein and amino acid digestibility can be determined in a dynamic gastrointestinal model, such as tiny-TIM, which can be used for estimating the DIAAS. Immature herring egg proteins, a previously underutilized resource, were determined to be an important and valuable source of IAA for human consumption. PMID:27440534

  20. Validation of Multiple Tools for Flat Plate Photovoltaic Modeling Against Measured Data

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; Whitmore, J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    This report expands upon a previous work by the same authors, published in the 40th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists conference. In this validation study, comprehensive analysis is performed on nine photovoltaic systems for which NREL could obtain detailed performance data and specifications, including three utility-scale systems and six commercial scale systems. Multiple photovoltaic performance modeling tools were used to model these nine systems, and the error of each tool was analyzed compared to quality-controlled measured performance data. This study shows that, excluding identified outliers, all tools achieve annual errors within +/-8% and hourly root mean squared errors less than 7% for all systems. It is further shown using SAM that module model and irradiance input choices can change the annual error with respect to measured data by as much as 6.6% for these nine systems, although all combinations examined still fall within an annual error range of +/-8.5%. Additionally, a seasonal variation in monthly error is shown for all tools. Finally, the effects of irradiance data uncertainty and the use of default loss assumptions on annual error are explored, and two approaches to reduce the error inherent in photovoltaic modeling are proposed.

  1. Comparison of the Wii Balance Board and the BESS tool measuring postural stability in collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jill; Aktan, Nadine

    2016-02-01

    Concussions are a major health concern for athletes given the potential for these injuries in a wide range of sport activities. The leading concern for clinicians is that athletes are at risk for devastating consequences if they are not evaluated properly and cleared too early to return to play or competition. The evaluation of postural stability has been identified as an important aspect to the comprehensive management of such injuries. Clinicians are in need of a portable tool they can use in various settings to aid in decision making and health care delivery for concussed athletes. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (Nintendo of America Inc., Redmond, Washington) is a portable, cost-effective tool that has the potential to aid in the evaluation of postural stability in concussed individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Wii Balance Board as an objective, user-friendly, cost effective, valid alternative tool for the measurement of postural stability in college athletes. This study questioned whether the Wii Balance Board, when compared to the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS), is an objective tool that can be used as an acceptable measurement of postural stability in college athletes. PMID:26856479

  2. An assessment of a software simulation tool for lidar atmosphere and ocean measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, K. A.; Vaughan, M.; Burton, S. P.; Hair, J. W.; Hostetler, C. A.; Kowch, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    A high-fidelity lidar simulation tool is used to generate synthetic lidar backscatter data that closely matches the expected performance of various lidars, including the noise characteristics inherent to analog detection and uncertainties related to the measurement environment. This tool supports performance trade studies and scientific investigations for both the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP), which flies aboard Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO), and the NASA Langley Research Center airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL). CALIOP measures profiles of attenuated backscatter coefficients (532 and 1064 nm) and volume depolarization ratios at 532 nm. HSRL measures the same profiles plus volume depolarization at 1064 nm and a molecular-only profile which allows for the direct retrieval of aerosol extinction and backscatter profiles at 532 nm. The simulation tool models both the fundamental physics of the lidar instruments and the signals generated from aerosols, clouds, and the ocean surface and subsurface. This work presents the results of a study conducted to verify the accuracy of the simulated data using data from both HSRL and CALIOP. The tool was tuned to CALIOP instrument settings and the model atmosphere was defined using profiles of attenuated backscatter and depolarization obtained by HSRL during underflights of CALIPSO. The validated HSRL data provide highly accurate measurements of the particulate intensive and extensive optical properties and thus were considered as the truth atmosphere. The resulting simulated data were processed through the CALIPSO data analysis system. Comparisons showed good agreement between the simulated and CALIOP data. This verifies the accuracy of the tool to support studies involving the characterization of instrument components and advanced data analysis techniques. The capability of the tool to simulate ocean surface scattering and subsurface

  3. Design and Manufacture of Laser Tool for Measurement of Turbine Blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nooraniazad, M.; Daneshi, A.; Fakhri, M.

    2011-01-01

    The primary concern in different manufacturing processes is cutting down time by reserving quality at the same time. Measurement is one of the important processes in manufacturing different kinds of parts. In this paper an Optomechanical system has been proposed which is faster, cheaper and more accurate compared to the usual contact tools and can be used for measuring points to points or scanning surfaces of different parts. The measurement process is done by means of laser sensors and suitable positioning of parts with mechanical device. The proposed system used as a measurement process in production line of turbine blade. The results illustrated that the measurement times compared with CMM machine significantly have been reduced significantly. Also the results show that they are in good agreement with each other.

  4. Measuring concentricity and coaxial tolerance of nozzle and cavity with tool microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xizhao; Jiang, Feng; Ye, Ruifang; Lei, Tingping

    2016-01-01

    While the equipment of Micro-jet wave-guided laser was assembled, high-precision of concentricity and coaxiality between nozzle and cavity are required, which directly or indirectly influent the laser coupling precision of nozzle, the micro-jet stability and the steady length of micro-jet as well. As a result, the measurement of concentricity and coaxiality is important to improve the processing quality of Micro-jet wave-guided laser Through the new digital universal tool microscope measuring both ends of micro nozzle and diameter of nozzle, more resolution the other hand, the backlight detection the edge of nozzle is utilized. When the position of the center of a circle is indirect measured and then find out the concentricity through the uncertainty of the measurement and calculation method. V shaped groove is utilized to make certain its position. Otherwise, digital imaging through setting fixture and the use of new digital universal tool microscope and processed by software, which will cause to reduce measurement human error in tradition, after that, error theory analysis will be carried out, uncertainty theory will be utilized to make the experiment more sure at the same time. Above all, the reliability of data is obtained, compared with the traditional measurement methods are more accurate. Therefore, the processing quality of laser drilling will be enhanced significantly.

  5. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts. PMID:25149099

  6. Assessment of a tool for measuring non-profit advocacy efforts in India, Uganda and Yemen.

    PubMed

    Lalwani, Tanya; Rajaratnam, Julie Knoll; McOwen, Jordan; Gordis, Deborah J; Bowen, Lisa A; Bernson, Jeff

    2016-03-01

    To improve maternal and child health, the White Ribbon Alliance for Safe Motherhood (WRA) implemented an innovative policy advocacy project in India, Uganda and Yemen from 2009 to 2011. PATH assisted WRA in designing an approach to measure the short- and long-term results of WRA's advocacy efforts.Expert rating instruments have been widely used since 1970s to track country-level program efforts focusing on family planning, maternal and neonatal health, and HIV/AIDS. This article assesses and establishes the strength and applicability of an expert rating tool, the Maternal Health Policy Score (MHPS), in measuring and guiding a non-profit's advocacy efforts.The tool was assessed using five criteria: validity of results, reproducibility of results, acceptability to respondents, internal consistency and cost. The tool proved effective for measuring improvements in the policy environment at both the national and subnational levels that the non-profit intended to effect and useful for identifying strong and weak policy domains. The results are reproducible, though ensuring fidelity in implementation during different rounds of data collection may be difficult. The acceptability of the tool was high among respondents, and also among users of the information.MHPS provides a quick, low-cost method to measure overall changes in the policy environment, giving advocacy organizations and grant makers timely information to gauge the influence of their work and take corrective action. WRA demonstrated the use of MHPS at multiple points in the project: at the onset of a project to identify and strategize around policy domains that need attention, during and at the end of the project to monitor progress made and redirect efforts.

  7. Optimized slim-line logging NMR tool to measure soil moisture in situ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlo, Josefina; Danieli, Ernesto; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2013-08-01

    We report the optimization of a slim-line logging NMR tool carried out by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR measurements. The tool, based on cylindrical permanent magnets of 20 cm length and 5 cm diameter, has a penetration depth of about 2 cm measured from its surface. This is obtained thanks to a large radio frequency coil whose dimensions are comparable to the sensor size. An analytical expression of the SNR as a function of parameters which take into account the interaction between the radio frequency coil and the magnet shielding is developed. In view of the external constrains such as the one imposed by the excavation hole, a proper tool size is determined in the optimization process. Due to its size and properties, the sensor is suitable to measure water content in the vadose zone, which is the zone comprised within the first meters of the Earth surface and whose study is important for improving water management in agriculture and for refining climate models.

  8. Optimized slim-line logging NMR tool to measure soil moisture in situ.

    PubMed

    Perlo, Josefina; Danieli, Ernesto; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2013-08-01

    We report the optimization of a slim-line logging NMR tool carried out by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR measurements. The tool, based on cylindrical permanent magnets of 20 cm length and 5 cm diameter, has a penetration depth of about 2 cm measured from its surface. This is obtained thanks to a large radio frequency coil whose dimensions are comparable to the sensor size. An analytical expression of the SNR as a function of parameters which take into account the interaction between the radio frequency coil and the magnet shielding is developed. In view of the external constrains such as the one imposed by the excavation hole, a proper tool size is determined in the optimization process. Due to its size and properties, the sensor is suitable to measure water content in the vadose zone, which is the zone comprised within the first meters of the Earth surface and whose study is important for improving water management in agriculture and for refining climate models.

  9. Techniques and tools for measuring energy efficiency of scientific software applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Knight, Robert; Niemi, Tapio; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Nyback, Filip; Pestana, Gonçalo; Ou, Zhonghong; Khan, Kashif

    2015-05-01

    The scale of scientific High Performance Computing (HPC) and High Throughput Computing (HTC) has increased significantly in recent years, and is becoming sensitive to total energy use and cost. Energy-efficiency has thus become an important concern in scientific fields such as High Energy Physics (HEP). There has been a growing interest in utilizing alternate architectures, such as low power ARM processors, to replace traditional Intel x86 architectures. Nevertheless, even though such solutions have been successfully used in mobile applications with low I/O and memory demands, it is unclear if they are suitable and more energy-efficient in the scientific computing environment. Furthermore, there is a lack of tools and experience to derive and compare power consumption between the architectures for various workloads, and eventually to support software optimizations for energy efficiency. To that end, we have performed several physical and software-based measurements of workloads from HEP applications running on ARM and Intel architectures, and compare their power consumption and performance. We leverage several profiling tools (both in hardware and software) to extract different characteristics of the power use. We report the results of these measurements and the experience gained in developing a set of measurement techniques and profiling tools to accurately assess the power consumption for scientific workloads.

  10. The Identification of Teasing among Students as an Indispensable Step towards Reducing Verbal Aggression in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psunder, Mateja

    2010-01-01

    Surveys have confirmed the ubiquity of aggression in schools, and verbal aggression is not an exception. The identification of teasing as a frequent form of verbal aggression is an indispensable step towards diminishing it. The purpose of this study was to investigate teasing among primary school students in Slovenia. The research showed that…

  11. Tool ranking using aberration measurements in a high-volume manufacturing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Cesar M.; Warrick, Scott P.; Seligman, Gary S.; Zavyalova, Lena V.; van Zwol, Adrian; Foster, James

    2003-06-01

    The exposure tool is a critical enabler to continue improving the packing density and transistor speed in the semiconductor industry. In addition to increasing resolution (packing density) a scanner is also expected to provide tight control of the Across Chip Linewidth Variation, ACLV, (transistor speed). An important component of ACLV is lens aberrations. Techniques that measure in-situ the lens aberrations are now available. In a previous paper we reported good agreement between the first 25 Zernike coefficients measured in-situ using one of these techniques ARTEMIS and PMI (Phase Metrology Interferometry) data collected at the lens manufacturer. However questions have arisen as to the practicality of ARTEMIS, especially in view of its heavy reliance on a very large number of SEM images. We have measured the first 25 Zernike coefficients for 13 ASML 500/700 DUV Step & Scan systems in a high-volume wafer fab. In this paper we report on certain enhancements that were made to the best practice of ARTEMIS. We will also present a summary of the measurements taken and our first attempt to cluster the tools according to the aberrations measured.

  12. Dynamic tool to estimate the measurement error in radiometric IR cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbach, Bernd

    2001-03-01

    In various applications of Infrared (IR) Thermography there is need for measuring true surface temperatures. Modern radiometric IR cameras are equipped with sophisticated tools like internal temperature sensors or internal temperature references to provide stabilized temperature read-outs and can guarantee a specified accuracy. But these manufacturer's accuracy specifications are only valid for known objects and under controlled laboratory conditions. In field use there are external effects such as unknown object emissivity, reflections or absorption that can be compensated by means of mathematical models. These factors usually have a significant influence on the results thus making it difficult for the user to estimate the real accuracy of the measurement. This paper introduces a computer tool where the thermographic measurement situation has been implemented in an MS Excel spreadsheet file. The user can vary the measurement parameters in the spreadsheet very easily using graphic controls called sliders. In a mixed numeric and graphical presentation the user can get a feel for the influence of a certain parameter in a specific situation and the model provides a good estimate of the measurement accuracy under realistic conditions.

  13. Data Visualization and Analysis Tools for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Validation Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Kenneth R.; Schwaller, Mathew

    2010-01-01

    The Validation Network (VN) prototype for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission compares data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite Precipitation Radar (PR) to similar measurements from U.S. and international operational weather radars. This prototype is a major component of the GPM Ground Validation System (GVS). The VN provides a means for the precipitation measurement community to identify and resolve significant discrepancies between the ground radar (GR) observations and similar satellite observations. The VN prototype is based on research results and computer code described by Anagnostou et al. (2001), Bolen and Chandrasekar (2000), and Liao et al. (2001), and has previously been described by Morris, et al. (2007). Morris and Schwaller (2009) describe the PR-GR volume-matching algorithm used to create the VN match-up data set used for the comparisons. This paper describes software tools that have been developed for visualization and statistical analysis of the original and volume matched PR and GR data.

  14. Measurement Tools and Target Symptoms/Skills Used to Assess Treatment Response for Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Erin Elizabeth; Diehl, Joshua John

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the measurement tools and target symptoms/skills used to assess treatment response during Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) intervention trials from 2001 through 2010. Data from 195 prospective trials were analyzed. There were 289 unique measurement tools, of which 61.6% were used only once, and 20.8 % were investigator-designed.…

  15. FINs: lattice theoretic tools for improving prediction of sugar production from populations of measurements.

    PubMed

    Kaburlasos, Vassilis George

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents novel mathematical tools developed during a study of an industrial-yield prediction problem. The set F of fuzzy interval numbers, or FINs for short, is studied in the framework of lattice theory. A FIN is defined as a mapping to a metric lattice of generalized intervals, moreover it is shown analytically that the set F of FINs is a metric lattice. A FIN can be interpreted as a convex fuzzy set, moreover a statistical interpretation is proposed here. Algorithm CALFIN is presented for constructing a FIN from a population of samples. An underlying positive valuation function implies both a metric distance and an inclusion measure function in the set F of FINs. Substantial advantages, both theoretical and practical, are shown. Several examples illustrate geometrically on the plane both the utility and the effectiveness of novel tools. It is outlined comparatively how some of the proposed tools have been employed for improving prediction of sugar production from populations of measurements for Hellenic Sugar Industry, Greece.

  16. An Overview of Public Domain Tools for Measuring the Sustainability of Environmental Remediation - 12060

    SciTech Connect

    Claypool, John E.; Rogers, Scott

    2012-07-01

    comes to the public domain, Federal government agencies are spearheading the development of software tools to measure and report emissions of air pollutants (e.g., carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, criteria air pollutants); consumption of energy, water and natural resources; accident and safety risks; project costs and other economic metrics. Most of the tools developed for the Government are available to environmental practitioners without charge, so they are growing in usage and popularity. The key features and metrics calculated by the available public-domain tools for measuring the sustainability of environmental remediation projects share some commonalities but there are differences amongst the tools. The SiteWise{sup TM} sustainability tool developed for the Navy and US Army will be compared with the Sustainable Remediation Tool (SRT{sup TM}) developed for the US Air Force (USAF). In addition, the USAF's Clean Solar and Wind Energy in Environmental Programs (CleanSWEEP), a soon-to-be-released tool for evaluating the economic feasibility of utilizing renewal energy for powering remediation systems will be described in the paper. (authors)

  17. Reliability of a store observation tool in measuring availability of alcohol and selected foods.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Deborah A; Schoeff, Diane; Farley, Thomas A; Bluthenthal, Ricky; Scribner, Richard; Overton, Adrian

    2007-11-01

    Alcohol and food items can compromise or contribute to health, depending on the quantity and frequency with which they are consumed. How much people consume may be influenced by product availability and promotion in local retail stores. We developed and tested an observational tool to objectively measure in-store availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and selected food items that have an impact on health. Trained observers visited 51 alcohol outlets in Los Angeles and southeastern Louisiana. Using a standardized instrument, two independent observations were conducted documenting the type of outlet, the availability and shelf space for alcoholic beverages and selected food items, the purchase price of standard brands, the placement of beer and malt liquor, and the amount of in-store alcohol advertising. Reliability of the instrument was excellent for measures of item availability, shelf space, and placement of malt liquor. Reliability was lower for alcohol advertising, beer placement, and items that measured the "least price" of apples and oranges. The average kappa was 0.87 for categorical items and the average intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.83 for continuous items. Overall, systematic observation of the availability and promotion of alcoholic beverages and food items was feasible, acceptable, and reliable. Measurement tools such as the one we evaluated should be useful in studies of the impact of availability of food and beverages on consumption and on health outcomes. PMID:17763963

  18. Research-based measurement tools in the audit process: issues of use, validity and reliability.

    PubMed

    Mead, D; Moseley, L G

    1996-03-01

    The National Health Service is in a period of extensive reform. Value for money is now a key objective. As a consequence, audit has become a widely used concept and activity. There has been some discussion in the literature of the use of tools for measurement in audit. These tools have mainly been used to measure outcomes. When they are used in isolation from other measures, an incomplete picture can result. Closs and Tierney ( 1 ) have noted that the current vogue for outcomes in NHS research has resulted in a less than complete evaluation of the phenomena under study, largely because the structures and processes are not being measured in parallel with the outcomes. Thomas and Bond ( 2 ) also noted that research has tended to concentrate on the outcomes of care, and that structures and processes are left assumed and undefined, thus making it impossible to link outcomes (favourable or unfavourable) to specific features of nursing input in particular. This has meant that the actual processes have tended to remain somewhat obscure.

  19. Application of quality measurement tools in determining the quality of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muda, Nora; Ramli, Norashikin; Mustafa, Zainol

    2014-06-01

    Use of quality measurement tools is gaining an attention in the industry and also outside of the industry to improve quality and productivity. In this study, two out of seven quality measurement tools have been applied in determining the quality of drinking water in Malaysia during the year 2010. This study is conducted to measure the nonconformance of drinking water parameter by using p control chart and also to know which states are beyond the control limit. Performance of all states including Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Labuan are measured in this study by applying Pareto chart and control chart. Pareto chart is used to identify the states which contribute to the proportion of non-conformance while p control chart is used to determine the states that are out of process control. Five parameters of drinking water identified to be the focus of this study are aluminium, chlorine residual, E.coli and chlorine residual, E.coli as well as turbidity. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc test are also being undertaken to identify states that contribute to the significance of mean between states by referring to multiple comparison tables. Results show that there are several states that still recorded out of control limit. As such, the quality of drinking water in these states should be further improved.

  20. Measuring safe staff levels in the community: the 'DominiC' workforce management tool.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Ben; Durrant, Kay

    2014-02-01

    There is significant need to establish and predict what numbers of district nursing staff are needed to provide quality patient care. This is the first in a series of articles sharing the evidence-based and tested solutions being used in clinical practice across the UK to inform caseload and workforce planning. Stockport NHS Foundation Trust's electronic workload management tool 'DominiC' is explored in this article. The tool promotes continuity of patient care, efficient resource allocation and the benchmarking of care. It predicts future service demands and measures these against the staff resources available. Lessons learned from the process of developing and implementing DominiC are shared to help inform clinicians and managers looking for similar workforce planning solutions. PMID:24514105

  1. Limitations of A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) and suggestions for improvement.

    PubMed

    Burda, Brittany U; Holmer, Haley K; Norris, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) is a commonly used tool to assess the quality of systematic reviews; however, modifications are needed to improve its usability, reliability, and validity. In this commentary, we summarize our experience and the experiences of others who have used AMSTAR and provide suggestions for its improvement. We propose that AMSTAR should modify a number of individual items and their instructions and responses to make them more congruent with an assessment of the methodologic quality of systematic reviews. We recommend adding new items and modifying existing items to assess the quality of the body of evidence and to address subgroup and sensitivity analyses. More detailed instructions are needed for scoring individual items across multiple reviewers, and we recommend that a total score should not be calculated. These suggestions need to be empirically tested prior to implementation. PMID:27072548

  2. Use of existing standards to measure sound power levels of powered hand tools-necessary revisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Charles S.; Zechmann, Edward

    2005-09-01

    At recent NOISE-CON and Acoustical Society of America meetings, noise rating labeling was discussed as a way of manufacturers providing full disclosure information for their noise emitting products. The first step is to gather sound power level data from these products. Sound power level data should be gathered in accordance with existing ANSI and/or ISO standards. Some standards, such as ANSI 12.15, may not define true operational noise emissions[r1] and thus may provide inaccurate information when that information is used to choose a hearing protection device or used to make a purchasing decision. A number of standards were systematically combined by NIOSH researchers to provide the most accurate information on sound power levels of powered hand tools used in the construction industry. This presentation will detail some of the challenges of existing ANSI 12.15 (and draft ANSI 12.41) to measure sound power levels of electric (and pneumatic) powered hand tools.

  3. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  4. Measuring political commitment and opportunities to advance food and nutrition security: piloting a rapid assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Fox, Ashley M; Balarajan, Yarlini; Cheng, Chloe; Reich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Lack of political commitment has been identified as a primary reason for the low priority that food and nutrition interventions receive from national governments relative to the high disease burden caused by malnutrition. Researchers have identified a number of factors that contribute to food and nutrition's 'low-priority cycle' on national policy agendas, but few tools exist to rapidly measure political commitment and identify opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. This article presents a theory-based rapid assessment approach to gauging countries' level of political commitment to food and nutrition security and identifying opportunities to advance food and nutrition on the policy agenda. The rapid assessment tool was piloted among food and nutrition policymakers and planners in 10 low- and middle-income countries in April to June 2013. Food and nutrition commitment and policy opportunity scores were calculated for each country and strategies to advance food and nutrition on policy agendas were designed for each country. The article finds that, in a majority of countries, political leaders had verbally and symbolically committed to addressing food and nutrition, but adequate financial resources were not allocated to implement specific programmes. In addition, whereas the low cohesion of the policy community has been viewed a major underlying cause of the low-priority status of food and nutrition, the analysis finds that policy community cohesion and having a well thought-out policy alternative were present in most countries. This tool may be useful to policymakers and planners providing information that can be used to benchmark and/or evaluate advocacy efforts to advance reforms in the food and nutrition sector; furthermore, the results can help identify specific strategies that can be employed to move the food and nutrition agenda forward. This tool complements others that have been recently developed to measure national commitment to

  5. Effects of Heterogeneities, Sampling Frequencies, Tools and Methods on Uncertainties in Subsurface Contaminant Concentration Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezzedine, S. M.; McNab, W. W.

    2007-12-01

    Long-term monitoring (LTM) is particularly important for contaminants which are mitigated by natural processes of dilution, dispersion, and degradation. At many sites, LTM can require decades of expensive sampling at tens or even hundreds of existing monitoring wells, resulting in hundreds of thousands, or millions of dollars per year for sampling and data management. Therefore, contaminant sampling tools, methods and frequencies are chosen to minimize waste and data management costs while ensuring a reliable and informative time-history of contaminant measurement for regulatory compliance. The interplay play between cause (i.e. subsurface heterogeneities, sampling techniques, measurement frequencies) and effect (unreliable data and measurements gap) has been overlooked in many field applications which can lead to inconsistencies in time- histories of contaminant samples. In this study we address the relationship between cause and effect for different hydrogeological sampling settings: porous and fractured media. A numerical model has been developed using AMR-FEM to solve the physicochemical processes that take place in the aquifer and the monitoring well. In the latter, the flow is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations while in the former the flow is governed by the diffusivity equation; both are fully coupled to mimic stressed conditions and to assess the effect of dynamic sampling tool on the formation surrounding the monitoring well. First of all, different sampling tools (i.e., Easy Pump, Snapper Grab Sampler) were simulated in a monitoring well screened in different homogeneous layered aquifers to assess their effect on the sampling measurements. Secondly, in order to make the computer runs more CPU efficient the flow in the monitoring well was replaced by its counterpart flow in porous media with infinite permeability and the new model was used to simulate the effect of heterogeneities, sampling depth, sampling tool and sampling frequencies on the

  6. Use of Benkelman Beams for Measuring LTE in Whitetopping: An Alternative Tool to FWD Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jundhare, D. R.; Khare, K. C.; Jain, R. K.

    2012-09-01

    Whitetopping is a rehabilitation or structural strengthening alternative on hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavement. It is constructed on the top of existing HMA pavement. Generally, falling weight deflectometer (FWD) deflection measurements are used to obtain the load transfer efficiency (LTE) of the transverse joints. However, the use of FWD in India has been very limited so far because of its high cost and difficulties encountered in maintaining the equipment. Therefore, a need has been aroused to identify an alternative to FWD test, which can be cost effective and easily available. In this work, Benkelman beam deflection test has been conducted using two Benkelman beams simultaneously placed on two adjacent slabs near transverse joint for measuring LTE of 150 mm thick in-service thin whitetopping constructed at Dahanukar Colony, Kothrud, Pune city. An alternative tool has been developed for measuring LTE in whitetopping.

  7. The Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement Scale: A Tool for Measuring Attachment Behaviors in Clinical Couples.

    PubMed

    Sandberg, Jonathan G; Novak, Joshua R; Davis, Stephanie Y; Busby, Dean M

    2016-01-01

    Measuring attachment behaviors is relevant to creating secure couple relationships. This article seeks to test and examine the reliability and validity of the Brief Accessibility, Responsiveness, and Engagement (BARE) Scale-a practical measure of couple attachment-in a clinical sample. Couples took the BARE and other assessments measuring relationship functioning (self and partner reports of relationship satisfaction, relationship stability, positive and negative communication, and attachment styles). Results suggest that the BARE appears to be a reliable and valid tool for assessing couple attachment and can accurately predict and classify whether the couples belong in the clinical or nonclinical group, as well as their level of relationship satisfaction. Results also indicate attachment behaviors are related to relationship outcomes. PMID:26748730

  8. Investigation of the value of a photographic tool to measure self-perception of enamel opacities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The standard measurement of oral conditions that are mainly of cosmetic concern can be carried out by a trained clinical professional, or they can be assessed and reported by the individuals who may have the condition or be aware of others who have it. Enamel opacities of anterior teeth are examples of such a condition. At a public health level the interest is only about opacities that are of aesthetic concern, so the need for an index that records opacities that the public perceive to be a problem is clear. Measurement methods carried out by highly trained professionals, using unnatural conditions are not indicated at this level. This study reports on the testing of a novel epidemiological tool that aims to report on the prevalence and impact of self-perceived enamel opacities in a population of young adolescents. Methods A dental health survey was carried out using a random sample of 12-year-old school pupils during 2008/09 by Primary Care Organisations (PCOs) in England. This included the use of a novel self-perception tool which aimed to measure individual’s self-perception of the presence and impact of enamel opacities to produce population measures. This tool comprised questions asking about the presence of white marks on their teeth and whether these marks bothered the volunteers and a sheet of grouped photographs of anterior teeth showing opacities ranging from TF 0, TF 1–2 to TF 2–3. Volunteers were asked which of the groups of photographs looked more like their own teeth. Examining teams from a convenience sample of 3 PCOs from this survey agreed to undertake additional measurements to assess the value of the self-perception tool. Volunteer pupils were asked the questions on a second occasion, some time after the first and clinical examiners recorded their assessments of the most closely matching set of photographs of the volunteers on two occasions. Results The tool was feasible to use, with 74% of pupils making a response to the first

  9. A software tool to measure the geometric distortion in x-ray image systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, Gabriel; Guibelalde, Eduardo; Chevalier, Margarita

    2010-04-01

    A software tool is presented to measure the geometric distortion in images obtained with X-ray systems that provides a more objective method than the usual measurements over the image of a phantom with usual rulers. In a first step, this software has been applied to mammography images and makes use of the grid included into the CDMAM phantom (University Hospital Nijmegen). For digital images, this software tool automatically locates the grid crossing points and obtains a set of corners (up to 237) that are used by the program to determine 6 different squares, at top, bottom, left, right and central positions. The sixth square is the largest that can be fitted in the grid (widest possible square). The distortion is calculated as ((length of left diagonal - length of right diagonal)/ length of left diagonal) (%) for the six positions. The algorithm error is of the order of 0.3%. The method might be applied to other radiological systems without any major changes to adjust the program code to other phantoms. In this work a set of measurements for 54 CDMAM images, acquired in 11 different mammography systems from 6 manufacturers are presented. We can conclude that the distortion of all equipments is smaller than the recommendations for maximum distortions in primary displays (2%)

  10. Review of Coping in Children Exposed to Mass Trauma: Measurement Tools, Coping Styles, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, Sandra F

    2016-04-01

    Evidence-based practice requires the use of data grounded in theory with clear conceptualization and reliable and valid measurement. Unfortunately, developing a knowledge base regarding children's coping in the context of disasters, terrorism, and war has been hampered by a lack of theoretical consensus and a virtual absence of rigorous test construction, implementation, and evaluation. This report presents a comprehensive review of measurement tools assessing child and adolescent coping in the aftermath of mass trauma, with a particular emphasis on coping dimensions identified through factor analytic procedures. Coping measurement and issues related to the assessment of coping are reviewed. Concepts important in instrument development and psychometric features of coping measures used in disasters, terrorism, and war are presented. The relationships between coping dimensions and both youth characteristics and clinical outcomes also are presented. A discussion of the reviewed findings highlights the difficulty clinicians may experience when trying to integrate the inconsistencies in coping dimensions across studies. Incorporating the need for multiple informants and the difference between general and context-specific coping measures suggests the importance of a multilevel, theoretical conceptualization of coping and thus, the use of more advanced statistical measures. Attention also is given to issues deemed important for further exploration in child disaster coping research. PMID:26887259

  11. Critical dosimetry measures and surrogate tools that can facilitate clinical success in PDT (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogue, Brian W.; Davis, Scott C.; Kanick, Stephen C.; Maytin, Edward V.; Pereira, Stephen P.; Palanisami, Akilan; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy can be a highly complex treatment with more than one parameter to control, or in some cases it is easily implemented with little control other than prescribed drug and light values. The role of measured dosimetry as related to clinical adoption has not been as successful as it could have been, and part of this may be from the conflicting goals of advocating for as many measurements as possible for accurate control, versus companies and clinical adopters advocating for as few measurements as possible, to keep it simple. An organized approach to dosimetry selection is required, which shifts from mechanistic measurements in pre-clinical and early phase I trials, towards just those essential dose limiting measurements and a focus on possible surrogate measures in phase II/III trials. This essential and surrogate approach to dosimetry should help successful adoption of clinical PDT if successful. The examples of essential dosimetry points and surrogate dosimetry tools which might be implemented in phase II and higher trials are discussed for solid tissue PDT with verteporfin and skin lesion treatment with aminolevulinc acid.

  12. Gage cookbook: Tools and techniques to measure stresses and motions on explosive experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Tools and techniques developed to measure stresses and motions on underground nuclear and high explosive tests in the tuff geologies at the Nevada Test Site are described in this document. The thrust of the measurements was to understand containment phenomenology. The authors concentrate on the fluid-coupled ytterbium gage; it was fielded to measure dynamic stress in the 0.2 to 20 kilobar range and the subsequent, low amplitude residual stress. Also described are accelerometer packages; their traces were integrated to obtain particle motion. Various cable survival techniques were investigated with field measurements for they wished to extend the measurements to late-time. Field measurements were also made to address the gage inclusion problem. Work to date suggests that the problem is a minimum when the stress level is above the yield strength of the host rock and grout. Below the yield level stress amplitudes in the grouted hole can range from 60 to 200% of the stress in the host rock.

  13. Digestible indispensable amino acid score and digestible amino acids in eight cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Pahm, Sarah K; Liu, Yanhong; Stein, Hans H

    2014-05-01

    To determine values for the digestible indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), it is recommended that ileal amino acid (AA) digestibility values obtained in growing pigs are used to characterise protein quality in different foods. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to determine the standardised ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in eight cereal grains (yellow dent maize, Nutridense maize, dehulled barley, dehulled oats, polished white rice, rye, sorghum and wheat) fed to pigs, where SID values in pigs can be used to calculate approximate DIAAS values in humans. In the present experiment, twenty-four barrows with a T-cannula inserted in the distal ileum were allotted to eight diets and fed for three periods to give a total of nine replicate pigs per diet. Each period lasted 14 d, and ileal digesta samples were collected on days 13 and 14. Among the SID values obtained for all cereal grains, values for total indispensable AA were greatest (P< 0·05) in rice and lowest (P< 0·05) in rye and sorghum. The concentrations of SID indispensable AA in rice were less (P< 0·05) than in dehulled oats, but greater (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, and the concentrations of SID indispensable AA in Nutridense maize were greater (P< 0·05) than in yellow dent maize and sorghum, but less (P< 0·05) than in the other cereal grains, except rye. In conclusion, results indicate that to meet dietary requirements for AA in humans, diets based on yellow dent maize or sorghum require more AA supplementation than diets based on other cereal grains.

  14. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  15. The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Tsatrafyllis, N.; Bergues, B.; Schröder, H.; Veisz, L.; Skantzakis, E.; Gray, D.; Bodi, B.; Kuhn, S.; Tsakiris, G. D.; Charalambidis, D.; Tzallas, P.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region measuring spatially resolved atomic ionization products at the focus of an EUV beam. The ionizing radiation is a comb of the 11th–15th harmonics of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser beam produced in a Xenon gas jet. The spatial ion distribution at the focus of the harmonics is recorded using an ion microscope. Spatially resolved single- and two-photon ionization products of Argon and Helium are observed. From such ion distributions single- and two-photon generalized cross sections can be extracted by a self-calibrating method. The observation of spatially resolved two-EUV-photon ionization constitutes an initial step towards future single-shot temporal characterization of attosecond pulses. PMID:26868370

  16. The ion microscope as a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet.

    PubMed

    Tsatrafyllis, N; Bergues, B; Schröder, H; Veisz, L; Skantzakis, E; Gray, D; Bodi, B; Kuhn, S; Tsakiris, G D; Charalambidis, D; Tzallas, P

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a tool for quantitative measurements in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region measuring spatially resolved atomic ionization products at the focus of an EUV beam. The ionizing radiation is a comb of the 11(th)-15(th) harmonics of a Ti:Sapphire femtosecond laser beam produced in a Xenon gas jet. The spatial ion distribution at the focus of the harmonics is recorded using an ion microscope. Spatially resolved single- and two-photon ionization products of Argon and Helium are observed. From such ion distributions single- and two-photon generalized cross sections can be extracted by a self-calibrating method. The observation of spatially resolved two-EUV-photon ionization constitutes an initial step towards future single-shot temporal characterization of attosecond pulses. PMID:26868370

  17. Mobile phones democratize and cultivate next-generation imaging, diagnostics and measurement tools.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run, e.g., biomedical tests, and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally.

  18. The Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS): a new measurement tool for audit and research

    PubMed Central

    Horne, R; Hankins, M; Jenkins, R

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To develop and examine the psychometric properties of the Satisfaction with Information about Medicines Scale (SIMS), a new 17-item tool designed to assess the extent to which patients feel they have received enough information about prescribed medicines. Methods—Patients from eight diagnostic categories were recruited at hospitals in London and Brighton and completed the SIMS questionnaire during hospital admission or attendance at outpatient clinic appointments. The SIMS was evaluated in terms of its ease of use, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and criterion related validity using existing self-report measures of adherence and patient beliefs about medicines. Results—The SIMS was well accepted by patients in a variety of clinical settings and showed satisfactory internal consistency and test-retest reliability. As predicted, higher levels of satisfaction with medicines information were associated with higher levels of reported adherence, and lower levels of satisfaction were associated with stronger concerns about the potential adverse effects of medicines, providing evidence of criterion related validity. Conclusion—The SIMS performed well on a number of psychometric indicators and shows promise as a tool for audit (measuring patients' satisfaction with information about their prescribed medicines), research (evaluating current or new forms of information provision), and clinical practice (identifying the information needs of individual patients and as an aid to planning medicine related consultations). Key Words: patients' views; medicines information; questionnaires; reliability; validity PMID:11533420

  19. AIMBAT: A Python/Matplotlib Tool for Measuring Teleseismic Arrival Times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, X.; van der Lee, S.; Lloyd, S.

    2013-12-01

    Python is an open-source, platform-independent, and object-oriented scripting language. It became more popular in the seismologist community since the appearance of ObsPy (Beyreuther et al. 2010, Megies et al. 2011), which provides a powerful framework for seismic data access and processing. This study introduces a new Python-based tool named AIMBAT (Automated and Interactive Measurement of Body-wave Arrival Times) for measuring teleseismic body-wave arrival times on large-scale seismic event data (Lou et al. 2013). Compared to ObsPy, AIMBAT is a lighter tool that is more focused on a particular aspect of seismic data processing. It originates from the widely used MCCC (Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation) method developed by VanDecar and Crosson (1990). On top of the original MCCC procedure, AIMBAT is automated in initial phase picking and is interactive in quality control. The core cross-correlation function is implemented in Fortran to boost up performance in addition to Python. The GUI (graphical user interface) of AIMBAT depends on Matplotlib's GUI-neutral widgets and event-handling API. A number of sorting and (de)selecting options are designed to facilitate the quality control of seismograms. By using AIMBAT, both relative and absolute teleseismic body-wave arrival times are measured. AIMBAT significantly improves efficiency and quality of the measurements. User interaction is needed only to pick the target phase arrival and to set a time window on the array stack. The package is easy to install and use, open-source, and is publicly available. Graphical user interface of AIMBAT.

  20. APT: An Autonomous Tool for Measuring Acceleration, Pressure, and Temperature with Large Dynamic Range and Bandwidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heesemann, M.; Davis, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We describe a new tool developed to facilitate the study of inter-related geodetic, geodynamic, seismic, and oceanographic phenomena. It incorporates a novel tri-axial accelerometer developed by Quartz Seismic Sensors, Inc, a pressure sensor developed by Paroscientific Inc., and a low-power, high-precision frequency counter and data logger built by RBR, Ltd. The sensors, counters, and loggers are housed in a 7 cm o.d., 70 cm long pressure case designed for use in up to 12 km of water. Sampling intervals are programmable from 0.1 s to 1 hr; standard memory can store up to 30 million samples; total power consumption is roughly 115 mW when operating continuously (1 s.p.s. or higher) and proportionately lower when operating intermittently (e.g., 2 mW at 1 sample per min.). Serial and USB communications protocols allow a variety of download and cable-connection options. Measurement precision of the order of 10-8 of full scale (e.g., 4000 m water depth, 1 g) allows observations of pressure and acceleration variations of 0.4 Pa and 0.1 μm s-2. Long-term variations in vertical acceleration are sensitive to displacement through the gravity gradient at a level of roughly 2 cm; long-term variations in horizontal acceleration are sensitive to tilt at a level of 0.01 μRad. With these sensitivities and the broad bandwidth (5 Hz to DC), ground motion associated with microseisms and seismic waves, tidal loading, and slow and rapid geodynamic deformation normally studied by disparate instruments can be observed with a single tool. The first c. 1-year deployment with the instrument connected to the Ocean Networks Canada NEPTUNE observatory cable is underway to study interseismic deformation of the Cascadia subduction zone. It will then be deployed at the Hikurangi subduction zone to study episodic slow slip. Deployment of the tool for the initial test was accomplished by pushing the tool vertically below the seafloor with the remotely operated vehicle Jason, with no profile

  1. Quality assurance of solar spectral UV-measurements: methods and use of the SHICrivm software tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. E.; den Outer, P. N.; Slaper, H.

    2003-04-01

    Ground-based UV-irradiance measurements are crucial for determining the long-term changes and trends in biologically and/or photo-chemically relevant solar UV-radiation reaching the Earth's surface. Such changes in UV-radiation levels have probably occurred and/or are expected due to ozone depletion and climate change. In order to analyse UV-irradiation levels in relation to atmospheric parameters and to facilitate an assessment of the European UV-climate a European database (EUVDatabase) has been set up within the EDUCE-project (EC-contract EVK2-CT-1999-00028). High quality UV-data-sets from across the continent are assessable from the EUVDatabase (http://uv.fmi.fi/uvdb/). An accurate analysis of the UV-climate and long term changes therein requires quality assurance of the spectral data. The SHICrivm software tool (http://www.rivm.nl/shicrivm) is developed to analyse several quality aspects of measured UV-spectra. The SHICrivm tool is applied to over one million spectra from the EUVDatabase and detects for each measured spectrum: the accuracy of the wavelength calibration from 290 up to 500 nm, the lowest detectable irradiance level, the occurrence of non-natural spikes in spectra, deviations in spectral shape, and identifies possible irradiance scale errors in the UV-range. In addition the SHIC-package can be used to correct wavelength scale errors and non-natural spectral spikes. A deconvolution and convolution algorithm is included to improve the comparibility of spectra obtained with different instruments, and to allow a fully comparable analysis of biologically weighted UV-dose for instruments with various spectral characteristics. Within the context of the EDUCE-project data from over 20 UV-monitoring stations are retrieved from the database and a quality assessment is performed using the SHIC-tool. The quality parameters are presented by means of a simple scheme of coloured quality flags. Spectra that meet the WMO-criteria for spectral measurements are

  2. Hospital process orientation from an operations management perspective: development of a measurement tool and practical testing in three ophthalmic practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although research interest in hospital process orientation (HPO) is growing, the development of a measurement tool to assess process orientation (PO) has not been very successful yet. To view a hospital as a series of processes organized around patients with a similar demand seems to be an attractive proposition, but it is hard to operationalize this idea in a measurement tool that can actually measure the level of PO. This research contributes to HPO from an operations management (OM) perspective by addressing the alignment, integration and coordination of activities within patient care processes. The objective of this study was to develop and practically test a new measurement tool for assessing the degree of PO within hospitals using existing tools. Methods Through a literature search we identified a number of constructs to measure PO in hospital settings. These constructs were further operationalized, using an OM perspective. Based on five dimensions of an existing questionnaire a new HPO-measurement tool was developed to measure the degree of PO within hospitals on the basis of respondents’ perception. The HPO-measurement tool was pre-tested in a non-participating hospital and discussed with experts in a focus group. The multicentre exploratory case study was conducted in the ophthalmic practices of three different types of Dutch hospitals. In total 26 employees from three disciplines participated. After filling in the questionnaire an interview was held with each participant to check the validity and the reliability of the measurement tool. Results The application of the HPO-measurement tool, analysis of the scores and interviews with the participants resulted in the possibility to identify differences of PO performance and the areas of improvement – from a PO point of view – within each hospital. The result of refinement of the items of the measurement tool after practical testing is a set of 41 items to assess the degree of PO from an OM

  3. Perioperative Care Coordination Measurement: A Tool to Support Care Integration of Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Lynne R; Ziniel, Sonja I; Antonelli, Richard C

    2016-03-01

    The relationship of care coordination activities and outcomes to resource utilization and personnel costs has been evaluated for a number of pediatric medical home practices. One of the first tools designed to evaluate the activities and outcomes for pediatric care coordination is the Care Coordination Measurement Tool (CCMT). It has become widely used as an instrument for health care providers in both primary and subspecialty care settings. This tool enables the user to stratify patients based on acuity and complexity while documenting the activities and outcomes of care coordination. We tested the feasibility of adapting the CCMT to a pediatric surgical population at Boston Children's Hospital. The tool was used to assess the preoperative care coordination activities. Care coordination activities were tracked during the interval from the date the patient was scheduled for a surgical or interventional procedure through the day of the procedure. A care coordination encounter was defined as any task, whether face to face or not, supporting the development or implementation of a plan of care. Data were collected to enable analysis of 5675 care coordination encounters supporting the care provided to 3406 individual surgical cases (patients). The outcomes of care coordination, as documented by the preoperative nursing staff, included the elaboration of the care plan through patient-focused communication among specialist, facilities, perioperative team, and primary care physicians in 80.5% of cases. The average time spent on care coordination activities increased incrementally by 30 minutes with each additional care coordination encounter for a surgical case. Surgical cases with 1 care coordination encounter took an average of 35.7 minutes of preoperative care coordination, whereas those with ≥4 care coordination encounters reported an average of 121.6 minutes. We successfully adapted and implemented the CCMT for a pediatric surgical population and measured nonface

  4. Validation of a fornix depth measurer: a putative tool for the assessment of progressive cicatrising conjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geraint P; Saw, Valerie P J; Saeed, Tariq; Evans, Simon T; Cottrell, Paul; Curnow, S John; Nightingale, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Background/aims Documentation of conjunctival forniceal foreshortening in cases of progressive cicatrising conjunctivitis (PCC) is important in ascertaining disease stage and progression. Lower fornix shortening is often documented subjectively or semi-objectively, whereas upper forniceal obliteration is seldom quantified. Although tools such as fornix depth measurers (FDMs) have been described, their designs limit upper fornix measurement. The purpose of this study was to custom-design a FDM to evaluate the upper fornix and to assess variability in gauging fornix depth. Methods A polymethylmethacrylate FDM was constructed using industry-standard jewellery computer software and machinery. Two observers undertook a prospective independent evaluation of central lower fornix depth in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with clinically normal and abnormal conjunctival fornices both subjectively and by using the FDM (in mm). Upper central fornix depth was also measured. Agreement was assessed using Bland–Altman plots. Results Fifty-one eyes were evaluated. There was 100% intraobserver agreement to within 1 mm for each observer for lower fornix measurement. The mean difference in fornix depth loss using the FDM between observer 1 and 2 was 1.19%, with 95% confidence of agreement (±2SD) of −15% to +20%. In total, 86% (44/51) of measurements taken by the two observers agreed to within 10% of total lower fornix depth (ie, ±1 mm) versus only 63% (32/51) of the subjective measurements. Mean upper fornix difference was 0.57 mm, with 95% confidence of agreement of between −2 and +3 mm. Conclusions This custom-designed FDM is well tolerated by patients and shows low intraobserver and interobserver variability. This enables repeatable and reproducible measurement of upper and lower fornix depths, facilitating improved rates of detection and better monitoring of progression of conjunctival scarring. PMID:20956276

  5. Assessment of computational tools for MRI RF dosimetry by comparison with measurements on a laboratory phantom.

    PubMed

    Bottauscio, O; Cassarà, A M; Hand, J W; Giordano, D; Zilberti, L; Borsero, M; Chiampi, M; Weidemann, G

    2015-07-21

    This paper presents an extended comparison between numerical simulations using the different computational tools employed nowadays in electromagnetic dosimetry and measurements of radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic field distributions in phantoms with tissue-simulating liquids at 64 MHz, 128 MHz and 300 MHz, adopting a customized experimental setup. The aim is to quantify the overall reliability and accuracy of RF dosimetry approaches at frequencies in use in magnetic resonance imaging transmit coils. Measurements are compared against four common techniques used for electromagnetic simulations, i.e. the finite difference time domain (FDTD), the finite integration technique (FIT), the boundary element method (BEM) and the hybrid finite element method-boundary element method (FEM-BEM) approaches. It is shown that FDTD and FIT produce similar results, which generally are also in good agreement with those of FEM-BEM. On the contrary, BEM seems to perform less well than the other methods and shows numerical convergence problems in presence of metallic objects. Maximum uncertainties of about 30% (coverage factor k = 2) can be attributed to measurements regarding electric and magnetic field amplitudes. Discrepancies between simulations and experiments are found to be in the range from 10% to 30%. These values confirm other previously published results of experimental validations performed on a limited set of data and define the accuracy of our measurement setup.

