Science.gov

Sample records for meat science association

  1. Meat Science Made Practical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Marjorie P.

    1973-01-01

    A group of Extension specialists at Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, adapted meat science courses for the particular needs of meat packing middle management, home economists, and families. Participant involvement in choosing the topics, timing, format, and scheduling contributed to the success of the program. (AG)

  2. Association Between Meat and Meat-Alternative Consumption and Iron Stores in Early Childhood.

    PubMed

    Cox, Kelly Anne; Parkin, Patricia C; Anderson, Laura N; Chen, Yang; Birken, Catherine S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Macarthur, Colin; Borkhoff, Cornelia M

    To prevent iron deficiency, 2014 Canadian recommendations for healthy term infants from 6 to 24 months recommend iron-rich complementary foods such as meat and meat alternatives 2 or more times a day. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between meat and meat-alternative consumption and iron status in young children and the association between red meat consumption and iron status among children meeting recommendations. Healthy children aged 12 to 36 months were recruited. A cross-sectional study was conducted. Meat and meat-alternative consumption was measured using the NutriSTEP questionnaire. Adjusted multivariable regression analyses were used to evaluate an association between meat consumption and serum ferritin, and iron deficiency (serum ferritin <14 μg/L). A total of 1043 children were included. Seventy-three percent of children met the recommended daily intake of meat and meat alternatives, and 66% ate red meat in the past 3 days. Eating meat and meat alternatives was not associated with serum ferritin (0.13 μg/L, 95% confidence interval -0.05, 0.31, P = .16), but it was associated with a decreased odds of iron deficiency (odds ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.94, 0.99, P = .03). Associations between red meat consumption and iron status were not statistically significant. Statistically significant covariates associated with increased odds of iron deficiency included longer breast-feeding duration, daily cow's milk intake of >2 cups, and a higher body mass index z score. Daily cow's milk intake of >2 cups, longer breast-feeding duration, and a higher body mass index z score were modifiable risk factors associated with iron deficiency. Eating meat according to recommendations may be a promising additional target for the prevention of iron deficiency in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Meat science from 1976: A history of the journal.

    PubMed

    Ledward, D A; Hopkins, D L

    2017-10-01

    The journal Meat Science was first published in 1976/77 and it initially comprised 4 issues per year. The first issue contained 4 papers and the first volume (4 issues) contained 27 articles, a mixture of papers and research notes. Its growth/popularity increased, and it has continued to thrive and in 2016 of the 1010 papers processed 292 were accepted. Over 90% of the papers published in the first volume were concerned with muscle biochemistry/meat properties. During the last years of the 20th century, meat products and their properties became a far larger proportion of the submissions as did those concerned with nutrition and safety. More recently there has been a resurgence of papers concerned with meat quality. Over the last 40years, the journal has reported on the major developments in meat science research and this paper will discuss both the history of the journal, and aspects of meat research as reflected in its publications. Possible future research trends are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    PubMed Central

    Bi, P.; Kuang, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stem cell niche plays a critical role in regulating the behavior and function of adult stem cells that underlie tissue growth, maintenance, and regeneration. In the skeletal muscle, stem cells, called satellite cells, contribute to postnatal muscle growth and hypertrophy, and thus, meat production in agricultural animals. Satellite cells are located adjacent to mature muscle fibers underneath a sheath of basal lamina. Microenvironmental signals from extracellular matrix mediated by the basal lamina and from the host myofiber both impinge on satellite cells to regulate their activity. Furthermore, several types of muscle interstitial cells, including intramuscular preadipocytes and connective tissue fibroblasts, have recently been shown to interact with satellite cells and actively regulate the growth and regeneration of postnatal skeletal muscles. From this regard, interstitial adipogenic cells are not only important for marbling and meat quality, but also represent an additional cellular component of the satellite cell niche. At the molecular level, these interstitial cells may interact with satellite cells through cell surface ligands, such as delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1) protein whose overexpression is thought to be responsible for muscle hypertrophy in callipyge sheep. In fact, extracellular Dlk1 protein has been shown to promote the myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms within the stem cell niche that regulate satellite cell differentiation and maintain muscle homeostasis may lead to promising approaches to optimizing muscle growth and composition, thus improving meat production and quality. PMID:22100594

  5. ASAS Centennial paper: a century of pioneers and progress in meat science in the United States leads to new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Beermann, D H

    2009-03-01

    Discoveries, understanding, and innovations in meat science during the last century have led to revolutionary changes in meat and poultry production, processing, marketing, and consumption. American Society of Animal Science members have made key contributions in most, if not all, categories of advancement. The first US university meat science program was begun in Minnesota in 1905. Use of mechanical refrigeration in the meatpacking industry, improved transportation and packaging, and home refrigeration provided more flexibility, variety, and consistency in meat and meat products in the early 1900s. Cooperative meat research was begun by 27 universities in 1925, with a focus on the observational characterization of carcass traits and composition, meat quality attributes, and causes of the wide variation in these variables. Scientific study of genetic, nutritional, and environmental influences on the growth, physiology, and postmortem biochemistry of muscle often used muscle-comparative investigations. Rigor mortis, cold shortening and thaw rigor, postmortem muscle metabolism, postmortem tenderization and tenderness variation, and postmortem myoglobin and lipid oxidation were studied vigorously in the 1960s and beyond, defining the biochemical bases for associated outcomes in fresh and processed products. Value-added benefits resulted from implementation of electrical stimulation, boxed beef and modified-atmosphere packaging, restructuring technologies, collagen recovery, and muscle profiling work. Isolation, purification, and definition of the primary structure and biophysical properties of the myofribillar and cytoskeletal proteins in muscle aided the understanding of contraction and postmortem changes. The role of Ca-dependent proteases in meat tenderness and muscle growth is being clarified. The chemistry of meat curing, meat emulsion formation, fermentation, and other processing methods led to new technologies, new meat products, and new benchmarks in product

  6. Meat science: From proteomics to integrated omics towards system biology.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Angelo; Zolla, Lello

    2013-01-14

    Since the main ultimate goal of farm animal raising is the production of proteins for human consumption, research tools to investigate proteins play a major role in farm animal and meat science. Indeed, proteomics has been applied to the field of farm animal science to monitor in vivo performances of livestock animals (growth performances, fertility, milk quality etc.), but also to further our understanding of the molecular processes at the basis of meat quality, which are largely dependent on the post mortem biochemistry of the muscle, often in a species-specific way. Post mortem alterations to the muscle proteome reflect the biological complexity of the process of "muscle to meat conversion," a process that, despite decades of advancements, is all but fully understood. This is mainly due to the enormous amounts of variables affecting meat tenderness per se, including biological factors, such as animal species, breed specific-characteristic, muscle under investigation. However, it is rapidly emerging that the tender meat phenotype is not only tied to genetics (livestock breeding selection), but also to extrinsic factors, such as the rearing environment, feeding conditions, physical activity, administration of hormonal growth promotants, pre-slaughter handling and stress, post mortem handling. From this intricate scenario, biochemical approaches and systems-wide integrated investigations (metabolomics, transcriptomics, interactomics, phosphoproteomics, mathematical modeling), which have emerged as complementary tools to proteomics, have helped establishing a few milestones in our understanding of the events leading from muscle to meat conversion. The growing integration of omics disciplines in the field of systems biology will soon contribute to take further steps forward. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Meat science and muscle biology symposium: In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium titled “In utero factors that influence postnatal muscle growth, carcass composition, and meat quality” was held at the Joint Annual Meeting in Phoenix, AZ, July 15 to 19, 2012. The goal of this symposium was to highlight research on the impact of fetal...

  8. Understanding consumers' perception of lamb meat using free word association.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Juliana Cunha; de Aguiar Sobral, Louise; Ares, Gastón; Deliza, Rosires

    2016-07-01

    The aims of the present study were to gather information about Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat and to study whether the perception is affected by the consumption frequency of this type of meat. A total of 1025 Brazilian consumers completed word association task with lamb meat. The elicited words were analyzed using inductive coding. Participants' associations with lamb meat were mainly related to sensory characteristics and hedonic attitudes and feelings, indicating that they might be the main motivations for consuming this product. Participants strongly associated lamb meat with special consumption occasions, which suggests that lack of perceived appropriateness for everyday consumption situations might be a barrier for increasing lamb meat consumption. Conceptualization of lamb meat was strongly affected by frequency of consumption of this product. Results from the present work provide a comprehensive insight on Brazilian consumers' perception of lamb meat, which can be used to develop strategies to increase its consumption and improve profitability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meat consumption is associated with esophageal cancer risk in a meat- and cancer-histological-type dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong-Cheng; Yang, Xi; Xu, Li-Ping; Zhao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Guang-Zhou; Zhang, Chi; Qin, Qin; Cai, Jing; Ma, Jian-Xin; Mao, Wei-Dong; Zhang, Xi-Zhi; Cheng, Hong-Yan; Sun, Xin-Chen

    2014-03-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of meat intake and esophageal cancer risk, with subgroup analyses based on meat type and histological type of cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between meat intake and risk of esophageal cancer. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library (April 2013) for cohort and case-control studies that assessed meat intake and esophageal cancer risk. Random-effect or fixed-effect models were used to pool relative risks (RRs) from individual studies with heterogeneity and publication bias analyses carried out. Seven cohort and 28 case-control studies were included. The summary RRs for esophageal cancer for the highest versus lowest consumption categories were 1.19 (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.98-1.46) for total meat, 1.55 (95 % CI 1.22-1.96) for red meat, 1.33 (95 % CI 1.04-1.69) for processed meat, 0.72 (95 % CI 0.60-0.86) for white meat, 0.83 (95 % CI 0.72-0.96) for poultry, and 0.95 (95 % CI 0.76-1.19) for fish. When striated by histological subtype, positive associations were seen among esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and red meat, white meat and poultry, and esophageal adenocarcinoma with total meat and processed meat. Meat consumption is associated with esophageal cancer risk, which depends on meat type and histological type of esophageal cancer. High intake of red meat and low intake of poultry are associated with an increased risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. High meat intake, especially processed meat, is likely to increase esophageal adenocarcinoma risk. And fish consumption may not be associated with incidence of esophageal cancer.

  10. Association Between Consumption of Red and Processed Meat and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Yin, Zifang; Pu, Zhongshu; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2017-04-01

    The relationship between consumption of red and processed meat and pancreatic cancer risk is inconclusive. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze this relationship. We performed a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science to identify studies that examined associations between consumption of different kinds of meat with pancreatic cancer and were published through February 2016. By using data from these articles, we associated level of consumption with cancer risk and performed subgroup, meta-regression, and publication bias analyses. We collected and analyzed data from a total of 28 studies that involved 3,143,777 participants (11,325 consumers of red meat) and 2,904,866 participants (9955 consumers of processed meat). We observed statistically significant differences between consumers and non-consumers of these meats in case-control studies (red meat, P = .02; processed meat, P < .01) but not in cohort studies (red meat, P = .09; processed meat, P = .18). In cohort studies, a 100 g/day increase in red meat consumption was associated with significant increase in risk of pancreatic cancer (P = .01); a 50 g/day increase in processed meat consumption was not associated with significant increase in risk of pancreatic cancer (P = .90). In cohort studies, we observed associations in consumption of red meat by men and pancreatic cancer (P < .01) and consumption of processed meat by men and pancreatic cancer (P < .01) but no associations for women (red meat, P = .61; processed meat, P = .88). In a systematic review and meta-analysis, we found case-control but not cohort studies to associate consumption of red and processed meat with risk of pancreatic cancer. However, in cohort studies, consumption of red and processed meat appeared to increase risk of pancreatic cancer in men but not in women. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Processed Meat, but Not Unprocessed Red Meat, Is Inversely Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Fretts, Amanda M; Howard, Barbara V; Siscovick, David S; Best, Lyle G; Beresford, Shirley Aa; Mete, Mihriye; Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-10-01

    Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG) and their associated proteins at the end of eukaryote chromosomes. Telomere length shortens throughout the lifespan with each cell division, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is often used as a biomarker of cellular aging. LTL is related to many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, to our knowledge, the relation between LTL and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, such as dietary intake of processed meat and unprocessed red meat, is largely unknown. We examined the associations of processed meat intake and unprocessed red meat intake with LTL. This cross-sectional study comprised 2846 American Indians from the Strong Heart Family Study who participated in the 2001-2003 examination. Dietary factors, including past-year consumption of processed meat and unprocessed red meat, were assessed with the use of a 119-item Block Food-Frequency Questionnaire. LTL was measured with the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations of intake of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with LTL. Consumption of processed meat was negatively associated with LTL after adjustment for age, sex, site, education, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and other dietary factors. For every additional daily serving of processed meat, LTL was 0.021 units (telomeric product-to-single-copy gene ratio) shorter (β ± SE = -0.021 ± 0.008, P = 0.009). No association was observed between the intake of unprocessed red meat and LTL (β ± SE = 0.008 ± 0.011, P = 0.46). In the Strong Heart Family Study, consumption of processed meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was associated with shorter LTL, a potential mediator for several age-related diseases. Further studies are needed to better understand the biological mechanism by which processed meat intake influences cellular aging. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagen exposure with the risk of colorectal polyps by histologic type.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Smalley, Walter E; Wu, Huiyun; Chen, Zhi; Shyr, Yu; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2011-10-01

    The association of meat intake and meat-derived mutagens with colorectal tumor risk remains unclear. We evaluated this hypothesis in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in the study were 2,543 patients with polyp [(1,881 with adenomas and 622 with hyperplastic polyp (HPP)] and 3,764 polyp-free controls. Surveys obtained information about meat intake by cooking methods and doneness levels plus other suspected or known risk factors for colorectal tumors. Unconditional logistic regression was used to derive ORs after adjusting for potential confounders. High intake of red meat and processed meat (P(trend) < 0.05), particularly red meat cooked using high-temperature cooking methods (P(trend) ≤ 0.01), was associated with an elevated risk for colorectal polyps. A significant positive association between exposures to meat-derived heterocyclic amines (HCA) and risk of polyps was found for both adenomas and HPPs. Furthermore, the positive association with red meat intake and HCA exposure was stronger for multiple adenomas than for single adenoma as well as for serrated than for nonserrated adenomas. This study supports a role for red meat and meat-derived mutagen exposure in the development of colorectal tumor.

  13. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer: A Quantitative Update on the State of the Epidemiologic Science

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Weed, Douglas L.; Miller, Paula E.; Mohamed, Muhima A.

    2015-01-01

    The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03–1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described in terms of weak associations, heterogeneity, an inability to disentangle effects from other dietary and lifestyle factors, lack of a clear dose-response effect, and weakening evidence over time. Key Teaching Points: •The role of red meat consumption in colorectal cancer risk has been widely contested among the scientific community.•In the current meta-analysis of red meat intake and colorectal cancer, we comprehensively examined associations by creating numerous sub-group stratifications, conducting extensive sensitivity analyses, and evaluating

  14. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer: A Quantitative Update on the State of the Epidemiologic Science.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dominik D; Weed, Douglas L; Miller, Paula E; Mohamed, Muhima A

    2015-01-01

    The potential relationship between red meat consumption and colorectal cancer (CRC) has been the subject of scientific debate. Given the high degree of resulting uncertainty, our objective was to update the state of the science by conducting a systematic quantitative assessment of the epidemiologic literature. Specifically, we updated and expanded our previous meta-analysis by integrating data from new prospective cohort studies and conducting a broader evaluation of the relative risk estimates by specific intake categories. Data from 27 independent prospective cohort studies were meta-analyzed using random-effects models, and sources of potential heterogeneity were examined through subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation of potential dose-response patterns was conducted. In the meta-analysis of all cohorts, a weakly elevated summary relative risk was observed (1.11, 95% CI: 1.03-1.19); however, statistically significant heterogeneity was present. In general, summary associations were attenuated (closer to the null and less heterogeneous) in models that isolated fresh red meat (from processed meat), adjusted for more relevant factors, analyzed women only, and were conducted in countries outside of the United States. Furthermore, no clear patterns of dose-response were apparent. In conclusion, the state of the epidemiologic science on red meat consumption and CRC is best described in terms of weak associations, heterogeneity, an inability to disentangle effects from other dietary and lifestyle factors, lack of a clear dose-response effect, and weakening evidence over time. KEY TEACHING POINTS: •The role of red meat consumption in colorectal cancer risk has been widely contested among the scientific community.•In the current meta-analysis of red meat intake and colorectal cancer, we comprehensively examined associations by creating numerous sub-group stratifications, conducting extensive sensitivity analyses, and evaluating dose

  15. Associations between red meat and risks for colon and rectal cancer depend on the type of red meat consumed.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Rikke; Olsen, Anja; Christensen, Jane; Halkjær, Jytte; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2013-04-01

    Cancer prevention guidelines recommend limiting intake of red meat and avoiding processed meat; however, few studies have been conducted on the effects of specific red meat subtypes on colon cancer or rectal cancer risk. The study aim was to evaluate associations between intake of red meat and its subtypes, processed meat, fish, and poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. We also evaluated whether fish or poultry should replace red meat intake to prevent colon cancer or rectal cancer. During follow-up (13.4 y), 644 cases of colon cancer and 345 cases of rectal cancer occurred among 53,988 participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute incidence rate ratio (IRRs) and 95% CIs. No associations were found between intake of red meat, processed meat, fish, or poultry and risk for colon cancer or rectal cancer. The risk associated with specific red meat subtypes depended on the animal of origin and cancer subsite; thus, the risk for colon cancer was significantly elevated for higher intake of lamb [IRR(per 5g/d) = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13)], whereas the risk for rectal cancer was elevated for higher intake of pork [IRR(per 25g/d) = 1.18 (95% CI: 1.02-1.36)]. Substitution of fish for red meat was associated with a significantly lower risk for colon cancer [IRR(per 25g/d) = 0.89 (95% CI: 0.80-0.99)] but not rectal cancer. Substitution of poultry for red meat did not reduce either risk. This study suggests that the risks for colon cancer and potentially for rectal cancer differ according to the specific red meat subtype consumed.

  16. Meat subtypes and their association with colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Carr, Prudence R; Walter, Viola; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-01-15

    Associations between specific red meat subtypes and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) have been investigated in a number of epidemiological studies. However, no publication to date has summarised the overall epidemiological evidence. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies (cohort, nested case-control or case-cohort studies), which reported relative risk (RR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between intake of meat subtypes with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer or colorectal adenoma risk. PubMed and ISI Web of Science were searched up until August 1, 2014. Nineteen studies examined meat subtypes (5 beef, 5 pork, 2 lamb, 1 veal and 19 poultry) and associations with colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risk and 4 studies examined associations with adenoma risk (1 beef and 4 poultry). Comparing highest versus lowest intake, beef consumption was associated with an increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.22) and colon cancer (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.44), but no association was found with rectal cancer (RR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.78 to 1.16). Higher consumption of lamb was also associated with increased risk of CRC (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.08 to 1.44). No association was observed for pork (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.90 to 1.27), but some between study heterogeneity was observed. No association was observed for poultry consumption and risk of colorectal adenomas or cancer. This meta-analysis suggests that red meat subtypes differ in their association with CRC and its sub sites. Further analysis of data from prospective cohort studies is warranted, especially regarding the role of pork. © 2015 UICC.

  17. Associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with incident diabetes: the Strong Heart Family Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Barbara V; McKnight, Barbara; Duncan, Glen E; Beresford, Shirley AA; Mete, Mihriye; Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Zhang, Ying; Siscovick, David S

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fifty percent of American Indians (AIs) develop diabetes by age 55 y. Whether processed meat is associated with the risk of diabetes in AIs, a rural population with a high intake of processed meat (eg, canned meats in general, referred to as “spam”) and a high rate of diabetes, is unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of usual intake of processed meat with incident diabetes in AIs. Design: This prospective cohort study included AI participants from the Strong Heart Family Study who were free of diabetes and cardiovascular disease at baseline and who participated in a 5-y follow-up examination (n = 2001). Dietary intake was ascertained by using a Block food-frequency questionnaire at baseline. Incident diabetes was defined on the basis of 2003 American Diabetes Association criteria. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations of dietary intake with incident diabetes. Results: We identified 243 incident cases of diabetes. In a comparison of upper and lower quartiles, intake of processed meat was associated with a higher risk of incident diabetes (OR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.21, 2.63), after adjustment for potential confounders. The relation was particularly strong for spam (OR for the comparison of upper and lower quartiles: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.30, 3.27). Intake of unprocessed red meat was not associated with incident diabetes (OR for the comparison of upper and lower quartiles: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.59, 1.37). Conclusion: The consumption of processed meat, such as spam, but not unprocessed red meat, was associated with higher risk of diabetes in AIs, a rural population at high risk of diabetes and with limited access to healthy foods. PMID:22277554

  18. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  19. Differences in survival associated with processed and with nonprocessed red meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Bellavia, Andrea; Larsson, Susanna C; Bottai, Matteo; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    High red meat consumption is associated with an increased mortality risk. This association is partly explained by the negative effect of processed meat consumption, which is widely established. The role of nonprocessed meat is unclear. The objective was to examine the combined association of processed and nonprocessed meat consumption with survival in a Swedish large prospective cohort. In a population-based cohort of 74,645 Swedish men (40,089) and women (34,556), red meat consumption was assessed through a self-administered questionnaire. We estimated differences in survival [15th percentile differences (PDs), differences in the time by which the first 15% of the cohort died] according to levels of total red meat and combined levels of processed and nonprocessed red meat consumption. During 15 y of follow-up (January 1998 to December 2012), we documented 16,683 deaths (6948 women; 9735 men). Compared with no consumption, consumption of red meat >100 g/d was progressively associated with shorter survival--up to 2 y for participants consuming an average of 300 g/d (15th PD: -21 mo; 95% CI: -31, -10). Compared with no consumption, high consumption of processed red meat (100 g/d) was associated with shorter survival (15th PD: -9 mo; 95% CI: -16, -2). High and moderate intakes of nonprocessed red meat were associated with shorter survival only when accompanied by a high intake of processed red meat. We found that high total red meat consumption was associated with progressively shorter survival, largely because of the consumption of processed red meat. Consumption of nonprocessed red meat alone was not associated with shorter survival. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0-4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2-5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association.

  1. Association of Processed Meat Intake with Hypertension Risk in Hemodialysis Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Yu; Yang, Shwu-Huey; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, His-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Chen, Yu-Tong

    2015-01-01

    In this cross-sectional study, we hypothesized that hemodialysis patients consuming greater processed meat is associated with hypertension risk, which can be partly explained by the high sodium content in processed meat. From September 2013 to May 2014, one hundred and four patients requiring chronic hemodialysis treatment were recruited from hemodialysis centers. Data on systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure before receiving dialysis, and 3-day dietary records of the recruited patients were collected. HD patients with systolic and diastolic blood pressures greater than140 mmHg and higher than 90 mmHg, respectively, were considered hypertension risk. Protein foods were divided into 4 categories: red meat, white meat, soybeans, and processed meat (e.g., sausage and ham). In a model adjusted for energy intake and hypertension history, additional servings of processed meats was positively associated to systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 2.1 [1.0–4.3]), and diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg (odds ratio: 2.5 [1.2–5.5]). After adjustment for dietary sodium contents or body mass index (BMI), most associations were substantially attenuated and were no longer significant. In systolic blood pressure greater than140 mmHg, one serving per day of red meats (β = -1.22, P < .05) and white meats (β = -0. 75, P = .05) was associated with a reduced risk compared with one serving per day of processed meats. Similarly, compared with one serving per day of processed meat, a reduced risk of diastolic blood pressure higher than 90 mmHg was associated with one serving per day of red meat (β = -1. 59, P < .05), white meat (β = -0. 62, P < .05). Thus, in these hemodialysis patients, intake of processed meat is significantly positively associated with higher blood pressure risk, and both sodium contents in processed meat and BMI significantly contributes to this association. PMID:26517837

  2. Qualitative Assessment for Toxoplasma gondii Exposure Risk Associated with Meat Products in the United States.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Lambertini, Elisabetta; Ying, Yuqing; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Pradhan, Abani K

    2015-12-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a global protozoan parasite capable of infecting most warm-blooded animals. Although healthy adult humans generally have no symptoms, severe illness does occur in certain groups, including congenitally infected fetuses and newborns, immunocompromised individuals including transplant patients. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated that consumption of raw or undercooked meat products is one of the major sources of infection with T. gondii. The goal of this study was to develop a framework to qualitatively estimate the exposure risk to T. gondii from various meat products consumed in the United States. Risk estimates of various meats were analyzed by a farm-to-retail qualitative assessment that included evaluation of farm, abattoir, storage and transportation, meat processing, packaging, and retail modules. It was found that exposure risks associated with meats from free-range chickens, nonconfinement-raised pigs, goats, and lamb are higher than those from confinement-raised pigs, cattle, and caged chickens. For fresh meat products, risk at the retail level was similar to that at the farm level unless meats had been frozen or moisture enhanced. Our results showed that meat processing, such as salting, freezing, commercial hot air drying, long fermentation times, hot smoking, and cooking, are able to reduce T. gondii levels in meat products. whereas nitrite and/or nitrate, spice, low pH, and cold storage have no effect on the viability of T. gondii tissue cysts. Raw-fermented sausage, cured raw meat, meat that is not hot-air dried, and fresh processed meat were associated with higher exposure risks compared with cooked meat and frozen meat. This study provides a reference for meat management control programs to determine critical control points and serves as the foundation for future quantitative risk assessments.

  3. Toxicological issues associated with production and processing of meat.

    PubMed

    Püssa, Tõnu

    2013-12-01

    Meat is a very complex and continuously changing ex vivo system of various high- and low-molecular substances that can be used for satisfying needs of the human organism for metabolic energy, building material and fulfilling of the other vital functions. A great majority of these substances are useful and safe for the consumer. Yet, meat and meat products may always contain substances exerting detrimental effects to the consumer's organism. The present paper is a literature review of the most important potentially toxic substances found in meat and meat products; their classification, ways of getting into the meat or formation during meat processing, undesirable physiological outcomes and biochemical mechanisms of their toxic effects, and methods for reduction of these responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Processed Meat, but Not Unprocessed Red Meat, Is Inversely Associated with Leukocyte Telomere Length in the Strong Heart Family Study1234

    PubMed Central

    Fretts, Amanda M; Howard, Barbara V; Siscovick, David S; Best, Lyle G; Beresford, Shirley AA; Mete, Mihriye; Eilat-Adar, Sigal; Sotoodehnia, Nona; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences (TTAGGG) and their associated proteins at the end of eukaryote chromosomes. Telomere length shortens throughout the lifespan with each cell division, and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is often used as a biomarker of cellular aging. LTL is related to many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. However, to our knowledge, the relation between LTL and risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, such as dietary intake of processed meat and unprocessed red meat, is largely unknown. Objective: We examined the associations of processed meat intake and unprocessed red meat intake with LTL. Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 2846 American Indians from the Strong Heart Family Study who participated in the 2001–2003 examination. Dietary factors, including past-year consumption of processed meat and unprocessed red meat, were assessed with the use of a 119-item Block Food-Frequency Questionnaire. LTL was measured with the use of quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Generalized estimating equations were used to examine the associations of intake of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with LTL. Results: Consumption of processed meat was negatively associated with LTL after adjustment for age, sex, site, education, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and other dietary factors. For every additional daily serving of processed meat, LTL was 0.021 units (telomeric product–to–single-copy gene ratio) shorter (β ± SE = −0.021 ± 0.008, P = 0.009). No association was observed between the intake of unprocessed red meat and LTL (β ± SE = 0.008 ± 0.011, P = 0.46). Conclusions: In the Strong Heart Family Study, consumption of processed meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was associated with shorter LTL, a potential mediator for several age-related diseases. Further studies are needed to better understand the biological mechanism by which processed meat intake

  5. Meat Consumption and Its Association With C-Reactive Protein and Incident Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    van Woudenbergh, Geertruida J.; Kuijsten, Anneleen; Tigcheler, Basia; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Feskens, Edith J.M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate whether intake of different types of meat is associated with circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and risk of type 2 diabetes in a prospective cohort study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Our analysis included 4,366 Dutch participants who did not have diabetes at baseline. During a median follow-up period of 12.4 years, 456 diabetes cases were confirmed. Intake of red meat, processed meat, and poultry was derived from a food frequency questionnaire, and their association with serum high-sensitivity CRP was examined cross-sectionally using linear regression models. Their association with risk of type 2 diabetes was examined using multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, including age, sex, family history of diabetes, and lifestyle and dietary factors. RESULTS An increment of 50 g of processed meat was associated with increased CRP concentration (βprocessed meat = 0.12; P = 0.01), whereas intake of red meat and poultry was not. When comparing the highest to the lowest category of meat intake with respect to diabetes incidence, the adjusted relative risks were as follows: for red meat (1.42 [95% CI 1.06–1.91]), for processed meat (1.87 [1.26–2.78]), and for poultry (0.95 [0.74–1.22]). Additional analysis showed that the associations were not affected appreciably after inclusion of CRP into the model. After adjustment for BMI, however, the association for red meat attenuated to 1.18 (0.88–1.59). CONCLUSIONS Intake of processed meat is associated with higher risk of type 2 diabetes. It appears unlikely that CRP mediates this association. PMID:22596177

  6. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  7. URINARY MUTAGENICITY AS A BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS AND RISK FOR COLORECTAL ADENOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Urinary Mutagenicity as a Biomarker of Cooked-Meat-Associated Mutagens and Risk for Colorectal Adenoma

    In a controlled feeding study involving 60 subjects, we have investigated urinary mutagenicity as a biomarker of exposure to cooked-meat-associated mutagens. In a separa...

  8. Bacterial populations associated with meat from the deboning room of a high throughput red meat abattoir.

    PubMed

    Nel, S; Lues, J F R; Buys, E M; Venter, P

    2004-03-01

    Developing countries are faced with high incidences of food poisoning outbreaks, with obvious economic consequences. In highly perishable foodstuffs such as fresh red meat the threat of food poisoning is particularly intense. In this study, red meat samples were collected from a deboning room of a high throughput abattoir. The samples were analysed for the presence of Bacillus cereus., Staphylococcus aureus., Pseudomonas spp., Listeria monocytogenes., Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The aerobic plate counts as well as Enterobacteriaceae were also enumerated. Almost without exception the counts exceeded the microbiological guidelines for raw meat as proposed by the South African Department of Health. The average B. cereus count over the sampling period was 8.32 × 10(3) cfu, g (-1), for S. aureus and Pseudomonas spp. 1.72 × 10(5) and 1.7 × 10(5) cfu g(-1) respectively and for E. coli 3.4 × 10(5) cfu g(-1). Sixty percent of the samples were positive for presumptive Salmonella spp. while 52% of the samples tested positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes. The aerobic plate and Enterobacteriaceae counts were 1.7 × 10(7) and 4.6 × 10(6) cfu g(-1), respectively. The data highlighted the need for a more systematic approach to ensuring safe food through implementing quality control methods to prevent the entry and proliferation of pathogens in meat and meat products, especially during processes with a high degree of handling, such as deboning.

  9. Streptococcus parauberis associated with modified atmosphere packaged broiler meat products and air samples from a poultry meat processing plant.

    PubMed

    Koort, Joanna; Coenye, Tom; Vandamme, Peter; Björkroth, Johanna

    2006-02-15

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from marinated or non-marinated, modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) broiler leg products and air samples of a large-scale broiler meat processing plant were identified and analyzed for their phenotypic properties. Previously, these strains had been found to be coccal LAB. However, the use of a 16 and 23S rRNA gene RFLP database had not resulted in species identification because none of the typically meat-associated LAB type strains had clustered together with these strains in the numerical analysis of the RFLP patterns. To establish the taxonomic position of these isolates, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, numerical analysis of ribopatterns, and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments were done. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of three isolates possessed the highest similarities (over 99%) with the sequence of S. parauberis type strain. However, in the numerical analysis of HindIII ribopatterns, the type strain did not cluster together with these isolates. Reassociation values between S. parauberis type or reference strain and the strains studied varied from 82 to 97%, confirming that these strains belong to S. parauberis. Unexpectedly, most of the broiler meat-originating strains studied for their phenotypical properties did not utilize lactose at all and the same strains fermented also galactose very weakly, properties considered atypical for S. parauberis. This is, to our knowledge, the first report of lactose negative S. parauberis strains and also the first report associating S. parauberis with broiler slaughter and meat products.

  10. Meats Units for Agricultural Science I and Advanced Livestock Production and Marketing Courses. Instructor's Guide. Volume 18, Number 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bob R.; McCaskey, Michael J.

    These two units are designed to aid teachers in lesson planning in the secondary agricultural education curriculum in Missouri. The first unit, on meat identification, is to be taught as part of the first year of instruction in agricultural science, while the second unit, advanced meats, was prepared for use with 11th- and 12th-grade students in…

  11. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Jennifer; Joffe, Daniel; Kauffman, Michael; Zhang, Yifan; LeJeune, Jeffery

    2009-06-01

    This study explored the impact of feeding raw meat to dogs on the fecal prevalence of several enteric bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 1/42 (2.6%) raw meat-fed dogs. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 2/40 (5%) of the raw meat feeds, 6/42 (14%) raw meat-fed dog feces, none of the dogs that did not receive raw meat (P = 0.001), 4/38 (10.5%) of the vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was fed, and 2/44 (4.5%) of vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was not fed to dogs (P = 0.41). Responses to a questionnaire probing practices and beliefs regarding raw meat feeding that was administered to dog owners demonstrated that dog owners may either not be aware or refuse to acknowledge the risks associated with raw meat-feeding; thus, they may neglect to conduct adequate intervention strategies to prevent zoonoses among themselves and their families.

  12. Identification of candidate genes associated with porcine meat color traits by genome-wide transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bojiang; Dong, Chao; Li, Pinghua; Ren, Zhuqing; Wang, Han; Yu, Fengxiang; Ning, Caibo; Liu, Kaiqing; Wei, Wei; Huang, Ruihua; Chen, Jie; Wu, Wangjun; Liu, Honglin

    2016-01-01

    Meat color is considered to be the most important indicator of meat quality, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying traits related to meat color remain mostly unknown. In this study, to elucidate the molecular basis of meat color, we constructed six cDNA libraries from biceps femoris (Bf) and soleus (Sol), which exhibit obvious differences in meat color, and analyzed the whole-transcriptome differences between Bf (white muscle) and Sol (red muscle) using high-throughput sequencing technology. Using DEseq2 method, we identified 138 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between Bf and Sol. Using DEGseq method, we identified 770, 810, and 476 DEGs in comparisons between Bf and Sol in three separate animals. Of these DEGs, 52 were overlapping DEGs. Using these data, we determined the enriched GO terms, metabolic pathways and candidate genes associated with meat color traits. Additionally, we mapped 114 non-redundant DEGs to the meat color QTLs via a comparative analysis with the porcine quantitative trait loci (QTL) database. Overall, our data serve as a valuable resource for identifying genes whose functions are critical for meat color traits and can accelerate studies of the molecular mechanisms of meat color formation. PMID:27748458

  13. Perceptions, practices, and consequences associated with foodborne pathogens and the feeding of raw meat to dogs

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Jennifer; Joffe, Daniel; Kauffman, Michael; Zhang, Yifan; LeJeune, Jeffery

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the impact of feeding raw meat to dogs on the fecal prevalence of several enteric bacterial zoonotic pathogens. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 1/42 (2.6%) raw meat-fed dogs. Salmonella enterica was isolated from 2/40 (5%) of the raw meat feeds, 6/42 (14%) raw meat-fed dog feces, none of the dogs that did not receive raw meat (P = 0.001), 4/38 (10.5%) of the vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was fed, and 2/44 (4.5%) of vacuum cleaner waste samples from households where raw meat was not fed to dogs (P = 0.41). Responses to a questionnaire probing practices and beliefs regarding raw meat feeding that was administered to dog owners demonstrated that dog owners may either not be aware or refuse to acknowledge the risks associated with raw meat-feeding; thus, they may neglect to conduct adequate intervention strategies to prevent zoonoses among themselves and their families. PMID:19721784

  14. Diabetes mellitus associated with processed and unprocessed red meat: an overview.

    PubMed

    Kouvari, M; Notara, V; Kalogeropoulos, N; Panagiotakos, D B

    2016-11-01

    According to American Diabetes Association "as many as 1 in 3 American adults will have diabetes by 2050" imposing a serious burden on healthcare services and highlighting a substantial need to reduce "new-cases" incidence. Diabetes is inextricably linked to diet, in the prevention-spectrum. Red-meat-intake has been positively associated with reduced glycemic control. However, divergence exists among meat subtypes (i.e. fresh and processed) and the magnitude of their impact on diabetes development. The present overview attempted to summarize the latest data regarding red-meat subtypes on the examined association. Four meta-analysis and 10 prospective studies, focusing on the role of fresh and processed red meat in diabetes prevention, were selected. All of studies highlighted the aggravating role of processed meat-products in diabetes incidence, while fresh meat reached significance in only half of them. Therefore, the contribution of fresh red meat on diabetes remains inconclusive. Valid conclusions seem more robust concerning processed-meat-consumption.

  15. Review of the association between meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunjung; Coelho, Desire; Blachier, François

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is rapidly increasing in developing countries, especially among populations that are adopting Western-style diets. Several, but not all, epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that a high intake of meat, especially red and processed meat, is associated with increased CRC risk. Potential reasons for the association between high red and processed meat intake and CRC risk include the content of the meat (e.g. protein, heme) and compounds generated by the cooking process (e.g. N-nitroso compounds, heterocyclic amines). These factors can affect the large intestine mucosa with genotoxicity and metabolic disturbances. Increased bacterial fermentation (putrefaction) of undigested protein and production of bacterial metabolites derived from amino acids may affect colon epithelial homeostasis and renewal. This correlates with the fact that most colonic cancers are detected in the distal colon and rectum where protein fermentation actively occurs. However, there are still large controversies on the relationship between red meat consumption and CRC risk. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to enhance the current understanding on the association between high red and processed meat intakes with CRC risk. A principal focus of this review will be to discuss the meat-related components, such as proteins in the meat, heme, N-nitroso compounds, and heterocyclic amines, and the effects they have upon the large intestine mucosa and the intestinal gut microbiota. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bacterial populations and the volatilome associated to meat spoilage.

    PubMed

    Casaburi, Annalisa; Piombino, Paola; Nychas, George-John; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2015-02-01

    Microbial spoilage of meat is a complex event to which many different bacterial populations can contribute depending on the temperature of storage and packaging conditions. The spoilage can derive from microbial development and consumption of meat nutrients by bacteria with a consequent release of undesired metabolites. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are generated during meat storage can have an olfactory impact and can lead to rejection of the product when their concentration increase significantly as a result of microbial development. The VOCs most commonly identified in meat during storage include alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, fatty acids, esters and sulfur compounds. In this review, the VOCs found in fresh meat during storage in specific conditions are described together with the possible bacterial populations responsible of their production. In addition, on the basis of the data available in the literature, the sensory impact of the VOCs and their dynamics during storage is discussed to highlight their possible contribution to the spoilage of meat. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A meat, processed meat, and French fries dietary pattern is associated with high allostatic load in Puerto Rican older adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Noel, Sabrina E; Tucker, Katherine L

    2011-10-01

    Consumption of certain dietary patterns, such as a Western diet, has been associated with unfavorable physiologic outcomes. Diet has been proposed as a contributor to allostatic load, a composite measure of physiological dysregulation. To determine the association of dietary patterns, defined by "meat and french fries," "traditional Puerto Rican foods" (rice, beans, and oils), or "sweets," with allostatic load, and with the 10 individual physiologic parameters that comprise it. Baseline data collected from participants of the Boston Puerto Rican Health Study (n=1,117; aged 45 to 75 years) was used to run linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, alcohol intake, smoking, medications, energy intake, and body mass index or physical activity. Significant trends across increasing quintiles of the meat and french fries pattern were observed for higher allostatic load score (P=0.002), waist circumference (P=0.032), systolic blood pressure (P=0.008), and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.0001). Participants in the highest quintile of the meat and french fries pattern had significantly higher allostatic load score than those in the lowest quintile (mean 4.3±0.11 vs 3.9±0.12, P=0.030), and had higher odds of having high allostatic load (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.8 [1.2 to 2.9]), low dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (odds ratio 1.9 [95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 3.1]), and high glycosylated hemoglobin (odds ratio 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 2.9]). The traditional pattern was not associated with allostatic load, whereas a significant association between the sweets pattern and allostatic load disappeared after restricting analysis to participants without diabetes. A meat, processed meat, and french fries dietary pattern may contribute to the deregulation of multiple physiologic parameters in Puerto Rican adults. Efforts to limit consumption of this pattern may help prevent further cumulative physiological dysregulation in this high risk

  18. Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to Measure Attitudes toward Meat and Vegetables in Vegetarians and Meat-Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…

  19. Using the Implicit Association Test and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure to Measure Attitudes toward Meat and Vegetables in Vegetarians and Meat-Eaters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Murtagh, Louise; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Stewart, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to assess the implicit attitudes of vegetarians and non-vegetarians towards meat and vegetables, using the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and the Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP). Both measures involved asking participants to respond, under time pressure, to pictures of meat or vegetables as either positive…

  20. Health Risks Associated with Meat Consumption: A Review of Epidemiological Studies.

    PubMed

    Battaglia Richi, Evelyne; Baumer, Beatrice; Conrad, Beatrice; Darioli, Roger; Schmid, Alexandra; Keller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence from large prospective US and European cohort studies and from meta-analyses of epidemiological studies indicates that the long-term consumption of increasing amounts of red meat and particularly of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer and type 2 diabetes, in both men and women. The association persists after inclusion of known confounding factors, such as age, race, BMI, history, smoking, blood pressure, lipids, physical activity and multiple nutritional parameters in multivariate analysis. The association has not always been noted with red meat, and it has been absent with white meat. There is evidence of several mechanisms for the observed adverse effects that might be involved, however, their individual role is not defined at present. It is concluded that recommendations for the consumption of unprocessed red meat and particularly of processed red meat should be more restrictive than existing recommendations. Restrictive recommendations should not be applied to subjects above about 70 years of age, as the studies quoted herein did not examine this age group, and the inclusion of sufficient protein supply (e. g. in the form of meat) is particularly important in the elderly.

  1. A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Palatability in Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Hyeong, K.-E.; Lee, Y.-M.; Kim, Y.-S.; Nam, K. C.; Jo, C.; Lee, K.-H.; Lee, J.-E.; Kim, J.-J.

    2014-01-01

    A whole genome association (WGA) study was carried out to find quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sensory evaluation traits in Hanwoo. Carcass samples of 250 Hanwoo steers were collected from National Agricultural Cooperative Livestock Research Institute, Ansung, Gyeonggi province, Korea, between 2011 and 2012 and genotyped with the Affymetrix Bovine Axiom Array 640K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip. Among the SNPs in the chip, a total of 322,160 SNPs were chosen after quality control tests. After adjusting for the effects of age, slaughter-year-season, and polygenic effects using genome relationship matrix, the corrected phenotypes for the sensory evaluation measurements were regressed on each SNP using a simple linear regression additive based model. A total of 1,631 SNPs were detected for color, aroma, tenderness, juiciness and palatability at 0.1% comparison-wise level. Among the significant SNPs, the best set of 52 SNP markers were chosen using a forward regression procedure at 0.05 level, among which the sets of 8, 14, 11, 10, and 9 SNPs were determined for the respectively sensory evaluation traits. The sets of significant SNPs explained 18% to 31% of phenotypic variance. Three SNPs were pleiotropic, i.e. AX-26703353 and AX-26742891 that were located at 101 and 110 Mb of BTA6, respectively, influencing tenderness, juiciness and palatability, while AX-18624743 at 3 Mb of BTA10 affected tenderness and palatability. Our results suggest that some QTL for sensory measures are segregating in a Hanwoo steer population. Additional WGA studies on fatty acid and nutritional components as well as the sensory panels are in process to characterize genetic architecture of meat quality and palatability in Hanwoo. PMID:25178363

  2. Factors associated with the purchase of designation of origin lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Maza, María T; Mantecón, Angel R

    2010-05-01

    As in other products, quality labels that designate the origin of lamb meat are increasingly used by consumers as a cue for inferring the quality of the meat. The aim of the present paper is to identify those factors that most affect the purchase of lamb with an origin quality label. For this purpose a total of 371 questionnaires were carried out in the region of Aragón located in the north east of Spain. This region produces 48.5% of the total amount of lamb meat with a Spanish protected geographical indication, whilst it also has the country's greatest per capita consumption (6.8 kg/person/year). To identify the most determining factors a logistic regression analysis was performed between three groups of buyers, characterised by their degree of loyalty towards purchasing origin quality-labelled lamb. The results show that those buyers who are less loyal to the label pay less attention to the origin of the meat when forming quality expectations at the time of purchase, whilst these are the buyers that place greatest importance on animal feeding as an aspect affecting the final quality of lamb meat. The buyers that are very loyal to the quality label associate this label with a product that offers greater guarantees and is healthier. Lamb meat buyers with medium loyalty to quality labels, consider quality-labelled lamb meat has better intrinsic attributes. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2

    PubMed Central

    Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Vichuda; Thorpe, Donna L; Knutsen, Raymond; Beeson, W Larry; Fraser, Gary E; Knutsen, Synnove F

    2014-01-01

    Objective In contrast to non-vegetarians, vegetarians consume more legumes and meat analogues as sources of protein to substitute for meat intake. The present study aimed to assess the association between foods with high protein content (legumes, meat, meat analogues) by dietary pattern (vegetarians, non-vegetarians) and hip fracture incidence, adjusted for selected lifestyle factors. Design A prospective cohort of Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) enrollees who completed a comprehensive lifestyle and dietary questionnaire between 2002 and 2007. Setting Every two years after enrolment, a short questionnaire on hospitalizations and selected disease outcomes including hip fractures was sent to these members. Subjects Respondents (n 33 208) to a baseline and a follow-up questionnaire. Results In a multivariable model, legumes intake of once daily or more reduced the risk of hip fracture by 64% (hazard ratio=0·36, 95% CI 0·21, 0·61) compared with those with legumes intake of less than once weekly. Similarly, meat intake of four or more times weekly was associated with a 40% reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio=0·60, 95% CI 0·41, 0·87) compared with those whose meat intake was less than once weekly. Furthermore, consumption of meat analogues once daily or more was associated with a 49% reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio=0·51, 95% CI 0·27, 0·98) compared with an intake of less than once weekly. Conclusions Hip fracture incidence was inversely associated with legumes intake and, to a lesser extent, meat intake, after accounting for other food groups and important covariates. Similarly, a high intake of meat analogues was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hip fracture. PMID:24103482

  4. Legumes and meat analogues consumption are associated with hip fracture risk independently of meat intake among Caucasian men and women: the Adventist Health Study-2.

    PubMed

    Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Vichuda; Thorpe, Donna L; Knutsen, Raymond; Beeson, W Larry; Fraser, Gary E; Knutsen, Synnove F

    2014-10-01

    In contrast to non-vegetarians, vegetarians consume more legumes and meat analogues as sources of protein to substitute for meat intake. The present study aimed to assess the association between foods with high protein content (legumes, meat, meat analogues) by dietary pattern (vegetarians, non-vegetarians) and hip fracture incidence, adjusted for selected lifestyle factors. A prospective cohort of Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2) enrollees who completed a comprehensive lifestyle and dietary questionnaire between 2002 and 2007. Every two years after enrolment, a short questionnaire on hospitalizations and selected disease outcomes including hip fractures was sent to these members. Respondents (n 33,208) to a baseline and a follow-up questionnaire. In a multivariable model, legumes intake of once daily or more reduced the risk of hip fracture by 64% (hazard ratio = 0·36, 95% CI 0·21, 0·61) compared with those with legumes intake of less than once weekly. Similarly, meat intake of four or more times weekly was associated with a 40% reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio = 0·60, 95% CI 0·41, 0·87) compared with those whose meat intake was less than once weekly. Furthermore, consumption of meat analogues once daily or more was associated with a 49 % reduced risk of hip fracture (hazard ratio = 0·51, 95% CI 0·27, 0·98) compared with an intake of less than once weekly. Hip fracture incidence was inversely associated with legumes intake and, to a lesser extent, meat intake, after accounting for other food groups and important covariates. Similarly, a high intake of meat analogues was associated with a significantly reduced risk of hip fracture.

  5. Consumer perception and the role of science in the meat industry.

    PubMed

    Troy, D J; Kerry, J P

    2010-09-01

    The relationship between consumer perception of quality and the food industry's drive to satisfy consumer needs is complex and involves many different components. Science and innovation play a major role in equipping the industry to respond to consumer concerns and expectations. This paper examines the main elements of consumer perception of meat with focus on the red meat sector. Emphasis is placed on perception at point of sale particularly the intrinsic quality cues of colour, packaging and degree of visual fat. The state of the art developments in increasing consumers' perception at this point are discussed. Experienced quality cues such as tenderness and flavour are well known as being of immense importance to consumers at point of consumption. The latest technological developments to enhance the quality experienced by consumers are discussed. The use of pre-rigor restraining techniques offers the industry a method for changing its conventional procedures of processing beef for instance. Background cues of safety, nutrition, animal welfare and sustainability are also discussed. Finally opportunities and challenges facing the industry are outlined. It is concluded that the meat industry needs to invest in and embrace an innovation agenda in order to be sustainable. It must utilise emerging scientific knowledge and take a more proactive role in setting out a research agenda.

  6. High intake of heterocyclic amines from meat is associated with oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, A M; Miranda, A M; Santos, F A; Loureiro, A P M; Fisberg, R M; Marchioni, D M

    2015-04-28

    High meat intake has been related to chronic diseases such as cancer and CVD. One hypothesis is that heterocyclic amines (HCA), which are formed during the cooking process of meat, can generate reactive species. These compounds can cause oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA, resulting in oxidative stress, cell damage and loss of biological function. This association has been seen in vitro; however, it remains unclear in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between oxidative stress and HCA intake, and oxidative stress and meat intake. Data were from the Health Survey for Sao Paulo--ISA-Capital (561 adult and elderly). Food intake was estimated by one 24-h dietary recall (24HR) complemented by a detailed FFQ with preferences of cooking methods and level of doneness for meat. HCA intake was estimated linking the meat from the 24HR to a database of HCA. Oxidative stress was estimated by malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration in the plasma, after derivatisation with thiobarbituric acid and quantification by HPLC/diode array. Analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for smoking, sex, age, BMI, skin colour, energy intake, fruit and vegetable intake, and physical activity. A positive association between HCA intake and MDA concentration (OR 1·17; 95% CI 1·01, 1·38) was observed, showing that HCA from meat may contribute to increase oxidative stress, and may consequently increase the risk of chronic diseases.

  7. Is childhood meat eating associated with better later adulthood cognition in a developing population?

    PubMed

    Heys, Michelle; Jiang, Chaoqiang; Schooling, C Mary; Zhang, WeiSen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Lam, Tai Hing; Leung, Gabriel M

    2010-07-01

    Inadequate childhood nutrition is associated with poor short-term academic and cognitive outcomes. Dietary supplementation with meat is associated with better cognitive outcome in children. Whether childhood nutrition has life long effects on cognitive function is unclear. We examined the association of childhood meat eating with adulthood cognitive function in southern China where the older population lived through significant hardship during their early years. Multivariable linear regression was used in a cross-sectional study of 20,086 Chinese men and women aged > or = 50 years from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (phases 2 and 3) 2005-8. We assessed the association of childhood meat eating with delayed 10-word and immediate recall score. Adjusted for age, sex, education, childhood and adulthood socio-economic position and current physical activity, childhood meat eating almost daily, when compared to yearly or never childhood meat eating, was positively associated with delayed recall score (additional number of words recalled out of 10 = 0.22 [95% confidence interval = 0.11-0.31]). Similarly adjusted, childhood meat eating about once a month, about once a week and almost daily were positively associated with immediate recall score (additional number of words recalled out of 30 = 0.38 [0.23-0.54], 0.73 [0.56-0.89] and 0.76 [0.55-0.98] respectively). More frequent childhood meat eating was associated with better cognition through to old age. If confirmed, these results highlight the importance of adequate childhood nutrition and they also emphasise the childhood and adolescent antecedents of adult disease, with corresponding public health implications for healthy aging.

  8. Plasma Inflammation Markers of the Tumor Necrosis Factor Pathway but Not C-Reactive Protein Are Associated with Processed Meat and Unprocessed Red Meat Consumption in Bavarian Adults.