  6. Measuring the quality of Patients’ goals and action plans: development and validation of a novel tool

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to develop and test reliability, validity, and utility of the Goal-Setting Evaluation Tool for Diabetes (GET-D). The effectiveness of diabetes self-management is predicated on goal-setting and action planning strategies. Evaluation of self-management interventions is hampered by the absence of tools to assess quality of goals and action plans. To address this gap, we developed the GET-D, a criteria-based, observer rating scale that measures the quality of patients’ diabetes goals and action plans. Methods We conducted 3-stage development of GET-D, including identification of criteria for observer ratings of goals and action plans, rater training and pilot testing; and then performed psychometric testing of the GET-D. Results Trained raters could effectively rate the quality of patient-generated goals and action plans using the GET-D. Ratings performed by trained evaluators demonstrated good raw agreement (94.4%) and inter-rater reliability (Kappa = 0.66). Scores on the GET-D correlated well with measures theoretically associated with goal-setting, including patient activation (r=.252, P<.05), diabetes specific self-efficacy (r=.376, P<.001) and inverse relationship with depression (r= −.376, P<.01). Significant between group differences (P<.01) in GET-D scores between goal-setting intervention (mean = 7.33, standard deviation = 4.4) and education groups (mean = 4.93, standard deviation = 3.9) confirmed construct validity of the GET-D. Conclusions The GET-D can reliably and validly rate the quality of goals and action plans. It holds promise as a measure of intervention fidelity for clinical interventions that promote diabetes self-management behaviors to improve clinical outcomes. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00481286 PMID:23270422

  7. Development of a food security measurement tool for New Zealand households.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Winsome R; Gray, Andrew R

    2014-10-28

    To determine the prevalence of household food insecurity in New Zealand (NZ), eight food security statements were included in the 1997 National Nutrition Survey of adults. Rasch model analysis was performed to determine whether each food security statement (addressing a food security attribute) was discrete and could be ranked on a unidimensional scale. The NZ model had marginal 'household' reliability (0·60-0·66), good item separation (17·20-17·77) and item infit/outfit values between 0·8 and 1·25. Indices could be ranked by level of severity and represent the experience of household food insecurity in NZ. Categories of food security were assigned and used to predict food choice, and energy and nutrient intakes. Compared with fully secure/almost fully secure households, those that were moderately secure or of low security were less likely to consume the recommended daily servings of fruit and vegetables, and more likely to consume fatty meats. Intake of total fat, saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat, cholesterol, lactose and vitamin B12 increased with lower levels of food security. Intakes of glucose, fructose and vitamin C were highest in the fully secure/almost fully secure category. This unique eight-component food security measurement tool has less respondent burden than the US Core Food Security Measure. The relationships between the level of food insecurity and food choice and nutrient intakes illustrate that the most food-insecure households have less healthy diets. This relatively brief population-specific measurement tool is suitable to monitor population food security status, and is a useful marker of nutritional status.

  8. What can management theories offer evidence-based practice? A comparative analysis of measurement tools for organisational context

    PubMed Central

    French, Beverley; Thomas, Lois H; Baker, Paula; Burton, Christopher R; Pennington, Lindsay; Roddam, Hazel

    2009-01-01

    Background Given the current emphasis on networks as vehicles for innovation and change in health service delivery, the ability to conceptualise and measure organisational enablers for the social construction of knowledge merits attention. This study aimed to develop a composite tool to measure the organisational context for evidence-based practice (EBP) in healthcare. Methods A structured search of the major healthcare and management databases for measurement tools from four domains: research utilisation (RU), research activity (RA), knowledge management (KM), and organisational learning (OL). Included studies were reports of the development or use of measurement tools that included organisational factors. Tools were appraised for face and content validity, plus development and testing methods. Measurement tool items were extracted, merged across the four domains, and categorised within a constructed framework describing the absorptive and receptive capacities of organisations. Results Thirty measurement tools were identified and appraised. Eighteen tools from the four domains were selected for item extraction and analysis. The constructed framework consists of seven categories relating to three core organisational attributes of vision, leadership, and a learning culture, and four stages of knowledge need, acquisition of new knowledge, knowledge sharing, and knowledge use. Measurement tools from RA or RU domains had more items relating to the categories of leadership, and acquisition of new knowledge; while tools from KM or learning organisation domains had more items relating to vision, learning culture, knowledge need, and knowledge sharing. There was equal emphasis on knowledge use in the different domains. Conclusion If the translation of evidence into knowledge is viewed as socially mediated, tools to measure the organisational context of EBP in healthcare could be enhanced by consideration of related concepts from the organisational and management sciences

  9. Radioactivity measurements and dose rate calculations using ERICA tool in the terrestrial environment of Greece.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, Maria; Florou, Heleny; Manolopoulou, Metaxia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the radioactivity levels to which terrestrial non-human biota were exposed are examined. Organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) were collected during the period of 2010 to 2014 from grasslands where sheep and goats were free-range grazing. Natural background radionuclides ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I) were detected in the collected samples using gamma spectrometry. The actual measured activity concentrations and site-specific data of the studied organisms were imported in ERICA Assessment Tool (version 1.2.0) in order to provide an insight of the radiological dose rates. The highest activity concentrations were detected in samples collected from Lesvos island and the lowest in samples collected from Attiki and Etoloakarnania prefectures. The highest contribution to the total dose rate was clearly derived from the internal exposure and is closely related to the exposure to alpha emitters of natural background ((226)Ra and (228)Th). The Fukushima-derived traces of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, and (131)I, along with the residual (137)Cs, resulted in quite low contribution to the total dose rate. The obtained results may strengthen the adaptation of software tools to a wider range of ecosystems and may be proved useful in further research regarding the possible impact of protracted low level ionizing radiation on non-human biota. This kind of studies may contribute to the effective incorporation of dosimetry tools in the development of integrated environmental and radiological impact assessment policies.

  10. Radioactivity measurements and dose rate calculations using ERICA tool in the terrestrial environment of Greece.

    PubMed

    Sotiropoulou, Maria; Florou, Heleny; Manolopoulou, Metaxia

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the radioactivity levels to which terrestrial non-human biota were exposed are examined. Organisms (grass and herbivore mammals) and abiotic components (soil) were collected during the period of 2010 to 2014 from grasslands where sheep and goats were free-range grazing. Natural background radionuclides ((226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th) and artificial radionuclides ((137)Cs, (134)Cs, (131)I) were detected in the collected samples using gamma spectrometry. The actual measured activity concentrations and site-specific data of the studied organisms were imported in ERICA Assessment Tool (version 1.2.0) in order to provide an insight of the radiological dose rates. The highest activity concentrations were detected in samples collected from Lesvos island and the lowest in samples collected from Attiki and Etoloakarnania prefectures. The highest contribution to the total dose rate was clearly derived from the internal exposure and is closely related to the exposure to alpha emitters of natural background ((226)Ra and (228)Th). The Fukushima-derived traces of (137)Cs, (134)Cs, and (131)I, along with the residual (137)Cs, resulted in quite low contribution to the total dose rate. The obtained results may strengthen the adaptation of software tools to a wider range of ecosystems and may be proved useful in further research regarding the possible impact of protracted low level ionizing radiation on non-human biota. This kind of studies may contribute to the effective incorporation of dosimetry tools in the development of integrated environmental and radiological impact assessment policies. PMID:26897581

  11. Assessing the Efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution as a Valid Tool for Undergraduate Non-Science Majors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William Lee; Walter, Emily Marie

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution (MUM) as a measurement tool has been a point of contention among scholars needing a valid measure for knowledge of macroevolution. We explored the structure and construct validity of the MUM using Rasch methodologies in the context of a general education biology course designed with an…

  12. A tool for estimating the mix of energy conservation measures given competing acquisition scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R.W.

    1991-03-01

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is conducting analyses that are to serve the Resource Program Environmental Impact Statement (RP/EIS). Parts of the RP/EIS are to address the impacts of commercial sector electricity conservation acquisitions under various conservation acquisition alternatives. These impacts include the energy conservation measure (ECM) mix adopted by the commercial sector and the equipment/technology that would be replaced by implementing new ECMs. The goal of this project was to develop a tool that has the capability to detail region-wide numerical estimates of the commercial sector ECM and replaced technology mix. The tool (hereafter called ECMMIX) was to be sufficiently flexible and user friendly that analysts could easily perform sensitivity tests of alternative forecasts of energy conservation acquisitions. It needed to have the capability to assess impacts across different building types, utility regions, vintage and end-use categories, as well as to aggregate similar ECMs across all categories. The aggregation capability was to exist for the replaced technology as well. Chapter 2 presents specific details about the methodology and assumptions adopted in developing ECMMIX. Included is a discussion of data disaggregation, adjustment to forecasted savings estimates, and incorporation of ADM and Ecotope ECMs. Chapter 3 contains a users guide to ECMMIX and concluding comments. 14 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Revision of the Measurement Tool for Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Song, Youngshin; Lee, Miyoung; Jun, Younghee; Lee, Yoonhee; Cho, Jeonghwa; Kwon, Myoungjin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Despite the importance of the protection of patients' health information in clinical settings, little is known about the awareness of this concept in nursing students due to the lack of a suitable measurement tool. Hence, this study attempted to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale, and evaluate its construct validity and reliability for nursing students. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. Nursing students who were in their 3rd and 4th year were recruited from 10 universities in Korea to assess the construct validity, and 30 experts (27 nurses and 3 faculty members) participated in the content validation process. Results The content validity assessment indicated that 23 items were ideal. The assessment of construct validity using exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors: communication, management, and referrals. They together accounted for 54.1% of the variance in scale scores. The three-factor scale had good fit in the confirmatory factor analysis. Scale reliability was confirmed, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.94 for all items. Conclusions This study was the first attempt to redevelop the Patients' Health Information Protection Awareness Scale for student nurses. The 23-item scale was shown to be a reliable and valid tool. It facilitates the assessment of nursing students' awareness of patient information protection. Academic nursing programs and health organizations can use its scores to implement adequate education plans to safeguard information in nursing students. PMID:27525162

  14. APMS: An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.; Lynch, Robert E.; Connors, Mary M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data. The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data-analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions. APMS will offer to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software, a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality, and data interchangeability, among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs of air crews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as air crews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but through

  15. APMS: An Integrated Suite of Tools for Measuring Performance and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of work in progress. In it, I summarize the status of the research and development of the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS) for managing, processing, and analyzing digital flight-recorded data. The objectives of the NASA-FAA APMS research project are to establish a sound scientific and technological basis for flight-data analysis, to define an open and flexible architecture for flight-data-analysis systems, and to articulate guidelines for a standardized database structure on which to continue to build future flight-data-analysis extensions . APMS will offer to the air transport community an open, voluntary standard for flight-data-analysis software, a standard that will help to ensure suitable functionality, and data interchangeability, among competing software programs. APMS will develop and document the methodologies, algorithms, and procedures for data management and analyses to enable users to easily interpret the implications regarding safety and efficiency of operations. APMS does not entail the implementation of a nationwide flight-data-collection system. It is intended to provide technical tools to ease the large-scale implementation of flight-data analyses at both the air-carrier and the national-airspace levels in support of their Flight Operations and Quality Assurance (FOQA) Programs and Advanced Qualifications Programs (AQP). APMS cannot meet its objectives unless it develops tools that go substantially beyond the capabilities of the current commercially available software and supporting analytic methods that are mainly designed to count special events. These existing capabilities, while of proven value, were created primarily with the needs of air crews in mind. APMS tools must serve the needs of the government and air carriers, as well as air crews, to fully support the FOQA and AQP programs. They must be able to derive knowledge not only through the analysis of single flights (special-event detection), but through

  16. A Tool Measuring Remaining Thickness of Notched Acoustic Cavities in Primary Reaction Control Thruster NDI Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, Yushi; Sun, Changhong; Zhu, Harry; Wincheski, Buzz

    2006-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking in the relief radius area of a space shuttle primary reaction control thruster is an issue of concern. The current approach for monitoring of potential crack growth is nondestructive inspection (NDI) of remaining thickness (RT) to the acoustic cavities using an eddy current or remote field eddy current probe. EDM manufacturers have difficulty in providing accurate RT calibration standards. Significant error in the RT values of NDI calibration standards could lead to a mistaken judgment of cracking condition of a thruster under inspection. A tool based on eddy current principle has been developed to measure the RT at each acoustic cavity of a calibration standard in order to validate that the standard meets the sample design criteria.

  17. Tool to measure workload of health professionals in Primary Health Care: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Bonfim, Daiana; Pereira, Maria José Bistafa; Pierantoni, Célia Regina; Haddad, Ana Estela; Gaidzinski, Raquel Rapone

    2015-12-01

    Objective To develop and validate an instrument that addresses the interventions/activities carried out by the family health team as reference for staff planning. Method Methodological research developed in stages: instrument development, content validation, and pilot test in three units located in the southeastern region of Brazil. Results 39 interventions were validated in a single instrument to measure workload for clinician, dental surgeon, oral health technician/assistant, nurse, nurse assistant, and community health agent. In the pilot test, the instrument contained 100% of the interventions observed and the observers reached 93.7% agreement. Conclusion The proposed instrument is an innovating tool because of its configuration for health team and supports staff planning in primary health care. PMID:26959150

  18. The Web Measurement Environment (WebME): A Tool for Combining and Modeling Distributed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesoriero, Roseanne; Zelkowitz, Marvin

    1997-01-01

    Many organizations have incorporated data collection into their software processes for the purpose of process improvement. However, in order to improve, interpreting the data is just as important as the collection of data. With the increased presence of the Internet and the ubiquity of the World Wide Web, the potential for software processes being distributed among several physically separated locations has also grown. Because project data may be stored in multiple locations and in differing formats, obtaining and interpreting data from this type of environment becomes even more complicated. The Web Measurement Environment (WebME), a Web-based data visualization tool, is being developed to facilitate the understanding of collected data in a distributed environment. The WebME system will permit the analysis of development data in distributed, heterogeneous environments. This paper provides an overview of the system and its capabilities.

  19. Airfoil-Shaped Fluid Flow Tool for Use in Making Differential Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A fluid flow tool includes an airfoil structure and a support arm. The airfoil structure's high-pressure side and low-pressure side are positioned in a conduit by the support arm coupled to the conduit. The high-pressure and low-pressure sides substantially face opposing walls of the conduit. At least one measurement port is formed in the airfoil structure at each of its high-pressure side and low-pressure side. A first manifold, formed in the airfoil structure and in fluid communication with each measurement port so-formed at the high-pressure side, extends through the airfoil structure and support arm to terminate and be accessible at the exterior wall of the conduit. A second manifold, formed in the airfoil structure and in fluid communication with each measurement port so-formed at the low-pressure side, extends through the airfoil structure and support arm to terminate and be accessible at the exterior wall of the conduit.

  20. The Molecular Bronchoscope: A Tool for Measurement of Spatially Dependent CO2 Concentrations in the Lungs.

    PubMed

    Ciaffoni, Luca; Couper, John H; Richmond, Graham; Hancock, Gus; Ritchie, Grant A D

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory physicians use bronchoscopy for visual assessment of the lungs' topography and collecting tissue samples for external analysis. We propose a novel bronchoscope tool that would enable spatially dependent measurements of the functioning of the lungs by determining local concentrations of carbon dioxide, which will be produced by healthy parts of the lung at rates that are higher than from portions where gas exchange is impaired. The gas analyzer is based on a compact laser absorption spectrometer making use of fiber optics for delivery and return of low intensity diode laser radiation to and from the measurement chamber at the distal end of a flexible conduit. The appropriate optical wavelength was chosen such that light is selectively absorbed only by gaseous CO2. The optical absorption takes place over a short path (8.8 mm) within a rigid, 12 mm long, perforated probe tip. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy was adopted as the analytical technique to reduce the noise on the optical signal and yield measurements of relative CO2 concentration every 180 ms with a precision as low as 600 part-per-million by volume. The primary objective of such a device is to see if additional spatial information about the lungs functionality can be gathered, which will complement visual observation. PMID:27487178

  1. Open Source Software Openfoam as a New Aerodynamical Simulation Tool for Rocket-Borne Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staszak, T.; Brede, M.; Strelnikov, B.

    2015-09-01

    The only way to do in-situ measurements, which are very important experimental studies for atmospheric science, in the mesoshere/lower thermosphere (MLT) is to use sounding rockets. The drawback of using rockets is the shock wave appearing because of the very high speed of the rocket motion (typically about 1000 mIs). This shock wave disturbs the density, the temperature and the velocity fields in the vicinity of the rocket, compared to undisturbed values of the atmosphere. This effect, however, can be quantified and the measured data has to be corrected not just to make it more precise but simply usable. The commonly accepted and widely used tool for this calculations is the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) technique developed by GA. Bird which is available as stand-alone program limited to use a single processor. Apart from complications with simulations of flows around bodies related to different flow regimes in the altitude range of MLT, that rise due to exponential density change by several orders of magnitude, a particular hardware configuration introduces significant difficulty for aerodynamical calculations due to choice of the grid sizes mainly depending on the demands on adequate DSMCs and good resolution of geometries with scale differences of factor of iO~. This makes either the calculation time unreasonably long or even prevents the calculation algorithm from converging. In this paper we apply the free open source software OpenFOAM (licensed under GNU GPL) for a three-dimensional CFD-Simulation of a flow around a sounding rocket instrumentation. An advantage of this software package, among other things, is that it can run on high performance clusters, which are easily scalable. We present the first results and discuss the potential of the new tool in applications for sounding rockets.

  2. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy: a potential tool for outdoor measurements in precision agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, Martin; Müller, André; Selbeck, Jörn; Käthner, Jana; Zude, Manuela; Fleury, Dominique; Sumpf, Bernd; Erbert, Götz; Tränkle, Günther

    2015-06-01

    In this work we present Shifted Excitation Raman Difference Spectroscopy (SERDS) as a potential spectroscopic tool for outdoor measurements in precision agriculture. A dual-wavelength diode laser at 785 nm is used as an excitation light source which provides an optical power up to 100 mW in cw-operation. Both emission lines for SERDS show single mode operation with a spectral width of <= 11 pm and a spectral distance of about 10 cm-1 over the whole power range. Raman experiments on apples are carried out and show Raman signals from wax layer and β-carotene. Raman investigations under daylight conditions are performed to simulate outdoor measurements. Here, polystyrene (PS) is used as test sample. A broadband signal together with narrow absorption lines of water vapor and Fraunhofer lines of singly ionized calcium (Ca II) mask the Raman lines of PS. Only the strong Raman signal at 999 cm-1 is visible. SERDS efficiently separates the Raman signals of PS from the background signals and a 14-fold improvement of the signal-tobackground noise ratio is achieved.

  3. Hyperacusis Questionnaire as a Tool for Measuring Hypersensitivity to Sound in a Tinnitus Research Population

    PubMed Central

    Fackrell, Kathryn; Fearnley, Constance; Hoare, Derek J.; Sereda, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to external sounds is often comorbid with tinnitus and may be significant for adherence to certain types of tinnitus management. Therefore, a clear measure of sensitivity to sound is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Hyperacusis Questionnaire (HQ) for use as a measurement tool using data from a sample of 264 adults who took part in tinnitus research. We evaluated the HQ factor structure, internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and floor and ceiling effects. Internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88) and moderate correlations were observed between the HQ, uncomfortable loudness levels, and other health questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the original HQ three-factor solution and a one-factor solution were both a poor fit to the data. Four problematic items were removed and exploratory factor analysis identified a two-factor (attentional and social) solution. The original three-factor structure of the HQ was not confirmed. All fourteen items do not accurately assess hypersensitivity to sound in a tinnitus population. We propose a 10-item (2-factor) version of the HQ, which will need to be confirmed using a new tinnitus and perhaps nontinnitus population. PMID:26557658

  4. Inactivation of indispensable bacterial proteins by early proteins of bacteriophages: implication in antibacterial drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Sau, S; Chattoraj, P; Ganguly, T; Chanda, P K; Mandal, N C

    2008-06-01

    Bacteriophages utilize host bacterial cellular machineries for their own reproduction and completion of life cycles. The early proteins that phage synthesize immediately after the entry of their genomes into bacterial cells participate in inhibiting host macromolecular biosynthesis, initiating phage-specific replication and synthesizing late proteins. Inhibition of synthesis of host macromolecules that eventually leads to cell death is generally performed by the physical and/or chemical modification of indispensable host proteins by early proteins. Interestingly, most modified bacterial proteins were shown to take part actively in phage-specific transcription and replication. Research on phages in last nine decades has demonstrated such lethal early proteins that interact with or chemically modify indispensable host proteins. Among the host proteins inhibited by lethal phage proteins, several are not inhibited by any chemical inhibitor available today. Under the context of widespread dissemination of antibiotic-resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria in recent years, the information of lethal phage proteins and cognate host proteins could be extremely invaluable as they may lead to the identification of novel antibacterial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about some early phage proteins, their cognate host proteins and their mechanism of action and also describe how the above interacting proteins had been exploited in antibacterial drug discovery. PMID:18537683

  5. Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuchiya, Hikaru; Arai, Naoko; Tanaka, Keiji Saeki, Yasushi

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •We succeeded to control the proteasome localization by the anchor-away technique. •Nuclear proteasome-depleted cells showed a lethal phenotype. •Cytoplasmic proteasomes are not indispensable for cell growth in dividing cells. -- Abstract: The 26S proteasome is an essential protease complex responsible for the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins in eukaryotic cells. In rapidly proliferating yeast cells, proteasomes are mainly localized in the nucleus, but the biological significance of the proteasome localization is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the proteasome localization and the functions by the anchor-away technique, a ligand-dependent sequestration of a target protein into specific compartment(s). Anchoring of the proteasome to the plasma membrane or the ribosome resulted in conditional depletion of the nuclear proteasomes, whereas anchoring to histone resulted in the proteasome sequestration into the nucleus. We observed that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in all the proteasome-targeted cells, suggesting that both the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteasomes have proteolytic functions and that the ubiquitinated proteins are produced and degraded in each compartment. Consistent with previous studies, the nuclear proteasome-depleted cells exhibited a lethal phenotype. In contrast, the nuclear sequestration of the proteasome resulted only in a mild growth defect, suggesting that the cytoplasmic proteasomes are not basically indispensable for cell growth in rapidly growing yeast cells.

  6. Tools for measuring patient safety in primary care settings using the RAND/UCLA appropriateness method

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of patient contacts occur in general practice but general practice patient safety has been poorly described and under-researched to date compared to hospital settings. Our objective was to produce a set of patient safety tools and indicators that can be used in general practices in any healthcare setting and develop a ‘toolkit’ of feasible patient safety measures for general practices in England. Methods A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method exercise was conducted with a panel of international experts in general practice patient safety. Statements were developed from an extensive systematic literature review of patient safety in general practice. We used standard RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method rating methods to identify necessary items for assessing patient safety in general practice, framed in terms of the Structure-Process-Outcome taxonomy. Items were included in the toolkit if they received an overall panel median score of ≥7 with agreement (no more than two panel members rating the statement outside a 3-point distribution around the median). Results Of 205 identified statements, the panel rated 101 as necessary for assessing the safety of general practices. Of these 101 statements, 73 covered structures or organisational issues, 22 addressed processes and 6 focused on outcomes. Conclusions We developed and tested tools that can lead to interventions to improve safety outcomes in general practice. This paper reports the first attempt to systematically develop a patient safety toolkit for general practice, which has the potential to improve safety, cost effectiveness and patient experience, in any healthcare system. PMID:24902490

  7. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators—a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about ‘progress’ and ‘value’ in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes ’value’ to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their

  8. PACE Continuous Innovation Indicators-a novel tool to measure progress in cancer treatments.

    PubMed

    Paddock, Silvia; Brum, Lauren; Sorrow, Kathleen; Thomas, Samuel; Spence, Susan; Maulbecker-Armstrong, Catharina; Goodman, Clifford; Peake, Michael; McVie, Gordon; Geipel, Gary; Li, Rose

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about rising health care costs and the often incremental nature of improvements in health outcomes continue to fuel intense debates about 'progress' and 'value' in cancer research. In times of tightening fiscal constraints, it is increasingly important for patients and their representatives to define what constitutes 'value' to them. It is clear that diverse stakeholders have different priorities. Harmonisation of values may be neither possible nor desirable. Stakeholders lack tools to visualise or otherwise express these differences and to track progress in cancer treatments based on variable sets of values. The Patient Access to Cancer care Excellence (PACE) Continuous Innovation Indicators are novel, scientifically rigorous progress trackers that employ a three-step process to quantify progress in cancer treatments: 1) mine the literature to determine the strength of the evidence supporting each treatment; 2) allow users to weight the analysis according to their priorities and values; and 3) calculate Evidence Scores (E-Scores), a novel measure to track progress, based on the strength of the evidence weighted by the assigned value. We herein introduce a novel, flexible value model, show how the values from the model can be used to weight the evidence from the scientific literature to obtain E-Scores, and illustrate how assigning different values to new treatments influences the E-Scores. The Indicators allow users to learn how differing values lead to differing assessments of progress in cancer research and to check whether current incentives for innovation are aligned with their value model. By comparing E-Scores generated by this tool, users are able to visualise the relative pace of innovation across areas of cancer research and how stepwise innovation can contribute to substantial progress against cancer over time. Learning from experience and mapping current unmet needs will help to support a broad audience of stakeholders in their efforts to

  9. Measuring the Bright Side of Being Blue: A New Tool for Assessing Analytical Rumination in Depression

    PubMed Central

    Barbic, Skye P.; Durisko, Zachary; Andrews, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and management of depression occurs frequently in the primary care setting. Current diagnostic and management of treatment practices across clinical populations focus on eliminating signs and symptoms of depression. However, there is debate that some interventions may pathologize normal, adaptive responses to stressors. Analytical rumination (AR) is an example of an adaptive response of depression that is characterized by enhanced cognitive function to help an individual focus on, analyze, and solve problems. To date, research on AR has been hampered by the lack of theoretically-derived and psychometrically sound instruments. This study developed and tested a clinically meaningful measure of AR. Methods Using expert panels and an extensive literature review, we developed a conceptual framework for AR and 22 candidate items. Items were field tested to 579 young adults; 140 of whom completed the items at a second time point. We used Rasch measurement methods to construct and test the item set; and traditional psychometric analyses to compare items to existing rating scales. Results Data were high quality (<1% missing; high reliability: Cronbach's alpha  = 0.92, test-retest intraclass correlations >0.81; evidence for divergent validity). Evidence of misfit for 2 items suggested that a 20-item scale with 4-point response categories best captured the concept of AR, fitting the Rasch model (χ2 = 95.26; df  = 76, p = 0.07), with high reliability (rp = 0.86), ordered response scale structure, and no item bias (gender, age, time). Conclusion Our study provides evidence for a 20-item Analytical Rumination Questionnaire (ARQ) that can be used to quantify AR in adults who experience symptoms of depression. The ARQ is psychometrically robust and a clinically useful tool for the assessment and improvement of depression in the primary care setting. Future work is needed to establish the validity of this measure in people with major

  10. Improved efficiency in clinical workflow of reporting measured oncology lesions via PACS-integrated lesion tracking tool.

    PubMed

    Sevenster, Merlijn; Travis, Adam R; Ganesh, Rajiv K; Liu, Peng; Kose, Ursula; Peters, Joost; Chang, Paul J

    2015-03-01

    OBJECTIVE. Imaging provides evidence for the response to oncology treatment by the serial measurement of reference lesions. Unfortunately, the identification, comparison, measurement, and documentation of several reference lesions can be an inefficient process. We tested the hypothesis that optimized workflow orchestration and tight integration of a lesion tracking tool into the PACS and speech recognition system can result in improvements in oncologic lesion measurement efficiency. SUBJECTS AND METHODS. A lesion management tool tightly integrated into the PACS workflow was developed. We evaluated the effect of the use of the tool on measurement reporting time by means of a prospective time-motion study on 86 body CT examinations with 241 measureable oncologic lesions with four radiologists. RESULTS. Aggregated measurement reporting time per lesion was 11.64 seconds in standard workflow, 16.67 seconds if readers had to register measurements de novo, and 6.36 seconds for each subsequent follow-up study. Differences were statistically significant (p < 0.05) for each reader, except for one difference for one reader. CONCLUSION. Measurement reporting time can be reduced by using a PACS workflow-integrated lesion management tool, especially for patients with multiple follow-up examinations, reversing the onetime efficiency penalty at baseline registration.

  11. Development and testing of a work measurement tool to assess caregivers' activities in residential aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Munyisia, Esther; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of computerized information systems into health care practices may cause changes to the way healthcare workers conduct their routine work activities, such as work flow and the time spend on each activity. To date the available work measurement tools are confined to activities in hospitals and do not cover residential aged care facilities (RACFs). There is little evidence about the effects of technology on caregivers' work practices, including the distribution of time on activities in a RACF. This requires the measurement of caregivers' activities using a valid and reliable measurement tool. The contribution of this research is to develop and test such a tool. The tool was developed based on literature research and validation in two RACFs. The final instrument contains 48 activities that are grouped into seven categories. They include direct care, indirect care, communication, documentation, personal activities, in-transit and others. This measurement tool can be used to measure the changes in caregivers' work activities associated with the introduction of computerized information systems in RACFs, including the efficiency gains of such systems. PMID:20841879

  12. Developing a Tool to Measure the Impact of E-Learning on the Teachers of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, M. Rajesh; Kumar, R. Krishna

    2008-01-01

    The trend of using e-learning as a teaching tool is now rapidly expanding into education. Although e-learning environments are becoming popular there is minimal research on the impact of e-learning on the teachers. The purpose of this study is to develop a tool to measure the impact of e-learning on the teachers' of higher education in the Indian…

  13. Using knowledge brokers to facilitate the uptake of pediatric measurement tools into clinical practice: a before-after intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The use of measurement tools is an essential part of good evidence-based practice; however, physiotherapists (PTs) are not always confident when selecting, administering, and interpreting these tools. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted knowledge translation intervention, using PTs as knowledge brokers (KBs) to facilitate the use in clinical practice of four evidence-based measurement tools designed to evaluate and understand motor function in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The KB model evaluated in this study was designed to overcome many of the barriers to research transfer identified in the literature. Methods A mixed methods before-after study design was used to evaluate the impact of a six-month KB intervention by 25 KBs on 122 practicing PTs' self-reported knowledge and use of the measurement tools in 28 children's rehabilitation organizations in two regions of Canada. The model was that of PT KBs situated in clinical sites supported by a network of KBs and the research team through a broker to the KBs. Modest financial remuneration to the organizations for the KB time (two hours/week for six months), ongoing resource materials, and personal and intranet support was provided to the KBs. Survey data were collected by questionnaire prior to, immediately following the intervention (six months), and at 12 and 18 months. A mixed effects multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the impact of the intervention over time and by region. The impact of organizational factors was also explored. Results PTs' self-reported knowledge of all four measurement tools increased significantly over the six-month intervention, and reported use of three of the four measurement tools also increased. Changes were sustained 12 months later. Organizational culture for research and supervisor expectations were significantly associated with uptake of only one of the four measurement tools. Conclusions KBs positively influenced

  14. A New Tool to Measure Malevolent Creativity: The Malevolent Creativity Behavior Scale

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ning; Tang, Mengying; Yang, Jing; Wang, Qifei; Runco, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    The present study developed the malevolent creativity behavior scale (MCBS), which contains 13 items and was designed to measure individuals’ malevolent creativity through the behavior of daily lives. A total of 958 participants from different regions of China completed the MCBS in an online fashion. Cronbach’s α coefficient, using the 908 MCBSs with entirely complete data, indicated that the MCBS had satisfactory reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the MCBS had 3 dimensions: hurting people, lying, and playing tricks. MCBS scores were positively correlated with individuals’ aggression, openness, extraversion, and scores on the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS). MCBS scores also predicted individuals’ malevolent creativity performances when solving realistic, open-ended problems. The MCBS has a simple response medium and scoring procedure. This, along with the adequate psychometric properties uncovered here, indicates that it is a useful tool for research on malevolent creativity. Given that the MCBS contains a relatively small number of categories and items, further research could expand the categories of items and develop and test more items. Moreover, it would be useful to test MCBS’s reliability and validity with other criteria. Perhaps future research could obtain actual MC data from criminal or other unambiguously malevolent samples. PMID:27242596

  15. A New Tool to Measure Malevolent Creativity: The Malevolent Creativity Behavior Scale.

    PubMed

    Hao, Ning; Tang, Mengying; Yang, Jing; Wang, Qifei; Runco, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    The present study developed the malevolent creativity behavior scale (MCBS), which contains 13 items and was designed to measure individuals' malevolent creativity through the behavior of daily lives. A total of 958 participants from different regions of China completed the MCBS in an online fashion. Cronbach's α coefficient, using the 908 MCBSs with entirely complete data, indicated that the MCBS had satisfactory reliability. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that the MCBS had 3 dimensions: hurting people, lying, and playing tricks. MCBS scores were positively correlated with individuals' aggression, openness, extraversion, and scores on the Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS). MCBS scores also predicted individuals' malevolent creativity performances when solving realistic, open-ended problems. The MCBS has a simple response medium and scoring procedure. This, along with the adequate psychometric properties uncovered here, indicates that it is a useful tool for research on malevolent creativity. Given that the MCBS contains a relatively small number of categories and items, further research could expand the categories of items and develop and test more items. Moreover, it would be useful to test MCBS's reliability and validity with other criteria. Perhaps future research could obtain actual MC data from criminal or other unambiguously malevolent samples. PMID:27242596

  16. Mental Imagery Scale: a new measurement tool to assess structural features of mental representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ercole, Martina; Castelli, Paolo; Giannini, Anna Maria; Sbrilli, Antonella

    2010-05-01

    Mental imagery is a quasi-perceptual experience which resembles perceptual experience, but occurring without (appropriate) external stimuli. It is a form of mental representation and is often considered centrally involved in visuo-spatial reasoning and inventive and creative thought. Although imagery ability is assumed to be functionally independent of verbal systems, it is still considered to interact with verbal representations, enabling objects to be named and names to evoke images. In literature, most measurement tools for evaluating imagery capacity are self-report instruments focusing on differences in individuals. In the present work, we applied a Mental Imagery Scale (MIS) to mental images derived from verbal descriptions in order to assess the structural features of such mental representations. This is a key theme for those disciplines which need to turn objects and representations into words and vice versa, such as art or architectural didactics. To this aim, an MIS questionnaire was administered to 262 participants. The questionnaire, originally consisting of a 33-item 5-step Likert scale, was reduced to 28 items covering six areas: (1) Image Formation Speed, (2) Permanence/Stability, (3) Dimensions, (4) Level of Detail/Grain, (5) Distance and (6) Depth of Field or Perspective. Factor analysis confirmed our six-factor hypothesis underlying the 28 items.

  17. Inversion of calcite twin data for stress (2) : EBSD as a tool for data measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlangeau, Camille; Lacombe, Olivier; Brisset, Francois; Kohler, Eric; Daniel, Jean-Marc; Schueller, Sylvie

    2015-04-01

    Inversion of calcite twin data are known to be a powerful tool to reconstruct the past state(s) of stress in carbonate rocks of the crust, especially in fold-and-thrust belts and sedimentary basins. Twin data measurements have been for long carried out optically using a Universal-Stage. This data collection is time-consuming and suffers from limitations and bias related to measurements of twin planes oblique at low angle or parallel to the thin section, or the unambiguous evaluation of the twinned/untwinned character of collected twin data. EBSD (electron backscatter diffraction) is a well-known technique applied to characterize textures and microstructures of metals or deformed fine-grained rocks. The challenge is to define a strategy for measuring calcite-twin orientations that should be fast, without any loss of information, and which must reconcile (1) the need for a large amount of calcite twin data (3 mutually perpendicular thin sections and at least 30 crystals per thin section), (2) the spacing between EBSD spots, that should take into account (3) the small width of twin lamellae within grains deformed at low pressure and temperature and (4) the large size (usually several hundreds of microns) of twinned calcite grains used for stress analysis. To date, these multiple requirements preclude any (classical) automatic twin data acquisition but instead imply a preliminary definition of the areas of the thin section to be scanned by the EBSD spots, including grain boundaries, because the stress inversion technique requires to know for each grain the orientations of the C axis and of the 3 potential e twin planes. In order to reconcile a perfectly polished surface as required by EBSD and the recognition of grain boundaries, we adopted the double etching technique (Herwegh, 2000) to first reveal grain and twin boundaries. Then, with a SEM and a very fine coating sample, the section is scanned using secondary electrons bin; each spot of interest is visually defined

  18. Assessment of the application of bioanalytical tools as surrogate measure of chemical contaminants in recycled water.

    PubMed

    Leusch, Frederic D L; Khan, Stuart J; Laingam, Somprasong; Prochazka, Erik; Froscio, Suzanne; Trinh, Trang; Chapman, Heather F; Humpage, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    The growing use of recycled water in large urban centres requires comprehensive public health risk assessment and management, an important aspect of which is the assessment and management of residual trace chemical substances. Bioanalytical methods such as in vitro bioassays may be ideal screening tools that can detect a wide range of contaminants based on their biological effect. In this study, we applied thirteen in vitro assays selected explicitly for their ability to detect molecular and cellular effects relevant to potential chemical exposure via drinking water as a means of screening for chemical contaminants from recycled water at 9 Australian water reclamation plants, in parallel to more targeted direct chemical analysis of 39 priority compounds. The selected assays provided measures of primary non-specific (cytotoxicity to various cell types), specific (inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and endocrine receptor-mediated effects) and reactive toxicity (mutagenicity and genotoxicity), as well as markers of adaptive stress response (modulation of cytokine production) and xenobiotic metabolism (liver enzyme induction). Chemical and bioassay analyses were in agreement and complementary to each other: the results show that source water (treated wastewater) contained high levels of biologically active compounds, with positive results in almost all bioassays. The quality of the product water (reclaimed water) was only marginally better after ultrafiltration or dissolved air floatation/filtration, but greatly improved after reverse osmosis often reducing biological activity to below detection limit. The bioassays were able to detect activity at concentrations below current chemical method detection limits and provided a sum measure of all biologically active compounds for that bioassay, thus providing an additional degree of confidence in water quality.

  19. Relative validity of a tool to measure food acculturation in children of Mexican descent.

    PubMed

    Vera-Becerra, Luz Elvia; Lopez, Martha L; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine relative validity of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to measure food acculturation in young Mexican-origin children. In 2006, Spanish-speaking staff interviewed mothers in a community-based sample of households from Ventura, California (US) (n = 95) and Guanajuato, Mexico (MX) (n = 200). Data included two 24-h dietary recalls (24-DR); a 30-item FFQ; and anthropometry of the children. To measure construct, convergent, and discriminant validity, data analyses included factor analysis, Spearman correlations, t-test, respectively. Factor analysis revealed two constructs: 1) a US food pattern including hamburgers, pizza, hot dogs, fried chicken, juice, cereal, pastries, lower fat milk, quesadillas, and American cheese and 2) a MX food pattern including tortillas, fried beans, rice/noodles, whole milk, and pan dulce (sweet bread). Out of 22 food items that could be compared across the FFQ and mean 24-DRs, 17 were significantly, though weakly, correlated (highest r = 0.62, for whole milk). The mean US food pattern score was significantly higher, and the MX food pattern score, lower in US children than in MX children (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for child's age and gender; mother's education; and household size, the US food pattern score was positively related to body mass index (BMI) z-scores (beta coefficient: +0.29, p = - 0.004), whereas the MX food pattern score was negatively related to BMI z-scores (beta coefficient: -0.28, p = 0.002). This tool may be useful to evaluate nutrition education interventions to prevent childhood obesity on both sides of the border.

  20. Is Ammonium Peroxydisulate Indispensable for Preparation of Aniline-Derived Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Electrocatalysts?

    PubMed

    Xie, Nan-Hong; Yan, Xiang-Hui; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Iron and nitrogen co-doped carbon (Fe-N-C) materials are among the most active non-precious metal catalysts that could replace Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The synthesis of the Fe-N-C catalysts often involves the use of aniline as the precursor for both N and C and ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) as an indispensable oxidative initiator for aniline polymerization. Herein, a detailed structure and catalytic ORR performance comparison of aniline-derived Fe-N-C catalysts synthesized with and without the use of APS is reported. The APS-free preparation, which uses Fe(III) ions as the Fe source as well as the aniline polymerization initiator, results in a simple Fe-N-C catalyst with a high activity for the ORR. We show that APS is not necessary for the preparation and even detrimental to the performance of the catalyst.

  1. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Im, Piljae

    2012-01-01

    , 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three parallel circuits - out and back), and the multiple instances of FHX and/or HGHX are all connected in series. The working fluid is 20% by weight propylene glycol in water. Model and design tool development was undertaken in parallel with constructing the houses, installing instrumentation, and monitoring performance for a year. Several detailed numerical models for FHX were developed as part of the project. Essentially the project team was searching for an energy performance model accurate enough to achieve project objectives while also having sufficient computational efficiency for practical use in EnergyPlus. A 3-dimensional, dual-coordinate-system, finite-volume model satisfied these criteria and was included in the October 2011 EnergyPlus Version 7 public release after being validated against measured data.

  2. Foundation Heat Exchanger Final Report: Demonstration, Measured Performance, and Validated Model and Design Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, Patrick; Im, Piljae

    2012-04-01

    , 50% of which was construction excavation. There are six pipes in all excavations (three parallel circuits - out and back), and the multiple instances of FHX and/or HGHX are all connected in series. The working fluid is 20% by weight propylene glycol in water. Model and design tool development was undertaken in parallel with constructing the houses, installing instrumentation, and monitoring performance for a year. Several detailed numerical models for FHX were developed as part of the project. Essentially the project team was searching for an energy performance model accurate enough to achieve project objectives while also having sufficient computational efficiency for practical use in EnergyPlus. A 3-dimensional, dual-coordinate-system, finite-volume model satisfied these criteria and was included in the October 2011 EnergyPlus Version 7 public release after being validated against measured data.

  3. Overview of existing residential energy-efficiency rating systems and measuring tools

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, P.L.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Williams, T.A.

    1982-10-01

    Three categories of rating systems/tools were identified: prescriptive, calculational, and performance. Prescriptive systems include rating systems that assign points to various conservation features. Most systems that have been implemented to date have been prescriptive systems. The vast majority of these are investor-owned utility programs affiliated with the National Energy Watch program of the Edison Electric Institute. The calculational category includes computational tools that can be used to estimate energy consumption. This estimate could then be transformed, probably by indexing, into a rating. The available computational tools range from very simple to complex tools requiring use of a main-frame computer. Performance systems refer to residential energy-efficiency ratings that are based on past fuel consumption of a home. There are few of these systems. For each identified system/tool, the name, address, and telephone number of the developer is included. In addition, relevant publications discussing the system/tool are cited. The extent of field validation/verification of individual systems and tools is discussed. In general, there has been little validation/verification done. A bibliography of literature relevant to the use and implementation of a home energy rating system is also included.

  4. A Tool for Measuring NASA's Aeronautics Research Progress Toward Planned Strategic Community Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. For efficiency and speed, the tool takes advantage of a function developed in Excels Visual Basic for Applications. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly discussed. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples of using the tool are also presented.

  5. NDVI as a tool for measuring impact of climate variability upon vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delitala, Alessandro M. S.; Vizzari, Marco; Capece, Paolo; Fiori, Michele; Mannu, Giovanna Maria; Pacicco, Ciro Luca; Pinna Nossai, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Land-atmosphere interactive processes are useful to understand impacts of year by year climate variability and to highlight possible trends, since the status of the natural vegetation cover is strongly controlled by climate factors. The so-called NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), derived from the red and the near infrared channels of NOAA satellite, is a reliable indicator applicable to the analysis of photosynthetic biomass variations in vegetated areas. NDVI images, derived on a monthly basis by maximum composite value technique, can become a useful tool to monitor the dynamics of vegetation and to determine the maximum level of vegetation greenness observed over every year. Interannual variability of precipitation is likely to have a significant impact on the greenness of vegetation cover, since rainy seasons are expected to stimulate a much richer plants development than drier ones. The present poster intends to outline a research, jointly carried by ARPAS (the Regional Environmental Protection Agency of Sardinia) and the 'Department of Man and Territory' of the University of Perugia, that aimed to correlate the year by year variability of hydrological variables (precipitation and soil water content) and the maximum annual NDVI over the island of Sardinia. In order to do that, the authors defined four test areas, extending from 235 km2 to 1015 km2. Test areas were chosen in order to be mostly covered by natural vegetations, according to CORINE land-cover. Over such areas surface measures by ARPAS stations were compared against annual maximum NDVI index from 1998 to 2008, focusing on the so-called 'rainy season' that in Sardinia ranges from October to April. Precipitation for the selected areas was measured with the network of ground stations of ARPAS. Evapotranspiration was estimated by means of Hargreaves-Samani method applied to data from the above stations. Finally, estimation of the soil moisture content was carried out by means of a daily time

  6. [A simple tool to measure the immediate wellbeing of elderly people in nursing homes].

    PubMed

    Kuhnel, Marie-Laure; Sanchez, Stéphane; Hugault, François Bertin; de Normandie, Philippe; Dramé, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    Immediate wellbeing and quality of life in an institution are of paramount importance. The assessment of the quality of life of elderly people is both complex and poorly adapted to daily practices. The instant assessment of wellbeing tool (EVIBE), developed in the field, is an original and practical alternative. This tool allows caregivers to carry out an immediate assessment and a qualitative approach with residents while involving professionals in a well-treatment approach improving daily practices.

  7. The Learning Loss Scale as an Assessment Tool: An Empirical Examination of Convergent Validity with Performative Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, John; Denker, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Higher education has placed an increasingly greater value on assessment. The Learning Loss Scale may be an appropriate tool to assess learning across disciplines. In this paper, we review the culture of assessment, conceptualizations of cognitive learning, the Learning Loss Scale, and a theoretical explanation, and then we test this measure to…

  8. Global Positioning System: a new tool for measurement of animal bites in a rural area near Bangalore, South India.

    PubMed

    Masthi, N R Ramesh; Undi, Malatesh

    2014-10-01

    This exploratory study was conducted in villages near Bangalore, South India with the primary objective of spatial mapping animal bite cases using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology. GPS technology was useful as a new tool in accurate measurement of animal bite cases.

  9. Measuring Educators' Perceptions of Their Skills Relative to Response to Intervention: A Psychometric Study of a Survey Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castillo, Jose M.; March, Amanda L.; Stockslager, Kevin M.; Hines, Constance V.

    2016-01-01

    The "Perceptions of RtI Skills Survey" is a self-report measure that assesses educators' perceptions of their data-based problem-solving skills--a critical element of many Response-to-Intervention (RtI) models. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to evaluate the underlying factor structure of this tool. Educators from 68 (n =…

  10. Reliability of a tool for measuring theory of planned behaviour constructs for use in evaluating research use in policymaking

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although measures of knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) effectiveness based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) have been used among patients and providers, no measure has been developed for use among health system policymakers and stakeholders. A tool that measures the intention to use research evidence in policymaking could assist researchers in evaluating the effectiveness of KTE strategies that aim to support evidence-informed health system decision-making. Therefore, we developed a 15-item tool to measure four TPB constructs (intention, attitude, subjective norm and perceived control) and assessed its face validity through key informant interviews. Methods We carried out a reliability study to assess the tool's internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Our study sample consisted of 62 policymakers and stakeholders that participated in deliberative dialogues. We assessed internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha and generalizability (G) coefficients, and we assessed test-retest reliability by calculating Pearson correlation coefficients (r) and G coefficients for each construct and the tool overall. Results The internal consistency of items within each construct was good with alpha ranging from 0.68 to alpha = 0.89. G-coefficients were lower for a single administration (G = 0.34 to G = 0.73) than for the average of two administrations (G = 0.79 to G = 0.89). Test-retest reliability coefficients for the constructs ranged from r = 0.26 to r = 0.77 and from G = 0.31 to G = 0.62 for a single administration, and from G = 0.47 to G = 0.86 for the average of two administrations. Test-retest reliability of the tool using G theory was moderate (G = 0.5) when we generalized across a single observation, but became strong (G = 0.9) when we averaged across both administrations. Conclusion This study provides preliminary evidence for the reliability of a tool that can be used to measure TPB constructs in relation to research use in policymaking

  11. CGGBP1—an indispensable protein with ubiquitous cytoprotective functions

    PubMed Central

    Westermark, Bengt

    2015-01-01

    The human genome contains multiple stretches of CGG trinucleotide repeats, which act as transcription- and translation-regulatory elements but at the same time form secondary structures that impede replication and give rise to sites of chromosome fragility. Proteins binding to such DNA elements may be involved in divergent cellular processes such as transcription, DNA damage, and epigenetic state of the chromatin. We review here the work done on CGG repeats and associated proteins with special focus on a factor called CGGBP1. CGGBP1 presents with an interesting example of factors that do not have any single dedicated function, but participate indispensably in multiple processes. Both experimental results and data from cancer genome sequencing have revealed that any alteration in CGGBP1 that compromises its function is not tolerated by normal or cancer cells alike. Based upon a large amount of published data, information from databases, and unpublished results, we decipher in this review how CGGBP1 is a classic example of the ‘one factor, divergent functions’ paradigm of cytoprotection. By taking cues from the studies on CGGBP1, more such factors can be discovered for a better understanding of the evolution of mechanisms of cellular survival. PMID:26482656

  12. Is Ammonium Peroxydisulate Indispensable for Preparation of Aniline-Derived Iron-Nitrogen-Carbon Electrocatalysts?

    PubMed

    Xie, Nan-Hong; Yan, Xiang-Hui; Xu, Bo-Qing

    2016-09-01

    Iron and nitrogen co-doped carbon (Fe-N-C) materials are among the most active non-precious metal catalysts that could replace Pt-based electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries. The synthesis of the Fe-N-C catalysts often involves the use of aniline as the precursor for both N and C and ammonium peroxydisulfate (APS) as an indispensable oxidative initiator for aniline polymerization. Herein, a detailed structure and catalytic ORR performance comparison of aniline-derived Fe-N-C catalysts synthesized with and without the use of APS is reported. The APS-free preparation, which uses Fe(III) ions as the Fe source as well as the aniline polymerization initiator, results in a simple Fe-N-C catalyst with a high activity for the ORR. We show that APS is not necessary for the preparation and even detrimental to the performance of the catalyst. PMID:27514790

  13. Bovicin HJ50-Like Lantibiotics, a Novel Subgroup of Lantibiotics Featured by an Indispensable Disulfide Bridge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Ma, Hongchu; Ge, Xiaoxuan; Zhang, Jie; Teng, Kunling; Sun, Zhizeng; Zhong, Jin

    2014-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally-synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides with potent antimicrobial activities. Discovery of novel lantibiotics has been greatly accelerated with the soaring release of genomic information of microorganisms. As a unique class II lantibiotic, bovicin HJ50 is produced by Streptococcus bovis HJ50 and contains one rare disulfide bridge. By using its precursor BovA as a drive sequence, 16 BovA-like peptides were revealed in a wide variety of species. From them, three representative novel lan loci from Clostridium perfringens D str. JGS1721, Bacillus cereus As 1.348 and B. thuringiensis As 1.013 were identified by PCR screening. The corresponding mature lantibiotics designated perecin, cerecin and thuricin were obtained and structurally elucidated to be bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics especially by containing a conserved disulfide bridge. The disulfide bridge was substantiated to be essential for the function of bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics as its disruption eliminated their antimicrobial activities. Further analysis indicated that the disulfide bridge played a crucial role in maintaining the hydrophobicity of bovicin HJ50, which might facilitate it to exert antimicrobial function. This study unveiled a novel subgroup of disulfide-containing lantibiotics from bacteria of different niches and further demonstrated the indispensable role of disulfide bridge in these novel bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics. PMID:24821187

  14. Comparative analyses of extrachromosomal bacterial replicons, identification of chromids, and experimental evaluation of their indispensability.

    PubMed

    Dziewit, Lukasz; Bartosik, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial genomic information can be divided between various replicons, including chromosomes, plasmids, and chromids (essential plasmid-like replicons with properties of both chromosomes and plasmids). Comparative analyses of bacterial plasmids, including homology searches, phylogenetic and phylogenomic analyses, as well as network construction for the characterization of their relationships, are good starting points for the identification of chromids. Chromids possess several chromosome-like genetic features (e.g., codon usage, GC content), but most significantly, they carry housekeeping genes, which make them indispensable for cell viability. However, it is important to confirm in silico predictions experimentally. The essential nature of a predicted chromid is usually verified by the application of a target-oriented replicon curing technique, based on the incompatibility phenomenon. Further tests examining growth in various media are used to distinguish secondary chromids from plasmids, and mutational analysis (e.g., using the yeast FLP/FRT recombination system) is employed to identify essential genes carried by particular chromids. PMID:25343856

  15. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  16. Lethal (2) giant larvae: an indispensable regulator of cell polarity and cancer development.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fang; Miao, Yi; Xu, Kedong; Liu, Peijun

    2015-01-01

    Cell polarity is one of the most basic properties of all normal cells and is essential for regulating numerous biological processes. Loss of polarity is considered a hallmark for cancer. Multiple polarity proteins are implicated in maintenance of cell polarity. Lethal (2) giant larvae (Lgl) is one of polarity proteins that plays an important role in regulating cell polarity, asymmetric division as well as tumorigenesis. Lgl proteins in different species have similar structures and conserved functions. Lgl acts as an indispensable regulator of cell biological function, including cell polarity and asymmetric division, through interplaying with other polarity proteins, regulating exocytosis, mediating cytoskeleton and being involved in signaling pathways. Furthermore, Lgl plays a role of a tumor suppressor, and the aberrant expression of Hugl, a human homologue of Lgl, contributes to multiple cancers. However, the exact functions of Lgl and the underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. In this review, we will give an overview of the Lgl functions in cell polarity and cancer development, discuss the potential mechanisms underlying these functions, and raise our conclusion of previous studies and points of view about the future studies.

  17. Ligand affinity chromatography, an indispensable method for the purification of soluble cytokine receptors and binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Novick, Daniela; Rubinstein, Menachem

    2012-01-01

    Ligand affinity chromatography separation is based on unique interaction between the target analyte and a ligand, which is coupled covalently to a resin. It is a simple, rapid, selective, and efficient purification procedure of proteins providing tens of thousands fold purification in one step. The biological activity of the isolated proteins is retained in most cases thus function is revealed concomitantly with the isolation. Prior to the completion of the genome project this method facilitated rapid and reliable cloning of the corresponding gene. Upon completion of this project, a partial protein sequence is enough for retrieving its complete mRNA and hence its complete protein sequence. This method is indispensable for the isolation of both expected (e.g. receptors) but mainly unexpected, unpredicted and very much surprising binding proteins. No other approach would yield the latter. This chapter provides examples for both the expected target proteins, isolated from rich sources of human proteins, as well as the unexpected binding proteins, found by serendipity. PMID:22131033

  18. Set1/MLL complex is indispensable for the transcriptional ability of heat shock transcription factor 2.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Naoki

    2015-11-27

    Heat shock transcription factor 2 (HSF2) is one of four mammalian HSFs, and it is essential in neurogenesis and gametogenesis. However, other aspects of this transcription factor have not been thoroughly characterized. We recently demonstrated that HSF2 suppresses the aggregation caused by polyglutamine (polyQ) protein, and that the cell protective ability of HSF2 is mediated through the induction of the small HSP alphaB-crystallin (CRYAB). In the present study, we investigated the mechanism of HSF2-induced CRYAB expression. We demonstrated that HSF2 interacted with the core component of the Set1/MLL H3K4 histone methyltransferase complex, WDR5. Indeed, HSF2 up-regulated the H3K4me3, H3K14Ac, and H3K27Ac (active histone marks) of the CRYAB promoter. WDR5 bound to the HSF2 central domain (Domain X) in vitro and in vivo, and Cys278 of HSF2 was indispensable for HSF2-WDR5 interaction. HSF2 also interacted with the Set1/MLL complex. These results suggest that the interaction with the Set1/MLL complex via binding to WDR5 is critical for the transcriptional ability of HSF2. PMID:26478434

  19. KCNK5 channels mostly expressed in cochlear outer sulcus cells are indispensable for hearing

    PubMed Central

    Cazals, Yves; Bévengut, Michelle; Zanella, Sébastien; Brocard, Frédéric; Barhanin, Jacques; Gestreau, Christian

    2015-01-01

    In the cochlea, K+ is essential for mechano-electrical transduction. Here, we explore cochlear structure and function in mice lacking K+ channels of the two-pore domain family. A profound deafness associated with a decrease in endocochlear potential is found in adult Kcnk5−/− mice. Hearing occurs around postnatal day 19 (P19), and completely disappears 2 days later. At P19, Kcnk5−/− mice have a normal endolymphatic [K+] but a partly lowered endocochlear potential. Using Lac-Z as a gene reporter, KCNK5 is mainly found in outer sulcus Claudius', Boettcher's and root cells. Low levels of expression are also seen in the spiral ganglion, Reissner's membrane and stria vascularis. Essential channels (KCNJ10 and KCNQ1) contributing to K+ secretion in stria vascularis have normal expression in Kcnk5−/− mice. Thus, KCNK5 channels are indispensable for the maintenance of hearing. Among several plausible mechanisms, we emphasize their role in K+ recycling along the outer sulcus lateral route. PMID:26549439

  20. Structural basis for the indispensable role of a unique zinc finger motif in LNX2 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Digant; Sivaraman, J.

    2015-01-01

    LNX (Ligand of Numb Protein-X) proteins, LNX1 and LNX2, are RING- and PDZ-based E3-ubiquitin ligases known to interact with Numb. Silencing of LNX2 has been reported to down-regulate WNT and NOTCH, two key signaling pathways in tumorigenesis. Here we report the identification of the domain boundary of LNX2 to confer its ubiquitination activity, its crystal structure along with functional studies. We show that the RING domain in LNX2 is flanked by two Zinc-binding motifs (Zn-RING-Zn), in which the N-terminal Zinc-binding motif adopts novel conformation. Although this motif follows the typical Cys2His2-type zinc finger configuration, it is devoid of any secondary structure and forms an open circle conformation, which has not been reported yet. This unique N-terminal Zn-finger motif is indispensable for the activity and stability of LNX2, as verified using mutational studies. The Zn-RING-Zn domain of LNX2 is a dimer and assumes a rigid elongated structure that undergoes autoubiquitination and undergoes N-terminal polyubiquitination. The ubiquitin chains consist of all seven possible isopeptide linkages. These results were validated using full-length LNX2. Moreover we have demonstrated the ubiquitination of cell fate determinant protein, Numb by LNX2. Our study provides a structural basis for the functional machinery of LNX2 and thus provides the opportunity to investigate suitable drug targets against LNX2. PMID:26451611

  1. The Indispensable Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 in Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masanori; Mulati, Mieradili; Talib, S. Zakiah A.; Kaldis, Philipp; Takeda, Shu; Okawa, Atsushi; Inose, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal development is tightly regulated through the processes of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although the involvement of transcription and growth factors on the regulation of skeletal development has been extensively studied, the role of cell cycle regulatory proteins in this process remains elusive. To date, through cell-specific loss-of-function experiments in vivo, no cell cycle regulatory proteins have yet been conclusively shown to regulate skeletal development. Here, we demonstrate that cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) regulates skeletal development based on chondrocyte-specific loss-of-function experiments performed in a mouse model. Cdk1 is highly expressed in columnar proliferative chondrocytes and is greatly downregulated upon differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cdk1 is essential for proper chondrocyte proliferation and deletion of Cdk1 resulted in accelerated differentiation of chondrocytes. In vitro and ex vivo analyses revealed that Cdk1 is an essential cell cycle regulatory protein for parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) signaling pathway, which is critical to chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. These results demonstrate that Cdk1 functions as a molecular switch from proliferation to hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and thus is indispensable for skeletal development. Given the availability of inhibitors of Cdk1 activity, our results could provide insight for the treatment of diseases involving abnormal chondrocyte proliferation, such as osteoarthritis. PMID:26860366

  2. Distinctive and indispensable roles of PU.1 in maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells and their differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Hiromi; Somoza, Chamorro; Shigematsu, Hirokazu; Duprez, Estelle A.; Iwasaki-Arai, Junko; Mizuno, Shin-ichi; Arinobu, Yojiro; Geary, Kristin; Zhang, Pu; Dayaram, Tajhal; Fenyus, Maris L.; Elf, Shannon; Chan, Susan; Kastner, Philippe; Huettner, Claudia S.; Murray, Richard; Tenen, Daniel G.; Akashi, Koichi

    2005-01-01

    The PU.1 transcription factor is a key regulator of hematopoietic development, but its role at each hematopoietic stage remains unclear. In particular, the expression of PU.1 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) could simply represent “priming” of genes related to downstream myelolymphoid lineages. By using a conditional PU.1 knock-out model, we here show that HSCs express PU.1, and its constitutive expression is necessary for maintenance of the HSC pool in the bone marrow. Bone marrow HSCs disrupted with PU.1 in situ could not maintain hematopoiesis and were outcompeted by normal HSCs. PU.1-deficient HSCs also failed to generate the earliest myeloid and lymphoid progenitors. PU.1 disruption in granulocyte/monocyte-committed progenitors blocked their maturation but not proliferation, resulting in myeloblast colony formation. PU.1 disruption in common lymphoid progenitors, however, did not prevent their B-cell maturation. In vivo disruption of PU.1 in mature B cells by the CD19-Cre locus did not affect B-cell maturation, and PU.1-deficient mature B cells displayed normal proliferation in response to mitogenic signals including the cross-linking of surface immunoglobulin M (IgM). Thus, PU.1 plays indispensable and distinct roles in hematopoietic development through supporting HSC self-renewal as well as commitment and maturation of myeloid and lymphoid lineages. PMID:15914556

  3. Loneliness, social isolation and social relationships: what are we measuring? A novel framework for classifying and comparing tools

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Mona; Gilbody, Simon; Hanratty, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We present a novel way of classifying and comparing measures of social relationships to help readers interpret the growing literature on loneliness and social isolation and to provide researchers with a starting point to guide their choice of measuring tool. Methods Measures of social relationships used in epidemiological studies were identified from two systematic reviews—one review on the association between social relationships and health and social care service use, and a second review on the association between social relationships and health. Questions from each measure were retrieved and tabulated to derive a classification of social relationship measures. Results We present a classification of measures according to two dimensions: (1) whether instruments cover structural or functional aspects of social relationships and (2) the degree of subjectivity asked of respondents. We explain how this classification can be used to clarify the remit of the many questionnaires used in the literature and to compare them. Conclusions Different dimensions of social relationships are likely to have different implications for health. Our classification of social relationship measures transcends disciplinary and conceptual boundaries, allowing researchers to compare tools that developed from different theoretical perspectives. Careful choice of measures is essential to further our understanding of the links between social relationships and health, to identify people in need of help and to design appropriate prevention and intervention strategies. PMID:27091822

  4. Variables Control Charts: A Measurement Tool to Detect Process Problems within Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luna, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use quality improvement tools to determine if the current process of supplying hot water to a high-rise residence hall for women at a southeastern Doctoral I granting institution was in control. After a series of focus groups among the residents in the hall, it was determined that they were mostly concerned about…

  5. TEMPORALLY-RESOLVED AMMONIA EMISSION INVENTORIES: CURRENT ESTIMATES, EVALUATION TOOLS, AND MEASUREMENT NEEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, we evaluate the suitability of a three-dimensional chemical transport model (CTM) as a tool for assessing ammonia emission inventories, calculate the improvement in CTM performance owing to recent advances in temporally-varying ammonia emission estimates, and ident...

  6. Biomonitoring: Measuring Toxins in Our Bodies as a Tool in Protecting Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Sharyle

    2005-01-01

    Biomonitoring is a public health tool that has been used by scientists and researchers for decades to test blood, bone, urine, hair, human milk, adipose tissue, and other body substances for the presence of toxic chemicals, in order to assess what is called the "chemical body burden." Biomonitoring helps to: (1) identify which chemicals are…

  7. [Establishing IAQ Metrics and Baseline Measures.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #20

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) IAQ Profile: Establishing Your Baseline for Long-Term Success (Feature Article); (3) Insight into Excellence: Belleville Township High School District #201, 2009 Leadership Award Winner; and (4) Have Your Questions…

  8. A Portfolio Analysis Tool for Measuring NASAs Aeronautics Research Progress toward Planned Strategic Outcomes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tahmasebi, Farhad; Pearce, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Description of a tool for portfolio analysis of NASA's Aeronautics research progress toward planned community strategic Outcomes is presented. The strategic planning process for determining the community Outcomes is also briefly described. Stakeholder buy-in, partnership performance, progress of supporting Technical Challenges, and enablement forecast are used as the criteria for evaluating progress toward Outcomes. A few illustrative examples are also presented.

  9. Measuring Civic Engagement Processes and Youth Civic Empowerment in the Classroom: The CIVVICS Observation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel Cadwallader; Isenbarger, Molly; Cohen, Alison Klebanoff

    2014-01-01

    Grounded in the context of the gap in civic participation, action-based civics curricula, and how classroom interactions may affect student development, we present the CIVVICS (Civic Interactions motiVating diVerse Individuals in Classroom Settings) observation tool. CIVVICS's four domains--Lesson Planning and Implementation, Classroom…

  10. The Use of Economic Analytical Tools in Quantifying and Measuring Educational Benefits and Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holleman, I. Thomas, Jr.

    The general objective of this study was to devise quantitative guidelines that school officials can accurately follow in using benefit-cost analysis, cost-effectiveness analysis, ratio analysis, and other similar economic analytical tools in their particular local situations. Specifically, the objectives were to determine guidelines for the…

  11. Assessing the efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution as a valid tool for undergraduate non-science majors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romine, William Lee; Walter, Emily Marie

    2014-11-01

    Efficacy of the Measure of Understanding of Macroevolution (MUM) as a measurement tool has been a point of contention among scholars needing a valid measure for knowledge of macroevolution. We explored the structure and construct validity of the MUM using Rasch methodologies in the context of a general education biology course designed with an emphasis on macroevolution content. The Rasch model was utilized to quantify item- and test-level characteristics, including dimensionality, reliability, and fit with the Rasch model. Contrary to previous work, we found that the MUM provides a valid, reliable, and unidimensional scale for measuring knowledge of macroevolution in introductory non-science majors, and that its psychometric behavior does not exhibit large changes across time. While we found that all items provide productive measurement information, several depart substantially from ideal behavior, warranting a collective effort to improve these items. Suggestions for improving the measurement characteristics of the MUM at the item and test levels are put forward and discussed.

  12. Tools and methods for experimental in-vivo measurement and biomechanical characterization of an Octopus vulgaris arm.

    PubMed

    Margheri, Laura; Mazzolai, Barbara; Cianchetti, Matteo; Dario, Paolo; Laschi, Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    This work illustrates new tools and methods for an in vivo and direct, but non-invasive, measurement of an octopus arm mechanical properties. The active elongation (longitudinal stretch) and the pulling force capability are measured on a specimen of Octopus vulgaris in order to quantitatively characterize the parameters describing the arm mechanics, for biomimetic design purposes. The novel approach consists of observing and measuring a living octopus with minimally invasive methods, which allow the animal to move with its complete ability. All tools are conceived in order to create a collaborative interaction with the animal for the acquisition of active measures. The data analysis is executed taking into account the presence of an intrinsic error due to the mobility of the subject and the aquatic environment. Using a system of two synchronized high-speed high-resolution cameras and purpose-made instruments, the maximum elongation of an arm and its rest length (when all muscles fibres are relaxed during propulsion movement) are measured and compared to define the longitudinal stretch, with the impressive average result of 194%. With a similar setup integrated with a force sensor, the pulling force capability is measured as a function of grasp point position along the arm. The measured parameters are used as real specifications for the design of an octopus-like arm with a biomimetic approach. PMID:19965276

  13. A Statistical Method and Tool to Account for Indirect Calorimetry Differential Measurement Error in a Single-Subject Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tenan, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry and oxygen consumption (VO2) are accepted tools in human physiology research. It has been shown that indirect calorimetry systems exhibit differential measurement error, where the error of a device is systematically different depending on the volume of gas flow. Moreover, systems commonly report multiple decimal places of precision, giving the clinician a false sense of device accuracy. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the use of a novel statistical tool which models the reliability of two specific indirect calorimetry systems, Douglas bag and Parvomedics 2400 TrueOne, as univariate normal distributions and implements the distribution overlapping coefficient to determine the likelihood that two VO2 measures are the same. A command line implementation of the tool is available for the R programming language as well as a web-based graphical user interface (GUI). This tool is valuable for clinicians performing a single-subject analysis as well as researchers interested in determining if their observed differences exceed the error of the device. PMID:27242546

  14. A Statistical Method and Tool to Account for Indirect Calorimetry Differential Measurement Error in a Single-Subject Analysis.

    PubMed

    Tenan, Matthew S

    2016-01-01

    Indirect calorimetry and oxygen consumption (VO2) are accepted tools in human physiology research. It has been shown that indirect calorimetry systems exhibit differential measurement error, where the error of a device is systematically different depending on the volume of gas flow. Moreover, systems commonly report multiple decimal places of precision, giving the clinician a false sense of device accuracy. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the use of a novel statistical tool which models the reliability of two specific indirect calorimetry systems, Douglas bag and Parvomedics 2400 TrueOne, as univariate normal distributions and implements the distribution overlapping coefficient to determine the likelihood that two VO2 measures are the same. A command line implementation of the tool is available for the R programming language as well as a web-based graphical user interface (GUI). This tool is valuable for clinicians performing a single-subject analysis as well as researchers interested in determining if their observed differences exceed the error of the device.

  15. Web-based Tool Identifies and Quantifies Potential Cost Savings Measures at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Renevitz, Marisa J.; Peschong, Jon C.; Charboneau, Briant L.; Simpson, Brett C.

    2014-01-09

    The Technical Improvement system is an approachable web-based tool that is available to Hanford DOE staff, site contractors, and general support service contractors as part of the baseline optimization effort underway at the Hanford Site. Finding and implementing technical improvements are a large part of DOE’s cost savings efforts. The Technical Improvement dashboard is a key tool for brainstorming and monitoring the progress of submitted baseline optimization and potential cost/schedule efficiencies. The dashboard is accessible to users over the Hanford Local Area Network (HLAN) and provides a highly visual and straightforward status to management on the ideas provided, alleviating the need for resource intensive weekly and monthly reviews.

  16. Collaborative Measurement Development as a Tool in CBPR: Measurement Development and Adaptation within the Cultures of Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, John; Trickett, Edison J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the processes we engaged in to develop a measurement protocol used to assess the outcomes in a community based suicide and alcohol abuse prevention project with two Alaska Native communities. While the literature on community-based participatory research (CBPR) is substantial regarding the importance of collaborations, few studies have reported on this collaboration in the process of developing measures to assess CBPR projects. We first tell a story of the processes around the standard issues of doing cross-cultural work on measurement development related to areas of equivalence. A second story is provided that highlights how community differences within the same cultural group can affect both the process and content of culturally relevant measurement selection, adaptation, and development. PMID:24748283

  17. Spinophilin Is Indispensable for the α2B Adrenergic Receptor-Elicited Hypertensive Response.

    PubMed

    Che, Pulin; Chen, Yunjia; Lu, Roujian; Peng, Ning; Gannon, Mary; Wyss, J Michael; Jiao, Kai; Wang, Qin

    2015-01-01

    The α2 adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes are important for blood pressure control. When activated, the α2A subtype elicits a hypotensive response whereas the α2B subtype mediates a hypertensive effect that counteracts the hypotensive response by the α2A subtype. We have previously shown that spinophilin attenuates the α2AAR-dependent hypotensive response; in spinophilin null mice, this response is highly potentiated. In this study, we demonstrate that spinophilin impedes arrestin-dependent phosphorylation and desensitization of the α2BAR subtype by competing against arrestin binding to this receptor subtype. The Del301-303 α2BAR, a human variation that shows impaired phosphorylation and desensitization and is linked to hypertension in certain populations, exhibits preferential interaction with spinophilin over arrestin. Furthermore, Del301-303 α2BAR-induced ERK signaling is quickly desensitized in cells without spinophilin expression, showing a profile similar to that induced by the wild type receptor in these cells. Together, these data suggest a critical role of spinophilin in sustaining α2BAR signaling. Consistent with this notion, our in vivo study reveals that the α2BAR-elicited hypertensive response is diminished in spinophilin deficient mice. In arrestin 3 deficient mice, where the receptor has a stronger binding to spinophilin, the same hypertensive response is enhanced. These data suggest that interaction with spinophilin is indispensable for the α2BAR to elicit the hypertensive response. This is opposite of the negative role of spinophilin in regulating α2AAR-mediated hypotensive response, suggesting that spinophilin regulation of these closely related receptor subtypes can result in distinct functional outcomes in vivo. Thus, spinophilin may represent a useful therapeutic target for treatment of hypertension.

  18. Utilizing a scope and span of control tool to measure workload and determine supporting resources for nurse managers.

    PubMed

    Jones, Dawndra; McLaughlin, Maribeth; Gebbens, Christopher; Terhorst, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    The scope and span of control of the nurse manager directly impact turnover, succession planning, and satisfaction. Measuring and benchmarking scope and span of control remain a challenge. An interprofessional team across an integrated health delivery system developed and implemented such a tool, which was used to determine the amount of operational and clerical support for managers. Since implementation, there has been a decrease in turnover and time to fill nurse manager positions. PMID:25906131

  19. Empirical analysis of the efficient use of geometric error identification in a machine tool by tracking measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguado, S.; Santolaria, J.; Samper, D.; Velazquez, J.; Aguilar, J. J.

    2016-03-01

    Volumetric verification is becoming increasingly accepted as a suitable technique with which to improve machine tool accuracy. In the same way, the use of laser trackers to obtain machine error information using the new Active Target motorised retro-reflector allows the verification of all types of machine tool throughout their workspaces. Non-linear optimisation methods and machine tool kinematic models are the mainstays of this technique. Whereas the latter provide the relationship between the nominal coordinates, the geometric errors of the machine and laser tracker measurement, the former reduces the combined influence of geometric errors by obtaining their approximation functions. However, within these two procedures, several factors affect the scope of the produced verification results. The present paper focuses on the analysis of the adequacy of commercial measurement techniques using laser trackers and the new motorised retro-reflector in a real milling machine. An examination is also made regarding the influence of the optimisation sequence defined by the identification strategy, as well as the impact of the number of measured points in relation to the employed regression functions.

  20. Surface plasmon resonance biosensor as a tool for the measurement of complex refractive indices.

    PubMed

    Filion-Cote, Sandrine; Tabrizian, Maryam; Kirk, Andrew G

    2015-01-01

    Optical characterisation of liquids through the measurement of their complex refractive index is critical in environmental monitoring, food industry and medicine. While surface plasmon resonance is widely used for measurement of the real part of the refractive index there have been few studies to date on measurement of complex refractive index with this method. We present a systematic study which highlights the challenges associated with this approach. Instrument design and data analysis techniques are presented together with preliminary experimental results. PMID:26737760

  1. A Clinical Tool to Measure Trunk Control in Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Trunk Control Measurement Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyrman, Lieve; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat; Verheyden, Geert; De Cat, Jos; Monbaliu, Elegast; Feys, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study the psychometric properties of the Trunk Control Measurement Scale (TCMS) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) were examined. Twenty-six children with spastic CP (mean age 11 years 3 months, range 8-15 years; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I n = 11, level II n = 5, level III n = 10) were included in this study. To…

  2. Disease-specific quality-of-life measurement tools for haemophilia patients.

    PubMed

    Remor, E; Young, N L; Von Mackensen, S; Lopatina, E G

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art in measuring quality of life in haemophila populations. The paper reviews the measures recently included in haemophila trials in the published literature. It also summarizes the development of four new disease-specific measures of health-related quality of life. Two of these were developed for children (the Haemo-QoL and the CHO-KLAT), and two for adults (the Hemofilia-QoL and the Hemolatin-QoL). These new measures show promise for use in clinical trials. Further research is in progress to complete the psychometric testing and cross-cultural validation.

  3. The measurement of psychosis in dementia: a comparison of assessment tools.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Golander, Hava

    2011-01-01

    The precise operational definition of psychosis in dementia lacks consensus, partially owing to incongruence in the various assessment tools used. This study compares assessments of psychotic symptoms in persons with dementia, specifically of hallucinations and delusions, through the 4 most frequently used assessments. Participants were 74 nursing home residents from 9 nursing homes in Israel, diagnosed with dementia. Assessment tools used included the Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (BEHAVE-AD), the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Homes (NPI-NH), the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Behavior Rating Scale for Dementia (CERAD-BRSD), and the Columbia University Scale for Psychopathology in Alzheimer's Disease (CUSPAD). The highest prevalence rates of delusions were found through the CUSPAD, and the lowest through the CERAD-BRSD. Rates identified by the BEHAVE-AD were intermediate and similar to those of the NPI-NH. As for hallucinations, rates indicated by the BEHAVE-AD, the NPI-NH, and the CUSPAD were similar, with small sample-based differences, and higher than those found through the CERAD-BRSD. The CERAD-BRSD, soliciting reports of the fewest specific symptoms, detected the fewest psychotic symptoms. The CUSPAD, soliciting the most items, presented the highest prevalence rates. The BEHAVE-AD and the NPI-NH had similar rates and showed a high convergent validity.

  4. RESNA Resource Guide for Assistive Technology Outcomes: Measurement Tools. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This resource guide, the first of three volumes, lays out the fundamentals of outcome measurements for assistive technology. It includes the whys and hows of gathering data so that assistive technology practitioners can integrate outcomes measurement activities in their daily practice. Chapters include: (1) "Concepts and Rationale for…

  5. College Measures 2-Year and 4-Year Data Tools. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Higher Education Policy, 2016

    2016-01-01

    College Measures was established in 2010 as a partnership between the American Institutes for Research (AIR) and Matrix Knowledge Group (now Optimity Advisors). In 2016, College Measures became fully owned by AIR. It remains focused on using data to drive improvement in higher education outcomes in the United States. This fact sheet presents a…

  6. REACH-ER: a tool to evaluate river basin remediation measures for contaminants at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Griensven, Ann; Haest, Pieter Jan; Broekx, Steven; Seuntjens, Piet; Campling, Paul; Ducos, Geraldine; Blaha, Ludek; Slobodnik, Jaroslav

    2010-05-01

    The European Union (EU) adopted the Water Framework Directive (WFD) in 2000 ensuring that all aquatic ecosystems meet ‘good status' by 2015. However, it is a major challenge for river basin managers to meet this requirement in river basins with a high population density as well as intensive agricultural and industrial activities. The EU financed AQUAREHAB project (FP7) specifically examines the ecological and economic impact of innovative rehabilitation technologies for multi-pressured degraded water bodies. For this purpose, a generic collaborative management tool ‘REACH-ER' is being developed that can be used by stakeholders, citizens and water managers to evaluate the ecological and economical effects of different remedial actions on waterbodies. The tool is built using databases from large scale models simulating the hydrological dynamics of the river basing and sub-basins, the costs of the measures and the effectiveness of the measures in terms of ecological impact. Knowledge rules are used to describe the relationships between these data in order to compute the flux concentrations or to compute the effectiveness of measures. The management tool specifically addresses nitrate pollution and pollution by organic micropollutants. Detailed models are also used to predict the effectiveness of site remedial technologies using readily available global data. Rules describing ecological impacts are derived from ecotoxicological data for (mixtures of) specific contaminants (msPAF) and ecological indices relating effects to the presence of certain contaminants. Rules describing the cost-effectiveness of measures are derived from linear programming models identifying the least-cost combination of abatement measures to satisfy multi-pollutant reduction targets and from multi-criteria analysis.

  7. R-CEPIA1er as a new tool to directly measure sarcoplasmic reticulum [Ca] in ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Bovo, Elisa; Martin, Jody L; Tyryfter, Jollyn; de Tombe, Pieter P; Zima, Aleksey V

    2016-07-01

    In cardiomyocytes, [Ca] within the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR; [Ca]SR) partially determines the amplitude of cytosolic Ca transient that, in turn, governs myocardial contraction. Therefore, it is critical to understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate [Ca]SR handling. Until recently, the best approach available to directly measure [Ca]SR was to use low-affinity Ca indicators (e.g., Fluo-5N). However, this approach presents several limitations, including nonspecific cellular localization, dye extrusion, and species limitation. Recently a new genetically encoded family of Ca indicators has been generated, named Ca-measuring organelle-entrapped protein indicators (CEPIA). Here, we tested the red fluorescence SR-targeted Ca sensor (R-CEPIA1er) as a tool to directly measure [Ca]SR dynamics in ventricular myocytes. Infection of rabbit and rat ventricular myocytes with an adenovirus expressing the R-CEPIA1er gene displayed prominent localization in the SR and nuclear envelope. Calibration of R-CEPIA1er in myocytes resulted in a Kd of 609 μM, suggesting that this sensor is sensitive in the whole physiological range of [Ca]SR [Ca]SR dynamics measured with R-CEPIA1er were compared with [Ca]SR measured with Fluo5-N. We found that both the time course of the [Ca]SR depletion and fractional SR Ca release induced by an action potential were similar between these two Ca sensors. R-CEPIA1er fluorescence did not decline during experiments, indicating lack of dye extrusion or photobleaching. Furthermore, measurement of [Ca]SR with R-CEPIA1er can be combined with cytosolic [Ca] measurements (with Fluo-4) to obtain more detailed information regarding Ca handling in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, R-CEPIA1er is a promising tool that can be used to measure [Ca]SR dynamics in myocytes from different animal species. PMID:27233762

  8. Kisspeptin signaling is indispensable for neurokinin B, but not glutamate, stimulation of gonadotropin secretion in mice.

    PubMed

    García-Galiano, David; van Ingen Schenau, Dorette; Leon, Silvia; Krajnc-Franken, Magda A M; Manfredi-Lozano, Maria; Romero-Ruiz, Antonio; Navarro, Victor M; Gaytan, Francisco; van Noort, Paula I; Pinilla, Leonor; Blomenröhr, Marion; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Kisspeptins (Kp), products of the Kiss1 gene that act via Gpr54 to potently stimulate GnRH secretion, operate as mediators of other regulatory signals of the gonadotropic axis. Mouse models of Gpr54 and/or Kiss1 inactivation have been used to address the contribution of Kp in the central control of gonadotropin secretion; yet, phenotypic and hormonal differences have been detected among the transgenic lines available. We report here a series of neuroendocrine analyses in male mice of a novel Gpr54 knockout (KO) model, generated by heterozygous crossing of a loxP-Gpr54/Protamine-Cre double mutant line. Gpr54-null males showed severe hypogonadotropic hypogonadism but retained robust responsiveness to GnRH. Gonadotropic responses to the agonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, N-methyl-d-aspartate, were attenuated, but persisted, in Gpr54-null mice. In contrast, LH secretion after activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors was totally preserved in the absence of Gpr54 signaling. Detectable, albeit reduced, LH responses were also observed in Gpr54 KO mice after intracerebroventricular administration of galanin-like peptide or RF9, putative antagonist of neuropeptide FF receptors for the mammalian ortholog of gonadotropin-inhibiting hormone. In contrast, the stimulatory effect of senktide, agonist of neurokinin B (NKB; cotransmitter of Kiss1 neurons), was totally abrogated in Gpr54 KO males. Lack of Kp signaling also eliminated feedback LH responses to testosterone withdrawal. However, residual but sustained increases of FSH were detected in gonadectomized Gpr54 KO males, in which testosterone replacement failed to fully suppress circulating FSH levels. In sum, our study provides novel evidence for the relative importance of Kp-dependent vs. -independent actions of several key regulators of GnRH secretion, such as glutamate, galanin-like peptide, and testosterone. In addition, our data document for the first time the indispensable role of Kp signaling in mediating

  9. Measurements from an Aerial Vehicle: A New Tool for Planetary Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Henry S.; Levine, Joel S.; Croom, Mark A.; Edwards, William C.; Qualls, Garry D.; Gasbarre, Joseph F.

    2004-01-01

    Aerial vehicles fill a unique planetary science measurement gap, that of regional-scale, near-surface observation, while providing a fresh perspective for potential discovery. Aerial vehicles used in planetary exploration bridge the scale and resolution measurement gaps between orbiters (global perspective with limited spatial resolution) and landers (local perspective with high spatial resolution) thus complementing and extending orbital and landed measurements. Planetary aerial vehicles can also survey scientifically interesting terrain that is inaccessible or hazardous to landed missions. The use of aerial assets for performing observations on Mars, Titan, or Venus will enable direct measurements and direct follow-ons to recent discoveries. Aerial vehicles can be used for remote sensing of the interior, surface and atmosphere of Mars, Venus and Titan. Types of aerial vehicles considered are airplane "heavier than air" and airships and balloons "lighter than air". Interdependencies between the science measurements, science goals and objectives, and platform implementation illustrate how the proper balance of science, engineering, and cost, can be achieved to allow for a successful mission. Classification of measurement types along with how those measurements resolve science questions and how these instruments are accommodated within the mission context are discussed.

  10. Validity of a self-report survey tool measuring the nutrition and physical activity environment of primary schools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Valid tools measuring characteristics of the school environment associated with the physical activity and dietary behaviours of children are needed to accurately evaluate the impact of initiatives to improve school environments. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of Principal self-report of primary school healthy eating and physical activity environments. Methods Primary school Principals (n = 42) in New South Wales, Australia were invited to complete a telephone survey of the school environment; the School Environment Assessment Tool – SEAT. Equivalent observational data were collected by pre-service teachers located within the school. The SEAT, involved 65 items that assessed food availability via canteens, vending machines and fundraisers and the presence of physical activity facilities, equipment and organised physical activities. Kappa statistics were used to assess agreement between the two measures. Results Almost 70% of the survey demonstrated moderate to almost perfect agreement. Substantial agreement was found for 10 of 13 items assessing foods sold for fundraising, 3 of 6 items assessing physical activity facilities of the school, and both items assessing organised physical activities that occurred at recess and lunch and school sport. Limited agreement was found for items assessing foods sold through canteens and access to small screen recreation. Conclusions The SEAT provides researchers and policy makers with a valid tool for assessing aspects of the school food and physical activity environment. PMID:23758936

  11. Validation of robust tools to measure sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study in a large French cohort.

    PubMed

    Abdelnour-Mallet, Maya; Tezenas Du Montcel, Sophie; Cazzolli, Pamela A; Assouline, Avi; Pointon, Christine; Leveque, Nathalie; Dominique, Henri; Elmazria, Hassan; Rothmayer, Michaela; Lenglet, Timothee; Bruneteau, Gaelle; le Forestier, Nadine; Delanian, Sylvie; Gonzalez-Bermejo, Jesus; Salachas, François; Brooks, Benjamin Rix; Pradat, Pierre François

    2013-05-01

    There is an unmet need for validated tools to measure sialorrhea in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, especially to evaluate treatments. We assessed the inter-/intra-rate reviewer reliability of two scales: the Oral Secretion Scale (OSS), specifically developed for ALS patients, and the Sialorrhea Scoring Scale (SSS), initially developed for Parkinson's disease patients. Sialorrhea was rated in 69 ALS consecutive patients by four evaluators: two neurologists, one nurse and one speech therapist. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated by the light kappa coefficient and intra-rater reliability by the weighted kappa coefficient. We also compared patients' and caregivers' answers. Results demonstrated that the two scales present a high inter-/intra-rater reliability: weighted kappas were 0.85 for both scales and light kappas 0.89 for the OSS and 0.88 for the SSS. Both scales also showed a good intra-profession reliability (OSS kappa = 0.84; SSS kappa = 0.79) and agreement between patients' and caregivers' answers. The SSS showed a higher responsiveness compared to OSS. In conclusion, both Oral Secretion Scale and Sialorrhea Scoring Scale are reliable tools to measure sialorrhea in ALS patients. Because of the wide range of salivation degrees, SSS may be more sensitive as a tool to evaluate treatments in patients with severe hypersialorrhea.

  12. Methods and apparatus for measuring a length of cable suspending a well logging tool in a borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Broding, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    A system is described for measuring depth from the mouth of a borehole to a well logging tool connected to one end of an electrically conductive cable suspended in the borehole comprising: means for applying an initial electrical time pulse signal to one end of the cable, whereby the initial electrical time pulse signal propagates the length of the cable to one end of the cable to the well logging tool connected to the other end of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole, which is intermediate both ends of the cable, the passage of the initial electrical time pulse signal along the length of the cable; means for detecting at the mouth of the borehole a subsequent electrical time pulse propagating along the length of the cable reflected from the other end of the cable; means for determining a time interval between the detection of the initial electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole and the detection of the subsequent electrical time pulse signal at the mouth of the borehole; and means for correlating the time interval with the depth to which the well logging tool is suspended in the borehole as measured from the mouth of the borehole.

  13. Insitu measurement and control of processing properties of composite resins in a production tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D.; Hoff, M.; Haverty, P.; Loos, A.; Freeman, T.

    1988-01-01

    An in situ measuring technique for use in automated composite processing and quality control is discussed. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensors are used to measure processing parameters at four ply positions inside a thick section 192-ply graphite-epoxy composite during cure in an 8 x 4 in. autoclave. Viscosity measurements obtained using the sensors are compared with the viscosities calculated using the Loos-Springer cure process model. Good overall agreement is obtained. In a subsequent autoclave run, the output from the four sensors was used to control the autoclave temperature. Using the 'closed loop' sensor controlled autoclave temperature resulted in a more uniform and more rapid cure cycle.

  14. New clinical end points in rehabilitation medicine: tools for measuring quality of life.

    PubMed

    Abresch, Richard T; Carter, Gregory T; Han, Jay J; McDonald, Craig M

    Traditional clinical end points in rehabilitation medicine have centered on objective measures of human performance, including quantitative muscle strength testing, functional independence measurements (FIM), and timed motor performance (TMP). However, it is now increasingly recognized that health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a valid clinical end point. Health-related quality of life is a broad concept involving an individual's physical health, psychological state, personal beliefs, and interpersonal and social support relationships. The goals for this article are to show the value of performing HRQoL measurements and briefly describe methods used to assess quality of life (QoL). PMID:19923631

  15. A Tool and a Method for Obtaining Hydrologic Flow Velocity Measurements in Geothermal Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, C.R.; Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.

    1986-01-21

    Downhole instruments based on a thermal perturbation principle are being developed to measure heat flow in permeable formations where convective transport of heat is important. To make heat flow measurements in these regions, the ground water velocity vector must be determined. A downhole probe has been designed to measure the local ground water velocity vector. The probe is a cylindrical heat source operated at a constant heat flux. In a convecting environment, surface temperatures on the probe are perturbed from those values of a purely conductive environment. With the aid of analytical and numerical models, these temperature differences can be related to the local velocity vector.

  16. Netest: A Tool to Measure the Maximum Burst Size, Available Bandwidth and Achievable Throughput

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Guojun; Tierney, Brian

    2003-01-31

    Distinguishing available bandwidth and achievable throughput is essential for improving network applications' performance. Achievable throughput is the throughput considering a number of factors such as network protocol, host speed, network path, and TCP buffer space, where as available bandwidth only considers the network path. Without understanding this difference, trying to improve network applications' performance is like ''blind men feeling the elephant'' [4]. In this paper, we define and distinguish bandwidth and throughput, and debate which part of each is achievable and which is available. Also, we introduce and discuss a new concept - Maximum Burst Size that is crucial to the network performance and bandwidth sharing. A tool, netest, is introduced to help users to determine the available bandwidth, and provides information to achieve better throughput with fairness of sharing the available bandwidth, thus reducing misuse of the network.

  17. Star-Shaped Fluid Flow Tool for Use in Making Differential Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, John Dwight (Inventor); Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Cronise, Raymond J. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A fluid flow tool's plate-like structure has a ring portion defining a flow hole, a support portion extending radially away from the ring portion and adapted to be coupled to conduit wall, and extensions extending radially away from the ring portion such that a periphery of the plate-like structure is defined by the extensions and trough regions between adjacent extensions. One or more ports formed in the ring portion are in fluid communication with the flow hole. A first manifold in the plate-like structure is in fluid communication with each port communicating with the flow hole. One or more ports are formed in the periphery of the plate-like structure. A second manifold in the plate-like structure is in fluid communication with each port formed in the periphery. The first and second manifolds extend through the plate-like structure to terminate and be accessible at the conduit wall.

  18. [Choice and consequence: measurement level determines the statistical tool-box].

    PubMed

    Svensson, Elisabeth

    Various types of data are used in health and behavioural sciences. Some of the variables, such as blood variables, can be measured by standardised, calibrated methods while others are based on subjective judgements from an expert or from the patients. There is a strong link between the measurement process and the choice of statistical toolbox. The statistically important measurement levels are; categorical, ordinal, quantitative discrete and quantitative continuous data. Special attention should be paid to non-negative quantitative data, and to ordinal data which are very common in medicine. In this paper the properties of the measurement levels are given and their consequences on the choice of statistical methods for description and analysis. PMID:15921110

  19. Serial measurements of exhaled nitric oxide at work and at home: a new tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Hagemeyer, Olaf; Marek, Eike; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Whereas serial measurements of lung function at work and at home are a well-known diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA), little is known about the serial measurements of non-invasive parameters such as exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). A 51-year-old baker with variable shortness of breath without relation to work was examined for suspected OA. Skin prick test showed weak sensitizations to wheat and rye flour (without sensitizations to environmental allergens) that were corroborated by in vitro testing (CAP class 3). Baseline FEV1 of 58% predicted and a decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after placebo (sugar powder) of 17% did not allow inhalational challenge testing. The patient performed daily measurements of FEV1 and eNO for about a month during a holiday at home and at work. Whereas symptoms and FEV1 did not show differences between holidays and work periods, eNO showed a clear increase from below 10 ppb to a maximum of 75 ppb. A diagnosis of baker's asthma was made, and the patient quit his job immediately after medical advice. A year afterwards, the patient was still taking asthma medication, but his symptoms had improved, FEV1 had increased to 73% predicted, and eNO was 25 ppb. We conclude that serial measurements of eNO at home and at work may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of OA. PMID:25252906

  20. Serial measurements of exhaled nitric oxide at work and at home: a new tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma.

    PubMed

    Merget, Rolf; Sander, Ingrid; van Kampen, Vera; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Hagemeyer, Olaf; Marek, Eike; Brüning, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Whereas serial measurements of lung function at work and at home are a well-known diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of occupational asthma (OA), little is known about the serial measurements of non-invasive parameters such as exhaled nitric oxide (eNO). A 51-year-old baker with variable shortness of breath without relation to work was examined for suspected OA. Skin prick test showed weak sensitizations to wheat and rye flour (without sensitizations to environmental allergens) that were corroborated by in vitro testing (CAP class 3). Baseline FEV1 of 58% predicted and a decrease of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) after placebo (sugar powder) of 17% did not allow inhalational challenge testing. The patient performed daily measurements of FEV1 and eNO for about a month during a holiday at home and at work. Whereas symptoms and FEV1 did not show differences between holidays and work periods, eNO showed a clear increase from below 10 ppb to a maximum of 75 ppb. A diagnosis of baker's asthma was made, and the patient quit his job immediately after medical advice. A year afterwards, the patient was still taking asthma medication, but his symptoms had improved, FEV1 had increased to 73% predicted, and eNO was 25 ppb. We conclude that serial measurements of eNO at home and at work may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of OA.