    PubMed

    Schwedhelm, Carolina; Pischon, Tobias; Rohrmann, Sabine; Himmerich, Hubertus; Linseisen, Jakob; Nimptsch, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    High consumption of red and processed meats has been linked to higher chronic disease risk. It has been hypothesized that inflammation markers may mediate part of this association. Most previous studies on the association of red meat intake with circulating inflammation markers used C-reactive protein (CRP) but rarely other markers, and not all differentiated between processed meat and unprocessed red meat. We investigated the cross-sectional association of processed meat and unprocessed red meat consumption with plasma concentrations of CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, soluble TNF receptor (sTNF-R) 1, and sTNF-R2 in German adults. Inflammation markers were quantified in the plasma of 553 adults (233 men and 320 women) aged 18-80 y within the cross-sectional Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II. Dietary intake was estimated from three 24-h dietary recalls. The association between red meat consumption and inflammation markers was analyzed with the use of multivariable-adjusted linear regression. Processed meat consumption was borderline significantly associated with higher IL-6 [relative difference per 50-g increment: 5% (95% CI: -1%, 10%)] but not with CRP (2%; 95% CI: -6%, 10%), and it was inversely associated with total TNF-α (-3%; 95% CI: -6%, -1%), sTNF-R1 (-3%; 95% CI: -4%, -1%), and sTNF-R2 (-2%; 95% CI: -4%, 0%) concentrations. Unprocessed red meat consumption was not associated with CRP (-5%; 95% CI: -15%, 5%) or IL-6 (-1%; 95% CI: -9%, 7%) but was inversely associated with sTNF-R1 (-3%; 95% CI: -5%, -1%) and sTNF-R2 (-4%; 95% CI: -7%, -2%). Our results suggest an inverse association between both processed meat and unprocessed red meat with inflammation markers of the TNF pathway in Bavarian adults but no association with CRP. Further research on the role of TNF pathway markers in chronic inflammation is warranted. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women.

    PubMed

    Ley, Sylvia H; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather; Wu, Kana; Pan, An; Grodstein, Fran; Hu, Frank B

    2014-02-01

    Greater red meat intake is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. However, the relation of red meat intake to biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism has not been investigated thoroughly. We hypothesized that greater red meat intake would be associated with biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism, which would be partly explained by body mass index (BMI). We analyzed cross-sectional data from diabetes-free female participants in the Nurses' Health Study (n = 3690). Multiple linear regression was conducted to assess the associations of total, unprocessed, and processed red meat intakes (quartile categories) with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, adiponectin, fasting insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c). Greater total, unprocessed, and processed red meat intakes were associated with higher plasma CRP, ferritin, fasting insulin, and Hb A1c and lower adiponectin after adjustment for demographic information (P-trend ≤ 0.03 for all). Adiponectin was not associated with any type of red meat intake when further adjusted for medical and lifestyle factors. After adjustment for BMI, most of these associations with inflammatory and glucose metabolic biomarkers were substantially attenuated and no longer significant. BMI accounted for a statistically significant proportion of associations with CRP, Hb A1c, and fasting insulin (P-contribution ≤ 0.02 for all) but not with ferritin. Substituting a serving of total red meat intake with alternative protein food in a combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with significantly lower CRP (β ± SE: -0.106 ± 0.043), ferritin (-0.212 ± 0.075), Hb A1c (-0.052 ± 0.015), and fasting insulin (-0.119 ± 0.036) (all P ≤ 0.02 for comparison of extreme quartiles for all). Greater red meat intake is associated with unfavorable plasma concentrations of inflammatory and glucose metabolic biomarkers in diabetes-free women. BMI accounts for a significant

  10. Associations between red meat intake and biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism in women123

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Sylvia H; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C; Eliassen, A Heather; Wu, Kana; Pan, An; Grodstein, Fran; Hu, Frank B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Greater red meat intake is associated with an increased type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk. However, the relation of red meat intake to biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism has not been investigated thoroughly. Objective: We hypothesized that greater red meat intake would be associated with biomarkers of inflammation and glucose metabolism, which would be partly explained by body mass index (BMI). Design: We analyzed cross-sectional data from diabetes-free female participants in the Nurses’ Health Study (n = 3690). Multiple linear regression was conducted to assess the associations of total, unprocessed, and processed red meat intakes (quartile categories) with plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, adiponectin, fasting insulin, and hemoglobin A1c (Hb A1c). Results: Greater total, unprocessed, and processed red meat intakes were associated with higher plasma CRP, ferritin, fasting insulin, and Hb A1c and lower adiponectin after adjustment for demographic information (P-trend ≤ 0.03 for all). Adiponectin was not associated with any type of red meat intake when further adjusted for medical and lifestyle factors. After adjustment for BMI, most of these associations with inflammatory and glucose metabolic biomarkers were substantially attenuated and no longer significant. BMI accounted for a statistically significant proportion of associations with CRP, Hb A1c, and fasting insulin (P-contribution ≤ 0.02 for all) but not with ferritin. Substituting a serving of total red meat intake with alternative protein food in a combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with significantly lower CRP (β ± SE: −0.106 ± 0.043), ferritin (−0.212 ± 0.075), Hb A1c (−0.052 ± 0.015), and fasting insulin (−0.119 ± 0.036) (all P ≤ 0.02 for comparison of extreme quartiles for all). Conclusions: Greater red meat intake is associated with unfavorable plasma concentrations of inflammatory and glucose metabolic

  11. Isolation of lactic acid bacteria with inhibitory activity against pathogens and spoilage organisms associated with fresh meat.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhys J; Hussein, Hassan M; Zagorec, Monique; Brightwell, Gale; Tagg, John R

    2008-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as protective cultures in vacuum-packed chill-stored meat has potential application for assuring and improving food quality, safety and market access. In a study to identify candidate strains suitable for evaluation in a meat model, agar-based methods were employed to screen 181 chilled meat and meat process-related LAB for strains inhibitory to pathogens and spoilage organisms of importance to the meat industry. Six meat-derived strains, including Lactobacillus sakei and Lactococcus lactis, were found to be inhibitory to one or more of the target strains Listeria monocytogenes, Brochothrix thermosphacta, Campylobacter jejuni and Clostridium estertheticum. The inhibitory agents appeared to be either cell-associated or molecules released extracellularly with bacteriocin-like properties. Variations detected in the antimicrobial activity of LAB associated with changes to test parameters such as substrate composition underlined the importance of further in situ evaluation of the inhibitory strains in stored meat trials.

  12. Associations of Red Meat, Fat, and Protein Intake With Distal Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christina Dawn; Satia, Jessie A.; Adair, Linda S.; Stevens, June; Galanko, Joseph; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have suggested that red and processed meat consumption elevate the risk of colon cancer; however, the relationship between red meat, as well as fat and protein, and distal colorectal cancer (CRC) specifically is not clear. We determined the risk of distal CRC associated with red and processed meat, fat, and protein intakes in Whites and African Americans. There were 945 cases (720 White, 225 African American) of distal CRC and 959 controls (800 White, 159 African American). We assessed dietary intake in the previous 12 mo. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to obtain odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). There was no association between total, saturated, or monounsaturated fat and distal CRC risk. In African Americans, the OR of distal CRC for the highest category of polyunsaturated fat intake was 0.28 (95% CI = 0.08–0.96). The percent of energy from protein was associated with a 47% risk reduction in Whites (Q4 OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.37–0.77). Red meat consumption in Whites was associated with a marginally significant risk reduction (Q4 OR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.43–1.00). Our results do not support the hypotheses that fat, protein, and red meat increase the risk of distal CRC. PMID:20661817

  13. Muscle composition slightly affects in vitro digestion of aged and cooked meat: identification of associated proteomic markers.

    PubMed

    Bax, M-L; Sayd, T; Aubry, L; Ferreira, C; Viala, D; Chambon, C; Rémond, D; Santé-Lhoutellier, V

    2013-02-15

    Meat is an appropriate source of proteins and minerals for human nutrition. Technological treatments modify the physical-chemical properties of proteins, making them liable to decrease the nutritional potential of meat. To counteract this damage, antioxidants and chaperone proteins in muscle cells can prevent oxidation, restore the function of denatured proteins, and thus prevent aggregation. This study aimed to explore the impact of indoor vs outdoor-reared meat protein composition on digestion and to associate protein markers to in vitro digestion parameters. Indoor-reared meat tended to show less oxidation and denaturation than outdoor-reared meat and was characterised by an overexpression of contractile and chaperone proteins. Outdoor-reared meat showed amplification of antioxidant and detoxification metabolism defending against oxidised compounds. Impacts on digestion remained minor. Several protein markers of in vitro digestion parameters were found for aged and cooked meat, linked to the detoxification process and to muscle contraction.

  14. Trichinellosis associated with bear meat--New York and Tennessee, 2003.

    PubMed

    2004-07-16

    Trichinellosis is a parasitic infection caused by tissue-dwelling Trichinella roundworms and is associated traditionally with ingestion of pork from infected domestic swine. As a result of improvements in swine production, trichinellosis has declined steadily in the United States. However, infection also can result from eating the meat of wild animals. During 1997-2001, a total of 72 cases of trichinellosis (median: 12 cases annually; range: 11-23 cases) were reported to CDC; the majority of these infections were associated with eating wild game, predominantly bear. This report describes three cases of trichinellosis associated with eating undercooked bear meat reported from New York and Tennessee in 2003. To prevent trichinellosis, persons should cook meat, particularly wild game, to an internal temperature of 160 degrees F (71 degrees C).

  15. Burden of diseases estimates associated to different red meat cooking practices.

    PubMed

    Berjia, Firew Lemma; Poulsen, Morten; Nauta, Maarten

    2014-04-01

    The burden of disease estimate has been performed for diseases attributable to nutritional deficiency, foodborne pathogens, the environment, infection and other factors. However, the burden of disease estimate attributable to different food processing practices has not been investigated before. The aim of this study is to compare the burden of disease estimate attributed to red meat consumption processed using different cooking practices. The red meat cooking practices were categorized into three: (A) barbecuing/grilling; (B) frying/broiling and (C) roasting/baking. The associated endpoints, affected population, intake and dose-response data are obtained by literature survey. The selected endpoints are four types of cancer: colorectal, prostate, breast and pancreatic. The burden of disease per cooking practice, endpoint, sex and age is estimated in the Danish population, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as a common health metric. The results reveal that the consumption of barbecued red meat is associated with the highest disease burden, followed by fried red meat and roasted red meat. The method used to quantify the difference in disease burden of different cooking practices can help to inform the consumer to make a choice on whether the benefit of a preferred cooking style is worth the associated health loss.

  16. [Reduction of meat consumption and greenhouse gas emissions associated with health benefits in Italy].

    PubMed

    Farchi, Sara; Lapucci, Enrica; Michelozzi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    the reduction in red meat consumption has been proposed as one of the climate change mitigation policies associated to health benefits. In the developed world, red meat consumption is above the recommended intake level. the aim is to evaluate health benefits, in term of mortality decline, associated to different bovine meat consumption reduction scenarios and the potential reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. meat consumption in Italy has been estimated using the Italian National Food Consumption Survey INRAN-SCAI (2005-2006) and the Multipurpose survey on household (2012) of the Italian National Institute for Statistics. Colorectal cancer and stoke mortality data are derived from the national survey on causes of death in 2012. Bovine meat consumption risk function has been retrieved from systematic literature reviews. Mean meat consumption in Italy is equal to 770 grams/week; gender and geographical variations exist: 69 per cent of the adult population are habitual bovine meat consumers; males have an average intake of over 400 grams/week in all areas of Italy (with the exception of the South), while females have lower intakes (360 grams per week), with higher consumption in the North-West (427 gr) and lower in the South of Italy. Four scenarios of reduction of bovine meat consumption (20%, 40%, 50% e 70%, respectively) have been evaluated and the number of avoidable deaths by gender and area of residence have been estimated. GHG emissions attributed to bovine meat adult consumption have been estimated to be to 10 gigagrams CO2-eq. from low to high reduction scenario, the percentage of avoidable deaths ranged from 2.1% to 6.5% for colorectal cancer and from 1.6% to 5.6% for stroke. Health benefits were greatest for males and for people living in the North-Western regions of Italy. in Italy, in order to adhere to bovine meat consumption recommendations and to respect EU GHG emission reduction targets, scenarios between 50% and 70% need to be adopted.

  17. Processed red meat contribution to dietary patterns and the associated cardio-metabolic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lenighan, Yvonne M; Nugent, Anne P; Li, Kaifeng F; Brennan, Lorraine; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Roche, Helen M; McNulty, Breige A

    2017-08-01

    Evidence suggests that processed red meat consumption is a risk factor for CVD and type 2 diabetes (T2D). This analysis investigates the association between dietary patterns, their processed red meat contributions, and association with blood biomarkers of CVD and T2D, in 786 Irish adults (18-90 years) using cross-sectional data from a 2011 national food consumption survey. All meat-containing foods consumed were assigned to four food groups (n 502) on the basis of whether they contained red or white meat and whether they were processed or unprocessed. The remaining foods (n 2050) were assigned to twenty-nine food groups. Two-step and k-means cluster analyses were applied to derive dietary patterns. Nutrient intakes, plasma fatty acids and biomarkers of CVD and T2D were assessed. A total of four dietary patterns were derived. In comparison with the pattern with lower contributions from processed red meat, the dietary pattern with greater processed red meat intakes presented a poorer Alternate Healthy Eating Index (21·2 (sd 7·7)), a greater proportion of smokers (29 %) and lower plasma EPA (1·34 (sd 0·72) %) and DHA (2·21 (sd 0·84) %) levels (P<0·001). There were no differences in classical biomarkers of CVD and T2D, including serum cholesterol and insulin, across dietary patterns. This suggests that the consideration of processed red meat consumption as a risk factor for CVD and T2D may need to be re-assessed.

  18. Human health risks associated with antimicrobial-resistant enterococci and Staphylococcus aureus on poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Bortolaia, V; Espinosa-Gongora, C; Guardabassi, L

    2016-02-01

    Enterococci and staphylococci are frequent contaminants on poultry meat. Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus are also well-known aetiological agents of a wide variety of infections resulting in major healthcare costs. This review provides an overview of the human health risks associated with the occurrence of these opportunistic human pathogens on poultry meat with particular focus on the risk of food-borne transmission of antimicrobial resistance. In the absence of conclusive evidence of transmission, this risk was inferred using data from scientific articles and national reports on prevalence, bacterial load, antimicrobial resistance and clonal distribution of these three species on poultry meat. The risks associated with ingestion of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci of poultry origin comprise horizontal transfer of resistance genes and transmission of multidrug-resistant E. faecalis lineages such as sequence type ST16. Enterococcus faecium lineages occurring in poultry meat products are distantly related to those causing hospital-acquired infections but may act as donors of quinupristin/dalfopristin resistance and other resistance determinants of clinical interest to the human gut microbiota. Ingestion of poultry meat contaminated with S. aureus may lead to food poisoning. However, antimicrobial resistance in the toxin-producing strains does not have clinical implications because food poisoning is not managed by antimicrobial therapy. Recently methicillin-resistant S. aureus of livestock origin has been reported on poultry meat. In theory handling or ingestion of contaminated meat is a potential risk factor for colonization by methicillin-resistant S. aureus. However, this risk is presently regarded as negligible by public health authorities. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Dietary Patterns of Meat and Fish Consumption with Bone Mineral Density or Fracture Risk: A Systematic Literature

    PubMed Central

    Avanzato, Ilaria; Nichetti, Mara; D’Antona, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to investigate the association of fish and sea fish dietary patterns (FishDiet) and meat or processed meat dietary patterns (MeatDiet) with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or risk of fractures (RF). This review includes 37 studies with a total of 432,924 subjects. The results suggest that MeatDiet and FishDiet did not affect BMD or RF in 48.2% of the subjects with MeatDiet and in 86.5% of the subjects with FishDiet. Positive effects on bone were found in 3% of subjects with MeatDiet and in 12% with FishDiet. Negative effects on bone were observed in 2.7% of FishDiet and in 47.9% of MeatDiet. Major negative effects of MeatDiet were found in subjects located in the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Italy, Norway, UK and Spain who do not sustain a Mediterranean diet (92.7%); in Korea (27.1%); in Brazil and Mexico (96.4%); and in Australia (62.5%). This study suggests that protein intake from fish or meat is not harmful to bone. Negative effects on bone linked to FishDiet are almost null. Negative effects on bone were associated to MeatDiet in the setting of a Western Diet but not in Mediterranean or Asian Diets.

  20. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.

    PubMed

    Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C

    2012-03-01

    Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the

  1. Genetic polymorphism of the CAPN1 gene is associated with meat quality traits in Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Z; Zerehdaran, S; Azari, M A; Shargh, M S

    2013-01-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the polymorphisms in two regions of the calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene and their association with breast and thigh meat quality in Japanese quail (ultimate pH (pHu), lightness, redness, yellowness, drip loss, thawing-cooking loss, water holding capacity and shear force, SF). 2. Blood samples were collected randomly from 100 birds and DNA was extracted using a commercial kit. Genotypes were determined by PCR amplification followed by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The effect of CAPN1 genotypes on meat quality traits were analysed using a general linear model (GLM) procedure. 3. Genotypes of the CAPN1 gene in the first region (217-bp) analysed were significantly associated with yellowness and SF. The TT genotype showed significantly higher yellowness and lower shear force (more tenderness) than CT and CC genotypes. Genotypes of the second region of the gene (intron 4, 800-bp) were significantly associated with pHu, redness and SF of the breast meat. The BB genotype showed significantly lower pHu and redness and higher SF (lower tenderness) than other genotypes. 4. Information on polymorphisms of the CAPN1 gene will eventually provide useful information for improving meat quality of Japanese quail through marker-assisted selection.

  2. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  3. Evaluation of a Teaching Kit for Family and Consumer Science Classrooms: Motivating Students to Use a Food Thermometer with Small Cuts of Meat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Zena; Edlefsen, Miriam; Hillers, Virginia; McCurdy, Sandra M.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture recommends use of food thermometers to safely cook small cuts of meat, yet most consumers do not use them. Consumers lack knowledge about how and why to use food thermometers with small cuts of meat. Opportunities exist for family and consumer science classes to provide education about thermometers to adolescents, who…

  4. Red meat intake is positively associated with non-fatal acute myocardial infarction in the Costa Rica Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqing; Campos, Hannia; Baylin, Ana

    2017-08-01

    The adverse effect of red meat consumption on the risk for CVD is a major population health concern, especially in developing Hispanic/Latino countries in which there are clear trends towards increased consumption. This population-based case-control study examined the associations between total, processed and unprocessed red meat intakes and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (MI) in Costa Rica. The study included 2131 survivors of a first non-fatal acute MI and 2131 controls individually matched by age, sex and area of residence. Dietary intake was assessed with a FFQ. OR were estimated by using conditional logistic regression. Higher intakes of total and processed red meat were associated with increased odds of acute MI. The OR were 1·31 (95 % CI 1·04, 1·65) and 1·29 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·65) for the highest quintiles of total red meat (median: 110·8 g or 1 serving/d) and processed red meat intake (median: 36·1 g or 5 servings/week), respectively. There were increasing trends in the odds of acute MI with higher total (P trend=0·01) and processed (P trend=0·02) red meat intakes. Unprocessed red meat intake was not associated with increased odds of acute MI. Substitutions of 50 g of alternative foods (fish, milk, chicken without skin and chicken without fat) for 50 g of total, processed and unprocessed red meat were associated with lower odds of acute MI. The positive association between red meat intake and acute MI in Costa Rica highlights the importance of reducing red meat consumption in middle-income Hispanic/Latino populations.

  5. Consumption of Red/Processed Meat and Colorectal Carcinoma: Possible Mechanisms Underlying the Significant Association.

    PubMed

    Hammerling, Ulf; Bergman Laurila, Jonas; Grafström, Roland; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology and experimental studies provide an overwhelming support of the notion that diets high in red or processed meat accompany an elevated risk of developing pre-neoplastic colorectal adenoma and frank colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The underlying mechanisms are disputed; thus several hypotheses have been proposed. A large body of reports converges, however, on haem and nitrosyl haem as major contributors to the CRC development, presumably acting through various mechanisms. Apart from a potentially higher intestinal mutagenic load among consumers on a diet rich in red/processed meat, other mechanisms involving subtle interference with colorectal stem/progenitor cell survival or maturation are likewise at play. From an overarching perspective, suggested candidate mechanisms for red/processed meat-induced CRC appear as three partly overlapping tenets: (i) increased N-nitrosation/oxidative load leading to DNA adducts and lipid peroxidation in the intestinal epithelium, (ii) proliferative stimulation of the epithelium through haem or food-derived metabolites that either act directly or subsequent to conversion, and (iii) higher inflammatory response, which may trigger a wide cascade of pro-malignant processes. In this review, we summarize and discuss major findings of the area in the context of potentially pertinent mechanisms underlying the above-mentioned association between consumption of red/processed meat and increased risk of developing CRC.

  6. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: in utero nutrition related to fetal development, postnatal performance, and meat quality of pork.

    PubMed

    Oksbjerg, N; Nissen, P M; Therkildsen, M; Møller, H S; Larsen, L B; Andersen, M; Young, J F

    2013-03-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) occurs naturally in pigs and leads to low birth weight of piglets due to undernutrition caused by placental insufficiency. For 2 main reasons, low birth weight causes economic loss. First, low birth weight pigs have a greater mortality and increasing the litter size causes more low birth weight piglets within litters. Second, surviving low birth weight piglets have reduced performance (i.e., ADG, feed conversion rate, and percentage meat). To develop dietary strategies for preventing IUGR, knowledge of the biological basis of IUGR is required. Muscle fiber number, formed during myogenesis, is correlated positively with performance traits and has been shown in several studies to be reduced in low birth weight pigs. Postnatal muscle hypertrophy is due to satellite cell number per fiber at birth and their rate of proliferation as well as protein deposition (i.e., protein synthesis and degradation). Previous studies and some recent ones indicate that low birth weight littermates in mice are born with fewer satellite cells and studies on pigs show that the rate of satellite cell proliferation may vary within litters. Proteomics studies show that protein synthesis and degradation is downregulated in IUGR pigs and low birth weight pigs also produce meat with less tenderness. Alternative maternal feeding strategies to prevent IUGR have been examined. Increasing maternal global nutrition had no beneficial effect on performance and muscle growth traits in several studies. Feeding excess maternal dietary protein also did not influence muscle growth traits whereas moderately decreased maternal dietary protein may decrease muscle fiber number and performance. On the other hand, addition of L-carnitine to the maternal gestation or lactation diet may increase birth and weaning weights or the muscle fiber number, respectively, in low birth weight pig offspring. Finally, promising data have been obtained on reproductive traits in pigs after

  7. Factors associated with stages of change for red meat and vegetable intake by Japanese-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Patricia; Palma, Raphaela Fernanda Muniz; Nishimura, Renata Yumi; Damião, Renata; Bevilacqua, Marselle; Massimino, Flávia; Chain, Rita; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes

    2009-07-01

    Stages of change assess individual motivation for lifestyle changes, contributing to the development of more effective intervention strategies. The objective of the present study was to identify factors associated with stages of change for lower intake of red meat and higher intake of vegetables in a cross-sectional analysis of 578 Japanese-Brazilians aged 30-90 years. In adjusted logistic regression models, the odds ratios for women (OR = 1.89; 95%CI: 1.154; 3.103) and physically active individuals (OR = 1.00; 95%CI: 1.000; 1.001) were positively associated with stage of 'action' for the higher intake of vegetables. Inverse associations were observed between central obesity (OR = 0.5; 95%CI: 0.351; 0.887) and highest tertile of red meat intake (OR = 0.50; 95%CI: 0.302; 0.817), as well as a positive association between age (OR = 1.04; 95%CI: 1.020; 1.070) and the stage of 'action' to the lower intake of meat were verified. Motivation for Japanese-Brazilians to change their food intake was linked to lifestyle. Stage of change is an important factor in mediating food intake behavior change.

  8. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jeana; Chang, Ju Young; Shin, Sue; Oh, Sohee

    2017-06-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8-15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3-122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5-4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5-5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  9. Genome-wide association studies for growth and meat production traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiasen; Zhao, Fuping; Ren, Hangxing; Xu, Lingyang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shifang; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wei, Caihong; Lu, Guobin; Zheng, Youmin; Du, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The aim of the study is to identify candidate genes affecting growth and meat production traits at genome level with high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping technologies. Using Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip, we performed a GWA study in 329 purebred sheep for 11 growth and meat production traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, eye muscle area, fat thickness, pre-weaning gain, post-weaning gain, daily weight gain, height at withers, chest girth, and shin circumference). After quality control, 319 sheep and 48,198 SNPs were analyzed by TASSEL program in a mixed linear model (MLM). 36 significant SNPs were identified for 7 traits, and 10 of them reached genome-wise significance level for post-weaning gain. Gene annotation was implemented with the latest sheep genome Ovis_aries_v3.1 (released October 2012). More than one-third SNPs (14 out of 36) were located within ovine genes, others were located close to ovine genes (878bp-398,165bp apart). The strongest new finding is 5 genes were thought to be the most crucial candidate genes associated with post-weaning gain: s58995.1 was located within the ovine genes MEF2B and RFXANK, OAR3_84073899.1, OAR3_115712045.1 and OAR9_91721507.1 were located within CAMKMT, TRHDE, and RIPK2 respectively. GRM1, POL, MBD5, UBR2, RPL7 and SMC2 were thought to be the important candidate genes affecting post-weaning gain too. Additionally, 25 genes at chromosome-wise significance level were also forecasted to be the promising genes that influencing sheep growth and meat production traits. The results will contribute to the similar studies and facilitate the potential utilization of genes involved in growth and meat production traits in sheep in future.

  10. Genome-Wide Association Studies for Growth and Meat Production Traits in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Jiasen; Zhao, Fuping; Ren, Hangxing; Xu, Lingyang; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Shifang; Zhang, Xiaoning; Wei, Caihong; Lu, Guobin; Zheng, Youmin; Du, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Background Growth and meat production traits are significant economic traits in sheep. The aim of the study is to identify candidate genes affecting growth and meat production traits at genome level with high throughput single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping technologies. Methodology and Results Using Illumina OvineSNP50 BeadChip, we performed a GWA study in 329 purebred sheep for 11 growth and meat production traits (birth weight, weaning weight, 6-month weight, eye muscle area, fat thickness, pre-weaning gain, post-weaning gain, daily weight gain, height at withers, chest girth, and shin circumference). After quality control, 319 sheep and 48,198 SNPs were analyzed by TASSEL program in a mixed linear model (MLM). 36 significant SNPs were identified for 7 traits, and 10 of them reached genome-wise significance level for post-weaning gain. Gene annotation was implemented with the latest sheep genome Ovis_aries_v3.1 (released October 2012). More than one-third SNPs (14 out of 36) were located within ovine genes, others were located close to ovine genes (878bp-398,165bp apart). The strongest new finding is 5 genes were thought to be the most crucial candidate genes associated with post-weaning gain: s58995.1 was located within the ovine genes MEF2B and RFXANK, OAR3_84073899.1, OAR3_115712045.1 and OAR9_91721507.1 were located within CAMKMT, TRHDE, and RIPK2 respectively. GRM1, POL, MBD5, UBR2, RPL7 and SMC2 were thought to be the important candidate genes affecting post-weaning gain too. Additionally, 25 genes at chromosome-wise significance level were also forecasted to be the promising genes that influencing sheep growth and meat production traits. Conclusions The results will contribute to the similar studies and facilitate the potential utilization of genes involved in growth and meat production traits in sheep in future. PMID:23825544

  11. Consumption of organic meat does not diminish the carcinogenic potential associated with the intake of persistent organic pollutants (POPs).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Almeida-González, Maira; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-04-19

    Numerous studies have shown an epidemiological link between meat consumption and the incidence of cancer, and it has been suggested that this relationship may be motivated by the presence of carcinogenic contaminants on it. Among the most frequently detected contaminants in meat are several types of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and it is well known that many of them are carcinogenic. On the other hand, an increasing number of consumers choose to feed on what are perceived as healthier foods. Thus, the number of consumers of organic food is growing. However, environmental contamination by POPs is ubiquitous, and it is therefore unlikely that the practices of organic food production are able to prevent this contamination. To test this hypothesis, we acquired 76 samples of meat (beef, chicken, and lamb) of two modes of production (organic and conventional) and quantified their levels of 33 carcinogenic POPs. On this basis, we determined the human meat-related daily dietary exposure to these carcinogens using as a model a population with a high consumption of meat, such as the Spanish population. The maximum allowable meat consumption for this population and the carcinogenic risk quotients associated with the current pattern of consumption were calculated. As expected, no sample was completely free of carcinogenic contaminants, and the differences between organically and conventionally produced meats were minimal. According to these results, the current pattern of meat consumption exceeded the maximum limits, which are set according to the levels of contaminations, and this is associated with a relevant carcinogenic risk. Strikingly, the consumption of organically produced meat does not diminish this carcinogenic risk, but on the contrary, it seems to be even higher, especially that associated with lamb consumption.

  12. Genotypic and allelic frequencies of gene polymorphisms associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, M E; Eler, J P; Bonin, M N; Rezende, F M; Biase, F H; Meirelles, F V; Regitano, L C A; Coutinho, L L; Balieiro, J C C; Ferraz, J B S

    2017-02-16

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the allelic and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms in the µ-calpain and calpastatin genes, and to assess their association with meat tenderness and animal growth in Nellore cattle. We evaluated 605 Nellore animals at 24 months of age, on average, at slaughter. The polymorphisms were determined for the molecular markers CAPN316, CAPN530, CAPN4751, CAPN4753, and UOGACAST1. Analyses of meat tenderness at 7, 14, and 21 days of maturation were performed in samples of longissimus thoracis obtained between the 12th and 13th rib and sheared using a Warner Bratzler Shear Force. Significant effects were observed for meat tenderness at days 7, 14, and 21 of maturation for the marker CAPN4751, at day 21 for the marker CAPN4753, and at days 14 and 21 for the marker UOGCAST1. For genotypic combinations of markers, the results were significant for the combination CAPN4751/UOGCAST1 in the three maturation periods and CAPN4753/UOGCAST1 at days 14 and 21 of maturation.

  13. Red and Processed Meat Intake Is Associated with Higher Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiological Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Zhu, Chen; Tao, Guangzhou; Zhao, Lianjun; Tang, Shaowen; Shu, Zheng; Cai, Jing; Dai, Shengbin; Qin, Qin; Xu, Liping; Cheng, Hongyan; Sun, Xinchen

    2013-01-01

    Background Red and processed meat was concluded as a limited-suggestive risk factor of gastric cancer by the World Cancer Research Fund. However, recent epidemiological studies have yielded inconclusive results. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from their inception to April 2013 for both cohort and case-control studies which assessed the association between red and/or processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Study-specific relative risk estimates were polled by random-effect or fixed-effect models. Results Twelve cohort and thirty case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between both red (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.22–1.73) and processed (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.26–1.65) meat intake and gastric cancer risk generally. Positive findings were also existed in the items of beef (RR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.04–1.57), bacon (RR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.17–1.61), ham (RR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.00–2.06), and sausage (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16–1.52). When conducted by study design, the association was significant in case-control studies (RR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.33–1.99) but not in cohort studies (RR: 1.02, 95% CI: 0.90–1.17) for red meat. Increased relative risks were seen in high-quality, adenocarcinoma, cardia and European-population studies for red meat. And most subgroup analysis confirmed the significant association between processed meat intake and gastric cancer risk. Conclusions Our findings indicate that consumption of red and/or processed meat contributes to increased gastric cancer risk. However, further investigation is needed to confirm the association, especially for red meat. PMID:23967140

  14. Associations of red and processed meat with survival among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract and lung.

    PubMed

    Miles, Fayth L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Morgenstern, Hal; Tashkin, Donald; Rao, Jian-Yu; Cozen, Wendy; Mack, Thomas; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2016-06-01

    The effect of red and processed meats on cancer survival is unclear. We sought to examine the role of total and processed red meat consumption on all-cause mortality among patients with cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) and lung, in order to test our hypothesis that red or processed meat was associated with overall mortality in these patients. Using data from a population-based case-control study conducted in Los Angeles County, we conducted a case-only analysis to examine the association of red or processed meat consumption on mortality after 12 years of follow-up, using a diet history questionnaire. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusting for potential confounders. Of 601 UADT cancer cases and 611 lung cancer cases, there were 248 and 406 deaths, respectively, yielding crude mortality rates of 0.07 and 0.12 deaths per year. Comparing the highest with lowest quartile of red meat consumption, the adjusted HR was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.04-2.57) among UADT cancer cases; for red or processed meat, the adjusted HR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.10-2.82). A dose-response trend was observed. A weaker association was observed with red meat consumption and overall mortality among lung cancer cases. In conclusion, this case-only analysis demonstrated that increased consumption of red or processed meats was associated with mortality among UADT cancer cases and WAS weakly associated with mortality among lung cancer cases.

  15. Meat consumption is associated with less stunting among toddlers in four diverse low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Mazariegos, Manolo; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl; Sami, Neelofar; Chomba, Elwyn; Carlo, Waldemar; Goco, Norman; Kindem, Mark; Wright, Linda L; Hambidge, K Michael

    2011-09-01

    Early growth faltering is common but is difficult to reverse after the first 2 years of life. To describe feeding practices and growth in infants and young children in diverse low-income settings prior to undertaking a complementary feeding trial. This cross-sectional study was conducted through the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research in Guatemala, Democratic Republic of Congo, Zambia, and Pakistan. Feeding questionnaires were administered to convenience samples of mothers of 5- to 9-month old infants and 12- to 24-month-old toddlers. After standardized training, anthropometric measurements were obtained from the toddlers. Following the 2006 World Health Organization Growth Standards, stunting was defined as length-for-age < -2SD, and wasting as weight-for-length < -2SD. Logistic regression was applied to evaluate relationships between stunting and wasting and consumption of meat (including chicken and liver and not including fish). Data were obtained from 1,500 infants with a mean (+/- SD) age of 6.9 +/- 1.4 months and 1,658 toddlers with a mean age of 17.2 +/- 3.5 months. The majority of the subjects in both age groups were breastfed. Less than 25% of the infants received meat regularly, whereas 62% of toddlers consumed these foods regularly, although the rates varied widely among sites. Stunting rate ranged from 44% to 66% among sites; wasting prevalence was less than 10% at all sites. After controlling for covariates, consumption of meat was associated with a reduced likelihood of stunting (OR = 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.90). The strikingly high stunting rates in these toddlers and the protective effect of meat consumption against stunting emphasize the need for interventions to improve complementary feeding practices, beginning in infancy.

  16. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    ScienceCinema

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2016-07-12

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  17. Diet and Cancer Are Cooked Meats Involved

    SciTech Connect

    LLNL - University of California Television

    2008-05-01

    Diet has been associated with differences in cancer rates in human populations for many years. Mark Knize presents the latest research on cancer causes including work performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory investigating some interesting chemical products created when meat is cooked and how to reduce them. Series: Science on Saturday [10/2006] [Health and Medicine] [Science] [Show ID: 11542

  18. Meats and Meat Cookery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on meats and meat cookery is designed to help the Marine cook to identify, handle, process, and serve meats, poultry, fish, and shellfish. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students and a study guide (guidelines to complete…

  19. Attitudes towards meat and meat-eating among adolescents in Norway: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Kubberød, Elin; Ueland, Øydis; Tronstad, Asne; Risvik, Einar

    2002-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the concept of disgust in relation to meat and meat-eating. A sample of 30 high school students (aged 16 to 17 years), 10 urban females, 10 rural females, and 10 rural males, participated in the study. The participants' attitudes towards meat and meat-eating were investigated through interviews of a semi-structured nature and a short, confidential questionnaire. The study showed that disgust was solely related to red meat varieties and not to chicken. There were no vegetarians in our consumer sample, but red meat-eating was more common among males than females. Sensory attributes that were drivers of liking for meat were good taste, good smell and juiciness; these were described by both genders. All the females tended to characterise meat and meat-eating experiences negatively. Their associations were based on disgust, rather than distaste as found among males. Offensive attributes that the females attributed to meat were linked to the animals and their body parts, blood and raw meat, fibrous and chewy texture, fatty feeling in the mouth, and visible fat. Subjects with regular contact with farm animals displayed more relaxed attitudes towards animal production and showed no such disgust reactions. Females also tended to associate meat with "heavy" food that had negative impact on their bodies. They were also less content with their body appearance, dieted more than males, and tended to associate health (in the sense of fat consumption) and food intake to the wish for slim bodies. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  20. Health risk factors associated with meat, fruit and vegetable consumption in cohort studies: A comprehensive meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Giuseppe; Micek, Agnieszka; Godos, Justyna; Pajak, Andrzej; Sciacca, Salvatore; Galvano, Fabio; Boffetta, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to test the association between red, processed, and total meat, as well as fruit and vegetable consumption, and selected health risk factors, including body weight status, smoking habit, physical activity level, level of education, and alcohol drinking in cohort studies on non-communicable disease. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed to identify relevant articles published up to March 2017. In a two-stage approach, frequency-weighted linear regression coefficients were first calculated for each variable, and then combined across studies through meta-regression. Ninety-eight studies including 20 on red meat, 6 on processed meat, 12 on total meat, 37 on fruit and vegetable combined, 21 on fruit and 24 on vegetable consumption were analyzed. Intake of red meat was positively associated with BMI, percentage of overweight and obese, low physical activity, and current and ever smoking and inversely associated with percentage of non-smokers and high physically active individuals. Similar associations were found for red meat were found, although based on fewer data. Intake of fruits and vegetables was positively associated with prevalence of non-smokers, high education and high physical activity, and similar results were found when examining fruit and vegetable consumption separately. Stratification by geographical area revealed that some associations were stronger in US rather than European or Asian cohorts. In conclusions, the distribution of health risk factors associated with high meat and fruit/vegetable consumption may differ from those of low-consumers. Some of these differences may mediate, confound, or modify the relation between diet and non-communicable disease risk. PMID:28850610

  1. A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an investigation of potential mechanisms underlying this association

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; Ferrucci, Leah M.; Risch, Adam; Graubard, Barry I .; Ward, Mary H.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Although the relation between red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer has been reported in several epidemiologic studies, very few investigated the potential mechanisms. This study examined multiple potential mechanisms in a large U.S. prospective cohort with a detailed questionnaire on meat type and meat cooking methods linked to databases for estimating intake of mutagens formed in meats cooked at high temperatures (heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, nitrate and nitrite. During 7 years of follow-up, 2,719 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained from a cohort of 300,948 men and women. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) comparing the fifth to the first quintile for both red (HR=1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42; p-trend <0.001) and processed meat (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.01-1.32; p-trend=0.017) intake indicated an elevated risk for colorectal cancer. The potential mechanisms for this relation include heme iron (HR=1.13, 95% CI: 0.99-1.29; p-trend=0.022), nitrate from processed meats (HR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.32; p-trend=0.001) and heterocyclic amine intake (HR=1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.34; p-trend <0.001 for MeIQx and HR=1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.29; p-trend <0.001 for DiMeIQx). In general, the elevated risks were higher for rectal cancer than for colon cancer, with the exception of MeIQx and DiMeIQx, which were only associated with colon cancer. In conclusion, we found a positive association for red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer; heme iron, nitrate/nitrite, and heterocyclic amines from meat may explain these associations. PMID:20215514

  2. Are meat and heme iron intake associated with pancreatic cancer? Results from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Taunk, Pulkit; Hecht, Eric; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on pancreatic cancer have reported significant positive associations for intake of red meat but null associations for heme iron. We assessed total, red, white, and processed meat intake, meat cooking methods and doneness, and heme iron and mutagen intake in relation to pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. 322,846 participants (187,265 men; 135,581 women) successfully completed and returned the food frequency questionnaire between 1995–1996. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (up to 10.17 years), 1,417 individuals (895 men, 522 women) developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), and trends were calculated using the median value of each quantile. Models incorporated age as the time metric and were adjusted for smoking history, BMI, self-reported diabetes, and energy-adjusted saturated fat. Pancreatic cancer risk significantly increased with intake of total meat (Q5 vs. Q1 HR=1.20, 95% CI 1.02–1.42, p-trend=0.03), red meat (HR=1.22, 95% CI 1.01–1.48, p-trend=0.02), high-temperature cooked meat (HR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00–1.45, p-trend=0.02), grilled/barbequed meat (HR=1.24, 95% CI 1.03–1.50, p-trend=0.007), well/very well done meat (HR=1.32, 95% CI 1.10–1.58, p-trend = 0.005), and heme iron from red meat (Q4 vs. Q1 HR=1.21, 95% CI 1.01–1.45, p-trend=0.04). When stratified by sex, these associations remained significant in men but not women except for white meat intake in women (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02–1.74, p-trend = 0.04). Additional studies should confirm our findings that consuming heme iron from red meat increases pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:26666579

  3. Are meat and heme iron intake associated with pancreatic cancer? Results from the NIH-AARP diet and health cohort.

    PubMed

    Taunk, Pulkit; Hecht, Eric; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael

    2016-05-01

    Several studies on pancreatic cancer have reported significant positive associations for intake of red meat but null associations for heme iron. We assessed total, red, white and processed meat intake, meat cooking methods and doneness and heme iron and mutagen intake in relation to pancreatic cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. A total of 322,846 participants (187,265 men and 135,581 women) successfully completed and returned the food frequency questionnaire between 1995 and 1996. After a mean follow-up of 9.2 years (up to 10.17 years), 1,417 individuals (895 men and 522 women) developed exocrine pancreatic cancer. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and trends were calculated using the median value of each quantile. Models incorporated age as the time metric and were adjusted for smoking history, body mass index, self-reported diabetes and energy-adjusted saturated fat. Pancreatic cancer risk significantly increased with intake of total meat (Q5 vs. Q1: HR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.42, p-trend = 0.03), red meat (HR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.01-1.48, p-trend = 0.02), high-temperature cooked meat (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.00-1.45, p-trend = 0.02), grilled/barbequed meat (HR = 1.24, 95% CI 1.03-1.50, p-trend = 0.007), well/very well done meat (HR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.10-1.58, p-trend = 0.005) and heme iron from red meat (Q4 vs. Q1: HR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.01-1.45, p-trend = 0.04). When stratified by sex, these associations remained significant in men but not women except for white meat intake in women (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.74, p-trend = 0.04). Additional studies should confirm our findings that consuming heme iron from red meat increases pancreatic cancer risk.

  4. An estimation of the carcinogenic risk associated with the intake of multiple relevant carcinogens found in meat and charcuterie products.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Ángel Rodríguez; Boada, Luis D; Almeida-González, Maira; Mendoza, Zenaida; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Valeron, Pilar F; Camacho, María; Zumbado, Manuel; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2015-05-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies have demonstrated a link between excessive meat consumption and the incidence of various cancers, especially colorectal cancer, and it has been suggested that environmental carcinogens present in meat might be related to the increased risk of cancer associated with this food. However, there are no studies evaluating the carcinogenic potential of meat in relation to its content of carcinogens. Our purpose was to emphasize the relevance of environmental carcinogens existing in meat as a determinant of the association between cancer and meat consumption. Because within Europe, Spain shows high consumption of meat and charcuterie, we performed this study focusing on Spanish population. Based on the preferences of consumers we acquired 100 samples of meat and charcuterie that reflect the variety available in the European market. We quantified in these samples the concentration of 33 chemicals with calculated carcinogenic potential (PAHs, organochlorine pesticides, and dioxin-like PCBs). The carcinogenic risk of these contaminants was assessed for each food using a risk ratio based on the current consumption of meat and charcuterie and the maximum tolerable intake of these foods depending on the level of contamination by the carcinogens they contain. Our results indicate that the current consumption of beef, pork, lamb, chicken, and "chorizo", represents a relevant carcinogenic risk for consumers (carcinogenic risk quotient between 1.33 and 13.98). In order to reduce carcinogenic risk, the study population should halve the monthly consumption of these foods, and also not to surpass the number of 5 servings of beef/pork/chicken (considered together).

  5. Anemia and iron deficiency in children: association with red meat and poultry consumption.

    PubMed

    Moshe, Galit; Amitai, Yona; Korchia, Gerard; Korchia, Levana; Tenenbaum, Ariel; Rosenblum, Joseph; Schechter, Avi

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to study the relative contribution of dietary sources of iron in children with high prevalence of anemia and iron deficiency (ID). A cross-sectional study in 263 healthy, 1.5- to 6-year-old children in the Jewish sector of Jerusalem, Israel. Venous blood samples and a qualitative Food Frequency Questionnaire on iron-rich foods were obtained. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin <11 g/dL for children younger than 4 years and <11.5 g/dL for children older than 4 years; ID was defined as ferritin <12 μg/L. Anemia was found in 11.2%, ID in 22%, and iron-deficiency anemia in 3.7%. The prevalence of anemia was higher in toddlers ages 1.5 to 3 years compared with children ages 3 to 6 years (17.7% vs 7.3%, P = 0.01). Children with extremely low red meat consumption (seldom) had 4-fold higher rates of ID than those who consumed ≥2 times per week (odds ratio 3.98; 95% confidence interval 1.21-13.03; P = 0.023), whereas poultry consumption was not associated with ID. Soy consumption was inversely associated with ferritin (marginally significant, r = -0.134, P = 0.057). The high prevalence of anemia and ID found in this study, mainly in children 1.5 to 3 years old, is related to low red meat consumption. The characteristically high poultry consumption in the Israeli population was not protective. The shift toward reduced red meat consumption and higher poultry consumption in developed countries may result in increasing the risk of ID.

  6. Molecular characterization, expression analysis and association study with meat quality traits of porcine TTID gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Deng, Chang-Yan; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu; Zuo, Bo

    2013-02-01

    Titin immunoglobulin domain protein (TTID) is localized to the Z-line and binds to alpha-actinin, gamma-filamin. It plays an indispensable role in stabilization and anchorage of thin filaments. In this study, the full-length cDNA sequence was isolated by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The TTID sequence was deposited into the Genbank under the accession no. DQ157551. The deduced protein of 499 amino acids showed 93 % identity to the corresponding human and rat sequence. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed porcine TTID gene was expressed highest level in skeletal muscle, at second-highest level in the heart, but only low expression in the fat was detected. Bioinformatics analysis shows the molecular weight of the TTID protein is 55.747 kD with a PI of 9.26. It contains the protein function site of two potential Ig-like domain profiles, six N-myristoylation sites, six potential Casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, eight protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, three N-glycosylation sites, a tyrosine kinase phosphorylation site and a cell attachment sequence site. No putative base substitution was detected in the coding region by comparing sequences of Large White, Landrace and Meishan pig breeds. A T978C single nucleotide polymorphism in the intron 6 of porcine TTID gene was detected by a HinfI PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Study showed allele frequency differences among four purebreds. Association of the genotypes with meat quality traits showed that different genotypes of porcine TTID gene were significantly associated with meat pH (m.Biceps Femoris) (P < 0.05), meat color value (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05) and Water Moisture (m.longissimus Dorsi) (P < 0.05).

  7. Multi-breed and multi-trait co-association analysis of meat tenderness and other meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Ramayo-Caldas, Yuliaxis; Renand, Gilles; Ballester, Maria; Saintilan, Romain; Rocha, Dominique

    2016-04-23

    Studies to identify markers associated with beef tenderness have focused on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) but the interplay between the genes associated with WBSF has not been explored. We used the association weight matrix (AWM), a systems biology approach, to identify a set of interacting genes that are co-associated with tenderness and other meat quality traits, and shared across the Charolaise, Limousine and Blonde d'Aquitaine beef cattle breeds. Genome-wide association studies were performed using ~500K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 17 phenotypes measured on more than 1000 animals for each breed. First, this multi-trait approach was applied separately for each breed across 17 phenotypes and second, between- and across-breed comparisons at the AWM and functional levels were performed. Genetic heterogeneity was observed, and most of the variants that were associated with WBSF segregated within rather than across breeds. We identified 206 common candidate genes associated with WBSF across the three breeds. SNPs in these common genes explained between 28 and 30 % of the phenotypic variance for WBSF. A reduced number of common SNPs mapping to the 206 common genes were identified, suggesting that different mutations may target the same genes in a breed-specific manner. Therefore, it is likely that, depending on allele frequencies and linkage disequilibrium patterns, a SNP that is identified for one breed may not be informative for another unrelated breed. Well-known candidate genes affecting beef tenderness were identified. In addition, some of the 206 common genes are located within previously reported quantitative trait loci for WBSF in several cattle breeds. Moreover, the multi-breed co-association analysis detected new candidate genes, regulators and metabolic pathways that are likely involved in the determination of meat tenderness and other meat quality traits in beef cattle. Our results suggest that systems biology approaches that explore

  8. Association of Meat and Fat Intake With Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the NIH-AARP Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Abnet, Christian C.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Everhart, James E.; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Background Several plausible mechanisms, including fat, iron, heterocyclic amines, and N-nitroso compounds, link meat intake with chronic liver disease (CLD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Few studies have investigated these associations. Methods We prospectively examined the relationship between meat and associated exposures with CLD mortality (n = 551; not including HCC) and HCC incidence (n = 338) in 495 006 men and women of the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the fifth (Q5) vs the first (Q1) quintile were estimated from multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. All tests of statistical significance were two-sided. Results We found inverse associations between white meat and risk of CLD (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.39 to 0.70, 7.5 vs 18.2 cases per 100 000 person-years) and HCC (HR = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.36 to 0.77, 5.8 vs 14.3 cases per 100 000 person-years). Red meat was associated with higher risk of CLD (HR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.86 to 3.61, 22.3 vs 6.2 cases per 100 000 person-years) and HCC (HR = 1.74, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.61, 14.9 vs 5.7 cases per 100 000 person-years). Among fat types, results were strongest for saturated fat (for CLD, HR = 3.50, 95% CI = 2.48 to 4.96, 23.0 vs 6.5 cases per 100 000 person-years; for HCC, HR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.85, 14.5 vs 6.3 cases per 100 000 person-years). After mutual adjustment, risk estimates persisted for saturated fat, red meat, and white meat. Heme iron, processed meat, nitrate, and nitrite were positively associated with CLD but not with HCC. Individual heterocyclic amines, 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5,-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline (MeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenyl-imidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), were not associated with either outcome. Conclusion Our results suggest that red meat and saturated fat may be associated with increased CLD and

  9. Association of lunch meat consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality and health risk factors in U.S. children and adults: NHANES 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Sanjiv; Fulgoni, Victor L; Berg, Eric P

    2015-12-30

    Consumption of lean meat is recommended as part of healthy diet by Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. Lunch meats are precooked or cured meats typically used in sandwiches and are also called as cold cuts or deli meat. The purpose of the study was to examine the association of lunch meat consumption with nutrient intake, diet quality, and physiological measures in children (age 2-18 years; n = 5,099) and adults (age 19 years and older; n = 10,216) using a large, nationally representative database. Lunch meat consumers were defined as those consuming any amount of lunch meat during a 24-h recall and association with nutrient intake, diet quality (Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 score) and physiological measures were evaluated using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2010. The lunch meat consumers (both children and adults) had higher intakes of calories, protein, calcium, potassium, sodium and saturated fat (for adults only) compared to non-consumers. Lunch meat intake was also associated with higher intake of meat/poultry/fish food group in both children and adult consumers than non-consumers. There was no difference in total HEI-2010 scores comparing lunch meat consumers and non-consumers in children or adults. However, HEI components scores for total fruit, whole fruit (children only), whole grains, dairy and total protein foods were significantly higher, and for greens & beans (adults only), seafood and plant protein, fatty acid ratio and sodium were significantly lower in children and adult lunch meat consumers compared to non-consumers. There were no significant differences in physiological measures or in the odds ratios of health related conditions between lunch meat consumers and non-consumers in children or adults. The results of this study may provide insight into how to better utilize lunch meats in the diets of U.S. children and adults.