  1. RiboTag is a flexible tool for measuring the translational state of targeted cells in heterogeneous cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lesiak, Adam J.; Brodsky, Matthew; Neumaier, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuronal cultures are a useful tool for measuring pharmacological- and transgene-regulated gene expression; however, accurate measurements can be confounded by heterogeneous cell-types and inconsistent transfection efficiency. Here we describe our adaptation of a ribosomal capture strategy that was designed to be used in transgenic mice expressing tagged ribosomal subunits (RiboTag) in specific cell types, thereby allowing measurement of translating RNA from desired cell types within complex tissues. Using this strategy we were able to isolate and analyze neuron-specific RNA despite the presence of glia by co-transfecting experimental plasmids with plasmids that selectively express RiboTag in neurons. RiboTag immunoprecipitation was capable of recovering high integrity RNA from small numbers of transfected cells that can then be interrogated by a variety of methods (e.g. RT-qPCR, PCR array, RNAseq) and compared to basal RNA expression of the entire culture. Additionally, we demonstrate how co-transfection of RiboTag with sh-RNA constructs can validate and accurately assess the degree of gene expression knockdown, and how RiboTag can be used to measure receptor-mediated gene regulation with transiently expressed DREADD-receptors. RiboTag co-transfection represents a convenient and powerful tool to isolate RNA from a specific subset of cultured cells with a variety of applications for experiments in vitro. PMID:26054767

  2. The CERN n_TOF facility: a unique tool for nuclear data measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingrone, F.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cortés, G.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Ganesan, S.; Garcia-Rios, A. A.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; Gonzàlez, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Göbel, K.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lerendegui, J.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.

    2016-06-01

    The study of the resonant structures in neutron-nucleus cross-sections, and therefore of the compound-nucleus reaction mechanism, requires spectroscopic measurements to determine with high accuracy the energy of the neutron interacting with the material under study. To this purpose, the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF has been operating since 2001 at CERN. Its characteristics, such as the high intensity instantaneous neutron flux, the wide energy range from thermal to few GeV, and the very good energy resolution, are perfectly suited to perform high-quality measurements of neutron-induced reaction cross sections. The precise and accurate knowledge of these cross sections plays a fundamental role in nuclear technologies, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear physics. Two different measuring stations are available at the n_TOF facility, called EAR1 and EAR2, with different characteristics of intensity of the neutron flux and energy resolution. These experimental areas, combined with advanced detection systems lead to a great flexibility in performing challenging measurement of high precision and accuracy, and allow the investigation isotopes with very low cross sections, or available only in small quantities, or with very high specific activity. The characteristics and performances of the two experimental areas of the n_TOF facility will be presented, together with the most important measurements performed to date and their physics case. In addition, the significant upcoming measurements will be introduced.

  3. Gripping tool for MEMS Assembly with an absolute distance measurement sensor using a fibre optic WL interferometer with high measuring frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeifer, Tilo; Aleriano, Ubaldo; Depiereux, Frank

    2003-03-01

    Reduction in the size of produced parts, increases the difficulty for precise manufacturing observation-processes and it makes manufacturing control cycles even more complex. Among all the production steps for micro-systems, assembly seems to be specially affected with this manufacturing handicap. Usual sensors used for the macro-world have to be modified or redesigned in order to address its use for the micro-world. This document presents the integration of a white light interferometer into a flexible fibre-scope used already for process monitoring purposes and which is mounted into a gripping-tool. The goal is to achieve a linear measurement between a gripping-tool and a target-part during the assembly process of hybrid micro systems.

  4. Optical-fiber-coupled inferometric measurement of tympanic membrane temperature: a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Sade, Sharon; Fishman, Gadi; Ophir, Dov; Grankin, Mila; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-07-01

    A novel infrared (IR) transparent optical fiber coupled to a hand held otoscope and a radiometer was constructed and used to measure the temperatures of the tympanic membrane (TM) and to distinguish between diseased and healthy middle ears. A greater temperature difference between TM readings was found when Acute Otitis Media (AOM) existed in one of the ears examined. This supports the hypothesis that acute inflammation of the middle ear will result in elevated local temperature when measured in such a way that the reading is taken only from the TM without interference of the external canal. The use of an optical fiber enabled temperature measurements of the TM with high spatial resolution eliminating the external ear canal interference. A small patient population was examined and the initial results were statistically significant. In the hands of the primary care physician, this tool would prevent misdiagnosis of AOM preventing indiscriminate use of antibiotics and avoiding complications by early diagnosis.

  5. Continuous measurement of viscous magnetization decay: an alternative tool in magnetic granulometry of sediments and soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, M.

    2013-12-01

    The ultra-fine magnetic grains in sediments and soils usually span across the superparamagnetic/stable single domain (SP/SSD) boundary. The SP grains carry no remanent magnetization but possess a very high magnetic susceptibility. While the SSD grains carry a very stable magnetic remanence, the magnetization of the grains just around the SP/SSD boundary is highly viscous. The presence of the SP magnetic particles has been traditionally investigated using the in-phase magnetic susceptibility measured in several operating frequencies. In addition, it has been suggested that the out-of-phase susceptibility measured on a single frequency can provide us with comparable results since there is a direct relationship between the frequency-dependent in-phase susceptibility and the out-of-phase susceptibility. Assuming a broad distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest to assess their presence using the continuous measurement of the decay of viscous magnetization. For that purpose we use a newly-developed Agico pulse magnetizer coupled with a JR6 spinner magnetometer which allows the automatic repeated measurements of magnetic remanence. Since both instruments are controlled from the same computer, the exact time of DC pulse termination is known and used as a zero time for evaluation of time-dependent viscous decay. Magnetic remanence is then measured repeatedly as a function of time for about five minutes. Exponential decay curve is fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous grains is estimated. Our method is tested on the loess/paleosol samples from the European loess belt. The relative amount of the ultra-fine grains assessed by the suggested viscous decay method can be very well correlated with the results obtained from the frequency-dependent and out-of-phase susceptibility measurements.

  6. Smartphones as experimental tools to measure acoustical and mechanical properties of vibrating rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Manuel Á.; González, Miguel Á.

    2016-07-01

    Modern smartphones have calculation and sensor capabilities that make them suitable for use as versatile and reliable measurement devices in simple teaching experiments. In this work a smartphone is used, together with low cost materials, in an experiment to measure the frequencies emitted by vibrating rods of different materials, shapes and lengths. The results obtained with the smartphone have been compared with theoretical calculations and the agreement is good. Alternatively, physics students can perform the experiment described here and use their results to determine the dependencies of the obtained frequencies on the rod characteristics. In this way they will also practice research methods that they will probably use in their professional life.

  7. Development of tools for real-time betatron tune measurements at the Nuclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbachev, E. V.; Kirichenko, A. E.; Monakhov, D. V.; Romanov, S. V.; Volkov, V. I.

    2016-09-01

    A betatron tune measurement system was developed and tested at the Nuclotron. A white noise and chirp signals were used for transverse beam motion excitation. A custom FlexRIO digitizer module was developed which provides excitation signal generation for kicker electrodes and real-time signal acquisition from pickup electrodes. A high resolution FFT algorithm was implemented inside a NI PXI FPGA module, connected to digitizer. The measurement system is integrated with the NICA control system based on the TANGO Controls. Results and tests performed with the Nuclotron beam are presented.

  8. Intense ion beams as a tool for opacity measurements in warm dense matter

    SciTech Connect

    Abdallah, Joseph; Tauschwiz, An; Jacoby, J; Maruhn, J A; Novikov, V G; Tauschwitz, A; Onkels, E; Wittle, K; Rosmej, F B; Schott, R

    2009-01-01

    Opacity measurements in warm dense matter (WDM) provide a valuable benchmark for the diverging theoretical models in this regime. Heating of thin foils with intense heavy-ion beams allows one to create isolated samples of warm dense matter suitable for experimental determination of frequency-dependent opacities. A prerequisite for the measurements is the isothermal expansion of the heated foil. Hydrodynamic simulations predict that this condition is fulfilled. The analysis shows that existing ion-beam accelerators are capable to contribute to this field of research.

  9. The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock

    2016-01-01

    Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed. PMID:27500829

  10. The Discrete Emotions Questionnaire: A New Tool for Measuring State Self-Reported Emotions.

    PubMed

    Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Bastian, Brock; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-01-01

    Several discrete emotions have broad theoretical and empirical importance, as shown by converging evidence from diverse areas of psychology, including facial displays, developmental behaviors, and neuroscience. However, the measurement of these states has not progressed along with theory, such that when researchers measure subjectively experienced emotions, they commonly rely on scales assessing broad dimensions of affect (positivity and negativity), rather than discrete emotions. The current manuscript presents four studies that validate a new instrument, the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), that is sensitive to eight distinct state emotions: anger, disgust, fear, anxiety, sadness, happiness, relaxation, and desire. Emotion theory supporting the importance of distinguishing these specific emotions is reviewed. PMID:27500829

  11. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free. PMID:27273365

  12. A least-squares computational ``tool kit``. Nuclear data and measurements series

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.

    1993-04-01

    The information assembled in this report is intended to offer a useful computational ``tool kit`` to individuals who are interested in a variety of practical applications for the least-squares method of parameter estimation. The fundamental principles of Bayesian analysis are outlined first and these are applied to development of both the simple and the generalized least-squares conditions. Formal solutions that satisfy these conditions are given subsequently. Their application to both linear and non-linear problems is described in detail. Numerical procedures required to implement these formal solutions are discussed and two utility computer algorithms are offered for this purpose (codes LSIOD and GLSIOD written in FORTRAN). Some simple, easily understood examples are included to illustrate the use of these algorithms. Several related topics are then addressed, including the generation of covariance matrices, the role of iteration in applications of least-squares procedures, the effects of numerical precision and an approach that can be pursued in developing data analysis packages that are directed toward special applications.

  13. Cell Deformation by Single-beam Acoustic Trapping: A Promising Tool for Measurements of Cell Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jae Youn; Kim, Jihun; Park, Jin Man; Lee, Changyang; Jung, Hayong; Lee, Jungwoo; Shung, K. Kirk

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a noncontact single-beam acoustic trapping method for the quantification of the mechanical properties of a single suspended cell with label-free. Experimentally results show that the single-beam acoustic trapping force results in morphological deformation of a trapped cell. While a cancer cell was trapped in an acoustic beam focus, the morphological changes of the immobilized cell were monitored using bright-field imaging. The cell deformability was then compared with that of a trapped polystyrene microbead as a function of the applied acoustic pressure for a better understanding of the relationship between the pressure and degree of cell deformation. Cell deformation was found to become more pronounced as higher pressure levels were applied. Furthermore, to determine if this acoustic trapping method can be exploited in quantifying the cell mechanics in a suspension and in a non-contact manner, the deformability levels of breast cancer cells with different degrees of invasiveness due to acoustic trapping were compared. It was found that highly-invasive breast cancer cells exhibited greater deformability than weakly-invasive breast cancer cells. These results clearly demonstrate that the single-beam acoustic trapping technique is a promising tool for non-contact quantitative assessments of the mechanical properties of single cells in suspensions with label-free.

  14. TIDALLY INDUCED APSIDAL PRECESSION IN DOUBLE WHITE DWARFS: A NEW MASS MEASUREMENT TOOL WITH LISA

    SciTech Connect

    Valsecchi, F.; Farr, W. M.; Willems, B.; Deloye, C. J.; Kalogera, V.

    2012-02-01

    Galactic interacting double white dwarfs (DWDs) are guaranteed gravitational wave (GW) sources for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna GW detector, with more than 10{sup 4} binaries expected to be detected over the mission's lifetime. Part of this population is expected to be eccentric, and here we investigate the potential for constraining the white dwarf (WD) properties through apsidal precession in these binaries. We analyze the tidal, rotational, and general relativistic contributions to apsidal precession by using detailed He WD models, where the evolution of the star's interior is followed throughout the cooling phase. In agreement with previous studies of zero-temperature WDs, we find that apsidal precession in eccentric DWDs can lead to a detectable shift in the emitted GW signal when binaries with cool (old) components are considered. This shift increases significantly for hot (young) WDs. We find that apsidal motion in hot (cool) DWDs is dominated by tides at orbital frequencies above {approx}> 10{sup -4} Hz (10{sup -3} Hz). The analysis of apsidal precession in these sources while ignoring the tidal component would lead to an extreme bias in the mass determination, and could lead us to misidentify WDs as neutron stars or black holes. We use the detailed WD models to show that for older, cold WDs, there is a unique relationship that ties the radius and apsidal precession constant to the WD masses, therefore allowing tides to be used as a tool to constrain the source masses.

  15. The perception threshold measurement can be a useful tool for evaluation of sensitive skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-J; Lim, S-U; Won, Y-H; An, S-S; Lee, E-Y; Moon, S-J; Kim, J

    2008-10-01

    Sensitive skin is characterized by subjective symptoms that are hard to quantify. However, a neurobiological approach could improve our understanding of the nature of skin sensitivity. In this study, we measured the sensory perception of well-controlled electric currents on the skin that stimulated sensory nerve fibres such as the myelinated A fibre, A delta fibre and unmyelinated c-fibre. The sensory perception thresholds were obtained quantitatively from subjects with sensitive-prone skin and controls. Application of 0.075% capsaicin, known to stimulate the nociceptor c-fibre, was topically applied; then the sensory perception thresholds were measured to determine whether the exposure to nociceptive stimulation could affect the subsequent sensory perception. The results showed that the perception thresholds of skin sensitive-prone subjects were low for the c-fibre measurements at 5 Hz electric current stimulation. Furthermore, a wide variation in sensory perception was noted in the skin sensitive-prone subjects after topical application of capsaicin. In conclusion, the abnormal sensory perception in individuals with sensitive skin appears to be related to neurological instability, where c-fibre nociception plays a role. Thus, quantitative sensory perception threshold measurement was found to be a useful method for the identification of skin sensitive-prone subjects.

  16. Pathways to Participatory Research in Developing a Tool to Measure Feelings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Michelle; Davies, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    People with a learning disability, the experts of their own experience are increasingly involved in research. We will be discussing in this paper their centrality in the development of a psychological therapy outcome measure for people with learning disabilities. Their involvement needs to go beyond giving their views to being included in the…

  17. Developing a Measurement Tool for Assessing Physiotherapy Students' Self-Efficacy: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne; Sheppard, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine if self-efficacy can be correlated with prior academic achievement and whether self-efficacy can be an outcome measure of education. A self-efficacy instrument was developed and administered to physiotherapy students following completion of their pre-clinical theory experience. The questionnaire results…

  18. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions…

  19. TOTAL ORGANIC CARBON ANALYZERS AS TOOLS FOR MEASURING CARBONACEOUS MATTER IN NATURAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    For some utilities, new US drinking water regulations may require removal of disinfection byproduct (DBP) precursor material as a means of mimnimizing DBP formation. The EPa's Stage 1 DBP Rule relies on total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations as a measure of the effectiveness o...

  20. Tips and Tools: The Art of Virtual Program Evaluation--Measuring What We Do with Pizzazz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Walter; Killian, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating and communicating the results of 4-H programs are critical for Extension. The measuring of the goals and objectives guide the program. It helps with issues in Extension's accountability, program direction, and even one's personal satisfaction. This article focuses on a quick, easy, and exciting method to conduct program evaluation using…

  1. Measuring the transmittivity of light: A tool for testing the quality of magnetic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fosa, Gabriela; Bădescu, Rodica; Călugăru, Ghiorghe; Bădescu, Vasile

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of our work is to demonstrate that the time dependence measuring of optical transmittivity of magnetic liquids provide a way for testing the magnetic field induced structure evolution. We report on some time evolution of transmittivity of polarized rays in two different obtained kerosene base ferrofluids and in a transformer oil ferrofluid forming an emulsion in water.

  2. Research and Teaching: A New Tool for Measuring Student Behavioral Engagement in Large University Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Erin S.; Harris, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    The authors developed a classroom observation protocol for quantitatively measuring student engagement in large university classes. The Behavioral Engagement Related to instruction (BERI) protocol can be used to provide timely feedback to instructors as to how they can improve student engagement in their classrooms.

  3. Road analysis: a tool for cost-effective rehabilitation measures for Finnish roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roimela, Petri; Salmenkaita, Seppo; Maijala, Pekka; Saarenketo, Timo

    2000-04-01

    Public funding for road network maintenance has decreased 30% during the last few years in Finland. Reduced resources, together with the current rehabilitation strategies, will in the long term result in increasing deterioration of the Finnish road network. For this reason road rehabilitation funding should be focused more specifically on those roads and road sections requiring measures and these measures should be optimized to ensure that only the specific problem structure will be repaired. Roadscanners Oy, in cooperation with the Finnish National Road Administration (Finnra), has developed a new and effective Road Analysis technique to survey the condition of roads and road networks. Road Analysis is based on the integrated analysis of the measured data collected from the road under survey. The basic survey methods used in Road Analysis include Ground Penetrating Data (GPR), falling weight deflectometer (FWD), roughness and rutting measurements, pavement distress mapping and GPS-positioning, as well as reference drilling based on preliminary GPR data analysis. The collected road survey data is processed, interpreted, analyzed and classified using Road Doctor software, specifically developed for this purpose. GPR measurements in road analysis are carried out using a 400 MHz ground-coupled antenna and a 1.0 GHz horn antenna. Horn antenna data is used to measure the thickness of the pavement and base course layers, as well as to evaluate their quality based on their dielectric properties. The 400 MHz ground-coupled data is used to estimate the thickness of the pavement structure and embankment. Ground-coupled antenna data is used for subgrade quality estimations and in evaluating the causes of subgrade- related frost defects. GPR data also provides important location information about special structures, such as steel reinforcements, cables and pipelines. Road Analysis includes a classification of the critical elements affecting the lifetime of the road: (1

  4. Amino acid profiles and digestible indispensable amino acid scores of proteins from the prioritized key foods in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Nazma; Islam, Saiful; Munmun, Sarah; Mohiduzzaman, Md; Longvah, Thingnganing

    2016-12-15

    Concentrations of standard amino acids were determined in the composite samples (representing 30 agro-ecological zones of Bangladesh) of six prioritized key dietary protein sources: Oryza sativa (rice), Triticum aestivum (wheat flour), Lens culinaris (lentils), Pangusius pangusius (pangas), Labeo rohita (rohu) and Oreochromis mossambicus (tilapia). Digestible indispensable amino acid scores (DIAAS) was calculated using published data on amino acids' digestibility to evaluate the protein quality of these foods. Indispensable amino acid (IAA) contents (mg IAA/g protein), found to be highest in pangas (430) and lowest in wheat (336), of all these analyzed foods exceeded the FAO recommended daily allowance (277mg IAA/g protein) and contributed on average 40% to total amino acid contents. Untruncated DIAAS values ranged from 51% (lysine) in wheat to 106% (histidine) in pangas and distinguished pangas, rohu, and tilapia containing 'excellent quality' protein (DIAAS>100%) with potential to complement lower quality protein of cereals, fruits, and vegetables. PMID:27451158

  5. Inertial sensors as measurement tools of elbow range of motion in gerontology

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, G; Turpin, JM; Marteu, A; Sakarovitch, C; Teboul, B; Boscher, L; Brocker, P; Robert, P; Guerin, O

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Musculoskeletal system deterioration among the aging is a major reason for loss of autonomy and directly affects the quality of life of the elderly. Articular evaluation is part of physiotherapeutic assessment and helps in establishing a precise diagnosis and deciding appropriate therapy. Reference instruments are valid but not easy to use for some joints. The main goal of our study was to determine reliability and intertester reproducibility of the MP-BV, an inertial sensor (the MotionPod® [MP]) combined with specific software (BioVal [BV]), for elbow passive range-of-motion measurements in geriatrics. Methods This open, monocentric, randomized study compared inertial sensor to inclinometer in patients hospitalized in an acute, post-acute, and long-term-care gerontology unit. Results Seventy-seven patients (mean age 83.5±6.4 years, sex ratio 1.08 [male/female]) were analyzed. The MP-BV was reliable for each of the three measurements (flexion, pronation, and supination) for 24.3% (CI 95% 13.9–32.8) of the patients. Separately, the percentages of reliable measures were 59.7% (49.2–70.5) for flexion, 68.8% (58.4–79.5) for pronation, and 62.3% (51.2–73.1) for supination. The intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.15 (0.07–0.73), 0.46 (0.27–0.98), and 0.50 (0.31–40 0.98) for flexion, pronation, and supination, respectively. Conclusion This study shows the convenience of the MP-BV in terms of ease of use and of export of measured data. However, this instrument seems less reliable and valuable compared to the reference instruments used to measure elbow range of motion in gerontology. PMID:25759568

  6. Methods and Tools for Measurement,Monitoring and Verification for Soil Carbon Sequestration (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, C. W.

    2009-12-01

    Agriculture, forests, and other working lands, when properly managed, provide low cost and viable options for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions while providing additional carbon (C) sinks. These lands in the United States (U.S.) have the capacity to sequester about 650 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) every year, offsetting up to 11 % of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions annually. However to fully account for soil changes in soil c requires better measuring and monitoring sustems. To meet this interest a transparent and verifiable accounting system for estimating the amounts and uncertainties of soil carbon stock changes and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is needed at multiple scales. The accounting system must include climate, land use and management databases linked to ecological models and temporal and spatial scaling processes. Protocols need to be established for measurement of soil C stock changes and trace gas emissions and develop methodologies for monitoring soil C stock changes and trace gas emissions. The objective of this paper is to synthesize critical issues and methodological advances made to detect changes in soil C at the field and regional scales as a result of changes in management or land use. New technologies for soil C measurements can help reduce costs and time for C measurements. New technologies include Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Mid Infra Red Spectroscopy (MIRS), Inelastic Neutron Scattering (INS) and dry combustion. Elements of an accounting system must be based on the best science available to provide accurate estimates of GHG sources and sinks within resource constraints; be verifiable by an independent third party; and be able to incorporate new data at finer resolutions as becomes more readily available. At present the system could utilize sites for physical measurements, existing databases, and models and remote sensing to extrapolate to larger scales. International collaboration will help develop

  7. Telomere Length Measurement - caveats and a critical assessment of the available technologies and tools

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Geraldine; Hills, Mark; Lansdorp, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of telomeres and telomere biology often critically rely on the detection of telomeric DNA and measurements of the length of telomere repeats in either single cells or populations of cells. Several methods are available that provide this type of information and it is often not clear what method is most appropriate to address a specific research question. The major variables that need to be considered are the material that is or can be made available and the accuracy of measurements that is required. The goal of this review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the most commonly used methods and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. Methods that start with genomic DNA include telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length analysis, PCR amplification of telomere repeats relative to a single copy gene by Q-PCR or MMQPCR and single telomere length analysis (STELA), a PCR-based approach that accurately measures the full spectrum of telomere lengths from individual chromosomes. A different set of methods relies on fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect telomere repeats in individual cells or chromosomes. By including essential calibration steps and appropriate controls these methods can be used to measure telomere repeat length or content in chromosomes and cells. Such methods include quantitative FISH (Q-FISH) and flow FISH which are based on digital microscopy and flow cytometry respectively. Here the basic principles of various telomere length measurement methods are described and their strengths and weaknesses are highlighted. Some recent developments in telomere length analysis are also discussed. The information in this review should facilitate the selection of the most suitable method to address specific research question about telomeres in either model organisms or human subjects. PMID:21663926

  8. Core Outcome Sets and Multidimensional Assessment Tools for Harmonizing Outcome Measure in Chronic Pain and Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Neustadt, Katrin; Kopkow, Christian; Schmitt, Jochen; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Core Outcome Sets (COSs) are a set of domains and measurement instruments recommended for application in any clinical trial to ensure comparable outcome assessment (both domains and instruments). COSs are not exclusively recommended for clinical trials, but also for daily record keeping in routine care. There are several COS recommendations considering clinical trials as well as multidimensional assessment tools to support daily record keeping in low back pain. In this article, relevant initiatives will be described, and implications for research in COS development in chronic pain and back pain will be discussed. PMID:27589816

  9. Core Outcome Sets and Multidimensional Assessment Tools for Harmonizing Outcome Measure in Chronic Pain and Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Ulrike; Neustadt, Katrin; Kopkow, Christian; Schmitt, Jochen; Sabatowski, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Core Outcome Sets (COSs) are a set of domains and measurement instruments recommended for application in any clinical trial to ensure comparable outcome assessment (both domains and instruments). COSs are not exclusively recommended for clinical trials, but also for daily record keeping in routine care. There are several COS recommendations considering clinical trials as well as multidimensional assessment tools to support daily record keeping in low back pain. In this article, relevant initiatives will be described, and implications for research in COS development in chronic pain and back pain will be discussed. PMID:27589816

  10. The CISQ: a tool to measure staff involvement in and attitudes toward the implementation of a clinical information system.

    PubMed Central

    Gugerty, B.; Wooldridge, P.; Brennan, M.

    2000-01-01

    The Clinical Information System Questionnaire (CISQ-15) is a new 15-item tool designed to measure staff involvement in and attitudes towards CIS implementations. It was developed during a clinical trial which tested the effects of a combined managerial and IT intervention on staff attitudes and patient outcomes. The CISQ-15 appears to have high construct validity and internal consistency, although further studies are needed. Such studies are under way, and an expanded 36-item version, the CISQ-36, is now being evaluated. PMID:11079897

  11. A Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) as a Measurement Tool for Wind-Energy Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildmann, Norman; Bange, Jens

    2014-05-01

    In wind energy meteorology, RPA have the clear advantage compared to manned aircraft that they allow to fly very close to the ground and even in between individual wind turbines in a wind farm. Compared to meteorological towers and lidar systems, the advantage is the flexibility of the system, which makes it possible to measure at the desired site on short notice and not only in main wind direction. At the Center of Applied Geoscience at the University of Tübingen, the research RPA MASC (Multi-purpose Airborne Sensor Carrier) was developed. RPA of type MASC have a wingspan of about 3 m and a maximum take-off weight of 7.5 kg, including payload. The standard meteorological payload includes instruments for temperature, humidity, barometric pressure and wind measurement. It is possible to resolve turbulence fluctuations of wind and temperature up to 20 Hz. The autopilot ROCS (Research Onboard Computer System), which is developed at the Institute of Flight Mechanics and Control, University of Stuttgart, makes it possible to automatically follow predefined waypoints at constant altitude and airspeed. At a cruising speed of 24 m/s and a battery life of approx. one hour, a range of 80 km is feasible. The project 'Lidar Complex', funded by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, is part of the research network 'WindForS', based in Southern Germany. The goal of the project is to establish lidar technology for wind energy plant site evaluation in complex terrain. Additional goals are the comparison of different measurement techniques and the validation of wind-field models in not IEC 61400 conform terrain. It is planned to design a turbulent wind-field generator, fed by real measurement data, which can be used to analyse WEC behaviour. Two test sites were defined for the 'Lidar Complex' project, one in IEC-conform terrain about 15 km from the Baltic Sea, the other in the Swabian Alb, only 2 km downstream of a 100 m steep

  12. A new software tool is developed to evaluate the measured/simulated transmission characteristics of optical multiplexers/demultiplexers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyringer, D.; Schmid, P.

    2011-10-01

    A new software tool, called AWG-Analyzer, is developed to evaluate the simulated/measured transmission characteristics of optical multiplexers/demultiplexers based on arrayed waveguide gratings (AWG). The output of the calculation is a set of the transmission parameters like: non-uniformity, adjacent channel crosstalk, non-adjacent channel crosstalk, background crosstalk, insertion loss, polarisation dependent loss (PDL), etc. calculated for each output channel first and then for the whole AWG - the worst case value of each parameter over all the output channels. This set of the parameters is then taken as the AWG specification. The parameters are calculated for a particular channel bandwidth (also known as the channel passband or ITU passband), that is also an input parameter for the calculations. Additionally, the developed software tool, having a user friendly interface, offers the help where all calculated transmission parameters are explained and exactly defined. The tool also includes a brief overview about AWG functionality with a small animation and the information about various AWG types (CWDM and DWDM AWGs, Colourless AWGs).

  13. A tool to measure whether business management capacity in general practice impacts on the quality of chronic illness care.

    PubMed

    Holton, Christine H; Proudfoot, Judith G; Jayasinghe, Upali W; Grimm, Jane; Bubner, Tanya K; Winstanley, Julie; Harris, Mark F; Beilby, Justin J

    2010-11-01

    Our aim was to develop a tool to identify specific features of the business and financial management of practices that facilitate better quality care for chronic illness in primary care. Domains of management were identified, resulting in the development of a structured interview tool that was administered in 97 primary care practices in Australia. Interview items were screened and subjected to factor analysis, subscales identified and the overall model fit determined. The instrument's validity was assessed against another measure of quality of care. Analysis provided a four-factor solution containing 21 items, which explained 42.5% of the variance in the total scores. The factors related to administrative processes, human resources, marketing analysis and business development. All scores increased significantly with practice size. The business development subscale and total score were higher for rural practices. There was a significant correlation between the business development subscale and quality of care. The indicators of business and financial management in the final tool appear to be useful predictors of the quality of care. The instrument may help inform policy regarding the structure of general practice and implementation of a systems approach to chronic illness care. It can provide information to practices about areas for further development.

  14. Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging is an Effective Tool for Measuring Breast Volume: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Yeon; Kim, Min Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate breast volume assessment is a prerequisite to preoperative planning, as well as intraoperative decision making in breast reconstruction surgery. The use of three-dimensional surface imaging (3D scanning) to assess breast volume has many advantages. However, before employing 3D scanning in the field, the tool's validity should be demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of 3D-scanning technology for evaluating breast volume. Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent breast reconstruction surgery immediately after total mastectomy. Breast volumes using the Axis Three 3D scanner, water-displacement technique, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained bilaterally in the preoperative period. During the operation, the tissue removed during total mastectomy was weighed and the specimen volume was calculated from the weight. Then, we compared the volume obtained from 3D scanning with those obtained using the water-displacement technique, MRI, and the calculated volume of the tissue removed. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of breast volumes obtained from 3D scanning, as compared to the volumes obtained using the water-displacement technique and specimen weight, demonstrated excellent reliability. The ICC of breast volumes obtained using 3D scanning, as compared to those obtained by MRI, demonstrated substantial reliability. Passing-Bablok regression showed agreement between 3D scanning and the water-displacement technique, and showed a linear association of 3D scanning with MRI and specimen volume, respectively. Conclusions When compared with the classical water-displacement technique and MRI-based volumetry, 3D scanning showed significant reliability and a linear association with the other two methods. PMID:27689050

  15. Three-Dimensional Surface Imaging is an Effective Tool for Measuring Breast Volume: A Validation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Woo Yeon; Kim, Min Jung; Lew, Dae Hyun; Song, Seung Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Accurate breast volume assessment is a prerequisite to preoperative planning, as well as intraoperative decision making in breast reconstruction surgery. The use of three-dimensional surface imaging (3D scanning) to assess breast volume has many advantages. However, before employing 3D scanning in the field, the tool's validity should be demonstrated. The purpose of this study was to confirm the validity of 3D-scanning technology for evaluating breast volume. Methods We reviewed the charts of 25 patients who underwent breast reconstruction surgery immediately after total mastectomy. Breast volumes using the Axis Three 3D scanner, water-displacement technique, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were obtained bilaterally in the preoperative period. During the operation, the tissue removed during total mastectomy was weighed and the specimen volume was calculated from the weight. Then, we compared the volume obtained from 3D scanning with those obtained using the water-displacement technique, MRI, and the calculated volume of the tissue removed. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of breast volumes obtained from 3D scanning, as compared to the volumes obtained using the water-displacement technique and specimen weight, demonstrated excellent reliability. The ICC of breast volumes obtained using 3D scanning, as compared to those obtained by MRI, demonstrated substantial reliability. Passing-Bablok regression showed agreement between 3D scanning and the water-displacement technique, and showed a linear association of 3D scanning with MRI and specimen volume, respectively. Conclusions When compared with the classical water-displacement technique and MRI-based volumetry, 3D scanning showed significant reliability and a linear association with the other two methods.

  16. Perturbation Centrality and Turbine: A Novel Centrality Measure Obtained Using a Versatile Network Dynamics Tool

    PubMed Central

    Szalay, Kristóf Z.; Csermely, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of network dynamics became a focal point to understand and predict changes of complex systems. Here we introduce Turbine, a generic framework enabling fast simulation of any algorithmically definable dynamics on very large networks. Using a perturbation transmission model inspired by communicating vessels, we define a novel centrality measure: perturbation centrality. Hubs and inter-modular nodes proved to be highly efficient in perturbation propagation. High perturbation centrality nodes of the Met-tRNA synthetase protein structure network were identified as amino acids involved in intra-protein communication by earlier studies. Changes in perturbation centralities of yeast interactome nodes upon various stresses well recapitulated the functional changes of stressed yeast cells. The novelty and usefulness of perturbation centrality was validated in several other model, biological and social networks. The Turbine software and the perturbation centrality measure may provide a large variety of novel options to assess signaling, drug action, environmental and social interventions. PMID:24205090

  17. Dye tracers as a tool for outfall studies: dilution measurement approach.

    PubMed

    Pecly, J O G; Roldão, J S F

    2013-01-01

    Dye tracer technique is well established and of wide application for assessment of outfalls and for delineation of near field and far field extensions. Common goals of a tracer study include the measurement of the dilution factor, estimation of the dispersion coefficients, measurement of the effluent discharge and calibration of a contaminant transport model. This paper presents a brief review of the methods involving the use of dye tracer for outfall assessment and illustrates the methods of slug release and continuous injection based on two real cases of campaigns carried out on Brazilian coastal waters. Slug injection on the surface of the water body was used for preliminary dispersion studies aiming at outfall positioning. During the operational phase of an outfall, the continuous injection of dye tracer was used to determine effluent dilution in different seasons. In coastal waters of Rio de Janeiro city, sea current pattern, tidal modulation and thermal stratification explained the main features of the dilution field.

  18. The Personal Acquaintance Measure: a tool for appraising one's acquaintance with any person.

    PubMed

    Starzyk, Katherine B; Holden, Ronald R; Fabrigar, Leandre R; Macdonald, Tara K

    2006-05-01

    The authors developed and evaluated the psychometric properties of the 18-item Personal Acquaintance Measure (PAM) and investigated how the PAM relates to self- other agreement in personality ratings. Results support that 6 factors represent the PAM (Duration, Frequency of Interaction, Knowledge of Goals, Physical Intimacy, Self-Disclosure, Social Network Familiarity), which showed evidence of internal consistency, test-retest reliability over 3 weeks, sensitivity to known group differences, discriminant validity from socially desirable responding, and convergent validity with other relationship inventories. Results also show that the PAM positively predicted self-other agreement. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for the PAM and research in person perception, although this measure may also be used in other research areas. PMID:16737376

  19. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail.

  20. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail. PMID:24216194

  1. Measuring Bipolar Charge and Mass Distributions of Powder Aerosols by a Novel Tool (BOLAR).

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennifer; Lin, Yu-Wei; Kwok, Philip Chi Lip; Niemelä, Ville; Crapper, John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-09-01

    The Bipolar Charge Analyzer (BOLAR) was evaluated for measuring bipolar electrostatic charge and mass distributions of powder aerosols generated from a dry powder inhaler. Mannitol powder (5, 10, and 20 mg) was dispersed using an Osmohaler inhaler into the BOLAR at air flow rates of 30 or 60 L/min. As the aerosol sample was drawn through the BOLAR, the air flow was divided into six equal fractions. Five of them entered individual detection tubes with a defined cutoff diameter in the range of 0.95 to 16.36 μm (depending on the flow rate) and the remaining (i.e., the sixth) fraction passed through a reference chamber. The aerosols that entered the detection tubes were separated according to the particle charge polarity (positive, negative, or neutral) and charge was measured by separate electrometers. The deposited powder of a single actuation from the inhaler was chemically assayed using high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the aerosol measurements were conducted on a modified Classic Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) for comparison of the net specific charge per size fraction. Spray-dried mannitol carried significantly different positively and negatively charged particles in each of the five defined particle size fractions. The charge-to-mass ratio (q/m) of positively charged particles ranged from +1.11 to +32.57 pC/μg and negatively charged particles ranged from -1.39 to -9.25 pC/μg, resulting in a net q/m of -3.08 to +13.34 pC/μg. The net q/m values obtained on the modified ELPI ranged from -5.18 to +4.81 pC/μg, which were comparable to the BOLAR measurements. This is the first full report to utilize the BOLAR to measure bipolar charge and mass distributions of a powder aerosol. Positively and negatively charged particles were observed within each size fraction, and their corresponding q/m profiles were successfully characterized. Despite some potential drawbacks, the BOLAR has provided a new platform for investigating bipolar charge

  2. Radon isotope measurements as a monitoring tool for CO2 leakage in geological storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandia, F.; Mazadiego, L. F.; de Elío, J.; Ortega, M.; Bruno, J.

    2011-12-01

    Early detection of the failure of the seal integrity is fundamental in the monitoring plan of a deep geological CO2 storage. A number of methods of leakage control are based on changes in fluid geochemistry (shallow water, soil gases) providing valuable indicators. Among them, the measurement of CO2 fluxes in the soil-atmosphere interface is commonly used since it can be easily done using portable infra-red analyzers (i.e., accumulation chambers). However, initial emission of CO2 from storage horizon could be masked by fluxes from biological activity, limiting its applicability as an early alarm system. The measurement of fluxes of trace gas (Rn, He, VOC) that are virtually absent in the pre-injection baseline turns out a promising complementary method. The measurement of radon isotopes has been long used for the observation of mass transport from deep reservoirs to surface despite the flux of 222Rn and 220Rn is usually very limited in sedimentary basins due to the short half-life of these isotopes. The enhanced transport of radon in CO2 fluxes has been reported from natural systems, resulting in concentration in air up to several thousands of Bq/m3. In the frame of the Compostilla pilot plant project in Spain, a number of methodologies to measure radon emission are being tested in natural systems to select of the most reliable and cost-effective method to be used in leakage control. These methods are (1) Scintillation detector EDA RD-200, (2) Track Etch °, (3) Ionization Chamber and (4) alpha spectroscopy SARAD RTM 200. Some of them are capable of measuring the isotopes separately (SARAD) whereas others just detect the bulk radon concentration. Also, these methods follow distinct procedures and acquisition times. The studied natural sites are located in central and NE Spain (Campo de Calatrava and La Selva basins), and in central Italy (Arezzo basin). Apparently, radon isotopes (up 200000 Bq/m3) are measured far from parent isotopes, and they are coupled to

  3. Anthropometry as a tool for measuring malnutrition: impact of the new WHO growth standards and reference.

    PubMed

    Duggan, M B

    2010-01-01

    Anthropometry is a useful tool, both for monitoring growth and for nutritional assessment. The publication by WHO of internationally agreed growth standards in 1983 facilitated comparative nutritional assessment and the grading of childhood malnutrition. New growth standards for children under 5 years and growth reference for children aged 5-19 years have recently (2006 and 2007) been published by WHO. Growth of children <5 years was recorded in a multi-centre growth reference study involving children from six countries, selected for optimal child-rearing practices (breastfeeding, non-smoking mothers). They therefore constitute a growth standard. Growth data for older children were drawn from existing US studies, and upward skewing was avoided by excluding overweight subjects. These constitute a reference. More indicators are now included to describe optimal early childhood growth and development, e.g. BMI for age and MUAC for age. The growth reference for older children (2007) focuses on linear growth and BMI; weight-for-age data are age-limited and weight-for-height is omitted. Differences in the 2006 growth pattern from the previous reference for children <5 are attributed to differences in infant feeding. The 2006 'reference infant' is at first heavier and taller than his/her 1983 counterpart, but is then lighter until the age of 5. Being taller in the 2nd year, he/she is less bulky (lighter for height) than the 1983 reference toddler. The spread of values for height and weight for height is narrower in the 2006 dataset, such that the lower limit of the normal range for both indices is set higher than in the previous dataset. This means that a child will be identified as moderately or severely underweight for height (severe acute malnutrition) at a greater weight for height than previously. The implications for services for malnourished children have been recognised and strategies devised. The emphasis on BMI-for-age as the indicator for thinness and obesity in

  4. Optical measurements of the Moon as a tool to study its surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkuratov, Y.; Kaydash, V.; Korokhin, V.; Velikodsky, Y.; Opanasenko, N.; Videen, G.

    2011-10-01

    This survey is a general overview of modern optical studies of the Moon and their diagnostic meaning. It includes three united parts: phase photometry, spectrophotometry, and polarimetry. The first one is devoted to the progress in the photometry of the Moon, which includes absolute albedo determination to refine the albedo scale (e.g., to connect lunar observations and the data of lunar sample measurements) and mapping the parameters of a lunar photometric function (e.g., the phase-angle ratios method) with the aim of making qualitative estimates of regolith structure variations. This part also includes observations of the lunar opposition effect as well as photogrammetry and photoclinometry techniques. In particular, available data show that because of the low albedo of the lunar surface, the coherent backscattering enhancement hardly influences the lunar opposition spike, with the exception of the brightest lunar areas measured in the NIR. The second part is devoted to chemical/mineral mapping of the Moon's surface using spectrophotometric measurements. This section also includes analyses related to the detection of water ice or hydroxyl, prognoses of maturity, and helium-3 abundance mapping. In particular, we examine the relationship between superficial OH/H2O compounds spectrally detected recently and bulk “water ice” found earlier by the Lunar Prospector GRS and LRO LEND, assuming that the compounds are delivered to cold traps (permanently shadowed regions) with electrostatically levitated dust saturated by solar wind hydrogen. Significant problems arise with the determination of TiO2 content, as the correlation between this parameter and the color ratio C(750/415 nm) is very non-linear and not universal for different composition types of the lunar surface; a promising way to resolve this problem is to use color ratios in the UV spectral range. The third part is devoted to mapping of polarization parameters of the lunar surface, which enable estimates of

  5. In-situ measurement of processing properties during fabrication in a production tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranbuehl, D. E.; Haverty, P.; Hoff, M.; Loos, A. C.

    1988-01-01

    Progress is reported on the use of frequency-dependent electromagnetic measurements (FDEMs) as a single, convenient technique for continuous in situ monitoring of polyester cure during fabrication in a laboratory and manufacturing environment. Preliminary FDEM sensor and modeling work using the Loss-Springer model in order to develop an intelligent closed-loop, sensor-controlled cure process is described. FDEMs using impedance bridges in the Hz to MHz region is found to be ideal for automatically monitoring polyester processing properties continuously throughout the cure cycle.

  6. 3D digital holographic interferometry as a tool to measure the tympanic membrane motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, M.; Muñoz Solis, S.; Mendoza Santoyo, F.

    2012-10-01

    Most of the current optical non-invasive methodologies used to characterize the tympanic membrane (TM) motion generate data in the z direction only, i.e., employ an out-of-plane sensitive configuration. In this paper, 3-D digital holographic interferometry (3-D DHI), is used to measure micrometer displacements from the TM surface. The proposed optical configuration provides information from three sensitivity vectors that separate the contributions from x, y and z displacement components. In order to achieve high accuracy of the sensitivity vector and to obtain the complete determination of the 3-D TM displacements, its surface contour is obtained by moving only two object illumination sources chosen from any pair within the DHI optical setup. Results are presented from measurements corresponding to individual displacements maps for the three orthogonal displacements components x, y and z combined with the TM shape from an ex-vivo cat. These results will no doubt contribute to enhance the understanding and determinate the mechanical properties of this complex tissue.

  7. The genetic drift inventory: a tool for measuring what advanced undergraduates have mastered about genetic drift.

    PubMed

    Price, Rebecca M; Andrews, Tessa C; McElhinny, Teresa L; Mead, Louise S; Abraham, Joel K; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures upper-division students' understanding of this concept. We used an iterative approach that included extensive interviews and field tests involving 1723 students across five different undergraduate campuses. The GeDI consists of 22 agree-disagree statements that assess four key concepts and six misconceptions. Student scores ranged from 4/22 to 22/22. Statements ranged in mean difficulty from 0.29 to 0.80 and in discrimination from 0.09 to 0.46. The internal consistency, as measured with Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.58 to 0.88 across five iterations. Test-retest analysis resulted in a coefficient of stability of 0.82. The true-false format means that the GeDI can test how well students grasp key concepts central to understanding genetic drift, while simultaneously testing for the presence of misconceptions that indicate an incomplete understanding of genetic drift. The insights gained from this testing will, over time, allow us to improve instruction about this key component of evolution.

  8. Spectral domain phase microscopy: a new tool for measuring cellular dynamics and cytoplasmic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Emily J.; Choma, Michael A.; Ellerbee, Audrey K.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2005-03-01

    Broadband interferometry is an attractive technique for the detection of cellular motions because it provides depth-resolved interferometric phase information via coherence gating. Here a phase sensitive technique called spectral domain phase microscopy (SDPM) is presented. SDPM is a functional extension of spectral domain optical coherence tomography that allows for the detection of cellular motions and dynamics with nanometer-scale sensitivity. This sensitivity is made possible by the inherent phase stability of spectral domain OCT combined with common-path interferometry. The theory that underlies this technique is presented, the sensitivity of the technique is demonstrated by the measurement of the thermal expansion coefficient of borosilicate glass, and the response of an Amoeba proteus to puncture of its cell membrane is measured. We also exploit the phase stability of SDPM to perform Doppler flow imaging of cytoplasmic streaming in A. proteus. We show reversal of cytoplasmic flow in response to stimuli, and we show that the cytoplasmic flow is laminar (i.e. parabolic) in nature. We are currently investigating the use of SDPM in a variety of different cell types.

  9. Sexual dimorphism in finger ridge breadth measurements: a tool for sex estimation from fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Bartelink, Eric J; Murad, Turhon A

    2014-07-01

    Previous research has demonstrated significant sexual dimorphism in friction ridge skin characteristics. This study uses a novel method for measuring sexual dimorphism in finger ridge breadths to evaluate its utility as a sex estimation method from an unknown fingerprint. Beginning and ending in a valley, the width of ten parallel ridges with no obstructions or minutia was measured in a sample of 250 males and females (N = 500). The results demonstrate statistically significant differences in ridge breadth between males and females (p < 0.001), with classification accuracy for each digit varying from 83.2% to 89.3%. Classification accuracy for the pooled finger samples was 83.9% for the right hand and 86.2% for the left hand, which is applicable for cases where the digit number cannot be determined. Weight, stature, and to a lesser degree body mass index also significantly correlate with ridge breadth and account for the degree of overlap between males and females.

  10. Sonographic Measurement of Abdominal Esophageal Length as a Diagnostic Tool in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashti, Hamid; Dehdashtian, Masoud; Rahim, Fakher; Payvasteh, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study was conducted to provide sonographic measurements of the abdominal esophagus length in neonates and infants with and without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to investigate its diagnostic value. GERD severity was also evaluated and correlated with esophageal length. It is a prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods: This prospective case-control study comprised 235 neonates and infants (120 without reflux and 115 with reflux). There were 40 children without reflux in each of three age categories: less than 1 month, 1–6 months, and 6–12 months. Of the children with reflux, 40 were less than 1 month old; 37, 1–6 months; and 38, 6–12 months. The abdominal esophagus was measured from its entrance into the diaphragm to the base of gastric folds in fed infants. GERD was sonographically diagnosed and confirmed by a barium meal. The number of refluxes during a 10-min period were recorded. Results: Neonates and infants with reflux had a significantly shorter abdominal esophagus than subjects without reflux: the mean difference in neonates, 4.65 mm; 1–6 months, 4.57 mm; 6–12 months, 3.61 mm. Conclusions: Children with severe reflux had a shorter esophagus compared with those with mild and moderate reflux only in the neonate group. Therefore, thinking of GERD and carefully looking for its symptoms is necessary to avoid unnecessary utilization of healthcare resources in children with severe reflux. PMID:21196654

  11. PO-CALC: a novel tool to correct common inconsistencies in the measurement of phenoloxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Kohlmeier, Philip; Dreyer, Heiko; Meunier, Joël

    2015-04-01

    A broad range of physiological and evolutionarily studies requires standard and robust methods to assess the strength and activity of an individual's immune defense. In insects, this goal is generally reached by spectrophotometrically measuring (pro-) phenoloxidase activity, an enzymatic and non-specific process activated after wounding and parasite infections. However, the literature surprisingly lacks a standard method to calculate these values from spectrophotometer data and thus to be able to compare results across studies. In this study, we demonstrated that nine methods commonly used to extract phenoloxidase activities (1) provide inconsistent results when tested on the same data sets, at least partly due to their specific sensitivity to the noise regularly present in enzymatic reaction curves. To circumvent this issue, we then (2) developed a novel, free and simple R-based program called PO-CALC and (3) demonstrated the robustness of its calculations for the different types of noises. Overall, we show that PO-CALC corrects overlooked though important inconsistencies in the measurement of phenoloxidase activities, and claim that its broad use would increase the significance and general validity of studies on invertebrate immunity. PMID:25783957

  12. Objective performance measures using motion sensors on an endoscopic tool for evaluating skills in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES).

    PubMed

    Chin, Lauren I; Sankaranarayanan, Ganesh; Dargar, Saurabh; Matthes, Kai; De, Suvranu

    2013-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery is an emerging procedure. High fidelity virtual reality-based simulators allow development of new surgical procedures and tools and train medical personnel without risk to human patients. As part of a project funded by the National Institutes of Health, we are developing a Virtual Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery Trainer (VTEST TM) for this purpose. In this work, objective performance measures derived from motion tracking sensors attached to an endoscope was tested for the transgastric NOTES appendectomy procedure performed with ex-vivo pig organs using the EASIE-R(TM) trainer box. Results from our study shows that both completion time and economy of motion parameters were able to differentiate between expert and novice NOTES surgeons with p value of 0.039 and 0.02 respectively. Jerk computed on sensor 2 data also showed significant results (p = 0.02). We plan to incorporate these objective performance measures in VTEST(TM). PMID:23400134

  13. Development of a measurement and feedback training tool for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes.

    PubMed

    Lembert, Sandra; Schachner, Otto; Raschner, Christian

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the start plays a critical role in sliding events and explains more than 55% of the variance of the final time in luge. Experts evaluate the contribution of the arm strokes to be 23% of the total starting performance. The aim of the present study was to develop a measurement and feedback training tool (Speedpaddler) for the arm strokes of high-performance luge athletes. The construction is an aluminium alloy framework with a customary belt conveyor system, which is driven by two synchronized servo motors. Training is possible with constant speeds up to 12 m · s(-1) or several speed curves, which simulate the acceleration of different luge tracks. The construction facilitates variations in the inclination and speed of the conveyor belts and thereby the resistance and movement speed. If the athlete accelerates the conveyor belts during arm-paddling, the torque of the motors decreases. Torque measurements and high-speed video offer valuable insights into the several technique criteria. Comparisons of arm-paddle cycle durations on ice and on the Speedpaddler with 18 luge athletes (national team and juniors) showed no statistical differences. The Speedpaddler might be a useful tool to improve starting performance all year round. PMID:22077383

  14. THE HUMAN BEHAVIOR RATING SCALE-BRIEF: A TOOL TO MEASURE 21ST CENTURY SKILLS OF K-12 LEARNERS.

    PubMed

    Woods-Groves, Suzanne

    2015-06-01

    Currently there is a call for brief concise measurements to appraise relevant 21st century college readiness skills in K-12 learners. This study employed K-12 teachers' ratings for over 3,000 students for an existing 91-item rating scale, the Human Behavior Rating Scale, that measured the 21st century skills of persistence, curiosity, externalizing affect, internalizing affect, and cognition. Teachers' ratings for K-12 learners were used to develop a brief, concise, and manageable 30-item tool, the Human Behavior Rating Scale-Brief. Results yielded high internal consistency coefficients and inter-item correlations. The items were not biased with regard to student sex or race, and were supported through confirmatory factor analyses. In addition, when teachers' ratings were compared with students' academic and behavioral performance data, moderate to strong relationships were revealed. This study provided an essential first step in the development of a psychometrically sound, manageable, and brief tool to appraise 21st century skills in K-12 learners.

  15. Automated home cage observations as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on cage floor locomotion.

    PubMed

    de Visser, Leonie; van den Bos, Ruud; Spruijt, Berry M

    2005-05-28

    This paper introduces automated observations in a modular home cage system as a tool to measure the effects of wheel running on the time distribution and daily organization of cage floor locomotor activity in female C57BL/6 mice. Mice (n = 16) were placed in the home cage system for 6 consecutive days. Fifty percent of the subjects had free access to a running wheel that was integrated in the home cage. Overall activity levels in terms of duration of movement were increased by wheel running, while time spent inside a sheltering box was decreased. Wheel running affected the hourly pattern of movement during the animals' active period of the day. Mice without a running wheel, in contrast to mice with a running wheel, showed a clear differentiation between novelty-induced and baseline levels of locomotion as reflected by a decrease after the first day of introduction to the home cage. The results are discussed in the light of the use of running wheels as a tool to measure general activity and as an object for environmental enrichment. Furthermore, the possibilities of using automated home cage observations for e.g. behavioural phenotyping are discussed.

  16. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students’ perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  17. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes.

  18. Weighted averages of magnetization from magnetic field measurements: A fast interpretation tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedi, Maurizio

    2003-08-01

    Magnetic anomalies may be interpreted in terms of weighted averages of magnetization (WAM) by a simple transformation. The WAM transformation consists of dividing at each measurement point the experimental magnetic field by a normalizing field, computed from a source volume with a homogeneous unit-magnetization. The transformation yields a straightforward link among source and field position vectors. A main WAM outcome is that sources at different depths appear well discriminated. Due to the symmetry of the problem, the higher the considered field altitude, the deeper the sources outlined by the transformation. This is shown for single and multi-source synthetic cases as well as for real data. We analyze the real case of Mt. Vulture volcano (Southern Italy), where the related anomaly strongly interferes with that from deep intrusive sources. The volcanic edifice is well identified. The deep source is estimated at about 9 km depth, in agreement with other results.

  19. The Laboratory Course Assessment Survey: A Tool to Measure Three Dimensions of Research-Course Design.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Runyon, Christopher; Robinson, Aspen; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are increasingly being offered as scalable ways to involve undergraduates in research. Yet few if any design features that make CUREs effective have been identified. We developed a 17-item survey instrument, the Laboratory Course Assessment Survey (LCAS), that measures students' perceptions of three design features of biology lab courses: 1) collaboration, 2) discovery and relevance, and 3) iteration. We assessed the psychometric properties of the LCAS using established methods for instrument design and validation. We also assessed the ability of the LCAS to differentiate between CUREs and traditional laboratory courses, and found that the discovery and relevance and iteration scales differentiated between these groups. Our results indicate that the LCAS is suited for characterizing and comparing undergraduate biology lab courses and should be useful for determining the relative importance of the three design features for achieving student outcomes. PMID:26466990

  20. MediHandTrace ®: a tool for measuring and understanding hand hygiene adherence.

    PubMed

    Boudjema, S; Dufour, J C; Aladro, A S; Desquerres, I; Brouqui, P

    2014-01-01

    The proper implementation of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing healthcare-associated infection. Although there are many programmes aimed at enhancing hand hygiene, the compliance of healthcare workers (HCWs) remains incredibly low. One limiting factor is the lack of standardized measures and reports of hand hygiene opportunities. Direct observational audits have reported the weaknesses in this field. We report here a radiofrequency identification-based real-time automated continuous recording system (MediHandTrace(®)) that permits the tracking of hand hygiene opportunities and the disinfection compliance of HCWs that we evaluated against video recordings as being accurate (99.02%), sensitive (95.65%) and specific (100%). The system can also provide information that is useful to understand HCW non-compliance and will allow the evaluation of future intervention studies. PMID:24261513

  1. The VALS: A new tool to measure people's general valued attributes of landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Ford, Rebecca M; Anderson, Nerida M; Farrar, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Research on values for natural areas has largely focussed on theoretical concerns such as distinguishing different kinds of values held by people. However practice, policymaking, planning and management is typically focused on more tangible valued attributes of the landscape such as biodiversity and recreation infrastructure that can be manipulated by management actions. There is a need for valid psychometric measures of such values that are suited to informing land management policies. A Valued Attributes of Landscape Scale (VALS) was developed, derived from a document analysis of values expressed in public land policy documents. The validity of the VALS was tested in an online survey comparing values across one of three randomly presented landscape contexts in Victoria, Australia: all publicly managed natural land, coastal areas, and large urban parks. A purposive snowball sample was used to recruit participants with a range of views and professional experience with land management, including members of the urban public. Factor analysis of responses (n = 646) separated concepts relating to natural attributes, social functions, the experience of being in natural areas, cultural attributes and productive uses. Relative importance of valued attribute factors was similar across all landscape contexts, although there were small but significant differences in the way people valued social functions (higher in urban parks) and productive uses (lower in urban parks). We conclude that the concept of valued attributes is useful for linking theoretical understandings of people's environmental values to the way values are considered by land managers, and that these attributes can be measured using the VALS instrument to produce data that should be useful for the policy and planning of natural resources. PMID:26321532

  2. Poynting flux measurements on a satellite: A diagnostic tool for space research

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, M.C.; Knudsen, D.J. ); Vickery, J.F. )

    1991-01-01

    The first satellite observations of the total field-aligned component of the quasi-dc Poynting flux are presented for two passes over the polar region, one in the noon sector and one in the afternoon. The energy input due to electron precipitation is also presented. In the noon pass the downward Poynting flux in the auroral oval was comparable to the kinetic energy input rate. The peak electromagnetic energy input rate of 6 ergs/(cm{sup 2}s) equaled the peak particle input while the integrated electromagnetic value along the trajectory was 60% that of the particles. In the afternoon pass the peak electromagnetic energy input was also about 6 ergs/(cm{sup 2}s), but the peak particle energy was 6 times this value. The average electromagnetic input was 10% of the particle input for the pass. In this study, the authors can measure the Poynting flux only over a limited range of scale sizes; thus the contribution to the total energy budget in the polar cap cannot be determined. Both passes show small regions characterized by upward Poynting flux suggesting a neutral wind dynamo. There is also evidence during part of the noontime pass that the external generator acted in opposition to an existing wind field since the Poynting flux was greater than the estimate of Joule heating from the electric field measurement alone (i.e., from {Sigma}{sub p}E{sup 2}). In the course of deriving Poynting's theorem for the geophysical case they also present a proof that ground magnetometer systems respond primarily to the Hall current which does not depend upon geometric cancellation between the field generated by Pedersen and field-aligned currents.

  3. The VALS: A new tool to measure people's general valued attributes of landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kendal, Dave; Ford, Rebecca M; Anderson, Nerida M; Farrar, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Research on values for natural areas has largely focussed on theoretical concerns such as distinguishing different kinds of values held by people. However practice, policymaking, planning and management is typically focused on more tangible valued attributes of the landscape such as biodiversity and recreation infrastructure that can be manipulated by management actions. There is a need for valid psychometric measures of such values that are suited to informing land management policies. A Valued Attributes of Landscape Scale (VALS) was developed, derived from a document analysis of values expressed in public land policy documents. The validity of the VALS was tested in an online survey comparing values across one of three randomly presented landscape contexts in Victoria, Australia: all publicly managed natural land, coastal areas, and large urban parks. A purposive snowball sample was used to recruit participants with a range of views and professional experience with land management, including members of the urban public. Factor analysis of responses (n = 646) separated concepts relating to natural attributes, social functions, the experience of being in natural areas, cultural attributes and productive uses. Relative importance of valued attribute factors was similar across all landscape contexts, although there were small but significant differences in the way people valued social functions (higher in urban parks) and productive uses (lower in urban parks). We conclude that the concept of valued attributes is useful for linking theoretical understandings of people's environmental values to the way values are considered by land managers, and that these attributes can be measured using the VALS instrument to produce data that should be useful for the policy and planning of natural resources.

  4. CGPS as a Tool to Measure Short-Term Mass Balance Variations of Icelandic Ice Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compton, K. C.; Bennett, R. A.; Hreinsdottir, S.; van Dam, T. M.; Spada, G.

    2015-12-01

    As the global climate changes, understanding the variations in water storage is increasingly important. In Iceland, glaciers cover approximately 11% of the land surface and comprise the country's largest reservoir of freshwater. Seasonal variations in winter snowfall and summer melting can impact river discharge and water availability for utilities such as hydropower. A dense network of continuously operating GPS sites record rapid crustal uplift exceeding 30 mm/year and accelerations up to 1-2 mm/yr2 reflecting the recent accelerating ice mass loss from the major Icelandic ice caps. Additionally, CGPS records seasonal motion: the elastic response to annual snow and melt seasons. Amplitudes of vertical seasonal motion approach 10 mm for those sites in the Central Highlands region in close proximity to the Vatnajökull ice cap. We demonstrate the utility of CGPS-measured displacements for estimating seasonal ice mass changes using a simple least squares inversion. We utilize all 3 components of motion, taking advantage of the seasonal motion recorded in the horizontal. We remove secular velocities and accelerations as well as seasonal motions due to atmospheric, hydrologic, and non-tidal ocean loading. We model GPS noise as a flicker process and set the standard deviation for that noise to be 1 mm for the horizontal components and 3 mm for the vertical. We calculate unit responses to each of the 5 largest ice caps in central Iceland at each of the 62 CGPS locations using both the RELAX and REAR codes and investigate the impact that Earth's structure has on our modeling results, noting here that the standard PREM Earth model results in calculated displacements smaller than the observations by a factor of two. Our preliminary inversion results match available summer and winter mass balance measurements well. We are often able to reproduce the year-to-year variations in loading and melting within our calculated 95% confidence bounds.

  5. Heated fiber optic distributed temperature sensing: a tool for measuring soil water content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Sinobas, Leonor; Zubelzu, Sergio; Sánchez-Calvo, Raúl; Horcajo, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of Distributed Fiber Optic Temperature Measurement (DFOT) method for estimating temperature variation along a cable of fiber optic has been assessed in multiple environmental applications. Recently, the application of DFOT combined with an active heating pulses technique has been reported as a sensor to estimate soil moisture. This method applies a known amount of heat to the soil and monitors the temperature evolution, which mainly depends on the soil moisture content . This study presents the application of the Active Heated DFOT method to determine the soil water retention curve under experimental conditions. The experiment was conducted in a rectangular methacrylate box of 2.5 m x 0.25 m x 0.25 m which was introduced in a larger box 2.8 m x 0.3 m x 0.3 m of the same material. The inner box was filled with a sandy loamy soil collected from the nearest garden and dried under ambient temperature for 30 days. Care was taking to fill up the box maintaining the soil bulk density determined "in-situ". The cable was deployed along the box at 10 cm depth. At the beginning of the experiment, the box was saturated bottom-up, by filling the outer box with water, and then it kept dried for two months. The circulation of heated air at the bottom box accelerated the drying process. In addition, fast growing turf was also sowed to dry it fast. The DTS unit was a SILIXA ULTIMA SR (Silixa Ltd, UK) and has spatial and temporal resolution of 0.29 m and 5 s, respectively. In this study, heat pulses of 7 W/m for 2 1/2 min were applied uniformly along the fiber optic cable and the thermal response on an adjacent cable was monitored in different soil water status. Then, the heating and drying phase integer (called Tcum) was determined following the approach of Sayde et al., (2010). For each water status,  was measured by the gravimetric method in several soil samples collected in three box locations at the same depth that the fiber optic cable and after each heat pulse

  6. Developing a tool to measure satisfaction among health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In sub-Saharan Africa, lack of motivation and job dissatisfaction have been cited as causes of poor healthcare quality and outcomes. Measurement of health workers’ satisfaction adapted to sub-Saharan African working conditions and cultures is a challenge. The objective of this study was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure satisfaction among health professionals in the sub-Saharan African context. Methods A survey was conducted in Senegal and Mali in 2011 among 962 care providers (doctors, midwives, nurses and technicians) practicing in 46 hospitals (capital, regional and district). The participation rate was very high: 97% (937/962). After exploratory factor analysis (EFA), construct validity was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The discriminant validity of our subscales was evaluated by comparing the average variance extracted (AVE) for each of the constructs with the squared interconstruct correlation (SIC), and finally for criterion validity, each subscale was tested with two hypotheses. Two dimensions of reliability were assessed: internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha subscales and stability over time using a test-retest process. Results Eight dimensions of satisfaction encompassing 24 items were identified and validated using a process that combined psychometric analyses and expert opinions: continuing education, salary and benefits, management style, tasks, work environment, workload, moral satisfaction and job stability. All eight dimensions demonstrated significant discriminant validity. The final model showed good performance, with a root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA) of 0.0508 (90% CI: 0.0448 to 0.0569) and a comparative fit index (CFI) of 0.9415. The concurrent criterion validity of the eight dimensions was good. Reliability was assessed based on internal consistency, which was good for all dimensions but one (moral satisfaction < 0.70). Test-retest showed satisfactory temporal

  7. Real-time Seismic Amplitude Measurement (RSAM): a volcano monitoring and prediction tool

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Endo, E.T.; Murray, T.

    1991-01-01

    Seismicity is one of the most commonly monitored phenomena used to determine the state of a volcano and for the prediction of volcanic eruptions. Although several real-time earthquake-detection and data acquisition systems exist, few continuously measure seismic amplitude in circumstances where individual events are difficult to recognize or where volcanic tremor is prevalent. Analog seismic records provide a quick visual overview of activity; however, continuous rapid quantitative analysis to define the intensity of seismic activity for the purpose of predicing volcanic eruptions is not always possible because of clipping that results from the limited dynamic range of analog recorders. At the Cascades Volcano Observatory, an inexpensive 8-bit analog-to-digital system controlled by a laptop computer is used to provide 1-min average-amplitude information from eight telemetered seismic stations. The absolute voltage level for each station is digitized, averaged, and appended in near real-time to a data file on a multiuser computer system. Raw realtime seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM) data or transformed RSAM data are then plotted on a common time base with other available volcano-monitoring information such as tilt. Changes in earthquake activity associated with dome-building episodes, weather, and instrumental difficulties are recognized as distinct patterns in the RSAM data set. RSAM data for domebuilding episodes gradually develop into exponential increases that terminate just before the time of magma extrusion. Mount St. Helens crater earthquakes show up as isolated spikes on amplitude plots for crater seismic stations but seldom for more distant stations. Weather-related noise shows up as low-level, long-term disturbances on all seismic stations, regardless of distance from the volcano. Implemented in mid-1985, the RSAM system has proved valuable in providing up-to-date information on seismic activity for three Mount St. Helens eruptive episodes from 1985 to

  8. Metripol analysis as a tool for measuring iceberg sub-scour bulk strain in sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linch, Lorna D.; van der Meer, Jaap J. M.

    2014-05-01

    Iceberg scour deforms sediment, realigning clays and silts into particular birefringent optical arrangements called plasmic fabrics that can be identified using a petrological microscope. Plasmic fabrics provide valuable information on the style and intensity of bulk strain in sediment, which is critical to engineering analysis when evaluating the effect of iceberg scour on pipelines. In the past, the analysis of plasmic fabrics and thus strain in sediment has been largely subjective by adopting descriptive methods. Now however, with 'Metripol' analysis we are able to move to a more quantitative, objective approach for assessing strain in sediment and sedimentary rocks. Here Metripol is pioneered as a new, non-destructive, optical microscopy technique for automatically recording and quantifying plasmic fabrics, providing digitised, empirical measures of sub-scour bulk strain in iceberg scoured sediment from former Glacial Lake Agassiz (Manitoba, Canada). Colour-coded images are produced where colour represents birefringence (relative optical retardation) and azimuth lines represent optical orientation. Results show that the better developed the plasmic fabric (as seen under a standard petrological microscope) the higher the birefringence, the larger the areas of high birefringence, and the longer and more densely populated the azimuths under Metripol - all of which indicate high strain deformation associated to iceberg scour. However, some plasmic fabrics that are subjectively 'perceived' as highly birefringent under a standard petrological microscope demonstrate weaker birefringence when objectively measured under Metripol. This is particularly true in clay-rich sub-scour sediment and holds implications for the way we currently describe and interpret plasmic fabrics and strain in sediment. Finally, identification and quantification of additional structures in iceberg scoured sediment that would otherwise have gone undetected using a standard petrological

  9. DiameterJ: A Validated Open Source Nanofiber Diameter Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Hotaling, Nathan A.; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 seconds. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called “DiameterJ” was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 seconds, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response. PMID:26043061

  10. Laryngeal Measurements and Diagnostic Tools for Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Verónica; Navarro, Sandra M.; Alvarez, Andrés E.; Villafañe, Mercedes; Miranda, Ana; Spaans, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of laryngeal height, lung function, and diagnostic questionnaires for screening and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 233 people aged between 40 and 75 years. Measured variables were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, tobacco use, maximum laryngeal height, and spirometry, and we administered a COPD questionnaire and the Lung Function Questionnaire. RESULTS For laryngeal height, we found a positive likelihood ratio of 5.21, and for the Lung Function Questionnaire, we found a negative likelihood ratio of 0.10. Combining a maximum laryngeal height of ≤4 cm with Lung Function Questionnaire findings of ≤18 yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 29.06, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.26. CONCLUSIONS The intrinsic validity of the lung function questionnaire makes it useful for screening. Combining Lung Function Questionnaire results and laryngeal height can help confirm or dismiss COPD. PMID:25583892

  11. Cancellation of simulated environmental noise as a tool for measuring vocal performance during noise exposure.

    PubMed

    Ternström, Sten; Södersten, Maria; Bohman, Mikael

    2002-06-01

    It can be difficult for the voice clinician to observe or measure how a patient uses his voice in a noisy environment. We consider here a novel method for obtaining this information in the laboratory. Worksite noise and filtered white noise were reproduced over high-fidelity loudspeakers. In this noise, 11 subjects read an instructional text of 1.5 to 2 minutes duration, as if addressing a group of people. Using channel estimation techniques, the site noise was suppressed from the recording, and the voice signal alone was recovered. The attainable noise rejection is limited only by the precision of the experimental setup, which includes the need for the subject to remain still so as not to perturb the estimated acoustic channel. This feasibility study, with 7 female and 4 male subjects, showed that small displacements of the speaker's body, even breathing, impose a practical limit on the attainable noise rejection. The noise rejection was typically 30 dB and maximally 40 dB down over the entire voice spectrum. Recordings thus processed were clean enough to permit voice analysis with the long-time average spectrum and the computerized phonetogram. The effects of site noise on voice sound pressure level, fundamental frequency, long-term average spectrum centroid, phonetogram area, and phonation time were much as expected, but with some interesting differences between females and males.

  12. Development and use of a knowledge translation tool: the rehabilitation measures database.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jennifer L; Raad, Jason; Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Heinemann, Allen W

    2014-01-01

    Clinical translation of research evidence is a challenge for rehabilitation clinicians. Publicly accessible and free, online educational resources that summarize research evidence can support implementation of research evidence into practice. Several online resources have been developed recently to overcome common knowledge translation barriers. The Rehabilitation Measures Database (RMD) is a free, web-based searchable database of standardized instruments that was designed to support knowledge translation. It helps clinicians select valid and sensitive instruments for screening patients, monitoring progress, and assessing rehabilitation outcomes. The RMD was developed using feedback from focus groups and beta-test participants. Since its launch in 2011, RMD use has grown to an average of 1851 hits per day from 168 countries. As of September 2013, 202 instrument summaries are viewable in the RMD. Most summaries are linked to copies of the instrument or to purchase instructions. A challenge in updating and expanding the RMD is securing the resources to ensure its future. Collaborative relationships with professional associations and graduate programs in the health sciences are critical in sustaining this resource.

  13. Measuring Science Instructional Practice: A Survey Tool for the Age of NGSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Kathryn N.; Lee, Christine S.; DiStefano, Rachelle; O'Connor, Dawn; Seitz, Jeffery C.

    2016-03-01

    Ambitious efforts are taking place to implement a new vision for science education in the United States, in both Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)-adopted states and those states creating their own, often related, standards. In-service and pre-service teacher educators are involved in supporting teacher shifts in practice toward the new standards. With these efforts, it will be important to document shifts in science instruction toward the goals of NGSS and broader science education reform. Survey instruments are often used to capture instructional practices; however, existing surveys primarily measure inquiry based on previous definitions and standards and with a few exceptions, disregard key instructional practices considered outside the scope of inquiry. A comprehensive survey and a clearly defined set of items do not exist. Moreover, items specific to the NGSS Science and Engineering practices have not yet been tested. To address this need, we developed and validated a Science Instructional Practices survey instrument that is appropriate for NGSS and other related science standards. Survey construction was based on a literature review establishing key areas of science instruction, followed by a systematic process for identifying and creating items. Instrument validity and reliability were then tested through a procedure that included cognitive interviews, expert review, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis (using independent samples), and analysis of criterion validity. Based on these analyses, final subscales include: Instigating an Investigation, Data Collection and Analysis, Critique, Explanation and Argumentation, Modeling, Traditional Instruction, Prior Knowledge, Science Communication, and Discourse.

  14. Limovie, a new light measurement tool for occultation observations using video recorded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyashita, Kazuhisa; Hayamizu, Tsutomu; Sôma, Mitsuru

    2006-04-01

    We developed a new software program called Limovie to produce light curve plots of occultation events. Limovie converts a video to a light curve for a qualitative analysis of occultation events including those difficult ones with very small magnitude drops. If the video is with time insertion or with times signals recorded, the light intensity data can be outputted with the precise times automatically so that the precise times of the occultation events can be obtained. The high detail of the light curve plots of lunar occultations, especially the grazing ones, can allow the user to estimate the size of the star and the lunar limb profile features by applying Fresnel diffraction patterns to the resulted light curve. Limovie can also be used to analyze the events such as the mutual events of the Galilean satellites where the light intensity varies slowly with time. Limovie is also useful for occultations involving close double stars, allowing measuring the component magnitudes. Limovie is a free program obtainable at: http://www005.upp.so-net.ne.jp/k_miyash/occ02/limovie_en-html.

  15. (19)F Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement: A Valuable Tool for Distance Measurements in Proteins.

    PubMed

    Matei, Elena; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Fluorine NMR paramagnetic relaxation enhancement was evaluated as a versatile approach for extracting distance information in selectively F-labeled proteins. Proof of concept and initial applications are presented for the HIV-inactivating lectin cyanovirin-N. Single F atoms were introduced at the 4-, 5-, 6- or 7 positions of Trp49 and the 4-position of Phe4, Phe54, and Phe80. The paramagnetic nitroxide spin label was attached to Cys residues that were placed into the protein at positions 50 or 52. (19)F-T2  NMR spectra with different relaxation delays were recorded and the transverse (19)F-PRE rate, (19)F-Γ2 , was used to determine the average distance between the F nucleus and the paramagnetic center. Our data show that experimental (19)F PRE-based distances correspond to 0.93 of the (1)HN-PRE distances, in perfect agreement with the gyromagnetic γ(19)F/γ(1)H ratio, thereby demonstrating that (19)F PREs are excellent alternative parameters for quantitative distance measurements in selectively F-labeled proteins.

  16. Inverse Compton Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool for the Measurement of Electron Beam Energies in Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, A. D. J.

    2003-10-01

    The main emphasis of the diode research project at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) UK is to produce small diameter radiographic spot sizes at high dose to improve the resolution of the transmission radiographs taken during hydrodynamic experiments. Experimental measurements of conditions within the diodes of Pulsed Power driven flash x-ray machines are vital to provide a benchmark for electromagnetic PIC codes such as LSP which are used to develop new diode designs. The potential use of inverse Compton scattering (ICS) as a diagnostic technique in the determination of electron energies within the diode has been investigated. The interaction of a laser beam with a beam of high-energy electrons will create an ICS spectrum of photons. Theoretically, one should be able to glean information on the energies and positions of the electrons from the energy spectrum and differential cross section of the scattered photons. The feasibility of fielding this technique on various diode designs has been explored, and an experimental setup with the greatest likelihood of success is proposed.

  17. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response.

  18. DiameterJ: A validated open source nanofiber diameter measurement tool.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, Nathan A; Bharti, Kapil; Kriel, Haydn; Simon, Carl G

    2015-08-01

    Despite the growing use of nanofiber scaffolds for tissue engineering applications, there is not a validated, readily available, free solution for rapid, automated analysis of nanofiber diameter from scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs. Thus, the goal of this study was to create a user friendly ImageJ/FIJI plugin that would analyze SEM micrographs of nanofibers to determine nanofiber diameter on a desktop computer within 60 s. Additional design goals included 1) compatibility with a variety of existing segmentation algorithms, and 2) an open source code to enable further improvement of the plugin. Using existing algorithms for centerline determination, Euclidean distance transforms and a novel pixel transformation technique, a plugin called "DiameterJ" was created for ImageJ/FIJI. The plugin was validated using 1) digital synthetic images of white lines on a black background and 2) SEM images of nominally monodispersed steel wires of known diameters. DiameterJ analyzed SEM micrographs in 20 s, produced diameters not statistically different from known values, was over 10-times closer to known diameter values than other open source software, provided hundreds of times the sampling of manual measurement, and was hundreds of times faster than manual assessment of nanofiber diameter. DiameterJ enables users to rapidly and thoroughly determine the structural features of nanofiber scaffolds and could potentially allow new insights to be formed into fiber diameter distribution and cell response. PMID:26043061

  19. German translation of the Alberta context tool and two measures of research use: methods, challenges and lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between organizational context and research utilization is key to reducing the research-practice gap in health care. This is particularly true in the residential long term care (LTC) setting where relatively little work has examined the influence of context on research implementation. Reliable, valid measures and tools are a prerequisite for studying organizational context and research utilization. Few such tools exist in German. We thus translated three such tools (the Alberta Context Tool and two measures of research use) into German for use in German residential LTC. We point out challenges and strategies for their solution unique to German residential LTC, and demonstrate how resolving specific challenges in the translation of the health care aide instrument version streamlined the translation process of versions for registered nurses, allied health providers, practice specialists, and managers. Methods Our translation methods were based on best practices and included two independent forward translations, reconciliation of the forward translations, expert panel discussions, two independent back translations, reconciliation of the back translations, back translation review, and cognitive debriefing. Results We categorized the challenges in this translation process into seven categories: (1) differing professional education of Canadian and German care providers, (2) risk that German translations would become grammatically complex, (3) wordings at risk of being misunderstood, (4) phrases/idioms non-existent in German, (5) lack of corresponding German words, (6) limited comprehensibility of corresponding German words, and (7) target persons’ unfamiliarity with activities detailed in survey items. Examples of each challenge are described with strategies that we used to manage the challenge. Conclusion Translating an existing instrument is complex and time-consuming, but a rigorous approach is necessary to obtain instrument

  20. Evaluation of candidate rain gages for upgrading precipitation measurement tools for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.

    2003-01-01

    The National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) was established in 1977 to investigate atmospheric deposition and its effects on the environment. Since its establishment, precipitation records have been obtained at all NADP sites using a gage developed approximately 50 years ago-the Belfort 5-780 mechanical rain gage. In 1998 and 1999, a study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate four recently developed, technologically advanced rain gages as possible replacement candidates for the mechanical gage currently (2002) in use by the NADP. The gage types evaluated were the Belfort 3200, Geonor T-200, ETI Noah II, and the OTT PLUVIO. The Belfort 5-780 was included in the study to compare the performance of the rain gage currently (2002) used by NADP to the performance of the more recently developed gages. As a reference gage, the NovaLynx Model 260-2510 National Weather Service type stick gage also was included in the study. Two individual gages of each type were included in the study to evaluate precision between gages of the same type. A two-phase evaluation was completed. Phase I consisted of indoor bench tests with known amounts of simulated rainfall applied in 20 individual tests. Phase II consisted of outdoor testing by collecting precipitation during a 26-week period near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. The ETI Noah II, OTT PLUVIO, and NovaLynx stick gages consistently recorded depths more commensurate with the amounts of applied simulated rainfall in Phase I testing than the Geonor T-200, Belfort 5-780, and Belfort 3200 gages. Gages where both the median difference between the measured and applied simulated rainfall and the interquartile range of all of their measured minus applied simulated rainfall differences were small (less than or equal to 0.01 inch) were judged to have performed very well in Phase I testing. The median and interquartile-range values were 0.01 inch or less for each of the ETI Noah II gages, OTT PLUVIO gages, and NovaLynx stick

  1. Calculation of brain atrophy using computed tomography and a new atrophy measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bin Zahid, Abdullah; Mikheev, Artem; Yang, Andrew Il; Samadani, Uzma; Rusinek, Henry

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To determine if brain atrophy can be calculated by performing volumetric analysis on conventional computed tomography (CT) scans in spite of relatively low contrast for this modality. Materials & Method: CTs for 73 patients from the local Veteran Affairs database were selected. Exclusion criteria: AD, NPH, tumor, and alcohol abuse. Protocol: conventional clinical acquisition (Toshiba; helical, 120 kVp, X-ray tube current 300mA, slice thickness 3-5mm). Locally developed, automatic algorithm was used to segment intracranial cavity (ICC) using (a) white matter seed (b) constrained growth, limited by inner skull layer and (c) topological connectivity. ICC was further segmented into CSF and brain parenchyma using a threshold of 16 Hu. Results: Age distribution: 25-95yrs; (Mean 67+/-17.5yrs.). Significant correlation was found between age and CSF/ICC(r=0.695, p<0.01 2-tailed). A quadratic model (y=0.06-0.001x+2.56x10-5x2 ; where y=CSF/ICC and x=age) was a better fit to data (r=0.716, p < 0.01). This is in agreement with MRI literature. For example, Smith et al. found annual CSF/ICC increase in 58 - 94.5 y.o. individuals to be 0.2%/year, whereas our data, restricted to the same age group yield 0.3%/year(0.2-0.4%/yrs. 95%C.I.). Slightly increased atrophy among elderly VA patients is attributable to the presence of other comorbidities. Conclusion: Brain atrophy can be reliably calculated using automated software and conventional CT. Compared to MRI, CT is more widely available, cheaper, and less affected by head motion due to ~100 times shorter scan time. Work is in progress to improve the precision of the measurements, possibly leading to assessment of longitudinal changes within the patient.

  2. High-accuracy diagnostic tool for electron cloud observation in the LHC based on synchronous phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Müller, J. F.; Baudrenghien, P.; Mastoridis, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Valuch, D.

    2015-11-01

    Electron cloud effects, which include heat load in the cryogenic system, pressure rise, and beam instabilities, are among the main intensity limitations for the LHC operation with 25 ns spaced bunches. A new observation tool was proposed and developed to monitor the e-cloud activity and it has already been used successfully during the LHC run 1 (2010-2012) and it is being intensively used in operation during the start of the LHC run 2 (2015-2018). It is based on the fact that the power loss of each bunch due to e-cloud can be estimated using bunch-by-bunch measurement of the synchronous phase. The measurements were done using the existing beam phase module of the low-level rf control system. In order to achieve the very high accuracy required, corrections for reflection in the cables and for systematic errors need to be applied followed by a post-processing of the measurements. Results clearly show the e-cloud buildup along the bunch trains and its time evolution during each LHC fill as well as from fill to fill. Measurements during the 2012 LHC scrubbing run reveal a progressive reduction in the e-cloud activity and therefore a decrease in the secondary electron yield. The total beam power loss can be computed as a sum of the contributions from all bunches and compared with the heat load deposited in the cryogenic system.

  3. Spectral sampling tools for vegetation biophysical parameters and flux measurements in Europe: the European ES0903 COST Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovo, L.

    2010-12-01

    The estimate of carbon sequestration by terrestrial ecosystems and the prediction of the global change impact on the ecosystem carbon balance are becoming urgent needs required by international agreements. To support the development of this knowledge, a deep insight into processes that regulate carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is fundamental. Flux towers remain a primary tool for understanding ecosystem carbon fluxes within the global flux networks. International initiatives such as SpecNet are developing to fill the temporal and spatial gap between ecosystem measurements and remote sensing by means of scale-appropriate optical measurements. In this framework, a new EU COST Action project has started in Europe. Up to now, 16 countries are participating to the Action. The COST Action project is open to researchers from European Cost Countries, but also from Near-Neighbour and non-COST countries can participate to the Action and, in some cases, can obtain some specific national funding (e.g. Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Argentina). According to the highlighted scientific questions, the objectives of ES0903 are i) to analyse the state of the art of the optical sampling research in Europe, ii) to standardize tools and methods in the optical sampling measurements, iii) to focus on the fluxes and biomass estimation problems as an input to the technological world for development of new sensors and iv) to involve the scientific instruments industries in designing and testing a common multi-band reflectance sensor for ground optical measurements in the European flux network. Thanks to the Action, the use of standardised protocols will be encouraged within a spectral measurements network, across site comparisons will be enabled and the use of new instruments and sensors will be promoted and tested. Some of the most common issues of the proximal sampling research, performed at ecosystem level, are: i)methods, protocols and

  4. Web-based Tools for Educators: Outreach Activities of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, D. A.; Holvoet, J. F.; Gogineni, S.

    2003-12-01

    The Radar Systems and Remote Sensing Laboratory at the University of Kansas (KU) has implemented extensive outreach activities focusing on Polar Regions as part of the Polar Radar for Ice Sheet Measurements (PRISM) project. The PRISM project is developing advanced intelligent remote sensing technology that involves radar systems, an autonomous rover, and communications systems to measure detailed ice sheet characteristics, and to determine bed conditions (frozen or wet) below active ice sheets in both Greenland and Antarctica. These measurements will provide a better understanding of the response of polar ice sheets to global climate change and the resulting impact the ice sheets will have on sea level rise. Many of the research and technological development aspects of the PRISM project, such as robotics, radar systems, climate change and exploration of harsh environments, can kindle an excitement and interest in students about science and technology. These topics form the core of our K-12 education and training outreach initiatives, which are designed to capture the imagination of young students, and prompt them to consider an educational path that will lead them to scientific or engineering careers. The K-12 PRISM outreach initiatives are being developed and implemented in a collaboration with the Advanced Learning Technology Program (ALTec) of the High Plains Regional Technology in Education Consortium (HPR*TEC). ALTec is associated with the KU School of Education, and is a well-established educational research center that develops and hosts web tools to enable teachers nationwide to network, collaborate, and share resources with other teachers. An example of an innovative and successful web interface developed by ALTec is called TrackStar. Teachers can use TrackStar over the Web to develop interactive, resource-based lessons (called tracks) on-line for their students. Once developed, tracks are added to the TrackStar database and can be accessed and modified

  5. An autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Samuel M. Y.; Cheung, Benny C. F.; Whitehouse, David; Cheng, Ching-Hsiang

    2016-11-01

    An in situ measurement is of prime importance when trying to maintain the position of the workpiece for further compensation processes in order to improve the accuracy and efficiency of the precision machining of three dimensional (3D) surfaces. However, the coordinates of most of the machine tools with closed machine interfaces and control system are not accessible for users, which make it difficult to use the motion axes of the machine tool for in situ measurements. This paper presents an autonomous multisensor in situ metrology system for enabling high dynamic range measurement of 3D surfaces on precision machine tools. It makes use of a designed tool path and an additional motion sensor to assist the registration of time-space data for the position estimation of a 2D laser scanner which measures the surface with a high lateral resolution and large area without the need to interface with the machine tool system. A prototype system was built and integrated into an ultra-precision polishing machine. Experimental results show that it measures the 3D surfaces with high resolution, high repeatability, and large measurement range. The system not only improves the efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining process but also extends the capability of machine tools.

  6. Developing tools to measure quality in congenital catheterization and interventions: the congenital cardiac catheterization project on outcomes (C3PO).

    PubMed

    Chaudhry-Waterman, Nadia; Coombs, Sandra; Porras, Diego; Holzer, Ralf; Bergersen, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The broad range of relatively rare procedures performed in pediatric cardiac catheterization laboratories has made the standardization of care and risk assessment in the field statistically quite problematic. However, with the growing number of patients who undergo cardiac catheterization, it has become imperative that the cardiology community overcomes these challenges to study patient outcomes. The Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes was able to develop benchmarks, tools for measurement, and risk adjustment methods while exploring procedural efficacy. Based on the success of these efforts, the collaborative is pursuing a follow-up project, the Congenital Cardiac Catheterization Project on Outcomes-Quality Improvement, aimed at improving the outcomes for all patients undergoing catheterization for congenital heart disease by reducing radiation exposure. PMID:25114756

  7. A pilot study of scanning acoustic microscopy as a tool for measuring arterial stiffness in aortic biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Riaz; Cruickshank, J. Kennedy; Zhao, Xuegen; Derby, Brian; Weber, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the use of scanning acoustic microscopy (SAM) as a potential tool for characterisation of arterial stiffness using aortic biopsies. SAM data is presented for human tissue collected during aortic bypass graft surgery for multi-vessel coronary artery disease. Acoustic wave speed as determined by SAM was compared to clinical data for the patients namely, pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose levels. There was no obvious trend relating acoustic wave speed to PWV values, and an inverse relationship was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and acoustic wave speed. However, in patients with a higher cholesterol or glucose level, the acoustic wave speed increased. A more detailed investigation is needed to relate SAM data to clinical measurements. PMID:26985242

  8. UMEL: a new regression tool to identify measurement peaks in LIDAR/DIAL systems for environmental physics applications.

    PubMed

    Gelfusa, M; Gaudio, P; Malizia, A; Murari, A; Vega, J; Richetta, M; Gonzalez, S

    2014-06-01

    Recently, surveying large areas in an automatic way, for early detection of both harmful chemical agents and forest fires, has become a strategic objective of defence and public health organisations. The Lidar and Dial techniques are widely recognized as a cost-effective alternative to monitor large portions of the atmosphere. To maximize the effectiveness of the measurements and to guarantee reliable monitoring of large areas, new data analysis techniques are required. In this paper, an original tool, the Universal Multi Event Locator, is applied to the problem of automatically identifying the time location of peaks in Lidar and Dial measurements for environmental physics applications. This analysis technique improves various aspects of the measurements, ranging from the resilience to drift in the laser sources to the increase of the system sensitivity. The method is also fully general, purely software, and can therefore be applied to a large variety of problems without any additional cost. The potential of the proposed technique is exemplified with the help of data of various instruments acquired during several experimental campaigns in the field.

  9. Perceived problems with computer gaming and internet use among adolescents: measurement tool for non-clinical survey studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective. The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. Methods Cross-sectional school-survey of 11-, 13-, and 15-year old students in thirteen schools in the City of Aarhus, Denmark, participation rate 89%, n = 2100. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use. Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming (only boys) and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.90 to 10.23. Conclusion The three new measures of perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use among adolescents are appropriate, reliable and valid for use in non-clinical surveys about young people’s everyday life and behaviour. These new measures do not assess Internet Gaming Disorder as it is listed in the DSM and therefore has no parity with DSM criteria. We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems. PMID:24731270

  10. Epigenetic regulation by BAF (mSWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes is indispensable for embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huong; Sokpor, Godwin; Pham, Linh; Rosenbusch, Joachim; Stoykova, Anastassia; Staiger, Jochen F; Tuoc, Tran

    2016-05-18

    The multi-subunit chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF (known as BAF for Brg/Brm-associated factor) complexes play essential roles in development. Studies have shown that the loss of individual BAF subunits often affects local chromatin structure and specific transcriptional programs. However, we do not fully understand how BAF complexes function in development because no animal mutant had been engineered to lack entire multi-subunit BAF complexes. Importantly, we recently reported that double conditional knock-out (dcKO) of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits in mice abolished the presence of the other BAF subunits in the developing cortex. The generated dcKO mutant provides a novel and powerful tool for investigating how entire BAF complexes affect cortical development. Using this model, we found that BAF complexes globally control the key heterochromatin marks, H3K27me2 and -3, by directly modulating the enzymatic activity of the H3K27 demethylases, Utx and Jmjd3. Here, we present further insights into how the scaffolding ability of the BAF155 and BAF170 core subunits maintains the stability of BAF complexes in the forebrain and throughout the embryo during development. Furthermore, we show that the loss of BAF complexes in the above-described model up-regulates H3K27me3 and impairs forebrain development and embryogenesis. These findings improve our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms and their modulation by the chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF complexes that control embryonic development.

  11. Microfabricated thermal conductivity sensor: a high resolution tool for quantitative thermal property measurement of biomaterials and solutions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xin M; Ding, Weiping; Chen, Hsiu-hung; Shu, Zhiquan; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Hai-feng; Gao, Dayong

    2011-10-01

    Obtaining accurate thermal properties of biomaterials plays an important role in the field of cryobiology. Currently, thermal needle, which is constructed by enclosing a manually winded thin metal wire with an insulation coating in a metallic sheath, is the only available device that is capable of measuring thermal conductivity of biomaterials. Major drawbacks, such as macroscale sensor size, lack of versatile format to accommodate samples with various shapes and sizes, neglected effects of heat transfer inside the probe and thermal contact resistance between the sensing element and the probe body, difficult to mass produce, poor data repeatability and reliability and labor-intense sensor calibration, have significantly reduced their potential to be an essential measurement tool to provide key thermal property information of biological specimens. In this study, we describe the development of an approach to measure thermal conductivity of liquids and soft bio-tissues using a proof-of-concept MEMS based thermal probe. By employing a microfabricated closely-packed gold wire to function as the heater and the thermistor, the presented thermal sensor can be used to measure thermal conductivities of fluids and natural soft biomaterials (particularly, the sensor may be directly inserted into soft tissues in living animal/plant bodies or into tissues isolated from the animal/plant bodies), where other more standard approaches cannot be used. Thermal standard materials have been used to calibrate two randomly selected thermal probes at room temperature. Variation between the obtained system calibration constants is less than 10%. By incorporating the previously obtained system calibration constant, three randomly selected thermal probes have been successfully utilized to measure the thermal conductivities of various solutions and tissue samples under different temperatures. Overall, the measurements are in agreement with the recommended values (percentage error less than 5

  12. Meeting the global demands of epidemiologic transition - the indispensable role of cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Silvia; Wild, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    The number of new cancer cases each year is projected to rise worldwide by about 70% by 2030 due to demographic changes alone, with the largest increases in the lower-income countries. Wider adoption of specific aspects of westernized lifestyles would translate to still greater increases in certain cancer types. In many countries the burden of cancer and other non-communicable diseases will add to communicable diseases and malnutrition to impose a "double burden" on the poorest. These trends represent major challenges to health, poverty, sustainable development and equality. Prevention is, however, possible based on implementing existing knowledge about risk factors and the natural history of the disease. Both primary and secondary cancer prevention offer therefore many opportunities to combat the projected increases. Tobacco control, reductions in obesity and physical inactivity, reduced consumption of alcohol, vaccination against hepatitis B and human papilloma viruses, safe sex, avoidance of environmental and occupational carcinogens and excessive sun exposure as well as the early detection and screening for breast, cervix and colorectal cancers would all make significant contributions. At the same time, for a number of major cancers (e.g., colon, prostate, kidney, pancreas, brain, lympho-haematological malignancies) research is needed to identify as yet unknown risk factors whilst for existing prevention strategies additional work is needed on their implementation into health services. Finally, there is a remarkable opportunity for advances in understanding the molecular basis of carcinogenesis to provide new tools and insights into aetiology and prevention. It is only by complementing efforts to improve treatment with those aimed at prevention that the impending epidemic of this disease can be addressed.