  10. Serum Ferritin Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome and Red Meat Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Felipe, Avila; Guadalupe, Echeverría; Druso, Pérez; Carlos, Martinez; Pablo, Strobel; Oscar, Castillo; Luis, Villaroel; Diego, Mezzano; Jaime, Rozowski; Inés, Urquiaga; Federico, Leighton

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims. Hyperferritinemia has been related with a wide spectrum of pathologies, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, and metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between hyperferritinemia and iron consumption. Methods and Results. Serum ferritin concentration was evaluated in 66 presumed healthy men, along with other clinical and biochemical markers of chronic diseases. A three-day food questionnaire was applied for nutrition information. Hyperferritinemia was a condition found in 13.4% of the volunteers analyzed. Significant correlations were found between serum ferritin concentration and metabolic syndrome parameters (HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting glucose) as well as an increase of the serum ferritin mean value with the number of risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Also, oxidative stress markers (carbonyl groups, AOPP, and glycated hemoglobin), hepatic damage markers (GGT, SGOT), and parameters related to insulin resistance (HOMA, blood insulin, and blood glucose) correlate significantly with serum ferritin. Volunteers had an excessive iron intake, principally by bread consumption. Analyses of food intake showed that red meat consumption correlates significantly with serum ferritin. Conclusion. Red meat consumption, metabolic syndrome, and chronic disease markers are associated with hyperferritinemia in a population of Chilean men. PMID:26451235

  11. Mortality from different causes associated with meat, heme iron, nitrates, and nitrites in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study: population based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H; Graubard, Barry I; Inoue-Choi, Maki; Dawsey, Sanford M; Abnet, Christian C

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of different types of meat intake and meat associated compounds with overall and cause specific mortality. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Baseline dietary data of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study (prospective cohort of the general population from six states and two metropolitan areas in the US) and 16 year follow-up data until 31 December 2011. Participants 536 969 AARP members aged 50-71 at baseline. Exposures Intake of total meat, processed and unprocessed red meat (beef, lamb, and pork) and white meat (poultry and fish), heme iron, and nitrate/nitrite from processed meat based on dietary questionnaire. Adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models were used with the lowest fifth of calorie adjusted intakes as reference categories. Main outcome measure Mortality from any cause during follow-up. Results An increased risk of all cause mortality (hazard ratio for highest versus lowest fifth 1.26, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.29) and death due to nine different causes associated with red meat intake was observed. Both processed and unprocessed red meat intakes were associated with all cause and cause specific mortality. Heme iron and processed meat nitrate/nitrite were independently associated with increased risk of all cause and cause specific mortality. Mediation models estimated that the increased mortality associated with processed red meat was influenced by nitrate intake (37.0-72.0%) and to a lesser degree by heme iron (20.9-24.1%). When the total meat intake was constant, the highest fifth of white meat intake was associated with a 25% reduction in risk of all cause mortality compared with the lowest intake level. Almost all causes of death showed an inverse association with white meat intake. Conclusions The results show increased risks of all cause mortality and death due to nine different causes associated with both processed and unprocessed red meat, accounted for, in part, by

  12. A central role for heme iron in colon carcinogenesis associated with red meat intake.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia M; Chenni, Fatima; Audebert, Marc; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Baradat, Maryse; Jouanin, Isabelle; Surya, Reggie; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Gueraud, Françoise; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2015-03-01

    Epidemiology shows that red and processed meat intake is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Heme iron, heterocyclic amines, and endogenous N-nitroso compounds (NOC) are proposed to explain this effect, but their relative contribution is unknown. Our study aimed at determining, at nutritional doses, which is the main factor involved and proposing a mechanism of cancer promotion by red meat. The relative part of heme iron (1% in diet), heterocyclic amines (PhIP + MeIQx, 50 + 25 μg/kg in diet), and NOC (induced by NaNO₂+ NaNO₂; 0.17 + 0.23 g/L of drinking water) was determined by a factorial design and preneoplastic endpoints in chemically induced rats and validated on tumors in Min mice. The molecular mechanisms (genotoxicity, cytotoxicity) were analyzed in vitro in normal and Apc-deficient cell lines and confirmed on colon mucosa. Heme iron increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, but dietary heterocyclic amines and NOC had no effect on carcinogenesis in rats. Dietary hemoglobin increased tumor load in Min mice (control diet: 67 ± 39 mm²; 2.5% hemoglobin diet: 114 ± 47 mm², P = 0.004). In vitro, fecal water from rats given hemoglobin was rich in aldehydes and was cytotoxic to normal cells, but not to premalignant cells. The aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and 4-hydroxyhexenal were more toxic to normal versus mutated cells and were only genotoxic to normal cells. Genotoxicity was also observed in colon mucosa of mice given hemoglobin. These results highlight the role of heme iron in the promotion of colon cancer by red meat and suggest that heme iron could initiate carcinogenesis through lipid peroxidation. .

  13. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  14. Rural Elementary Students' Understanding of Science and Agricultural Education Benchmarks Related to Meat and Livestock.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meischen, Deanna L.; Trexler, Cary J.

    2003-01-01

    Seven fifth-graders developed concept maps depicting their knowledge of meat product development. Despite their rural background, they lacked understanding of agriculture concepts and had mixed knowledge of agricultural literacy benchmarks concerning food products. Their language did not reflect scientific terminology in the benchmarks. (Contains…

  15. Colorectal polyp type and the association with charred meat consumption, smoking, and microsomal epoxide hydrolase polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Mandelson, Margaret T.; Adams, Scott V.; Wernli, Karen J.; Shadman, Mazyar; Wurscher, Michelle A.; Makar, Karen W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective We determined the association between charred meat consumption, cigarette smoking, microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) polymorphisms [rs1051740 and rs2234922], and colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs) and explored gene-environment interactions. Methods Men and women with colorectal adenomas (n=519), HPs (n=691), or concurrently with both types of polyps (n=227) and polyp-free controls (n=772) receiving a colonoscopy from 12/04-9/07 were recruited. Participants completed telephone interviews and provided buccal cell samples; genotyping of mEH was completed using Taqman assays. We conducted polytomous regression and calculated odd ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Interactions were evaluated using Wald chi-square tests. Results Consumption of >3 servings of charred meat per week was associated with distal HPs (OR=2.0, 1.2–3.4) but not adenomas nor either type of proximal polyp. Heavy cigarette smoking (≥22 pack-years) was associated with an increased risk for colorectal adenomas (OR=1.7, 95% CI 1.2–2.4), HPs (OR=2.4, 95% CI 1.7–3.3), and both types (OR=2.8, 95% CI 1.8–4.3) with the strongest association for distal polyps. There was no association between mEH genotype and colorectal polyps, nor were any statistically significant gene-environment interactions identified. Discussion Future investigation of BaP exposure and colorectal neoplasia should analyze whether associations are dependent upon anatomic location. PMID:21598178

  16. The association between red and processed meat consumption and iron intakes and status among British adults.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Sigrid; Ashwell, Margaret

    2003-06-01

    To examine the association between consumption of red and processed meat (RPM) and iron intakes and status in adults. Further analysis of the Dietary and Nutritional Survey of British Adults, a cross-sectional study of 2197 adults aged 16-64 years carried out in 1986/7. Adults (836 men and 838 women) with serum ferritin measurements, who were not taking iron supplements, were classified into four groups according to RPM consumption (from 7-day weighed records). Iron absorbed was estimated from equations based on haem and non-haem iron and the influence of iron stores. Women who ate least meat (<90 g day-1) had three times the risk of a low iron intake (below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake) compared with high consumers of RPM (>140 g day-1). Men who ate no RPM also had a higher risk of low iron intake. Using an estimate of minimal values for iron losses, there was a twofold difference in the potential risk of negative iron balance between women non-RPM consumers and high RPM consumers. Status measurements indicated that, among women, anaemia was least prevalent (6%) among high consumers compared with 12-14% among average RPM consumers. Inverse trends were also observed for serum ferritin in both sexes. Low consumption of RPM has implications for iron intakes and iron status in men and women, since the risk of negative iron balance and its consequences are increased. Dietary messages must consider these implications and provide appropriate advice.

  17. An outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium DT170 associated with kebab meat and yogurt relish.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, M. R.; Salmon, R. L.; Nehaul, L.; Mably, S.; Wafford, L.; Nolan-Farrell, M. Z.; Gardner, D.; Ribeiro, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    During July 1995, an outbreak of Salmonella typhimurium definitive type (DT) 170, an unusual strain, occurred in South Wales. A case-control study found that illness was associated with eating kebabs (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.002), doner kebabs (odds ratio 7.9, 95 % confidence interval 1.5-20.5, P = 0.02) and kebabs with yoghurt based relish (odds ratio undefined, P = 0.009) but not with eating kebabs with mayonnaise-based relish (odds ratio 2.4, 95 % confidence interval 0.4-13.9, P = 0.53). Environmental investigations discovered a complex web of producers and wholesale suppliers. Kebab meat and yoghurt had been supplied to the two main implicated outlets by a single wholesaler. Samples of raw minced lamb and several environmental swabs taken at the wholesaler were positive for S. typhimurium DT170. Blood-stained, unsealed yoghurt pots were observed to be stored under a rack of raw lamb. Investigators of food poisoning outbreaks linked to takeaway food should consider cross-contaminated relishes and dressings as well as undercooked meat as potential vehicles of infection. PMID:10459639

  18. Liver pathology associated with increased mortality in turkey breeder and meat turkey flocks.

    PubMed

    Popp, Christina; Hauck, Rüdiger; Vahlenkamp, Thomas W; Lüschow, Dörte; Kershaw, B Olivia; Hoferer, Marc; Hafez, Hafez M

    2014-09-01

    Between 2006 and 2011 a series of disease conditions characterized by raised mortality and liver disorders occurred in turkey breeder flocks and in meat turkey flocks in Germany. The flocks were between 12 and 23 wk of age, and mostly hens were affected. Clinical signs were nonspecific and accompanied by mortality varying between 1% and 7%. Affected birds displayed swollen livers that were marbled with black and red spots and yellowish areas. The pericardium was filled with an amber fluid, and the coronary groove was extensively filled with fat. Spleens were swollen, and a serous fluid that seemed to leak from the liver was present in the body cavity. Histopathological findings in all but one case included fatty degeneration of hepatocytes with parenchymal collapse and associated hemorrhages. Some animals showed cholangitis and hepatitis with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In three cases with breeders, electron microscopy detected virus particles that were between 23 and 30 nm and similar to parvo- or picornavirus. In addition, picornavirus RNA was detected in the livers of one meat turkey flock. Investigations by PCR for circovirus, polyomavirus parvovirus, and aviadenovirus yielded negative results in all cases, but an aviadenovirus was isolated from livers twice and a reovirus from the intestines once. Supplementation with vitamin E and selenium seemed to improve the situation. The most likely diagnosis is lipidosis, a metabolic disorder with complex etiology, which has rarely been described in turkeys.

  19. Trends in meat science and technology: the future looks bright, but the journey will be long.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, L; Støier, S; Würtz, J; Hinrichsen, L

    2014-11-01

    With an increasing world population, an increase in affluence and a substantial growth in the demand for high quality protein, the meat sector faces a fantastic but challenging century. New scientific knowledge, technology and creative minds are the main ingredients in order to reach out for this great opportunity. Efficiency all the way from breeding and farming to processing and dispatch is crucial for success. Technology has brought us far, and there is still a huge potential for increased efficiency by implementing best practices on a global scale. New challenges include: hyper flexible automation, more accurate and faster measurement systems and meeting special consumer demands already at the production line. Systems for optimal animal welfare will be even more important and sustainability is no longer a consumer trend but a license to operate. The scientific meat society must provide knowledge and technology so we together can reach out for a seemingly bright future.

  20. Association between total, processed, red and white meat consumption and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Abete, Itziar; Romaguera, Dora; Vieira, Ana Rita; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Norat, Teresa

    2014-09-14

    An association between processed and red meat consumption and total mortality has been reported by epidemiological studies; however, there are many controversial reports regarding the association between meat consumption and CVD and IHD mortality. The present meta-analysis was carried out to summarise the evidence from prospective cohort studies on the association between consumption of meat (total, red, white and processed) and all-cause, CVD and IHD mortality. Cohort studies were identified by searching the PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Risk estimates for the highest v. the lowest consumption category and dose-response meta-analysis were calculated using a random-effects model. Heterogeneity among the studies was also evaluated. A total of thirteen cohort studies were identified (1 674 272 individuals). Subjects in the highest category of processed meat consumption had 22 and 18 % higher risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, respectively. Red meat consumption was found to be associated with a 16 % higher risk of CVD mortality, while no association was found for total and white meat consumption. In the dose-response meta-analysis, an increase of 50 g/d in processed meat intake was found to be positively associated with all-cause and CVD mortality, while an increase of 100 g/d in red meat intake was found to be positively associated with CVD mortality. No significant associations were observed between consumption of any type of meat and IHD mortality. The results of the present meta-analysis indicate that processed meat consumption could increase the risk of mortality from any cause and CVD, while red meat consumption is positively but weakly associated with CVD mortality. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the high heterogeneity observed in most of the analyses as well as the possibility of residual confounding.

  1. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Shannon K

    2017-01-01

    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk. Impact statement Current recommendations to reduce colon cancer include the reduction or elimination of red or processed meats. These recommendations are based on data from epidemiological studies conducted among cultures where meat consumption is elevated and consumption of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains are reduced. This review evaluated experimental data exploring the putative mechanisms whereby red or processed meats may contribute to colon cancer. Most studies used levels of meat or meat-derived compounds that were in excess of those in human diets, even in cultures where meat intake is elevated. Experiments where protective dietary compounds were used to mitigate the

  2. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vinicius Henrique da; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Giachetto, Poliana Fernanda; Brassaloti, Ricardo Augusto; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype.

  3. Workers' Health Surveillance in the Meat Processing Industry: Work and Health Indicators Associated with Work Ability.

    PubMed

    van Holland, Berry J; Soer, Remko; de Boer, Michiel R; Reneman, Michiel F; Brouwer, Sandra

    2015-09-01

    Workers' health surveillance (WHS) programs commonly measure a large number of indicators addressing health habits and health risks. Recently, work ability and functional capacity have been included as important risk measures in WHS. In order to address work ability appropriately, knowledge of associations with work and health measures is necessary. The objective of this study was to evaluate which of the factors measured in a WHS are independently associated with work ability in a group of meat processing workers. A cross-sectional study was performed in a large meat processing company in The Netherlands. Data were collected during a WHS between February 2012 and March 2014. Personal characteristics, health habits and health-risk indicators, functional capacity, and work-related factors were measured. Work ability was measured with the Work Ability Index and was used as dependent variable. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted, a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Data sets from 230 employees were used for analyses. The average age was 53 years and the average work ability index score was 39.3. In the final multivariable model age (OR 0.94), systolic blood pressure (OR 1.03), need for recovery (OR 0.56), and overhead work capacity (OR 3.95) contributed significantly. The AUC for this model was 0.81 (95% CI 0.75-0.86). Findings from the current study indicate that multifactorial outcomes (age, systolic blood pressure, need for recovery, and overhead work capacity) from a WHS were independently associated with work ability. These factors can be used to assess employees at risk for low work ability and might provide directions for interventions.

  4. Genome-Wide Detection of CNVs and Their Association with Meat Tenderness in Nelore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Vinicius Henrique; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Geistlinger, Ludwig; Pértille, Fábio; Morosini, Natália Silva; Zimmer, Ralf; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2016-01-01

    Brazil is one of the largest beef producers and exporters in the world with the Nelore breed representing the vast majority of Brazilian cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Despite the great adaptability of the Nelore breed to tropical climate, meat tenderness (MT) remains to be improved. Several factors including genetic composition can influence MT. In this article, we report a genome-wide analysis of copy number variation (CNV) inferred from Illumina® High Density SNP-chip data for a Nelore population of 723 males. We detected >2,600 CNV regions (CNVRs) representing ≈6.5% of the genome. Comparing our results with previous studies revealed an overlap in ≈1400 CNVRs (>50%). A total of 1,155 CNVRs (43.6%) overlapped 2,750 genes. They were enriched for processes involving guanosine triphosphate (GTP), previously reported to influence skeletal muscle physiology and morphology. Nelore CNVRs also overlapped QTLs for MT reported in other breeds (8.9%, 236 CNVRs) and from a previous study with this population (4.1%, 109 CNVRs). Two CNVRs were also proximal to glutathione metabolism genes that were previously associated with MT. Genome-wide association study of CN state with estimated breeding values derived from meat shear force identified 6 regions, including a region on BTA3 that contains genes of the cAMP and cGMP pathway. Ten CNVRs that overlapped regions associated with MT were successfully validated by qPCR. Our results represent the first comprehensive CNV study in Bos taurus indicus cattle and identify regions in which copy number changes are potentially of importance for the MT phenotype. PMID:27348523

  5. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: stem cell niche and postnatal muscle growth.

    PubMed

    Bi, P; Kuang, S

    2012-03-01

    Stem cell niche plays a critical role in regulating the behavior and function of adult stem cells that underlie tissue growth, maintenance, and regeneration. In the skeletal muscle, stem cells, called satellite cells, contribute to postnatal muscle growth and hypertrophy, and thus, meat production in agricultural animals. Satellite cells are located adjacent to mature muscle fibers underneath a sheath of basal lamina. Microenvironmental signals from extracellular matrix mediated by the basal lamina and from the host myofiber both impinge on satellite cells to regulate their activity. Furthermore, several types of muscle interstitial cells, including intramuscular preadipocytes and connective tissue fibroblasts, have recently been shown to interact with satellite cells and actively regulate the growth and regeneration of postnatal skeletal muscles. From this regard, interstitial adipogenic cells are not only important for marbling and meat quality, but also represent an additional cellular component of the satellite cell niche. At the molecular level, these interstitial cells may interact with satellite cells through cell surface ligands, such as delta-like 1 homolog (Dlk1) protein whose overexpression is thought to be responsible for muscle hypertrophy in callipyge sheep. In fact, extracellular Dlk1 protein has been shown to promote the myogenic differentiation of satellite cells. Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms within the stem cell niche that regulate satellite cell differentiation and maintain muscle homeostasis may lead to promising approaches to optimizing muscle growth and composition, thus improving meat production and quality.

  6. Red meat consumption is associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes in men but not in women: a Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Kurotani, Kayo; Nanri, Akiko; Goto, Atsushi; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Noda, Mitsuhiko; Oba, Shino; Kato, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yumi; Inoue, Manami; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between different types of meat intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between total meat, total red meat, unprocessed red meat, processed meat and poultry intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 27 425 men and 36 424 women aged 45–75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, and had no history of type 2 diabetes, cancer, stroke, IHD, chronic liver disease or kidney disease. Meat intake was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years were estimated using a multiple logistic regression. A total of 1178 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intakes of total meat and total red meat were associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men but not in women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of total meat and total red meat intake were 1·36 (95% CI 1·07, 1·73; P for trend=0·006) and 1·48 (95% CI 1·15, 1·90; P for trend=0·003) for men, respectively, and 0·82 (95% CI 0·62, 1·09; P for trend=0·14) and 0·77 (95% CI 0·57, 1·02; P for trend=0·08) for women, respectively. Intakes of processed red meat and poultry were not associated with the increased risk of diabetes in either men or women. In conclusion, elevated intake of red meat is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men but not in women.

  7. [Association of processed meat intake and obesity in a population-based study of Japanese-Brazilians].

    PubMed

    Cristofoletti, Maria F; Gimeno, Suely G A; Ferreira, Sandra R G; Cardoso, Marly A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the consumption of processed meat with overall, abdominal, and overall with abdominal obesity in a Japanese-Brazilian population, which is known to be at cardiometabolic risk. A total of 329 men and 443 women aged ≥ 30 years were evaluated in a cross-sectional population-based survey. Diagnosis of overall obesity and abdominal obesity were based on the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for Asians. Food intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionaire. In men, processed meat intake was positively associated with overall with abdominal obesity (OR 2.97; 95%CI 1.13-7.78) after adjustment. In women, only the red meat group was associated with overall with abdominal obesity after adjustment (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.23-0.96). Our results showed that high intakes of processed meats were associated with overall with abdominal obesity in male Japanese-Brazilians, but not in females.

  8. Association study between gene polymorphisms in PPAR signaling pathway and porcine meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    He, Kan; Wang, Qishan; Wang, Zhen; Pan, Yuchun

    2013-08-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that fatty acids biosynthesis and metabolism are regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), mostly through the PPAR signaling pathway at the transcriptomic level. We hypothesized that the genetic variants of the enzymes in the PPAR signaling pathway may be associated with the traits of porcine meat quality (PMQ). We mined 77 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PPAR signaling pathway of the pig. There were 13 TagSNPs in 13 different genes mapped within the reported pig quantitative trait loci (QTLs) regions related to PMQ based on the Pig QTL database. Based on the association study with ten measured PMQ traits in both the pathway level and the SNP level, we tested eight significantly associated traits with additive effect in the PPAR signaling pathway and explored only one significant TagSNP in gene RXRB, which is directly associated with the trait of skin weight. Moreover, several interactions of TagSNPs were also significantly related to some of PMQ traits. In this large and comprehensive candidate gene set study, we found a modest association of genes and SNPs in the PPAR signaling pathway with PMQ. Further investigation of these gene polymorphisms jointly with fatty acid measures and other genetic factors would help us better understand the regulation mechanisms of PMQ.

  9. A large prospective study of meat consumption and colorectal cancer risk: an investigation of potential mechanisms underlying this association.

    PubMed

    Cross, Amanda J; Ferrucci, Leah M; Risch, Adam; Graubard, Barry I; Ward, Mary H; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sinha, Rashmi

    2010-03-15

    Although the relation between red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer has been reported in several epidemiologic studies, very few investigated the potential mechanisms. This study examined multiple potential mechanisms in a large U.S. prospective cohort with a detailed questionnaire on meat type and meat cooking methods linked to databases for estimating intake of mutagens formed in meats cooked at high temperatures (heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), heme iron, nitrate, and nitrite. During 7 years of follow-up, 2,719 colorectal cancer cases were ascertained from a cohort of 300,948 men and women. The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) comparing the fifth to the first quintile for both red (HR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.09-1.42; P(trend) < 0.001) and processed meat (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32; P(trend) = 0.017) intakes indicated an elevated risk for colorectal cancer. The potential mechanisms for this relation include heme iron (HR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99-1.29; P(trend) = 0.022), nitrate from processed meats (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02-1.32; P(trend) = 0.001), and heterocyclic amine intake [HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.05-1.34; P(trend) < 0.001 for 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) and HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.05-1.29; P(trend) <0.001 for 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx)]. In general, the elevated risks were higher for rectal cancer than for colon cancer, with the exception of MeIQx and DiMeIQx, which were only associated with colon cancer. In conclusion, we found a positive association for red and processed meat intake and colorectal cancer; heme iron, nitrate/nitrite, and heterocyclic amines from meat may explain these associations.

  10. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

    2009-01-14

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems.

  11. Changes in muscle cell cation regulation and meat quality traits are associated with genetic selection for high body weight and meat yield in broiler chickens

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, Dale A; Barker, Zoe E; Mitchell, Malcolm A; Hocking, Paul M

    2009-01-01

    Between-breed genetic variation for muscle and meat quality traits was determined at eight weeks of age in 34 lines of purebred commercial broiler and layer lines and traditional breeds (categories) of chickens. Between-breed genetic variation for plasma ion concentrations and element concentration in muscle dry matter and ash were determined. Plasma from broilers had higher concentrations of Na+, K+, Mg++, total and free Ca++ and lower free:total Ca++ than plasma from layer and traditional lines. Muscle from broilers contained more Na and higher concentrations of K, Mg and Ca per mg of ash but not of dry matter compared with layer and traditional lines. In comparison with layer and traditional lines, broiler genotypes were over three times heavier, their plasma creatine kinase activity (CK), a marker of muscle tissue damage, was higher, their breast muscle colour was lighter (L*) and less red (a*) and yellow (b*) in appearance, the initial and final pH of their muscles were lower, the pH change was higher and their breast muscle was more tender. Thus, genetic selection for broiler traits has markedly altered cation regulation in muscle cells and may be associated with changes in muscle cell function and the development of pathology and meat quality problems. PMID:19284683

  12. Toxoplasma gondii: Pig seroprevalence, associated risk factors and viability in fresh pork meat.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Laura; Gracia, María Jesús; Pérez-Arquillué, Consuelo; Lázaro, Regina; Herrera, Marta; Herrera, Antonio; Bayarri, Susana

    2016-07-15

    This study was conducted on 161 fattening pig farms located in Aragón (Northeast Spain). Serum samples from 1200 pigs were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Antibodies to T. gondii (≥1:20) were detected in 301 pigs (24.52%). The seroprevalence observed in the present study indicates a widespread exposure to T. gondii, as seropositive pigs were found in 96.67% of the farms studied although low pig titers were determined. Risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were presence of cats in or around the farms, presence of dogs around the facilities, low number of animals in the farms, poor hygiene and bad maintenance of the farms. Finally, it was observed that where rodent baits were used, Toxoplasma prevalence was lower. Risk management measures including control of cats and rodents on the farms, among others, could help to reduce the observed prevalence levels. By mouse bioassay, T. gondii was detected in 73.7% and isolated from 42.1% of seropositive pigs and a significant relation between the titers of pigs and the presence and viability of T. gondii in the tissues was found. The detection of T. gondii is not possible by currently practiced meat inspection. Nevertheless, the increased probability of detecting viable forms of T. gondii in tissues of pigs with titers ≥1: 80 could be used as the cutoff for discriminating higher risk animals, and could be used as an effective control tool for the industry of cured meat products. In practical terms, we propose that this value could be used as a critical limit in the HACCP system.

  13. Heat shock and structural proteins associated with meat tenderness in Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus breed.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Minos Esperândio; Gasparin, Gustavo; Poleti, Mirele Daiana; Rosa, Alessandra Fernandes; Balieiro, Júlio Cesar Carvalho; Labate, Carlos Alberto; Nassu, Renata Tieko; Tullio, Rymer Ramiz; Regitano, Luciana Correia de Almeida; Mourão, Gerson Barreto; Coutinho, Luiz Lehmann

    2014-03-01

    Nellore beef cattle, a Bos indicus (Zebu) breed, is well adapted to tropical conditions and has allowed Brazil to become one of the largest producers of red meat. Nevertheless, B. indicus breeds are reported to have less tender meat than Bos taurus. This study was designed to identify genes associated with meat tenderness and thus provides important information for breeding programs. A group of 138 animals was evaluated for longissimus thoracis muscle shear force (SF). Animals with the highest and lowest SF values (six animals each) were then selected for protein abundance studies. Samples were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by peptide sequencing through mass spectrometry (MS) to identify differentially expressed proteins associated with SF values. Seventeen differentially expressed spots were observed (p<0.05) between the two groups. The 13 proteins identified included structural proteins (alpha actin-1, MLC1, MLC3, MLC2F and tropomyosin), related to cell organization (HSPB1 and HSP70), metabolism (beta-LG, ACBD6 and Complex III subunit I) and some uncharacterized proteins. Results confirm the existence of differentially expressed proteins associated with SF, which can lead to a better understanding of mechanisms involved in meat tenderness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. We investigated the associations of meat intake and the intera...

  15. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the FTO gene and their association with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gong-Wei; Gao, Lian; Chen, Shi-Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Bing; Tian, Yao-Fu; Wang, Xia; Deng, Xiao-Song; Lai, Song-Jia

    2013-09-25

    Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene is an excellent candidate to affect the fatness and growth-related traits in pig and cattle. The aim of this study was to reveal the association between FTO and growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. A total of eight coding SNPs were detected, and four SNPs of them in exon 3 were further genotyped for association analysis in 442 rabbits from three breeds, including 248 New Zealand rabbits, 92 Ira rabbits, and 102 Champagne rabbits. Because there were significant differences for the allele and genotype frequencies among breeds, the association analysis was independently conducted in each breed only for these SNPs with minor allele frequency >5.0%. The results revealed that non-synonymous SNP c.499G>A (p.A167T) was significantly associated with body weight (BW) at 35, 70, and 84 days of age in New Zealand rabbits (P<0.01). The CC genotype of synonymous SNP c.660T>C was significantly associated with higher BW84, average daily weight gain, and intramuscular fat content of longissimus lumborum than TT and TC genotypes in Ira rabbits (P<0.05). There were no associations between the four SNPs and growth and meat quality traits in Champagne rabbits. Meanwhile, FTO SNPs were not associated with meat pH value. Our data indicated that FTO gene could be a candidate gene associated with growth and meat quality traits in rabbits. However, the breed-specific effect should be carefully taken into consideration.

  16. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--implant and beta agonist impacts on beef palatability.

    PubMed

    Garmyn, A J; Miller, M F

    2014-01-01

    The use of anabolic implants has a long-standing place in the cattle feeding industry, due to their positive impact on growth performance and subsequent profitability. However, implants can have adverse effects on carcass quality, shear force, and eating quality depending on the dose and frequency, or what some refer to as the aggressiveness of the implant regimen administered. Within the past decade, a new class of growth promotants, known as β-adrenergic agonists (βAA), has emerged in the beef feeding industry in the United States. Currently, 2 have gained U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for use in beef finishing diets to improve performance and carcass yields. Much like anabolic implants, these repartitioning agents can have negative effects on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), but the differences do not necessarily translate directly to consumer responses for palatability and acceptance in some instances, especially when tenderness is managed through proper postmortem aging. As researchers continued to investigate the mechanisms responsible for the impact of βAA, inevitably this led to consideration of the interaction between βAA and anabolic implants. Early work combining zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) with anabolic implants improved performance, carcass yield, and meat yield with additive negative effects on WBSF. Similar results were produced when pairing ZH with anabolic steroids equipped with various release patterns. As with any tool, the key to success is proper management. Certain cattle populations may be better suited to receive growth promotants such as implants and βAA, and postmortem management of subprimal cuts becomes vital when producers take more aggressive approaches to improve performance and yield. The objective of this review is to overview research findings related to the impact of growth promotant technologies on beef palatability, focusing specifically on the role of implants and βAA on carcass quality, beef tenderness

  17. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in Nellore Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana F. B.; de Camargo, Gregório M. F.; Fernandes, Gerardo A.; Gordo, Daniel G. M.; Tonussi, Rafael L.; Costa, Raphael B.; Espigolan, Rafael; Silva, Rafael M. de O.; Bresolin, Tiago; de Andrade, Willian B. F.; Takada, Luciana; Feitosa, Fabieli L. B.; Baldi, Fernando; Carvalheiro, Roberto; Chardulo, Luis A. L.; de Albuquerque, Lucia G.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions that are associated with meat quality traits in the Nellore breed. Nellore steers were finished in feedlots and slaughtered at a commercial slaughterhouse. This analysis included 1,822 phenotypic records of tenderness and 1,873 marbling records. After quality control, 1,630 animals genotyped for tenderness, 1,633 animals genotyped for marbling, and 369,722 SNPs remained. The results are reported as the proportion of variance explained by windows of 150 adjacent SNPs. Only windows with largest effects were considered. The genomic regions were located on chromosomes 5, 15, 16 and 25 for marbling and on chromosomes 5, 7, 10, 14 and 21 for tenderness. These windows explained 3,89% and 3,80% of the additive genetic variance for marbling and tenderness, respectively. The genes associated with the traits are related to growth, muscle development and lipid metabolism. The study of these genes in Nellore cattle is the first step in the identification of causal mutations that will contribute to the genetic evaluation of the breed. PMID:27359122

  18. Working with State Science Teachers Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutz, Julie

    The emphasis that education and public outreach (EPO) professionals put on doing presentations and workshops at the national conference of the National Science Teachers Association is great, but lack of funds for travel and substitutes prevents the vast majority of science teachers from attending this event. This article argues that EPO professionals should consider devoting more attention to the state science teachers associations in their regions. Working with these organizations can have a very positive effect on the teaching of astronomy topics in classrooms throughout the country.

  19. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles reveal novel candidate genes associated with meat quality at different age stages in hens

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Yan, Feng-Bin; Li, Fang; Jiang, Ke-Ren; Li, Dong-Hua; Han, Rui-Li; Li, Zhuan-Jan; Jiang, Rui-Rui; Liu, Xiao-Jun; Kang, Xiang-Tao; Sun, Gui-Rong

    2017-01-01

    Poultry meat quality is associated with breed, age, tissue and other factors. Many previous studies have focused on distinct breeds; however, little is known regarding the epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in different age stages, such as DNA methylation. Here, we compared the global DNA methylation profiles between juvenile (20 weeks old) and later laying-period (55 weeks old) hens and identified candidate genes related to the development and meat quality of breast muscle using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. The results showed that the later laying-period hens, which had a higher intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition capacity and water holding capacity (WHC) and less tenderness, exhibited higher global DNA methylation levels than the juvenile hens. A total of 2,714 differentially methylated regions were identified in the present study, which corresponded to 378 differentially methylated genes, mainly affecting muscle development, lipid metabolism, and the ageing process. Hypermethylation of the promoters of the genes ABCA1, COL6A1 and GSTT1L and the resulting transcriptional down-regulation in the later laying-period hens may be the reason for the significant difference in the meat quality between the juvenile and later laying-period hens. These findings contribute to a better understanding of epigenetic regulation in the skeletal muscle development and meat quality of chicken. PMID:28378745

  20. Meat Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legacy, Jim; And Others

    This publication provides an introduction to meat processing for adult students in vocational and technical education programs. Organized in four chapters, the booklet provides a brief overview of the meat processing industry and the techniques of meat processing and butchering. The first chapter introduces the meat processing industry and…

  1. The ratio of fish to meat in the diet is positively associated with favorable intake of food groups and nutrients among young Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Hitomi; Sasaki, Satoshi; Murakami, Kentaro; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2011-03-01

    Although fish and meat may exert opposing influences on chronic disease, information on the balance of intake between fish and meat to overall diet quality is limited, particularly in Japanese, who have a much higher fish intake than Western populations. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis that intake balance between fish and meat is associated with food and nutrient intakes in young Japanese women. The subjects were 3716 Japanese dietetic students aged 18 to 20 years. Diet was assessed by a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. The dietary ratio of fish to meat was calculated from fish and meat intakes as a temporal indicator of overall intake balance. The ratio of fish to meat intake was associated positively with intakes of vegetables, fruits, pulses, dairy products, and alcohol, and negatively with those of energy-containing beverages and fat and oils. At the nutrient level, the ratio of fish to meat intake was associated negatively with intakes of energy, total fat, saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin B(1), and zinc, and positively with those of protein, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber, and key vitamins and minerals. After limiting analysis to nutrients derived from foods other than fish and meat, the ratio of fish to meat intake was positively associated with intakes of almost all vitamins and minerals examined. In conclusion, women who consumed more fish than meat (ratio >1) tended to choose more favorable food groups that included higher amounts of vegetables and fruits, resulting in a better profile of nutrient intake patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The association of red meat, poultry, and egg consumption with risk of hip fractures in elderly Chinese: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fang-fang; Fan, Fan; Xue, Wen-qiong; Xie, Hai-li; Wu, Bao-hua; Tu, Su-lan; Ouyang, Wei-fu; Chen, Yu-ming

    2013-10-01

    The epidemiological evidence that the consumption of red meat, poultry or eggs may be associated with the risk of hip fractures is inconsistent and no studies have differentiated between types of red meat or poultry. We evaluated the association between the consumption of red meat, poultry or eggs and the risk of hip fracture. A 1:1 age- (±3years) and gender-matched case-control study of 646 pairs (female/male: 484/162) of elderly Chinese was conducted between June 2009 and January 2013 in Guangdong, China. Information on meat and egg consumption was collected using a 79-item food frequency questionnaire administered in face-to-face interviews. Conditional logistic regression was used to test the relationship between intake of red meat, poultry, and eggs and the risk of hip fracture. Multivariate ORs and their 95% CIs were estimated. After adjusting for potential confounders, risk of hip fracture was found to be positively associated with total red meat consumption (P for trend <0.001), but not with total poultry or egg consumption. The adjusted ORs (95% CIs) for hip fractures, comparing extreme quartiles, were 2.94 (1.82, 4.76) for total red meat, 1.11 (0.74, 1.66) for total poultry, and 0.99 (0.63, 1.56) for eggs. Subtype analyses indicated that the unfavorable effect of total red meat was primarily associated with the consumption of fatty pork and organ meat, whereas fatty and lean poultry had opposite effects. Men with higher fatty pork intake tended to have greater risk than women (P interaction=0.019). Our findings suggest that greater consumption of fatty, but not lean, red meat and poultry may increase the risk of hip fracture. These results provide preliminary evidence for the feasibility of a dietary program for the prevention of hip fractures, which should be confirmed by further studies. © 2013.

  3. Association between red meat consumption and colon cancer: A systematic review of experimental results.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nancy D; Lloyd, Shannon K

    2017-01-01

    A role for red and processed meat in the development of colorectal cancer has been proposed based largely on evidence from observational studies in humans, especially in those populations consuming a westernized diet. Determination of causation specifically by red or processed meat is contingent upon identification of plausible mechanisms that lead to colorectal cancer. We conducted a systematic review of the available evidence to determine the availability of plausible mechanistic data linking red and processed meat consumption to colorectal cancer risk. Forty studies using animal models or cell cultures met specified inclusion criteria, most of which were designed to examine the role of heme iron or heterocyclic amines in relation to colon carcinogenesis. Most studies used levels of meat or meat components well in excess of those found in human diets. Although many of the experiments used semi-purified diets designed to mimic the nutrient loads in current westernized diets, most did not include potential biologically active protective compounds present in whole foods. Because of these limitations in the existing literature, there is currently insufficient evidence to confirm a mechanistic link between the intake of red meat as part of a healthy dietary pattern and colorectal cancer risk.

  4. Factors Associated with the Adoption of Food Safety Controls by the Mexican Meat Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado-Simán, Ema; Martínez-Hernández, Pedro Arturo; García-Muñiz, José G.; Cadena-Meneses, José

    Food marketing at international and domestic markets has focused on processing systems that improve food safety. The objective of this research is to determine the factors influencing the implementation of the HACCP system in the Mexican meat industry, and to identify the main marketing destination of their products. Only 18.5% of enterprises reports fully operational HACCP in their plants. The main destination of their production in the domestic market is supermarkets, suppliers and distributors and specific niches of the domestic market. Exports are to USA, Japan, Korea and Central America and some niches of the domestic market with requirements of higher quality. The four principal factors that motivate enterprises to adopt HACCP are associated with improvement of plant efficiency and profitability, adoption of good practices, improvement of product quality and waste reduction. It is concluded that Mexican enterprises adopt HACCP to successfully remain and face competition by foreign enterprises in the domestic market and to a lesser extent to compete in the international market.

  5. Association between DLK1 and IGF-I gene expression and meat quality in sheep.

    PubMed

    Su, R; Sun, W; Li, D; Wang, Q Z; Lv, X Y; Musa, H H; Chen, L; Zhang, Y F; Wu, W Z

    2014-12-04

    The aim of the present study was to detect delta-like 1 ho-molog (DLK1) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) gene expression in the longissimus dorsi of Hu sheep at different growth stages and study the association between these genes and meat quality. The diameter and density of muscle fibers and tenderness of the longissimus dorsi were measured. Growth stage, but not sex, significantly affected DLK1 and IGF-I expression. DLK1 and IGF-I expression in the sheep longissimus dorsi gradually increased with growth, but also decreased during some periods. These results suggest that different growth stages significantly affect DLK1 and IGF-I gene expression in sheep muscle tissue. The ex-pression of DLK1 and IGF-I genes were positively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber diameter and muscle fiber shear stress, and negatively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber density. Muscle fiber diameter was positively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber shear stress, and negatively and significantly (P < 0.01) correlated with muscle fiber density. In addition, DLK-1 expression was significantly (P < 0.01) and positively correlated with IGF-I expression.

  6. Calcium and α-tocopherol suppress cured-meat promotion of chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats and reduce associated biomarkers in human volunteers123

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Océane CB; Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Audebert, Marc; Dupuy, Jacques; Meunier, Nathalie; Attaix, Didier; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Mirvish, Sidney S; Kuhnle, Gunter CG; Cano, Noel; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Background: Processed meat intake has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. We have shown that cured meat promotes carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and increases specific biomarkers in the colon of rats. Objectives: We investigated whether cured meat modulates biomarkers of cancer risk in human volunteers and whether specific agents can suppress cured meat–induced preneoplastic lesions in rats and associated biomarkers in rats and humans. Design: Six additives (calcium carbonate, inulin, rutin, carnosol, α-tocopherol, and trisodium pyrophosphate) were added to cured meat given to groups of rats for 14 d, and fecal biomarkers were measured. On the basis of these results, calcium and tocopherol were kept for the following additional experiments: cured meat, with or without calcium or tocopherol, was given to dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats (47% meat diet for 100 d) and to human volunteers in a crossover study (180 g/d for 4 d). Rat colons were scored for mucin-depleted foci, putative precancer lesions. Biomarkers of nitrosation, lipoperoxidation, and cytotoxicity were measured in the urine and feces of rats and volunteers. Results: Cured meat increased nitroso compounds and lipoperoxidation in human stools (both P < 0.05). Calcium normalized both biomarkers in rats and human feces, whereas tocopherol only decreased nitro compounds in rats and lipoperoxidation in feces of volunteers (all P < 0.05). Last, calcium and tocopherol reduced the number of mucin-depleted foci per colon in rats compared with nonsupplemented cured meat (P = 0.01). Conclusion: Data suggest that the addition of calcium carbonate to the diet or α-tocopherol to cured meat may reduce colorectal cancer risk associated with cured-meat intake. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00994526. PMID:24025632

  7. Lack of association of GH1 and POU1F1 gene variants with meat production traits in Piemontese cattle.

    PubMed

    Di Stasio, L; Sartore, S; Albera, A

    2002-02-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and the Pit-1 transcription factor have been shown to be involved in the physiological mechanisms related to growth. The present study was carried out to investigate the possible association of the polymorphism at GH1 and POU1F1 loci with meat production traits in Piemontese cattle. Fourteen traits were considered, expressing growth (weight at 5, 7 and 11 months, daily gain), size [withers height (WH), trunk length (TL), chest girth (CG) at 12 months] and meat conformation [withers width (WW), shoulder muscularity (SM), loin width (LW), loin thickness (LT), thigh muscularity (TM), thigh profile (TP), bone thinness (BT)]. Data were analysed with a mixed model procedure to estimate the allele substitution and the dominance effects. The results did not provide evidence of association of GH1 and POU1F1 polymorphisms with the evaluated traits.

  8. Nutritional value and digestion rate of rhea meat proteins in association with storage and cooking processes.

    PubMed

    Filgueras, Renata S; Gatellier, Philippe; Ferreira, Claude; Zambiazi, Rui C; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique

    2011-09-01

    The nutritional value of proteins was investigated after the storage and cooking of rhea M. Gastrocnemius pars interna. Oxidation of basic and aromatic amino acids, surface hydrophobicity and aggregation state of proteins, were determined in raw and cooked meat. In addition, myofibrillar proteins were exposed in vitro to proteases of the digestive tract. Cooking markedly affected the protein surface hydrophobicity. The BBP bound content was three times greater in cooked than in fresh rhea meat. A small increment in tryptophan content after cooking was observed. Storage influenced Schiff bases formation indicating the presence of protein-aldehyde adducts after cooking. High content of Schiff bases was found after cooking of samples stored for 5 days, demonstrating a probable implication of free amino groups, most likely from lysine. Cooking decreased the myofibrillar protein susceptibility to pepsin activity. After cooking, the proteolysis rate by pancreatic enzymes increased. Our findings support the importance of protein aggregation in the nutritional value of meat proteins.

  9. Carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle fed different non-fiber carbohydrates sources associated with crude glycerin.

    PubMed

    Favaro, V R; Ezequiel, J M B; Almeida, M T C; D'Aurea, A P; Paschoaloto, J R; van Cleef, E H C B; Carvalho, V B; Junqueira, N B

    2016-08-01

    Crude glycerin, a potential energy source for ruminant animals, has been evaluated, mainly, in diets with high starch content. However, a limit number of studies have evaluated the inclusion of crude glycerin in low starch diets. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the association of crude glycerin with corn grain or citrus pulp on carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore bulls (n=30, 402±31 kg initial weight). The treatment consisted of: CON=control, without crude glycerin; CG10=10% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CG15=15% of crude glycerin and corn grain; CP10=10% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp; CP15=15% of crude glycerin and citrus pulp. The performance parameters and carcass traits were not affected by treatments (P>0.05). The inclusion of crude glycerin decreased yellow color intensity and increased fatty acids pentadecanoic and heptadecenoic in meat (P<0.05), without affecting neither the concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids nor the relationship of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The association of crude glycerin with corn or citrus pulp has no adverse effects on carcass characteristics and meat quality.

  10. Detection and molecular characterization of Livestock-Associated MRSA in raw meat on retail sale in North West England.

    PubMed

    Fox, A; Pichon, B; Wilkinson, H; Doumith, M; Hill, R L R; McLauchlin, J; Kearns, A M

    2017-03-01

    Limited data are available on the prevalence of livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) in the UK. We tested 124 raw meat samples for MRSA including pork (n = 63), chicken (n = 50) and turkey (n = 11) collected from retail outlets in North West England between March and July 2015. MRSA was recovered from nine (7·3%) samples (four chicken, three pork and two turkey) from different butchers and supermarkets. Four were labelled of UK origin, three were from continental Europe; the origin was not specified for two samples. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS), spa typing and the presence of lineage-specific canonical single nucleotide polymorphisms confirmed that they belonged to the livestock-associated clade of clonal complex (CC) 398. Seven (77·8%) isolates were multi-drug resistant. Phylogenetic analyses showed the isolates were diverse, suggesting multiple silent introductions of LA-MRSA into the UK food chain. Two chicken meat isolates belonged to a sub-clade recently reported from human cases in Europe where poultry meat was the probable source. The low levels of MRSA identified (<20 CFU per g) and absence of enterotoxin genes suggest the risk of acquisition of, or food-poisoning due to, LA-MRSA is low. Nevertheless, the MRSA contamination rate is higher than previously estimated; further evaluation of the public health impacts of LA-MRSA is warranted.

  11. Association of Milk and Meat Consumption with the Development of Breast Cancer in a Western Mexican Population

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Salazar, Hector R.; Arreola-Cruz, Alejandro; Madrigal-Pérez, Daniela; Soriano-Hernández, Alejandro D.; Guzman-Esquivel, Jose; Montes-Galindo, Daniel A.; López-Flores, Rodrigo A.; Espinoza-Gomez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Sanchez, Iram P.; Newton-Sanchez, Oscar A.; Lara-Esqueda, Agustin; Martinez-Fierro, Margarita L.; Briseño-Gomez, Xochitl G.; Delgado-Enciso, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breast cancer is a public health problem and it is the most common gynecologic neoplasia worldwide. The risk factors for its development are of both hereditary and environmental origin. Certain foods have been clearly associated with modifying the breast cancer risk. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the effects of cow's milk and meat consumption on the development of breast cancer in a population from Western Mexico (Colima). Material and Methods We studied 97 patients presenting with a histopathologic diagnosis of breast cancer and 104 control individuals who did not present with the disease (Breast Imaging Report and Data System (BI-RADS) 1-2). 80% of the population belonged to a low socioeconomic stratum. The main clinical characteristics were analyzed along with the lifetime consumption of meat and milk. Results High milk consumption increased the breast cancer risk by 7.2 times (p = 0.008) whereas the consumption of meat was not significantly associated with the disease. Conclusions High consumption of cow's milk was a risk factor for the development of breast cancer. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of dietary patterns on the development of breast cancer in diverse populations with ethnic, cultural, and economic differences. PMID:26989358

  12. Polymorphisms in Epigenetic and Meat Quality Related Genes in Fourteen Cattle Breeds and Association with Beef Quality and Carcass Traits

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Usman, Tahir; Wang, Yachun; Wang, Zezhao; Xu, Xianzhou; Wu, Meng; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Xu; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lin; Shi, Wanhai; Qin, Chunhua; Geng, Fanjun; Wang, Congyong; Tan, Rui; Huang, Xixia; Liu, Airong; Wu, Hongjun; Tan, Shixin; Yu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Improvement for carcass traits related to beef quality is the key concern in beef production. Recent reports found that epigenetics mediates the interaction of individuals with environment and nutrition. The present study was designed to analyze the genetic effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven epigenetic-related genes (DNMT1, DNMT3a, DNMT3b, DNMT3L, Ago1, Ago2, and HDAC5) and two meat quality candidate genes (CAPN1 and PRKAG3) on fourteen carcass traits related to beef quality in a Snow Dragon beef population, and also to identify SNPs in a total of fourteen cattle populations. Sixteen SNPs were identified and genotyped in 383 individuals sampled from the 14 cattle breeds, which included 147 samples from the Snow Dragon beef population. Data analysis showed significant association of 8 SNPs within 4 genes related to carcass and/or meat quality traits in the beef populations. SNP1 (13154420A>G) in exon 17 of DNMT1 was significantly associated with rib-eye width and lean meat color score (p<0.05). A novel SNP (SNP4, 76198537A>G) of DNMT3a was significantly associated with six beef quality traits. Those individuals with the wild-type genotype AA of DNMT3a showed an increase in carcass weight, chilled carcass weight, flank thicknesses, chuck short rib thickness, chuck short rib score and in chuck flap weight in contrast to the GG genotype. Five out of six SNPs in DNMT3b gene were significantly associated with three beef quality traits. SNP15 (45219258C>T) in CAPN1 was significantly associated with chuck short rib thickness and lean meat color score (p<0.05). The significant effect of SNP15 on lean meat color score individually and in combination with each of other 14 SNPs qualify this SNP to be used as potential marker for improving the trait. In addition, the frequencies of most wild-type alleles were higher than those of the mutant alleles in the native and foreign cattle breeds. Seven SNPs were identified in the epigenetic-related genes. The SNP

  13. Estimation of Genetic Associations between Production and Meat Quality Traits in Duroc Pigs.

    PubMed

    Cabling, M M; Kang, H S; Lopez, B M; Jang, M; Kim, H S; Nam, K C; Choi, J G; Seo, K S

    2015-08-01

    Data collected from 690 purebred Duroc pigs from 2009 to 2012 were used to estimate the heritability, and genetic and phenotypic correlations between production and meat quality traits. Variance components were obtained through the restricted maximum likelihood procedure using Wombat and SAS version 9.0. Animals were raised under the same management in five different breeding farms. The average daily gain, loin muscle area (LMA), backfat thickness (BF), and lean percent (LP) were measured as production traits. Meat quality traits included pH, cooking loss, lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), marbling score (MS), moisture content (MC), water holding capacity (WHC), and shear force. The results showed that the heritability estimates for meat quality traits varied largely from 0.19 to 0.79. Production traits were moderate to highly heritable from 0.41 to 0.73. Genotypically, the BF was positively correlated (p<0.05) with MC (0.786), WHC (0.904), and pH (0.328) but negatively correlated with shear force (-0.533). The results of genetic correlations indicated that selection for less BF could decrease pH, moisture content, and WHC and increase the shear force of meat. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was recorded between average daily gain and WHC, which indicates pork from faster-growing animals has higher WHC. Furthermore, selection for larger LMA and LP could increase MS and lightness color of meat. The meat quality and production traits could be improved simultaneously if desired. Hence, to avoid further deterioration of pork characteristics, appropriate selection of traits should be considered.

  14. Association of halothane sensitivity with growth and meat quality in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bates, R O; Doumit, M E; Raney, N E; Helman, E E; Ernst, C W

    2012-09-01

    Previous reports have indicated that a proportion of pigs, homozygous normal for the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1), was halothane sensitive, and this was associated with poor meat quality when pigs were handled aggressively. This study was conducted to evaluate halothane sensitivity in RYR1-normal pigs, managed under simulated commercial conditions, to ascertain the association of halothane sensitivity with growth rate and meat quality. A total of 363 pigs across four farrowing groups, from seven Landrace sires and 38 Yorkshire-Landrace F1 dams, were tested at 8 weeks of age for halothane sensitivity using a closed system that delivered 5% halothane at 2 l/min for 3 (group 1) or 2 (groups 2 to 4) min. After 1 min, limb rigidity, limb tremors and abdominal discoloration were evaluated on a binomial scale with 0 indicating no reaction and 1 indicating reaction. Testing was repeated 2 days later. At 10 weeks of age, pigs were moved to finishing pens and not moved again until marketing. Within farrowing group, pigs were harvested in one of two groups, and at marketing were moved a distance of 91 m, weighed, tattooed, loaded and transported a distance of 550 km to a commercial harvest plant. After overnight rest, pigs were harvested and the pH of the loin muscle was measured at 45 min (pH45) after stunning. After an 18-h chill, loin muscle pH (pHu), International Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, b*, color (1 to 6) and marbling (1 to 10) scores and fluid loss percent were collected. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate repeatabilities for response to halothane challenge. Repeatabilities for limb rigidity for the front right and left legs were 0.24 and 0.31, respectively, whereas rear right and left leg repeatabilities were 0.19 and 0.17, respectively. Repeatabilities for front right and left leg tremors were 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. Growth rate was not influenced by any measure of halothane sensitivity. Carcasses from pigs

  15. Effects of two types of soy protein isolates, native and preheated whey protein isolates on emulsified meat batters prepared at different protein levels.

    PubMed

    Youssef, M K; Barbut, S

    2011-01-01

    The effects of substituting 1.5% of the meat proteins with low gelling soy protein isolate (LGS), high gelling soy protein isolate (HGS), native whey protein isolate (NWP), and preheated whey protein isolate (PWP) were compared at varying levels of proteins (12, 13 and 14%), with all meat control batters prepared with canola oil. Cooking losses were lower for all the non-meat protein treatments compared to the all meat controls. When raising the protein level from 12 to 14%, cooking losses increased in all treatments except for the NWP treatments. Using LGS increased emulsification and resulted in a more stable meat batters at the 13 and 14% protein treatments. Textural profile analysis results showed that elevating protein level increased hardness and cohesiveness. The highest hardness values were obtained for the PWP treatments and the lowest for the HGS, indicating a strong non-meat protein effect on texture modification. Non-meat protein addition resulted in lighter and less red products (i.e., lower red meat content) compared to the all meat controls; color affected by non-meat protein type. Light microscopy revealed that non-meat proteins decreased the frequency of fat globules' agglomeration and protein aggregation. The whey protein preparations and HGS formed distinct "islands" within the meat batters' matrices, which appeared to interact with the meat protein matrix. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Analysis of Meat Quality Traits in a Porcine Large White × Minzhu Intercross Population

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Weizhen; Cheng, Duxue; Chen, Shaokang; Wang, Ligang; Li, Yong; Ma, Xiaojun; Song, Xin; Liu, Xin; Li, Wen; Liang, Jing; Yan, Hua; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Chuduan; Wang, Lixian; Zhang, Longchao

    2012-01-01

    Pork quality is an economically important trait and one of the main selection criteria for breeding in the swine industry. In this genome-wide association study (GWAS), 455 pigs from a porcine Large White × Minzhu intercross population were genotyped using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip, and phenotyped for intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling, moisture, color L*, color a*, color b* and color score in the longissimus muscle (LM). Association tests between each trait and the SNPs were performed via the Genome Wide Rapid Association using the Mixed Model and Regression-Genomic Control (GRAMMAR-GC) approach. From the Ensembl porcine database, SNP annotation was implemented using Sus scrofa Build 9. A total of 45 SNPs showed significant association with one or multiple meat quality traits. Of the 45 SNPs, 36 were located on SSC12. These significantly associated SNPs aligned to or were in close approximation to previously reported quantitative trait loci (QTL) and some were located within introns of previously reported candidate genes. Two haplotype blocks ASGA0100525-ASGA0055225-ALGA0067099-MARC0004712-DIAS0000861, and ASGA0085522-H3GA0056170 were detected in the significant region. The first block contained the genes MYH1, MYH2 and MYH4. A SNP (ASGA0094812) within an intron of the USP43 gene was significantly associated with five meat quality traits. The present results effectively narrowed down the associated regions compared to previous QTL studies and revealed haplotypes and candidate genes on SSC12 for meat quality traits in pigs. PMID:22532790

  17. Associations of red and processed meat with survival after colorectal cancer and differences according to timing of dietary assessment.