  13. Sel1L is indispensable for mammalian endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis, and survival

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shengyi; Shi, Guojun; Han, Xuemei; Francisco, Adam B.; Ji, Yewei; Mendonça, Nuno; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W.; Simpson, Kenneth W.; Duhamel, Gerald E.; Kersten, Sander; Yates, John R.; Long, Qiaoming; Qi, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Suppressor/Enhancer of Lin-12-like (Sel1L) is an adaptor protein for the E3 ligase hydroxymethylglutaryl reductase degradation protein 1 (Hrd1) involved in endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Sel1L’s physiological importance in mammalian ERAD, however, remains to be established. Here, using the inducible Sel1L knockout mouse and cell models, we show that Sel1L is indispensable for Hrd1 stability, ER homeostasis, and survival. Acute loss of Sel1L leads to premature death in adult mice within 3 wk with profound pancreatic atrophy. Contrary to current belief, our data show that mammalian Sel1L is required for Hrd1 stability and ERAD function both in vitro and in vivo. Sel1L deficiency disturbs ER homeostasis, activates ER stress, attenuates translation, and promotes cell death. Serendipitously, using a biochemical approach coupled with mass spectrometry, we found that Sel1L deficiency causes the aggregation of both small and large ribosomal subunits. Thus, Sel1L is an indispensable component of the mammalian Hrd1 ERAD complex and ER homeostasis, which is essential for protein translation, pancreatic function, and cellular and organismal survival. PMID:24453213

  14. Hyperspectral laboratory and airborne measurements as tools for local mapping of swelling soils in Orléans area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandjean, Gilles; Dufrechou, Gregory; Hohmann, Audrey

    2013-04-01

    Swelling soils contain clay minerals that change volume with water content and cause extensive and expensive damage on infrastructures. Based on spatial distribution of infrastructure damages and existing geological maps, the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM, the French Geological Survey) published in 2010 a 1:50 000 swelling hazard map of France. This map indexes the territory to low, intermediate, or high swell susceptibility, but does not display smallest and isolated clays lithologies. At local scale, identification of clay minerals and characterization of swell potential of soils using conventional soil analysis (DRX, chemical, and geotechnical analysis) are slow, expensive, and does not permit integrated measurements. Shortwave infrared (SWIR: 1100-2500 nm) spectral domains are characterized by significant spectral absorption bands that provide an underused tool for estimate the swell potential of soils. Reflectance spectroscopy, using an ASD Fieldspec Pro spectrometer, permits a rapid and less expensive measurement of soil reflectance spectra in the field and laboratory. In order to produce high precision map of expansive soils, the BRGM aims to optimize laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for mapping swelling soils. Geotechnical use of laboratory reflectance spectroscopy for local characterization of swell potential of soils could be assessable from an economical point of view. A new high resolution airborne hyperspectral survey (covering ca. 280 km², 380 channels ranging from 400 to 2500 nm) located at the W of Orléans (Loiret, France) will also be combined with field and laboratory measurements to detect and map swelling soils.

  15. A New Tool for Automated Data Collection and Complete On-site Flux Data Processing for Eddy Covariance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begashaw, I. G.; Kathilankal, J. C.; Li, J.; Beaty, K.; Ediger, K.; Forgione, A.; Fratini, G.; Johnson, D.; Velgersdyk, M.; Hupp, J. R.; Xu, L.; Burba, G. G.

    2014-12-01

    The eddy covariance method is widely used for direct measurements of turbulent exchange of gases and energy between the surface and atmosphere. In the past, raw data were collected first in the field and then processed back in the laboratory to achieve fully corrected publication-ready flux results. This post-processing consumed significant amount of time and resources, and precluded researchers from accessing near real-time final flux results. A new automated measurement system with novel hardware and software designs was developed, tested, and deployed starting late 2013. The major advancements with this automated flux system include: 1) Enabling logging high-frequency, three-dimensional wind speeds and multiple gas densities (CO2, H2O and CH4), low-frequency meteorological data, and site metadata simultaneously through a specially designed file format 2) Conducting fully corrected, real-time on-site flux computations using conventional as well as user-specified methods, by implementing EddyPro Software on a small low-power microprocessor 3) Providing precision clock control and coordinate information for data synchronization and inter-site data comparison by incorporating a GPS and Precision Time Protocol. Along with these innovations, a data management server application was also developed to chart fully corrected real-time fluxes to assist remote system monitoring, to send e-mail alerts, and to automate data QA/QC, transfer and archiving at individual stations or on a network level. Combination of all of these functions was designed to help save substantial amount of time and costs associated with managing a research site by eliminating the post-field data processing, reducing user errors and facilitating real-time access to fully corrected flux results. The design, functionality, and test results from this new eddy covariance measurement tool will be presented.

  16. SU-E-T-472: A Multi-Dimensional Measurements Comparison to Analyze a 3D Patient Specific QA Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ashmeg, S; Jackson, J; Zhang, Y; Oldham, M; Yin, F; Ren, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively evaluate a 3D patient specific QA tool using 2D film and 3D Presage dosimetry. Methods: A brain IMRT case was delivered to Delta4, EBT2 film and Presage plastic dosimeter. The film was inserted in the solid water slabs at 7.5cm depth for measurement. The Presage dosimeter was inserted into a head phantom for 3D dose measurement. Delta4's Anatomy software was used to calculate the corresponding dose to the film in solid water slabs and to Presage in the head phantom. The results from Anatomy were compared to both calculated results from Eclipse and measured dose from film and Presage to evaluate its accuracy. Using RIT software, we compared the “Anatomy” dose to the EBT2 film measurement and the film measurement to ECLIPSE calculation. For 3D analysis, DICOM file of “Anatomy” was extracted and imported to CERR software, which was used to compare the Presage dose to both “Anatomy” calculation and ECLIPSE calculation. Gamma criteria of 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm was used for comparison. Results: Gamma passing rates of film vs “Anatomy”, “Anatomy” vs ECLIPSE and film vs ECLIPSE were 82.8%, 70.9% and 87.6% respectively when 3% - 3mm criteria is used. When the criteria is changed to 5% - 5mm, the passing rates became 87.8%, 76.3% and 90.8% respectively. For 3D analysis, Anatomy vs ECLIPSE showed gamma passing rate of 86.4% and 93.3% for 3% - 3mm and 5% - 5mm respectively. The rate is 77.0% for Presage vs ECLIPSE analysis. The Anatomy vs ECLIPSE were absolute dose comparison. However, film and Presage analysis were relative comparison Conclusion: The results show higher passing rate in 3D than 2D in “Anatomy” software. This could be due to the higher degrees of freedom in 3D than in 2D for gamma analysis.

  17. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. Computer vision-based analysis of foods: a non-destructive colour measurement tool to monitor quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-05-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis has been widely used in food industry to monitor food quality. It allows low-cost and non-contact measurements of colour to be performed. In this paper, two computer vision-based image analysis approaches are discussed to extract mean colour or featured colour information from the digital images of foods. These types of information may be of particular importance as colour indicates certain chemical changes or physical properties in foods. As exemplified here, the mean CIE a* value or browning ratio determined by means of computer vision-based image analysis algorithms can be correlated with acrylamide content of potato chips or cookies. Or, porosity index as an important physical property of breadcrumb can be calculated easily. In this respect, computer vision-based image analysis provides a useful tool for automatic inspection of food products in a manufacturing line, and it can be actively involved in the decision-making process where rapid quality/safety evaluation is needed. PMID:24288215

  19. Computer vision-based analysis of foods: a non-destructive colour measurement tool to monitor quality and safety.

    PubMed

    Mogol, Burçe Ataç; Gökmen, Vural

    2014-05-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis has been widely used in food industry to monitor food quality. It allows low-cost and non-contact measurements of colour to be performed. In this paper, two computer vision-based image analysis approaches are discussed to extract mean colour or featured colour information from the digital images of foods. These types of information may be of particular importance as colour indicates certain chemical changes or physical properties in foods. As exemplified here, the mean CIE a* value or browning ratio determined by means of computer vision-based image analysis algorithms can be correlated with acrylamide content of potato chips or cookies. Or, porosity index as an important physical property of breadcrumb can be calculated easily. In this respect, computer vision-based image analysis provides a useful tool for automatic inspection of food products in a manufacturing line, and it can be actively involved in the decision-making process where rapid quality/safety evaluation is needed.

  20. Data analysis tools for 3D dosimetry: the use of CERR as a platform to integrate and compare measurements and treatment planning information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deasy, Joe; Apte, Aditya

    2010-11-01

    CERR, the Computational Environment for Radiotherapy Research, is a mature Matlab-based application that allows users to visualize and analyze 3D treatment planning data exported using standard protocols from clinical treatment planning systems. In this presentation we will give an in-depth discussion of the use of CERR as a tool to analyze measurements compared to expected treatment planning systems. Extensions to CERR allow for straightforward import and registration of experimental data with the planning data. These tools allow users to compare the match between measurement and treatment planning calculation in detail, as provided by profile plots and other tools. Custom Matlab scripts can also be developed, providing complete flexibility in analysis methods. In addition, several offshoot tools have been developed by our group to facilitate dosimetric data analysis, including: A film QA tool, developed under a contract for the Radiological Physics Center (RPC), and a Monte Carlo recalculation tool, also developed under the same contract for the RPC. The film QA tool is meant to facilitate the analysis of film that is irradiated in a phantom. The tool provides a simple method for registering pin-marked points on film to corresponding points in a CT-scanned phantom. Similarly, the locations of point dosimeters can be found. Once registered, data can be compared with the expected treatment plan, interpolated from the converted CERR plan. The dose-distance gamma function is available to quantify agreement. We will discuss the ways these tools can be used to support dosimetry research. All the software discussed here is being made available under open-source licensing.

  1. A Prototype Tool to Enable Farmers to Measure and Improve the Welfare Performance of the Farm Animal Enterprise: The Unified Field Index

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Ian G.; Ferguson, Drewe M.; Collins, Teresa; Matthews, Lindsay; Hemsworth, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Benchmarking is a tool widely used in agricultural industries that harnesses the experience of farmers to generate knowledge of practices that lead to better on-farm productivity and performance. We propose, by analogy with production performance, a method for measuring the animal welfare performance of an enterprise and describe a tool for farmers to monitor and improve the animal welfare performance of their business. A general framework is outlined for assessing and monitoring risks to animal welfare based on measures of animals, the environment they are kept in and how they are managed. The tool would enable farmers to continually improve animal welfare. Abstract Schemes for the assessment of farm animal welfare and assurance of welfare standards have proliferated in recent years. An acknowledged short-coming has been the lack of impact of these schemes on the welfare standards achieved on farm due in part to sociological factors concerning their implementation. Here we propose the concept of welfare performance based on a broad set of performance attributes of an enterprise and describe a tool based on risk assessment and benchmarking methods for measuring and managing welfare performance. The tool termed the Unified Field Index is presented in a general form comprising three modules addressing animal, resource, and management factors. Domains within these modules accommodate the principle conceptual perspectives for welfare assessment: biological functioning; emotional states; and naturalness. Pan-enterprise analysis in any livestock sector could be used to benchmark welfare performance of individual enterprises and also provide statistics of welfare performance for the livestock sector. An advantage of this concept of welfare performance is its use of continuous scales of measurement rather than traditional pass/fail measures. Through the feedback provided via benchmarking, the tool should help farmers better engage in on-going improvement of

  2. Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, T.A.; Hansen, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).

  3. [Phronesis: Medicine's indispensable virtue].

    PubMed

    Moreno Villares, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Facing those who defend that Medicine is not but an applied science, Pellegrino argues that the ultimate goal of Medicine is facing to a human being in his illness condition. Thus, it is not sufficient to have scientific knowledge but proximity to man kindness. Cure is not the only goal -achievable in only a few cases- but healing, caring with a person as an ill person and as a person. For this reason, professional competence is not enough; the physician needs to have the necessary dispositions to be a good person, a good professional. To get the goals of Medicine, the physician has to achieve those qualities who allow him to do the good he is intended to, that is, he needs to be virtuous. Prudence -phronesis- is the virtue that allows him to apply a general rule to a particular case and, furthermore, addresses his actions to be not only technically correct, but excellent. Prudence is, then, the link between intellectual virtues and moral virtues. Pellegrino's main objective has been to elaborate a Philosophy of Medicine, different from the Philosophy of Science, useful for clinical practice and used by clinical practitioners. By nurturing prudence, a small bit of the final goal is reached: the healing, the goodness for the sick. This should be possible if we are embedded in a moral community, and for Pellegrino, sharing knowledge and ethical values is the way of being part of a moral community. PMID:24836033

  4. Recess--It's Indispensable!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrett, Olga; Waite-Stupiansky, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    The demise of recess in many elementary schools--and of outdoor play in general--is an issue of great concern to many members of the Play, Policy, and Practice Interest Forum. Most people remember recess as an important part of the school day. It was a time to be outdoors; to organize games; to play on the swings, slides, and other playground…

  5. Indispensability: The Holy Grail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trachtman, Gilbert M.

    In this volatile era of economic retrenchment, corporate downsizing, and government budget crises, school psychologists' major defense must be short-term political action and grassroots support, but their long-term strategy must be to build a position of importance for school psychologists in the school. In the long run this will not be…

  6. Libraries & Reading: Indispensable Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle Grades Reading Network, Evansville, IN.

    Attention to school libraries must be at the heart of any comprehensive plan for improving youth literacy. Excellent school libraries are essential if young people are to have access to the reading resources to help them gain the level of literacy achievement vital to meeting the challenge of the twenty-first century. Sections of the booklet…

  7. Analysis of the fluctuations of the total electron content (TEC) measured at Goose Bay using tools of nonlinear methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, K. Satheesh; Kumar, C. V. A.; George, Benny; Renuka, G.; Venugopal, C.

    2004-02-01

    In this paper we report the evidence of a low-dimensional chaos in a set of data observed outside laboratories. The dynamic behavior of the time series of the fluctuations of the total electron content (TEC) measured at Goose Bay, which is a high-latitude station, is analyzed in detail using the tools of nonlinear dynamics. The low-dimensional character of the dynamics is evident from the estimated value of the fraction of false neighbors for various dimensions and the correlation dimension. The deterministic nature of the dynamics is investigated using recurrence plots and spatiotemporal entropy. The chaotic nature of the underlying dynamics of the fluctuations of TEC is shown by the power spectrum indicating exponential decay and the calculated positive value of Lyapunov exponent. This is also supported by the results of the comparison of the chaotic characteristics of the time series of variations of TEC with the pseudochaotic characteristic of the colored noise time series. The results of the tests based on the prediction error and the time reversal asymmetry statistic reject the hypothesis that TEC belongs to the family of linear stochastic signals. The nonlinear non-Gaussian nature of the oscillations of variations of TEC is further investigated by the surrogate data test based on several geometrical and dynamical characteristics of the variations of TEC such as mutual information, the fraction of the false nearest neighbours, the local slopes of the correlation sums, the curves giving Lyapunov exponents, and finally, the value of Lyapunov exponents. The results of this analysis show that low-dimensional chaotic dynamics could be a possible and fruitful concept which can be utilized to study the disturbance in the ionosphere as in the case of magnetospheric dynamics. We feel that the dynamical invariants like Lyapunov exponents and correlation dimension can describe the disturbance in the variations of TEC and thus the disturbance in the ionosphere. Hence the

  8. Development of a self-assessment tool for measuring competences of obstetric nurses in rooming-in wards in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Ye, Wenqin; Fan, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To provide high-quality nursing care, a reliable and feasible competency assessment tool is critical. Although several questionnaire-based competency assessment tools have been reported, a tool specific for obstetric nurses in rooming-in wards is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to develop a competency assessment tool for obstetric rooming-in ward nurses. Methods: A literature review was conducted to create an individual intensive interview with 14 nurse managers, educators, and primary nurses in rooming-in wards. Expert reviews (n = 15) were conducted to identify emergent themes in a Delphi fashion. A competency assessment questionnaire was then developed and tested with 246 rooming-in ward nurses in local hospitals. Results: We constructed a three-factor linear model for obstetric rooming-in nurse competency assessment. Further refinement resulted in a self-assessment questionnaire containing three first-tier, 12 second-tier, and 43 third-tier items for easy implementation. The questionnaire was reliable, contained satisfactory content, and had construct validity. Discussion: Our competency assessment tool provides a systematic, easy, and operational subjective evaluation model for nursing managers and administrators to evaluate obstetric rooming-in ward primary nurses. The application of this tool will facilitate various human resources functions, such as nurse training/education effect evaluation, and will eventually promote high-quality nursing care delivery. PMID:26770468

  9. Measuring the Cool Tool as a Targeted Intervention to Minimize Teacher Reprimands and Students' On-Task Behaviors in an Urban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utley, Cheryl A.; Obiakor, Festus E.

    2015-01-01

    This study measured the effects of a targeted intervention, The Cool Tool, implemented in the secondary prevention tier to minimize teacher reprimands and students' on-task behaviors in an urban elementary school. The participants in the social skills intervention programs were seven teachers, across grades K-5. Assessments included pre-posttest…

  10. Comparison of the Utility and Validity of Three Scoring Tools to Measure Skin Involvement in Patients With Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Campanilho‐Marques, Raquel; Almeida, Beverley; Deakin, Claire; Arnold, Katie; Gallot, Natacha; de Iorio, Maria; Nistala, Kiran; Pilkington, Clarissa A.; Armon, Kate; Ellis‐Gage, Joe; Roper, Holly; Briggs, Vanja; Watts, Joanna; McCann, Liza; Roberts, Ian; Baildam, Eileen; Hanna, Louise; Lloyd, Olivia; Riley, Phil; McGovern, Ann; Ryder, Clive; Scott, Janis; Thomas, Beverley; Southwood, Taunton; Al‐Abadi, Eslam; Wyatt, Sue; Jackson, Gillian; Amin, Tania; Wood, Mark; VanRooyen, Vanessa; Burton, Deborah; Davidson, Joyce; Gardner‐Medwin, Janet; Martin, Neil; Ferguson, Sue; Waxman, Liz; Browne, Michael; Friswell, Mark; Foster, Helen; Swift, Alison; Jandial, Sharmila; Stevenson, Vicky; Wade, Debbie; Sen, Ethan; Smith, Eve; Qiao, Lisa; Watson, Stuart; Venning, Helen; Satyapal, Rangaraj; Stretton, Elizabeth; Jordan, Mary; Mosley, Ellen; Frost, Anna; Crate, Lindsay; Warrier, Kishore; Wedderburn, Lucy; Pilkington, Clarissa; Hasson, Nathan; Nistala, Kiran; Maillard, Sue; Halkon, Elizabeth; Brown, Virginia; Juggins, Audrey; Smith, Sally; Lunt, Sian; Enayat, Elli; Varsani, Hemlata; Kassoumeri, Laura; Beard, Laura; Arnold, Katie; Glackin, Yvonne; Simou, Stephanie; Campanilho‐Marques, Raquel; Almeida, Beverley; Murray, Kevin; Ioannou, John; Suffield, Linda; Al‐Obaidi, Muthana; Lee, Helen; Leach, Sam; Smith, Helen; Wilkinson, Nick; Inness, Emma; Kendall, Eunice; Mayers, David; Clinch, Jacqui; Pluess‐Hall, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the abbreviated Cutaneous Assessment Tool (CAT), Disease Activity Score (DAS), and Myositis Intention to Treat Activity Index (MITAX) and correlate them with the physician's 10‐cm skin visual analog scale (VAS) in order to define which tool best assesses skin disease in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis. Methods A total of 71 patients recruited to the UK Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort and Biomarker Study were included and assessed for skin disease using the CAT, DAS, MITAX, and skin VAS. The Childhood Myositis Assessment Scale (CMAS), manual muscle testing of 8 groups (MMT8), muscle enzymes, inflammatory markers, and physician's global VAS were recorded. Relationships were evaluated using Spearman's correlations and predictors with linear regression. Interrater reliability was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients. Results All 3 tools showed correlation with the physician's global VAS and skin VAS, with DAS skin showing the strongest correlation with skin VAS. DAS skin and CAT activity were inversely correlated with CMAS and MMT8, but these correlations were moderate. No correlations were found between the skin tools and inflammatory markers or muscle enzymes. DAS skin and CAT were the quickest to complete (mean ± SD 0.68 ± 0.1 minutes and 0.63 ± 0.1 minutes, respectively). Conclusion The 3 skin tools were quick and easy to use. The DAS skin correlated best with the skin VAS. The addition of CAT in a bivariate model containing the physician's global VAS was a statistically significant estimator of skin VAS score. We propose that there is scope for a new skin tool to be devised and tested, which takes into account the strengths of the 3 existing tools. PMID:26881696

  11. Amniotic fluid embolism pathophysiology suggests the new diagnostic armamentarium: β-tryptase and complement fractions C3-C4 are the indispensable working tools.

    PubMed

    Busardò, Francesco Paolo; Frati, Paola; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an uncommon obstetric condition involving pregnant women during labor or in the initial stages after delivery. Its incidence is estimated to be around 5.5 cases per 100,000 deliveries. Therefore, this paper investigated the pathophysiological mechanism, which underlies AFE, in order to evaluate the role of immune response in the development of this still enigmatic clinical entity. The following databases (from 1956 to September 2014) Medline, Cochrane Central, Scopus, Web of Science and Science Direct were used, searching the following key words: AFE, pathophysiology, immune/inflammatory response, complement and anaphylaxis. The main key word "AFE" was searched singularly and associated individually to each of the other keywords. Of the 146 sources found, only 19 were considered appropriate for the purpose of this paper. The clinical course is characterized by a rapid onset of symptoms, which include: acute hypotension and/or cardiac arrest, acute hypoxia (with dyspnoea, cyanosis and/or respiratory arrest), coagulopathies (disseminated intravascular coagulation and/or severe hemorrhage), coma and seizures. The pathology still determines a significant morbidity and mortality and potential permanent neurological sequelae for surviving patients. At this moment, numerous aspects involving the pathophysiology and clinical development are still not understood and several hypotheses have been formulated, in particular the possible role of anaphylaxis and complement. Moreover, the detection of serum tryptase and complement components and the evaluation of fetal antigens can explain several aspects of immune response. PMID:25807263

  12. Indispensable value of clinical trials in the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine: 12 years' experience at CUHK and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Liang, Willmann; Yew, David T; Hon, Kam Lun; Wong, Chun Kwok; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Leung, Ping Chung

    2014-01-01

    The last decade has seen a wealth of information reporting the beneficial effects of Chinese herbal medicines. While a lot more studies were done using in vitro and in vivo research platforms, much fewer investigations were conducted according to evidence-based requirements in clinical settings. The Institute of Chinese Medicine at the Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) has had the opportunity to collaborate with clinicians over the years to initiate and conduct dozens of clinical trials investigating and verifying the therapeutic values of Chinese herbs in selected disease conditions. Of the many disorders, we chose to focus on those that are known for their difficulties achieving perfect results with conventional treatment methods. Examples include non-healing ulcers, allergic conditions, degenerative diseases and cancer. Protective effects of the herbs in such chronic diseases as coronary artery disease and osteoporosis were also part of our focus. Even in healthy individuals and those recovering from chemotherapy, Chinese herbs could help with the immune system and were studied in our clinical trials as well. This paper aims to highlight the important findings from these clinical studies while at the same time, stressing the indispensable value of clinical trials in modernizing the use of Chinese herbs in present-day medicine.

  13. Transcription factor COUP-TFII is indispensable for venous and lymphatic development in zebrafish and Xenopus laevis

    SciTech Connect

    Aranguren, Xabier L.; Beerens, Manu; Vandevelde, Wouter; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter; Luttun, Aernout

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} COUP-TFII deficiency in zebrafish affects arterio-venous EC specification. {yields} COUP-TFII is indispensable for lymphatic development in zebrafish. {yields} COUP-TFII knockdown in Xenopus disrupts lymphatic EC differentiation and migration. {yields} COUP-TFII's role in EC fate decisions is evolutionary conserved. -- Abstract: Transcription factors play a central role in cell fate determination. Gene targeting in mice revealed that Chicken Ovalbumin Upstream Promoter-Transcription Factor II (COUP-TFII, also known as Nuclear Receptor 2F2 or NR2F2) induces a venous phenotype in endothelial cells (ECs). More recently, NR2F2 was shown to be required for initiating the expression of Prox1, responsible for lymphatic commitment of venous ECs. Small animal models like zebrafish embryos and Xenopus laevis tadpoles have been very useful to elucidate mechanisms of (lymph) vascular development. Therefore, the role of NR2F2 in (lymph) vascular development was studied by eliminating its expression in these models. Like in mice, absence of NR2F2 in zebrafish resulted in distinct vascular defects including loss of venous marker expression, major trunk vessel fusion and vascular leakage. Both in zebrafish and Xenopus the development of the main lymphatic structures was severely hampered. NR2F2 knockdown significantly decreased prox1 expression in zebrafish ECs and the same manipulation affected lymphatic (L)EC commitment, migration and function in Xenopus tadpoles. Therefore, the role of NR2F2 in EC fate determination is evolutionary conserved.

  14. FoxO-mediated defense against oxidative stress in osteoblasts is indispensable for skeletal homeostasis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ambrogini, Elena; Almeida, Maria; Martin-Millan, Marta; Paik, Ji-Hye; DePinho, Ronald A.; Han, Li; Goellner, Joseph; Weinstein, Robert S.; Jilka, Robert L.; O'Brien, Charles A.; Manolagas, Stavros C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Aging increases oxidative stress and osteoblast apoptosis and decreases bone mass, whereas forkhead box O (FoxO) transcription factors defend against oxidative stress by activating genes involved in free radical scavenging and apoptosis. Conditional deletion of FoxO1, 3 and 4 in three month-old mice resulted in an increase in oxidative stress in bone and osteoblast apoptosis and a decrease in the number of osteoblasts, the rate of bone formation, and bone mass at cancellous and cortical sites. The effect of the deletion on osteoblast apoptosis was cell autonomous and resulted from oxidative stress. Conversely, overexpression of a FoxO3 transgene in mature osteoblasts decreased oxidative stress and osteoblast apoptosis, and increased osteoblast number, bone formation rate and vertebral bone mass. We conclude that FoxO-dependent oxidative defense provides a mechanism to handle the oxygen free radicals constantly generated by the aerobic metabolism of osteoblasts and is thereby indispensable for bone mass homeostasis. PMID:20142101

  15. microRNA miR-275 is indispensable for blood digestion and egg development in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Bart; Macdonald, Warren; Raikhel, Alexander S

    2010-12-28

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the major vector of arboviral diseases, particularly of Dengue fever, of which there are more than 100 million cases annually. Mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti, serve as vectors for disease pathogens because they require vertebrate blood for their egg production. Pathogen transmission is tightly linked to repeated cycles of obligatory blood feeding and egg maturation. Thus, the understanding of mechanisms governing egg production is necessary to develop approaches that limit the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. Previous studies have identified critical roles of hormonal- and nutrition-based target of rapamycin (TOR) pathways in controlling blood-meal-mediated egg maturation in mosquitoes. In this work, we uncovered another essential regulator of blood-meal-activated processes, the microRNA miR-275. The depletion of this microRNA in A. aegypti females after injection of its specific antagomir resulted in severe defects in blood digestion, fluid excretion, and egg development, clearly demonstrating that miR-275 is indispensable for these physiological processes. miR-275 exhibits an expression profile that suggests its regulation by a steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). In vitro organ culture experiments demonstrated that miR-275 is induced by this hormone in the presence of amino acids, indicative of a dual regulation by 20E and TOR. This report has uncovered the critical importance of microRNAs in controlling blood-meal-activated physiological events required for completion of egg development in mosquito disease vectors.

  16. A Novel Transcriptional Factor Nkapl Is a Germ Cell-Specific Suppressor of Notch Signaling and Is Indispensable for Spermatogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Hidenobu; Kiuchi, Hiroshi; Takao, Tetsuya; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Tsujimura, Akira; Nonomura, Norio; Miyata, Haruhiko; Okabe, Masaru; Ikawa, Masahito; Kawakami, Yoshitaka; Goshima, Naoki; Wada, Morimasa; Tanaka, Hiromitsu

    2015-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is an elaborately regulated system dedicated to the continuous production of spermatozoa via the genesis of spermatogonia. In this process, a variety of genes are expressed that are relevant to the differentiation of germ cells at each stage. Although Notch signaling plays a critical role in germ cell development in Drosophila and Caenorhabditis elegans, its function and importance for spermatogenesis in mammals is controversial. We report that Nkapl is a novel germ cell-specific transcriptional suppressor in Notch signaling. It is also associated with several molecules of the Notch corepressor complex such as CIR, HDAC3, and CSL. It was expressed robustly in spermatogonia and early spermatocytes after the age of 3 weeks. Nkapl-deleted mice showed complete arrest at the level of pachytene spermatocytes. In addition, apoptosis was observed in this cell type. Overexpression of NKAPL in germline stem cells demonstrated that Nkapl induced changes in spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) markers and the reduction of differentiation factors through the Notch signaling pathway, whereas testes with Nkapl deleted showed inverse changes in those markers and factors. Therefore, Nkapl is indispensable because aberrantly elevated Notch signaling has negative effects on spermatogenesis, affecting SSC maintenance and differentiation factors. Notch signaling should be properly regulated through the transcriptional factor Nkapl. PMID:25875095

  17. Introducing the individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT): Development and description of a new interprofessional teamwork measure.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill; Dallest, Kathy; Moran, Monica; Dunston, Roger; Roberts, Chris; Eley, Diann; Bogossian, Fiona; Forman, Dawn; Bainbridge, Lesley; Drynan, Donna; Fyfe, Sue

    2016-07-01

    The individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT) was devised by a consortium of seven universities in recognition of the need for a means of observing and giving feedback to individual learners undertaking an interprofessional teamwork task. It was developed through a literature review of the existing teamwork assessment tools, a discussion of accreditation standards for the health professions, Delphi consultation and field-testing with an emphasis on its feasibility and acceptability for formative assessment. There are two versions: the Basic tool is for use with students who have little clinical teamwork experience and lists 11 observable behaviours under two headings: 'shared decision making' and 'working in a team'. The Advanced version is for senior students and junior health professionals and has 10 observable behaviours under four headings: 'shared decision making', 'working in a team', 'leadership', and 'patient safety'. Both versions include a comprehensive scale and item descriptors. Further testing is required to focus on its validity and educational impact.

  18. SocialMood: an information visualization tool to measure the mood of the people in social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Guilherme; Franco, Roberto; Moraes, Rodolfo; Figueiredo, Bruno; Miranda, João.; Dobrões, José; Afonso, Ricardo; Meiguins, Bianchi

    2013-12-01

    Based on the arena of social networks, the tool developed in this study aims to identify trends mood among undergraduate students. Combining the methodology Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM), which originated in the field of Psychology, the system filters the content provided on the Web and isolates certain words, establishing a range of values as perceived positive, negative or neutral. A Big Data summarizing the results, assisting in the construction and visualization of behavioral profiles generic, so we have a guideline for the development of information visualization tools for social networks.

  19. Web-Enabled and Improved Software Tools and Data Are Needed to Measure Nutrient Intakes and Physical Activity for Personalized Health Research123

    PubMed Central

    Stumbo, Phyllis J.; Weiss, Rick; Newman, John W.; Pennington, Jean A.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Wiesenfeld, Paddy L.; Illner, Anne-Kathrin; Klurfeld, David M.; Kaput, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Food intake, physical activity (PA), and genetic makeup each affect health and each factor influences the impact of the other 2 factors. Nutrigenomics describes interactions between genes and environment. Knowledge about the interplay between environment and genetics would be improved if experimental designs included measures of nutrient intake and PA. Lack of familiarity about how to analyze environmental variables and ease of access to tools and measurement instruments are 2 deterrents to these combined studies. This article describes the state of the art for measuring food intake and PA to encourage researchers to make their tools better known and more available to workers in other fields. Information presented was discussed during a workshop on this topic sponsored by the USDA, NIH, and FDA in the spring of 2009. PMID:20980656

  20. Measuring Effectiveness of Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) Tools in Teaching School Children: A Case Study from Chattisgarh State, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, J. Durga Prasad; Singh, Raksha

    2011-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of Information Communication and Technology tools viz DLP (Distance Learning Projector) and Computer/Laptop in comparison with selected instructional media for teaching primary and secondary school pupils. It examined the effect of grade on the performance of the pupils taught with four…

  1. Measuring Libraries' Use of YouTube as a Promotional Tool: An Exploratory Study and Proposed Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colburn, Selene; Haines, Laura

    2012-01-01

    With the emergence of social networking and Web 2.0 applications, libraries have the means to reach users through interactive Web-based tools patrons already use in their personal lives, such as Facebook and YouTube. In this study the authors aim to understand the ways that libraries are using YouTube for outreach purposes. Using a methodology…

  2. Body Mass Index and Skinfold Thickness Measurements as Body Composition Screening Tools in Caucasian and African American Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Charity Leigh; Solmon, Melinda A.; Zanovec, Michael T.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2011-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding childhood obesity and its impact on children's health, and many states and school districts have mandated that health assessments be conducted as part of physical education. Tools such as the FITNESSGRAM[R] can help teachers inform students and parents if students are above a healthy weight range. The FITNESSGRAM…

  3. Development and validation of a tool to measure self-confidence and anxiety in nursing students during clinical decision making.

    PubMed

    White, Krista A

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision making (CDM) is a cornerstone skill for nurses. Self-confidence and anxiety affect the learning and adeptness of CDM. This study aimed to develop and test a quantitative tool to assess undergraduate nursing students' self-confidence and anxiety during CDM. The 27-item Nursing Anxiety and Self-Confidence with Clinical Decision Making (NASC-CDM) scale is a 6-point, Likert-type tool with two subscales. Two samples of prelicensure associate and baccalaureate nursing students participated in the pilot (n = 303) and main testing (n = 242) phases of the study. Construct validity assessment, using exploratory factor analysis, produced a stable three-dimensional scale. Convergent validity assessment produced positive, moderate, and statistically significant correlations of the tool sub-scales with two existing instruments. Internal consistency reliability was assessed for each subscale (self-confidence, α = .97; anxiety, α = .96). The NASC-CDM scale may be a useful assessment tool for nurse educators to help novice clinicians improve CDM skills.

  4. G protein coupling and second messenger generation are indispensable for metalloprotease-dependent, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor shedding through angiotensin II type-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mifune, Mizuo; Ohtsu, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nakashima, Hidekatsu; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J; Frank, Gerald D; Inagami, Tadashi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Thomas, Walter G; Eckhart, Andrea D; Dempsey, Peter J; Eguchi, Satoru

    2005-07-15

    A G protein-coupled receptor agonist, angiotensin II (AngII), induces epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) transactivation possibly through metalloprotease-dependent, heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF) shedding. Here, we have investigated signal transduction of this process by using COS7 cells expressing an AngII receptor, AT1. In these cells AngII-induced EGFR transactivation was completely inhibited by pretreatment with a selective HB-EGF inhibitor, or with a metalloprotease inhibitor. We also developed a COS7 cell line permanently expressing a HB-EGF construct tagged with alkaline phosphatase, which enabled us to measure HB-EGF shedding quantitatively. In the COS7 cell line AngII stimulated release of HB-EGF. This effect was mimicked by treatment either with a phospholipase C activator, a Ca2+ ionophore, a metalloprotease activator, or H2O2. Conversely, pretreatment with an intracellular Ca2+ antagonist or an antioxidant blocked AngII-induced HB-EGF shedding. Moreover, infection of an adenovirus encoding an inhibitor of G(q) markedly reduced EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF shedding through AT1. In this regard, AngII-stimulated HB-EGF shedding was abolished in an AT1 mutant that lacks G(q) protein coupling. However, in cells expressing AT1 mutants that retain G(q) protein coupling, AngII is still able to induce HB-EGF shedding. Finally, the AngII-induced EGFR transactivation was attenuated in COS7 cells overexpressing a catalytically inactive mutant of ADAM17. From these data we conclude that AngII stimulates a metalloprotease ADAM17-dependent HB-EGF shedding through AT1/G(q)/phospholipase C-mediated elevation of intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen species production, representing a key mechanism indispensable for EGFR transactivation.

  5. Ras is an indispensable coregulator of the class IB phosphoinositide 3-kinase p87/p110γ

    PubMed Central

    Kurig, Barbara; Shymanets, Aliaksei; Bohnacker, Thomas; Prajwal; Brock, Carsten; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza; Schaefer, Michael; Gohla, Antje; Harteneck, Christian; Wymann, Matthias P.; Jeanclos, Elisabeth; Nürnberg, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    Class IB phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3Kγ) elicits various immunologic and cardiovascular responses; however, the molecular basis for this signal heterogeneity is unclear. PI3Kγ consists of a catalytic p110γ and a regulatory p87PIKAP (p87, also p84) or p101 subunit. Hitherto p87 and p101 are generally assumed to exhibit redundant functions in receptor-induced and G protein βγ (Gβγ)-mediated PI3Kγ regulation. Here we investigated the molecular mechanism for receptor-dependent p87/p110γ activation. By analyzing GFP-tagged proteins expressed in HEK293 cells, PI3Kγ-complemented bone marrow–derived mast cells (BMMCs) from p110γ-/- mice, and purified recombinant proteins reconstituted to lipid vesicles, we elucidated a novel pathway of p87-dependent, G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR)-induced PI3Kγ activation. Although p101 strongly interacted with Gβγ, thereby mediating PI3Kγ membrane recruitment and stimulation, p87 exhibited only a weak interaction, resulting in modest kinase activation and lack of membrane recruitment. Surprisingly, Ras-GTP substituted the missing Gβγ-dependent membrane recruitment of p87/p110γ by direct interaction with p110γ, suggesting the indispensability of Ras for activation of p87/p110γ. Consequently, interference with Ras signaling indeed selectively blocked p87/p110γ, but not p101/p110γ, kinase activity in HEK293 and BMMC cells, revealing an important crosstalk between monomeric and trimeric G proteins for p87/p110γ activation. Our data display distinct signaling requirements of p87 and p101, conferring signaling specificity to PI3Kγ that could open up new possibilities for therapeutic intervention. PMID:19906996

  6. The Conoid Associated Motor MyoH Is Indispensable for Toxoplasma gondii Entry and Exit from Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Graindorge, Arnault; Frénal, Karine; Jacot, Damien; Salamun, Julien; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the invasive tachyzoite contains an organelle termed the conoid at its extreme apex. This motile organelle consists of a unique polymer of tubulin fibres and protrudes in both gliding and invading parasites. The class XIV myosin A, which is conserved across the Apicomplexa phylum, is known to critically contribute to motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. The MyoA-glideosome is anchored to the inner membrane complex (IMC) and is assumed to translocate the components of the circular junction secreted by the micronemes and rhoptries, to the rear of the parasite. Here we comprehensively characterise the class XIV myosin H (MyoH) and its associated light chains. We show that the 3 alpha-tubulin suppressor domains, located in MyoH tail, are necessary to anchor this motor to the conoid. Despite the presence of an intact MyoA-glideosome, conditional disruption of TgMyoH severely compromises parasite motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. We demonstrate that MyoH is necessary for the translocation of the circular junction from the tip of the parasite, where secretory organelles exocytosis occurs, to the apical position where the IMC starts. This study attributes for the first time a direct function of the conoid in motility and invasion, and establishes the indispensable role of MyoH in initiating the first step of motility along this unique organelle, which is subsequently relayed by MyoA to enact effective gliding and invasion. PMID:26760042

  7. The Conoid Associated Motor MyoH Is Indispensable for Toxoplasma gondii Entry and Exit from Host Cells

    PubMed Central

    Graindorge, Arnault; Salamun, Julien; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the invasive tachyzoite contains an organelle termed the conoid at its extreme apex. This motile organelle consists of a unique polymer of tubulin fibres and protrudes in both gliding and invading parasites. The class XIV myosin A, which is conserved across the Apicomplexa phylum, is known to critically contribute to motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. The MyoA-glideosome is anchored to the inner membrane complex (IMC) and is assumed to translocate the components of the circular junction secreted by the micronemes and rhoptries, to the rear of the parasite. Here we comprehensively characterise the class XIV myosin H (MyoH) and its associated light chains. We show that the 3 alpha-tubulin suppressor domains, located in MyoH tail, are necessary to anchor this motor to the conoid. Despite the presence of an intact MyoA-glideosome, conditional disruption of TgMyoH severely compromises parasite motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. We demonstrate that MyoH is necessary for the translocation of the circular junction from the tip of the parasite, where secretory organelles exocytosis occurs, to the apical position where the IMC starts. This study attributes for the first time a direct function of the conoid in motility and invasion, and establishes the indispensable role of MyoH in initiating the first step of motility along this unique organelle, which is subsequently relayed by MyoA to enact effective gliding and invasion. PMID:26760042

  8. The Conoid Associated Motor MyoH Is Indispensable for Toxoplasma gondii Entry and Exit from Host Cells.

    PubMed

    Graindorge, Arnault; Frénal, Karine; Jacot, Damien; Salamun, Julien; Marq, Jean Baptiste; Soldati-Favre, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Many members of the phylum of Apicomplexa have adopted an obligate intracellular life style and critically depend on active invasion and egress from the infected cells to complete their lytic cycle. Toxoplasma gondii belongs to the coccidian subgroup of the Apicomplexa, and as such, the invasive tachyzoite contains an organelle termed the conoid at its extreme apex. This motile organelle consists of a unique polymer of tubulin fibres and protrudes in both gliding and invading parasites. The class XIV myosin A, which is conserved across the Apicomplexa phylum, is known to critically contribute to motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. The MyoA-glideosome is anchored to the inner membrane complex (IMC) and is assumed to translocate the components of the circular junction secreted by the micronemes and rhoptries, to the rear of the parasite. Here we comprehensively characterise the class XIV myosin H (MyoH) and its associated light chains. We show that the 3 alpha-tubulin suppressor domains, located in MyoH tail, are necessary to anchor this motor to the conoid. Despite the presence of an intact MyoA-glideosome, conditional disruption of TgMyoH severely compromises parasite motility, invasion and egress from infected cells. We demonstrate that MyoH is necessary for the translocation of the circular junction from the tip of the parasite, where secretory organelles exocytosis occurs, to the apical position where the IMC starts. This study attributes for the first time a direct function of the conoid in motility and invasion, and establishes the indispensable role of MyoH in initiating the first step of motility along this unique organelle, which is subsequently relayed by MyoA to enact effective gliding and invasion.

  9. Near-infrared spectroscopy as a potential tool with radial basis function for measurement of residual acrylamide in organic polymer.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guocheng; Zheng, Huaili; Zhang, Peng; Jiao, Zhaojie; Yin, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Poly(acrylamide-co-diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDA), which is usually prepared by free radical polymerization of acrylamide monomer (AM) onto the cationic monomer dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (DMDAAC), has been widely applied to wastewater treatment; however, the free-radical polymerization is always incomplete with residual AM remaining in the PDA. The residual AM affects the PDA's performance while also posing as a potential threat to human health; therefore, during preparation of the PDA, the rapid detection of the residual AM plays an important role in controlling the residual AM while improving the PDA's performance. The objective of this study was to explore the possibilities for applying near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a potential tool for detecting the residual AM in combination with a statistical tool. In this study, the radial basis function (RBF) network model as the statistical tool was combined with NIR spectroscopy for detection of the residual AM. The experimental results showed that five wavelengths in the NIR spectroscopy were the most important characteristic adsorption peaks, particular at 971.95 and 1077 nm. The simulation of the RBF model presented higher performance with R2-value greater than 0.98, RMSEC and RMSEP less than 7.22 x 10(-5) and coefficient of variation (CV) of the predicted residual AM less than 10%, which demonstrated the feasibility of the NIR spectroscopy being a rapid detection tool for prediction of the residual AM using the RBF model. Wavelet de-nosing was used for removing the interference/noise in the NIR spectroscopy and improved the generalization ability of the RBF model.

  10. Development of the Objective, Structured Communication Assessment of Residents (OSCAR) Tool for Measuring Communication Skills With Patients

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Aleece; Perzynski, Adam; Thomas, Charles; Saade, Jimmy Y.; McFarlane, Michael; Becker, Jeffery

    2013-01-01

    Background Although interpersonal and communication skills are essential to physician practice, there is a dearth of effective tools to meaningfully teach and assess communication skills. Objective The purpose of our study was to create a standardized tool for evaluation of communication skills for residents across specialties. Methods We designed an Objective, Structured Communication Assessment of Residents (OSCAR) tool, consisting of 4 clinical stations, to assess intern communication skills with relationship development, their establishment of case goals, and their organization and time management skills. Interns from 11 training programs completed the stations, with senior residents trained to function as standardized patients. The 4 stations' scenarios were a disruptive patient, handling a phone call for a narcotics refill, disclosing a medical mistake, and delivering bad news. Results Eighty-three interns completed OSCAR during orientation. The assessment took interns about 40 minutes to complete, and participants were given immediate feedback by the standardized patients. The total possible score for each station was 50. Resident performance was highest for disclosing a medical error (94%, 47 of 50), followed by handling a disruptive patient (90%, 45 of 50), disclosing bad news (86%, 43 of 50), and handling the phone call for the narcotics refill (62%, 31 of 50). Multivariate analysis of variance results indicated differences between residents from US and international medical schools, but there were no significant differences across specialties. Interrater reliability was excellent for each station (> 0.80). Conclusions OSCAR is a practical tool for assessing interns' communication skills to provide timely results to program directors. PMID:24455003

  11. Introducing the individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT): Development and description of a new interprofessional teamwork measure.

    PubMed

    Thistlethwaite, Jill; Dallest, Kathy; Moran, Monica; Dunston, Roger; Roberts, Chris; Eley, Diann; Bogossian, Fiona; Forman, Dawn; Bainbridge, Lesley; Drynan, Donna; Fyfe, Sue

    2016-07-01

    The individual Teamwork Observation and Feedback Tool (iTOFT) was devised by a consortium of seven universities in recognition of the need for a means of observing and giving feedback to individual learners undertaking an interprofessional teamwork task. It was developed through a literature review of the existing teamwork assessment tools, a discussion of accreditation standards for the health professions, Delphi consultation and field-testing with an emphasis on its feasibility and acceptability for formative assessment. There are two versions: the Basic tool is for use with students who have little clinical teamwork experience and lists 11 observable behaviours under two headings: 'shared decision making' and 'working in a team'. The Advanced version is for senior students and junior health professionals and has 10 observable behaviours under four headings: 'shared decision making', 'working in a team', 'leadership', and 'patient safety'. Both versions include a comprehensive scale and item descriptors. Further testing is required to focus on its validity and educational impact. PMID:27269996

  12. Performance indicators: A tool for continuous quality improvement

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Nidhi M; Soni, Shital; Gajjar, Maitrey; Shah, Mamta; Shah, Sangita; Patel, Vaidehi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Performance monitoring is an important tool which can be used for setting priorities for process improvement. At our centre, we have been monitoring every step in the processes, right from inventory of consumables (both critical and routine) to number of donors reactive for TTI. We conducted a study to measure the impact of monitoring Performance Indicators and how it could be used as a tool for Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). Materials and Methods: The present study was a retrospective study where the performance indicator (PI) data of blood bank was analyzed for over four years. For certain parameters, benchmarks or thresholds were set that represented warning limits or action limits. The yearly data were collated from monthly data. Shifts or Trends, if any, were identified and Corrective and Preventive Action (CAPA) taken accordingly. At the end, outcomes of the analysis were charted. Results: After the yearly data evaluation, outcomes obtained were used to plan, correct and amend processes and systems in the blood center. It was observed that the workload of the center showed an upward trend. This helped us to plan for the purchase of consumables and management of manpower. The monitoring of usage and discard of blood helped in the efficient management of blood stocks. The need for any new equipment could also be judged by the trends in workload. Conclusion: Performance indicators are indispensible tools which various stakeholders in the Blood Transfusion centres should implement to improve on quality performance. PMID:27011669

  13. Indispensable but insufficient role of renal D-amino acid oxidase in chiral inversion of NG-nitro-D-arginine.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yan-Fei; Li, Xin; Hao, Bin; Gong, Nian; Sun, Wen-Qiang; Konno, Ryuichi; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Unidirectionally chiral inversion of N(G)-nitro-D-arginine (D-NNA) to its L-enantiomer (L-NNA) occurred in rats, and it was blocked markedly (ca. 80%) by renal vascular ligation, and entirely (100%) by the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) inhibitor sodium benzoate, suggesting that renal DAO is essential for the inversion. However, the doses of sodium benzoate administrated were extremely high (e.g., 400 mg/kg) due to its low potency. It is thus possible that sodium benzoate-mediated blockade of D-NNA inversion might be due to its nonspecific (or non-DAO-related) effects. In addition, after D-NNA was incubated with the pure enzyme of DAO in vitro without tissue homogenates, L-NNA was not produced, even though D-NNA was disposed. We propose that this occurred because D-NNA was first converted to its corresponding alpha-keto acid by DAO and then to L-NNA by transaminase(s); however, there was no direct evidence for this process. The goal of this study is to further elucidate the process of D-NNA chiral inversion both in vivo and in in vitro tissue homogenates by comparing mutant ddY/DAO(-/-) mice that lack DAO activity entirely compared to normal ddY/DAO(+/+) mice and Swiss mice. Furthermore, the ability to produce L-NNA from D-NNA-corresponding alpha-keto acids (N(G)-nitroguanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) produced by porcine kidney-derived DAO (pkDAO) was also studied in the DAO inhibitor-pretreated rats. We found that D-NNA chiral inversion occurred in Swiss mice and ddY/DAO(+/+) mice both in vivo and in in vitro kidney homogenates, but not in ddY/DAO(-/-) mice, correlated to their DAO activities. The alpha-keto acid (N(G)-nitro-guanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) from D-NNA was able to produce L-NNA, and subsequent vasoconstriction and pressor responses. These results indicate that the role of renal DAO is indispensible but insufficient for chiral inversion of D-NNA and other neutral and polar D-amino acids, and unidentified aminotransferase(s) are involved in a subsequent

  14. Mechanics and hydraulics of unsaturated soils: what makes interfaces an indispensable part of a physically-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikooee, E.; Hassanizadeh, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    The foundations of the current theories for hydraulics and mechanics of unsaturated soils have been mainly based on the empirically introduced equations. There are various characteristics of unsaturated soils for which lots of different empirical equations have been proposed such as hydraulic conductivity, water retention curve, and effective stress parameter. One of the remarkable challenges which all current models face is hysteresis, i.e., for a certain matric suction, values of saturation, hydraulic conductivity and effective stress parameter in drying state and wetting are different. Conventional models of hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils try to account for the hysteresis phenomenon by means of different empirical equations for each hydraulic path. Hassanizadeh and Gray (1993) claimed that the hysteresis in capillary pressure-saturation curves can be modelled through the inclusion of air-water interfaces as a new independent variable [1]. It has recently been stated that the same conjecture can be made for suction stress [2]. Therefore, it seems to better portray hydraulic and mechanical behaviour of unsaturated soils, interfaces are required as an indispensable part of the framework [3, 4]. This presentation aims at introducing the drawbacks of current theories of hydraulics and mechanics of unsaturated soils. For this purpose, the role of interfaces in the mechanics and hydraulics of unsaturated soils is explained and different possibilities to account for the contribution of interfaces are discussed. Finally, current challenges and future research directions are set forth. References[1] Hassanizadeh, S.M. & Gray, W.G.: Thermodynamic basis of capillary pressure in porous media. Water Resour.Res. 29(1993), 3389-3405.[2] Nikooee, E., Habibagahi, G., Hassanizadeh, S.M. & Ghahramani, A.: Effective Stress in unsaturated Soils: a thermodynamic approach based on the interfacial energy and hydromechanical coupling. Transport porous Med. 96

  15. Indispensable but insufficient role of renal D-amino acid oxidase in chiral inversion of NG-nitro-D-arginine.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yan-Fei; Li, Xin; Hao, Bin; Gong, Nian; Sun, Wen-Qiang; Konno, Ryuichi; Wang, Yong-Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Unidirectionally chiral inversion of N(G)-nitro-D-arginine (D-NNA) to its L-enantiomer (L-NNA) occurred in rats, and it was blocked markedly (ca. 80%) by renal vascular ligation, and entirely (100%) by the D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) inhibitor sodium benzoate, suggesting that renal DAO is essential for the inversion. However, the doses of sodium benzoate administrated were extremely high (e.g., 400 mg/kg) due to its low potency. It is thus possible that sodium benzoate-mediated blockade of D-NNA inversion might be due to its nonspecific (or non-DAO-related) effects. In addition, after D-NNA was incubated with the pure enzyme of DAO in vitro without tissue homogenates, L-NNA was not produced, even though D-NNA was disposed. We propose that this occurred because D-NNA was first converted to its corresponding alpha-keto acid by DAO and then to L-NNA by transaminase(s); however, there was no direct evidence for this process. The goal of this study is to further elucidate the process of D-NNA chiral inversion both in vivo and in in vitro tissue homogenates by comparing mutant ddY/DAO(-/-) mice that lack DAO activity entirely compared to normal ddY/DAO(+/+) mice and Swiss mice. Furthermore, the ability to produce L-NNA from D-NNA-corresponding alpha-keto acids (N(G)-nitroguanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) produced by porcine kidney-derived DAO (pkDAO) was also studied in the DAO inhibitor-pretreated rats. We found that D-NNA chiral inversion occurred in Swiss mice and ddY/DAO(+/+) mice both in vivo and in in vitro kidney homogenates, but not in ddY/DAO(-/-) mice, correlated to their DAO activities. The alpha-keto acid (N(G)-nitro-guanidino-2-oxopentanoic acid) from D-NNA was able to produce L-NNA, and subsequent vasoconstriction and pressor responses. These results indicate that the role of renal DAO is indispensible but insufficient for chiral inversion of D-NNA and other neutral and polar D-amino acids, and unidentified aminotransferase(s) are involved in a subsequent

  16. The indispensable intermediaries: a qualitative study of informal caregivers’ struggle to achieve influence at and after hospital discharge

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    caregivers’ indispensable role as intermediaries. These findings accentuate the need to further discuss how frail older individuals and their informal caregivers can be supported and enabled to participate in decision-making regarding care arrangements that meet the care recipient’s needs. PMID:25078610

  17. Increasing Testing Efficiency through the Development of an IT-Based Adaptive Testing Tool for Competency Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinhans, Janne; Schumann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper investigates the potential of computerized adaptive testing for CMs to reduce test time. In the context of education and training, competency measurement (CM) is a central challenge in competency management. For complex CMs, a compromise must be addressed between the time available and the quality of the measurements.…

  18. The ACT College Outcome Measurement Project: A New Tool for Summative Evaluation of Nontraditional Postsecondary Education Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Eric F.; Pringle, Robert A.

    The American College Testing Program (ACT) developed tests as a result of the College Outcome Measures Project (COMP). These instruments were intended for evaluation of nontraditional and traditional postsecondary education programs. They measure skills rather than information. The study was designed to check on several aspects of use of the COMP…

  19. DtaRefinery: a software tool for elimination of systematic errors from parent ion mass measurements in tandem mass spectra datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-16

    Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years and have allowed for sig-nificantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS pep-tide identifications by applying relatively narrow windows for maxi-mum allowable deviations for parent ion mass measurements. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass meas-urements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. The DtaRefinery software tool can correct systematic errors in parent ion masses by reading a set of fragmentation spectra, searching for MS/MS peptide identifications, then fitting a model that can estimate systematic errors, and removing them. This results in a new fragmentation spectrum file with updated parent ion masses.

  20. VALIDATION OF ULTRASOUND AS A NONINVASIVE TOOL TO MEASURE SUBCUTANEOUS FAT DEPTH IN LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA).

    PubMed

    Harris, Heather S; Benson, Scott R; James, Michael C; Martin, Kelly J; Stacy, Brian A; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rist, Paul M; Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) undergo substantial cyclical changes in body condition between foraging and nesting. Ultrasonography has been used to measure subcutaneous fat as an indicator of body condition in many species but has not been applied in sea turtles. To validate this technique in leatherback turtles, ultrasound images were obtained from 36 live-captured and dead-stranded immature and adult turtles from foraging and nesting areas in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Ultrasound measurements were compared with direct measurements from surgical biopsy or necropsy. Tissue architecture was confirmed histologically in a subset of turtles. The dorsal shoulder region provided the best site for differentiation of tissues. Maximum fat depth values with the front flipper in a neutral (45-90°) position demonstrated good correlation with direct measurements. Ultrasound-derived fat measurements may be used in the future for quantitative assessment of body condition as an index of health in this critically endangered species.

  1. VALIDATION OF ULTRASOUND AS A NONINVASIVE TOOL TO MEASURE SUBCUTANEOUS FAT DEPTH IN LEATHERBACK SEA TURTLES (DERMOCHELYS CORIACEA).

    PubMed

    Harris, Heather S; Benson, Scott R; James, Michael C; Martin, Kelly J; Stacy, Brian A; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rist, Paul M; Work, Thierry M; Balazs, George H; Seminoff, Jeffrey A

    2016-03-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) undergo substantial cyclical changes in body condition between foraging and nesting. Ultrasonography has been used to measure subcutaneous fat as an indicator of body condition in many species but has not been applied in sea turtles. To validate this technique in leatherback turtles, ultrasound images were obtained from 36 live-captured and dead-stranded immature and adult turtles from foraging and nesting areas in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Ultrasound measurements were compared with direct measurements from surgical biopsy or necropsy. Tissue architecture was confirmed histologically in a subset of turtles. The dorsal shoulder region provided the best site for differentiation of tissues. Maximum fat depth values with the front flipper in a neutral (45-90°) position demonstrated good correlation with direct measurements. Ultrasound-derived fat measurements may be used in the future for quantitative assessment of body condition as an index of health in this critically endangered species. PMID:27010287

  2. Validation of ultrasound as a noninvasive tool to measure subcutaneous fat depth in leatherback sea turtles (Dermochelys coriacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Heather S.; Benson, Scott R.; James, Michael C.; Martin, Kelly J.; Stacy, Brian A.; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rist, Paul M.; Work, Thierry M.; Balazs, George H.; Seminoff, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) undergo substantial cyclical changes in body condition between foraging and nesting. Ultrasonography has been used to measure subcutaneous fat as an indicator of body condition in many species but has not been applied in sea turtles. To validate this technique in leatherback turtles, ultrasound images were obtained from 36 live-captured and dead-stranded immature and adult turtles from foraging and nesting areas in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Ultrasound measurements were compared with direct measurements from surgical biopsy or necropsy. Tissue architecture was confirmed histologically in a subset of turtles. The dorsal shoulder region provided the best site for differentiation of tissues. Maximum fat depth values with the front flipper in a neutral (45–90°) position demonstrated good correlation with direct measurements. Ultrasound-derived fat measurements may be used in the future for quantitative assessment of body condition as an index of health in this critically endangered species.

  3. Application of thoron interference as a tool for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron with a pulse ionisation chamber.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R M; Sumesh, C G; Vinod Kumar, A; Puranik, V D

    2013-07-01

    Pulse ionisation chamber (PIC)-based monitors measuring radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn) without energy discrimination will have interference due to thoron ((220)Rn) present in the atmosphere. A technique has been developed to use this property of interference for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron gas. These monitors work on the principle of counting of gross alphas emitted from radon and its progeny. A theoretical model has been developed for the variation of thoron sensitivity with respect to the flow rate of gas through the monitor. The thoron sensitivity of the monitor is found to vary with the flow rate of gas through the monitor. Using this sensitivity, the sampling procedure has been developed and verified for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron. The PIC-measured radon and thoron concentration using this procedure agrees well with those measured by using standard radon and thoron discriminating monitor.

  4. Low-frequency noise, microplasma, and electroluminescence measurements as faster tools to investigate quality of monocrystalline-silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chobola, Zdenek; Lunak, Miroslav; Vanek, Jiri; Barinka, Radim

    2013-05-01

    Two sets of c-Si solar cells varying in front side phosphorus doped emitters were produced by standard screen printing techniques. The first group of samples, 3121, was prepared by a combination of standard washing and a bath with a highly dilute HF before diffusion of n+-emitter. The second group of samples, 3122, was treated only with standard washing. A comparison of solar cell conversion efficiency and results from a noise spectroscopy, microplasma, and electroluminescence presence are presented. As was already shown in previous publications noise spectral density reflects the quality of solar cells, and thus represents an alternative advanced cell diagnostic tool. Our results confirm this relationship and moreover bring clear evidence for the maximum spectral noise voltage density being related to the emitter structure. The best results were reached for the group of solar cells in sample 3122, which was treated only with standard washing.

  5. Peptidase specificity from the substrate cleavage collection in the MEROPS database and a tool to measure cleavage site conservation

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    One peptidase can usually be distinguished from another biochemically by its action on proteins, peptides and synthetic substrates. Since 1996, the MEROPS database (http://merops.sanger.ac.uk) has accumulated a collection of cleavages in substrates that now amounts to 66,615 cleavages. The total number of peptidases for which at least one cleavage is known is 1700 out of a total of 2457 different peptidases. This paper describes how the cleavages are obtained from the scientific literature, how they are annotated and how cleavages in peptides and proteins are cross-referenced to entries in the UniProt protein sequence database. The specificity profiles of 556 peptidases are shown for which ten or more substrate cleavages are known. However, it has been proposed that at least 40 cleavages in disparate proteins are required for specificity analysis to be meaningful, and only 163 peptidases (6.6%) fulfil this criterion. Also described are the various displays shown on the website to aid with the understanding of peptidase specificity, which are derived from the substrate cleavage collection. These displays include a logo, distribution matrix, and tables to summarize which amino acids or groups of amino acids are acceptable (or not acceptable) in each substrate binding pocket. For each protein substrate, there is a display to show how it is processed and degraded. Also described are tools on the website to help with the assessment of the physiological relevance of cleavages in a substrate. These tools rely on the hypothesis that a cleavage site that is conserved in orthologues is likely to be physiologically relevant, and alignments of substrate protein sequences are made utilizing the UniRef50 database, in which in each entry sequences are 50% or more identical. Conservation in this case means substitutions are permitted only if the amino acid is known to occupy the same substrate binding pocket from at least one other substrate cleaved by the same peptidase. PMID

  6. Machine tool locator

    DOEpatents

    Hanlon, John A.; Gill, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    Machine tools can be accurately measured and positioned on manufacturing machines within very small tolerances by use of an autocollimator on a 3-axis mount on a manufacturing machine and positioned so as to focus on a reference tooling ball or a machine tool, a digital camera connected to the viewing end of the autocollimator, and a marker and measure generator for receiving digital images from the camera, then displaying or measuring distances between the projection reticle and the reference reticle on the monitoring screen, and relating the distances to the actual position of the autocollimator relative to the reference tooling ball. The images and measurements are used to set the position of the machine tool and to measure the size and shape of the machine tool tip, and examine cutting edge wear. patent

  7. Hard x-ray correlation analysis as a diagnostic tool for the measurement of magnetic turbulence in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S. K.; Hui, A. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Raychaudhuri, Santwana; Banik, D.

    2010-12-15

    A diagnostic has been developed for the measurement and characterization of the magnetic turbulence occurring in the core region of a tokamak. A specially shielded detector looking in the tangential direction has been employed to measure the thin target bremsstrahlung from the core plasma. The thick target bremsstrahlung from the limiter is also recorded at the same time. Auto- and cross-correlation analyses have been shown to yield, respectively, the stochasticity of the magnetic fluctuations in the core region and the consequent diffusion coefficient of the nonthermal electrons. The measured stochasticity bears a relationship with the diffusion coefficient. Data obtained from internal magnetic probes corroborate the above trend but the hard x-ray measurement data are shown to be more reliable than those obtained from magnetic probes.

  8. BPS-ICF model, a tool to measure biopsychosocial functioning and disability within ICF concepts: theory and practice updated.

    PubMed

    Talo, Seija A; Rytökoski, Ulla M

    2016-03-01

    The transformation of International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps into International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) meant a lot for those needing to communicate in terms of functioning concept in their daily work. With ICF's commonly understood language, the decades' uncertainty on what concepts and terms describe functioning and disabilities seemed to be dispelled. Instead, operationalizing ICF to measure the level of functioning along with the new nomenclature has not been as unambiguous. Transforming linguistic terms into quantified functioning seems to need another type of theorizing. Irrespective of challenging tasks, numerous projects were formulated during the past decades to apply ICF for measurement purposes. This article updates one of them, the so-called biopsychosocial-ICF model, which uses all ICF categories but classifies them into more components than ICF for measurement purposes. The model suggests that both disabilities and functional resources should be described by collecting and organizing functional measurement data in a multidisciplinary, biopsychosocial data matrice.

  9. Improved water δ2H and δ18O calibration and calculation of measurement uncertainty using a simple software tool.

    PubMed

    Gröning, Manfred

    2011-10-15

    The calibration of all δ(2)H and δ(18)O measurements on the VSMOW/SLAP scale should be performed consistently, based on similar principles, independent of the instrumentation used. The basic principles of a comprehensive calibration strategy are discussed taking water as example. The most common raw data corrections for memory and drift effects are described. Those corrections result in a considerable improvement in data consistency, especially in laboratories analyzing samples of quite variable isotopic composition (e.g. doubly labelled water). The need for a reliable uncertainty assessment for all measurements is discussed and an easy implementation method proposed. A versatile evaluation method based on Excel macros and spreadsheets is presented. It corrects measured raw data for memory and drift effects, performs the calibration and calculates the combined standard uncertainty for each measurement. It allows the easy implementation of the discussed principles in any user laboratory. Following these principles will improve the comparability of data among laboratories. PMID:21913248

  10. Models and Measurements: Complementary Tools for Predicting Atmospheric Dispersion and Assessing the Consequences of Nuclear and Radiological Emergencies

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M M; Kosovic, B; Nasstrom, J S

    2005-11-07

    Since its inception over 26 years ago, NARAC (the National Atmospheric Release and Advisory Center) has used measurement data to update model predictions of radioactive releases from known origins. NARAC continues to routinely participate in emergency response drills with organizations that collect air concentration, ground deposition, and radiation exposure measurements. From a complementary perspective, NARAC is now developing an advanced capability to combine models and data from monitoring systems to characterize and forensically reconstruct atmospheric release events of unknown origin.

  11. Improving comfort and communication in the ICU: a practical new tool for palliative care performance measurement and feedback

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, J E; Mulkerin, C M; Adams, L L; Pronovost, P J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To develop a practical set of measures for routine monitoring, performance feedback, and improvement in the quality of palliative care in the intensive care unit (ICU). Design Use of an interdisciplinary iterative process to create a prototype “bundle” of indicators within previously established domains of ICU palliative care quality; operationalization of indicators as specified measures; and pilot implementation to evaluate feasibility and baseline ICU performance. Setting The national Transformation of the Intensive Care Unit program developed in the United States by VHA Inc. Patients Critically ill patients in ICUs for 1, >3, and >5 days. Measurements and main results Palliative care processes including identification of patient preferences and decision making surrogates, communication between clinicians and patients/families, social and spiritual support, and pain assessment and management, as documented in medical records. Application is triggered by specified lengths of ICU stay. Pilot testing in 19 ICUs (review of >100 patients' records) documented feasibility, while revealing opportunities for quality improvement in clinician‐patient/family communication and other key components of ICU palliative care. Conclusions The new bundle of measures is a prototype for routine measurement of the quality of palliative care in the ICU. Further investigation is needed to confirm associations between measured processes and outcomes of importance to patients and families, as well as other aspects of validity. PMID:16885251

  12. Micro- and nanomachined tools for measuring thermopower and in-plane thermal conductivity of thermoelectric thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avery, Azure; Sultan, Rubina; Stiehl, Greg; Zink, Barry

    2008-03-01

    Many of the potential next-generation thermoelectric materials being studied are either thin films or nanostructures that are expected to have anisotropic properties. Techniques such as the 3φ method and picosecond thermoreflectance allow accurate measurements of k at temperatures relevant to thermoelectrics, but measuring k is often difficult. In this talk we discuss our efforts to design and demonstrate accurate measurements of k of thin films from 77-475 K using micro- and nanomachined thermal isolation platforms. Using thin-film structures to support the thin-film sample reduces background contributions, and careful control of the geometry keeps radiation errors small. We will discuss the optimization and micromachining of the measurement platforms and their application for studying the growth and characteristics of our first doped amorphous thin films. We will present our first tests of the devices on materials with established thermal properties. Finally, we will discuss the use of these measurement platforms to determine k and ZT for doped amorphous silicon thin films.

  13. Catching a glimpse of working memory: top-down capture as a tool for measuring the content of the mind.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas D; Thomas, Rick P; Buttaccio, Daniel R; Davelaar, Eddy J

    2012-11-01

    This article outlines a methodology for probing working memory (WM) content in high-level cognitive tasks (e.g., decision making, problem solving, and memory retrieval) by capitalizing on attentional and oculomotor biases evidenced in top-down capture paradigms. This method would be of great use, as it could measure the information resident in WM at any point in a task and, hence, track information use over time as tasks dynamically evolve. Above and beyond providing a measure of information occupancy in WM, such a method would benefit from sensitivity to the specific activation levels of individual items in WM. This article additionally forwards a novel fusion of standard free recall and visual search paradigms in an effort to assess the sensitivity of eye movements in top-down capture, on which this new measurement technique relies, to item-specific memory activation (ISMA). The results demonstrate eye movement sensitivity to ISMA in some, but not all, cases.

  14. Zinc Binding Activity of Human Metapneumovirus M2-1 Protein Is Indispensable for Viral Replication and Pathogenesis In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Hui; Zhang, Yu; Ma, Yuanmei; Sun, Jing; Liang, Xueya

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) is a member of the Pneumovirinae subfamily in the Paramyxoviridae family that causes respiratory tract infections in humans. Unlike members of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily, the polymerase complex of pneumoviruses requires an additional cofactor, the M2-1 protein, which functions as a transcriptional antitermination factor. The M2-1 protein was found to incorporate zinc ions, although the specific role(s) of the zinc binding activity in viral replication and pathogenesis remains unknown. In this study, we found that the third cysteine (C21) and the last histidine (H25) in the zinc binding motif (CCCH) of hMPV M2-1 were essential for zinc binding activity, whereas the first two cysteines (C7 and C15) play only minor or redundant roles in zinc binding. In addition, the zinc binding motif is essential for the oligomerization of M2-1. Subsequently, recombinant hMPVs (rhMPVs) carrying mutations in the zinc binding motif were recovered. Interestingly, rhMPV-C21S and -H25L mutants, which lacked zinc binding activity, had delayed replication in cell culture and were highly attenuated in cotton rats. In contrast, rhMPV-C7S and -C15S strains, which retained 60% of the zinc binding activity, replicated as efficiently as rhMPV in cotton rats. Importantly, rhMPVs that lacked zinc binding activity triggered high levels of neutralizing antibody and provided complete protection against challenge with rhMPV. Taken together, these results demonstrate that zinc binding activity is indispensable for viral replication and pathogenesis in vivo. These results also suggest that inhibition of zinc binding activity may serve as a novel approach to rationally attenuate hMPV and perhaps other pneumoviruses for vaccine purposes. IMPORTANCE The pneumoviruses include many important human and animal pathogens, such as human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV), hMPV, bovine RSV, and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV). Among these viruses, hRSV and hMPV are the

  15. Ceramic problems/challenges in high temperature oxide superconductors - Hysteretic force measurements as a new analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P. E. D.; Ratto, J. J.; Housley, R. M.; Porter, J. R.; Marshall, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    A technique is presented for analyzing high-temperature oxide superconductors using hysteretic magnetic force/distance measurements. Emphasis is placed on developing low weight, highly robust superconducting materials for space applications. Bi-Ca-Sr-Cu superconductors are prepared and characterized by standard techniques. It is found that standard techniques such as XRD, SEM, and TEM are insufficient to completely characterize superconductors. The magnetic properties of the superconductors are studied with the new technique, based on measuring the force between a magnet and the superconductor as a function of their separation.

  16. DtaRefinery, a Software Tool for Elimination of Systematic Errors from Parent Ion Mass Measurements in Tandem Mass Spectra Data Sets*

    PubMed Central

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2010-01-01

    Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and high throughput MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years, allowing for significantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS peptide identifications by the application of a relatively narrow window for maximum allowable deviations of measured parent ion masses. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass measurements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. Based on our previous studies of systematic biases in mass measurement errors, here, we have designed an algorithm and software tool that eliminates the systematic errors from the peptide ion masses in MS/MS data. We demonstrate that the elimination of the systematic mass measurement errors allows for the use of tighter criteria on the deviation of measured mass from theoretical monoisotopic peptide mass, resulting in a reduction of both false discovery and false negative rates of peptide identification. A software implementation of this algorithm called DtaRefinery reads a set of fragmentation spectra, searches for MS/MS peptide identifications using a FASTA file containing expected protein sequences, fits a regression model that can estimate systematic errors, and then corrects the parent ion mass entries by removing the estimated systematic error components. The output is a new file with fragmentation spectra with updated parent ion masses. The software is freely available. PMID:20019053

  17. The Cambridge Face Memory Test for Children (CFMT-C): a new tool for measuring face recognition skills in childhood.

    PubMed

    Croydon, Abigail; Pimperton, Hannah; Ewing, Louise; Duchaine, Brad C; Pellicano, Elizabeth

    2014-09-01

    Face recognition ability follows a lengthy developmental course, not reaching maturity until well into adulthood. Valid and reliable assessments of face recognition memory ability are necessary to examine patterns of ability and disability in face processing, yet there is a dearth of such assessments for children. We modified a well-known test of face memory in adults, the Cambridge Face Memory Test (Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006, Neuropsychologia, 44, 576-585), to make it developmentally appropriate for children. To establish its utility, we administered either the upright or inverted versions of the computerised Cambridge Face Memory Test - Children (CFMT-C) to 401 children aged between 5 and 12 years. Our results show that the CFMT-C is sufficiently sensitive to demonstrate age-related gains in the recognition of unfamiliar upright and inverted faces, does not suffer from ceiling or floor effects, generates robust inversion effects, and is capable of detecting difficulties in face memory in children diagnosed with autism. Together, these findings indicate that the CFMT-C constitutes a new valid assessment tool for children's face recognition skills.

  18. Assessing the impact of dietary habits on health-related quality of life requires contextual measurement tools.

    PubMed

    Ruano-Rodríguez, Cristina; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Dubois, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    The increase of non-communicable diseases at all ages has fostered the general concern for sustaining population health worldwide. Unhealthy lifestyles and dietary habits impacting physical and psycho-social health are well known risk factors for developing life threatening diseases. Identifying the determinants of quality of life is an important task from a Public Health perspective. Consumer-Reported Outcome measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are becoming increasingly necessary and relevant in the field of nutrition. However, quality of life questionnaires are seldom used in the nutrition field. We conducted a scientific literature search to find out the questionnaires used to determine the association between dietary habits and quality of life. A total of 13 studies were eligible for inclusion. Across these studies the short form-36, a generic (non-disease specific) HRQoL measurement instrument was the most widely used. However, generic measures may have limited content validity in the context of dietary habits interventions. We recommend additional contextual diet-specific HRQoL measures are also needed for evaluating the impact of diet habits on daily life functioning and well-being. PMID:26005420

  19. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within 1 or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed,…

  20. Multilevel Assessment of Middle School Students' Interest in the Health Sciences: Development and Validation of a New Measurement Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romine, William L.; Miller, Michele E.; Knese, Shawn A.; Folk, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Using the context of a 2-wk instructional unit focused on eye and vision health, we developed and validated a multilevel measure of middle school students' interest in science and health careers. This survey contained three subscales positioned differently with respect to curricular content. Interest in Vision Care was most related, but less…

  1. A Better Way to Measure: New Survey Tool Gives Educators a Clear Picture of Professional Learning's Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Rolf K.

    2010-01-01

    Just when educators are learning more about what constitutes effective professional development, a collaborative team of education researchers and practitioners have developed, tested, and implemented a cost-effective method of measuring and reporting on the quality of teacher professional development. The teacher professional development analysis…

  2. Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy as a versatile tool to measure static and dynamic properties of soft matter systems.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Manish; Oyler-Yaniv, Alon; Krichevsky, Oleg

    2015-12-14

    We present the formalism and experimental implementation of scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SFCS) for the measurements of soft matter system structure and dynamics. We relate the SFCS function Fourier transform to the system intermediate scattering function and demonstrate how SFCS can be combined with specific labelling to measure the desired statistical and kinetic features of the system. Using DNA as a model polymer, we demonstrate the application of SFCS to measure (1) the static structure factor of the system, (2) polymer end-to-end distance distribution, and (3) polymer segmental dynamics in dilute and in dense solutions. The measured DNA end-to-end distance distributions are close to Gaussian. Implementing SFCS we obtain reliable data on segmental mean-square displacement kinetics in dense solutions, where the static FCS approach fails because of dye photobleaching. For moderate concentrations in the semidilute regime (at ∼7 overlap concentrations) segmental dynamics exhibit only weak entanglements. Both of these experimental findings are consistent with theoretical predictions of the weakness of excluded interactions in semiflexible polymers.

  3. Effects of Imagery Training on Cognitive Performance and Use of Physiological Measures as an Assessment Tool of Mental Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadelis, Christos; Kourtidou-Papadeli, Chrysoula; Bamidis, Panagiotis; Albani, Maria

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of motor imagery training on cognitive performance was examined and the physiological mechanisms involved in the contribution of mental practice to motor learning were considered. The subject's mental effort during motor imagery was assessed by using psychophysiological measures and particularly eye blink activity as an…

  4. BPS-ICF model, a tool to measure biopsychosocial functioning and disability within ICF concepts: theory and practice updated.

    PubMed

    Talo, Seija A; Rytökoski, Ulla M

    2016-03-01

    The transformation of International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps into International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) meant a lot for those needing to communicate in terms of functioning concept in their daily work. With ICF's commonly understood language, the decades' uncertainty on what concepts and terms describe functioning and disabilities seemed to be dispelled. Instead, operationalizing ICF to measure the level of functioning along with the new nomenclature has not been as unambiguous. Transforming linguistic terms into quantified functioning seems to need another type of theorizing. Irrespective of challenging tasks, numerous projects were formulated during the past decades to apply ICF for measurement purposes. This article updates one of them, the so-called biopsychosocial-ICF model, which uses all ICF categories but classifies them into more components than ICF for measurement purposes. The model suggests that both disabilities and functional resources should be described by collecting and organizing functional measurement data in a multidisciplinary, biopsychosocial data matrice. PMID:26756850

  5. Scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy as a versatile tool to measure static and dynamic properties of soft matter systems.

    PubMed

    Nepal, Manish; Oyler-Yaniv, Alon; Krichevsky, Oleg

    2015-12-14

    We present the formalism and experimental implementation of scanning fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (SFCS) for the measurements of soft matter system structure and dynamics. We relate the SFCS function Fourier transform to the system intermediate scattering function and demonstrate how SFCS can be combined with specific labelling to measure the desired statistical and kinetic features of the system. Using DNA as a model polymer, we demonstrate the application of SFCS to measure (1) the static structure factor of the system, (2) polymer end-to-end distance distribution, and (3) polymer segmental dynamics in dilute and in dense solutions. The measured DNA end-to-end distance distributions are close to Gaussian. Implementing SFCS we obtain reliable data on segmental mean-square displacement kinetics in dense solutions, where the static FCS approach fails because of dye photobleaching. For moderate concentrations in the semidilute regime (at ∼7 overlap concentrations) segmental dynamics exhibit only weak entanglements. Both of these experimental findings are consistent with theoretical predictions of the weakness of excluded interactions in semiflexible polymers. PMID:26406382

  6. Measuring Our Progress with Real Tools: Why Does Technology Work in Some Schools and Not in Others?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Bernajean

    This document is an outline of a presentation on measuring the impact of technology in schools. Highlights include: technology as a system lever; training and conducting audits in over 2,500 schools; Illinois NextSteps--organizing technology for student results; asking big questions of our technology investments; making instructional technology…

  7. Curriculum-Based Measurement Performance Indicators: A Tool for Undergraduate Calculus Students to Inform and Direct Their Learning Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturges, Linda W.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the extent to which providing students with individualized performance feedback informed and directed their learning behavior. Individualized performance feedback was delivered to students using curriculum-based measurement progress indicators, either as a visual representation of ongoing performance in the form of a…

  8. Development and Validation of the Wesleyan Intercultural Competence Scale (WICS): A Tool for Measuring the Impact of Study Abroad Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stemler, Steven E.; Imada, Toshie; Sorkin, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    As globalization becomes commonplace and the world becomes increasingly interconnected, institutions of higher education have begun to prioritize the development of intercultural competence in their students. In order to measures intercultural competence, the authors developed the "Wesleyan Intercultural Competence Scale" (WICS). The…

  9. The Teacher-Pupil Observation Tool (T-POT): Development and Testing of a New Classroom Observation Measure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, P. A.; Daley, D.; Hutchings, J.; Jones, K.; Eames, C.; Whitaker, C. J.

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-pupil relationships do not solely impact children's academic development; they also influence emotional and behavioural development. Positive teacher-pupil relationships help reduce maladaptive behaviour while negative ones can lead to increased academic, social and behavioural difficulties. Identifying and measuring teacher-pupil…

  10. The Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale: Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Novel Assessment Tool for Measuring Alcohol Expectancies

    PubMed Central

    Morean, Meghan E.; Corbin, William R.; Treat, Teresa A.

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol expectancy (AEs) research has enhanced our understanding of how anticipated alcohol effects confer risk for heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. However, extant AE measures have limitations within one or more of the following areas: assessing a comprehensive range of effects, specifying the hypothetical number of drinks consumed, assessing AEs by limb of the blood alcohol curve (BAC), and/or psychometric evaluation. Building upon the strengths of existing measures, we employed conceptual and statistical advances in measurement development to create the novel, psychometrically-sound Anticipated Effects of Alcohol Scale (AEAS). Unique to this study, pilot data ensured that the SEAS comprised a comprehensive sampling of effects that varied in valence (positive/negative) and arousal (low/high) and were identified as plausible outcomes of drinking. The AEAS specified the number of drinks individuals imagined consuming (adjusted for sex) and the hypothetical drinking episode length (2 hours). AEs were also assessed separately by BAC limb. For validation purposes, the AEAS was included in several survey studies of young adults (ages 18-30). The validity argument for the proposed interpretation of AEAS test scores was based upon the following: 1) exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (N=546) identified a 22-item, 4-factor internal structure, categorizing alcohol effects into quadrants (high/low arousal crossed with positive/negative valence); 2) scalar measurement invariance was established for BAC limb, sex, and binge drinking status; 3) convergence/divergence was observed with alternative AEs measures and mood; and 4) test-criterion relationships were observed with several alcohol-related outcomes. The reliability argument was based on test-retest and internal consistency coefficients. PMID:22708572

  11. Measuring soil moisture content using cosmic-ray fast neutrons emitted from soils: a near-field remote sensing tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desilets, Darin; Zreda, Marek; Zweck, Chris; Ferre, Ty

    2010-05-01

    Average soil moisture over a footprint of hectometers and a depth of decimeters can be inferred from measurements of cosmic-ray fast neutrons that are generated in air and soil, moderated mainly by hydrogen atoms present in the soil, and emitted back to the atmosphere, where they travel in all directions and form a well-mixed reservoir of neutrons. The intensity of neutrons above the ground surface depends strongly on soil moisture content, and does not depend on soil chemistry and texture. The measurement with a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe placed above the ground takes minutes to hours, permitting high-resolution, long-term monitoring of undisturbed soil moisture. Neutron transport modeling using the MCNPX code shows that the footprint is approximately 600 m at sea level, and the measurement depth from 15 cm for saturated soils to 70 cm for dry soils. The footprint size has been confirmed empirically using field measurements of neutron intensity along water-land transects. The cosmic-ray soil moisture probe is calibrated using a theoretical calibration function in which one parameter is constrained by gravimetric soil moisture determinations on multiple samples collected within the footprint, If local calibration samples are not available, the same theoretical calibration function can be constrained using the knowledge of cosmic-ray variations, providing less accurate but still reasonable soil moisture estimates. The large footprint makes the method ideal for bridging the gap between remote sensing methods (such as SMOS and SMAP) and point or small-scale measurements on the ground.

  12. Cellular impedance measurement as a new tool for poxvirus titration, antibody neutralization testing and evaluation of antiviral substances

    SciTech Connect

    Witkowski, Peter T.; Schuenadel, Livia; Wiethaus, Julia; Bourquain, Daniel R.; Kurth, Andreas; Nitsche, Andreas

    2010-10-08

    Research highlights: {yields} Real-time data acquisition by RT-CES requires low operative effort. {yields} Time to result is reduced by using RT-CES instead of conventional methods. {yields} RT-CES enables quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. {yields} RT-CES is a useful tool for high-throughput characterization of antiviral agents. {yields} An RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. -- Abstract: Impedance-based biosensing known as real-time cell electronic sensing (RT-CES) belongs to an emerging technology for analyzing the status of cells in vitro. In the present study protocols were developed for an RT-CES-based system (xCELLigence{sup TM}, Roche Applied Science, ACEA Biosciences Inc.) to supplement conventional techniques in pox virology. First, proliferation of cells susceptible to orthopoxviruses was monitored. For virus titration cells were infected with vaccinia virus and cell status, represented by the dimensionless impedance-based cell index (CI), was monitored. A virus-dose dependent decrease in electrical impedance could be shown. Calculation of calibration curves at a suitable CI covering a dynamic range of 4 log enabled the quantification of virus titers in unknown samples. Similarly, antiviral effects could be determined as shown for anti-poxviral agents ST-246 and Cidofovir. Published values for the in vitro concentration that inhibited virus replication by 50% (IC{sub 50}) could be confirmed while cytotoxicity in effective concentrations was excluded in long-term incubation experiments. Finally, an RT-CES-based virus neutralization test was established. Various poxvirus-specific antibodies were examined for their neutralizing activity and a calculation mode for the neutralizing antibody titer was introduced. In summary, the presented RT-CES-based methods outmatch end-point assays by observing the cell population throughout the entire experiment while workload and time to result are reduced.

  13. Multilevel Assessment of Middle School Students’ Interest in the Health Sciences: Development and Validation of a New Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Romine, William L.; Miller, Michele E.; Knese, Shawn A.; Folk, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Using the context of a 2-wk instructional unit focused on eye and vision health, we developed and validated a multilevel measure of middle school students’ interest in science and health careers. This survey contained three subscales positioned differently with respect to curricular content. Interest in Vision Care was most related, but less transferrable to other contexts. Interest in Science was most general, and Interest in Healthcare was positioned between the two. We found that, with two exceptions, items fitted well with validity expectations and were stable across a 2-wk intervention. Further, measures of interest in science, health, and vision-care careers were shown to be reliable and valid. We found that ease of facilitating change across the intervention was generally greater in subscales closely related to the curricular context but that the average magnitude of change in Interest in Healthcare and Interest in Science was not significantly different. We discuss use of these measures in informing instructional efforts and advise that changes in students’ perceptions of how science and healthcare relate should be considered in longitudinal analyses. PMID:27252297

  14. In vivo electron spin resonance: An effective new tool for reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species measurement.

    PubMed

    Han, Jin Yi; Hong, Jin Tae; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2010-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species are regarded as important factors in the initiation and progression of many diseases. Therefore, measurement of redox status would be helpful in understanding the "Redox Navigation" of such diseases. Because electron spin resonance (ESR) shows good signal responses to nitroxyl radical and various redox-related species, such as oxygen radicals and antioxidants, the in vivo ESR/nitroxyl probe technique can provide useful information on real-time redox status in a living body. ESR spectrometers for in vivo measurements can be operated at lower frequencies (approximately 3.5 GHz, 1 GHz, 700 MHz, and 300 MHz) than usual (9-10 GHz). Several types of resonators were also designed to minimize the dielectric loss of electromagnetic waves caused by water in animal bodies. In vivo ESR spectroscopy and its imaging have been used to analyze radical generation, redox status, partial pressure of oxygen and other conditions in various diseases. In addition, ESR has been used to analyze injury models related to oxidative stresses, such as nitroxyl radicals. The application of in vivo ESR for diseases related to oxidative injuries currently being investigated and the accumulation of basic data for therapy is ongoing. Recent progress in the instrumentation for in vivo ESR spectroscopy and its application to the life sciences are reviewed, because measurement of redox status in vivo is considered necessary to understand the initiation and progression of diseases.

  15. Digital tomosynthesis and high resolution computed tomography as clinical tools for vertebral endplate topography measurements: Comparison with microcomputed tomography.

    PubMed

    Oravec, Daniel; Quazi, Abrar; Xiao, Angela; Yang, Ellen; Zauel, Roger; Flynn, Michael J; Yeni, Yener N

    2015-12-01

    Endplate morphology is understood to play an important role in the mechanical behavior of vertebral bone as well as degenerative processes in spinal tissues; however, the utility of clinical imaging modalities in assessment of the vertebral endplate has been limited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of two clinical imaging modalities (digital tomosynthesis, DTS; high resolution computed tomography, HRCT) to assess endplate topography by correlating the measurements to a microcomputed tomography (μCT) standard. DTS, HRCT, and μCT images of 117 cadaveric thoracolumbar vertebrae (T10-L1; 23 male, 19 female; ages 36-100 years) were segmented, and inferior and superior endplate surface topographical distribution parameters were calculated. Both DTS and HRCT showed statistically significant correlations with μCT approaching a moderate level of correlation at the superior endplate for all measured parameters (R(2)Adj=0.19-0.57), including averages, variability, and higher order statistical moments. Correlation of average depths at the inferior endplate was comparable to the superior case for both DTS and HRCT (R(2)Adj=0.14-0.51), while correlations became weak or nonsignificant for higher moments of the topography distribution. DTS was able to capture variations in the endplate topography to a slightly better extent than HRCT, and taken together with the higher speed and lower radiation cost of DTS than HRCT, DTS appears preferable for endplate measurements.

  16. Calibration Tools for Measurement of Highly Enriched Uranium in Oxide and Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide with a Passive-Active Neutron Drum Shuffler

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M; O'Connell, W; Cochran, C; Rinard, P

    2003-06-13

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has completed an extensive effort to calibrate the LLNL passive-active neutron drum (PAN) shuffler (Canberra Model JCC-92) for accountability measurement of highly enriched uranium (HEU) oxide and HEU in mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide. Earlier papers described the PAN shuffler calibration over a range of item properties by standards measurements and an extensive series of detailed simulation calculations. With a single normalization factor, the simulations agree with the HEU oxide standards measurements to within {+-}1.2% at one standard deviation. Measurement errors on mixed U-Pu oxide samples are in the {+-}2% to {+-}10% range, or {+-}20 g for the smaller items. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate transfer of the LLNL procedure and calibration algorithms to external users who possess an identical, or equivalent, PAN shuffler. Steps include (1) measurement of HEU standards or working reference materials (WRMs); (2) MCNP simulation calculations for the standards or WRMs and a range of possible masses in the same containers; (3) a normalization of the calibration algorithms using the standard or WRM measurements to account for differences in the {sup 252}Cf source strength, the delayed-neutron nuclear data, effects of the irradiation protocol, and detector efficiency; and (4) a verification of the simulation series trends against like LLNL results. Tools include EXCEL/Visual Basic programs which pre- and post-process the simulations, control the normalization, and embody the calibration algorithms.

  17. ciliaFA: a research tool for automated, high-throughput measurement of ciliary beat frequency using freely available software

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Analysis of ciliary function for assessment of patients suspected of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and for research studies of respiratory and ependymal cilia requires assessment of both ciliary beat pattern and beat frequency. While direct measurement of beat frequency from high-speed video recordings is the most accurate and reproducible technique it is extremely time consuming. The aim of this study was to develop a freely available automated method of ciliary beat frequency analysis from digital video (AVI) files that runs on open-source software (ImageJ) coupled to Microsoft Excel, and to validate this by comparison to the direct measuring high-speed video recordings of respiratory and ependymal cilia. These models allowed comparison to cilia beating between 3 and 52 Hz. Methods Digital video files of motile ciliated ependymal (frequency range 34 to 52 Hz) and respiratory epithelial cells (frequency 3 to 18 Hz) were captured using a high-speed digital video recorder. To cover the range above between 18 and 37 Hz the frequency of ependymal cilia were slowed by the addition of the pneumococcal toxin pneumolysin. Measurements made directly by timing a given number of individual ciliary beat cycles were compared with those obtained using the automated ciliaFA system. Results The overall mean difference (± SD) between the ciliaFA and direct measurement high-speed digital imaging methods was −0.05 ± 1.25 Hz, the correlation coefficient was shown to be 0.991 and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement were from −1.99 to 1.49 Hz for respiratory and from −2.55 to 3.25 Hz for ependymal cilia. Conclusions A plugin for ImageJ was developed that extracts pixel intensities and performs fast Fourier transformation (FFT) using Microsoft Excel. The ciliaFA software allowed automated, high throughput measurement of respiratory and ependymal ciliary beat frequency (range 3 to 52 Hz) and avoids operator error due to selection bias. We have

  18. Memory logging tools

    SciTech Connect

    Lysne, P. )

    1993-01-01

    A suite of memory logging tools is being developed for slim-hole, high-temperature applications. The first tool will measure pressure and temperature, and it is especially designed to be a low-cost, but very precise, device. This tool will be smart in the sense that it can make [open quotes]decisions[close quotes] downhole. A second tool will measure the gamma-ray emissions from formation material, and it will be an indicator of lithology. A fluid sampling tool will complement the spectral gamma tool in that is will further constrain the lithology by identifying dissolved formation materials. Plans are being made to integrate the tool responses into formation parameters of interest through cooperative efforts between geothermal operators and scientific drilling programs.

  19. Different Dimensions of Cognitive Style in Typical and Atypical Cognition: New Evidence and a New Measurement Tool

    PubMed Central

    Mealor, Andy D.; Simner, Julia; Rothen, Nicolas; Carmichael, Duncan A.; Ward, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    We developed the Sussex Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (SCSQ) to investigate visual and verbal processing preferences and incorporate global/local processing orientations and systemising into a single, comprehensive measure. In Study 1 (N = 1542), factor analysis revealed six reliable subscales to the final 60 item questionnaire: Imagery Ability (relating to the use of visual mental imagery in everyday life); Technical/Spatial (relating to spatial mental imagery, and numerical and technical cognition); Language & Word Forms; Need for Organisation; Global Bias; and Systemising Tendency. Thus, we replicate previous findings that visual and verbal styles are separable, and that types of imagery can be subdivided. We extend previous research by showing that spatial imagery clusters with other abstract cognitive skills, and demonstrate that global/local bias can be separated from systemising. Study 2 validated the Technical/Spatial and Language & Word Forms factors by showing that they affect performance on memory tasks. In Study 3, we validated Imagery Ability, Technical/Spatial, Language & Word Forms, Global Bias, and Systemising Tendency by issuing the SCSQ to a sample of synaesthetes (N = 121) who report atypical cognitive profiles on these subscales. Thus, the SCSQ consolidates research from traditionally disparate areas of cognitive science into a comprehensive cognitive style measure, which can be used in the general population, and special populations. PMID:27191169

  20. Different Dimensions of Cognitive Style in Typical and Atypical Cognition: New Evidence and a New Measurement Tool.

    PubMed

    Mealor, Andy D; Simner, Julia; Rothen, Nicolas; Carmichael, Duncan A; Ward, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    We developed the Sussex Cognitive Styles Questionnaire (SCSQ) to investigate visual and verbal processing preferences and incorporate global/local processing orientations and systemising into a single, comprehensive measure. In Study 1 (N = 1542), factor analysis revealed six reliable subscales to the final 60 item questionnaire: Imagery Ability (relating to the use of visual mental imagery in everyday life); Technical/Spatial (relating to spatial mental imagery, and numerical and technical cognition); Language & Word Forms; Need for Organisation; Global Bias; and Systemising Tendency. Thus, we replicate previous findings that visual and verbal styles are separable, and that types of imagery can be subdivided. We extend previous research by showing that spatial imagery clusters with other abstract cognitive skills, and demonstrate that global/local bias can be separated from systemising. Study 2 validated the Technical/Spatial and Language & Word Forms factors by showing that they affect performance on memory tasks. In Study 3, we validated Imagery Ability, Technical/Spatial, Language & Word Forms, Global Bias, and Systemising Tendency by issuing the SCSQ to a sample of synaesthetes (N = 121) who report atypical cognitive profiles on these subscales. Thus, the SCSQ consolidates research from traditionally disparate areas of cognitive science into a comprehensive cognitive style measure, which can be used in the general population, and special populations. PMID:27191169

  1. Solar Tower Experiments for Radiometric Calibration and Validation of Infrared Imaging Assets and Analysis Tools for Entry Aero-Heating Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Splinter, Scott C.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Horvath, Thomas J.; Mercer, David C.; Ghanbari, Cheryl M.; Ross, Martin N.; Tietjen, Alan; Schwartz, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center sponsored Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements assessment team has a task to perform radiometric calibration and validation of land-based and airborne infrared imaging assets and tools for remote thermographic imaging. The IR assets and tools will be used for thermographic imaging of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during entry aero-heating to provide flight boundary layer transition thermography data that could be utilized for calibration and validation of empirical and theoretical aero-heating tools. A series of tests at the Sandia National Laboratories National Solar Thermal Test Facility were designed for this task where reflected solar radiation from a field of heliostats was used to heat a 4 foot by 4 foot test panel consisting of LI 900 ceramic tiles located on top of the 200 foot tall Solar Tower. The test panel provided an Orbiter-like entry temperature for the purposes of radiometric calibration and validation. The Solar Tower provided an ideal test bed for this series of radiometric calibration and validation tests because it had the potential to rapidly heat the large test panel to spatially uniform and non-uniform elevated temperatures. Also, the unsheltered-open-air environment of the Solar Tower was conducive to obtaining unobstructed radiometric data by land-based and airborne IR imaging assets. Various thermocouples installed on the test panel and an infrared imager located in close proximity to the test panel were used to obtain surface temperature measurements for evaluation and calibration of the radiometric data from the infrared imaging assets. The overall test environment, test article, test approach, and typical test results are discussed.