    PubMed

    Carr, Prudence R; Jansen, Lina; Walter, Viola; Kloor, Matthias; Roth, Wilfried; Bläker, Hendrik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the prognostic impact of red and processed meat intake or about changes in consumption after a diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). We investigated associations of baseline red and processed meat with survival outcomes and explored changes in intake among CRC survivors 5 y after diagnosis. A total of 3122 patients diagnosed with CRC between 2003 and 2010 were followed for a median of 4.8 y [DACHS (Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening) study]. Patients provided information on diet and other factors in standardized questionnaires at baseline and at the 5-y follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Among patients with stage I-III CRC, baseline red and processed meat intake was not associated with overall (>1 time/d compared with <1 time/d; HR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.09), CRC-specific (HR: 0.83; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.14), cardiovascular disease-specific (HR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.68), non-CRC-specific (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.59, 1.30), and recurrence-free (HR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.33) survival; results among stage IV patients were comparable. An association with worse overall survival was found among patients with Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS)-mutated CRC (HR: 1.99; 95% CI: 1.10, 3.56) but not with microsatellite instability or CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) positivity. A much lower proportion of survivors reported daily consumption of red and processed meat at the 5-y follow-up than at baseline (concordance rate: 39%; κ-value: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.13). Our findings suggest that baseline red and processed meat intake is not associated with poorer survival among patients with CRC. The potential interaction with KRAS mutation status warrants further evaluation. Major changes in consumption measured at the 5-y follow-up may have had an impact on our survival estimates. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Development of the dose-response relationship for human toxoplasma gondii infection associated with meat consumption

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that is responsible for approximately 24% of deaths attributed to foodborne pathogens in the United States.A substantial portion of human T. gondii infections may be acquired through the consumption of meats. The dose-response relationship for human exposure...

  19. Overlap of Spoilage-Associated Microbiota between Meat and the Meat Processing Environment in Small-Scale and Large-Scale Retail Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Stellato, Giuseppina; La Storia, Antonietta; De Filippis, Francesca; Borriello, Giorgia; Villani, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbial contamination in food processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. The aims of this study were to learn more about the possible influence of the meat processing environment on initial fresh meat contamination and to investigate the differences between small-scale retail distribution (SD) and large-scale retail distribution (LD) facilities. Samples were collected from butcheries (n = 20), including LD (n = 10) and SD (n = 10) facilities, over two sampling campaigns. Samples included fresh beef and pork cuts and swab samples from the knife, the chopping board, and the butcher's hand. The microbiota of both meat samples and environmental swabs were very complex, including more than 800 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) collapsed at the species level. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that core microbiota were shared by 80% of the samples and included Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp., Brochothrix spp., Psychrobacter spp., and Acinetobacter spp. Hierarchical clustering of the samples based on the microbiota showed a certain separation between meat and environmental samples, with higher levels of Proteobacteria in meat. In particular, levels of Pseudomonas and several Enterobacteriaceae members were significantly higher in meat samples, while Brochothrix, Staphylococcus, lactic acid bacteria, and Psychrobacter prevailed in environmental swab samples. Consistent clustering was also observed when metabolic activities were considered by predictive metagenomic analysis of the samples. An increase in carbohydrate metabolism was predicted for the environmental swabs and was consistently linked to Firmicutes, while increases in pathways related to amino acid and lipid metabolism were predicted for the meat samples and were positively correlated with Proteobacteria. Our results highlighted the importance of the processing environment in contributing to the initial microbial levels of meat and clearly showed that the type

  20. Overlap of Spoilage-Associated Microbiota between Meat and the Meat Processing Environment in Small-Scale and Large-Scale Retail Distributions.

    PubMed

    Stellato, Giuseppina; La Storia, Antonietta; De Filippis, Francesca; Borriello, Giorgia; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo

    2016-07-01

    Microbial contamination in food processing plants can play a fundamental role in food quality and safety. The aims of this study were to learn more about the possible influence of the meat processing environment on initial fresh meat contamination and to investigate the differences between small-scale retail distribution (SD) and large-scale retail distribution (LD) facilities. Samples were collected from butcheries (n = 20), including LD (n = 10) and SD (n = 10) facilities, over two sampling campaigns. Samples included fresh beef and pork cuts and swab samples from the knife, the chopping board, and the butcher's hand. The microbiota of both meat samples and environmental swabs were very complex, including more than 800 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) collapsed at the species level. The 16S rRNA sequencing analysis showed that core microbiota were shared by 80% of the samples and included Pseudomonas spp., Streptococcus spp., Brochothrix spp., Psychrobacter spp., and Acinetobacter spp. Hierarchical clustering of the samples based on the microbiota showed a certain separation between meat and environmental samples, with higher levels of Proteobacteria in meat. In particular, levels of Pseudomonas and several Enterobacteriaceae members were significantly higher in meat samples, while Brochothrix, Staphylococcus, lactic acid bacteria, and Psychrobacter prevailed in environmental swab samples. Consistent clustering was also observed when metabolic activities were considered by predictive metagenomic analysis of the samples. An increase in carbohydrate metabolism was predicted for the environmental swabs and was consistently linked to Firmicutes, while increases in pathways related to amino acid and lipid metabolism were predicted for the meat samples and were positively correlated with Proteobacteria Our results highlighted the importance of the processing environment in contributing to the initial microbial levels of meat and clearly showed that the type of retail

  1. Variation at the Calpain 3 gene is associated with meat tenderness in zebu and composite breeds of cattle

    PubMed Central

    Barendse, William; Harrison, Blair E; Bunch, Rowan J; Thomas, Merle B

    2008-01-01

    Background Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) affecting meat tenderness have been reported on Bovine chromosome 10. Here we examine variation at the Calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene in cattle, a gene located within the confidence interval of the QTL, and which is a positional candidate gene based on the biochemical activity of the protein. Results We identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the genomic sequence of the CAPN3 gene and tested three of these in a sample of 2189 cattle. Of the three SNP genotyped, the CAPN3:c.1538+225G>T had the largest significant additive effect, with an allele substitution effect in the Brahman of α = -0.144 kg, SE = 0.060, P = 0.016, and the polymorphism explained 1.7% of the residual phenotypic variance in that sample of the breed. Significant haplotype substitution effects were found for all three breeds, the Brahman, the Belmont Red, and the Santa Gertrudis. For the common haplotype, the haplotype substitution effect in the Brahman was α = 0.169 kg, SE = 0.056, P = 0.003. The effect of this gene was compared to Calpastatin in the same sample. The SNP show negligible frequencies in taurine breeds and low to moderate minor allele frequencies in zebu or composite animals. Conclusion These associations confirm the location of a QTL for meat tenderness in this region of bovine chromosome 10. SNP in or near this gene may be responsible for part of the overall difference between taurine and zebu breeds in meat tenderness, and the greater variability in meat tenderness found in zebu and composite breeds. The evidence provided so far suggests that none of these tested SNP are causative mutations. PMID:18590576

  2. Outbreak of norovirus infection among river rafters associated with packaged delicatessen meat, Grand Canyon, 2005.

    PubMed

    Malek, Mark; Barzilay, Ezra; Kramer, Adam; Camp, Brendan; Jaykus, Lee-Ann; Escudero-Abarca, Blanca; Derrick, Greg; White, Patricia; Gerba, Charles; Higgins, Charles; Vinje, Jan; Glass, Roger; Lynch, Michael; Widdowson, Marc-Alain

    2009-01-01

    Norovirus is often transmitted by infected food handlers at the point of service, whereas reports of food contamination before wholesale distribution are rare. In September 2005, we investigated reports of gastroenteritis among rafters who went on unrelated trips on the Colorado River. We surveyed all companies that launched rafting trips during the period from 14 August through 19 September 2005 to identify trips in which > or =3 rafters became ill. We conducted a case-control study. Case patients were persons who experienced diarrhea or vomiting that commenced < or =72 h after the trip launch; control subjects were persons who did not become ill < or =72 h after launch. We tested stool samples and food specimens for norovirus. We performed a traceback investigation of the suspected food vehicle and inspected the implicated processing plant. Three or more rafters developed gastroenteritis during 13 (14%) of 91 trips, for a total of 137 ill persons. Of the 57 case patients who became ill < or =72 h after trip launch, 55 (96%) reported eating delicatessen meat, compared with 75 (79%) of 95 control subjects (odds ratio, 7.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.7-66.7). All delicatessen meat eaten by case patients came from 1 batch purchased from 1 processing plant and had been sliced, vacuum-packed, and frozen (temperature, -23 degrees C) for 7-28 days. An employee sliced this batch with bare hands 1 day after recovery from gastroenteritis. Identical norovirus sequences were identified in stool specimens obtained from rafters on 3 different trips; 2 of 5 meat packages also tested positive for norovirus by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and DNA hybridization. Food handlers can contaminate ready-to-eat meats with norovirus during processing. Meat-processing practices should include specific measures to prevent contamination with enteric viruses and subsequent widespread outbreaks.

  3. Association of N-terminal domain polymorphisms of the porcine glucocorticoid receptor with carcass composition and meat quality traits.

    PubMed

    Reyer, Henry; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus; Murani, Eduard

    2014-02-01

    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a ubiquitously acting transcription factor that is responsible for mediating the physiological response to stress and adaptation to environmental conditions. Genetic variation of a GR gene (NR3C1) may therefore contribute to multiple phenotypic alterations and influence relevant traits of animal production. Here, we examined effects of two non-synonymous mutations of the porcine NR3C1, leading to amino acid exchanges p.Glu13Asp (c.39A>C) and p.Val19Leu (c.55G>C) in the N-terminal domain of the GR, on meat quality and carcass composition. In addition, we explored their influence on transcriptional activity of GR in vitro. A commercial crossbreed Pietrain × (German Large White × German Landrace) herd (n = 545) in which genotypes and relevant traits had been collected was used to perform the association analysis. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.55G>C was significantly associated with conductivity and meat color scores. These effects were highly consistent considering the physiological relationship between these traits. Association analysis of SNP c.39A>C also revealed significant effects on closely connected meat quality traits. In addition, SNP c.55G>C showed association with carcass traits, mainly those related to muscle deposition. The molecular mechanism of action of both amino acid substitutions remains obscure because neither showed significant influence on transcriptional activity of GR. Our study emphasizes NR3C1 as an important candidate gene for muscle-related traits in pigs, but further work is necessary to clarify the molecular background of the identified associations.

  4. Effect of irradiation on the parameters that influence quality characteristics of uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Moon, Sunhee; Lee, Hyunyong; Ahn, Dong U

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on lipid/protein oxidation, color changes, and off-odor volatiles production in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products. Uncured cooked turkey breast meat and cured commercial turkey breast rolls and ham were prepared and irradiated at 0, 1.5, 3.0, and 4.5 kGy using a linear accelerator. The results showed that irradiation had little effects on lipid oxidation of cured cooked turkey products, but accelerated lipid oxidation in uncured cooked turkey breast meat (P < 0.05). Protein oxidation was increased both in cured and uncured meats (P < 0.05), but more in cured cooked meat by irradiation. The redness of uncured cooked turkey was increased (P < 0.05), but the redness of cured cooked turkey meat was faded by irradiation (P < 0.05). Irradiated cured cooked turkey meat products produced less off-odor volatile compounds (dimethyl disulfide, 3-methyl/2-methyl-butananl, and hexanal) than irradiated uncured cooked meat products due to various additives in the cured meat products. Our results suggested that irradiation resulted in different chemical reactions to pigments in uncured and cured cooked turkey meat products, but cured cooked turkey meat products have a higher tolerance to odor deterioration than uncured cooked turkey meat products. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Human Risk of Diseases Associated with Red Meat Intake: Analysis of Current Theories and Proposed Role for Metabolic Incorporation of a Non-Human Sialic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Alisson-Silva, Frederico; Kawanishi, Kunio; Varki, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    One of the most consistent epidemiological associations between diet and human disease risk is the impact of red meat consumption (beef, pork, and lamb, particularly in processed forms). While risk estimates vary, associations are reported with all-cause mortality, colorectal and other carcinomas, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and possibly other inflammatory processes. There are many proposed explanations for these associations, some long discussed in the literature. Attempts to explain the effects of red meat consumption have invoked various red meat-associated agents, including saturated fat, high salt intake, Trimethylamine–N-oxide (TMAO) generation by microbiota, and environmental pollutants contaminating red meat, none of which are specific for red meat. Even the frequently mentioned polycyclic aromatic carcinogens arising from high temperature cooking methods are not red meat specific, as these are also generated by grilling poultry or fish, as well as by other forms of cooking. The traditional explanations that appear to be more red meat specific invoke the impact of N-nitroso compounds, heme iron, and the potential of heme to catalyze endogenous nitrosation. However, heme can be denatured by cooking, high levels of plasma hemopexin will block its tissue delivery, and much higher amounts of heme likely originate from red blood cell breakdown in vivo. Therefore, red meat-derived heme could only contribute to colorectal carcinoma risk, via direct local effects. Also, none of these mechanisms explain the apparent human propensity i.e., other carnivores have not been reported at high risk for all these diseases. A more recently proposed hypothesis involves infectious agents in beef from specific dairy cattle as agents of colorectal cancer. We have also described another mechanistic explanation for the human propensity for risk of red-meat associated diseases that is consistent with most observations: metabolic incorporation of a non

  6. Human risk of diseases associated with red meat intake: Analysis of current theories and proposed role for metabolic incorporation of a non-human sialic acid.

    PubMed

    Alisson-Silva, Frederico; Kawanishi, Kunio; Varki, Ajit

    2016-10-01

    One of the most consistent epidemiological associations between diet and human disease risk is the impact of red meat consumption (beef, pork, and lamb, particularly in processed forms). While risk estimates vary, associations are reported with all-cause mortality, colorectal and other carcinomas, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and possibly other inflammatory processes. There are many proposed explanations for these associations, some long discussed in the literature. Attempts to explain the effects of red meat consumption have invoked various red meat-associated agents, including saturated fat, high salt intake, Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) generation by microbiota, and environmental pollutants contaminating red meat, none of which are specific for red meat. Even the frequently mentioned polycyclic aromatic carcinogens arising from high temperature cooking methods are not red meat specific, as these are also generated by grilling poultry or fish, as well as by other forms of cooking. The traditional explanations that appear to be more red meat specific invoke the impact of N-nitroso compounds, heme iron, and the potential of heme to catalyze endogenous nitrosation. However, heme can be denatured by cooking, high levels of plasma hemopexin will block its tissue delivery, and much higher amounts of heme likely originate from red blood cell breakdown in vivo. Therefore, red meat-derived heme could only contribute to colorectal carcinoma risk, via direct local effects. Also, none of these mechanisms explain the apparent human propensity i.e., other carnivores have not been reported at high risk for all these diseases. A more recently proposed hypothesis involves infectious agents in beef from specific dairy cattle as agents of colorectal cancer. We have also described another mechanistic explanation for the human propensity for risk of red-meat associated diseases that is consistent with most observations: metabolic incorporation of a non

  7. Evaluation of associations between prion haplotypes and growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in a Dorset x Romanov sheep population.

    PubMed

    Isler, B J; Freking, B A; Thallman, R M; Heaton, M P; Leymaster, K A

    2006-04-01

    There is concern about potential antagonistic correlated responses due to intensive selection for scrapie-resistant haplotypes of the prion (PRNP) gene in sheep. The objective of the present research was to test for associations of PRNP haplotypes for codons 136, 154, and 171 with growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in an F2 Dorset x Romanov population (n = 415) segregating the 2 callipyge alleles. Haplotypes of the 3 PRNP codons were determined for each sheep, and breed of origin of each gamete was predicted by genotyping 6 microsatellite markers flanking the PRNP locus. Twenty-five growth, carcass, and meat quality traits were evaluated. Data were analyzed using a basic model consisting of fixed effects of year, sex, and callipyge genotype, the random effect of sire, and 7 covariates corresponding to the probability that a lamb inherited a specific PRNP haplotype of either Dorset or Romanov origin. A fixed effect of litter size was added to the model for growth traits. The model for carcass traits contained the linear and quadratic effects of chilled carcass weight and the interactions among callipyge genotype and linear and quadratic terms. For meat quality traits, the model contained chilled carcass weight as a covariate and the interaction between callipyge genotype and chilled carcass weight. A contrast between the resistant ARR haplotype and the average effect of other PRNP haplotypes was tested to investigate the effects of potential selection for ARR within each breed of origin (Dorset, ARR vs. ARQ, VRQ, and AHQ; Romanov, ARR vs. ARQ and VRQ). There was limited evidence that selecting for scrapie resistance would cause correlated responses due to linkage disequilibrium. Associations of only 3 traits with PRNP haplotypes were detected in either breed of origin. In Romanov, the ARR haplotype was associated with longer carcasses (P < 0.013), narrower rumps (P = 0.038), and less marbling (P = 0.022) than the average of ARQ and VRQ haplotypes. No

  8. Heme-Induced Biomarkers Associated with Red Meat Promotion of colon Cancer Are Not Modulated by the Intake of Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Chenni, Fatima Z; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kunhle, Gunter G C; Pierre, Fabrice H; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain this association, via heme/alcenal, heterocyclic amines or N-nitroso compounds. Rats have often been used to study these hypotheses, but the lack of enterosalivary cycle of nitrate in rats casts doubt on the relevance of this animal model to predict nitroso- and heme-associated human colon carcinogenesis. The present study was thus designed to clarify whether a nitrite intake that mimics the enterosalivary cycle can modulate heme-induced nitrosation and fat peroxidation. This study shows that, in contrast with the starting hypothesis, salivary nitrite did not change the effect of hemoglobin on biochemical markers linked to colon carcinogenesis, notably lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activity in the colon of rat. However, ingested sodium nitrite increased fecal nitroso-compounds level, but their fecal concentration and their nature (iron-nitrosyl) would not be associated with an increased risk of cancer. The rat model could thus be relevant to study the effect of red meat on colon carcinogenesis in spite of the lack of nitrite recycling in rat’s saliva. PMID:23441609

  9. Heme-induced biomarkers associated with red meat promotion of colon cancer are not modulated by the intake of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Chenni, Fatima Z; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kunhle, Gunter G C; Pierre, Fabrice H; Corpet, Denis E

    2013-01-01

    Red and processed meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Three hypotheses are proposed to explain this association, via heme-induced oxidation of fat, heterocyclic amines, or N-nitroso compounds. Rats have often been used to study these hypotheses, but the lack of enterosalivary cycle of nitrate in rats casts doubt on the relevance of this animal model to predict nitroso- and heme-associated human colon carcinogenesis. The present study was thus designed to clarify whether a nitrite intake that mimics the enterosalivary cycle can modulate heme-induced nitrosation and fat peroxidation. This study shows that, in contrast with the starting hypothesis, drinking water added with nitrite to mimic the salivary nitrite content did not change the effect of hemoglobin on biochemical markers linked to colon carcinogenesis, notably lipid peroxidation and cytotoxic activity in the colon of rat. However, ingested sodium nitrite increased fecal nitroso-compounds level, but their fecal concentration and their nature (iron-nitrosyl) would probably not be associated with an increased risk of cancer. We thus suggest that the rat model could be relevant for study the effect of red meat on colon carcinogenesis, in spite of the lack of nitrite in the saliva of rats.

  10. A review of potential metabolic etiologies of the observed association between red meat consumption and development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoona; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that red and processed meat consumption is related to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clearly understood which components of red and processed meat contribute to this increased risk. This review examines potential mechanisms addressing the role of saturated fatty acid, sodium, advanced glycation end products (AGEs), nitrates/nitrites, heme iron, trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), branched amino acids (BCAAs) and endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) in the development of type 2 diabetes based on data from published clinical trials and animal models. TMAO which is derived from dietary carnitine and choline by the action of bacterial enzymes followed by oxidation in the liver may be a strong candidate molecule mediating the risk of type 2 diabetes. BCAAs may induce insulin resistance via the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase β 1 (S6k1)-associated pathways. The increased risk associated with processed meat compared with red meat suggests that there are interactions between the saturated fat, salt, and nitrates in processed meat and iron, AGEs and TMAO. Intervention studies are required to clarify potential mechanisms and explore interactions among components, in order to make firm recommendations on red and processed meat consumption. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Consumption of red meat, white meat and processed meat in Irish adults in relation to dietary quality.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Meadhbh; Flynn, Albert; Kiely, Máiréad

    2005-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the association of red meat, white meat and processed meat consumption in Irish adults with dietary quality. A cross-sectional study of subjects, randomly selected using the electoral register, estimated habitual food intakes using a 7 d food diary in a nationally representative sample of 662 men and 717 women (not pregnant or lactating) aged 18-64 years. Consumers were classified into thirds, based on the distribution of mean daily intakes for red meat, white meat and processed meat. The mean intakes of red meat, white meat and processed meat were 51, 33 and 26 g/d respectively, and men consumed significantly more (P<0.001) than women for all meat types. In men, red meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.001) prevalence of inadequacy for Zn, riboflavin and vitamin C intakes. Increasing processed meat intake was associated with a lower (P<0.01) level of compliance with dietary recommendations for fat, carbohydrate and fibre in men. Increasing processed meat consumption was associated with lower (P<0.01) wholemeal bread, vegetables, fruit and fish intakes in men and women. Managerial occupations were associated with lower processed meat intakes. It is important to distinguish between meat groups, as there was a large variation between the dietary quality in consumers of red meat, white meat and processed meat. Processed meat consumption is negatively associated with dietary quality and might therefore be a dietary indicator of poor dietary quality. This has important implications in nutritional epidemiological studies and for the development of food-based dietary guidelines.

  12. Dietary intakes of zinc and heme iron from red meat, but not from other sources, are associated with greater risk of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C; Alonso, Alvaro; Lee, Duk-Hee; Delclos, George L; Bertoni, Alain G; Jiang, Rui; Lima, Joao A; Symanski, Elaine; Jacobs, David R; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share an inflammatory etiology and are known to be influenced by diet. We investigated associations of hypothesized prooxidative (Fe) and antioxidative (Zn, Mg, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E) micronutrients with incident MetS, T2D, and CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants, 45-84 y at baseline (2000-2002), were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed by FFQ. After adjusting for demographics and behavioral confounders, including BMI, dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with incident MetS and CVD [HR for extreme quintiles: MetS = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.97), P-trend = 0.01; CVD: HR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46, 1.03), P-trend = 0.04]. Intakes of heme iron and Zn from red meat, but not from other sources, were positively associated with risk of MetS [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.99,1.56), P-trend = 0.03; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03,1.61), P-trend = 0.04] and CVD [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.65 (95% CI = 1.10,2.47), P-trend = 0.01; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.02, 2.24), P-trend = 0.01]. Dietary intakes of nonheme iron, Mg, vitamin C, and β-carotene were not associated with risk of MetS, T2D, or CVD. Data provided little support for the associations between specific micronutrients and MetS, T2D, or CVD. However, nutrients consumed in red meat, or red meat as a whole, may increase risk of MetS and CVD.

  13. Dietary Intakes of Zinc and Heme Iron from Red Meat, but Not from Other Sources, Are Associated with Greater Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiovascular Disease123

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Otto, Marcia C.; Alonso, Alvaro; Lee, Duk-Hee; Delclos, George L.; Bertoni, Alain G.; Jiang, Rui; Lima, Joao A.; Symanski, Elaine; Jacobs, David R.; Nettleton, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share an inflammatory etiology and are known to be influenced by diet. We investigated associations of hypothesized prooxidative (Fe) and antioxidative (Zn, Mg, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin E) micronutrients with incident MetS, T2D, and CVD in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants, 45–84 y at baseline (2000–2002), were followed through 2010. Diet was assessed by FFQ. After adjusting for demographics and behavioral confounders, including BMI, dietary vitamin E intake was inversely associated with incident MetS and CVD [HR for extreme quintiles: MetS = 0.78 (95% CI = 0.62, 0.97), P-trend = 0.01; CVD: HR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.46, 1.03), P-trend = 0.04]. Intakes of heme iron and Zn from red meat, but not from other sources, were positively associated with risk of MetS [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.25 (95% CI = 0.99,1.56), P-trend = 0.03; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.29 (95% CI = 1.03,1.61), P-trend = 0.04] and CVD [heme iron from red meat: HR = 1.65 (95% CI = 1.10,2.47), P-trend = 0.01; Zn from red meat: HR = 1.51 (95% CI = 1.02, 2.24), P-trend = 0.01]. Dietary intakes of nonheme iron, Mg, vitamin C, and β-carotene were not associated with risk of MetS, T2D, or CVD. Data provided little support for the associations between specific micronutrients and MetS, T2D, or CVD. However, nutrients consumed in red meat, or red meat as a whole, may increase risk of MetS and CVD. PMID:22259193

  14. Lean meat and heart health.

    PubMed

    Li, Duo; Siriamornpun, Sirithon; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Mann, Neil J; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    The general health message to the public about meat consumption is both confusing and misleading. It is stated that meat is not good for health because meat is rich in fat and cholesterol and high intakes are associated with increased blood cholesterol levels and coronary heart disease (CHD). This paper reviewed 54 studies from the literature in relation to red meat consumption and CHD risk factors. Substantial evidence from recent studies shows that lean red meat trimmed of visible fat does not raise total blood cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. Dietary intake of total and saturated fat mainly comes from fast foods, snack foods, oils, spreads, other processed foods and the visible fat of meat, rather than lean meat. In fact, lean red meat is low in saturated fat, and if consumed in a diet low in SFA is associated with reductions in LDL-cholesterol in both healthy and hypercholesterolemia subjects. Lean red meat consumption has no effect on in vivo and ex vivo production of thromboxane and prostacyclin or the activity of haemostatic factors. Lean red meat is also a good source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin B12, niacin, zinc and iron. In conclusion, lean red meat, trimmed of visible fat, which is consumed in a diet low in saturated fat does not increase cardiovascular risk factors (plasma cholesterol levels or thrombotic risk factors).

  15. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage.

    PubMed

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Desmonts, Marie Hélène; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-05-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota.

  16. Origin and ecological selection of core and food-specific bacterial communities associated with meat and seafood spoilage

    PubMed Central

    Chaillou, Stéphane; Chaulot-Talmon, Aurélie; Caekebeke, Hélène; Cardinal, Mireille; Christieans, Souad; Denis, Catherine; Hélène Desmonts, Marie; Dousset, Xavier; Feurer, Carole; Hamon, Erwann; Joffraud, Jean-Jacques; La Carbona, Stéphanie; Leroi, Françoise; Leroy, Sabine; Lorre, Sylvie; Macé, Sabrina; Pilet, Marie-France; Prévost, Hervé; Rivollier, Marina; Roux, Dephine; Talon, Régine; Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    The microbial spoilage of meat and seafood products with short shelf lives is responsible for a significant amount of food waste. Food spoilage is a very heterogeneous process, involving the growth of various, poorly characterized bacterial communities. In this study, we conducted 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing on 160 samples of fresh and spoiled foods to comparatively explore the bacterial communities associated with four meat products and four seafood products that are among the most consumed food items in Europe. We show that fresh products are contaminated in part by a microbiota similar to that found on the skin and in the gut of animals. However, this animal-derived microbiota was less prevalent and less abundant than a core microbiota, psychrotrophic in nature, mainly originated from the environment (water reservoirs). We clearly show that this core community found on meat and seafood products is the main reservoir of spoilage bacteria. We also show that storage conditions exert strong selective pressure on the initial microbiota: alpha diversity in fresh samples was 189±58 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) but dropped to 27±12 OTUs in spoiled samples. The OTU assemblage associated with spoilage was shaped by low storage temperatures, packaging and the nutritional value of the food matrix itself. These factors presumably act in tandem without any hierarchical pattern. Most notably, we were also able to identify putative new clades of dominant, previously undescribed bacteria occurring on spoiled seafood, a finding that emphasizes the importance of using culture-independent methods when studying food microbiota. PMID:25333463

  17. Association study of molecular polymorphisms in candidate genes related to stress responses with production and meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Terenina, E; Babigumira, B M; Le Mignon, G; Bazovkina, D; Rousseau, S; Salin, F; Bendixen, C; Mormede, P

    2013-02-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis exerts a large range of effects on metabolism, the immune system, inflammatory processes, and brain functions. Together with the sympathetic nervous system, it is also the most important stress-responsive neuroendocrine system. Both systems influence production traits, carcass composition, and meat quality. The HPA axis may be a critical target for genetic selection of more robust animals. Indeed, numerous studies in various species have demonstrated the importance of genetic factors in shaping the individual HPA axis phenotype, and genetic polymorphism can be found at each level of the axis, including hormone production by the adrenal cortices under stimulation by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), hormone bioavailability, or receptor and postreceptor mechanisms. The aim of the present experiment was to extend these findings to the brain neurochemical systems involved in stress responses. To this end, a number of candidate genes were sequenced for molecular polymorphisms and their association was studied with stress neuroendocrine and production traits in a genetically diverse population consisting of 100 female pigs from an advanced intercross (F10-F12) between 2 highly divergent breeds, Large White (LW) and Meishan (MS). The LW breed has a high production potential for lean meat and a low HPA axis activity, and the MS breed has low growth rate, fat carcasses-but large litters of highly viable piglets-and a high HPA axis activity. Candidate genes were chosen in the catecholaminergic and serotonergic pathways, in the pituitary control of cortisol production, among genes previously demonstrated to be differentially expressed in ACTH-stimulated adrenal glands from LW and MS pigs, and in cortisol receptors. Sixty new polymorphisms were found. The association study with carcass and meat quality traits and with endocrine traits showed a number of significant results, such as monoamine oxidase (MAOA) polymorphisms with

  18. Breastfeeding and Red Meat Intake Are Associated with Iron Status in Healthy Korean Weaning-age Infants

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated risk factors for iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during late infancy, including feeding type and complementary feeding (CF) practice. Healthy term Korean infants (8–15 months) were weighed, and questionnaires regarding delivery, feeding, and weaning were completed by their caregivers. We also examined levels of hemoglobin, serum iron/total iron-binding capacity, serum ferritin, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). Among 619 infants, ID and IDA were present in 174 infants (28.1%) and 87 infants (14.0%), respectively. The 288 infants with exclusively/mostly breastfeeding until late infancy (BFL) were most likely to exhibit ID (53.1%) and IDA (28.1%). The risk of ID was independently associated with BFL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 47.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 18.3–122.9), male sex (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2–2.9), fold weight gain (aOR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.5–4.6), and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake (aOR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0–2.7). In addition to the risk factors for ID, Cesarean section delivery (aOR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.2) and low parental CF-related knowledge (aOR, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.5–5.2) were risk factors for IDA. In conclusion, prolonged breastfeeding and perceived inadequacy of red meat intake may be among the important feeding-related risk factors of ID and IDA. Therefore, more meticulous education and monitoring of iron-rich food intake, such as red meat, with iron supplementation or iron status testing during late infancy if necessary, should be considered for breastfed Korean infants, especially for those with additional risk factors for ID or IDA. PMID:28480656

  19. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in CAPN1, CAST and MB genes with meat color of Brahman and crossbreed cattle.

    PubMed

    Castro, Susan; Ríos, Marcela; Ortiz, Yurany; Manrique, Carlos; Jiménez, Ariel; Ariza, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the association of SNPs in the candidate genes Calpain (CAPN1), Calpastatin (CAST) and Myoglobin (MB) with colorimetric parameters (L *, a *, b *, C *, hue) in a F1 population (n = 164) obtained from crossing Bos taurus × Bos indicus and Bos indicus × Bos indicus. SNPs were analyzed using PCR-RFLP and SSCP. Colorimetric measurements were performed in the muscles Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and Semitendinosus (ST) at 7, 14 and 21 days postmortem applying the methodology CIE L* a* b*. The CAST gene showed a significant effect on the b* and hue* parameters in both muscles. MB gene showed significant association with all colorimetric parameters in both LTL and ST muscles, except with b* parameter. The CAPN1 gene did not show any significant association. These results suggest an important role of genetics in meat color variation for cattle raised under the tropic conditions.

  20. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the associations of mea...

  1. Outbreak of trichinellosis associated with consumption of game meat in West Greenland.

    PubMed

    Møller, Lone Nukâraq; Petersen, Eskild; Kapel, Christian M O; Melbye, Mads; Koch, Anders

    2005-09-05

    The Inuit population of the Arctic has always been at risk of acquiring trichinellosis and severe outbreaks have been recorded in Alaska and Canada. In West Greenland, a number of large outbreaks took place during the 1940s and 1950s; they involved total 420 cases including 37 deaths. Since then only sporadic cases have been reported. Here, we describe an outbreak of infection with Trichinella spp. after consumption of infected meat presumably from walrus or polar bear caught in western Greenland. Six persons who had eaten of the walrus and polar bear meat were two males and four females, age range 6--47 years. Using ELISA and Western blot analysis (Trichinella-specific IgG antibodies against excreted/secreted antigen and synthetic tyvelose antigen, respectively) four of these persons were found to be sero-positive for Trichinella antibodies, with three of these having clinical symptoms compatible with trichinellosis. On re-test, 12--14 months later one of the two sero-negative persons had sero-converted, probably due to a new, unrelated infection. This study demonstrates that acquiring Trichinella from the consumption of marine mammals remains a possibility in Greenland, and that cases may go undetected. Trichinellosis in Greenland can be prevented by the implementation of public health measures.

  2. Trends in occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in Campylobacter jejuni isolates from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat, and human domestically acquired cases and travel associated cases in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Skjøt-Rasmussen, Line; Ethelberg, Steen; Emborg, Hanne-Dorthe; Agersø, Yvonne; Larsen, Lars S; Nordentoft, Steen; Olsen, Stefan S; Ejlertsen, Tove; Holt, Hanne; Nielsen, Eva Møller; Hammerum, Anette M

    2009-05-31

    Campylobacter jejuni is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis. Often it causes self-limiting disease but severe or prolonged cases may require antimicrobial treatment. The agricultural use of antimicrobial agents selects for resistance among C. jejuni which is transmitted to humans via food. In Denmark, the use of fluoroquinolones in animal husbandry has been restricted since 2003. The purpose of the present study was to look at trends in occurrence of resistance among C. jejuni from broiler chickens, broiler chicken meat and human domestically acquired or travel associated cases. From 1997 through 2007, C. jejuni isolates were obtained from The Danish Integrated Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring and Research Programme (DANMAP) and susceptibility tested for ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, nalidixic acid, and tetracycline. Erythromycin resistance was at a low level in all the reservoirs during the study period. Resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in C. jejuni from imported broiler chicken meat compared to Danish broiler chicken meat. In domestically acquired human C. jejuni isolates, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was for most years significantly higher compared to the level found in isolates from Danish broiler chicken meat, whereas the resistance level was similar to the level found in isolates from imported broiler chicken meat. Imported broiler chicken meat may therefore contribute to the high level of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance in C. jejuni isolates from domestically acquired human infections. In 2006 and 2007, the occurrence of resistance to ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and tetracycline was significantly higher in travel associated C. jejuni isolates compared to isolates acquired domestically. Even though the use of fluoroquinolones is restricted for animal use in Denmark, Danes are still often infected by fluoroquinolone resistant C. jejuni from imported chicken meat or

  3. Red but not white meat consumption is associated with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation in Brazilian middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Cocate, Paula G; Natali, Antônio José; de Oliveira, Alessandro; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia G; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo G; Longo, Giana Z; dos Santos, Eliziária C; Buthers, Jéssica M; de Oliveira, Leandro L; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana M

    2015-02-01

    The influence of diet on metabolic syndrome and oxidative stress are not completely known. This cross-sectional study assessed the association of red meat and white meat consumption with metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance and lipid peroxidation in Brazilian middle-aged men. A total of 296 subjects (age: 50.5 ± 5.0 years, body mass index: 25.8 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) were evaluated. Anthropometry, lifestyle features, blood biochemical parameters, diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, a lipid peroxidation marker (oxidized low-density lipoprotein) and triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were assessed. Dietary intake was estimated by a food frequency questionnaire. The subjects included in the highest tertile red meat (≥81.5 g/d) and saturated fatty acid from red meat consumption (≥4.3 g/d) had higher occurrence of central obesity (nearly 60%, p < 0.01), hypertriglyceridaemia (nearly 43%, p < 0.01) and metabolic syndrome (35%, p < 0.01). They also had higher values of homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, oxidized low-density lipoprotein, and triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio, regardless of interfering factors. There were no associations of highest white meat tertile (≥39.4 g/d) and saturated fatty acid from white meat (≥1.0 g/d) consumption with the assessed parameters (p > 0.05). Red meat consumption was cross-sectionally associated with the occurrence of central obesity, hypertriglyceridaemia, and metabolic syndrome as well as with higher homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance, oxidized low-density lipoprotein concentrations and triglycerides:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. The content of saturated fatty acid from red meat consumption may be a factor that contributed to this relationship, while white meat consumption was not associated with metabolic syndrome and the assessed biomarkers. © The

  4. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  5. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  6. Association of CAPN1 316, CAPN1 4751 and TG5 markers with bovine meat quality traits in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, C A; Rubio, M S; Sifuentes, A M; Parra-Bracamonte, G M; Arellano, V W; Méndez, M R D; Berruecos, J M; Ortiz, R

    2010-12-14

    We examined allele and genotype frequencies for the molecular markers CAPN1 316, CAPN1 4751 and TG5, and determined whether they are associated with beef quality traits in Mexican cattle. One hundred and twenty-four longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected from cattle from north, central and southern Mexico. CAPN1 316 and CAPN1 4751 frequencies were determined using the allelic discrimination assay and the TG5 marker was typed by PCR-RFLP. Meat quality traits included intramuscular fat content (IMF) and tenderness determined by Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) at 24 h postmortem. The association test was made using a mixed model, including genotypes, genetic group, and sampling location as fixed effects. Least squares means and significant interactions were compared using least significant differences based on the mixed procedure. CAPN1 316 CC was found at a low frequency (0.03) and has been reported as a favorable genotype associated with tenderness meat. Genotype frequencies for CAPN1 4751 were similar in favorable (CC) and unfavorable (TT) genotypes (0.26 and 0.28, respectively). The TG5 CC genotype had a frequency of 0.73, while the TT genotype frequency was 0.01. The means for WBSF and IMF were 4.08 ± 1.35 kg and 5.23 ± 2.14%, respectively. Sampling site and the CAPN1 316 genotypes significantly affected WBSF (P < 0.05). Samples collected from Hermosillo, Sonora, had the lowest WBSF (P < 0.05), while those collected in Veracruz were toughest (WBSF = 5.267 kg). The effect of GG and TG5 genotypes on IMF was significant (P < 0.05). CAPN1 316 and TG5 markers were found to be significantly associated with beef quality traits and thus will be useful for Mexican beef characterization.

  7. Polymorphisms of the porcine cathepsins, growth hormone-releasing hormone and leptin receptor genes and their association with meat quality traits in Ukrainian Large White breed.

    PubMed

    Balatsky, Viktor; Bankovska, Irina; Pena, Ramona N; Saienko, Artem; Buslyk, Tetyana; Korinnyi, Sergii; Doran, Olena

    2016-06-01

    Cathepsins, growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and leptin receptor (LEPR) genes have been receiving increasing attention as potential markers for meat quality and pig performance traits. This study investigated the allele variants in four cathepsin genes (CTSB, CTSK, CTSL, CTSS), GHRH and LEPR in pure-bred Ukrainian Large White pigs and evaluated effects of the allele variants on meat quality characteristics. The study was conducted on 72 pigs. Genotyping was performed using PCR-RFLP technique. Meat quality characteristics analysed were intramuscular fat content, tenderness, total water content, ultimate pH, crude protein and ashes. A medium level of heterozygosity values was established for GHRH and LEPR genes which corresponded to very high levels of informativeness indexes. Cathepsins CTSL, CTSB and CTSK had a low level of heterozygosity, and CTSS did not segregate in this breed. Association studies established that intramuscular fat content and tenderness were affected by the allele variance in GHRH and LEPR but not by CTSB and CTSL genes. The GHRH results could be particularly relevant for the production of lean prime cuts as the A allele is associated with both, a lower meat fat content and better tenderness values, which are two attributes highly regarded by consumers. Results of this study suggest that selective breeding towards GHRH/AA genotype would be particularly useful for improving meat quality characteristics in the production systems involving lean Large White lines, which typically have less than 2 % intramuscular fat content.

  8. The vital role of science in global policy decision-making: An analysis of past, current, and forecasted trends and issues in global red meat trade and policy.

    PubMed

    Smith, K R; Clayton, P; Stuart, B; Myers, K; Seng, P M

    2005-09-01

    As global populations and economies change, the dynamics of global trade and policy change as well. In analyzing the past trends and projections for global populations, economic developments, animal product production and consumption, global trade policy, and current issues being faced, one can begin to make some predictions or projections as to how the global red meat and poultry infrastructure will change and, more importantly, point to areas where a proactive approach is necessary to shape these changes to meet the most globally beneficial end. Many issues face the global red meat industry, from food safety to animal disease, and are becoming more and more complicated as consumer knowledge increases and as politics intervene. Internationalized science is key and vital in the future of global trade policy as science can address the more informed consumer in a manner, which reduces anxiety over unknowns. The role of the industry is to provide the information and knowledge to the consumer necessary to convey the validity of globally accepted standards, which relate to ensuring consumer safety, animal welfare, and provide assurances that these standards are being met within the production sector.

  9. Association of white and red meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity: a cross-sectional study among a population of Iranian military families in 2016.

    PubMed

    Dabbagh-Moghadam, Arasb; Mozaffari-Khosravi, Hassan; Nasiri, Morteza; Miri, Ali; Rahdar, Maliehe; Sadeghi, Omid

    2017-04-18

    To assess the association of red and white meat consumption with general and abdominal obesity among Iranian military families. In this cross-sectional study, 525 subjects with age range of 19-55 years belong to military families of Army of Islamic Republic of Iran were recruited during 2016. Dietary data were collected using semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. A self-reported questionnaire was used to collect data on demographic characteristics and anthropometric measurements. General obesity was defined as body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2) and abdominal obesity as waist circumference ≥80 cm for women and ≥ 94 cm for men. Finally, we had complete data on 170 subjects for analysis. Mean age of subjects was 33.78 ± 6.48. We found a significant positive association between red meat consumption and abdominal obesity in fully adjusted model, so that subjects in the fourth quartile had 4.51 more odds to be abdominally obese compared with those in the first quartile of red meat consumption (OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.32-15.40). Such relationship was not seen for general obesity. In addition, white meat consumption was not associated with general and abdominal obesity either before or after adjustment for covariates. Red meat consumption was positively associated with abdominal obesity. No significant relationship was found between white meat consumption, and general and abdominal obesity. Therefore, further studies are needed to shed light our findings.

  10. Associations between meat consumption and the prevalence of degenerative arthritis and soft tissue disorders in the adventist health study, California U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Hailu, A; Knutsen, S F; Fraser, G E

    2006-01-01

    To examine associations between the prevalence of degenerative arthritis and soft tissue disorders and consumption of meat and other foods among participants in the Adventist Health Study. Unconditional logistic regression analysis is used to examine cross-sectional associations, adjusting for the effects of age, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, use of sex hormones and parity. The prevalence of degenerative arthritis and soft tissue disorders was 22.60 percent. Women had a higher prevalence than men and prevalence increased greatly with age. Smoking, higher body mass index, never use of contraceptive pills, and current hormone replacement therapy are associated with a higher prevalence of these disorders on multivariate analysis. Multivariate OR's comparing consumption of meat < 1/week; >or= 1/week; with the reference being no meat, were 1.31(95% CI: 1.21,1.43) and 1.49(1.31, 1.70) in women; and 1.19 (95% CI: 1.05,1.34) and 1.43(1.20, 1.70) in men. Dairy fat and fruit consumption were weakly associated with increased risk. There were protective associations with nut and salad consumption. Greater meat consumption is associated with a higher prevalence of degenerative arthritis and soft tissue disorders in both male and female subjects of this population, as is hormone replacement therapy in women.

  11. Amblyomma sculptum tick saliva: α-Gal identification, antibody response and possible association with red meat allergy in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Franco, Paula Ferreira; Rodrigues, Henrique; Santos, Luiza C B; McKay, Craig S; Sanhueza, Carlos A; Brito, Carlos Ramon Nascimento; Azevedo, Maíra Araújo; Venuto, Ana Paula; Cowan, Peter J; Almeida, Igor C; Finn, M G; Marques, Alexandre F

    2016-03-01

    The anaphylaxis response is frequently associated with food allergies, representing a significant public health hazard. Recently, exposure to tick bites and production of specific IgE against α-galactosyl (α-Gal)-containing epitopes has been correlated to red meat allergy. However, this association and the source of terminal, non-reducing α-Gal-containing epitopes have not previously been established in Brazil. Here, we employed the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mouse (α1,3-GalT-KO) model and bacteriophage Qβ-virus like particles (Qβ-VLPs) displaying Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc (Galα3LN) epitopes to investigate the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the saliva of Amblyomma sculptum, a species of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, which represents the main tick that infests humans in Brazil. We confirmed that the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout animals produce significant levels of anti-α-Gal antibodies against the Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc epitopes displayed on Qβ-virus like particles. The injection of A. sculptum saliva or exposure to feeding ticks was also found to induce both IgG and IgE anti-α-Gal antibodies in α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mice, thus indicating the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the tick saliva. The presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes was confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting following removal of terminal α-Gal epitopes by α-galactosidase treatment. These results suggest for the first known time that bites from the A. sculptum tick may be associated with the unknown etiology of allergic reactions to red meat in Brazil. Copyright © 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Amblyomma sculptum tick saliva: α-Gal identification, antibody response and possible association with red meat allergy in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Franco, Paula Ferreira; Rodrigues, Henrique; Santos, Luiza C.B.; McKay, Craig S.; Sanhueza, Carlos A.; Brito, Carlos Ramon Nascimento; Azevedo, Maíra Araújo; Venuto, Ana Paula; Cowan, Peter J.; Almeida, Igor C.; Finn, M.G.; Marques, Alexandre F.

    2017-01-01

    The anaphylaxis response is frequently associated with food allergies, representing a significant public health hazard. Recently, exposure to tick bites and production of specific IgE against α-galactosyl (α-Gal)-containing epitopes has been correlated to red meat allergy. However, this association and the source of terminal, non-reducing α-Gal-containing epitopes have not previously been established in Brazil. Here, we employed the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mouse (α1,3-GalT-KO) model and bacteriophage Qβ-virus like particles (Qβ-VLPs) displaying Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc (Galα3LN) epitopes to investigate the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the saliva of Amblyomma sculptum, a species of the Amblyomma cajennense complex, which represents the main tick that infests humans in Brazil. We confirmed that the α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout animals produce significant levels of anti-α-Gal antibodies against the Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc epitopes displayed on Qβ-virus like particles. The injection of A. sculptum saliva or exposure to feeding ticks was also found to induce both IgG and IgE anti-α-Gal antibodies in α-1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout mice, thus indicating the presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes in the tick saliva. The presence of α-Gal-containing epitopes was confirmed by ELISA and immunoblotting following removal of terminal α-Gal epitopes by α-galactosidase treatment. These results suggest for the first known time that bites from the A. sculptum tick may be associated with the unknown etiology of allergic reactions to red meat in Brazil. PMID:26812026

  13. Animal factors affecting the meat quality of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    This paper integrates the key industry findings from the twelve preceding papers in this special edition of Meat science. In so doing, various animal factors important for the quality of Australian lamb meat are highlighted for sensory, visual appeal and human health attributes. Intramuscular fat concentration (IMF) was found to be a key element of eating quality that interacts both positively and negatively with a range of other factors. Shear force, IMF, colour stability and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) will likely respond to genetic selection whilst other omega-3 fatty acids require nutritional intervention. Australian lamb meat can generally be regarded as a good source of the minerals iron and zinc; and a source of omega 3 fatty acids when finished on green pasture. Breeding priorities for meat quality will likely depend on breed type with improvement of meat colour stability more important for the wool focused Merino breed and improvement of sensory quality for the terminal sire breeds.

  14. Association of AMPK subunit gene polymorphisms with growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency in meat-type chickens.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sihua; Moujahid, El Mostafa El; Duan, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jiawei; Qu, Lujiang; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning; Chen, Sirui

    2016-07-01

    Investigations on regulatory genes of feed intake will provide a rational scientific basis to improve future selection indices for more efficient chickens. In the present study, we investigated the association of 13 previously reported SNPs in the chicken adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) subunits PRKAB1, PRKAG2, and PRKAG3 genes with body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed intake (FI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in two distinct yellow meat-type strains. Six SNPs with a very low minor allele frequency were removed by genotype quality control and data filtering. The experimental population comprised 796 pedigreed males from two strains with different genetic backgrounds, 335 chickens from N202 and 461 chickens from N301. BW at 49 (BW49) and 70 days of age (BW70) and FI (from 49 to 70 days of age) were determined individually. BWG and FCR were computed based on BW and FI in the interval between 49 to 70 days. The results indicated that PRKAB1 SNPs rs14094358 and rs14094362 were significantly associated with BW70, BWG, and FI in the N202 strain, and rs14094361 and rs14094363 were significantly associated with FI and FCR in the N301 strain (P < 0.05). In addition, the PRKAG2 SNP rs14133282 showed significant association with FI in N202, and rs13535812 was significantly associated with BW70 in N202 (P < 0.05). Moreover, the PRKAG3 SNP rs13595570 was significantly associated with BW in N202 (P < 0.05), and significantly associated with FI and FCR in N301 (P < 0.05). Additionally, a two-SNP haplotype comprising rs14094361 and rs14094362 in PRKAB1 was significantly associated with BWG in N202 (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, haplotypes based on two SNPs, rs14133282, and rs13535812, showed significant effects on FI in N202 (P < 0.05). Our findings therefore provide important evidence for association of AMPK subunits polymorphisms with body weight, feed intake, and feed efficiency that may be applied in meat-type chicken breeding programs.

  15. Genetic diversity among toxigenic clostridia isolated from soil, water, meat and associated polluted sites in South India.

    PubMed

    Sathish, S; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the genetic diversity of toxigenic Clostridium strains isolated from soil, water, meat and its associated polluted sites of Southern India. A total of 27 identified isolates of six different toxigenic clostridial species including C. bifermentans , C. botulinum , C. chauvoei , C. ramosum , C. tetani and C. novyi were isolated and characterized by conventional DNA restriction digestion analysis (REA) and by whole-cell and excretory protein patterns on SDS-PAGE. The DNA fragment size ranged from 35-160 kilobases and the protein bands 30-200 KDa, followed by numerical analyses and phylogenetic analyses. Whole-cell protein banding pattern were unique with strains of C. chauvoei , C. novyi and C. ramosum . All the strains were heterogeneous and distinct in restriction digestion pattern and excretory protein patterns. These analyses contribute to the understanding of prevalence of toxigenic clostridial species and phylogeny within the species and assist in development of improved diagnostics and therapeutics for the treatment of clostridial infections.

  16. Untargeted metabolomic analysis of human serum samples associated with different levels of red meat consumption: A possible indicator of type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Carrizo, Daniel; Chevallier, Olivier P; Woodside, Jayne V; Brennan, Sarah F; Cantwell, Marie M; Cuskelly, Geraldine; Elliott, Christopher T

    2017-04-15

    Red meat consumption has been associated with negative health effects. A study to identify biomarkers of meat consumption was undertaken using serum samples collected from combining high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTof-MS) and chemometrics. Using orthogonal partial last-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), multivariate models were created for both modes of acquisition (ESI-/ESI+) and red meat intake classes (YES/NO). In the serum samples, a total 3280 and 3225 ions of interest were detected in positive and negative modes, respectively. Of these, 62 were found to be significantly different (p<0.05) between the two groups. Glycerophospholipids as well as other family lipids, such as lysophospholipids or sphingomyelin, were found significantly (p<0.05) different between yes and no red meat intake groups. This study has shown metabolomics fingerprints have the capability to identify potential biomarkers of red meat consumption, as well as possible health risk factors (e.g., key metabolic families related to the risk of development type 2 diabetes).

  17. Selective deworming effects on performance and parameters associated with gastrointestinal parasite management in lambs and meat-goat kids finished on pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated health parameters associated with gastrointestinal parasite control when lambs and meat-goat kids were finished on a mixed sward of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), and white clover (Trifolium repens L.) with and without supplemental whole cotton...

  18. American Association for the Advancement of Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cross-Border Research, Study Finds Full Story journals_science_20170414_hmpg.jpg Latest Issue Read more news ... png Time to Focus on the Power of Science Locally and Beyond, Experts Say News_0330_USMexicoBorder_ ...

  19. American Association for the Advancement of Science

    MedlinePlus

    ... Support Students of All Ages Full Story journals_science_20171013_hmpg.jpg Latest Issue Read more news ... AAAS Kavli Lecture Series to Discuss Issues in Science Journalism AAAS Leshner Leadership Institute Fellowship: Deadline to ...

  20. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serotype Manhattan infection associated with meat products, France, 2005.

    PubMed

    Noël, H; Dominguez, M; Weill, F X; Brisabois, A; Duchazeaubeneix, C; Kerouanton, A; Delmas, G; Pihier, N; Couturier, E

    2006-01-01

    Between August 2005 and March 2006 in France, 69 cases of Salmonella enterica serotype Manhattan (Salmonella Manhattan) were reported, 51 (74%) of them from southeastern France. At the time of the alert (November 2005), 13 cases and 33 controls were interviewed. Cases were more likely than controls to have eaten pork sausages (OR=5.9, confidence interval CI [1.3; 26.9]) and beef (OR=9.3, CI [1.3; 68.6]). At the same time, 19 strains of Salmonella Manhattan isolated from meat products in southeastern France, reported to the French food safety agency (Afssa, Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments) in September and November 2005, had an indistinguishable PFGE profile to the 7 human isolates of Salmonella Manhattan from the outbreak in southeastern France. Trace-back investigations revealed that pork samples came from one wholesaler whose pork products had tested positive for S. Manhattan during routine food testing in August 2005. This wholesaler supplied retail outlets in southeastern France. Additionally, a slaughterhouse supplying the wholesaler was inspected and widespread contamination with Salmonella spp. and S. Manhattan was found. Cooperation between the national agencies in charge of human health (Institut de veille sanitaire, InVS) and food safety (Afssa) allowed us to determine the most probable source of contamination and to take appropriate control measures.

  1. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank J A; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049-ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063-ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic loci known to influence fasting glucose or

  2. Consumption of meat is associated with higher fasting glucose and insulin concentrations regardless of glucose and insulin genetic risk scores: a meta-analysis of 50,345 Caucasians12

    PubMed Central

    Fretts, Amanda M; Follis, Jack L; Nettleton, Jennifer A; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Ngwa, Julius S; Wojczynski, Mary K; Kalafati, Ioanna Panagiota; Varga, Tibor V; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Houston, Denise K; Lahti, Jari; Ericson, Ulrika; van den Hooven, Edith H; Mikkilä, Vera; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Rice, Kenneth; Renström, Frida; North, Kari E; McKeown, Nicola M; Feitosa, Mary F; Kanoni, Stavroula; Smith, Caren E; Garcia, Melissa E; Tiainen, Anna-Maija; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; van Rooij, Frank JA; Dimitriou, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Pankow, James S; Djoussé, Luc; Province, Michael A; Hu, Frank B; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Keller, Margaux F; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Rotter, Jerome I; Hofman, Albert; Graff, Misa; Kähönen, Mika; Mukamal, Kenneth; Johansson, Ingegerd; Ordovas, Jose M; Liu, Yongmei; Männistö, Satu; Uitterlinden, André G; Deloukas, Panos; Seppälä, Ilkka; Psaty, Bruce M; Cupples, L Adrienne; Borecki, Ingrid B; Franks, Paul W; Arnett, Donna K; Nalls, Mike A; Eriksson, Johan G; Orho-Melander, Marju; Franco, Oscar H; Lehtimäki, Terho; Dedoussis, George V; Meigs, James B; Siscovick, David S

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies suggest that meat intake is associated with diabetes-related phenotypes. However, whether the associations of meat intake and glucose and insulin homeostasis are modified by genes related to glucose and insulin is unknown. Objective: We investigated the associations of meat intake and the interaction of meat with genotype on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations in Caucasians free of diabetes mellitus. Design: Fourteen studies that are part of the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium participated in the analysis. Data were provided for up to 50,345 participants. Using linear regression within studies and a fixed-effects meta-analysis across studies, we examined 1) the associations of processed meat and unprocessed red meat intake with fasting glucose and insulin concentrations; and 2) the interactions of processed meat and unprocessed red meat with genetic risk score related to fasting glucose or insulin resistance on fasting glucose and insulin concentrations. Results: Processed meat was associated with higher fasting glucose, and unprocessed red meat was associated with both higher fasting glucose and fasting insulin concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders [not including body mass index (BMI)]. For every additional 50-g serving of processed meat per day, fasting glucose was 0.021 mmol/L (95% CI: 0.011, 0.030 mmol/L) higher. Every additional 100-g serving of unprocessed red meat per day was associated with a 0.037-mmol/L (95% CI: 0.023, 0.051-mmol/L) higher fasting glucose concentration and a 0.049–ln-pmol/L (95% CI: 0.035, 0.063–ln-pmol/L) higher fasting insulin concentration. After additional adjustment for BMI, observed associations were attenuated and no longer statistically significant. The association of processed meat and fasting insulin did not reach statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. Observed associations were not modified by genetic

  3. Intakes of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens increase lung cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Lam, Tram Kim; Cross, Amanda J; Consonni, Dario; Randi, Giorgia; Bagnardi, Vincenzo; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi; Subar, Amy F; Landi, Maria Teresa

    2009-02-01

    Red and processed meat intake may increase lung cancer risk. However, the epidemiologic evidence is inconsistent and few studies have evaluated the role of meat mutagens formed during high cooking temperatures. We investigated the association of red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagen intake with lung cancer risk in Environment And Genetics in Lung cancer Etiology, a population-based case-control study. Primary lung cancer cases (n = 2,101) were recruited from 13 hospitals within the Lombardy region of Italy examining approximately 80% of the cases from the area. Noncancer population controls (n = 2,120), matched to cases on gender, residence, and age, were randomly selected from the same catchment area. Diet was assessed in 1,903 cases and 2,073 controls and used in conjunction with a meat mutagen database to estimate intake of heterocyclic amines (HCA) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP). Multivariable odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for sex-specific tertiles of intake were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Red and processed meat were positively associated with lung cancer risk (highest-versus-lowest tertile: OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.5-2.2; P trend < 0.001 and OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1; P trend < 0.001, respectively); the risks were strongest among never smokers (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-4.0; P trend = 0.001 and OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.2; P trend = 0.001, respectively). HCAs and BaP were significantly associated with increased risk of lung cancer. When separated by histology, significant positive associations for both meat groups were restricted to adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma but not small cell carcinoma of the lung. In summary, red meat, processed meat, and meat mutagens were independently associated with increased risk of lung cancer.

  4. Genome Sequence and Transcriptome Analysis of Meat-Spoilage-Associated Lactic Acid Bacterium Lactococcus piscium MKFS47

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Per; Laine, Pia; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Sonck, Matti; Rahkila, Riitta; Jääskeläinen, Elina; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Björkroth, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Lactococcus piscium is a psychrotrophic lactic acid bacterium and is known to be one of the predominant species within spoilage microbial communities in cold-stored packaged foods, particularly in meat products. Its presence in such products has been associated with the formation of buttery and sour off-odors. Nevertheless, the spoilage potential of L. piscium varies dramatically depending on the strain and growth conditions. Additional knowledge about the genome is required to explain such variation, understand its phylogeny, and study gene functions. Here, we present the complete and annotated genomic sequence of L. piscium MKFS47, combined with a time course analysis of the glucose catabolism-based transcriptome. In addition, a comparative analysis of gene contents was done for L. piscium MKFS47 and 29 other lactococci, revealing three distinct clades within the genus. The genome of L. piscium MKFS47 consists of one chromosome, carrying 2,289 genes, and two plasmids. A wide range of carbohydrates was predicted to be fermented, and growth on glycerol was observed. Both carbohydrate and glycerol catabolic pathways were significantly upregulated in the course of time as a result of glucose exhaustion. At the same time, differential expression of the pyruvate utilization pathways, implicated in the formation of spoilage substances, switched the metabolism toward a heterofermentative mode. In agreement with data from previous inoculation studies, L. piscium MKFS47 was identified as an efficient producer of buttery-odor compounds under aerobic conditions. Finally, genes and pathways that may contribute to increased survival in meat environments were considered. PMID:25819958

  5. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli: prevalence associated with meat animals and controlling interventions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper reviews the current state of knowledge of non-O157 STEC in products of meat animals. There is a wide range in pathogenicity of STEC strains. Potential regulation in meat products is currently focused on the group of six O groups the CDC indicates accounts of 71% of non-O157 STEC illness...

  6. Risk analysis and meat hygiene.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, S C

    1993-12-01

    Meat hygiene consists of three major activities: post-mortem inspection; monitoring and surveillance for chemical hazards; and maintenance of good hygienic practice throughout all stages between slaughter and consumption of meat. Risk analysis is an applied science of increasing importance to these activities in the following areas: facilitating the distribution of pre-harvest, harvest and post-harvest inspection resources, proportional to the likelihood of public health and animal health hazards; establishing internationally-harmonized standards and specifications which are consistent and science-based; and improving the safety and wholesomeness of meat and meat products in local and international trade. Risk analysis, in one form or another, is well developed with respect to establishing standards and specifications for chemical hazards; methods for risk analysis of post-mortem meat inspection programmes are beginning to emerge. However, risk analysis of microbiological hazards in meat and meat products presents particular difficulties. All areas of application currently suffer from a lack of international agreement on risk assessment and risk management methodology.

  7. Analysis of the associations between polymorphisms in GNAS complex locus and growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Oczkowicz, Maria; Ropka-Molik, Katarzyna; Tyra, Mirosław

    2013-11-01

    Imprinted genes are interesting candidates for marker assisted selection in farm animals. One of them-GNAS complex locus is engaged in obesity pathogenesis in humans and mice. In our study, we identified new polymorphism in porcine GNAS gene (variable number of CT repeats, accession number: rs196952953) and found that this polymorphism is in linkage disequilibrum with GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T. Statistical analysis (GLM procedure), performed on 552 animals (Large White n = 258 and Landrace n = 269), revealed that deduced haplotypes and GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T are associated with growth performance and a few carcass traits, but not with feed intake. We observed significant additive effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T genotype and haplotype 2 (C/278 bp) on test daily gain (TDG), average daily gain (ADG), number of days on test, age of the slaughter (P < 0.01) and FCR ratio (P < 0.05). Animals with two copies of C/278 haplotype had significantly higher: TDG, ADG, lower feed:gain ratio and faster reached the weight of 100 kg. When carcass traits were considered, significant associations between GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism, haplotype 2 (C/278) and weight of ham with and without backfat and skin (WH) (WH2), length of the carcass, height and the width of the loin, meat percentage, weight of the main cuts were identified. The significant dominance effects of GNAS AM490165:g.324C>T polymorphism and haplotype 2 on WH and WH2 were observed (P < 0.05). When the two breeds were analyzed separately significant associations were observed for most of the traits in Landrace while in Large White the same trends were present but the differences were mostly not significant. Among meat quality traits we found significant association between haplotype and IMF content in Landrace (P < 0.03). Our results show for the first time that GNAS complex locus may modulate economically important traits in pigs.

  8. Melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) polymorphisms are associated with growth and meat quality traits in sheep.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Beiyao; Liu, Guiqiong; Peng, Yuqin; Qian, Hongguang; Liu, Jiasen; Jiang, Xunping; Mara, Adama

    2014-10-01

    The involvement of melanocortin 4 receptor gene (MC4R) in food intake and body weight regulation is well characterized. MC4R mutations are the most frequent monogenic cause of human obesity. Significant associations have been revealed between MC4R mutations and productive traits in pigs, cattle and poultry. Herein, fluorescence-based conformation sensitive gel electrophoresis was used to identify two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the coding region (93G>A and 292G>A) and two SNPs in the 3'-UTR area (1016G>A and 1240T>C) of MC4R gene in 132 German Merino sheep. We found that the 1016G>A mutation in the 3'-UTR was significantly associated with body weight at 120 and 180 days, average daily gain, back fat thickness and loin-eye area. Allele A located at the 292th position of MC4R gene representing Arg98 was associated with significantly higher loin-eye area in sheep. For the synonymous 93G>A mutation, A allele carrier animals had higher back fat thickness. Our results provide evidence that the MC4R gene may be a candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits with MC4R SNPs being potentially valuable as genetic markers for economic traits in German Merino sheep.

  9. The consumption of more vegetables and less meat is associated with higher levels of acculturation among Mongolians in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Tserendejid, Zuunnast; Hwang, Jinah; Lee, Jounghee; Park, Haeryun

    2013-12-01

    Although Mongolian immigrants are a rapidly growing population in South Korea, the 2 countries have distinct diets because of climatic and geographical differences. The Mongolian diet is mostly animal-based with few vegetables and fruits, whereas the Korean diet is largely plant based. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between acculturation and dietary intakes among Mongolians living in South Korea. We hypothesized that higher levels of acculturation would be associated with higher vegetable, fruit, and plant-based food intakes among Mongolian immigrants. A total of 500 Mongolian immigrants participated in this study conducted between December 2010 and May 2011. To measure the acculturation level, we developed an acculturation scale based on the Suinn-Lew Asian self-identity acculturation scale. Dietary intakes were assessed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between acculturation and dietary intakes were investigated using a general linear model adjusted for demographic characteristics. The participants were grouped into either a low-acculturation group or a high-acculturation group. The high-acculturation group reported significantly higher consumption of vegetables and rice and significantly lower consumption of meat, potatoes, and flour products compared with their low-acculturation counterparts. However, a higher level of acculturation was also significantly related to a higher intake of sodium. These findings could be used to tailor nutrition programs to different acculturation levels. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Red meat and processed meat consumption and all-cause mortality: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola

    2014-02-01

    High consumption of red meat and processed meat has been associated with increased risk of several chronic diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from prospective studies on red meat and processed meat consumption in relationship to all-cause mortality. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed through May 2013 and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Prospective studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of red meat or processed meat consumption with all-cause mortality were eligible. Study-specific results were combined by using a random-effects model. Nine prospective studies were included in the meta-analysis. The summary relative risks of all-cause mortality for the highest versus the lowest category of consumption were 1.10 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.98, 1.22; n = 6 studies) for unprocessed red meat, 1.23 (95% CI: 1.17, 1.28; n = 6 studies) for processed meat, and 1.29 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.35; n = 5 studies) for total red meat. In a dose-response meta-analysis, consumption of processed meat and total red meat, but not unprocessed red meat, was statistically significantly positively associated with all-cause mortality in a nonlinear fashion. These results indicate that high consumption of red meat, especially processed meat, may increase all-cause mortality.

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Risk: Associations with Meat-Derived Carcinogen Intake in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kristin E.; Mongin, Steven J.; Sinha, Rashmi; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gross, Myron D.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Mabie, Jerome E.; Risch, Adam; Kazin, Sally S.; Church, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies report positive associations between high-temperature cooked meat intake and pancreatic cancer. We assessed associations between dietary intake of heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP)—mutagens formed in meat cooked at high temperatures—and incident exocrine pancreatic cancer in a prospective cohort. Methods The 62,581 subjects randomized to screening in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial (PLCO) who completed an initial dietary survey that assessed meat intake, cooking methods, and doneness preferences defined the cohort. Subjects were surveyed annually for incident cancers through 2007. A National Cancer Institute research database (CHARRED) was used to estimate HCA and BaP intake and a Mutagenic Activity Index (MAI) from survey data. Proportional hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of pancreatic cancer were estimated from multivariate Cox regression models by quintile of intake, with the lowest quintile as the referent. Results During follow-up (median: 10 yrs), 248 cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were confirmed. Preferences for well and very well done meat were generally associated with increased risks. Significant elevations in pancreatic cancer risk were found in upper quintiles of MAI, and of exposure to individual mutagens 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and lowest quintile of MAI, the third and fifth quintiles brought HRs of 1.86 (1.22, 2.85) and 1.87 2-Amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx). Compared to the (1.16, 3.02), respectively. These three exposures exhibited significant (P-trend: 0.01-0.03) positive trends in risk as their levels increased Conclusion Consuming well-done meat cooked at high temperatures, which contains high mutagen levels, appears to confer increased risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22162237

  12. Food safety and organic meats.

    PubMed

    Van Loo, Ellen J; Alali, Walid; Ricke, Steven C

    2012-01-01

    The organic meat industry in the United States has grown substantially in the past decade in response to consumer demand for nonconventionally produced products. Consumers are often not aware that the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) organic standards are based only on the methods used for production and processing of the product and not on the product's safety. Food safety hazards associated with organic meats remain unclear because of the limited research conducted to determine the safety of organic meat from farm-to-fork. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the published results on the microbiological safety of organic meats. In addition, antimicrobial resistance of microbes in organic food animal production is addressed. Determining the food safety risks associated with organic meat production requires systematic longitudinal studies that quantify the risks of microbial and nonmicrobial hazards from farm-to-fork.

  13. Chemical safety of meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Andrée, Sabine; Jira, W; Schwind, K-H; Wagner, H; Schwägele, F

    2010-09-01

    Since the Second World War the consumer behaviour in developed countries changed drastically. Primarily there existed the demand for sufficient food after a period of starvation, afterwards the desire for higher quality was arising, whereas today most people ask for safe and healthy food with high quality. Therefore a united approach comprising consistent standards, sound science and robust controls is required to ensure consumers' health and to maintain consumers' confidence and satisfaction. Chemical analysis along the whole food chain downstream (tracking) from primary production to the consumer and upstream (tracing) from the consumer to primary production is an important prerequisite to ensure food safety and quality. In this frame the focus of the following paper is the "chemical safety of meat and meat products" taking into account inorganic as well as organic residues and contaminants, the use of nitrite in meat products, the incidence of veterinary drugs, as well as a Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) system assessing (prioritizing) vulnerable food chain steps to decrease or eliminate vulnerability.

  14. Association of Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 genotypes with growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs.

    PubMed

    Prasongsook, Sombat; Choi, Igseo; Bates, Ronald O; Raney, Nancy E; Ernst, Catherine W; Tumwasorn, Sornthep

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the potential association of variation in the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2) gene with growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs. IGFBP2 is a member of the insulin-like growth factor binding protein family that is involved in regulating growth, and it maps to a region of pig chromosome 15 containing significant quantitative trait loci that affect economically important trait phenotypes. An IGFBP2 polymorphism was identified in the Michigan State University (MSU) Duroc × Pietrain F2 resource population (n = 408), and pigs were genotyped by MspI PCR-RFLP. Subsequently, a Duroc pig population from the National Swine Registry, USA, (n = 326) was genotyped using an Illumina Golden Gate assay. The IGFBP2 genotypic frequencies among the MSU resource population pigs were 3.43, 47.06 and 49.51 % for the AA, AB and BB genotypes, respectively. The genotypic frequencies for the Duroc pigs were 9.82, 47.85, and 42.33 % for the AA, AB and BB genotypes, respectively. Genotype effects (P < 0.05) were found in the MSU resource population for backfat thickness at 10(th) rib and last rib as determined by ultrasound at 10, 13, 16 and 19 weeks of age, ADG from 10 to 22 weeks of age, and age to reach 105 kg. A genotype effect (P < 0.05) was also found for off test Longissimus muscle area in the Duroc population. Significant effects of IGFBP2 genotype (P < 0.05) were found for drip loss, 24 h postmortem pH, pH decline from 45 min to 24 h postmortem, subjective color score, CIE L* and b*, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and sensory panel scores for juiciness, tenderness, connective tissue and overall tenderness in MSU resource population pigs. Genotype effects (P < 0.05) were found for 45-min pH, CIE L* and color score in the Duroc population. Results of this study revealed associations of the IGFBP2 genotypes with growth, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs. The results indicate IGFBP

  15. Study of bovine gene: the temporal-spatial expression patterns, polymorphism and association analysis with meat production traits.

    PubMed

    Juszczuk-Kubiak, E; Bujko, K; Grześ, M; Cymer, M; Wicińska, K; Szostak, A; Pierzchała, M

    2016-11-01

    The gene () encodes a transcription factor belonging to the MEF2 family that plays an important role in myogenesis by transcriptional regulation of genes involved in skeletal muscle growth and development. Despite the established importance of the factors in the muscular growth and development, the temporal-spatial expression and biological function of have not been reported in cattle. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of expression in the developing longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) of 4 cattle breeds (Polish Holstein-Friesian [HF], Limousine [LIM], Hereford [HER], Polish Red [PR]), differing in terms of meat production and utility type, at 6, 9, and 12 mo of age. The genetic polymorphism and expression patterns in 6 tissues (heart, spleen, liver, semitendinosus muscle [ST], gluteus medius muscle [GM], and LM) were also investigated. The results showed that mRNA was expressed at a high level in adult skeletal and cardiac muscles. Moreover, expression was markedly greater in the GM than in the LM ( 0.05) and ST ( 0.01). An age-dependent and breed-specific comparison of mRNA level in skeletal muscle of HF, LIM, HER, and PR bulls showed that age was significant differentiating factor of transcript/protein abundance in the LM of HER and LIM ( 0.001) compared to HF and PR, for which the differences in mRNA level were not significant ( > 0.05). Regarding the breed effect on the expression, significantly greater mRNA/protein level was noticed in the LM of 9 and 12 mo-old HER than of LIM ( 0.01), HF ( 0.001), and PR ( 0.001). Four novel SNP, namely, (promoter), (exon 7), (exon 8), and (3'UTR), were identified. We found that 3'UTR variant, situated within the seed region of the miR-5187-3p and miR-6931-5p binding sites, was associated with the level of mRNA/protein in LM of 12-mo-old HF bulls. In addition, we observed a significant association between some carcass quality traits, including meat and carcass fatness quality traits, and various 3'UTR genotypes in the

  16. An NSTA Position Statement: International Science Education and the National Science Teachers Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) encourages and promotes international science education because it has the ability to improve the teaching and learning of science, as well as to "empower people, improve their quality of life, and increase their capacity to participate in the decision-making processes leading to social, cultural,…

  17. Susceptibility of Salmonella enterica Isolates Associated with Meat and Poultry to 16 Chemicals Used as Sanitizers and Biocides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical antimicrobial interventions are used to reduce contamination of the animal environment, processing equipment, and meat with foodborne bacteria like Salmonella. We evaluated Salmonella susceptibility to 16 of these compounds by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each c...

  18. ESA Science Archives and associated VO activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arviset, Christophe; Baines, Deborah; Barbarisi, Isa; Castellanos, Javier; Cheek, Neil; Costa, Hugo; Fajersztejn, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Juan; Fernandez, Monica; Laruelo, Andrea; Leon, Ignacio; Ortiz, Inaki; Osuna, Pedro; Salgado, Jesus; Tapiador, Daniel

    ESA's European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), near Madrid, Spain, hosts most of ESA space based missions' scientific archives, in planetary (Mars Express, Venus Express, Rosetta, Huygens, Giotto, Smart-1, all in ESA Planetary Science Archive), in astronomy (XMM-Newton, Herschel, ISO, Integral, Exosat, Planck) and in solar physics (Soho). All these science archives are operated by a dedicated Science Archives and Virtual Observatory Team (SAT) at ESAC, enabling common and efficient design, development, operations and maintenance of the archives software systems. This also ensures long term preservation and availability of such science archives, as a sustainable service to the science community. ESA space science data can be accessed through powerful and user friendly user interface, as well as from machine scriptable interface and through VO interfaces. Virtual Observatory activities are also fully part of ESA archiving strategy and ESA is a very ac-tive partner in VO initiatives in Europe through Euro-VO AIDA and EuroPlanet and worldwide through the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) and the IPDA (International Planetary Data Alliance).

  19. Values, attitudes, and frequency of meat consumption. Predicting meat-reduced diet in Australians.

    PubMed

    Hayley, Alexa; Zinkiewicz, Lucy; Hardiman, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Reduced consumption of meat, particularly red meat, is associated with numerous health benefits. While past research has examined demographic and cognitive correlates of meat-related diet identity and meat consumption behaviour, the predictive influence of personal values on meat-consumption attitudes and behaviour, as well as gender differences therein, has not been explicitly examined, nor has past research focusing on 'meat' generally addressed 'white meat' and 'fish/seafood' as distinct categories of interest. Two hundred and two Australians (59.9% female, 39.1% male, 1% unknown), aged 18 to 91 years (M = 31.42, SD = 16.18), completed an online questionnaire including the Schwartz Values Survey, and measures of diet identity, attitude towards reduced consumption of each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, as well as self-reported estimates of frequency of consumption of each meat type. Results showed that higher valuing of Universalism predicted more positive attitudes towards reducing, and less frequent consumption of, each of red meat, white meat, and fish/seafood, while higher Power predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption of, these meats. Higher Security predicted less positive attitudes towards reducing, and more frequent consumption, of white meat and fish/seafood, while Conformity produced this latter effect for fish/seafood only. Despite men valuing Power more highly than women, women valuing Universalism more highly than men, and men eating red meat more frequently than women, gender was not a significant moderator of the value-attitude-behaviour mediations described, suggesting that gender's effects on meat consumption may not be robust once entered into a multivariate model of MRD attitudes and behaviour. Results support past findings associating Universalism, Power, and Security values with meat-eating preferences, and extend these findings by articulating how these values relate specifically

  20. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: developmental programming in cattle: consequences for growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and beef quality characteristics.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; Greenwood, P L

    2013-03-01

    This paper reviews results of studies on effects of fetal programming and maternal nutrition during pregnancy on growth, efficiency, carcass, muscle, and meat quality characteristics of cattle. It includes results from our Australian Beef Cooperative Research Centre studies on factors such as chronic severe nutritional restriction from approximately d 80 of pregnancy to parturition and/or throughout lactation used to create early-life growth differences in the offspring of cows within pasture-based systems and the effect of these treatments on production characteristics to 30 mo of age. Fetal programming and related maternal effects are most pronounced and explain substantial amounts of variation for growth-related production characteristics such as BW, feed intake, carcass weight, muscle weights, meat yield, and fat and bone weights at any given age but are less evident when assessed at the same BW and carcass weight. Some effects of maternal and early-life factors in our studies were evident for efficiency traits but fewer affected beef quality characteristics at 30 mo of age, explaining only small amounts of variation in these traits. It is difficult to uncouple maternal nutritional effects specific to prenatal life from those that carry over to the postnatal period until weaning, particularly the effects of maternal nutrition during pregnancy on subsequent lactational performance. Hence, experimental design considerations for studying fetal programming effects on offspring during later life are discussed in relation to minimizing or removing prenatal and postnatal confounding effects. The relative contribution of fetal programming to the profitability of beef production systems is also briefly discussed. In this regard, the importance of health and survival of cows and calves, the capacity of cows to rebreed in a timely manner, and the efficiency with which feed and other resources are used cannot be overemphasized in relation to economics, welfare, and the

  1. In vitro and in situ growth characteristics and behaviour of spoilage organisms associated with anaerobically stored cooked meat products.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, L; Devlieghere, F; De Graef, V; Debevere, J

    2005-01-01

    Understanding spoilage caused by different types of spoilage organisms, associated with vacuum-packaged sliced cooked meat products (CMP). First, strains were characterized in a broth at 7 degrees C under anaerobic conditions to compare their growth rate, acidifying character and metabolite production under conditions simulating refrigerated vacuum-packaged conditions. Brochotrix thermosphacta grew faster than the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Within the group of the LAB, all strains grew fast except Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Leuconostoc carnosum. Secondly, the organisms were inoculated on a model cooked ham to better understand the relationship between spoilage, microbial growth, pH, metabolite production and accompanying sensory changes. Most rapidly growing strains were Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides followed by B. thermosphacta, while Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. dextranicum and Leuc. carnosum grew very slowly compared with the other LAB. Brochotrix thermosphacta caused sensory deviations at a lower cell number compared with the LAB. The related pH changes, metabolite production and sensory perception are presented. In this pure culture study, B. thermosphacta and Leuc. mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides had the highest potential to cause rapid spoilage on CMP. A systematic study on the behaviour of spoilage organisms on a model cooked ham to establish the relationship between microbial growth, pH, metabolite formation and organoleptic deviations.

  2. Associations between muscle gene expression pattern and technological and sensory meat traits highlight new biomarkers for pork quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Damon, Marie; Denieul, Katy; Vincent, Annie; Bonhomme, Nathalie; Wyszynska-Koko, Joanna; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2013-11-01

    Meat quality (MQ) results from complex phenomenon and despite improved knowledge on MQ development, its variability remains high. The identification of biomarkers and the further development of rapid tests would thus be helpful to evaluate MQ in pork industries. Using transcriptomics, the present study aimed at identifying biomarkers of eight pork quality traits: ultimate pH, drip loss, lightness, redness, hue angle, intramuscular fat, shear force and tenderness, based on an experimental design inducing a high variability in MQ. Associations between microarray gene expression and pork traits (n=50 pigs) highlighted numerous potential biomarkers of MQ. Using quantitative RT-PCR, 113 transcript-trait correlations including 40 of these genes were confirmed (P<0.05, |r|≤0.73), out of which 60 were validated (P<0.05, |r|≤0.68) on complementary experimental data (n=50). Multiple regression models including 3 to 5 genes explained up to 59% of MQ trait variability. Moreover, functional analysis of correlated-trait genes provided information on the biological phenomena underlying MQ.

  3. A genome-wide association study of production traits in a commercial population of Large White pigs: evidence of haplotypes affecting meat quality.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Marie-Pierre; Tribout, Thierry; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Bouffaud, Marcel; Servin, Bertrand; Tenghe, Amabel; Dehais, Patrice; Muller, Nelly; Del Schneider, Maria Pilar; Mercat, Marie-José; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Milan, Denis; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Gilbert, Hélène

    2014-02-14

    Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64,432 SNPs on the chip, 44,412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001 < P < 0.03) associations with all evaluated meat quality traits. GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat quality traits in a LW population, of which 13

  4. A genome-wide association study of production traits in a commercial population of Large White pigs: evidence of haplotypes affecting meat quality

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been detected in pigs over the past 20 years using microsatellite markers. However, due to the low density of these markers, the accuracy of QTL location has generally been poor. Since 2009, the dense genome coverage provided by the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip has made it possible to more accurately map QTL using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Our objective was to perform high-density GWAS in order to identify genomic regions and corresponding haplotypes associated with production traits in a French Large White population of pigs. Methods Animals (385 Large White pigs from 106 sires) were genotyped using the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip and evaluated for 19 traits related to feed intake, growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Of the 64 432 SNPs on the chip, 44 412 were used for GWAS with an animal mixed model that included a regression coefficient for the tested SNPs and a genomic kinship matrix. SNP haplotype effects in QTL regions were then tested for association with phenotypes following phase reconstruction based on the Sscrofa10.2 pig genome assembly. Results Twenty-three QTL regions were identified on autosomes and their effects ranged from 0.25 to 0.75 phenotypic standard deviation units for feed intake and feed efficiency (four QTL), carcass (12 QTL) and meat quality traits (seven QTL). The 10 most significant QTL regions had effects on carcass (chromosomes 7, 10, 16, 17 and 18) and meat quality traits (two regions on chromosome 1 and one region on chromosomes 8, 9 and 13). Thirteen of the 23 QTL regions had not been previously described. A haplotype block of 183 kb on chromosome 1 (six SNPs) was identified and displayed three distinct haplotypes with significant (0.0001 < P < 0.03) associations with all evaluated meat quality traits. Conclusions GWAS analyses with the PorcineSNP60 BeadChip enabled the detection of 23 QTL regions that affect feed consumption, carcass and meat

  5. Novel single nucleotide polymorphisms of the bovine methyltransferase 3b gene and their association with meat quality traits in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Liu, X; Guo, X Y; Xu, X Z; Wu, M; Zhang, X; Li, Q; Ma, P P; Zhang, Y; Wang, C Y; Geng, F J; Qin, C H; Liu, L; Shi, W H; Wang, Y C; Yu, Y

    2012-08-16

    DNA methylation is essential for adipose deposition in mammals. We screened SNPs of the bovine DNA methyltransferase 3b (DNMT3b) gene in Snow Dragon beef, a commercial beef cattle population in China. Nine SNPs were found in the population and three of six novel SNPs were chosen for genotyping and analyzing a possible association with 16 meat quality traits. The frequencies of the alleles and genotypes of the three SNPs in Snow Dragon beef were similar to those in their terminal-paternal breed, Wagyu. Association analysis disclosed that SNP1 was not associated with any of the traits; SNP2 was significantly associated with lean meat color score and chuck short rib score, and SNP3 had a significant effect on dressing percentage and back-fat thickness in the beef population. The individuals with genotype GG for SNP2 had a 25.7% increase in lean meat color score and a 146% increase in chuck short rib score, compared with genotype AA. The cattle with genotype AG for SNP3 had 35.7 and 24% increases in dressing percentage and 28.8 and 29.2% increases in back-fat thickness, compared with genotypes GG and AA, respectively. Genotypic combination analysis revealed significant interactions between SNP1 and SNP2 and between SNP2 and SNP3 for the traits rib-eye area and live weight. We conclude that there is considerable evidence that DNMT3b is a determiner of beef quality traits.

  6. The molecular characterization and associations of porcine cardiomyopathy asssociated 5 (CMYA5) gene with carcass trait and meat quality.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaoling; Xu, Xuewen; Yin, Qin; Sun, Ling; Liu, Bang; Wang, Yanan

    2011-03-01

    The cardiomyopathy associated 5 (CMYA5) gene was also called TRIM76, which was belonged to the tripartite motif super family of proteins (TRIM). It was a direct transcriptional target for MEF2A and it played an important role in myofibrillogenesis. In the present study, a 12056 bp cDNA sequence of the porcine CMYA5 gene was obtained by RT-PCR. The sequence encoded a large protein consisting of 4003 amino acids and the carboxyl terminus of the predicted CMYA5 protein comprised of a B-box coiled-coil, two fibronectin type III (FN3) repeats, and SPRY domains. The porcine CMYA5 gene was assigned to chromosome 2q21-24 by using the radiation hybrid (IMpRH) panel, and it was significantly linked to microsatellite Sw1602 with LOD scores of 6.74. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the porcine CMYA5 gene was broadly expressed in all seven tissues(heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, skeletal muscle and adipose)harvested from different developmental stages(new born, five weeks and adult tongcheng pigs), with a high level in heart and skeletal muscle. One SNP (A7189C), leading to the amino acid alteration from the Ile residue to the Leu residue, was found and detected by BspTI PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The association analysis revealed that the substitution of A7189C had significant associations with the percentage of ham (p < 0.05), water loss (p < 0.01) and intramuscular fat (p < 0.05). These results provide the evidence that the porcine CMYA5 gene can act as a potential candidate gene affecting pig meat quality.

  7. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Cheorun

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently. PMID:26760739

  8. Meat Consumption Culture in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seleshe, Semeneh; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Mooha

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of animal flesh food in Ethiopia has associated with cultural practices. Meat plays pivotal and vital parts in special occasions and its cultural symbolic weight is markedly greater than that accorded to most other food. Processing and cooking of poultry is a gender based duty and has socio-cultural roles. Ethiopians are dependent on limited types of animals for meats due to the taboo associated culturally. Moreover, the consumption of meat and meat products has a very tidy association with religious beliefs, and are influenced by religions. The main religions of Ethiopia have their own peculiar doctrines of setting the feeding habits and customs of their followers. They influence meat products consumption through dictating the source animals that should be used or not be used for food, and scheduling the days of the years in periodical permeation and restriction of consumptions which in turn influences the pattern of meat consumption in the country. In Ethiopia, a cow or an ox is commonly butchered for the sole purpose of selling within the community. In special occasions, people have a cultural ceremony of slaughtering cow or ox and sharing among the group, called Kircha, which is a very common option of the people in rural area where access of meat is challenging frequently.

  9. The associations of diet with serum insulin-like growth factor I and its main binding proteins in 292 women meat-eaters, vegetarians, and vegans.

    PubMed

    Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Davey, Gwyneth K; Kaaks, Rudolf; Rinaldi, Sabina; Key, Timothy J

    2002-11-01

    The lower rates of some cancers in Asian countries than in Western countries may be partly because of diet, although the mechanisms are unknown. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine whether a plant-based (vegan) diet is associated with a lower circulating level of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) compared with a meat-eating or lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet among 292 British women, ages 20-70 years. The mean serum IGF-I concentration was 13% lower in 92 vegan women compared with 99 meat-eaters and 101 vegetarians (P = 0.0006). The mean concentrations of both serum IGF-binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-2 were 20-40% higher in vegan women compared with meat-eaters and vegetarians (P = 0.005 and P = 0.0008 for IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2, respectively). There were no significant differences in IGFBP-3, C-peptide, or sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations between the diet groups. Intake of protein rich in essential amino acids was positively associated with serum IGF-I (Pearson partial correlation coefficient; r = 0.27; P < 0.0001) and explained most of the differences in IGF-I concentration between the diet groups. These data suggest that a plant-based diet is associated with lower circulating levels of total IGF-I and higher levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2.

  10. Genome-wide association of meat quality traits and tenderness in swine

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pork quality has a large impact on consumer preference and perception of eating quality. A genome-wide association was performed for pork quality traits [intramuscular fat (IMF)], slice shear force (SSF), color attributes, purge, cooking loss, and pH] from 531 to 1,237 records on barrows and gilts o...

  11. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism of calpain 1 gene with meat tenderness of the yak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The association of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of calpain 1 (CAPN1) gene with shear force of 2.54 cm steaks from M. longissimus dorsi from Gannan yaks (Bos grunniens, n = 181) was studied. The experimental design was a repeated measures with the main unit in a completely randomized design...

  12. Meat, dairy, and cancer.

    PubMed

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-07-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007.

  13. A greater voice for academic health sciences libraries: the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' vision.

    PubMed

    Bunting, Alison

    2003-04-01

    The founders of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) envisioned the development of a professional organization that would provide a greater voice for academic health sciences libraries, facilitate cooperation and communication with the Association of American Medical Colleges, and create a forum for identifying problems and solutions that are common to academic health sciences libraries. This article focuses on the fulfillment of the "greater voice" vision by describing action and leadership by AAHSL and its members on issues that directly influenced the role of academic health sciences libraries. These include AAHSL's participation in the work that led to the publication of the landmark report, Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center: Roles for the Library in Information Management; its contributions to the recommendations of the Physicians for the Twenty-first Century: The GPEP Report; and the joint publication with the Medical Library Association of Challenge to Action: Planning and Evaluation Guidelines for Academic Health Sciences Libraries.

  14. Lactic acid bacteria associated with vacuum-packed cooked meat product spoilage: population analysis by rDNA-based methods.

    PubMed

    Chenoll, E; Macián, M C; Elizaquível, P; Aznar, R

    2007-02-01

    To determine the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) implicated in bloating spoilage of vacuum-packed and refrigerated meat products. A total of 18 samples corresponding to four types of meat products, with and without spoilage symptoms, were studied. In all, 387 colonies growing on de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe, yeast glucose lactose peptone and trypticase soy yeast extract plates were identified by internal spacer region (ISR), ISR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and rapid amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis profiles as Lactobacillus (37%), Leuconostoc (43%), Carnobacterium (11%), Enterococcus (4%) and Lactococcus (2%). Leuconostoc mesenteroides dominated the microbial population of spoiled products and was always present at the moment bloating occurred. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus curvatus were found in decreasing order of abundance. The analysis of two meat products, 'morcilla' and 'fiambre de magro adobado' obtained from production lines revealed a common succession pattern in LAB populations in both products and showed that Leuc. mesenteroides became the main species during storage, despite being below the detection level of culture methods after packing. Our results pointed to Leuc. mesenteroides as the main species responsible for bloating spoilage in vacuum-packed meat products. Prevention of bloating spoilage in vacuum-packed cooked meat products requires the sensitive detection of Leuc. mesenteroides (i.e. by PCR).

  15. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M.

    2017-01-01

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4n-6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2n-6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25–80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44–74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3n-6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population. PMID:28146136

  16. Consumption of Red Meat, but Not Cooking Oils High in Polyunsaturated Fat, Is Associated with Higher Arachidonic Acid Status in Singapore Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Seah, Jowy Yi Hoong; Gay, Gibson Ming Wei; Su, Jin; Tai, E-Shyong; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay; Ong, Choon Nam; van Dam, Rob M

    2017-01-31

    High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n - 6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n - 6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies. We used cross-sectional data from 269 healthy, ethnic Chinese participants (25-80 years old) with contrasting intakes of fish and red meat from the Singapore Prospective Study Program and 769 healthy participants (44-74 years old) from the Singapore Chinese Health Study as a validation set. Multivariable linear regression was used to examine PUFA intake (% energy) and food sources of PUFA (fish, red meat, poultry, soy and cooking oils) in relation to plasma PUFAs (AA, LA, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA; 20:3 n - 6), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA; 18:3 n - 3), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 n - 3), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 n - 3)) concentrations. Higher intake of red meat was associated with higher plasma AA concentrations. High intake of PUFA or PUFA-rich oils was associated with higher plasma ALA but not with plasma AA. Higher intakes of soy were associated with higher ALA and fish with higher DHA and EPA concentrations. These associations were statistically significant (p < 0.05) in both studies. Red meat consumption, but not PUFA or PUFA-rich cooking oil, was associated with circulating AA suggesting that intake of pre-formed AA rather than LA is an important determinant of AA status. A diet high in fish, soy products and polyunsaturated cooking oil, and low in red meat may be associated with an optimal plasma profile of PUFA in this Chinese population.

  17. Frequency, duration, and time devoted to elementary science instruction and the association with science achievement and science interest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almarode, John Taylor

    Although the United States continues to lead in many STEM areas (i.e., research and design and productivity), the Science and Engineering Indicators (NSB, 2010) suggest that the country is experiencing an erosion of its STEM advantage, ultimately losing the edge in each of these areas. Looking at trends in K-12 science, the 2010 National Science Board report indicated that the United States' position among selected countries declined in fourth grade science (NSB, 2010). This trend raises concern about the lagging student interest in the natural sciences, and thus the fate of science achievement outcomes for students in the United States. The research questions addressed in this study were: What is the pattern of growth for first-time kindergartners in science achievement from the end of third grade to the end of eighth grade? Controlling for differences in student demographics, are gains that first-time kindergartners make in science achievement from the end of third grade to the end of eighth grade associated with the frequency, duration, and time devoted to science in the third grade? Controlling for differences in student demographics is the frequency, duration, and time devoted to science in the third grade associated with the students' interest in eighth grade science? A subset of the variables contained in the ECLS-K: Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 data set and a subsample of the cohort of students in the ECLS-K data set. An unconditional growth model indicated that science achievement followed a non-linear pattern with significant individual variation in trajectories. In addition, students beginning with lower initial science achievement experience more rapid growth than those students beginning with higher initial science achievement. A conditional growth model suggested that the frequency of science in the third grade was a significant predictor of the achievement trajectory in science above and beyond demographic

  18. Pathway-Based Genome-Wide Association Studies for Two Meat Production Traits in Simmental Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Huizhong; Wu, Yang; Zhou, Xiaojing; Xia, Jiangwei; Zhang, Wengang; Song, Yuxin; Liu, Fei; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Lupei; Gao, Xue; Gao, Huijiang; Li, Junya

    2015-01-01

    Most single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) detected by genome-wide association studies (GWAS), explain only a small fraction of phenotypic variation. Pathway-based GWAS were proposed to improve the proportion of genes for some human complex traits that could be explained by enriching a mass of SNPs within genetic groups. However, few attempts have been made to describe the quantitative traits in domestic animals. In this study, we used a dataset with approximately 7,700,000 SNPs from 807 Simmental cattle and analyzed live weight and longissimus muscle area using a modified pathway-based GWAS method to orthogonalise the highly linked SNPs within each gene using principal component analysis (PCA). As a result, of the 262 biological pathways of cattle collected from the KEGG database, the gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapse pathway and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathway were significantly associated with the two traits analyzed. The GABAergic synapse pathway was biologically applicable to the traits analyzed because of its roles in feed intake and weight gain. The proposed method had high statistical power and a low false discovery rate, compared to those of the smallest P-value and SNP set enrichment analysis methods. PMID:26672757

  19. Associations of sire estimated breeding values and objective meat quality measurements with sensory scores in Australian lamb.

    PubMed

    Pannier, L; Gardner, G E; Pearce, K L; McDonagh, M; Ball, A J; Jacob, R H; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    The impact of selecting for lean meat yield using breeding values for increased eye muscle depth (PEMD) and decreased fat depth (PFAT) on the consumer acceptance of lamb meat was evaluated. Consumer sensory scores (tenderness, juiciness, flavour, odour, overall liking) were obtained for the longissimus lumborum (loin) and semimembranosus (topside) muscles of 1471 lambs. On average loin samples were more acceptable for consumers. Sensory scores increased with higher IMF levels, with lower shear force levels, and when animals were younger and less muscular. Increasing PEMD decreased tenderness, overall liking and flavour scores in both muscles, and decreasing PFAT reduced tenderness within the loin samples only. This negative impact of PEMD and PFAT is not solely driven through the phenotypic impact of IMF and shear force on sensory scores. Our results confirm the growing concerns that selecting for lean meat yield would reduce consumer eating quality, and highlight that careful monitoring of selection programmes is needed to maintain lamb eating quality.

  20. The Association of Family Influence and Initial Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    With recent attention to improving scientific workforce development and student achievement, there has been a rise in effort to understand and encourage student engagement in physical science. This study examines the association of family influence and initial interest in science through multiple and logistic regression models. Research questions…

  1. Child Development Associate. Conceptual Science: From Atoms to Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, provides a guide to science activities for preschool children. Objectives state that upon completion of the module the CDA trainee will be able to provide daily opportunities for science concept development; enhance children's problem solving abilities; stimulate…

  2. The Association of Family Influence and Initial Interest in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Tai, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    With recent attention to improving scientific workforce development and student achievement, there has been a rise in effort to understand and encourage student engagement in physical science. This study examines the association of family influence and initial interest in science through multiple and logistic regression models. Research questions…

  3. Child Development Associate. Conceptual Science: From Atoms to Galaxies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, provides a guide to science activities for preschool children. Objectives state that upon completion of the module the CDA trainee will be able to provide daily opportunities for science concept development; enhance children's problem solving abilities; stimulate…

  4. Sorghum and wheat differentially affect caecal microbiota and associated performance characteristics of meat chickens

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Mark S.; Hughes, Robert J.; Moore, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of wheat- and sorghum-based diets on broiler chickens. The growth performance and caecal microbial community of chickens were measured and correlations between productivity and specific gut microbes were observed. Cobb broilers 15 days of age were individually caged and two dietary treatments were used, one with a wheat-based diet (n = 48) and another one with a sorghum-based diet (n = 48). Growth performance measurements were taken over a 10 day period and samples for microbiota analysis were taken at the end of that period. Caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA gene amplicons. Overall, the results indicated that a sorghum-based diet produced higher apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and body-weight gain (BWG) values in chickens, compared to a wheat-based diet. Nevertheless, sorghum-fed birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) values than wheat-fed birds, possibly because of some anti-nutritional factors in sorghum. Further analyses showed that caecal microbial community was significantly associated with AME values, but microbiota composition differed between dietary treatments. A number of bacteria were individually correlated with growth performance measurements. Numerous OTUs assigned to strains of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lachnospiraceae, which were prevalent in sorghum-fed chickens, were correlated with high AME and BWG values, respectively. Additionally, a number of OTUs assigned to Clostridiales that were prevalent in wheat-fed chickens were correlated with low FCR values. Overall, these results suggest that between-diet variations in growth performance were partly associated with changes in the caecal microbiota. PMID:28286717

  5. Sorghum and wheat differentially affect caecal microbiota and associated performance characteristics of meat chickens.

    PubMed

    Crisol-Martínez, Eduardo; Stanley, Dragana; Geier, Mark S; Hughes, Robert J; Moore, Robert J

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of wheat- and sorghum-based diets on broiler chickens. The growth performance and caecal microbial community of chickens were measured and correlations between productivity and specific gut microbes were observed. Cobb broilers 15 days of age were individually caged and two dietary treatments were used, one with a wheat-based diet (n = 48) and another one with a sorghum-based diet (n = 48). Growth performance measurements were taken over a 10 day period and samples for microbiota analysis were taken at the end of that period. Caecal microbiota was characterised by sequencing of 16S bacterial rRNA gene amplicons. Overall, the results indicated that a sorghum-based diet produced higher apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and body-weight gain (BWG) values in chickens, compared to a wheat-based diet. Nevertheless, sorghum-fed birds had higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) values than wheat-fed birds, possibly because of some anti-nutritional factors in sorghum. Further analyses showed that caecal microbial community was significantly associated with AME values, but microbiota composition differed between dietary treatments. A number of bacteria were individually correlated with growth performance measurements. Numerous OTUs assigned to strains of Lactobacillus crispatus and Lachnospiraceae, which were prevalent in sorghum-fed chickens, were correlated with high AME and BWG values, respectively. Additionally, a number of OTUs assigned to Clostridiales that were prevalent in wheat-fed chickens were correlated with low FCR values. Overall, these results suggest that between-diet variations in growth performance were partly associated with changes in the caecal microbiota.

  6. Association of roasting meat intake with the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma of Kazakh Chinese via affecting promoter methylation of p16 gene.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weigang; Yang, Chunmei; Yang, Lan; Qi, Cuihua; Tian, Shuxin; Han, Yusheng; Dou, Yuqin; Ma, Yungui; Tian, Dean; Zheng, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) incidence is high in Kazak Autonomous Prefecture, Xinjiang, China. Roasting food has been reported to be related with the risk of various cancers and is very popular in the area, and may be related with the risk of ESCC. The promoter methylation inactivation of p16 gene can increase the risk of ESCC. Thus, we want to know whether long-term roasting food is related with the risk of ESCC by effecting the promoter methylation of p16 gene. Ninety ESCC patients and 60 healthy subjects were recruited from Kazak Autonomous Prefecture. MassARRAY was used to detect p16 promoter methylation in ESCC tissues, as well as in normal esophageal tissues. The association between the p16 promoter methylation and daily roasting meat intake was examined. Daily roasting meat intake was related with the risk of ESCC (p<0.01) and the mean CpG methylation rates of p16 promoter (p<0.01). In ESCC patients, the mean methylation rates of CpG 11-12 and CpG 33-34-35 were 29.4% and 37.4%, respectively, which was significantly higher than the rates in normal esophageal tissues (16.7% and 12.4%, respectively; p<0.01). The methylation of p16 promoter is also related with daily roasting meat intake (p<0.01) in Kazakh Chinese with ESCC. For the CpG methylation of the p16 promoter in the well, moderately and poorly differentiated ESCC, there are significant differences (p<0.05) for the 19 CpG units in the ESCC and controls. Roasting meat intake was associated with the risk of ESCC via effects on the methylation of p16 promoter. These results suggest roasting food intake should be limited in the diet.

  7. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Junaidu, Yakubu Muhammad; Adeyemo, Olanike Kudrat; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. Materials and methods The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. Results The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721). Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards were the major findings of this study. However, the highest prevalence of occupational hazards identified among the workers was injury by sharp equipment such as a knife (20.0%), noise exposure (17.0%), and due to offensive odor within the abattoir premises (12.0%). Conclusion The major occupational hazards encountered by the workers in the study area were physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards. To ensure proper control of occupational health hazards among the abattoir workers, standard design and good environmental hygiene must be taken into consideration all the time. Exposure control plan, which includes risk identification, risk characterization, assessment of workers at risk, risk control, workers’ education/training, and implementation of safe work procedures, should be implemented by the government and all the existing laws governing the abattoir

  8. Occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullahi, Auwalu; Hassan, Azmi; Kadarman, Norizhar; Junaidu, Yakubu Muhammad; Adeyemo, Olanike Kudrat; Lua, Pei Lin

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occupational hazards among the abattoir workers associated with noncompliance to the meat processing and waste disposal laws in Terengganu State, Malaysia. Occupational hazards are the major source of morbidity and mortality among the animal workers due to exposure to many hazardous situations in their daily practices. Occupational infections mostly contracted by abattoir workers could be caused by iatrogenic or transmissible agents, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites and the toxins produced by these organisms. The methodology was based on a cross-sectional survey using cluster sampling technique in the four districts of Terengganu State, Malaysia. One hundred and twenty-one abattoir workers from five abattoirs were assessed using a validated structured questionnaire and an observation checklist. The mean and standard deviation of occupational hazards scores of the workers were 2.32 (2.721). Physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards were the major findings of this study. However, the highest prevalence of occupational hazards identified among the workers was injury by sharp equipment such as a knife (20.0%), noise exposure (17.0%), and due to offensive odor within the abattoir premises (12.0%). The major occupational hazards encountered by the workers in the study area were physical, chemical, biological, psychosocial, musculoskeletal, and ergonomics hazards. To ensure proper control of occupational health hazards among the abattoir workers, standard design and good environmental hygiene must be taken into consideration all the time. Exposure control plan, which includes risk identification, risk characterization, assessment of workers at risk, risk control, workers' education/training, and implementation of safe work procedures, should be implemented by the government and all the existing laws governing the abattoir operation in the country should be enforced.