  2. Quality Control Quantification (QCQ): A Tool to Measure the Value of Quality Control Checks in Radiation Oncology

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, Eric C.; Terezakis, Stephanie; Souranis, Annette; Harris, Kendra; Gay, Hiram; Mutic, Sasa

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To quantify the error-detection effectiveness of commonly used quality control (QC) measures. Methods: We analyzed incidents from 2007-2010 logged into a voluntary in-house, electronic incident learning systems at 2 academic radiation oncology clinics. None of the incidents resulted in patient harm. Each incident was graded for potential severity using the French Nuclear Safety Authority scoring scale; high potential severity incidents (score >3) were considered, along with a subset of 30 randomly chosen low severity incidents. Each report was evaluated to identify which of 15 common QC checks could have detected it. The effectiveness was calculated, defined as the percentage of incidents that each QC measure could detect, both for individual QC checks and for combinations of checks. Results: In total, 4407 incidents were reported, 292 of which had high-potential severity. High- and low-severity incidents were detectable by 4.0 {+-} 2.3 (mean {+-} SD) and 2.6 {+-} 1.4 QC checks, respectively (P<.001). All individual checks were less than 50% sensitive with the exception of pretreatment plan review by a physicist (63%). An effectiveness of 97% was achieved with 7 checks used in combination and was not further improved with more checks. The combination of checks with the highest effectiveness includes physics plan review, physician plan review, Electronic Portal Imaging Device-based in vivo portal dosimetry, radiation therapist timeout, weekly physics chart check, the use of checklists, port films, and source-to-skin distance checks. Some commonly used QC checks such as pretreatment intensity modulated radiation therapy QA do not substantially add to the ability to detect errors in these data. Conclusions: The effectiveness of QC measures in radiation oncology depends sensitively on which checks are used and in which combinations. A small percentage of errors cannot be detected by any of the standard formal QC checks currently in broad use, suggesting that

  3. The hyporheitron - a tool for measuring hyporheic processes along a discrete flow path in gravel bed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamer, J. P.; Wondzell, S. M.; Haggerty, R.

    2012-12-01

    Respiration in streams and rivers occurs primarily in streambed sediment due to the presence of microbial colonies growing as biofilms on sediment surfaces. Hyporheic exchange through this sediment is thus critical to stream ecosystem processes. However, attempts to study the respiration and other biogeochemical processes in the hyporheic zone continues to prove challenging. We developed a hyporheic mesocosm - or hyporheitron - allowing us to sample pore water along a defined hyporheic flowpath. The hyporheitron consists of a 15.24 cm (6 in) I. D. PVC pipe with a total length of 5.5 m packed with hyporheic sediment. Along the length of the pipe, set 1 m apart, are 5 fully penetrating vertical sampling pipes made from 3.81 cm (1.5 in) I. D. PVC slotted well screen which allow for instruments to be used to measure various hydrologic parameters in the streamtube. The hyporheitron was installed in a large gravel bar spanning a pool-riffle-pool sequence in Lookout Creek, at the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA. The hyporheitron was naturally irrigated, provided a controlled environment for transport studies in the hyporheic zone, and could be altered to allow experiments at different residence times and pore water velocities. Performance of the hyporheitron was evaluated using a conservative tracer (NaCl) injection by measuring the electrical conductivity (EC) breakthrough curves at the sampling locations (1, 2, 3, and 4 m down gradient from injection site) allowing calculation of residence time and pore water velocity in the streamtube. We then examined the effects of stream temperature and residence time on metabolism. By changing the outflow rate of the hyporheitron, the pore water residence time and water temperature signal also changes. Hyporheic water with fast flow rates and short residence times can carry the diurnal fluctuations of the stream water temperature, while water with slow flow rates and longer residence times may have less fluctuation

  4. An automated walk-over weighing system as a tool for measuring liveweight change in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, R A; Morton, J M; Beggs, D S; Anderson, G A; Pyman, M F; Mansell, P D; Blackwood, C B

    2013-07-01

    Automated walk-over weighing systems can be used to monitor liveweights of cattle. Minimal literature exists to describe agreement between automated and static scales, and no known studies describe repeatability when used for daily measurements of dairy cows. This study establishes the repeatability of an automated walk-over cattle-weighing system, and agreement with static electronic scales, when used in a commercial dairy herd to weigh lactating cows. Forty-six lactating dairy cows from a seasonal calving, pasture-based dairy herd in southwest Victoria, Australia, were weighed once using a set of static scales and repeatedly using an automated walk-over weighing system at the exit of a rotary dairy. Substantial agreement was observed between the automated and static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Weights measured by the automated walkover scales were within 5% of those measured by the static scales in 96% of weighings. Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement were -23.3 to 43.6 kg, a range of 66.9 kg. The 95% repeatability coefficient for automated weighings was 46.3 kg. Removal of a single outlier from the data set increased Lin's concordance coefficient, narrowed Bland and Altman's 95% limits of agreement to a range of 32.5 kg, and reduced the 95% repeatability coefficient to 18.7 kg. Cow misbehavior during walk-over weighing accounted for many of the larger weight discrepancies. The automated walk-over weighing system showed substantial agreement with the static scales when assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. This contrasted with limited agreement when assessed using Bland and Altman's method, largely due to poor repeatability. This suggests the automated weighing system is inadequate for detecting small liveweight differences in individual cows based on comparisons of single weights. Misbehaviors and other factors can result in the recording of spurious values on walk-over scales. Excluding

  5. Automated measurement of viscous decay of magnetic remanence: a tool for extending the grain-size interval for magnetic granulometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadima, Martin; Hrouda, Frantisek; Kadlec, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    In some geological and environmental processes, such as diagenesis, very low grade metamorphism, pedogenesis, anthropogenic pollution, new ultra-fine magnetic minerals may be formed. The variation in content of these minerals is routinely investigated by frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility. However, the size interval of magnetic particles detectable by this method is relatively narrow. Using the most common instruments, the MS2B susceptibility meter (Bartington Instruments) and the MFK1-FA Kappabridge (Agico), this interval in blocking volumes ranges from 1.7 × 10-24 m3 to 2.3 × 10-24 m3 in magnetite. Using lower operating frequency, for example 10 Hz in the 7130 AC susceptometer (Lake Shore Cryotronics), the upper limit of the blocking volume can be shifted to 3.1 × 10-24 m3. Using higher operating frequency, for example 500 kHz in the SM-105 susceptibility meter (ZH-Instruments), the respective lower limit can be shifted to 1.1 × 10-24 m3. Assuming a broad size distribution of the ultra-fine magnetic particles spanning across the SP/SSD boundary we suggest to assess their presence by quantification of their viscous magnetization decay. For that purpose we use a recently-developed LDA5-PAM1 pulse magnetizer coupled with a JR6 spinner magnetometer (both Agico). Instrument control software is interconnected in such a way that both instruments work in the same time frame, i.e. the exact moment of DC pulse termination is used as a zero time for evaluation of time-dependent viscous decay. Magnetic remanence is then measured repeatedly as a function of time. Exponential decay curves are fitted on the acquired data and the relative ratio of viscous and non-viscous particles is estimated. This method works with much longer relaxation times compared to those of susceptibility measurements, ranging from 20 to 300 s, with the corresponding blocking volumes being 3.9 to 4.4 × 10-24 m3. Our method is tested on the samples from three loess/paleosol sections located

  6. Real-Time Measurement of the Tool-Tissue Interaction in Minimally Invasive Abdominal Surgery: The First Step to Developing the Next Generation of Smart Laparoscopic Instruments.

    PubMed

    Barrie, Jenifer; Jayne, David G; Neville, Anne; Hunter, Louise; Hood, Adrian J; Culmer, Peter R

    2016-10-01

    Introduction Analysis of force application in laparoscopic surgery is critical to understanding the nature of the tool-tissue interaction. The aim of this study is to provide real-time data about manipulations to abdominal organs. Methods An instrumented short fenestrated grasper was used in an in vivo porcine model, measuring force at the grasper handle. Grasping force and duration over 5 small bowel manipulation tasks were analyzed. Forces required to retract gallbladder, bladder, small bowel, large bowel, and rectum were measured over 30 seconds. Four parameters were calculated-T(hold), the grasp time; T(close), time taken for the jaws to close; F(max), maximum force reached; and F(rms), root mean square force (representing the average force across the grasp time). Results Mean F(max) to manipulate the small bowel was 20.5 N (±7.2) and F(rms) was 13.7 N (±5.4). Mean T(close) was 0.52 seconds (±0.26) and T(hold) was 3.87 seconds (±1.5). In individual organs, mean F(max) was 49 N (±15) to manipulate the rectum and 59 N (±13.4) for the colon. The mean F(max) for bladder and gallbladder retraction was 28.8 N (±7.4) and 50.7 N (±3.8), respectively. All organs exhibited force relaxation, the F(rms) reduced to below 25 N for all organs except the small bowel, with a mean F(rms) of less than 10 N. Conclusion This study has commenced the process of quantifying tool-tissue interaction. The static measurements discussed here should evolve to include dynamic measurements such as shear, torque, and retraction forces, and be correlated with evidence of histological damage to tissue.

  7. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements as a tool to detect fusion and drug exchange in liposomal suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilfinker, Rolf; Willi, Annette; Isele, Ute; van Hoogevest, Peter

    1994-03-01

    Zinc-(II)-phthalocyanine (ZnPc) is a drug that can potentially be used in photodynamic therapy. A promising formulation approach for the strongly hydrophobic ZnPc is to embed the molecule in liposomes. CGP 55847 is such a liposomal ZnPc formulation. From our data, we could conclude that approximately one quarter of the drug molecules were only loosely bound to the liposomes and exchanged between them with a relaxation time of about 15 min. Energy transfer measurements before and after the lyophilization process revealed that the liposomes were stable when suspended in a 10% lactose solution, i.e. no fusion of liposomes took place. In aqueous solution, however, lyophilization induced fusion of liposomes to a small extent with a concomitant increase in size.

  8. Reliability of a population survey tool for measuring perceived health problems: a study of patients with osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed

    Hunt, S M; McKenna, S P; Williams, J

    1981-12-01

    A study is described which tested the reliability of the Nottingham Health Profile, a standardised measure of perceived health status suitable for use with both large groups and individual patients. Patients with osteoarthrosis, uncomplicated by other diagnosed conditions, were given the questionnaire to fill in on two separate occasions four weeks apart. Analysis of data showed that all sections of the profile achieved a high level of reliability with coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.77 to 0.85 on part I and from 0.44 to 0.86 on part II. Patients reported many problems in the areas of physical mobility, pain, sleep, and energy, but rather fewer in the areas of social isolation and emotional reactions. With the exception of family relationships, most respondents reported a high level of disruption of their daily activities. Patients were very consistent in the number and type of problems which they affirmed. PMID:7338705

  9. Reliability of a population survey tool for measuring perceived health problems: a study of patients with osteoarthrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, S M; McKenna, S P; Williams, J

    1981-01-01

    A study is described which tested the reliability of the Nottingham Health Profile, a standardised measure of perceived health status suitable for use with both large groups and individual patients. Patients with osteoarthrosis, uncomplicated by other diagnosed conditions, were given the questionnaire to fill in on two separate occasions four weeks apart. Analysis of data showed that all sections of the profile achieved a high level of reliability with coefficients of correlation ranging from 0.77 to 0.85 on part I and from 0.44 to 0.86 on part II. Patients reported many problems in the areas of physical mobility, pain, sleep, and energy, but rather fewer in the areas of social isolation and emotional reactions. With the exception of family relationships, most respondents reported a high level of disruption of their daily activities. Patients were very consistent in the number and type of problems which they affirmed. PMID:7338705

  10. Echinoderm reactive oxygen species (ROS) production measured by peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (PLCL) as an immunotoxicological tool.

    PubMed

    Coteur, G; Danis, B; Dubois, P

    2005-01-01

    The importance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in invertebrate immunity prompted the use of this response in immunotoxicological studies in several taxa including marine organisms. In this chapter, we review the effects of environmental factors and contaminants such as heavy metals and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on the production of ROS by the main immune effector cells of echinoderms, the so-called amoebocytes. ROS production was measured by the peroxidase, luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (PLCL) method. This method was found to predominantly reflect the production of superoxide anions and peroxides, among which hydrogen peroxide and peroxynitrite are the main species detected. Exogenous factors such as water temperature and salinity can influence this immune response in echinoderms. However, gender, handling stress and parasitism by a castrating ciliate apparently did not affect it. The impact of metals on ROS production differed greatly according to the duration and routes of exposure; in vitro and short-term in vivo exposures to metals caused an inhibition of this immune response, while the opposite effect was observed in a long-term in vivo exposure study. On the other hand, PCBs systematically had a stimulatory effect on ROS production independent of the echinoderm species or exposure routes. From the study of complex field contaminations, it appeared that contaminants released in the environment, such as metals, modulate starfish amoebocyte ROS production. This impact potentially represents a threat to the sustainability of natural populations of echinoderms and thereby to the stability of benthic ecosystems.

  11. Measuring exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in observational epidemiologic studies: current tools and applications and their limits123

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Ros, Raul; Touillaud, Marina; Rothwell, Joseph A; Romieu, Isabelle; Scalbert, Augustin

    2014-01-01

    Much experimental evidence supports a protective role of dietary polyphenols against chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer. However, results from observational epidemiologic studies are still limited and are often inconsistent. This is largely explained by the difficulties encountered in the estimation of exposure to the polyphenol metabolome, which is composed of ∼500 polyphenols distributed across a wide variety of foods and characterized by diverse biological properties. Exposure to the polyphenol metabolome in epidemiologic studies can be assessed by the use of detailed dietary questionnaires or the measurement of biomarkers of polyphenol intake. The questionnaire approach has been greatly facilitated by the use of new databases on polyphenol composition but is limited by bias as a result of self-reporting. The use of polyphenol biomarkers holds much promise for objective estimation of polyphenol exposure in future metabolome-wide association studies. These approaches are reviewed and their advantages and limitations discussed by using examples of epidemiologic studies on polyphenols and cancer. The current improvement in these techniques, along with greater emphasis on the intake of individual polyphenols rather than polyphenols considered collectively, will help unravel the role of these major food bioactive constituents in disease prevention. PMID:24787490

  12. Measuring Outcomes for Dysphagia: Validity and Reliability of the European Portuguese Eating Assessment Tool (P-EAT-10).

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Dália Santos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes; Reis, Elizabeth Azevedo; Lopes, Inês Sousa

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and the reliability of the European Portuguese version of the EAT-10 (P-EAT-10). This research was conducted in three phases: (i) cultural and linguistic adaptation; (ii) feasibility and reliability test; and (iii) validity tests. The final sample was formed by a cohort of 520 subjects. The P-EAT-10 index was compared for socio-demographic and clinic variables. It was also compared for both dysphagic and non-dysphagic groups as well as for the results of the 3Oz wst. Lastly, the P-EAT-10 scores were correlated with the EuroQol Group Portuguese EQ-5D index. The Cronbach's α obtained for the P-EAT-10 scale was 0.952 and it remained excellent even if any item was deleted. The item-total and the intraclass correlation coefficients were very good. The P-EAT-10 mean of the non-dysphagic cohort was 0.56 and that of the dysphagic cohort was 14.26, the mean comparison between the 3Oz wst groups and the P-EAT-10 scores were significant. A significant higher perception of QoL was also found among the non-dysphagic subjects. P-EAT-10 is a valid and reliable measure that may be used to document dysphagia which makes it useful both for screening in clinical practice and in research.

  13. Measurement of circulating concentrations of cardiac troponin I and T in healthy subjects: a tool for monitoring myocardial tissue renewal?

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Alberto; Giovannini, Stefania; Clerico, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    The increased analytical sensitivity of the new generation of methods for cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and T (cTnT) has demonstrated that measurable troponin is present in the blood of healthy adult subjects. These data are not in accordance with the prevailing opinion that any reliably detected increase in cardiac troponins should be considered abnormal and potentially caused by cardiac necrosis. The goal of the present review is to discuss the hypothesis that cardiac troponins can be released from cardiomyocytes, even in healthy adult subjects as a result of a process related to "physiological renewal" of the human myocardium and possibly enhanced by physical exercise or aging. The latest generation of high-sensitive cTnI and cTnT immunoassays are characterized by detection limits (DLs) as low as a few picograms. This clearly represents a greater increase in discrimination than that obtained by the most sophisticated cardiac imaging techniques that are commercially available at present. However, the critical question is whether high-sensitive troponin assays are clinically useful and in particular, whether some specific laboratory biomarkers (such as cTnI and cTnT) yield better diagnostic (or prognostic) accuracy and cost-effectiveness when compared with echocardiography in patients with cardiovascular disease. Only specific and well-designed clinical trials will answer this important question.

  14. Is the measurement of the isotopic composition of nitrate a good tool for tracing sources of nitrate in groundwater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebilo, Mathieu

    2014-05-01

    Isotopic biogeochemistry allows tracing of nitrogen sources in the environment. The dual approach i.e 15N and 18O approach has been used for decades to determine the origin of nitrate in surface and groundwater. The isotopic composition of fertilizers differs for example significantly from that of nitrate in atmospheric deposition and nitrate produced by nitrification. A long term study (30 years) based on the use of lysimeters and 15N labelled nitrate showed that nitrate which is not immediately taken up by plants is assimilated into the organic matter pool. This pool produces nitrate, with an isotopic signature of 'newly produced nitrate' and different from its origin (1). Based on this study, the natural stable isotopic composition of nitrate (δ18O-NO3-andδ15N-NO3-)was measured in water samples collected below the root zone or in aquifers from the Seine River basin. We compared these with the isotopic composition of nitrate from synthetic fertilizers and atmospheric deposition which represent the most significant sources of nitrogen in these systems. In addition, the δ15N of the organic matter pool in cultivated soils from this area was analyzed. The δ18O-NO3-results show clearly that nitrate issued from highly fertilized agricultural soils are freshly produced through nitrification of reduced nitrogen in the soil, instead of being directly transferred through the soil profile from applied fertilizers, indicating the major role of the soil organic matter pool. Our results thus bring new insights in the understanding of nitrogen contamination of surface and groundwater from agricultural watersheds, emphasizing the role of soil organic matter as a buffer. (1). Sebilo M., Nicolardot B., Mayer B., Pinay G. & Mariotti A. (2013). Long-term fate of nitrate fertilizer in agricultural soils. PNAS. 110 (45) : 18185-18189. doi/10.1073/pnas.1305372110.

  15. EBT2 film as a depth-dose measurement tool for radiotherapy beams over a wide range of energies and modalities

    SciTech Connect

    Arjomandy, Bijan; Tailor, Ramesh; Zhao Li; Devic, Slobodan

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: One of the fundamental parameters used for dose calculation is percentage depth-dose, generally measured employing ionization chambers. There are situations where use of ion chambers for measuring depth-doses is difficult or problematic. In such cases, radiochromic film might be an alternative. The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film was investigated as a potential tool for depth-dose measurement in radiotherapy beams over a broad range of energies and modalities. Methods: Pieces of the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC EBT2 film were exposed to x-ray, electron, and proton beams used in radiotherapy. The beams employed for this study included kilovoltage x-rays (75 kVp), {sup 60}Co gamma-rays, megavoltage x-rays (18 MV), electrons (7 and 20 MeV), and pristine Bragg-peak proton beams (126 and 152 MeV). At each beam quality, film response was measured over the dose range of 0.4-8.0 Gy, which corresponds to optical densities ranging from 0.05 to 0.4 measured with a flat-bed document scanner. To assess precision in depth-dose measurements with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film, uncertainty in measured optical density was investigated with respect to variation in film-to-film and scanner-bed uniformity. Results: For most beams, percentage depth-doses measured with the EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film show an excellent agreement with those measured with ion chambers. Some discrepancies are observed in case of (i) kilovoltage x-rays at larger depths due to beam-hardening, and (ii) proton beams around Bragg-peak due to quenching effects. For these beams, an empirical polynomial correction produces better agreement with ion-chamber data. Conclusions: The EBT-2 model GAFCHROMIC film is an excellent secondary dosimeter for measurement of percentage depth-doses for a broad range of beam qualities and modalities used in radiotherapy. It offers an easy and efficient way to measure beam depth-dose data with a high spatial resolution.

  16. New sonographic measures of peripheral nerves: a tool for the diagnosis of peripheral nerve involvement in leprosy

    PubMed Central

    Frade, Marco Andrey Cipriani; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Lugão, Helena Barbosa; Furini, Renata Bazan; Marques, Wilson; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate ultrasonographic (US) cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of peripheral nerves, indexes of the differences between CSAs at the same point (∆CSAs) and between tunnel (T) and pre-tunnel (PT) ulnar CSAs (∆TPTs) in leprosy patients (LPs) and healthy volunteers (HVs). Seventy-seven LPs and 49 HVs underwent bilateral US at PT and T ulnar points, as well as along the median (M) and common fibular (CF) nerves, to calculate the CSAs, ∆CSAs and ∆TPTs. The CSA values in HVs were lower than those in LPs (p < 0.0001) at the PT (5.67/9.78 mm2) and T (6.50/10.94 mm2) points, as well as at the M (5.85/8.48 mm2) and CF (8.17/14.14 mm2) nerves. The optimum CSA- receiver operating characteristic (ROC) points and sensitivities/specificities were, respectively, 6.85 mm2 and 68-85% for the PT point, 7.35 mm2 and 71-78% for the T point, 6.75 mm2 and 62-75% for the M nerve and 9.55 mm2 and 81-72% for the CF nerve. The ∆CSAs of the LPs were greater than those of the HVs at the PT point (4.02/0.85; p = 0.007), T point (3.71/0.98; p = 0.0005) and CF nerve (2.93/1.14; p = 0.015), with no difference found for the M nerve (1.41/0.95; p = 0.17). The optimum ∆CSA-ROC points, sensitivities, specificities and p-values were, respectively, 1.35, 49%, 80% and 0.003 at the PT point, 1.55, 55-85% and 0.0006 at the T point, 0.70, 58-50% and 0.73 for the M nerve and 1.25, 54-67% and 0.022 for the CF nerve. The ∆TPT in the LPs was greater than that in the HVs (4.43/1.44; p <0.0001). The optimum ∆TPT-ROC point was 2.65 (90% sensitivity/41% specificity, p < 0.0001). The ROC analysis of CSAs showed the highest specificity and sensitivity at the PT point and CF nerve, respectively. The PT and T ∆CSAs had high specificities (> 80%) and ∆TPT had the highest specificity (> 90%). New sonographic peripheral nerve measurements (∆CSAs and ∆TPT) provide an important methodological improvement in the detection of leprosy neuropathy. PMID:23778664

  17. A Review and Analysis of Remote Sensing Capability for Air Quality Measurements as a Potential Decision Support Tool Conducted by the NASA DEVELOP Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, A.; Richards, A.; Keith, K.; Frew, C.; Boseck, J.; Sutton, S.; Watts, C.; Rickman, D.

    2007-01-01

    This project focused on a comprehensive utilization of air quality model products as decision support tools (DST) needed for public health applications. A review of past and future air quality measurement methods and their uncertainty, along with the relationship of air quality to national and global public health, is vital. This project described current and future NASA satellite remote sensing and ground sensing capabilities and the potential for using these sensors to enhance the prediction, prevention, and control of public health effects that result from poor air quality. The qualitative uncertainty of current satellite remotely sensed air quality, the ground-based remotely sensed air quality, the air quality/public health model, and the decision making process is evaluated in this study. Current peer-reviewed literature suggests that remotely sensed air quality parameters correlate well with ground-based sensor data. A satellite remote-sensed and ground-sensed data complement is needed to enhance the models/tools used by policy makers for the protection of national and global public health communities

  18. Measuring sustainability as a programming tool for health sector investments: report from a pilot sustainability assessment in five Nepalese health districts.

    PubMed

    Sarriot, Eric; Ricca, Jim; Ryan, Leo; Basnet, Jagat; Arscott-Mills, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is a critical determinant of scale and impact of health sector development assistance programs. Working with USAID/Nepal implementing partners, we adapted a sustainability assessment framework to help USAID test how an evaluation tool could inform its health portfolio management. The essential first process step was to define the boundaries of the local system being examined. This local system-the unit of analysis of the study-was defined as the health district.We developed a standardized set of assessment tools to measure 53 indicators. Data collection was carried out over 4 weeks by a Nepalese agency. Scaling and combining indicators into six component indices provided a map of progress toward sustainable maternal, child, health, and family planning results for the five districts included in this pilot study, ranked from "no sustainability" to "beginning of sustainability."We conclude that systematic application of the Sustainability Framework could improve the health sector investment decisions of development agencies. It could also give districts an information base on which to build autonomy and accountability. The ability to form and test hypotheses about the sustainability of outcomes under various funding strategies-made possible by this approach-will be a prerequisite for more efficiently meeting the global health agenda. PMID:19946943

  19. Measuring sustainability as a programming tool for health sector investments: report from a pilot sustainability assessment in five Nepalese health districts.

    PubMed

    Sarriot, Eric; Ricca, Jim; Ryan, Leo; Basnet, Jagat; Arscott-Mills, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Sustainability is a critical determinant of scale and impact of health sector development assistance programs. Working with USAID/Nepal implementing partners, we adapted a sustainability assessment framework to help USAID test how an evaluation tool could inform its health portfolio management. The essential first process step was to define the boundaries of the local system being examined. This local system-the unit of analysis of the study-was defined as the health district.We developed a standardized set of assessment tools to measure 53 indicators. Data collection was carried out over 4 weeks by a Nepalese agency. Scaling and combining indicators into six component indices provided a map of progress toward sustainable maternal, child, health, and family planning results for the five districts included in this pilot study, ranked from "no sustainability" to "beginning of sustainability."We conclude that systematic application of the Sustainability Framework could improve the health sector investment decisions of development agencies. It could also give districts an information base on which to build autonomy and accountability. The ability to form and test hypotheses about the sustainability of outcomes under various funding strategies-made possible by this approach-will be a prerequisite for more efficiently meeting the global health agenda.

  20. Percussion tool

    DOEpatents

    Reed, Teddy R.

    2006-11-28

    A percussion tool is described and which includes a housing mounting a tool bit; a reciprocally moveable hammer borne by the housing and which is operable to repeatedly strike the tool bit; and a reciprocally moveable piston enclosed within the hammer and which imparts reciprocal movement to the reciprocally moveable hammer.

  1. FORTRAN tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Presser, L.

    1978-01-01

    An integrated set of FORTRAN tools that are commercially available is described. The basic purpose of various tools is summarized and their economic impact highlighted. The areas addressed by these tools include: code auditing, error detection, program portability, program instrumentation, documentation, clerical aids, and quality assurance.

  2. Biocheck.UGent: a quantitative tool to measure biosecurity at broiler farms and the relationship with technical performances and antimicrobial use.

    PubMed

    Gelaude, P; Schlepers, M; Verlinden, M; Laanen, M; Dewulf, J

    2014-11-01

    The Biocheck.UGent scoring system has been developed to measure and quantify the level of biosecurity on broiler farms. This tool is composed of all relevant components of biosecurity on broiler farms and is subdivided into external (purchase of 1-d-old chicks, off-farm movements of live animals, feed and water supply, removal of manure and dead birds, entrance of visitors and personnel, supply of materials, infrastructure and biological vectors, location of the farm) and internal (disease management, cleaning and disinfection, materials, and measures between compartments) biosecurity. The unique feature of this scoring system is that it takes the relative importance of the different biosecurity aspects into account, resulting in a risk-based weighted score. The Biocheck.UGent scoring system and accompanying questionnaire can be filled in for free at www.Biocheck.UGent.be. The obtained biosecurity scores are provided immediately after completion of the questionnaire, and the scores for each subcategory can be compared with national averages to allow the farmer to benchmark the obtained results to his colleagues. Preliminary results (n = 15) show a huge range in the biosecurity level on broilers farms in Belgium, with internal biosecurity scores ranging from 54/100 to 87/100 and external biosecurity scores ranging from 55/100 to 72/100. These first results show that despite the well-known importance of biosecurity, there's a lack of implementation of many biosecurity measures and room for improvement.

  3. Training Traditional Birth Attendants on the Use of Misoprostol and a Blood Measurement Tool to Prevent Postpartum Haemorrhage: Lessons Learnt from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D.; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-01-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs’ important role in the community and in home deliveries and

  4. Training traditional birth attendants on the use of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool to prevent postpartum haemorrhage: lessons learnt from Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bell, Suzanne; Passano, Paige; Bohl, Daniel D; Islam, Arshadul; Prata, Ndola

    2014-03-01

    A consensus emerged in the late 1990s among leaders in global maternal health that traditional birth attendants (TBAs) should no longer be trained in delivery skills and should instead be trained as promoters of facility-based care. Many TBAs continue to be trained in places where home deliveries are the norm and the potential impacts of this training are important to understand. The primary objective of this study was to gain a more nuanced understanding of the full impact of training TBAs to use misoprostol and a blood measurement tool (mat) for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) at home deliveries through the perspective of those involved in the project. This qualitative study, conducted between July 2009 and July 2010 in Bangladesh, was nested within larger operations research, testing the feasibility and acceptability of scaling up community-based provision of misoprostol and a blood measurement tool for prevention of PPH. A total of 87 in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with TBAs, community health workers (CHWs), managers, and government-employed family welfare visitors (FWVs) at three time points during the study. Computer-assisted thematic data analysis was conducted using ATLAS.ti (version 5.2). Four primary themes emerged during the data analysis, which all highlight changes that occurred following the training. The first theme describes the perceived direct changes linked to the two new interventions. The following three themes describe the indirect changes that interviewees perceived: strengthened linkages between TBAs and the formal healthcare system; strengthened linkages between TBAs and the communities they serve; and improved quality of services/service utilization. The data indicate that training TBAs and CHW supervisors resulted in perceived broader and more nuanced changes than simply improvements in TBAs' knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Acknowledgeing TBAs' important role in the community and in home deliveries and

  5. The Brain Metastases Symptom Checklist as a novel tool for symptom measurement in patients with brain metastases undergoing whole-brain radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Rodin, D.; Banihashemi, B.; Wang, L.; Lau, A.; Harris, S.; Levin, W.; Dinniwell, R.; Millar, B.A.; Chung, C.; Laperriere, N.; Bezjak, A.; Wong, R.K.S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the feasibility, reliability, and validity of the Brain Metastases Symptom Checklist (bmsc), a novel self-report measure of common symptoms experienced by patients with brain metastases. Methods Patients with first-presentation symptomatic brain metastases (n = 137) referred for whole-brain radiotherapy (wbrt) completed the bmsc at time points before and after treatment. Their caregivers (n = 48) provided proxy ratings twice on the day of consultation to assess reliability, and at week 4 after wbrt to assess responsiveness to change. Correlations with 4 other validated assessment tools were evaluated. Results The symptoms reported on the bmsc were largely mild to moderate, with tiredness (71%) and difficulties with balance (61%) reported most commonly at baseline. Test–retest reliability for individual symptoms had a median intraclass correlation of 0.59 (range: 0.23–0.85). Caregiver proxy and patient responses had a median intraclass correlation of 0.52. Correlation of absolute scores on the bmsc and other symptom assessment tools was low, but consistency in the direction of symptom change was observed. At week 4, change in symptoms was variable, with improvements in weight gain and sleep of 42% and 41% respectively, and worsening of tiredness and drowsiness of 62% and 59% respectively. Conclusions The bmsc captures a wide range of symptoms experienced by patients with brain metastases, and it is sensitive to change. It demonstrated adequate test–retest reliability and face validity in terms of its responsiveness to change. Future research is needed to determine whether modifications to the bmsc itself or correlation with more symptom-specific measures will enhance validity. PMID:27330360

  6. LensTools: Weak Lensing computing tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petri, A.

    2016-02-01

    LensTools implements a wide range of routines frequently used in Weak Gravitational Lensing, including tools for image analysis, statistical processing and numerical theory predictions. The package offers many useful features, including complete flexibility and easy customization of input/output formats; efficient measurements of power spectrum, PDF, Minkowski functionals and peak counts of convergence maps; survey masks; artificial noise generation engines; easy to compute parameter statistical inferences; ray tracing simulations; and many others. It requires standard numpy and scipy, and depending on tools used, may require Astropy (ascl:1304.002), emcee (ascl:1303.002), matplotlib, and mpi4py.

  7. Dissect Kif5b in nuclear positioning during myogenesis: The light chain binding domain and the autoinhibitory peptide are both indispensable

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zai; Xue, Wenqian; Li, Xiuling; Lin, Raozhou; Cui, Ju; Huang, Jian-Dong

    2013-03-08

    Highlights: ► Kif5b localizes at myonuclear membrane and is responsible for nuclear dispersion. ► Kif5b stalk/tail domain contains signal for nuclear membrane targeting. ► Kif5b stalk/tail domain directly binds to a nesprin 4 in vitro. ► KLC binding domain and autoinhibitory peptide are both functionally indispensable. -- Abstract: The microtubule motor kinesin-1 is responsible for the nuclear positioning during myogenesis. Here we show that the coiled-coil stalk/tail domain containing the kinesin light chain (KLC) binding sites targets to the perinuclear region like endogenous Kif5b, while the globular tail domain cannot. To investigate which fragments of kinesin heavy chain (Kif5b) is responsible for the myonuclear positioning, we transfect Kif5b expression constructs into Kif5b deficient myoblasts and test their ability to rescue the myonuclear phenotype. We find that the KLC binding domain and the autoinhibitory peptide in the globular tail region are both indispensable for the nuclear membrane localization of Kif5b and the kinesin-1-mediated myonuclear positioning. These results suggest that while the KLC binding domain may directly targets Kif5b to the myonuclear membrane, the autoinhibitory peptide may play an indirect role in regulating the kinesin-1-mediated myonuclear positioning.

  8. Mas5, a homologue of bacterial DnaJ, is indispensable for the host infection and environmental adaptation of a filamentous fungal insect pathogen.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Hu, Yue; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Mas5, a yeast heat shock protein classified to the Hsp40 group, is homologous to bacterial archetype DnaJ but functionally unexplored in filamentous fungi. Here we identify a Mas5 homologue (46.86 kDa) in Beauveria bassiana and show its indispensability for host infection and environmental adaptation of the fungal insect pathogen. The deletion of mas5 caused severe defects in aerial conidiation, conidial germination and submerged blastospore production (mimic to host haemocoel). The deletion mutant lost 100% virulence to Galleria mellonella larvae through normal cuticular penetration (topical inoculation) and 50% through cuticle-bypassing infection (intrahaemocoel injection). It formed no blastospore in vivo after inoculation or only a very few after injection. Its extracellular (cuticle degrading) enzymes and virulence-relating Pr1 proteases were 62% and 32% less active respectively. It became more sensitive to high osmolarity, oxidation, cell-wall perturbation, heat shock and UV-B irradiation. These concurred with reduced contents of intracellular mannitol and trehalose, decreased activities of antioxidant enzymes, impaired cell walls and suppressed transcripts of stress-responsive and virulence-relating genes. All the changes were restored by targeted mas5 complementation. All together, Mas5 is indispensable for the in vitro and in vivo life cycle of B. bassiana by targeting many sets of enzymes/proteins at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels.

  9. Benchmarking Tool Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Health Libraries Association.

    Nine Canadian health libraries participated in a pilot test of the Benchmarking Tool Kit between January and April, 1998. Although the Tool Kit was designed specifically for health libraries, the content and approach are useful to other types of libraries as well. Used to its full potential, benchmarking can provide a common measuring stick to…

  10. English Digital Dictionaries as Valuable Blended Learning Tools for Palestinian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dwaik, Raghad A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Digital technology has become an indispensable aspect of foreign language learning around the globe especially in the case of college students who are often required to finish extensive reading assignments within a limited time period. Such pressure calls for the use of efficient tools such as digital dictionaries to help them achieve their…

  11. ATM protein is indispensable to repair complex-type DNA double strand breaks induced by high LET heavy ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Emiko; Yu, Dong; Fujimori, Akira; Anzai, Kazunori; Okayasu, Ryuichi

    ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated) protein responsible for a rare genetic disease with hyperradiosensitivity, is the one of the earliest repair proteins sensing DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). ATM is known to phosphorylate DNA repair proteins such as MRN complex (Mre11, Rad50 and NBS1), 53BP1, Artemis, Brca1, gamma-H2AX, and MDC. We studied the interactions between ATM and DNA-PKcs, a crucial NHEJ repair protein, after cells exposure to high and low LET irradiation. Normal human (HFL III, MRC5VA) and AT homozygote (AT2KY, AT5BIVA, AT3BIVA) cells were irradiated with X-rays and high LET radiation (carbon ions: 290MeV/n initial energy at 70 keV/um, and iron ions: 500MeV/n initial energy at 200KeV/um), and several critical end points were examined. AT cells with high LET irradiation showed a significantly higher radiosensitivity when compared with normal cells. The behavior of DNA DSB repair was monitored by immuno-fluorescence techniques using DNA-PKcs (pThr2609, pSer2056) and ATM (pSer1981) antibodies. In normal cells, the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs was clearly detected after high LET irradiation, though the peak of phosphorylation was delayed when compared to X-irradiation. In contrast, almost no DNA-PKcs phosphorylation foci were detected in AT cells irradiated with high LET radiation. A similar result was also observed in normal cells treated with 10 uM ATM kinase specific inhibitor (KU55933) one hour before irradiation. These data suggest that the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with low LET X-rays is mostly ATM-independent, and the phosphorylation of DNA-PKcs with high LET radiation seems to require ATM probably due to its complex nature of DSB induced. Our study indicates that high LET heavy ion irradiation which we can observe in the space environment would provide a useful tool to study the fundamental mechanism associated with DNA DSB repair.

  12. Toward robust deconvolution of pass-through paleomagnetic measurements: new tool to estimate magnetometer sensor response and laser interferometry of sample positioning accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oda, Hirokuni; Xuan, Chuang; Yamamoto, Yuhji

    2016-07-01

    Pass-through superconducting rock magnetometers (SRM) offer rapid and high-precision remanence measurements for continuous samples that are essential for modern paleomagnetism studies. However, continuous SRM measurements are inevitably smoothed and distorted due to the convolution effect of SRM sensor response. Deconvolution is necessary to restore accurate magnetization from pass-through SRM data, and robust deconvolution requires reliable estimate of SRM sensor response as well as understanding of uncertainties associated with the SRM measurement system. In this paper, we use the SRM at Kochi Core Center (KCC), Japan, as an example to introduce new tool and procedure for accurate and efficient estimate of SRM sensor response. To quantify uncertainties associated with the SRM measurement due to track positioning errors and test their effects on deconvolution, we employed laser interferometry for precise monitoring of track positions both with and without placing a u-channel sample on the SRM tray. The acquired KCC SRM sensor response shows significant cross-term of Z-axis magnetization on the X-axis pick-up coil and full widths of ~46-54 mm at half-maximum response for the three pick-up coils, which are significantly narrower than those (~73-80 mm) for the liquid He-free SRM at Oregon State University. Laser interferometry measurements on the KCC SRM tracking system indicate positioning uncertainties of ~0.1-0.2 and ~0.5 mm for tracking with and without u-channel sample on the tray, respectively. Positioning errors appear to have reproducible components of up to ~0.5 mm possibly due to patterns or damages on tray surface or rope used for the tracking system. Deconvolution of 50,000 simulated measurement data with realistic error introduced based on the position uncertainties indicates that although the SRM tracking system has recognizable positioning uncertainties, they do not significantly debilitate the use of deconvolution to accurately restore high

  13. ATAMM analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert; Stoughton, John; Mielke, Roland

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostics software for analyzing Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) based concurrent processing systems is presented. ATAMM is capable of modeling the execution of large grain algorithms on distributed data flow architectures. The tool graphically displays algorithm activities and processor activities for evaluation of the behavior and performance of an ATAMM based system. The tool's measurement capabilities indicate computing speed, throughput, concurrency, resource utilization, and overhead. Evaluations are performed on a simulated system using the software tool. The tool is used to estimate theoretical lower bound performance. Analysis results are shown to be comparable to the predictions.

  14. Tube flare inspection tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meunier, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    Flare angle and symmetry of tube ends can be checked by simple tool that consists of two stainless steel pins bonded to rubber plug. Primary function of tool is to inspect tubes before they are installed, thereby eliminating expense and inconvenience of repairing leaks caused by imperfect flares. Measuring hole tapers, countersink angles, and bearing race angles are other possible uses. Tool is used with optical comparator. Axis of tool is alined with centerline of tube. Shadow of seated pins on comparator screen allows operator to verify flare angle is within tolerance.

  15. Automatic measurement of bankfull widths from high resolution LiDAR DTMs: a new tool to analyze the link between hydraulic and morphological variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo; Cazorzi, Federico; Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo

    2013-04-01

    The study of the morphological characteristics of rivers and of their degree morphological alterations is a basis for a proper management of mountain watershed, and the availability of detailed topographic data is a key tool. Channel geometry and stream flow are interrelated and mutually interact with each other to create the morphology of a river system, and the dimensions of the bankfull channel. However, determining bankfull is not often a simple exercise particularly where the channel or watershed have been modified or the channel is unstable. The evaluation of channel geometry variability determined by hydrodynamic and geomorphological processes is usually reached through field surveys, or through visual interpretations of digital orthophotos. However these two approaches are challenged respectively by the inaccessibility of the areas under analysis, and by time and financial constraints, and by an unsufficient accuracy. It is therefore strategic to adopt new and more accurate methods to estimate channel geometries, based on the availability of high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), such as the one derived from airborne laser scanner (LiDAR). In mountain areas many studies have explored the potential of LiDAR DTMs for the proper characterization of the network and the objective of this study is to highlight their potential in the automatic determination of values representative of bankfull widths. The analysis is based on a topographic index (Elevation Percentile - EP) used to measure the variability of the elevation: channelized areas have EP values greater than convex areas. Values of EP are read along cross sections perpendicular to the thalweg, and by applying a statistical threshold to the EP it is possible to obtain the potential channel width at each point of the network. The geometries derived from this map are approximated due to the resolution of the DTM, but they show a good agreement with those detected in the field, with low values of RMSE

  16. Selected methods of measuring workload among intensive care nursing staff.

    PubMed

    Kwiecień, Katarzyna; Wujtewicz, Maria; Mędrzycka-Dąbrowska, Wioletta

    2012-06-01

    Intensive care units and well-qualified medical staff are indispensable for the proper functioning of every hospital facility. Due to demographic changes and technological progress having extended the average life expectancy, the number of patients hospitalized in intensive care units increases every year [9,10]. Global shortages of nursing staff (including changes in their age structure) have triggered a debate on the working environment and workload the nursing staff are exposed to while performing their duties. This paper provides a critical review of selected methods for the measurement of the workload of intensive care nurses and points out their practical uses. The paper reviews Polish and foreign literature on workload and the measurement tools used to evaluate workload indicators.

  17. Assessment of Quality of Life as a Tool for Measuring Morbidity Due to Schistosoma mansoni Infection and the Impact of Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kimberly Y.; Abudho, Bernard; Blackstock, Anna J.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Kennedy, Erin D.; Person, Bobbie; Mwinzi, Pauline N. M.; Ochola, Elizabeth A.; Foo, Karen T.; Hightower, Allen W.; Karanja, Diana M. S.; Secor, W. Evan

    2014-01-01

    Recently, health measurements have broadened to include the assessment of quality of life (QOL). This study was conducted to assess whether the short form of the World Health Organization (WHO) QOL questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was an effective tool for measuring morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni infection and whether it could detect an impact of treatment with praziquantel. A total of 724 adults 18–85 years of age were enrolled. At baseline, S. mansoni prevalence was 73.2% by stool examination and 75.4% by circulating cathodic antigen, and there was no association between infection status and WHOQOL-BREF scores. Six months after treatment, S. mansoni prevalence was lower and the proportion of persons with higher WHOQOL-BREF scores significantly increased among persons who were infected at baseline. However, a similar increase was observed in persons not infected at baseline. In areas of high prevalence, the WHOQOL-BREF may not be able to detect the benefits of schistosomiasis control programs. PMID:24323511

  18. Quantitative assessment of ratiometric bimolecular beacons as a tool for imaging single engineered RNA transcripts and measuring gene expression in living cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Song, Yang; Shah, Akash Y; Lekova, Virzhiniya; Raj, Arjun; Huang, Ling; Behlke, Mark A; Tsourkas, Andrew

    2013-08-01

    Recently, we developed an oligonucleotide-based probe, ratiometric bimolecular beacon (RBMB), which generates a detectable fluorescent signal in living cells that express the target RNA. Here, we show that RBMBs can also be used to image single RNA transcripts in living cells, when the target RNA is engineered to contain as few as four hybridization sites. Moreover, comparison with single-molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that RBMBs could be used to accurately quantify the number of RNA transcripts within individual cells. Measurements of gene expression could be acquired within 30 min and using a wide range of RBMB concentrations. The ability to acquire accurate measurements of RNA copy number in both HT-1080 cells and CHO cells also suggests that RBMBs can be used to image and quantify single RNA transcripts in a wide range of cell lines. Overall, these findings highlight the robustness and versatility of RBMBs as a tool for imaging RNA in live cells. We envision that the unique capabilities of RBMBs will open up new avenues for RNA research.

  19. Guidance on determining indispensability and balancing potential benefits of animal experiments with costs to the animals with specific consideration of EU directive 2010/63/EU.

    PubMed

    Lindl, Toni; Gross, Ulrike; Ruhdel, Irmela; von Aulock, Sonja; Völkel, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    Within the context of a workshop, a concept and practical guidance were developed that seek to balance potential benefits of animal experiments to humans, other animals, and the environment against the pain, suffering, and distress caused to the experimental animals. The aim was to achieve transparent decisions that can be communicated in a concise manner that is accessible to a layperson and is in accordance with German national law and EU Directive 2010/63/EU. The steps of the resulting decision process deal with the classification of procedures into the four severity levels, the consideration of humane endpoints, determination of the indispensability of the procedure on the basis of sound scientific argument, classification into applied or basic research, determination of the probability of success in the case of applied research, and the cost-benefit analysis, culminating in a decision on the approval or denial of the procedure.

  20. GRIPPING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, R.J.

    1961-12-12

    A self-actuated gripping tool is described for transferring fuel elements and the like into reactors and other inaccessible locations. The tool will grasp or release the load only when properly positioned for this purpose. In addition, the load cannot be released except when unsupported by the tool, so that jarring or contact will not bring about accidental release of the load. The gripping members or jaws of the device are cam-actuated by an axially slidable shaft which has two lockable positions. A spring urges the shaft into one position and a solenoid is provided to overcome the spring and move it into the other position. The weight of the tool operates a sleeve to lock the shaft in its existing position. Only when the cable supporting the tool is slack is the device capable of being actuated either to grasp or release its load. (AEC)