  9. The association of CAPN1 316 marker genotypes with growth and meat quality traits of steers finished on pasture

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine the association of a SNP in the μ-calpain gene at position 316 with growth and quality of meat traits of steers grown on pasture. Fifty-nine Brangus and 20 Angus steers were genotyped for CAPN1 316. Warner Bratzler shear force was measured in l. lumborum samples after a 7-day aging period. A multivariate analysis of variance was performed, including shear force (WBSF), final weight (FW), average daily gain (ADG), backfat thickness (BFT), average monthly fat thickness gain (AMFTG), rib-eye area (REA), and beef rib-eye depth (RED) as dependent variables. The CAPN1 316 genotype was statistically significant. Univariate analyses were done with these variables. The marker genotype was statistically significant (p < 0.05) for WBSF (kg: CC: 4.41 ± 0.57; CG: 5.58 ± 0.20; GG: 6.29 ± 0.18), FW (kg: CC: 360.23 ± 14.71; CG: 381.34 ± 5.26; GG: 399.23 ± 4.68), and ADG (kg/d: CC: 0.675 ± 0.046; CG: 0.705 ± 0.016; GG: 0.765 ± 0.014) Shear force, final weight and average daily gain were significantly different according to the CAPN1 316 marker genotypes. The marker genotype was statistically significant in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.001). The first characteristic root explained 89% of the differences among genotypes. WBSF, FW and ADG were the most important traits in the first vector, indicating that animals with the marker genotype for lowest WBSF also have the lowest FW and ADG. PMID:21637511

  10. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Hou, Tao; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E; Berndt, Sonja I; van den Brandt, Piet A; Giles, Graham G; Giovannucci, Edward; Alexandra Goldbohm, R; Goodman, Gary G; Goodman, Phyllis J; Håkansson, Niclas; Inoue, Manami; Key, Timothy J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L; Neuhouser, Marian L; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A; Schenk, Jeannette M; Sinha, Rashmi; Stampfer, Meir J; Stevens, Victoria L; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Wilkens, Lynne R; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A

    2016-05-15

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52,683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842,149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥ 45 vs. <5 g/day: advanced 0.83, 0.70-0.99; trend test p value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59-0.82, trend test p value 0.16). Participants who ate ≥ 25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg ∼ 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (advanced 1.14, 1.01-1.28, trend test p value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00-1.30, trend test p value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. © 2015 UICC.

  11. Associations between unprocessed red and processed meat, poultry, seafood and egg intake and the risk of prostate cancer: A pooled analysis of 15 prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Hou, Tao; Albanes, Demetrius; Allen, Naomi E.; Berndt, Sonja I.; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Giles, Graham G.; Giovannucci, Edward; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra; Goodman, Gary G.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Håkansson, Niclas; Inoue, Manami; Key, Timothy J.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Männistö, Satu; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Park, Yikyung; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Stampfer, Meir J.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Visvanathan, Kala; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Wolk, Alicja; Ziegler, Regina G.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Reports relating meat intake to prostate cancer risk are inconsistent. Associations between these dietary factors and prostate cancer were examined in a consortium of 15 cohort studies. During follow-up, 52, 683 incident prostate cancer cases, including 4,924 advanced cases, were identified among 842, 149 men. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate study-specific relative risks (RR) and then pooled using random effects models. Results do not support a substantial effect of total red, unprocessed red and processed meat for all prostate cancer outcomes, except for a modest positive association for tumors identified as advanced stage at diagnosis (advanced(r)). For seafood, no substantial effect was observed for prostate cancer regardless of stage or grade. Poultry intake was inversely associated with risk of advanced and fatal cancers (pooled multivariable RR [MVRR], 95% confidence interval, comparing ≥45 vs. <5 g/day: advanced 0.83, 0.70–0.99; trend test p value 0.29), fatal, 0.69, 0.59–0.82, trend test p value 0.16). Participants who ate ≥25 versus <5 g/day of eggs (1 egg ~ 50 g) had a significant 14% increased risk of advanced and fatal cancers (advanced 1.14, 1.01–1.28, trend test p value 0.01; fatal 1.14, 1.00–1.30, trend test p value 0.01). When associations were analyzed separately by geographical region (North America vs. other continents), positive associations between unprocessed red meat and egg intake, and inverse associations between poultry intake and advanced, advanced(r) and fatal cancers were limited to North American studies. However, differences were only statistically significant for eggs. Observed differences in associations by geographical region warrant further investigation. PMID:26685908

  12. Theoretical analysis on pulsed microwave heating of pork meat supported on ceramic plate.

    PubMed

    Basak, Tanmay; Rao, Badri S

    2010-11-01

    Theoretical analysis has been carried out to study the role of ceramic plates (alumina and SiC) and pulsed microwave heating of pork meat (Pork Luncheon Roll (PLR) and White Pudding (WP)) samples. Spatial hot spots occur either at the center of the sample or at the outer face or at the face attached with alumina plate and application of pulsing minimizes formation of hot spots within meat samples. Pulsing of microwave is characterized by set point for temperature difference (ΔTS) and on-off constraints for temperature (T'). It is found that alumina plate with higher ΔTS and lower T' may be recommended for thick meat samples (both WP and PLR) whereas for thin meat samples, lower ΔTS with alumina plate/without plate may be preferred. It is also observed that SiC plate may be selectively used with ΔTS=20K for both the pork meats. The distributed microwave incidence is found to be effective due to lesser degree of thermal runaway in absence of pulsing for both meat samples. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Jennifer L; Bishop, Stephen C; McCorquodale, Caroline; Williams, John L; Wiener, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1), calpastatin (CAST), leptin (LEP), growth hormone receptor (GHR) and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality. PMID:19555501

  14. Evaluation of the association between feeding raw meat and Salmonella enterica infections at a Greyhound breeding facility.

    PubMed

    Morley, Paul S; Strohmeyer, Rachel A; Tankson, Jeanetta D; Hyatt, Doreene R; Dargatz, David A; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J

    2006-05-15

    To investigate Salmonella enterica infections at a Greyhound breeding facility. Cross-sectional study. ANIMAL AND SAMPLE POPULATIONS: 138 adult and juvenile dogs and S. enterica isolates recovered from the dogs and their environment. The investigation was conducted at the request of a Greyhound breeder. Observations regarding the environment and population of dogs were recorded. Fecal, food, and environmental specimens were collected and submitted for Salmonella culture. Isolates were serotyped and tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials. Isolates underwent genetic analyses by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping. S. enterica was recovered from 88 of 133 (66%) samples of all types and from 57 of 61 (93%) fecal samples. Eighty-three (94.3%) of the isolates were serotype Newport, 77 (87.5%) of which had identical resistance phenotypes. Genetic evaluations suggested that several strains of S. enterica existed at the facility, but there was a high degree of relatedness among many of the Newport isolates. Multiple strains of Salmonella enterica serotype Newport were recovered from raw meat fed on 1 day. S. enterica infections and environmental contamination were common at this facility. A portion of the Salmonella strains detected on the premises was likely introduced via raw meat that was the primary dietary constituent. Some strains appeared to be widely disseminated in the population. Feeding meat that had not been cooked properly, particularly meat classified as unfit for human consumption, likely contributed to the infections in these dogs.

  15. The Association between Science Summer Camps and Career Interest in Science and Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Xiaoqing; Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the association between middle-school students' reported participation in science summer programmes and their reported expectation of a career in science and engineering. Data were collected on 1,580 students from eight middle schools in five states, applying an accelerated longitudinal design. Two consecutive cohorts were…

  16. Characterization of volatile metabolites associated with confinement odour during the shelf-life of vacuum packed lamb meat under different storage conditions.

    PubMed

    Reis, Marlon M; Reis, Mariza G; Mills, John; Ross, Colleen; Brightwell, Gale

    2016-03-01

    Confinement odour was investigated. Volatiles were extracted directly from the pack, using solid phase microextraction and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Sensory evaluation and microbiological analysis of the meat surface were also performed. Commercial samples of vacuum packed lamb legs (n=85), from two meat processing plants, were kept for 7weeks at -1.5°C then at different regimes of temperature (-1.5 to +4°C) until 11, 12 or 13weeks. Persistent odour was observed in 66% of samples, confinement odour in 24% and no odour in 11%. Volatiles associated with confinement odour (3-methyl-butanal, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone and sulphur dioxide) corresponded with end/sub products of glucose fermentation and catabolism of amino acids by bacteria (all bacteria naturally found in meat and do not represent a risk to health). Confinement odour could indicate a stage at which the environment for bacteria growth is becoming favourable for the production of volatiles with strong odours that are noticed by the consumer.

  17. Carnosine content in the porcine longissimus thoracis muscle and its association with meat quality attributes and carnosine-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    D'Astous-Pagé, Joël; Gariépy, Claude; Blouin, Richard; Cliche, Simon; Sullivan, Brian; Fortin, Frédéric; Palin, Marie-France

    2017-02-01

    Muscle carnosine has pH-buffering, antioxidant and carbonyl scavenging properties, which may affect pork quality attributes. Study objectives were to: (1) compare muscle carnosine content and carnosine-related gene mRNA abundance in purebred pigs (n=282), (2) study the effect of muscle carnosine content on pork quality attributes and gene expression across breeds, and (3) study transcript abundance of carnosine-related genes in various tissues. Pigs were raised under similar conditions and slaughtered at 120±4.5kg. Longissimus thoracis muscles were sampled on the dressing line for gene expression and at 24h for meat quality measurements. Muscle carnosine content and carnosine-related gene mRNA abundance were modulated according to pig breeds. Greater pH24h, better water holding capacity and improved meat color values were found in pigs with high muscle carnosine content. Data suggest that high muscle carnosine is associated with improved pork meat quality attributes. The pig genetic background may be a key determinant for muscle carnosine content regulation. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Samonellosis and meat hygiene: red meat.

    PubMed

    Watson, W A

    1975-04-26

    The association between salmonellosis in man and the infection in food animals has been clearly established. There is, moreover, little doubt that abattoir by-products, effluent and solid waste may allow the recycling of infection in animals. The potential hazard posed by salmonellosis to human and animal health will be reduced only by a greater control over the slaughter of infected farm livestock, improved isolation and casualty slaughter accommodation, a stricter control of slaughterhouse hygiene and the provision and full utilisation of adequate laboratory facilities for the bacteriological examination of meat and the abattoir environment.

  19. Processed meat: the real villain?

    PubMed

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Linseisen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Meat is a food rich in protein, minerals such as iron and zinc as well as a variety of vitamins, in particular B vitamins. However, the content of cholesterol and saturated fat is higher than in some other food groups. Processed meat is defined as products usually made of red meat that are cured, salted or smoked (e.g. ham or bacon) in order to improve the durability of the food and/or to improve colour and taste, and often contain a high amount of minced fatty tissue (e.g. sausages). Hence, high consumption of processed foods may lead to an increased intake of saturated fats, cholesterol, salt, nitrite, haem iron, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and, depending upon the chosen food preparation method, also heterocyclic amines. Several large cohort studies have shown that a high consumption of processed (red) meat is related to increased overall and cause-specific mortality. A meta-analysis of nine cohort studies observed a higher mortality among high consumers of processed red meat (relative risk (RR) = 1·23; 95 % CI 1·17, 1·28, top v. bottom consumption category), but not unprocessed red meat (RR = 1·10; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·22). Similar associations were reported in a second meta-analysis. All studies argue that plausible mechanisms are available linking processed meat consumption and risk of chronic diseases such as CVD, diabetes mellitus or some types of cancer. However, the results of meta-analyses do show some degree of heterogeneity between studies, and it has to be taken into account that individuals with low red or processed meat consumption tend to have a healthier lifestyle in general. Hence, substantial residual confounding cannot be excluded. Information from other types of studies in man is needed to support a causal role of processed meat in the aetiology of chronic diseases, e.g. studies using the Mendelian randomisation approach.

  20. Characteristics of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from meat and milk products of different origins and association with food producing animals as main contamination sources.

    PubMed

    Martin, Annett; Beutin, Lothar

    2011-03-15

    Shiga toxin-producing strains of Escherichia coli (STEC) cause diarrhoea and haemorrhagic colitis in humans. Most human infections are attributed to consumption of STEC contaminated foodstuff. Food producing animals constitute important reservoirs of STEC and serve as source of food contamination. In this study, we have analyzed 593 foodborne STEC strains for their serotypes and for nine virulence genes (stx1, stx1c, stx1d, stx2, stx2b, stx2e, stx2g, E-hly and eae). The 593 STEC strains grouped into 215 serotypes, and 123 serotypes (57.2%) were represented each by only one STEC isolate. Fifteen serotypes (7.0%) were attributed to 198 (33.3%) of the 593 STEC strains. The foodborne STEC were grouped into different categories in relation to the species of the food producing animal (cattle, pigs, sheep, goats, red deer, wild-boar and hare). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses revealed significant similarities between the animal origin of the food and the virulence markers of foodborne STEC. Significant associations (p<0.001) were found for stx1 and for stx2 with bovine meat and milk products. The stx2e gene was significantly (p<0.001) associated with STEC from pork and wild boar meat. Stx1c and stx2b genes were significantly (p<0.001) more frequent in STEC from deer meat, as well as from meat and milk products derived from sheep and goats. Using logistic regression models we detected significant (p<0.01) combinations between stx1, stx2 and E-hly genes and STEC from bovine meat. The combination of stx1c and stx2b genes was significant (p<0.001) for STEC derived from red deer, sheep and goat products. The properties of foodborne STEC were compared with published data on faecal STEC from food producing animals. Virulence profiles and serotypes of STEC from food showed remarkable similarities to those of faecal STEC that were from the same animal species. The findings from our study clearly indicate that the food producing animals represent the most important

  1. Processed meat intake is unfavorably and fish intake favorably associated with semen quality indicators among men attending a fertility clinic.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Gaskins, Audrey J; Williams, Paige L; Toth, Thomas L; Wright, Diane L; Tanrikut, Cigdem; Hauser, Russ; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-07-01

    Emerging literature suggests that men's diets may affect spermatogenesis as reflected in semen quality indicators, but literature on the relation between meat intake and semen quality is limited. Our objective was to prospectively examine the relation between meat intake and indicators of semen quality. Men in subfertile couples presenting for evaluation at the Massachusetts General Hospital Fertility Center were invited to participate in an ongoing study of environmental factors and fertility. A total of 155 men completed a validated food-frequency questionnaire and subsequently provided 338 semen samples over an 18-mo period from 2007-2012. We used linear mixed regression models to examine the relation between meat intake and semen quality indicators (total sperm count, sperm concentration, progressive motility, morphology, and semen volume) while adjusting for potential confounders and accounting for within-person variability across repeat semen samples. Among the 155 men (median age: 36.1 y; 83% white, non-Hispanic), processed meat intake was inversely related to sperm morphology. Men in the highest quartile of processed meat intake had, on average, 1.7 percentage units (95% CI: -3.3, -0.04) fewer morphologically normal sperm than men in the lowest quartile of intake (P-trend = 0.02). Fish intake was related to higher sperm count and percentage of morphologically normal sperm. The adjusted mean total sperm count increased from 102 million (95% CI: 80, 131) in the lowest quartile to 168 million (95% CI: 136, 207) sperm in the highest quartile of fish intake (P-trend = 0.005). Similarly, the adjusted mean percentages of morphologically normal sperm for men in increasing quartiles of fish intake were 5.9 (95% CI: 5.0, 6.8), 5.3 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3), 6.3 (95% CI: 5.2, 7.4), and 7.5 (95% CI: 6.5, 8.5) (P-trend = 0.01). Consuming fish may have a positive impact on sperm counts and morphology, particularly when consumed instead of processed red meats.

  2. Informal science educators network project Association of Science-Technology Centers Incorporated. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-09

    Funding from the Department of Energy and the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science Project have helped the Association of Science-technology Centers Incorporated (ASTC) to establish and sustain an on-line community of informal science educators nationwide. The Project, called the Informal Science Educators Network Project (ISEN), is composed primarily of informal science educators and exhibit developers from science centers, museums, zoos, aquariums, botanical gardens, parks, and nature centers. Although museum-based professionals represent the majority of subscribers to ISEN, also involved are some classroom teachers and teacher educators from colleges and universities. Common to all ISEN participants is a commitment to school and science education reform. Specifically, funding from the Department of Energy helped to boot strap the effort, providing Barrier Reduction Vouchers to 123 educators that enabled them participate in ISEN. Among the major accomplishments of the Project are these: (1) assistance to 123 informal science educators to attend Internet training sessions held in connection with the Project and/or purchase hardware and software that linked them to the Internet; (2) Internet training for 153 informal science educators; (3) development of a listserv which currently has over 180 subscribers--an all-time high; (4) opportunity to participate in four web chats involving informal science educators with noted researchers; (5) development of two sites on the World Wide Web linking informal science educators to Internet resources; (6) creation of an on-line collection of over 40 articles related to inquiry-based teaching and science education reform. In order to continue the momentum of the Project, ASTC has requested from the Annenberg/CPB Math and Science project a no/cost extension through December 1997.

  3. Associate of Applied Science Degree in Office Systems. Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaudet Coll., Washington, DC. School of Preparatory Studies.

    This proposal culminates a 5-year study of the possibility of awarding associate degrees at Gallaudet College, a private, liberal arts college for hearing impaired adults. The proposal outlines an Associate of Applied Science degree (AAS) in Office Systems at the School of Preparatory Studies. First, introductory material provides a brief history…

  4. Measuring Meat Texture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the complex and highly structured nature of muscle tissue, meat is an inherently tough and widely variable food product. In order to better predict and control meat tenderness issues, accurate measures of meat texture are needed. Unfortunately, the multifaceted characteristic of meat texture ...

  5. Meat nutritional composition and nutritive role in the human diet.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Paula Manuela de Castro Cardoso; Vicente, Ana Filipa dos Reis Baltazar

    2013-03-01

    Meat has exerted a crucial role in human evolution and is an important component of a healthy and well balanced diet due to its nutritional richness. The present review attempts to sum up meats role and importance in human nutrition as well as examine some pejorative beliefs about meat consumption. Meat is a valuable source of high biological value protein, iron, vitamin B12 as well as other B complex vitamins, zinc, selenium and phosphorus. Fat content and fatty acid profile, a constant matter of concern when referring to meat consumption, is highly dependent on species, feeding system as well as the cut used. Pork meat can have the highest fat content but poultry skin is not far behind. It is also crucial to distinguish meat cuts from other meat products especially regarding its association with disease risk. As in other dietary components, moderation is advisable but meat has been shown to be an important component of a balanced diet.

  6. Basalt: Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, D. S. S.; Abercromby, A.; Kobs-Nawotniak, S. E.; Kobayashi, L.; Hughes, S. S.; Chappell, S.; Bramall, N. E.; Deans, M. C.; Heldmann, J. L.; Downs, M.; Cockell, C. S.; Stevens, A. H.; Caldwell, B.; Hoffman, J.; Vadhavk, N.; Marquez, J.; Miller, M.; Squyres, S. W.; Lees, D. S.; Fong, T.; Cohen, T.; Smith, T.; Lee, G.; Frank, J.; Colaprete, A.

    2015-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of the BASALT (Biologic Analog Science Associated with Lava Terrains) program. BASALT research addresses Science, Science Operations, and Technology. Specifically, BASALT is focused on the investigation of terrestrial volcanic terrains and their habitability as analog environments for early and present-day Mars. Our scientific fieldwork is conducted under simulated Mars mission constraints to evaluate strategically selected concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities with respect to their anticipated value for the joint human and robotic exploration of Mars. a) Science: The BASALT science program is focused on understanding habitability conditions of early and present-day Mars in two relevant Mars-analog locations (the Southwest Rift Zone (SWRZ) and the East Rift Zone (ERZ) flows on the Big Island of Hawai'i and the eastern Snake River Plain (ESRP) in Idaho) to characterize and compare the physical and geochemical conditions of life in these environments and to learn how to seek, identify, and characterize life and life-related chemistry in basaltic environments representing these two epochs of martian history. b) Science Operations: The BASALT team will conduct real (non-simulated) biological and geological science at two high-fidelity Mars analogs, all within simulated Mars mission conditions (including communication latencies and bandwidth constraints) that are based on current architectural assumptions for Mars exploration missions. We will identify which human-robotic ConOps and supporting capabilities enable science return and discovery. c) Technology: BASALT will incorporate and evaluate technologies in to our field operations that are directly relevant to conducting the scientific investigations regarding life and life-related chemistry in Mars-analogous terrestrial environments. BASALT technologies include the use of mobile science platforms, extravehicular informatics, display technologies, communication

  7. URINARY MUTAGENESIS AS AN EXPOSURE BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS: INFLUENCE OF COOKING TEMPERATURE, PHENOTYPE, AND GENOTYPE IN A CONTROLLED METABOLIC FEEDING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We evaluated urinary mutagenicity and selected phenotypes and genotypes in 60 subjects in a metabolic feeding study in which meat cooked at low temperature (100oC) was consumed for 1 week followed by meat cooked at high temperature (250oC) the second week. Meat coo...

  8. Interesting Times: Practice, Science, and Professional Associations in Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Critchfield, Thomas S

    2011-01-01

    Neither practitioners nor scientists appear to be fully satisfied with the world's largest behavior-analytic membership organization. Each community appears to believe that initiatives that serve the other will undermine the association's capacity to serve their own needs. Historical examples suggest that such discord is predicted when practitioners and scientists cohabit the same association. This is true because all professional associations exist to address guild interests, and practice and science are different professions with different guild interests. No association, therefore, can succeed in being all things to all people. The solution is to assure that practice and science communities are well served by separate professional associations. I comment briefly on how this outcome might be promoted. PMID:22532750

  9. Problems of measurements, information, and association of sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubro, V. G.

    2008-03-01

    Association of sciences is very extensive problem. If we shall start to list all requirements to it we risk to demand impossible and to pass for schemers. It is possible to go on the other hand, for example, as to dietologies where quality of products is defined by the standard - Maximum permissible Concentration of Harmful Substances. For bases of sciences there is no standard on maximum permissible norms of the abstract ideas that have been not confirmed by measurements. For mathematical, geometrical and logic objects and operations above them there is no standard on maximum permissible norms of the abstract ideas contradicting objects and interactions in the real nature. In due course abstract ideas expand in the problems complicating or at all stopping development of sciences. There are many works, devoted to gathering and the analysis of experimental effects and the phenomena that are not entered in frameworks of traditional natural sciences. These are original collections of "dark spots" of sciences; their review far is beyond given clause. Therefore we shall be limited only to the analysis of some bases of our traditional natural sciences. It concretizes requirements to "the incorporated science" a little.

  10. A greater voice for academic health sciences libraries: the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' vision

    PubMed Central

    Bunting, Alison

    2003-01-01

    The founders of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries (AAHSL) envisioned the development of a professional organization that would provide a greater voice for academic health sciences libraries, facilitate cooperation and communication with the Association of American Medical Colleges, and create a forum for identifying problems and solutions that are common to academic health sciences libraries. This article focuses on the fulfillment of the “greater voice” vision by describing action and leadership by AAHSL and its members on issues that directly influenced the role of academic health sciences libraries. These include AAHSL's participation in the work that led to the publication of the landmark report, Academic Information in the Academic Health Sciences Center: Roles for the Library in Information Management; its contributions to the recommendations of the Physicians for the Twenty-first Century: The GPEP Report; and the joint publication with the Medical Library Association of Challenge to Action: Planning and Evaluation Guidelines for Academic Health Sciences Libraries. PMID:12883583

  11. Association of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5' upstream region of the porcine myosin heavy chain 4 gene with meat quality traits in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eun‐Seok; Lee, Kyung‐Tai; Kim, Jun‐Mo; Lee, Si‐Woo; Jeon, Hyeon‐Jeong; Lee, Seung‐Hwan; Hong, Ki‐Chang

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We identified a potential molecular marker associated with meat quality traits in the myosin heavy chain 4, MYH4 gene of Landrace pigs. Sequencing revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; g.‐1398G>T) in the 5' upstream region of MYH4. It was significantly associated with the number of type IIa muscle fibers and water‐holding capacity based on filter‐paper fluid uptake. The GG genotype groups had a greater number of type IIa fibers and a larger area composed of type IIa fibers than the other genotype group (P = 0.004 and P = 0.061, respectively). Expression level of MYH4 gene in the genotype TT or GT was higher than in genotype of GG (P < 0.0001). The T allele may enhance expression level of MYH4 gene and then the portion of IIb type fiber in the muscle be increased by the T allelle. Therefore, we suggest that the g.‐1398G>T in the 5' upstream region of the porcine MYH4 may be used as a molecular marker for meat quality traits, although its functional effect is not defined yet. PMID:26271027

  12. Dietary and Lifestyle Factors Associated with Colorectal Cancer Risk and Interactions with Microbiota: Fiber, Red or Processed Meat and Alcoholic Drinks

    PubMed Central

    Tuan, Juan; Chen, Ying-Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Background Diets and lifestyles have been strongly associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past several decades, emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota may have a role in the development of CRC. Its interaction with diets and lifestyles could affect the carcinogenesis of CRC. Summary This review presents the most recent epidemiologic and experimental evidence of three factors that may convincingly have a role in CRC, including fiber, red or processed meat, and alcohol, focusing on potential mechanisms and their interactions with the gut microbiota. Key Message High consumption of fiber, low consumption of red or processed red meat as well as minimizing alcohol intake have been associated with a lower risk of CRC. Many microbial metabolites formed from those three substances may mediate the microbial diversity and the composition and abundance of the gut microbiota, which eventually affects the balance between health and disease, including CRC. Practical Implications Based on our synthetic review, clinicians may probably offer some recommendations and explanations to their patients who may want to modulate their diet and lifestyle to prevent CRC. As an easily modifiable environmental factor, it may be possible that applying dietary or lifestyle intervention could effectively protect against the development of CRC in the future. PMID:27722153

  13. Development of Dose-Response Models to Predict the Relationship for Human Toxoplasma gondii Infection Associated with Meat Consumption.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Mishra, Abhinav; Buchanan, Robert L; Dubey, Jitender P; Hill, Dolores E; Gamble, H Ray; Jones, Jeffrey L; Du, Xianzhi; Pradhan, Abani K

    2016-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that is responsible for approximately 24% of deaths attributed to foodborne pathogens in the United States. It is thought that a substantial portion of human T. gondii infections is acquired through the consumption of meats. The dose-response relationship for human exposures to T. gondii-infected meat is unknown because no human data are available. The goal of this study was to develop and validate dose-response models based on animal studies, and to compute scaling factors so that animal-derived models can predict T. gondii infection in humans. Relevant studies in literature were collected and appropriate studies were selected based on animal species, stage, genotype of T. gondii, and route of infection. Data were pooled and fitted to four sigmoidal-shaped mathematical models, and model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood estimation. Data from a mouse study were selected to develop the dose-response relationship. Exponential and beta-Poisson models, which predicted similar responses, were selected as reasonable dose-response models based on their simplicity, biological plausibility, and goodness fit. A confidence interval of the parameter was determined by constructing 10,000 bootstrap samples. Scaling factors were computed by matching the predicted infection cases with the epidemiological data. Mouse-derived models were validated against data for the dose-infection relationship in rats. A human dose-response model was developed as P (d) = 1-exp (-0.0015 × 0.005 × d) or P (d) = 1-(1 + d × 0.003 / 582.414)(-1.479) . Both models predict the human response after consuming T. gondii-infected meats, and provide an enhanced risk characterization in a quantitative microbial risk assessment model for this pathogen.

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Meat Quality Traits in a White Duroc×Erhualian F2 Intercross and Chinese Sutai Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junwu; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Lisheng; Zhang, Zhiyan; Ma, Huanban; Xie, Xianhua; Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Xinwei; Cui, Leilei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Xianxian; Duan, Yanyu; Xiao, Shijun; Ai, Huashui; Ren, Jun; Huang, Lusheng

    2013-01-01

    Thousands of QTLs for meat quality traits have been identified by linkage mapping studies, but most of them lack precise position or replication between populations, which hinder their application in pig breeding programs. To localize QTLs for meat quality traits to precise genomic regions, we performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study using the Illumina PorcineSNP60K Beadchip in two swine populations: 434 Sutai pigs and 933 F2 pigs from a White Duroc×Erhualian intercross. Meat quality traits, including pH, color, drip loss, moisture content, protein content and intramuscular fat content (IMF), marbling and firmness scores in the M. longissimus (LM) and M. semimembranosus (SM) muscles, were recorded on the two populations. In total, 127 chromosome-wide significant SNPs for these traits were identified. Among them, 11 SNPs reached genome-wise significance level, including 1 on SSC3 for pH, 1 on SSC3 and 3 on SSC15 for drip loss, 3 (unmapped) for color a*, and 2 for IMF each on SSC9 and SSCX. Except for 11 unmapped SNPs, 116 significant SNPs fell into 28 genomic regions of approximately 10 Mb or less. Most of these regions corresponded to previously reported QTL regions and spanned smaller intervals than before. The loci on SSC3 and SSC7 appeared to have pleiotropic effects on several related traits. Besides them, a few QTL signals were replicated between the two populations. Further, we identified thirteen new candidate genes for IMF, marbling and firmness, on the basis of their positions, functional annotations and reported expression patterns. The findings will contribute to further identification of the causal mutation underlying these QTLs and future marker-assisted selection in pigs. PMID:23724019

  15. Red meat intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fallahzadeh, Hosein; Cheraghi, Maria; Amoori, Neda; Alaf, Mehrangiz

    2014-01-01

    While the incidence of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) has been rising worldwide, the reasons remain undefined. Recent research has focused on effect of red andf processed meat intake as a risk factor, but with inconclusive results. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis of data published to date, to ascertain the overall association between intake and NHL. A published literature search was performed through Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Medline, and Science Citation Index Expanded databases for articles published in English. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) were calculated using random or fixed effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed using Chi-square and I2 statistics. Dissemination bias was evaluated by funnel plot analysis.We performed a formal meta-analysis using summary measures from these studies. In total, 11 published studies were included in the final analysis. The combined analysis revealed that there was significant association between the red meat and NHL risk (OR=1.10, 95%CI: 1.02 to 1.19, p=0.01). Additionally, there was showed significance association between processed red meat and NHL risk (OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.06 to 1.29, p=0.001). In subgroup analysis, a statistical significant association was noted between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) (OR=1.20, 95%CI: 1.04 to 2.37, P=0.01) and red meat intake. In this meta-Analysis, there was evidence for association between consumption of red meat, or processed meat and risk of NHL, particularly with the DLBCL subtype in the red meat case.

  16. Application of pork fat diacylglycerols in meat emulsions.

    PubMed

    Miklos, Rikke; Xu, Xuebing; Lametsch, René

    2011-03-01

    The properties of fat are of major importance when meat products are produced. By enzymatic modification triacylglycerols (TAGs) can be converted to diacylglycerols (DAGs) resulting in changes of the physical and chemical properties of the fat. In this study the texture as well as the hydration and binding properties were investigated in meat emulsions prepared with lard substituted with different amounts of DAGs derived from the lard. In emulsions prepared with DAGs the percentage of total expressible fluid decreased from 28.2% in products prepared with lard to 11.8% in emulsions prepared with 100% DAGs. The fat separation decreased from 10.9% to 7.8% when 10% of DAGs were applied and no fat separation was observed for emulsions prepared with 50% and 100% DAGs. Emulsions containing DAGs were more elastic and solid reflected in a significant increase in Young's modulus and the maximum hardness. The results suggest future opportunities for the application of DAGs to improve the quality of meat products. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Child Development Associate. Social Science: Children in the Cosmos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oscar Rose Junior Coll., Midwest City, OK.

    This Child Development Associate (CDA) training module, one of a series of 18, is designed to help the CDA intern provide learning experiences in the social sciences for young children. The module stipulates competency-based objectives and provides essential information, suggestions, examples and learning activities on three topics related to the…

  18. Aspects of quality related to the consumption and production of lamb meat. Consumers versus producers.

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, Wilmer S; Maza, María T; Pardos, Luis

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and compare the different evaluations made by the agents at either end of the lamb meat chain, i.e. producers and consumers, in relation to the parameters that consumers use when purchasing lamb meat and the factors that affect the production of quality lamb meat. In addition, consumer segments that can be targeted for action by the different agents in the chain were examined. The study was carried out in Aragón, a region in north east Spain that is a producer and consumer of lamb meat. 371 surveys were carried out on purchasers of lamb meat and 49 surveys on sheep farmers. Bivariant analyses and a cluster analysis were performed. The results suggest that there are certain congruencies and divergences between producers and consumers. Also, a segment of consumers for whom the hygiene and sanitary conditions on the farm, animal welfare and the environment are of great importance were found. © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Teachers' tendencies to promote student-led science projects: Associations with their views about science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Bowen, G. Michael; Alsop, Steve

    2006-05-01

    School science students can benefit greatly from participation in student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects. For various possible reasons, however, students tend not to be engaged in such inquiries. Among factors that may limit their opportunities to engage in open-ended inquiries of their design are teachers' conceptions about science. To explore possible relationships between teachers' conceptions about science and the types of inquiry activities in which they engage students, instrumental case studies of five secondary science teachers were developed, using field notes, repertory grids, samples of lesson plans and student activities, and semistructured interviews. Based on constructivist grounded theory analysis, participating teachers' tendencies to promote student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects seemed to correspond with positions about the nature of science to which they indicated adherence. A tendency to encourage and enable students to carry out student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects appeared to be associated with adherence to social constructivist views about science. Teachers who opposed social constructivist views tended to prefer tight control of student knowledge building procedures and conclusions. We suggest that these results can be explained with reference to human psychological factors, including those associated with teachers' self-esteem and their relationships with knowledge-building processes in the discipline of their teaching.

  20. Reduced functionality of PSE-like chicken breast meat batter resulting from alterations in protein conformation.

    PubMed

    Li, K; Zhao, Y Y; Kang, Z L; Wang, P; Han, M Y; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2015-01-01

    protein structural states. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  1. Meat: The balance between nutrition and health. A review.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Stefaan; Vossen, Els

    2016-10-01

    Fresh and processed meats provide high biological value proteins and important micronutrients. On the other hand, a working group of IARC recently classified processed meat as 'carcinogenic to humans' and red meat as 'probably carcinogenic to humans' for colorectal cancer, appealing to critically consider the future role of meat in a healthy diet. This manuscript first evaluates the contribution of meat consumption to the supply of important micronutrients in the human food chain, and the extent to which this can be improved by primary production strategies, and impacts on human health. Secondly, the IARC hazard analysis of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat consumption is discussed, arguing that having more insight in the mechanisms of the association offers opportunities for mitigation. It is advocated that the benefits and risks associated with red and processed meat consumption should not necessarily cause dilemmas, if these meats are consumed in moderate amounts as part of balanced diets. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. In vitro meat: A future animal-free harvest.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Zuhaib Fayaz; Kumar, Sunil; Bhat, Hina Fayaz

    2017-03-04

    In vitro meat production is a novel idea of producing meat without involving animals with the help of tissue engineering techniques. This biofabrication of complex living products by using various bioengineering techniques is a potential solution to reduce the ill effects of current meat production systems and can dramatically transform traditional animal-based agriculture by inventing "animal-free" meat and meat products. Nutrition-related diseases, food-borne illnesses, resource use and pollution, and use of farm animals are some serious consequences associated with conventional meat production methods. This new way of animal-free meat production may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and resource use associated with current meat production systems and will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe, and disease-free meat as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controllable and manipulatable. Theoretically, this system is believed to be efficient enough to supply the global demand for meat; however, establishment of a sustainable in vitro meat production would face considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish this animal-free meat culturing system on an industrial scale.

  3. A Field Guide for Science Writers - The Official Guide of the National Association of Science Writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, Deborah; Knudson, Mary; Marantz Henig, Robin

    2005-09-01

    This is the official text for the National Association of Science Writers. In the eight years since the publication of the first edition of A Field Guide for Science Writing, much about the world has changed. Some of the leading issues in today's political marketplace - embryonic stem cell research, global warming, health care reform, space exploration, genetic privacy, germ warfare - are informed by scientific ideas. Never has it been more crucial for the lay public to be scientifically literate. That's where science writers come in. And that's why it's time for an update to the Field Guide, already a staple of science writing graduate programs across the country. The academic community has recently recognized how important it is for writers to become more sophisticated, knowledgeable, and skeptical about what they write. More than 50 institutions now offer training in science writing. In addition mid-career fellowships for science writers are growing, giving journalists the chance to return to major universities for specialized training. We applaud these developments, and hope to be part of them with this new edition of the Field Guide. In A Field Guide for Science Writers, 2nd Edition, the editors have assembled contributions from a collections of experienced journalists who are every bit as stellar as the group that contributed to the first edition. In the end, what we have are essays written by the very best in the science writing profession. These wonderful writers have written not only about style, but about content, too. These leaders in the profession describe how they work their way through the information glut to find the gems worth writing about. We also have chapters that provide the tools every good science writer needs: how to use statistics, how to weigh the merits of conflicting studies in scientific literature, how to report about risk. And, ultimately, how to write.

  4. China's meat industry revolution: challenges and opportunities for the future.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Wangang; Xu, Xinglian

    2012-11-01

    From a very limited ration of meat only for urban citizens to the world's largest meat-producing country, from a handful of processing facilities in major cities to thousands of modern meat packing and processing plants throughout the country, the Chinese meat industry has gone through drastic revolutionary changes particularly in the last three decades. Before the national economic reform in the late 1970s, meat production in China was extremely limited; hence, meat was rationed, treated as a highly precious food, and was highly valued. However, new processing technology developments, as related to meat animal production, slaughtering, processing, and distribution have transformed the inefficient Chinese meat industry that prepared only a handful of traditional products into a vast enterprise today that is manufacturing a huge variety of fresh and further processed items enjoyed by the average Chinese household. Along with this evolution, there has been the emergence of mega-scale meat companies and rapid advances in meat science and technology that address many aspects of meat. This review will highlight some milestone changes of the Chinese meat industry and discuss challenges and opportunities ahead in the global market for China. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Red meat consumption and ischemic heart disease. A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian

    2015-10-01

    Several lines of evidence attest that diet may strongly influence the cardiovascular risk. We performed an electronic search in Medline (with PubMed interface), Scopus and ISI Web of Science, to identify epidemiological studies on the association between red meat intake and the overall risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). Eleven studies (8 prospective and 3 case-control) were finally selected for this systematic literature review. Although a larger intake of red meat was found to be a significant risk factor for IHD in four studies (2 prospective and 2 case-control), no significant association was found in five other trials (4 prospective and 1 case-control). We suggest that future diet recommendations for prevention of cardiovascular disease should take into account that the current literature data does not support the existence of a clear relationship between large intake of red meat and increased risk of myocardial ischemia.

  6. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  7. South Australian Science Teachers Association Conference and Science Fair, Salisbury Teachers College, July 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    The major papers presented at the 1971 conference of the South Australian Science Teachers Association are included in this pamphlet. Scientists from industry, research institutions, and the police forensic laboratory, and practicing teachers presented papers which included descriptions of modern scientific techniques, discussions of the role of…

  8. Characterization of Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov., Associated with Spoiled Raw Tomato-Marinated Broiler Meat Strips Packaged under Modified-Atmosphere Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Björkroth, K. Johanna; Geisen, Rolf; Schillinger, Ulrich; Weiss, Norbert; De Vos, Paul; Holzapfel, Wilhelm H.; Korkeala, Hannu J.; Vandamme, Peter

    2000-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) associated with gaseous spoilage of modified-atmosphere-packaged, raw, tomato-marinated broiler meat strips were identified on the basis of a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) (ribotyping) database containing DNAs coding for 16S and 23S rRNAs (rDNAs). A mixed LAB population dominated by a Leuconostoc species resembling Leuconostoc gelidum caused the spoilage of the product. Lactobacillus sakei, Lactobacillus curvatus, and a gram-positive rod phenotypically similar to heterofermentative Lactobacillus species were the other main organisms detected. An increase in pH together with the extreme bulging of packages suggested a rare LAB spoilage type called “protein swell.” This spoilage is characterized by excessive production of gas due to amino acid decarboxylation, and the rise in pH is attributed to the subsequent deamination of amino acids. Protein swell has not previously been associated with any kind of meat product. A polyphasic approach, including classical phenotyping, whole-cell protein electrophoresis, 16 and 23S rDNA RFLP, 16S rDNA sequence analysis, and DNA-DNA reassociation analysis, was used for the identification of the dominant Leuconostoc species. In addition to the RFLP analysis, phenotyping, whole-cell protein analysis, and 16S rDNA sequence homology indicated that L. gelidum was most similar to the spoilage-associated species. The two spoilage strains studied possessed 98.8 and 99.0% 16S rDNA sequence homology with the L. gelidum type strain. DNA-DNA reassociation, however, clearly distinguished the two species. The same strains showed only 22 and 34% hybridization with the L. gelidum type strain. These results warrant a separate species status, and we propose the name Leuconostoc gasicomitatum sp. nov. for this spoilage-associated Leuconostoc species. PMID:10966388

  9. Iron, Meat and Health

    PubMed Central

    Geissler, Catherine; Singh, Mamta

    2011-01-01

    This article is a summary of the publication “Iron and Health” by the Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) to the U.K. Government (2010), which reviews the dietary intake of iron and the impact of different dietary patterns on the nutritional and health status of the U.K. population. It concludes that several uncertainties make it difficult to determine dose-response relationships or to confidently characterize the risks associated with iron deficiency or excess. The publication makes several recommendations concerning iron intakes from food, including meat, and from supplements, as well as recommendations for further research. PMID:22254098

  10. Metabolomics of meat exudate: Its potential to evaluate beef meat conservation and aging.

    PubMed

    Castejón, David; García-Segura, Juan Manuel; Escudero, Rosa; Herrera, Antonio; Cambero, María Isabel

    2015-12-11

    In this study we analyzed the exudate of beef to evaluate its potential as non invasive sampling for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic analysis of meat samples. Exudate, as the natural juice from raw meat, is an easy to obtain matrix that it is usually collected in small amounts in commercial meat packages. Although meat exudate could provide complete and homogeneous metabolic information about the whole meat piece, this sample has been poorly studied. Exudates from 48 beef samples of different breeds, cattle and storage times have been studied by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The liquid exudate spectra were compared with those obtained by High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning (HRMAS) of the original meat pieces. The close correlation found between both spectra (>95% of coincident peaks in both registers; Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.945) lead us to propose the exudate as an excellent alternative analytical matrix with a view to apply meat metabolomics. 60 metabolites could be identified through the analysis of mono and bidimensional exudate spectra, 23 of them for the first time in NMR meat studies. The application of chemometric tools to analyze exudate dataset has revealed significant metabolite variations associated with meat aging. Hence, NMR based metabolomics have made it possible both to classify meat samples according to their storage time through Principal Component Analysis (PCA), and to predict that storage time through Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression.

  11. Meat and masculinity in the Norwegian Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Kildal, Charlotte Lilleby; Syse, Karen Lykke

    2017-05-01

    In 2013, the Norwegian Armed Forces decided to introduce a meat reduction scheme in its military mess halls, for both health reasons and environmental concerns. This article explores Norwegian soldiers' reactions to the introduction of Meat free Monday, and their attitudes towards reducing meat consumption. As of yet, Meat free Monday has not been implemented due to both structural and contextual challenges. We explore both the process and potential of the Norwegian military's Meat free Monday initiative to promote sustainable and climate friendly diets. We found significant barriers preventing the military from implementing Meat free Monday. The main reason behind the resistance to reduce meat consumption among Norwegian soldiers was meat's associations with protein, masculinity and comfort. Our results underline the importance of acknowledging the social and cultural role of food. The study is qualitative and uses focus group interviews as its main methodology.

  12. In the elderly, meat protein assimilation from rare meat is lower than that from meat that is well done.

    PubMed

    Buffière, Caroline; Gaudichon, Claire; Hafnaoui, Noureddine; Migné, Carole; Scislowsky, Valérie; Khodorova, Nadezda; Mosoni, Laurent; Blot, Adeline; Boirie, Yves; Dardevet, Dominique; Santé-Lhoutellier, Véronique; Rémond, Didier

    2017-09-13

    Background: Meat cooking conditions in in vitro and in vivo models have been shown to influence the rate of protein digestion, which is known to affect postprandial protein metabolism in the elderly.Objectives: The present study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of cooking conditions on meat protein assimilation in the elderly. We used a single-meal protocol to assess the meat protein absorption rate and estimate postprandial meat protein utilization in elderly subjects.Design: The study recruited 10 elderly volunteers aged 70-82 y. Each received, on 2 separate occasions, a test meal exclusively composed of intrinsically (15)N-labeled bovine meat (30 g protein), cooked at 55°C for 5 min [rare meat (RM)] or at 90°C for 30 min [fully cooked meat (FCM)], and minced. Whole-body fluxes of leucine, before and after the meal, were determined with the use of a [1-(13)C]leucine intravenous infusion. Meat protein absorption was recorded with the use of (15)N enrichment of amino acids.Results: Postprandial time course observations showed a lower concentration in the plasma of indispensable amino acids (P < 0.01), a lower entry rate of meat leucine in the plasma (P < 0.01), and a lower contribution of meat nitrogen to plasma amino acid nitrogen (P < 0.001), evidencing lower peripheral bioavailability of meat amino acids with RM than with FCM. This was associated with decreased postprandial whole-body protein synthesis with RM than with FCM (40% compared with 56% of leucine intake, respectively; P < 0.01).Conclusions: Whereas meat cooking conditions have little effect on postprandial protein utilization in young adults, the present work showed that the bioavailability and assimilation of meat amino acids in the elderly is lower when meat is poorly cooked. In view to preventing sarcopenia, elderly subjects should be advised to favor the consumption of well-cooked meat. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02157805. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Standards for academic visual science libraries. Association of Visual Science Librarians.

    PubMed

    Ferimer, S

    1986-07-01

    These standards are a revised and updated version of the Guidelines and Standards for Visual Science Libraries Serving Optometric Institutions, a paper first issued by the Association of Visual Science Librarians (AVSL) in 1976. Their purpose is to provide minimum standards as an aid to accreditation bodies and to institutions initiating library service. In this revision, the Standards and Guidelines have been separated physically so that current information can be updated more frequently and easily. The Standards are a qualitative statement about the minimum levels of staff, collections, and services that should be expected from visual science libraries; the Guidelines contain suggested lists of journals and other quantitative data subject to frequent change. The Guidelines are available separately from the AVSL.

  14. Association of the polymorphism in the 5'-noncoding region of the bovine growth hormone receptor gene with meat production traits in Polish Black-and-White cattle.

    PubMed

    Maj, Andrzej; Oprządek, Jolanta; Dymnicki, Edward; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2006-03-01

    Single and combined effects of polymorphisms in the 5'-noncoding region of the bovine growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene on the traits related to meat production were examined in Polish Black-and-White (BW; Friesian) cattle. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the P1 promoter region were analysed. One-hundred and fifty young bulls were included in the study. The traits analysed were daily weight gain, feed intake and conversion, and carcass parameters. Individual SNPs had no effect on growth rates, feed consumption and conversion but showed marked effect on carcass composition traits. The (-/-) genotype at RFLP-AluI appeared favorable for weight of carcass, carcass dressing percentage, and weight of lean in valuable cuts. Animals with the RFLP-NsiI (+/+) genotype seemed better for most of the carcass parameters. In addition, statistically significant associations were found between combined GHR genotypes and feed consumption, carcass weight and dimensions.

  15. Efficient halal bleeding, animal handling, and welfare: A holistic approach for meat quality.

    PubMed

    Aghwan, Z A; Bello, A U; Abubakar, A A; Imlan, J C; Sazili, A Q

    2016-11-01

    Traditional halal slaughter and other forms of religious slaughter are still an issue of debate. Opposing arguments related to pre-slaughter handling, stress and pain associated with restraint, whether the incision is painful or not, and the onset of unconsciousness have been put forward, but no consensus has been achieved. There is a need to strike a balance between halal bleeding in the light of science and animal welfare. There is a paucity of scientific data with respect to animal welfare, particularly the use of restraining devices, animal handling, and efficient halal bleeding. However, this review found that competent handling of animals, proper use of restraining devices, and the efficient bleeding process that follows halal slaughter maintains meat eating quality. In conclusion, halal bleeding, when carried out in accordance with recommended animal welfare procedures, will not only maintain the quality and wholesomeness of meat but could also potentially reduce suffering and pain. Maintained meat quality increases consumer satisfaction and food safety.

  16. Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Its Association with Virulence Genes Related to Adherence, Invasion, and Cytotoxicity in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Animals, Meat, and Humans.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Lisette; Gatica, María A; Riquelme, Víctor; Vergara, Constanza; Yañez, José Manuel; San Martín, Betty; Sáenz, Leonardo; Vidal, Maricel; Martínez, María Cristina; Araya, Pamela; Flores, Roberto; Duery, Oscar; Vidal, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this research was to statistically analyze the association between antimicrobial susceptibility/resistance to erythromycine, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, and tetracycline and 11 virulence genes associated with adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity in 528 isolates of Campylobacter coli and Campylobacter jejuni obtained from retail meat and fecal samples from food-producing animals and human patients. A high percentage of Campylobacter strains were resistant to antimicrobials, specifically ciprofloxacin and tetracycline. Moreover, we observed a wide distribution of virulence genes within the analyzed strains. C. jejuni strains were more susceptible to antimicrobials, and showed greater number of virulence genes than C. coli strains. Genes related to invasion capability, such as racR, ciaB, and pldA, were associated with antimicrobial-susceptible strains in both species. The genes cdtA and dnaJ, a citotoxin unit and an adherence-related gene, respectively, were associated with antimicrobial-resistant strains in both species. In conclusion, Campylobacter strains show a statistically significant association between antimicrobial susceptibility and the presence of virulence genes.

  17. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  18. National Earth Science Teachers Association Achievements in Earth Science Education Leadership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.; Johnson, R. M.; Pennington, P.; Herrold, A.; Holzer, M.; Ervin, T.; Hall, B.

    2008-12-01

    The National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA) continues its 25-year-long effort to advance geoscience education at all levels. NESTA especially employs multiple approaches to provide leadership, support, and resources to teachers so that all K - 12 students may receive a quality Earth and Space Science education. NESTA presents Share-a-thons, Earth and Space Science Resources Days, lectures, Rock and Mineral Raffles, field experiences, and social events that foster networking at national and regional science education conferences. Our quarterly journal,The Earth Scientist,provides quality classroom activities as well as background science information and news of opportunities of value to classroom teachers and their students. Recent issues have focused on the International Polar Year, professional development in the Earth Sciences, and recent advances in astronomy. These have included contributions from classroom and university educators and researchers. NESTA's web site, www.nestanet.org, provides timely information about upcoming events and opportunities, links to useful resources for geoscience teachers, access to the current and archived journals, and organizational information. A revised website, supported by an NSF grant, will be unveiled before the next NSTA National Conference on Science Education. These are supplemented by a monthly E-News and special "e-blasts". NESTA's leadership engages in frequent teleconferences to keep current with organizational planning. Among other accomplishments during the past year, NESTA revitalized our State contact network, identifying a member in almost every state plus some Canadian Provinces. This network will help disseminate information from NESTA, as well as provide feedback on issues of importance to members around the country. NESTA leaders and members interact with other national geoscience education organizations, including NAGT, GSA, AGI, AMS, and the Triangle Coalition. NESTA representatives also serve

  19. Meat analog: a review.

    PubMed

    Malav, O P; Talukder, S; Gokulakrishnan, P; Chand, S

    2015-01-01

    The health-conscious consumers are in search of nutritious and convenient food item which can be best suited in their busy life. The vegetarianism is the key for the search of such food which resembles the meat in respect of nutrition and sensory characters, but not of animal origin and contains vegetable or its modified form, this is the point when meat analog evolved out and gets shape. The consumers gets full satisfaction by consumption of meat analog due to its typical meaty texture, appearance and the flavor which are being imparted during the skilled production of meat analog. The supplement of protein in vegetarian diet through meat alike food can be fulfilled by incorporating protein-rich vegetative food grade materials in meat analog and by adopting proper technological process which can promote the proper fabrication of meat analog with acceptable meat like texture, appearance, flavor, etc. The easily available vegetables, cereals, and pulses in India have great advantages and prospects to be used in food products and it can improve the nutritional and functional characters of the food items. The various form and functional characters of food items are available world over and attracts the meat technologists and the food processors to bring some innovativeness in meat analog and its presentation and marketability so that the acceptability of meat analog can be overgrown by the consumers.

  20. Characterization of Enterotoxigenic Bacillus cereus sensu lato and Staphylococcus aureus Isolates and Associated Enterotoxin Production Dynamics in Milk or Meat-Based Broth

    PubMed Central

    Walker-York-Moore, Laura; Moore, Sean C.; Fox, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    Bacillus cereus sensu lato species, as well as Staphylococcus aureus, are important pathogenic bacteria which can cause foodborne illness through the production of enterotoxins. This study characterised enterotoxin genes of these species and examined growth and enterotoxin production dynamics of isolates when grown in milk or meat-based broth. All B. cereus s. l. isolates harboured nheA, hblA and entFM toxin genes, with lower prevalence of bceT and hlyII. When grown at 16 °C, toxin production by individual B. cereus s. l. isolates varied depending on the food matrix; toxin was detected at cell densities below 5 log10(CFU/mL). At 16 °C no staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC) production was detected by S. aureus isolates, although low levels of SED production was noted. At 30 °C all S. aureus isolates produced detectable enterotoxin in the simulated meat matrix, whereas SEC production was significantly reduced in milk. Relative to B. cereus s. l. toxin production, S. aureus typically required reaching higher cell numbers to produce detectable levels of enterotoxin. Phylogenetic analysis of the sec and sel genes suggested population evolution which correlated with animal host adaptation, with subgroups of bovine isolates or caprine/ovine isolates noted, which were distinct from human isolates. Taken together, this study highlights the marked differences in the production of enterotoxins both associated with different growth matrices themselves, but also in the behaviour of individual strains when exposed to different food matrices. PMID:28714887

  1. Quantitative risk assessment of listeriosis-associated deaths due to Listeria monocytogenes contamination of deli meats originating from manufacture and retail.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Abani K; Ivanek, Renata; Gröhn, Yrjö T; Bukowski, Robert; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Sofos, John N; Wiedmann, Martin

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the relative risk of listeriosis-associated deaths attributable to Listeria monocytogenes contamination in ham and turkey formulated without and with growth inhibitors (GIs). Two contamination scenarios were investigated: (i) prepackaged deli meats with contamination originating solely from manufacture at a frequency of 0.4% (based on reported data) and (ii) retail-sliced deli meats with contamination originating solely from retail at a frequency of 2.3% (based on reported data). Using a manufacture-to-consumption risk assessment with product-specific growth kinetic parameters (i.e., lag phase and exponential growth rate), reformulation with GIs was estimated to reduce human listeriosis deaths linked to ham and turkey by 2.8- and 9-fold, respectively, when contamination originated at manufacture and by 1.9- and 2.8-fold, respectively, for products contaminated at retail. Contamination originating at retail was estimated to account for 76 and 63% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated without GIs and for 83 and 84% of listeriosis deaths caused by ham and turkey, respectively, when all products were formulated with GIs. Sensitivity analyses indicated that storage temperature was the most important factor affecting the estimation of per annum relative risk. Scenario analyses suggested that reducing storage temperature in home refrigerators to consistently below 7 degrees C would greatly reduce the risk of human listeriosis deaths, whereas reducing storage time appeared to be less effective. Overall, our data indicate a critical need for further development and implementation of effective control strategies to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination at the retail level.

  2. A Whole Genome Association Study on Meat Quality Traits Using High Density SNP Chips in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace.

    PubMed

    Lee, K-T; Lee, Y-M; Alam, M; Choi, B H; Park, M R; Kim, K-S; Kim, T-H; Kim, J-J

    2012-11-01

    A whole genome association (WGA) study was performed to detect significant polymorphisms for meat quality traits in an F2 cross population (N = 478) that were generated with Korean native pig sires and Landrace dams in National Livestock Research Institute, Songwhan, Korea. The animals were genotyped using Illumina porcine 60k SNP beadchips, in which a set of 46,865 SNPs were available for the WGA analyses on ten carcass quality traits; live weight, crude protein, crude lipids, crude ash, water holding capacity, drip loss, shear force, CIE L, CIE a and CIE b. Phenotypes were regressed on additive and dominance effects for each SNP using a simple linear regression model, after adjusting for sex, sire and slaughter stage as fixed effects. With the significant SNPs for each trait (p<0.001), a stepwise regression procedure was applied to determine the best set of SNPs with the additive and/or dominance effects. A total of 106 SNPs, or quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected, and about 32 to 66% of the total phenotypic variation was explained by the significant SNPs for each trait. The QTL were identified in most porcine chromosomes (SSCs), in which majority of the QTL were detected in SSCs 1, 2, 12, 13, 14 and 16. Several QTL clusters were identified on SSCs 12, 16 and 17, and a cluster of QTL influencing crude protein, crude lipid, drip loss, shear force, CIE a and CIE b were located between 20 and 29 Mb of SSC12. A pleiotropic QTL for drip loss, CIE L and CIE b was also detected on SSC16. These QTL need to be validated in commercial pig populations for genetic improvement in meat quality via marker-assisted selection.

  3. Identification of Polymorphisms in the Rabbit Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR) Gene and Association with Finishing Weight in a Commercial Meat Rabbit Line.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, Luca; Sparacino, Giuseppe; Utzeri, Valerio Joe; Scotti, Emilio; Fornasini, Daniela; Dall'Olio, Stefania; Frabetti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A shortcut to identify DNA markers associated with economic traits is to use a candidate gene approach that is still useful in livestock species in which molecular tools and resources are not advanced or not well developed. Mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene associated with production traits have been already described in several livestock species. For this reason GHR could be an interesting candidate gene in the rabbit. In this study we re-sequenced all exons and non-coding regions of the rabbit GHR gene in a panel of 10 different rabbits and identified 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). One of them (g.63453192C>G or c.106C>G), located in exon 3 was a missense mutation (p.L36V) substituting an amino acid in a highly conserved position across all mammals. This mutation was genotyped in 297 performance tested rabbits of a meat male line and association analysis showed that the investigated SNP was associated with weight at 70 days (P < 0.05). The most frequent genotype (GG) was in animals with higher weight at this age, suggesting that the high directional selection pressure toward this trait since the constitution of the genotyped line might have contributed to shape allele frequencies at this polymorphic site.

  4. Meat, dairy, and cancer1234

    PubMed Central

    Abid, Zaynah; Cross, Amanda J; Sinha, Rashmi

    2014-01-01

    In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund and American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AICR) report judged that the evidence for an association between red and processed meat consumption and colorectal cancer was convincing. In addition, the effect of other animal products on cancer risk has been studied, and the WCRF/AICR report concluded that milk probably decreases the risk of colorectal cancer but diets high in calcium probably increase the risk of prostate cancer, whereas there was limited evidence for an association between milk and bladder cancer and insufficient evidence for other cancers. There are several potential mechanisms relating meat to cancer, including heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, N-nitroso compounds, and heme iron. Although the evidence in favor of a link between red and processed meat and colorectal cancer is convincing, the relations with other cancers are unclear. In this review, we summarize cohort studies conducted by the National Cancer Institute on meat and dairy intake in relation to cancer since the 2007 WCRF/AICR report. We also report the findings of meta-analyses published since 2007. PMID:24847855

  5. Teaching strategies associated with conceptual change learning in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Edward L.; Blakeslee, Theron D.; Anderson, Charles W.

    The use of teaching strategies associated with a conceptual change model of science teaching was examined in a study of thirteen 7th-grade life science teachers. Teachers taught units on photosynthesis, cellular respiration, and matter cycling in ecosystems in their regular classes under conditions varying as to whether or not conceptual change-oriented instructional materials and training sessions were provided. Greater use of conceptual change teaching strategies was associated with use of the special instructional materials, but not with the training. Students in classes where teachers were provided with the materials tended to perform better on posttests than those where such materials were not provided. The use of the conceptual change strategies by teachers was also associated with higher student performance on tests designed to assess conceptual change learning. The results support claims for the usefulness of conceptual change teaching strategies, but few of the teachers in this study could successfully implement these strategies without the support of appropriately designed curriculum materials.

  6. Aflatoxin production in meats. I. Stored meats.

    PubMed

    Bullerman, L B; Hartman, P A; Ayres, J C

    1969-11-01

    Aflatoxins were produced on fresh beef (in which bacterial spoilage was delayed with antibiotics), ham, and bacon inoculated with toxinogenic fungi and stored at 15, 20 and 30 C. Meats stored at 10 C were spoiled by bacteria and yeast before detectable levels of aflatoxins were produced. High levels of aflatoxins were formed in meats stored at 20 C; one sample supported the production of 630 mug of aflatoxins per g of meat, the major portion (580 mug) of which was aflatoxin G(1). Meats stored below 30 C developed higher levels of aflatoxin G(1) than B(1), but at 30 C Aspergillus flavus produced equal amounts of B(1) and G(1), whereas A. parasiticus continued to produce more G(1) than B(1).

  7. Meat analogues: Health promising sustainable meat substitutes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Mehta, Nitin; Singh, Parminder; Malav, O P; Verma, Akhilesh K

    2017-03-24

    There is a scarcity of protein of high biological value due to rapid increase in the world population and limited natural resources. Meat is a good source of protein of high biological value but converting the vegetable protein into animal protein is not economical. There is a trend of production of healthy and delicious meat free food for satisfaction of vegetarian and personal well beings. This resulted in increasing use of low cost vegetable protein such as textured soy protein, mushroom, wheat gluten, pulses etc as a substitute for animal-protein. These simulated meat-like products, with similar texture, flavor, color, and nutritive value can be substituted directly for meat to all sections of the society.

  8. Meat consumption, Cooking Practices, Meat Mutagens and Risk of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    John, Esther M.; Stern, Mariana C.; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbequeing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40–79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR=1.79. CI=1.10–2.92), processed meat (OR=1.57, CI=1.04, 2.36), grilled red meat (OR=1.63, CI=0.99–2.68), and well done red meat (OR=1.52, CI=0.93–2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (quartile 2 vs. 1: OR=1.41, CI=0.98–2.01; quartile 3 vs. 1: OR=1.42, CI=0.98–2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized prostate cancer. PMID:21526454

  9. Meat consumption, cooking practices, meat mutagens, and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    John, Esther M; Stern, Mariana C; Sinha, Rashmi; Koo, Jocelyn

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of red meat, particularly well-done meat, has been associated with increased prostate cancer risk. High-temperature cooking methods such as grilling and barbecuing may produce heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are known carcinogens. We assessed the association with meat consumption and estimated HCA and PAH exposure in a population-based case-control study of prostate cancer. Newly diagnosed cases aged 40-79 years (531 advanced cases, 195 localized cases) and 527 controls were asked about dietary intake, including usual meat cooking methods and doneness levels. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression. For advanced prostate cancer, but not localized disease, increased risks were associated with higher consumption of hamburgers (OR = 1.79, CI = 1.10-2.92), processed meat (OR = 1.57, CI = 1.04-2.36), grilled red meat (OR = 1.63, CI = 0.99-2.68), and well-done red meat (OR = 1.52, CI = 0.93-2.46), and intermediate intake of 2-amino-1-methyl1-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (Quartile 2 vs. 1: OR = 1.41, CI = 0.98-2.01; Quartile 3 vs. 1: OR = 1.42, CI = 0.98-2.04), but not for higher intake. White meat consumption was not associated with prostate cancer. These findings provide further evidence that consumption of processed meat and red meat cooked at high temperature is associated with increased risk of advanced, but not localized, prostate cancer.

  10. Associate in Science (AS) to Bachelor of Science in Applied Science (BSAS) Transfer Students: An Analysis of Student Characteristics, Engagement, and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Jerry C.

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to examine and comprehensively describe transfer students who have earned a two-year technical or occupational Associate in Science (AS) degree at the community college and entered the university to pursue the Bachelor of Science in Applied Science (BSAS). The BSAS degree is a specialized baccalaureate degree program created…

  11. Does increased endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the human colon explain the association between red meat and colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Bingham, S A; Pignatelli, B; Pollock, J R; Ellul, A; Malaveille, C; Gross, G; Runswick, S; Cummings, J H; O'Neill, I K

    1996-03-01

    High red meat diets have been linked with risk of sporadic colorectal cancer; but their effects on mutations which occur in this cancer are unknown. G-->A transitions in K-ras occur in colorectal cancer and are characteristic of the effects of alkylating agents such as N-nitroso compounds (NOC). We studied th effect of red meat consumption on faecal NOC levels in eight male volunteers who consumed diets low or high in meat (60 or 600 g/day), as beef, lamb or pork, whilst living in a metabolic suite. Increased intake of red meat induced a significant (P<0.024) 3-fold increase from 40 + or - 7 to ab average of 113 + or - 25 microgram/day NOC, a range of exposure in faeces similar to that from tobacco-specific NOC in cigarette smoke. THe diets were isoenergetic and contained equal amounts of fat, but concentrations of heterocyclic amines were low. Faecal excretion of the promotor ammonia was significantly increased to 6.5 + or - 1.08 mmol/day. When the high red meat diets were supplemented with 20 g phytate-free wheat bran in six volunteers there was no reduction in NOC levels (mean 138 + or - 41 microgram/day NOC), but faecal weight increased. Higher starch and non-starch polysaccharide intakes reduced intraluminal cross-linking in microcapsules (r=-0.77) and reduced faecal pH (r=-0.64). In two volunteers there was no effect of 600 g white meat and fish o faecal NOC (mean low white meat diet 68 + or - 10 microgram/day, high white meat 56 + or -6 microgram/day nor on faecal nitrate, nitrite and iron. Faecal nitrite levels increased on changing from a white to red meat diet (mean high white meat diet 46 + or - 7 mg/day, high red meat diet mean 80 + or - 7 mg/day.) Increased endogenous production of NOC and precursors from increased red meat, but not white meat and fish, consumption may be relevant to the aetiology of colorectal cancer.

  12. Potential health hazards of eating red meat.

    PubMed

    Wolk, A

    2017-02-01

    Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries. At the same time, there has been growing evidence that high consumption of red meat, especially of processed meat, may be associated with an increased risk of several major chronic diseases. Here, a comprehensive summary is provided of the accumulated evidence based on prospective cohort studies regarding the potential adverse health effects of red meat consumption on major chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and cancer at several sites, and mortality. Risk estimates from pooled analyses and meta-analyses are presented together with recently published findings. Based on at least six cohorts, summary results for the consumption of unprocessed red meat of 100 g day(-1) varied from nonsignificant to statistically significantly increased risk (11% for stroke and for breast cancer, 15% for cardiovascular mortality, 17% for colorectal and 19% for advanced prostate cancer); for the consumption of 50 g day(-1) processed meat, the risks were statistically significantly increased for most of the studied diseases (4% for total prostate cancer, 8% for cancer mortality, 9% for breast, 18% for colorectal and 19% for pancreatic cancer, 13% for stroke, 22% for total and 24% for cardiovascular mortality and 32% for diabetes). Potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed risks and the environmental impact of red meat production are also discussed. The evidence-based integrated message is that it is

  13. European consumer attitudes on the associated health benefits of neutraceutical-containing processed meats using Co-enzyme Q10 as a sample functional ingredient.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth; Kerry, Joseph P

    2014-06-01

    This study accumulated European consumer attitudes towards processed meats and their use as a functional food. A survey was set up using an online web-application to gather information on consumer perception of processed meats as well as neutraceutical-containing processed meats. 548 responses were obtained and statistical analysis was carried out using a statistical software package. Data was summarized as frequencies for each question and statistical differences analyzed using the Chi-Square statistical test with a significance level of 5% (P<0.05). The majority of consumer attitudes towards processed meat indicate that they are unhealthy products. Most believe that processed meats contain large quantities of harmful chemicals, fat and salt. Consumers were found to be very pro-bioactive compounds in yogurt style products but unsure of their feelings in meat based products, which is likely due to the lack of familiarity to these products. Many of the respondents were willing to consume meat based functional foods but were not willing to pay more for them. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of meat quality characteristics and oxidative stability between conventional and free-range chickens.

    PubMed

    Funaro, A; Cardenia, V; Petracci, M; Rimini, S; Rodriguez-Estrada, M T; Cavani, C

    2014-06-01

    quality traits and oxidative stability in poultry. Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Meat products and consumption culture in the West.

    PubMed

    Swatland, H J

    2010-09-01

    Meat products and consumption culture in the West may be traced back for at least 2,500 years. The dominant cultural source was Greco-Roman, with evidence from archeology, surviving documents and the names of meat cuts. The initial uniformity of meat technology and language in the Roman Empire was lost as national boundaries and languages fragmented. More recently, however, there has been a strong trend back to uniformity in meat cutting and grading. This started in the USA to solve logistical problems associated with long-distance commerce and similar changes occurred with the formation of the EU. Issues such as meat inspection and animal transport have been strongly influenced by the effect of literature on public opinion, which then led to legislated improvements. Innovations in other areas such as meat distribution and preservation had military origins. Meat consumption culture was involved in the early development of language, social grouping and religions.

  16. Acoustoconvection Drying of Meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The dynamics of moisture extraction from meat samples by the acoustoconvection and thermoconvection methods has been investigated. To describe the dynamics of moisture extraction from meat, we propose a simple relaxation model with a relaxation time of 8-10 min in satisfactorily describing experimental data on acoustoconvection drying of meat. For thermoconvection drying the relaxation time is thereby 30 and 45 min for the longitudinal and transverse positions of fibers, respectively.

  17. Update on meat irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, D.G.

    1997-12-01

    The irradiation of meat and poultry in the United States is intended to eliminate pathogenic bacteria from raw product, preferably after packaging to prevent recontamination. Irradiation will also increase the shelf life of raw meat and poultry products approximately two to three times the normal shelf life. Current clearances in the United States are for poultry (fresh or frozen) at doses from 1.5 to 3.0 kGy and for fresh pork at doses from 0.3 to 1.0 kGy. A petition for the clearance of all red meat was submitted to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in July 1994. The petition is for clearances of fresh meat at doses from 1.5 to 4.5 kGy and for frozen meat at {approximately}2.5 to 7.5 kGy. Clearance for red meat is expected before the end of 1997. There are 28 countries that have food irradiation clearances, of which 18 countries have clearances for meat or poultry. However, there are no uniform categories or approved doses for meat and poultry among the countries that could hamper international trade of irradiated meat and poultry.

  18. Confronting the meat paradox in different cultural contexts: Reactions among Chinese and French participants.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qirui; Hilton, Denis; Becker, Maja

    2016-01-01

    As a well-known source of nutrition and pleasure, meat plays an important role in most people's diet. However, awareness of the "meat paradox"-the association of liking to eat meat but not wanting to kill animals-often implies the experience of cognitive dissonance. In two studies, focusing on meat production and meat consumption respectively, we examined whether participants used reduction of willingness to eat meat and reduction of mind attribution to food animals as strategies to reduce cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox in the Chinese and French cultural contexts. Focusing on meat production (slaughtering of an animal to produce meat; Study 1, n = 520), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef in a condition that emphasized the slaughter of a cow compared to a condition that presented a diagram of a cow as meat. In addition, French but not Chinese participants attributed less mind to cows when the relation between meat and its animal origin was made salient. Focusing on meat consumption (the transformation of meat into food; Study 2, n = 518), participants reported lower willingness to eat beef and attributed less mind to cows in a condition that emphasized the animal origin of meat compared to a condition that presented a recipe. These results suggest that the use of different strategies to resolve cognitive dissonance from the meat paradox depends on different contexts of the meat-animal link as well as on cultural context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of raw broiler breast meat color variation on marination and cooked meat quality.

    PubMed

    Qiao, M; Fletcher, D L; Smith, D P; Northcutt, J K

    2002-02-01

    Three replicate trials were conducted to determine the effect of raw broiler breast meat color on marinated and cooked meat quality. In each trial, 90 fillets were collected from a commercial processing plant based on lightness (L*) values of breast meat as follows: light, L* > 53; normal, 48 < L* < 51; and, dark, L* < 46. For each fillet the color, pH, and weight were determined, and the fillets were marinated in three lots of 10 fillets from each color group (20% wt:wt of 5% salt and 2.5% sodium tripolyphosphate in a vacuum tumbler). Marination uptake was determined; the samples were held for 24 h at 2 C, and color, pH, and weight again were determined. Next, the samples were cooked, and the meat was subjected to color, pH, cooked yield, shear force, and moisture analyses. Results showed that absolute color values changed with marination and cooking, but that L* and pH differences by color group were maintained through marination and cooking. There were also significant differences in marinade absorption, cooked yield, and shear value, particularly among the extremes of light and dark meats. There was no significant difference in final cooked meat moisture. As expected, there were significant negative correlations between meat lightness and pH; however, raw muscle pH was not correlated to final product moisture or shear but was positively correlated to cooked meat yield and negatively correlated to marinade absorption. These results indicate that the pH variation associated with extreme raw breast meat color variation can affect breast meat marination and cooked meat quality.

  20. Associations and Committees of or for Women in Science, Engineering, Mathematics and Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldrich, Michele, Comp.; Leach, Alicia, Comp.

    Provided is a list of associations and committees of or for women in science, engineering, mathematics, and medicine. The list is organized by discipline, with cross-referencing to cognate specialties. The disciplines include: anthropology; astronomy; atmospheric sciences; biology; chemistry; computer sciences; earth sciences; energy; engineering;…

  1. Asthma associations in children attending a museum of science.

    PubMed

    Corlin, Laura; Woodin, Mark; Newhide, Danny; Brown, Erika; Diaz, Sarah Valentina; Chi, Amy; Brugge, Doug

    2013-09-04

    We explored the relative strength of environmental and social factors associated with pediatric asthma in middle class families and considered the efficacy of recruitment for an educational study at a science museum. Eligibility criteria were having a child aged 4-12 and English fluency. Our questionnaire included information on demographics, home environment, medical history, and environmental toxicant exposures. Statistically significant associations were found for: child's age (t = -2.46; p = 0.014), allergies (OR = 11.5; 95%CI = 5.9-22.5), maternal asthma (OR = 2.2; 95%CI = 1.2-3.9), parents' education level (OR = 0.5; 95%CI = 0.3-0.9), family income (OR = 2.4; 95%CI = 1.1-5.5), water damage at home (OR = 2.5; 95%CI = 1.1-5.5), stuffed animals in bedroom (OR = 0.4; 95%CI = 0.2-0.7), hospitalization within a week after birth (OR = 3.2; 95%CI = 1.4-7.0), diagnosis of pneumonia (OR = 2.8; 95%CI = 1.4-5.9), and multiple colds in a year (OR = 2.9; 95%CI = 1.5-5.7). Several other associations approached statistical significance, including African American race (OR = 3.3; 95%CI = 1.0-10.7), vitamin D supplement directive (OR = 0.2; 95%CI = 0.02-1.2), mice in the home (OR = 0.5, 95%CI = 0.2-1.1), and cockroaches in the home (OR = 4.3; CI = 0.8-21.6). In logistic regression, age, parents' education, allergies, mold allergies, hospitalization after birth, stuffed animals in the bedroom, vitamin D supplement directive, and water damage in the home were all significant independent predictors of asthma. The urban science museum was a low-resource approach to address the relative importance of risk factors in this population.

  2. Tracking Listeria monocytogenes contamination and virulence-associated characteristics in the ready-to-eat meat-based food products industry according to the hygiene level.

    PubMed

    Henriques, A R; Gama, L T; Fraqueza, M J

    2017-02-02

    Listeria monocytogenes isolates collected from final products and food contact surfaces of 10 ready-to-eat meat-based food products (RTEMP) producing industries were analyzed to relate their virulence-associated characteristics and genetic profiles with the hygiene assessment of those industries. Together with sample collection, an audit was performed to evaluate the implemented food safety management system and to investigate the specific audit requisites more associated to the occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups frequently related with human disease. L. monocytogenes was present in 18% of the samples. The isolates (n=62) were serogrouped and detection of virulence-associated genes inlA, inlB, inlC and inlJ, and also plcA, hlyA, actA and iap was done by multiplex PCR. After this initial characterization, selected isolates (n=31) were submitted to antibiotic resistance testing by the disk diffusion method for the currently most used human and veterinary antibiotics and resistance was low. These isolates were also subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Genotyping and serogrouping of L. monocytogenes isolates revealed a genetically diverse population. Our data indicate that contamination of final products does not seem to be uniquely related to the sampled food surfaces. The occurrence of those L. monocytogenes serogroups more commonly associated with human disease in industries with a high hygienic audit classification could be the result of a previous identification of the pathogen, with an enforcement of the hygiene program without recognizing the real source of contamination. This reinforces the importance of a conjoined diagnosis using audit data and microbiological testing. Food safety management systems of those industries need improvement, particularly in cleaning and sanitizing operations, analytical control, preventive maintenance, personal hygiene and root cause analysis. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Teaching Science and Technology in the Context of Societal and Personal Issues. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) strongly promotes the education of a citizenry that is scientifically and technologically literate as defined in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996). This requires that individuals not only know, understand, and value scientific and technological concepts, processes, and outcomes,…

  4. Exogenous proteases for meat tenderization.

    PubMed

    Bekhit, Alaa A; Hopkins, David L; Geesink, Geert; Bekhit, Adnan A; Franks, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The use of exogenous proteases to improve meat tenderness has attracted much interest recently, with a view to consistent production of tender meat and added value to lower grade meat cuts. This review discusses the sources, characteristics, and use of exogenous proteases in meat tenderization to highlight the specificity of the proteases toward meat proteins and their impact on meat quality. Plant enzymes (such as papain, bromelain, and ficin) have been extensively investigated as meat tenderizers. New plant proteases (actinidin and zingibain) and microbial enzyme preparations have been of recent interest due to controlled meat tenderization and other advantages. Successful use of these enzymes in fresh meat requires their enzymatic kinetics and characteristics to be determined, together with an understanding of the impact of the surrounding environmental conditions of the meat (pH, temperature) on enzyme function. This enables the optimal conditions for tenderizing fresh meat to be established, and the elimination or reduction of any negative impacts on other quality attributes.

  5. Association, effects and validation of polymorphisms within the NCAPG - LCORL locus located on BTA6 with feed intake, gain, meat and carcass traits in beef cattle

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a previously reported genome-wide association study based on a high-density bovine SNP genotyping array, 8 SNP were nominally associated (P ≤ 0.003) with average daily gain (ADG) and 3 of these were also associated (P ≤ 0.002) with average daily feed intake (ADFI) in a population of crossbred beef cattle. The SNP were clustered in a 570 kb region around 38 Mb on the draft sequence of bovine chromosome 6 (BTA6), an interval containing several positional and functional candidate genes including the bovine LAP3, NCAPG, and LCORL genes. The goal of the present study was to develop and examine additional markers in this region to optimize the ability to distinguish favorable alleles, with potential to identify functional variation. Results Animals from the original study were genotyped for 47 SNP within or near the gene boundaries of the three candidate genes. Sixteen markers in the NCAPG-LCORL locus displayed significant association with both ADFI and ADG even after stringent correction for multiple testing (P ≤ 005). These markers were evaluated for their effects on meat and carcass traits. The alleles associated with higher ADFI and ADG were also associated with higher hot carcass weight (HCW) and ribeye area (REA), and lower adjusted fat thickness (AFT). A reduced set of markers was genotyped on a separate, crossbred population including genetic contributions from 14 beef cattle breeds. Two of the markers located within the LCORL gene locus remained significant for ADG (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Several markers within the NCAPG-LCORL locus were significantly associated with feed intake and body weight gain phenotypes. These markers were also associated with HCW, REA and AFT suggesting that they are involved with lean growth and reduced fat deposition. Additionally, the two markers significant for ADG in the validation population of animals may be more robust for the prediction of ADG and possibly the correlated trait ADFI, across multiple breeds

  6. Red meats: time for a paradigm shift in dietary advice.

    PubMed

    Binnie, Mary Ann; Barlow, Karine; Johnson, Valerie; Harrison, Carol

    2014-11-01

    Recent evidence suggests dietary advice to limit red meat is unnecessarily restrictive and may have unintended health consequences. As nutrient-rich high quality protein foods, red meats can play an important role in helping people meet their essential nutrient needs. Yet dietary advice to limit red meat remains standard in many developed countries, even though red meat intakes appear to be within current guidelines. Meanwhile, energy intakes from processed foods have increased dramatically at the expense of nutrient-rich foods, such as red meat. Research suggests these food trends are associated with the growing burden of obesity and associated diseases in recent decades. It is time for dietary advice that emphasizes the value of unprocessed red meat as part of a healthy balanced diet. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Red meat consumption and risk of stroke in Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Virtamo, Jarmo; Wolk, Alicja

    2011-02-01

    High red meat consumption has been associated with increased risk of some cancers and may also be a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. However, epidemiological studies of red meat consumption in relation to risk of stroke are very limited. Our objective was to examine the association between red meat consumption and stroke incidence in the Swedish Mammography Cohort. We prospectively followed 34 670 women without cardiovascular disease and cancer at baseline. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on diet and other risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in 1997. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RR) and 95% CI. During a mean follow-up of 10.4 years, we ascertained 1680 incident cases of stroke, comprising 1310 cerebral infarction, 154 intracerebral hemorrhage, 79 subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 137 unspecified stroke. Total red meat and processed meat consumption was associated with a statistically significant increased risk of cerebral infarction, but not of total stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, or subarachnoid hemorrhage. The multivariable RR of cerebral infarction for the highest versus the lowest quintile of consumption were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.01-1.46) for red meat and 1.24 (95% CI, 1.04-1.49) for processed meat. Fresh (unprocessed) meat consumption was not associated with total stroke or with any stroke subtype. Findings from this study suggest that red and processed meat consumption may increase the risk of cerebral infarction in women.

  8. The effects of electrical stunning voltage on meat quality, plasma parameters, and protein solubility of broiler breast meat.

    PubMed

    Huang, J C; Yang, J; Huang, M; Chen, K J; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2017-03-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of different stunning voltages of pulsed direct current on meat quality of broilers. For this purpose, plasma parameters, blood loss, carcass damage, and meat water holding capacity, color, shear force, pH, and protein solubility were analyzed. A total of 400 broilers were divided into 5 treatment groups and stunned with 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 V at 750 Hz and 10 s, respectively. Blood samples were collected immediately after cutting the neck. Pectoralis major muscles were removed from the carcass after chilling and placed on ice. Breast muscle pH and meat color were determined at both 2 and 24 h postmortem. Dripping loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, and cooked breast meat shear values were determined after 24 h postmortem. The 5 V treatment significantly increased (P < 0.05) blood plasma corticosterone and lactate concentration compared with the other groups. The carcass damage of wings, Pectoralis major, and Pectoralis minor was significant in the 5, 35, and 45 V groups. The pH of 2 h postmortem in the 5 and 45 V groups was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than in the 15 and 25 V groups. In the 5 and 45 V groups, the protein solubility and shear force value were significantly lower (P < 0.05) and dripping loss was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the other groups. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Trichinella nativa outbreak with rare thrombotic complications associated with meat from a black bear hunted in Northern Ontario

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although trichinellosis is known to cause thrombotic disease, serious thrombotic events are rare and have previously not been shown to be associated with Trichinella nativa. Patient interviews and medical chart reviews were conducted on ten men who became ill following consumption of a common source...

  10. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella spp. in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rašeta, M.; Mrdović, B.; Janković, V.; Bečkei, Z.; Lakićević, B.; Vidanović, D.; Polaček, V.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to determine Salmonella spp. prevalence in meat products, meat preparations and minced meat. Over a period of three years, a total of 300 samples were taken (100 RTE meat products, 100 meat preparations and 100 minced meat) and examined for the presence of Salmonella spp. Sampling was carried out at the warehouses of the food manufacturers. Salmonella spp. were not detected in RTE meat products, while 7% of semi-finished meat products (fresh sausages, grill meat formed and unformed) contained Salmonella, as did 18% of minced meats (minced pork II category, minced beef II category, mixed minced meat). The 25 Salmonella isolates obtained were examined for antibiotic resistance by the disk diffusion test, according to the NCCLS and CLSI guidelines. Isolates showed resistance to ampicillin and nalidixic acid (80%), tetracycline (72%), cefotaxime/clavulanic acid (48%), but not to gentamicin (8%) or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (0%).

  11. Associations between Red Meat Intakes and the Micronutrient Intake and Status of UK Females: A Secondary Analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Emma

    2017-07-18

    Blanket health messages to lower red meat intakes are being communicated at present. These could have adverse implications on the micronutrient quality of women's diets. The current paper evaluates the nutritional impact of lower red meat intakes on British women's micronutrient intakes and status. A secondary analysis of the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey was undertaken using data from years 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. This was comprised of dietary and blood analyte data from 1384 and 641 females aged 11 to 64 years. Females consuming less than 40 g total red meat daily were more likely to have micronutrient intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI) for zinc, iron, vitamin B12 and potassium and have lower habitual vitamin D intakes than females consuming between 40 and 69 g daily. After adjusting data for energy intake, zinc (% below the LRNI) and vitamin D (μg/day) remained statistically significant (p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed for blood biomarkers. Females consuming diets lower in red meat, i.e., <40 g daily, appear to have reduced micronutrient intakes, especially in the case of zinc and vitamin D. This should be considered when giving blanket advice for whole populations to reduce red meat intakes.

  12. Science Education in the Rural United States. Implications for the Twenty-First Century. A Yearbook of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Paul B., Ed.

    This yearbook of the Association for the Education of Teachers in Science (AETS) is designed to give a perspective on rural science education. It is presented in a sequence which leads from the definition and philosophy of rural science education, to the status of rural science education, research implications, the integration of science within…

  13. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones.

    PubMed

    Tian, X Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-05-03

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones.

  14. Meat and milk compositions of bovine clones

    PubMed Central

    Tian, X. Cindy; Kubota, Chikara; Sakashita, Kunihito; Izaike, Yoshiaki; Okano, Ryoichi; Tabara, Norio; Curchoe, Carol; Jacob, Lavina; Zhang, Yuqin; Smith, Sadie; Bormann, Charles; Xu, Jie; Sato, Masumi; Andrew, Sheila; Yang, Xiangzhong

    2005-01-01

    The technology is now available for commercial cloning of farm animals for food production, but is the food safe for consumers? Here, we provide data on >100 parameters that compare the composition of meat and milk from beef and dairy cattle derived from cloning to those of genetic- and breed-matched control animals from conventional reproduction. The cloned animals and the comparators were managed under the same conditions and received the same diet. The composition of the meat and milk from the clones were largely not statistically different from those of matched comparators, and all parameters examined were within the normal industry standards or previously reported values. The data generated from our match-controlled experiments provide science-based information desired by regulatory agencies to address public concerns about the safety of meat and milk from somatic animal clones. PMID:15829585

  15. The 159th national meeting of the American Association for the advancement of science

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    This volume is the program/abstracts for the 1993 national meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science. The meeting was held in Boston from 11-16 February 1993. Symposia dealt with works on the following topics; perspectives on human genetics; confronting AIDS; biology, cells bugs; medical research society; social psychology neuroscience; future chemistry, from carbon to silicon; measuring the matter energy of the universe; earth's ever-changing atmosphere; causing coping with environmental change; agricultural biotechnology, plant protection production; science corporate enterprise; examining reforming the economic system; science, ethics the law; communicating science to the public; information technology the changing face of science; mathematics, concepts computations; international cooperation human survival; science for everyone; science religion, examining both; anthropology, dynamics of human history; international science issues; improving formal science education; and science education reform in America. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this volume.

  16. Meat consumption after disaggregation of meat dishes in a cohort of British adults in 1989 and 1999 in relation to diet quality.

    PubMed

    Prynne, C J; Wagemakers, J J M F; Stephen, A M; Wadsworth, M E J

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the study was to quantify more precisely the meat intake of a cohort of adults in the UK by disaggregating composite meat dishes. Subjects were members of the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development, 1946 birth cohort. Five-day diaries were collected from 2256 men and women in 1989 and 1772 men and women in 1999. From the details provided, composite meat dishes were broken down into their constituent parts and the meat fraction was added to meat portions only. Meat intake was classified as red meat, processed meat and poultry. Meat consumption without disaggregation of meat dishes resulted in a mean overestimation of 50% in men and 33% in women. Red meat consumption fell between 1989 and 1999 from 51.7 to 41.5 g per day in men and 35.7 to 30.1 g per day in women. Poultry consumption rose from 21.6 to 32.2 g per day in men and 18.2 to 29.4 g per day in women. Re-calculating red meat intakes resulted in the percentage of subjects in 1999 consuming more than the recommendation of the World Cancer Research Fund falling from 30 to 12%. Increasing consumption of red and processed meat was associated with increased intakes of energy, fat, haem iron, zinc and vitamin B(12), and lower intake of fibre. Increased sodium intake was associated with increased consumption of processed meat. Disaggregation of meat dishes provided a more precise estimate of meat consumption. The quantity of red or processed meat in the diet was reflected in the nutrient content of the entire diet.

  17. Associate in science degree education programs: organization, structure, and curriculum.

    PubMed

    Galvin, William F

    2005-09-01

    After years of discussion, debate, and study, the respiratory care curriculum has evolved to a minimum of an associate degree for entry into practice. Although programs are at liberty to offer the entry-level or advanced level associate degree, most are at the advanced level. The most popular site for sponsorship of the associate degree in respiratory care is the community college. The basis for community college sponsorship seems to be its comprehensive curriculum, which focuses on a strong academic foundation in writing, communication, and the basic sciences as well as supporting a career-directed focus in respiratory care. Issues facing the community college are tied to literacy, outcomes, assessment, placement,cooperation with the community, partnerships with industry, and articulation arrangements with granting institutions granting baccalaureate degrees. Community colleges must produce a literate graduate capable of thriving in an information-saturated society. Assessment and placement will intensify as the laissez-faire attitudes toward attendance and allowing students to select courses without any accountability and evaluation of outcome become less acceptable. Students will be required to demonstrate steady progress toward established outcomes. Maintaining relations and cooperation with the local community and the health care industry will continue to be a prominent role for the community college. The challenge facing associate degree education in respiratory care at the community college level is the ability to continue to meet the needs of an expanding professional scope of practice and to provide a strong liberal arts or general education core curriculum. The needs for a more demanding and expanding respiratory care curriculum and for a rich general education core curriculum have led to increased interest in baccalaureate and graduate degree education. The value of associate degree education at the community college level is well established. It is

  18. Factors associated with recovery of meat products following recalls due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Seys, S A; Sampedro, F; Hedberg, C W

    2016-10-01

    Food-product recall data for recalls due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) from 2000 to 2012 were obtained for establishments regulated by the United States Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). Statistical tests were used to assess the factors associated with recovery of product following STEC recalls along with the relationship between cluster detection and jurisdictions. Our results indicated that the percentage of recalled product recovered following a recall action due to STEC was dependent on the complexity of distribution, type of distribution, amount of time between production and recall dates, and the number of pounds of product recalled. Illness-related STEC recalls were associated with a lower percentage of product recovery which was probably impacted by larger amounts of product recalled, broader production scope, and delays from epidemiological and traceback investigations. Further, detection of illnesses related to STEC recalls seemed to be enhanced in states with additional resources and a history of successful foodborne investigations. This makes an argument for additional resources dedicated to public health agencies specifically for the surveillance of foodborne illnesses.

  19. Emotions generated by meat and other food products in women.

    PubMed

    Rousset, S; Deiss, V; Juillard, E; Schlich, P; Droit-Volet, S

    2005-10-01

    Eating behaviour depends partly on food preference, which is itself determined by different types of emotions. Among the emotions generated by food, disgust with red meat is common in women and can lead to reduced meat consumption. We tested the hypothesis that low meat intake is related to different negative emotions towards meat but does not affect the emotions expressed towards other food categories. Food intake of sixty women was followed throughout each day for 1 week and allowed us to assign women to two groups (low v. high meat-eating women). They were then invited to assess the intensity of twenty-six emotions described by words and induced by thirty food pictures. We determined the number of necessary dimensions to describe the space created by the twenty-six words. The results showed differences in emotions between the low and high meat-eating women. As expected, there were overall differences in the emotions generated by the thirty food pictures. Six clusters of emotions were necessary and sufficient to summarise the emotional space. These dimensions were described by 'disappointment', 'satisfaction', 'guilt', 'doubt', 'amused' and 'indifference'. As expected, the low meat-eating women felt more 'disappointment', 'indifference' and less 'satisfaction' towards meat than did the high meat-eating women. However, the low meat-eating women also stated other negative emotions such as 'doubt' towards some starchy foods. The only foods that they liked more than high meat-eating women were pears and French beans. In conclusion, low meat consumption was associated with specific negative emotions regarding meat and other foods.

  20. Muscle growth and poultry meat quality issues.

    PubMed

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat's poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry.

  1. The role of red and processed meat in colorectal cancer development: a perspective.

    PubMed

    Oostindjer, Marije; Alexander, Jan; Amdam, Gro V; Andersen, Grethe; Bryan, Nathan S; Chen, Duan; Corpet, Denis E; De Smet, Stefaan; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Haug, Anna; Karlsson, Anders H; Kleter, Gijs; de Kok, Theo M; Kulseng, Bård; Milkowski, Andrew L; Martin, Roy J; Pajari, Anne-Maria; Paulsen, Jan Erik; Pickova, Jana; Rudi, Knut; Sødring, Marianne; Weed, Douglas L; Egelandsdal, Bjørg

    2014-08-01

    This paper is based on a workshop held in Oslo, Norway in November 2013, in which experts discussed how to reach consensus on the healthiness of red and processed meat. Recent nutritional recommendations include reducing intake of red and processed meat to reduce cancer risk, in particular colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiological and mechanistic data on associations between red and processed meat intake and CRC are inconsistent and underlying mechanisms are unclear. There is a need for further studies on differences between white and red meat, between processed and whole red meat and between different types of processed meats, as potential health risks may not be the same for all products. Better biomarkers of meat intake and of cancer occurrence and updated food composition databases are required for future studies. Modifying meat composition via animal feeding and breeding, improving meat processing by alternative methods such as adding phytochemicals and improving our diets in general are strategies that need to be followed up.

  2. Student Science Research Associates (SSRA) 1996 Research Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Knezovich, J.

    1996-12-01

    The following student projects are reported: SSRA water research projects, various effects on polliwogs` growth and development, effects of Willow Park Golf Course on nitrate and phosphate levels in San Leandro Creek, water quality evaluation using color infrared photography, biochemical analysis of aquatic insects, effects of miracid/calcium chloride/liquid plant food on stringless bush beans, effects of vegetable oil on bean growth, effect of river water on lima beans, effect of storm water runoff on pH and phosphate levels of Dry Creek, acid rain in Modesto, use of random amplified polymorphic DNA to study Egeria Densa, and effect of marination on formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in cooked chicken meat.

  3. Red Meat and Processed Meat Consumption and Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Risk: A Dose-response Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuqin; Duan, Fujiao; Zhao, Xia; Song, Chunhua; Cui, Shuli; Dai, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify and quantify the potential dose-response association between the intake of total red and total processed meat and risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and Chinese databases (CNKI and Wanfang). The summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated. A total of 15 independent studies with 12,735 subjects were identified. Compared with the low-rank intake, the summary RR of NPC was 1.35 (95%CI, 1.21-1.51) for total red meat and 1.46 (95%CI, 1.34-1.64) for total processed meat. For the moderate-rank intake, the summary RR of NPC was 1.54 (95%CI, 1.36-1.79) for total red meat and 1.59 (95%CI, 1.3-1.90) for total processed meat. The summary RR for high-rank intake was 1.71 (95%CI, 1.14-2.55) for total red meat and 2.11 (95%CI, 1.31-3.42) for total processed meat. The combined estimates showed obvious evidence of statistically significant association between total red and total processed meat consumption dose and risk of NPC (Ptrend< 0.01). In conclusion, our data suggest that a high intake of total red or total processed meat is associated with a significantly increased risk of NPC.

  4. Arctic trichinosis: two Alaskan outbreaks from walrus meat.

    PubMed

    Margolis, H S; Middaugh, J P; Burgess, R D

    1979-01-01

    The arctic form of Trichinella spiralis that infects terrestrial and marine mammals is of importance in public health because persons living in arctic regions still depend on wild animals for economic subsistence. In 1975, an extended common-source epidemic of trichinosis attributed to consumption of walrus meat involved 29 persons in Barrow, Alaska. Of those persons eating this meat, 64% became ill, and the rate of infection of persons eating meat prepared with little or no cooking was four times as great as that of persons eating cooked meat. One year later a second outbreak occurred when a family ate partially cooked meat from an infected walrus. Clinical illness differed little from the disease acquired in temperature climates; however, only 70% had a positive bentonite flocculation titer, whereas 96% had eosinophilia. These epidemics of trichinosis are the first reported in Alaska to be associated with the consumption of walrus meat.

  5. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' legislative activities and the Joint Medical Library Association/Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Legislative Task Force

    PubMed Central

    Zenan, Joan S.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' (AAHSL's) involvement in national legislative activities and other advocacy initiatives has evolved and matured over the last twenty-five years. Some activities conducted by the Medical Library Association's (MLA's) Legislative Committee from 1976 to 1984 are highlighted to show the evolution of MLA's and AAHSL's interests in collaborating on national legislative issues, which resulted in an agreement to form a joint legislative task force. The history, work, challenges, and accomplishments of the Joint MLA/AAHSL Legislative Task Force, formed in 1985, are discussed. PMID:12883581

  6. Riding in shopping carts and exposure to raw meat and poultry products: prevalence of, and factors associated with, this risk factor for salmonella and campylobacter infection in children younger than 3 years.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Mary E; Mahon, Barbara E; Zansky, Shelley M; Hurd, Sharon; Scallan, Elaine

    2010-06-01

    Riding in a shopping cart next to raw meat or poultry is a risk factor for Salmonella and Campylobacter infections in infants. To describe the frequency of, and factors associated with, this behavior, we surveyed parents of children aged younger than 3 years in Foodborne Disease Active Surveillance Network sites. We defined exposure as answering yes to one of a series of questions asking if packages of raw meat or poultry were near a child in a shopping cart, or if a child was in the cart basket at the same time as was raw meat or poultry. Among 1,273 respondents, 767 (60%) reported that their children visited a grocery store in the past week and rode in shopping carts. Among these children, 103 (13%) were exposed to raw products. Children who rode in the baskets were more likely to be exposed than were those who rode only in the seats (odds ratio [OR], 17.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 11.0 to 28.9). In a multivariate model, riding in the basket (OR, 15.5; 95% CI, 9.2 to 26.1), income less than $55,000 (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0 to 3.1), and Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.5) were associated with exposure. Our study shows that children can be exposed to raw meat and poultry products while riding in shopping carts. Parents should separate children from raw products and place children in the seats rather than in the baskets of the cart. Retailer use of leak-proof packaging, customer placement of product in a plastic bag and on the rack underneath the cart, use of hand sanitizers and wipes, and consumer education may also be helpful.

  7. Physics Comes to Winnipeg: The 1909 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen; Dietrich, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    History of science can be used to bring scientific concepts to school science in a way that humanizes the protagonists and provides an appropriate context. The authors have researched the 1909 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Winnipeg, a significant event in the city's history that has remained largely…

  8. Physics Comes to Winnipeg: The 1909 Meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klassen, Stephen; Dietrich, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    History of science can be used to bring scientific concepts to school science in a way that humanizes the protagonists and provides an appropriate context. The authors have researched the 1909 meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) in Winnipeg, a significant event in the city's history that has remained largely…

  9. Is Knowledge of Science Associated with Higher Skepticism of Pseudoscientific Claims?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew; Pigliucci, Massimo

    2004-01-01

    The study conducted addresses issues associated with the relationships among science factual knowledge, conceptual understanding of science, and belief in pseudoscience by means of a 30-question survey. The survey consists of three types of questions asked of students enrolled in a science major and compares the responses to these obtained by…

  10. Out-of-School Time Science Activities and Their Association with Career Interest in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabney, Katherine P.; Tai, Robert H.; Almarode, John T.; Miller-Friedmann, Jaimie L. L.; Sonnert, Gerhard; Sadler, Philip M.; Hazari, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Spurred by concerns about an inadequately sized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce, there has been a growing interest in out-of-school time (OST) science activities as a means to foster STEM career interest. This study examines the association between OST science activities and STEM career interest in university…

  11. Detection of horse meat contamination in raw and heat-processed meat products.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P; Ofori, Jack A

    2014-12-31

    Europe's recent problems with the adulteration of beef products with horse meat highlight the need for a reliable method for detecting horse meat in food for human consumption. The objective of this study was therefore to develop a reliable monoclonal antibody (mAb) based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for horse meat detection. Two mAbs, H3E3 (IgG2b) and H4E7 (IgG2a), were characterized as horse-selective, and competitive ELISAs (cELISAs) employing these mAbs were developed. The cELISAs were found to be capable of detecting levels as low as 1% of horse meat in raw, cooked, and autoclaved ground beef or pork, being useful analytical tools for addressing the health, economic, and ethical concerns associated with adulterating meat products with horse meat. However, due to cross-reaction with raw poultry meat, it is recommended that samples be heated (100 °C for 15 min) prior to analysis to eliminate possible false-positive results.

  12. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake.

    PubMed

    Cheung, William; Keski-Rahkonen, Pekka; Assi, Nada; Ferrari, Pietro; Freisling, Heinz; Rinaldi, Sabina; Slimani, Nadia; Zamora-Ros, Raul; Rundle, Milena; Frost, Gary; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cross, Amanda J; Pala, Valeria; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Kühn, Tilman; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner; Floegel, Anna; Mancini, Francesca; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Baglietto, Laura; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Naska, Androniki; Orfanos, Philippos; Scalbert, Augustin

    2017-03-01

    Background: Meat and fish intakes have been associated with various chronic diseases. The use of specific biomarkers may help to assess meat and fish intake and improve subject classification according to the amount and type of meat or fish consumed.Objective: A metabolomic approach was applied to search for biomarkers of meat and fish intake in a dietary intervention study and in free-living subjects from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.Design: In the dietary intervention study, 4 groups of 10 subjects consumed increasing quantities of chicken, red meat, processed meat, and fish over 3 successive weeks. Twenty-four-hour urine samples were collected during each period and analyzed by high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Signals characteristic of meat or fish intake were replicated in 50 EPIC subjects for whom a 24-h urine sample and 24-h dietary recall were available and who were selected for their exclusive intake or no intake of any of the 4 same foods.Results: A total of 249 mass spectrometric features showed a positive dose-dependent response to meat or fish intake in the intervention study. Eighteen of these features best predicted intake of the 4 food groups in the EPIC urine samples on the basis of partial receiver operator curve analyses with permutation testing (areas under the curve ranging between 0.61 and 1.0). Of these signals, 8 metabolites were identified. Anserine was found to be specific for chicken intake, whereas trimethylamine-N-oxide showed good specificity for fish. Carnosine and 3 acylcarnitines (acetylcarnitine, propionylcarnitine, and 2-methylbutyrylcarnitine) appeared to be more generic indicators of meat and meat and fish intake, respectively.Conclusion: The meat and fish biomarkers identified in this work may be used to study associations between meat and fish intake and disease risk in epidemiologic studies. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01684917.

  13. Factors Associated with Middle and Secondary Students' Perceived Science Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beghetto, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain a better understanding of students' perceived science competence by examining potentially related beliefs and perceptions in a diverse sample of middle and secondary students (N = 1289). Results of hierarchical regression analysis showed that students' perceived science competence was related to: (a)…

  14. Advancements in meat packaging.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Kenneth W

    2017-10-01

    Packaging of meat provides the same or similar benefits for raw chilled and processed meats as other types of food packaging. Although air-permeable packaging is most prevalent for raw chilled red meat, vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging offer longer shelf life. The major advancements in meat packaging have been in the widely used plastic polymers while biobased materials and their integration into composite packaging are receiving much attention for functionality and sustainability. At this time, active and intelligent packaging are not widely used for antioxidant, antimicrobial, and other functions to stabilize and enhance meat properties although many options are being developed and investigated. The advances being made in nanotechnology will be incorporated into food packaging and presumably into meat packaging when appropriate and useful. Intelligent packaging using sensors for transmission of desired information and prompting of subsequent changes in packaging materials, environments or the products to maintain safety and quality are still in developmental stages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased oxidative and nitrosative reactions during digestion could contribute to the association between well-done red meat consumption and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Van Hecke, Thomas; Vossen, Els; Hemeryck, Lieselot Y; Vanden Bussche, Julie; Vanhaecke, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan

    2015-11-15

    Uncured and nitrite-cured pork were subjected, raw, cooked (65 °C, 15 min) or overcooked (90 °C, 30 min), to an in vitro digestion model, which includes mouth, stomach, duodenum, and colon phases. Heating of uncured meat resulted in a pronounced increase in lipid and protein oxidation products throughout digestion. Nitrite-curing had an antioxidant effect during digestion, but this effect disappeared when the meat was overcooked, resulting in up to ninefold higher 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal concentrations compared with digested nitrite-cured raw and cooked pork. Colonic digesta contained significantly higher concentrations of the NOC-specific DNA adduct O(6)-carboxy-methylguanine when pork underwent a more intense heating procedure, independent of nitrite-curing, depending strongly on the fecal inoculum used. Since processed meats are usually nitrite-cured, the present study suggests that overcooking processed meat is likely to result in the formation of genotoxic compounds during digestion and should, therefore, be avoided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cooling of cooked RTE meats and computer simulation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clostridium perfringens is a spore-forming pathogen that causes foodborne outbreaks associated with cooked or partially cooked meat and poultry products regulated by USDA Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The spores, activated during cooking, may germinate, outgrow, and multiply in meat or...

  17. Meat consumption, cooking methods, mutagens, and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus: a case-control study in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    De Stefani, Eduardo; Deneo-Pellegrini, Hugo; Ronco, Alvaro L; Boffetta, Paolo; Correa, Pelayo; Aune, Dagfinn; Mendilaharsu, María; Acosta, Gisele; Silva, Cecilia; Landó, Gabriel; Luaces, María E

    2012-01-01

    The role of meat in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) has been considered conflictive. For this reason, we decided to conduct a case-control study on meat consumption and ESCC. Data included 234 newly diagnosed and microscopically examined ESCC and 2,020 controls with conditions not related to tobacco smoking nor alcohol drinking and without changes in their diets. We studied total meat, red meat, beef, lamb, processed meat, poultry, fish, total white meat, liver, fried meat, barbecued meat, boiled meat, heterocyclic amines, nitrosodimethylamine, and benzo[a]pyrene in relation with the risk of ESCC. Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy.

  18. Quantitative assessment of red meat or processed meat consumption and kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dominik D; Cushing, Colleen A

    2009-01-01

    To conduct a quantitative assessment of red meat or processed meat consumption and kidney cancer. We extracted data from 12 case-control studies, three cohort studies, and the Pooling Project of Diet and Cancer publication for which 13 international cohorts were evaluated. Random effects meta-analysis models were used to calculate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on high vs. low intake values. Sensitivity and influence analyses were conducted, including assessments of heterogeneity. The SRRE for all studies that reported results for red meat (included variables labeled 'red meat' or single red meat items, such as beef, pork, or liver) was 1.12 (95% CI: 0.98-1.29; p-value for heterogeneity=0.015), and the SRRE using only data from prospective cohorts was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.91-1.15) with minimal heterogeneity (p=0.741). Similarly, in a meta-analysis of the five studies that simultaneously adjusted for smoking, BMI, and total energy intake, the SRRE for red meat was 1.02 (95% CI: 0.91-1.15). No significant association was observed in the meta-analysis of processed meat consumption (SRRE=1.07; 95% CI: 0.94-1.23), although a significant association was observed when only data from cohort studies were analyzed (SRRE=1.19; 95% CI: 1.03-1.37). Although many of the summary results were positive, all were weak in magnitude, most were not statistically significant, and associations were attenuated among studies that adjusted for key potential confounding factors. In summary, the findings of this meta-analysis are not supportive of an independent relation between red or processed meat intake and kidney cancer.

  19. Well-done Meat Intake, Heterocyclic Amine Exposure, and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei; Lee, Sang-Ah

    2009-01-01

    High intake of meat, particularly red and processed meat, has been associated with an increased risk of a number of common cancers, such as breast, colorectum, and prostate in many epidemiological studies. Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are a group of mutagenic compounds found in cooked meats, particularly well-done meats. HCAs are some of most potent mutagens detected using the Ames/salmonella tests and have been clearly shown to induce tumors in experimental animal models. Over the past 10 years, an increasing number of epidemiological studies have evaluated the association of well-done meat intake and meat carcinogen exposure with cancer risk. The results from these epidemiologic studies were evaluated and summarized in this review. The majority of these studies have shown that high intake of well-done meat and high exposure to meat carcinogens, particularly HCAs, may increase the risk of human cancer. PMID:19838915

  20. Emerging Profiles for Cultured Meat; Ethics through and as Design

    PubMed Central

    van der Weele, Cor; Driessen, Clemens

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary The idea of cultured meat is to grow meat from animal cells with tissue engineering techniques. Cultured meat is an idea under investigation that will not be ready for the market for several years. It is also still open what it could or should be like. We argue that this openness offers the opportunity to explore different directions in which this idea could be developed. Feelings, critical thinking and the imagination all have important roles to play in this exploration. Abstract The development of cultured meat has gained urgency through the increasing problems associated with meat, but what it might become is still open in many respects. In existing debates, two main moral profiles can be distinguished. Vegetarians and vegans who embrace cultured meat emphasize how it could contribute to the diminishment of animal suffering and exploitation, while in a more mainstream profile cultured meat helps to keep meat eating sustainable and affordable. In this paper we argue that these profiles do not exhaust the options and that (gut) feelings as well as imagination are needed to explore possible future options. On the basis of workshops, we present a third moral profile, “the pig in the backyard”. Here cultured meat is imagined as an element of a hybrid community of humans and animals that would allow for both the consumption of animal protein and meaningful relations with domestic (farm) animals. Experience in the workshops and elsewhere also illustrates that thinking about cultured meat inspires new thoughts on “normal” meat. In short, the idea of cultured meat opens up new search space in various ways. We suggest that ethics can take an active part in these searches, by fostering a process that integrates (gut) feelings, imagination and rational thought and that expands the range of our moral identities. PMID:26479525

  1. Factors that predict consumer acceptance of enriched processed meats.

    PubMed

    Shan, Liran C; Henchion, Maeve; De Brún, Aoife; Murrin, Celine; Wall, Patrick G; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-11-01

    The study aimed to understand predictors of consumers' purchase intention towards processed meat based functional foods (i.e. enriched processed meat). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 486 processed meat consumers in spring 2016. Results showed that processed meats were perceived differently in healthiness, with sausage-type products perceived less healthy than cured meat products. Consumers were in general more uncertain than positive about enriched processed meat but differences existed in terms of the attitudes and purchase intention. Following regression analysis, consumers' purchase intention towards enriched processed meat was primarily driven by their attitudes towards the product concept. Perceived healthiness of existing products and eating frequency of processed meat were also positively associated with the purchase intention. Other factors such as general food choice motives, socio-demographic characteristics, consumer health and the consumption of functional foods and dietary supplements in general, were not significant predictors of the purchase intention for enriched processed meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Principles of Professionalism for Science Educators. National Science Teachers Association Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Science educators play a central role in educating, inspiring, and guiding students to become responsible, scientifically literate citizens. Therefore, teachers of science must uphold the highest ethical standards of the profession to earn and maintain the respect, trust, and confidence of students, parents, school leaders, colleagues, and other…

  3. Teaching Science. Ripping into Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how one activity can lead students to investigate and understand science concepts. Example provided involves ripping of a newspaper and the resultant discussions on saws, fabric, meat, and newsprint. Suggests that this activity can be a bridge to study in language arts, career education, graphic arts, mathematics, science, and…

  4. Meat consumption and cancer risk: a critical review of published meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Dietary habits play a substantial role for increasing or reducing cancer risk. We performed a critical review of scientific literature, to describe the findings of meta-analyses that explored the association between meat consumption and cancer risk. Overall, 42 eligible meta-analyses were included in this review, in which meat consumption was assumed from sheer statistics. Convincing association was found between larger intake of red meat and cancer, especially with colorectal, lung, esophageal and gastric malignancies. Increased consumption of processed meat was also found to be associated with colorectal, esophageal, gastric and bladder cancers. Enhanced intake of white meat or poultry was found to be negatively associated with some types of cancers. Larger beef consumption was significantly associated with cancer, whereas the risk was not increased consuming high amounts of pork. Our analysis suggest increased risk of cancer in subjects consuming large amounts of red and processed meat, but not in those with high intake of white meat or poultry.

  5. Halal authenticity issues in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Nakyinsige, Khadijah; Man, Yaakob Bin Che; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2012-07-01

    In the recent years, Muslims have become increasingly concerned about the meat they eat. Proper product description is very crucial for consumers to make informed choices and to ensure fair trade, particularly in the ever growing halal food market. Globally, Muslim consumers are concerned about a number of issues concerning meat and meat products such as pork substitution, undeclared blood plasma, use of prohibited ingredients, pork intestine casings and non-halal methods of slaughter. Analytical techniques which are appropriate and specific have been developed to deal with particular issues. The most suitable technique for any particular sample is often determined by the nature of the sample itself. This paper sets out to identify what makes meat halal, highlight the halal authenticity issues that occur in meat and meat products and provide an overview of the possible analytical methods for halal authentication of meat and meat products.

  6. Genetic parameters for meat quality traits of Australian lamb meat.

    PubMed

    Mortimer, S I; van der Werf, J H J; Jacob, R H; Hopkins, D L; Pannier, L; Pearce, K L; Gardner, G E; Warner, R D; Geesink, G H; Edwards, J E Hocking; Ponnampalam, E N; Ball, A J; Gilmour, A R; Pethick, D W

    2014-02-01

    Genetic parameters were estimated for a range of meat quality traits recorded on Australian lamb meat. Data were collected from Merino and crossbred progeny of Merino, terminal and maternal meat breed sires of the Information Nucleus programme. Lambs born between 2007 and 2010 (n=8968) were slaughtered, these being the progeny of 372 sires and 5309 dams. Meat quality traits were found generally to be of moderate heritability (estimates between 0.15 and 0.30 for measures of meat tenderness, meat colour, polyunsaturated fat content, mineral content and muscle oxidative capacity), with notable exceptions of intramuscular fat (0.48), ultimate pH (0.08) and fresh meat colour a* (0.08) and b* (0.10) values. Genetic correlations between hot carcass weight and the meat quality traits were low. The genetic correlation between intramuscular fat and shear force was high (-0.62). Several measures of meat quality (fresh meat redness, retail meat redness, retail oxy/met value and iron content) appear to have potential for inclusion in meat sheep breeding objectives.

  7. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  8. Retail Meat Cutting I. Apprentice Meat Cutter Related Training. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dale H., Ed.

    Intended as a first-year curriculum for apprentice meat cutters, this text focuses on retail meat cutting. Topics covered in the 24 chapters are background and purpose of apprenticeship, job preparation, general layout of the meat department, operational procedures, beef structure and evaluation, retail cuts and cooking methods, beef forequarter:…

  9. Identification of polymorphisms in the malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic and nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 genes and their associations with meat and carcass quality traits in commercial Angus cattle.

    PubMed

    Gill, J L; Bishop, S C; McCorquodale, C; Williams, J L; Wiener, P

    2012-02-01

    Genes involved in the physiological control of energy and triglyceride synthesis, such as malic enzyme 1, NADP(+)-dependent, cytosolic (ME1) and nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 2 (NR0B2), are key candidates that may have effects on meat and carcass quality traits. These genes were sequenced in Aberdeen Angus beef cattle, and the possibility of associations between SNPs and economically important carcass and meat quality traits was tested. Six novel SNPs, five in ME1 and one in NR0B2, were identified. A SNP in exon eight of ME1 resulted in a non-synonymous amino acid change from valine to isoleucine. Phenotypic data were recorded on 536 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle, which comprised 28 carcass quality, tenderness and sensory traits. The majority of the SNPs were associated with at least one of these traits, including an association between the NR0B2 SNP and fat class, and associations between at least one of the ME1 SNPs and eye muscle area, sirloin weight before maturation, sirloin steak tail length, and juiciness. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Myoglobin chemistry and meat color.

    PubMed

    Suman, Surendranath P; Joseph, Poulson

    2013-01-01

    Consumers rely heavily on fresh meat color as an indicator of wholesomeness at the point of sale, whereas cooked color is exploited as an indicator of doneness at the point of consumption. Deviations from the bright cherry-red color of fresh meat lead to product rejection and revenue loss. Myoglobin is the sarcoplasmic heme protein primarily responsible for the meat color, and the chemistry of myoglobin is species specific. The mechanistic interactions between myoglobin and multiple extrinsic and intrinsic factors govern the color of raw as well as cooked meats. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the current research in meat color and how the findings are applied in the meat industry. Characterizing the fundamental basis of myoglobin's interactions with biomolecules in postmortem skeletal muscles is necessary to interpret the chemistry of meat color phenomena and to engineer innovative processing strategies to minimize meat discoloration-induced revenue loss to the agricultural economy.

  11. The benefits of constraining processed meat and red meat consumption in New Zealand: a public health perspective.

    PubMed

    Cleghorn, Christine L; Wilson, Nick

    2016-11-18

    There is now strong scientific evidence of an increased risk of colorectal cancer with processed meat consumption, some evidence of red meats being associated with colorectal cancer and some evidence of an association between red and processed meat and cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. This is important as these diseases collectively impose substantial health loss for New Zealanders and also large costs on publicly-funded health systems. There are also other indirect health issues involved with meat production including pollution of waterways and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from ruminant agriculture that contribute to climate change. Fortunately, there are a range of plausible options for New Zealand agencies to consider (such as GHG taxes applied to agriculture and health warning labels), if they decide to encourage reductions in the consumption of processed and red meat consumption in this country.

  12. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Roger B; Norman, Keri N; Andrews, Kathleen; Hume, Michael E; Scanlan, Charles M; Callaway, Todd R; Anderson, Robin C; Nisbet, David J

    2011-12-01

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer to human beings. The objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of toxigenic C. difficile in chickens and retail poultry meat in Texas. Seven C. difficile isolates were detected in fecal samples of 300 (2.3%) broiler chickens. Three cultivation procedures were evaluated for isolation of C. difficile from poultry meat and detected 1/32 (3.1%), 2/32 (6.2%), and 4/32 (12.5%) for the three procedures, respectively. Chicken and poultry meat isolates were characterized as toxinotype V and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis gel type-NAP7 or NAP7-variant. Susceptibilities to 11 antimicrobial agents in the current study suggested somewhat reduced resistance than reported for other meat or animal toxinotype V isolates.

  13. Salmonellosis: the role of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Antunes, P; Mourão, J; Campos, J; Peixe, L

    2016-02-01

    Salmonellosis remains one of the most frequent food-borne zoonoses, constituting a worldwide major public health concern. Currently, at a global level, the main sources of infection for humans include meat products, including the consumption of contaminated poultry meat, in spite of the success of Salmonella control measures implemented in food-animal production of industrialized countries. In recent years, a shift in Salmonella serotypes related to poultry and poultry production has been reported in diverse geographical regions, being particularly associated with the spread of certain well-adapted clones. Moreover, antimicrobial resistance in non-typhoidal Salmonella is considered one of the major public health threats related with food-animal production, including the poultry production chain and poultry meat, which is an additional concern in the management of salmonellosis. The circulation of the same multidrug-resistant Salmonella clones and/or identical mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance genes from poultry to humans highlights this scenario. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of the role of poultry meat on salmonellosis at a global scale and the main problems that could hinder the success of Salmonella control measures at animal production level. With the increasing globalization of foodstuffs like poultry meat, new problems and challenges might arise regarding salmonellosis control, making new integrated intervention strategies necessary along the food chain. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Muscle Growth and Poultry Meat Quality Issues

    PubMed Central

    Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    Over the past 50 years the worldwide growing demand of poultry meat has resulted in pressure on breeders, nutritionists and growers to increase the growth rate of birds, feed efficiency, size of breast muscle and reduction in abdominal fatness. Moreover, the shift toward further processed products has emphasized the necessity for higher standards in poultry meat to improve sensory characteristics and functional properties. It is believed that genetic progress has put more stress on the growing bird and it has resulted in histological and biochemical modifications of the muscle tissue by impairing some meat quality traits. The most current poultry meat quality concerns are associated with deep pectoral muscle disease and white striping which impair product appearance, and increased occurrence of problems related with the meat’s poor ability to hold water during processing and storage (PSE-like condition) as well as poor toughness and cohesiveness related to immaturity of intramuscular connective tissue. This paper is aimed at making a general statement of recent studies focusing on the relationship between muscle growth and meat quality issues in poultry. PMID:22347614

  15. Meat-cooking mutagens and risk of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, C R; Schwartz, K L; Colt, J S; Dong, L M; Ruterbusch, J J; Purdue, M P; Cross, A J; Rothman, N; Davis, F G; Wacholder, S; Graubard, B I; Chow, W H; Sinha, R

    2011-01-01

    Background: High-temperature cooked meat contains two families of carcinogens, heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Given the kidneys' role in metabolism and urinary excretion of these compounds, we investigated meat-derived mutagens, as well as meat intake and cooking methods, in a population-based case–control study conducted in metropolitan Detroit and Chicago. Methods: Newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma of the renal parenchyma (renal cell carcinoma (RCC)) cases (n=1192) were frequency matched on age, sex, and race to controls (n=1175). The interviewer-administered Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ) included queries for meat-cooking methods and doneness with photographic aids. Levels of meat mutagens were estimated using the DHQ in conjunction with the CHARRED database. Results: The risk of RCC increased with intake of barbecued meat (Ptrend=0.04) and the PAH, benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) (multivariable-adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval, highest vs lowest quartile: 1.50 (1.14, 1.95), Ptrend=0.001). With increasing BaP intake, the risk of RCC was more than twofold in African Americans and current smokers (Pinteraction<0.05). We found no association for HCAs or overall meat intake. Conclusion: BaP intake, a PAH in barbecued meat, was positively associated with RCC. These biologically plausible findings advocate further epidemiological investigation into dietary intake of BaP and risk of RCC. PMID:21897389

  16. The National Association of Geology Teachers Earth Science Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes activities in the "Earth Science Activities" book (available from the author). Activities range from simple to complex, with detailed instructions/information for the teacher to conduct the activity as is or with modification to meet individual class/student needs. Includes sample activity: "Ashfall in Washington-Courtesy of Mount St.…

  17. EVALUATION OF MECHANICAL MEAT TENDERIZER.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a meat tenderizing machine which utilizes the principle of cutting the tough fibers of a meat into short...lengths but at the same time knitting them into flat steak -like pieces of meat that can be handled easily.

  18. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  19. Red meat, processed meat and the risk of venous thromboembolism: friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Cervellin, Gianfranco; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2015-08-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a highly prevalent condition worldwide, which can be triggered by a combination of inherited and acquired risk factors, including diet. Several lines of evidence suggest that consumption of red and processed meat is associated with a significant risk of colorectal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Therefore, an electronic search was conducted to identify clinical studies investigating the potential association between the risk of venous thrombosis and consumption of red or processed meat. Seven articles were finally included in this review, 6 prospective studies and 1 case-control investigation. Taken together, the evidence of the current scientific literature suggests that whether or not a pathophysiological link may exist between red or processed meat consumption and venous thrombosis, the association is definitely weak, since it was found to be non-statistically significant in four prospective cohort studies, marginally significant in one prospective cohort study and highly significant in the remaining prospective cohort study. In the single case-control study, the risk was also found to be non-statistically significant. Although further studies will be needed to definitely establish the existence of a thrombotic risk associated with different subtypes of red or processed meat, it seems premature to conclude that a reduced consumption of red and processed meat lowers the risk of VTE.

  20. Clostridium difficile in poultry and poultry meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The incidence and severity of disease associated with toxigenic Clostridium difficile have increased in hospitals in North America from the emergence of newer, more virulent strains. Toxigenic C. difficile has been isolated from food animals and retail meat with potential implications of transfer t...

  1. Differences in textural properties of cooked caponized and broiler chicken breast meat.

    PubMed

    U-Chupaj, J; Malila, Y; Gamonpilas, C; Kijroongrojana, K; Petracci, M; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W

    2017-07-01

    suggested that the cooked meat of capons could be differentiated from those of broilers raised conventionally and with feed-modified diets based on textural properties. Based on the optimized simulating equation, texture of caponized breast could be explained by WBS force, shear energy, Young's modulus, and gumminess. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Level of natural hepatotoxin (Indospicine) contamination in Australian camel meat.

    PubMed

    Tan, Eddie T T; Al Jassim, Rafat; D'Arcy, Bruce R; Fletcher, Mary T

    2016-10-01

    Camel meat production for human consumption and pet food manufacture accounts for a relatively small part of overall red meat production in Australia. Reliable statistical data for the Australian production and consumption of camel meat are not available; however, it is estimated that 300,000 feral camels roam within the desert of central Australia, with an annual usage of more than 3000 camels for human consumption, 2000 for pet food manufacture and a smaller number for live export. Despite a small Australian camel meat production level, the usage of camel meat for pet food has been restricted in recent years due to reports of serious liver disease and death in dogs consuming camel meat. This camel meat was found to contain residues of indospicine, a non-proteinogenic amino acid found in certain Indigofera spp., and associated with mild to severe liver disease in diverse animals after dietary exposure to this hepatotoxin. The extent of indospicine-contaminated Australian camel meat was previously unknown, and this study ascertains the prevalence of such residue in Australian camel meat. In this study, indospicine levels in ex situ (95 samples collected from an abattoir in Queensland) and in situ (197 samples collected from camels after field culling in central Australia) camel meat samples were quantitated using a validated ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The quantitation results showed 46.7% of the in situ- and 20.0% of the ex situ-collected camel meat samples were contaminated by indospicine (more than the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.05 mg kg(-1) fresh weight). The overall indospicine concentration was higher (p < 0.05) in the in situ-collected samples. Indospicine levels detected in the present study are considered to be low; however, a degree of caution must still be exercised, since the tolerable daily intake for indospicine is currently not available for risk estimation.

  3. [Salmonella infection of meat and meat products].

    PubMed

    Zvolibovskiĭ, V A; Rachkovskaia, Iu K; Devterova, L V

    1981-01-01

    The paper concerns the results of studying the frequency and degree of infection with Salmonella of diverse meat products including sausage ones. It was established that 10.2 +/- 2.1 % of samples taken from the organs of normal animals for slaughter were infected with Salmonella belonging to 9 serotypes. The most probable number per 1000 g (mpn/1000 g) was 10.5- greater than 322. Analysis of meat products in the course of manufacturing boiled sausage products demonstrated that Salmonella-infected were 44.2 +/- 8.5 % samples (mpn/1000 g 10.5- 92), taken from the starting raw material, 76.3 +/- 6.6 % samples (mpn/1000 g 10- greater than 322) from stuffing, 80.0 +/- 11.1% samples (mpn/1000 g 10.5- 69) from sausages after frying, 6.8 + +3.75 % samples (mpn/1000 g 22-72) from finished sausage. A total of 15 serotypes of Salmonella were detected in the course of study.

  4. GLOBE Observer and the Association of Science & Technology Centers: Leveraging Citizen Science and Partnerships for an International Science Experiment to Build Climate Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riebeek Kohl, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Murphy, T.

    2016-12-01

    For more that 20 years, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program has sought to increase environment literacy in students by involving them in the process of data collection and scientific research. In 2016, the program expanded to accept observations from citizen scientists of all ages through a relatively simple app. Called GLOBE Observer, the new program aims to help participants feel connected to a global community focused on advancing the scientific understanding of Earth system science while building climate literacy among participants and increasing valuable environmental data points to expand both student and scientific research. In October 2016, GLOBE Observer partnered with the Association of Science & Technology Centers (ASTC) in an international science experiment in which museums and patrons around the world collected cloud observations through GLOBE Observer to create a global cloud map in support of NASA satellite science. The experiment was an element of the International Science Center and Science Museum Day, an event planned in partnership with UNESCO and ASTC. Museums and science centers provided the climate context for the observations, while GLOBE Observer offered a uniform experience and a digital platform to build a connected global community. This talk will introduce GLOBE Observer and will present the results of the experiment, including evaluation feedback on gains in climate literacy through the event.

  5. Central nervous system tissue in meat products: an evaluation of risk, prevention strategies, and testing procedures.

    PubMed

    Bowling, M B; Belk, K E; Nightingale, K K; Goodridge, L D; Scanga, J A; Sofos, J N; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2007-01-01

    Since the outbreak of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in the United Kingdom in 1986 and its subsequent link to the human neurological disorder variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD), presence of tissues from the central nervous system (CNS) in meat products has been considered a public health concern and, thus, has been banned from entering the human food chain in many countries. Despite this, potential can exist during harvesting to contaminate or cross-contaminate edible meat products with CNS tissue that is designated as a specified risk material (SRM) in many countries. Methods used to detect CNS tissue in meat products vary greatly in their sensitivity, specificity, cost, labor and expertise needed, ease of completion, and type of results given (qualitative vs quantitative) and, within these constraints, appropriate testing methods must be selected to monitor or verify that meat products system controls are effective in removing CNS tissue from the human food chain. The extent to which monitoring procedures are needed should be based on the public health risk of CNS tissue in meat products as determined by each sovereign nation and/or third-party international organizations such as the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Risk associated with consumption of CNS tissue should be estimated by sovereign nations by establishing prevalence of BSE within their borders. Using this information, science-based decisions may guide international policy and trade. Using available scientific information, appropriate testing methods for monitoring or verification, and prevalence information, nations can estimate and reduce, to the extent deemed necessary, the public health risk of vCJD.

  6. Lipid oxidation and color changes of goose meat stored under vacuum and modified atmosphere conditions.

    PubMed

    Orkusz, A; Haraf, G; Okruszek, A; Werenska-Sudnik, M

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the color and lipid oxidation changes of goose breast meat packaged in vacuum and modified atmosphere (MA) conditions consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2, and stored in refrigerated conditions at 4°C. Color stability was monitored by determining total heme pigments concentration; relative concentration of myoglobin, oxymyoglobin, and metmyoglobin; parameters of color L*, a*, b*, and sensory evaluation of the surface color. Lipid stability was measured by determining thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The samples were examined in 24 h after slaughter (unpacked muscles) and on d 4, 7, 9, 11 of storage (muscles packed in vacuum and in MA). Through the time of storage, samples packed in MA had higher TBARS values in comparison to the meat packed in vacuum. For samples packed in two types of atmospheres, the total pigments concentration decreased gradually within 11 d of storage. It was observed that relative metmyoglobin concentration increased whereas relative oxymyoglobin concentration decreased in total heme pigments in the MA stored muscle. The relative concentration of all three myoglobin forms sample packed in vacuum remained unchanged. The color parameters (L*, a*, b*) did not change for 11 d of storage for the vacuum packed meat. The value of the color parameter a* decreased and the value of the color parameters L* and b* increased in the samples packaged in MA. The data prove that if you store goose meat in MA (consisting of 80% O2, 20% CO2) or vacuum, the unchanged surface color is preserved for 9 and 11 day, respectively.Vacuum appears to be a better method as regards the maintaining of lipid stability in goose meat. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Effect of EU electrical stunning conditions on breast meat quality of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Zampiga, M; Meluzzi, A

    2017-04-24

    Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat. A total of 12 flocks of broiler chickens, each equally divided into light, medium, and heavy sizes, was submitted either to the stunning condition usually adopted before the entry into force of the current EU regulation (90 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (OLD) or to that enforced by it (150 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (NEW). Overall, the prevalence of severe hemorrhages dramatically increased in the NEW group in comparison with the OLD one (55 vs. 27%; P < 0.001) and particularly in heavy-sized birds (72 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). In general, meat quality attributes were not affected by the stunning conditions with the exception of drip loss that resulted lower in NEW than OLD birds (1.01 vs. 1.27; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the adoption of a higher current flow, as suggested by the EU regulation to protect animals at the time of killing, increases the prevalence of breast hemorrhages while maintaining meat quality traits with a possible beneficial effect on water holding capacity of fresh meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Plant extracts as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products.

    PubMed

    Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Bosco, Sowriappan John Don; Mir, Shabir Ahmad

    2014-09-01

    Antioxidants are used to minimize the oxidative changes in meat and meat products. Oxidative changes may have negative effects on the quality of meat and meat products, causing changes in their sensory and nutritional properties. Although synthetic antioxidants have already been used but in recent years, the demand for natural antioxidants has been increased mainly because of adverse effects of synthetic antioxidants. Thus most of the recent investigations have been directed towards the identification of natural antioxidants from various plant sources. Plant extracts have been prepared using different solvents and extraction methods. Grape seed, green tea, pine bark, rosemary, pomegranate, nettle and cinnamon have exhibited similar or better antioxidant properties compared to some synthetic ones. This review provides the recent information on plant extracts used as natural antioxidants in meat and meat products, specifically red meat.

  9. Reduction of dietary lysine increases free glutamate content in chicken meat and improves its taste.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Genya; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Masahiro; Kubota, Masatoshi; Kadowaki, Motoni; Fujimura, Shinobu

    2017-02-01

    Taste is a crucial factor of meat quality, and amino acids are important taste-active components in meat. Here, the effects of dietary lysine (Lys) content on taste-active components in meat, especially free glutamate (Glu), were investigated. Twenty-eight-day-old broilers (Gallus gallus) were fed diets with graded Lys content of 90% or 100% of the recommended Lys requirement, (according to the National Research Council, ) for 10 days. Free amino acid content in meat and sensory scores of meat soup were estimated. Free Glu content, the main taste-active component of meat, was significantly increased by a reduction of dietary Lys. Compared with the Lys 100% group (control), free Glu concentrations of meat were increased by 35.7% in the Lys 90% group (P < 0.05). In addition, free glycine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine and threonine concentrations of meat were significantly increased in the Lys 90% group (P < 0.05). Sensory evaluation of meat soup made from the Lys 100% and 90% groups indicated different meat tastes. Sensory scores of taste intensity, umami and kokumi tastes were significantly higher in the Lys 90% group. These results suggest that a reduction of dietary lysine increased free glutamate content in meat and improved its taste. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. The World Cancer Research Fund report 2007: A challenge for the meat processing industry.

    PubMed

    Demeyer, Daniël; Honikel, Karl; De Smet, Stefaan

    2008-12-01

    One of the 10 universal guidelines for healthy nutrition in a report of the World Cancer Research Fund released at the end of 2007 is to "limit intake of red meat and avoid processed meat", as a result of the "convincing evidence" for an association with an increased risk of colorectal cancer development. In the present paper, the scientific evidence for the association between processed meats intake and colorectal cancer development is explored and the most probable hypothesis on the mechanism underlying this relationship formulated. It seems that the present state of knowledge is not well understood but relates to a combination of haem iron, oxidative stress, formation of N-nitroso compounds and related residues in the digestive tract as the causal factors. Although criticisms of the inaccurate definition of processed meats and the insufficient accounting for the large variability in composition of meat products have been expressed, it is clear that the report urges proper action by the meat and nutrition research community and the meat industry. Research items that in our view should be addressed are discussed. They include: (1) evaluating the health risks associated with processed meats intake within the context of the supply of beneficial nutrients and other nutrition associated health risks; (2) definition of the role of nitrites and nitrates in meat processing; (3) investigating the role of red and processed meats on the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the digestive tract; and (4) developing improved processed meats using new ingredients.

  11. Meat and components of meat and the risk of bladder cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrucci, Leah M.; Sinha, Rashmi; Ward, Mary H.; Graubard, Barry I.; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Michaud, Dominique S.; Cross, Amanda J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Meat could be involved in bladder carcinogenesis via multiple potentially carcinogenic meat-related compounds related to cooking and processing, including nitrate, nitrite, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We comprehensively investigated the association between meat and meat components and bladder cancer. Methods During 7 years of follow-up, 854 transitional cell bladder cancer cases were identified among 300,933 men and women who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in the large prospective NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. We estimated intake of nitrate and nitrite from processed meat and HCAs and PAHs from cooked meat using quantitative databases of measured values. We calculated total dietary nitrate and nitrite based on literature values. Results The hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for red meat (HR for fifth compared to first quintile=1.22, 95% CI=0.96–1.54, p-trend=0.07) and the HCA 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) (HR=1.19, 95% CI=0.95–1.48, p-trend=0.06) conferred a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer. We observed positive associations in the top quintile for total dietary nitrite (HR=1.28, 95% CI=1.02–1.61, p-trend= 0.06) and nitrate plus nitrite intake from processed meat (HR=1.29 95% CI=1.00–1.67, p-trend= 0.11). Conclusions These findings provide modest support for a role for total dietary nitrite and nitrate plus nitrite from processed meat in bladder cancer. Our results also suggest a positive association between red meat and PhIP and bladder carcinogenesis. PMID:20681011

  12. Effects of rice bran fiber on heat-induced gel prepared with pork salt-soluble meat proteins in model system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2011-05-01

    The technological effects of rice bran fiber on pork salt-soluble meat proteins in a model system were investigated. Rice bran fiber at levels of 0% (control), 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2% was added at the same time as salt-soluble meat protein to maintain similar moisture levels in all samples. Samples with increasing amounts of added rice bran fiber had higher pH, yellowness, sarcoplasmic and total protein solubilities. The moisture content, myofibrillar protein solubility and water holding capacity were the highest in the treatments containing with 1% rice bran fiber. However, the lightness and redness, textural properties decreased with increasing rice bran fiber levels. SDS gel electrophoresis did not reveal any changes in proteins regardless different rice bran fiber levels. The apparent viscosity indicated that improvements in water holding capacity and decreased texture due to added rice bran fiber. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  13. National Association for Research in Science Teaching. 50th Annual Meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This publication provides abstracts of papers presented at the 50th annual meeting of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching held in Cincinnati, Ohio March 22-24, 1977. The entries represent a wide range of topics in the field of science education. Topics include instruction, teacher education, learning, enrollments, concept…

  14. Humanities and Social Sciences Books of Ten National Disciplinary Associations, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…

  15. Humanities and Social Sciences Books of Ten National Disciplinary Associations, 2000-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberley, Stephen E., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    Books are the most important medium of communication in the humanities, a major medium in the social sciences, and a central component of academic library collections. This study examined humanities and social sciences books that won prizes from ten leading United States disciplinary associations between 2000 and 2009. The study extends earlier…

  16. National Association for Research in Science Teaching 47th Annual meeting, Abstracts of Presented Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helgeson, Stanley L., Ed.

    This publication was produced by the ERIC Information Analysis Center for Science, Mathematics, and Environmental Education in cooperation with the National Association for Research in Science Teaching (NARST) to provide abstracts of most of the papers presented at the NARST annual conference in Chicago, Illinois, on April 15-18, 1974. The…

  17. The Proceedings, Directory and Handbook of the National Association of Academies of Science 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Shyamal K., Ed.

    Provided in this document are the proceedings of the 1983 annual meeting of the National Association of Academies of Sciences (NAAS), the NAAS handbook, and the NAAS directory. The proceedings also include papers presented at a symposium on the crisis in science and mathematics education, various NAAS reports, and abstracts of American Junior…

  18. The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE): Past, Present, Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) is now over 90 years old. Recently recommitted to a focus on research in library and information science teaching and pedagogy, and support for educators in the field, ALISE serves its members with a range of publications, awards, and services. Membership is strong and…

  19. The Proceedings, Directory and Handbook of the National Association of Academies of Science 1983-84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majumdar, Shyamal K., Ed.

    Provided in this document are the proceedings of the 1983 annual meeting of the National Association of Academies of Sciences (NAAS), the NAAS handbook, and the NAAS directory. The proceedings also include papers presented at a symposium on the crisis in science and mathematics education, various NAAS reports, and abstracts of American Junior…

  20. The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE): Past, Present, Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julien, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The Association for Library and Information Science Education (ALISE) is now over 90 years old. Recently recommitted to a focus on research in library and information science teaching and pedagogy, and support for educators in the field, ALISE serves its members with a range of publications, awards, and services. Membership is strong and…

  1. Meat, Poultry and Fish

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart area Search By Zipcode Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 ( ... other flavorings in cooking and at the table. Select meat substitutes such as dried beans, peas, lentils ...

  2. Teachers' Tendencies to Promote Student-Led Science Projects: Associations with Their Views about Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bencze, J. Lawrence; Bowen, G. Michael; Alsop, Steve

    2006-01-01

    School science students can benefit greatly from participation in student-directed, open-ended scientific inquiry projects. For various possible reasons, however, students tend not to be engaged in such inquiries. Among factors that may limit their opportunities to engage in open-ended inquiries of their design are teachers' conceptions about…

  3. Rapid measurement of meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Binlin; Dahlberg, Kevin; Gao, Xin; Smith, Jason; Bailin, Jacob

    2017-02-01

    Food spoilage is mainly caused by microorganisms, such as bacteria. In this study, we measure the autofluorescence in meat samples longitudinally over a week in an attempt to develop a method to rapidly detect meat spoilage using fluorescence spectroscopy. Meat food is a biological tissue, which contains intrinsic fluorophores, such as tryptophan, collagen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) etc. As meat spoils, it undergoes various morphological and chemical changes. The concentrations of the native fluorophores present in a sample may change. In particular, the changes in NADH and FAD are associated with microbial metabolism, which is the most important process of the bacteria in food spoilage. Such changes may be revealed by fluorescence spectroscopy and used to indicate the status of meat spoilage. Therefore, such native fluorophores may be unique, reliable and nonsubjective indicators for detection of spoiled meat. The results of the study show that the relative concentrations of all above fluorophores change as the meat samples kept in room temperature ( 19° C) spoil. The changes become more rapidly after about two days. For the meat samples kept in a freezer ( -12° C), the changes are much less or even unnoticeable over a-week-long storage.

  4. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A. Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-01-01

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of adolescent total red meat was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs lowest quintiles, RR, 1.42; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend=0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent poultry intake was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.75; 95%CI, 0.59-0.96; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 16% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.84; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 24% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). Higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  5. Processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension in women.

    PubMed

    Lajous, Martin; Bijon, Anne; Fagherazzi, Guy; Rossignol, Emilie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2014-09-01

    High processed red meat consumption is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The high sodium content of processed red meat could increase blood pressure and explain the association with cardiovascular disease. We evaluated the relation between the consumption of unprocessed and processed red meat and incident hypertension. In a prospective cohort of 44,616 disease-free French women who responded to a validated dietary questionnaire, we observed 10,256 incident cases of hypertension between 1993 and 2008. Cases were identified through self-reports of diagnosed or treated hypertension. Multivariate Cox regression models were adjusted for age, education, smoking, physical activity, body mass index, menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, and alcohol, bread, coffee, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Women who consumed ≥5 servings of processed red meat/wk (50 g = 1 serving) had a 17% higher rate of hypertension than that of women who consumed <1 serving/wk (HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.26; P-trend = 0.0002). No association was observed between unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension. When women who consumed ≥5 servings of unprocessed red meat/wk (100 g = 1 serving) were compared with women who consumed <1 serving unprocessed red meat/wk, the multivariate HR was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.08; P-trend = 0.63). In this large prospective cohort of French women, we observed an association between the consumption of processed red meat and hypertension. We observed no association for unprocessed red meat consumption and hypertension. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  6. Growth, carcass and meat quality traits in beef from Angus, Hereford and cross-breed grazing steers, and their association with SNPs in genes related to fat deposition metabolism.

    PubMed

    Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Goszczynski, D E; Ripoli, M V; Melucci, L M; Pardo, A M; Colatto, E; Rogberg-Muñoz, A; Mezzadra, C A; Depetris, G J; Giovambattista, G; Villarreal, E L

    2016-04-01

    Grazing steers from Angus and Hereford breeds, their cross-breeds and a three-way cross-breed (Limousin × Angus-Hereford) were measured for growth, carcass and meat quality traits. Breed effects were studied, and the association of SNPs with fat deposition and fatty acid (FA) composition (leptin, melanocortin-4 receptor, stearoyl-CoA desaturase, FA synthase and thyroglobulin) was tested. Limousin cross-breed showed the greatest final body weight, ultrasound rib eye area, dressing percentage, carcass and leg length, and the lowest backfat thickness and intramuscular fat content. Genetic groups had similar pH, shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* and n-6:n-3 ratio. Meat from 1/2-Angus presented greater a* than Limousin cross-breed. Whereas Angus had the highest total SFA content, Hereford had the lowest total SFA and the highest total MUFA. Limousin cross-breed had greater content of several individual PUFAs, total PUFA, n-6 and n-3 FA than Angus and 1/2-Angus. Leptin and FA synthase were associated with some FAs, supporting their influence over fat metabolism for grazing animals.

  7. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P < 0.05) higher average daily gains (ADG) and better feed conversion rates (FCR). The pH 24h value tended to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing DE levels. The tenderness of Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) and Semimembranosus muscle (SM) reduced with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). With increasing DE levels, tenderness was increased (P < 0.05). The heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) mRNA expression levels in LD and SM increased with increasing DE levels (P < 0.05), but decreased with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). The calpastatin (CAST) and μ-calpain mRNA expressions levels in LD and SM were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by CP and DE levels in the diet. Therefore, the nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Science and sociability: women as audience at the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 1831-1901.

    PubMed

    Higgitt, Rebekah; Withers, Charles W J

    2008-03-01

    This essay recovers the experiences of women at the meetings of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS) from its founding in 1831 to the end of the Victorian era. It aims to add to research on women in science by reconsidering the traditional role of women as consumers rather than producers of knowledge and to that on science popularization by focusing on audience experience rather than on the aims and strategies of popularizers. The essay argues that, in various ways, the ubiquitous and visible female audience came to define the BAAS audience and "the public" for science more generally. The women who swelled the BAAS audiences were accepted as a social element within the meetings even as they were regarded critically as scientific participants. Portrayed as passive and nonscientific, women allowed the male scientific elites to distance themselves from their audiences. Arguing from diary and other evidence, we present examples that complicate existing notions of audiences for science as necessarily active.

  9. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices of private and government meat processing plants' workers: implications for future policy.

    PubMed

    Adesokan, H K; Raji, A O Q

    2014-03-01

    Food-borne disease outbreaks remain a major global health challenge and cross-contamination from raw meat due to poor handling is a major cause in developing countries. Adequate knowledge of meat handlers is important in limiting these outbreaks. This study evaluated and compared the safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of private (PMPP) and government meat processing plants' (GMPP) workers in south-western Nigeria. This cross sectional study comprised 190 meat handlers (PMPP = 55; GMPP = 135). Data concerning their safe meat-handling knowledge, attitudes and practices as well as their socio-demographic characteristics, such as age, gender and work experience were collected. A significant association was observed between the type of meat processing plants and their knowledge (p = 0.000), attitudes (p = 0.000) and practices (p = 0.000) of safe meat-handling. Meat handlers in the GMPP were respectively, about 17 times (OR = 0.060, 95% CI: 0.018-0.203), 57 times (OR = 0.019, 95% CI: 0.007-0.054) and 111 times (OR = 0.009, 95% CI: 0.001- 0.067) less likely to obtain good knowledge, attitude and practice level of safe meat-handling than those from PMPP. Further, KAP levels were significantly associated with age group, education and work experience (p < 0.05). Study findings suggest the need for future policy in food industry in developing countries to accommodate increased involvement of private sector for improved food safety and quality delivery. Public health education on safe food handling and hygiene should be on the front burner among food handlers in general.

  11. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  12. Association of a novel polymorphism in the bovine PPARGC1A gene with growth, slaughter and meat quality traits in Brangus steers.

    PubMed

    Soria, L A; Corva, P M; Branda Sica, A; Villarreal, E L; Melucci, L M; Mezzadra, C A; Papaleo Mazzucco, J; Fernández Macedo, G; Silvestro, C; Schor, A; Miquel, M C

    2009-12-01

    The PPARGC1A gene (peroxysome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha gene) controls muscle fiber type and brown adipocyte differentiation; therefore, it is a candidate gene for beef quality traits (tenderness and fat content). Two SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) were identified within exon 8 by multiple alignment of DNA sequences obtained from 24 bulls: a transition G/A (SNP 1181) and a transversion A/T (SNP 1299). The SNP 1181 is a novel SNP, corresponding to a non-conservative substitution (AGT/AAT) that could be the cause of amino acid substitution ((364)Serine/(364)Asparagine). A Mismatch PCR method was designed to determine genotypes of 73 bulls and 268 steers for SNP 1181. Growth, slaughter and meat quality information were available for the group of steers. Allele A of SNP 1181 was not found in Angus. In 243 steers, no significant differences (P > 0.05) were found for either final live body weight, gain in backfat thickness in Spring, kidney fat weight, kidney fat percentage, Warner-Bratzler shear force at 7 days postmortem, intramuscular fat percentage or meat colour between genotype GG and AG. This SNP could be included in breed composition and population admixture analyses because there are marked differences in allelic frequencies between Bos taurus and Bos indicus breeds.

  13. Multidisciplinary investigation of a multicountry outbreak of Salmonella Stanley infections associated with turkey meat in the European Union, August 2011 to January 2013.

    PubMed

    Kinross, P; van Alphen, L; Martinez Urtaza, J; Struelens, M; Takkinen, J; Coulombier, D; Makela, P; Bertrand, S; Mattheus, W; Schmid, D; Kanitz, E; Rucker, V; Krisztalovics, K; Paszti, J; Szogyenyi, Z; Lancz, Z; Rabsch, W; Pfefferkorn, B; Hiller, P; Mooijman, K; Gossner, C

    2014-05-15

    Between August 2011 and January 2013, an outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Stanley (S. Stanley) infections affected 10 European Union (EU) countries, with a total of 710 cases recorded. Following an urgent inquiry in the Epidemic Intelligence Information System for food- and waterborne diseases (EPIS-FWD) on 29 June 2012, an international investigation was initiated including EU and national agencies for public health, veterinary health and food safety. Two of three local outbreak investigations undertaken by affected countries in 2012 identified turkey meat as a vehicle of infection. Furthermore, routine EU monitoring of animal sources showed that over 95% (n=298) of the 311 S. Stanley isolates reported from animal sampling in 2011 originated from the turkey food production chain. In 2004–10, none had this origin. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profile analysis of outbreak isolates and historical S. Stanley human isolates revealed that the outbreak isolates had a novel PFGE profile that emerged in Europe in 2011. An indistinguishable PFGE profile was identified in 346 of 464 human, food, feed, environmental and animal isolates from 16 EU countries: 102 of 112 non-human isolates tested were from the turkey production chain. On the basis of epidemiological and microbiological evidence, turkey meat was considered the primary source of human infection, following contamination early in the animal production chain.

  14. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  15. Human pathogens in marine mammal meat – a northern perspective.

    PubMed

    Tryland, M; Nesbakken, T; Robertson, L; Grahek-Ogden, D; Lunestad, B T

    2014-09-01

    Only a few countries worldwide hunt seals and whales commercially. In Norway, hooded and harp seals and minke whales are commercially harvested, and coastal seals (harbour and grey seals) are hunted as game. Marine mammal meat is sold to the public and thus included in general microbiological meat control regulations. Slaughtering and dressing of marine mammals are performed in the open air on deck, and many factors on board sealing or whaling vessels may affect meat quality, such as the ice used for cooling whale meat and the seawater used for cleaning, storage of whale meat in the open air until ambient temperature is reached, and the hygienic conditions of equipment, decks, and other surfaces. Based on existing reports, it appears that meat of seal and whale does not usually represent a microbiological hazard to consumers in Norway, because human disease has not been associated with consumption of such foods. However, as hygienic control on marine mammal meat is ad hoc, mainly based on spot-testing, and addresses very few human pathogens, this conclusion may be premature. Additionally, few data from surveys or systematic quality control screenings have been published. This review examines the occurrence of potential human pathogens in marine mammals, as well as critical points for contamination of meat during the slaughter, dressing, cooling, storage and processing of meat. Some zoonotic agents are of particular relevance as foodborne pathogens, such as Trichinella spp., Toxoplasma gondii, Salmonella and Leptospira spp. In addition, Mycoplasma spp. parapoxvirus and Mycobacterium spp. constitute occupational risks during handling of marine mammals and marine mammal products. Adequate training in hygienic procedures is necessary to minimize the risk of contamination on board, and acquiring further data is essential for obtaining a realistic assessment of the microbiological risk to humans from consuming marine mammal meat.

  16. Research in Science Education, Volume 1990. Selected Refereed Papers from the Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association (21st, Perth, Western Australia, July 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Paul L., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This book contains selected refereed papers from the 21st Annual Conference of the Australasian Science Education Research Association. The papers are as follows: "A Learning Model for Science Education: Developing Teaching Strategies" (Appleton); "Researching Balance between Cognition and Affect in Science Teaching" (Baird et…

  17. Associations of Middle School Student Science Achievement and Attitudes about Science with Student-Reported Frequency of Teacher Lecture Demonstrations and Student-Centered Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odom, Arthur Louis; Bell, Clare Valerie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of middle school student science achievement and attitudes about science with student-reported frequency of teacher lecture demonstrations and student-centered learning. The student sample was composed of 602 seventh- and eighth-grade students enrolled in middle school science. Multiple…

  18. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H; Chavarro, Jorge E

    2014-05-01

    In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice in men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones while adjusting for potential confounders. There was an inverse relation between processed red meat intake and total sperm count. The adjusted relative differences in total sperm counts for men in increasing quartiles of processed meat intake were 0 (ref), -3 (95% confidence interval = -67 to 37), -14 (-82 to 28), and -78 (-202 to -5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P = 0.003). In our population of young men, processed meat intake was associated with lower total sperm count. We cannot distinguish whether this association is because of residual confounding by abstinence time or represents a true biological effect.

  19. Meat intake and reproductive parameters among young men

    PubMed Central

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Williams, Paige L; Gaskins, Audrey J; Mendiola, Jaime; Jørgensen, Niels; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-01-01

    Background In the United States, anabolic sex steroids are administered to cattle for growth promotion. There is concern regarding the reproductive consequences of this practice for men who eat beef. We investigated whether meat consumption was associated with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormone levels in young men. Methods Semen samples were obtained from 189 men aged 18-22 years. Diet was assessed with a previously validated food frequency questionnaire. We used linear regression to analyze the cross-sectional associations of meat intake with semen quality parameters and reproductive hormones, while adjusting for potential confounders. Results There was an inverse relation between processed red meat intake and total sperm count. The adjusted relative differences in total sperm counts for men in increasing quartiles of processed meat intake were 0 (ref), −3 (95% confidence interval = −67 to 37), −14 (−82 to 28), and −78 (−202 to −5) million (test for trend, P = 0.01). This association was strongest among men with abstinence time less than 2 days and was driven by a strong inverse relation between processed red meat intake and ejaculate volume (test for trend, P =0.003). Conclusions In our population of young men, processed meat intake was associated with lower total sperm count. We cannot distinguish whether this association is due to residual confounding by abstinence time or represents a true biological effect. PMID:24681577

  20. Curriculum Study: Nursing Program for an Associate in Science Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Laura T.

    A description is provided of the associate degree nursing curriculum at a hypothetical community college located in a residential community in California. After providing background on the college and a rationale for the provision of nursing education at the institution, the goals and objectives of the college and its department of nursing are…

  1. Curriculum Study: Nursing Program for an Associate in Science Degree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Laura T.

    A description is provided of the associate degree nursing curriculum at a hypothetical community college located in a residential community in California. After providing background on the college and a rationale for the provision of nursing education at the institution, the goals and objectives of the college and its department of nursing are…

  2. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  3. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product...

  4. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  5. 9 CFR 319.761 - Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Potted meat food product and deviled meat food product. 319.761 Section 319.761 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... COMPOSITION Meat Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.761 Potted meat food product and deviled meat food...

  6. 9 CFR 317.308 - Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of meat or meat food products... Nutrition Labeling § 317.308 Labeling of meat or meat food products with number of servings. The label of any package of a meat or meat food product that bears a representation as to the number of servings...

  7. A Prospective Study of Red and Processed Meat Intake in Relation to Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Amanda J; Leitzmann, Michael F; Gail, Mitchell H; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Schatzkin, Arthur; Sinha, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Background Red meat and processed meat have been associated with carcinogenesis at several anatomic sites, but no prospective study has examined meat intake in relation to a range of malignancies. We investigated whether red or processed meat intake increases cancer risk at a variety of sites. Methods and Findings The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP (formerly the American Association for Retired Persons) Diet and Health Study is a cohort of approximately 500,000 people aged 50–71 y at baseline (1995–1996). Meat intake was estimated from a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals within quintiles of red and processed meat intake. During up to 8.2 y of follow-up, 53,396 incident cancers were ascertained. Statistically significant elevated risks (ranging from 20% to 60%) were evident for esophageal, colorectal, liver, and lung cancer, comparing individuals in the highest with those in the lowest quintile of red meat intake. Furthermore, individuals in the highest quintile of processed meat intake had a 20% elevated risk for colorectal and a 16% elevated risk for lung cancer. Conclusions Both red and processed meat intakes were positively associated with cancers of the colorectum and lung; furthermore, red meat intake was associated with an elevated risk for cancers of the esophagus and liver. PMID:18076279

  8. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Carol G; Bader, Shelley A

    2003-04-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.

  9. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

    2003-01-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries. PMID:12883582

  10. Associations between school-level environment and science classroom environment in secondary schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Jeffrey P.; Fraser, Barry J.; McRobbie, Campbell J.

    1995-09-01

    This article describes a study of links between school environment and science classroom environment. Instruments to assess seven dimensions of school environment (viz., Empowerment, Student Support, Affiliation, Professional Interest, Mission Consensus, Resource Adequacy and Work Pressure) and seven dimensions of classroom environment (viz., Student Affiliation, Interactions, Cooperation, Task Orientation, Order & Organisation, Individualisati n and Teacher Control) in secondary school science classrooms were developed and validated. The study involved a sample of 1,318 students in 64 year 9 and year 12 science classes and 128 teachers of science in Australian secondary schools. Using the class mean as the unit of analysis for student data, associations between school and classroom environment were investigated using simple, multiple and canonical correlational analyses. In general, results indicated weak relationships between school and classroom environments and they reinforced the view that characteristics of the school environment are not transmitted automatically into science classrooms.

  11. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  12. Effects of muscle fiber type on glycolytic potential and meat quality traits in different Tibetan pig muscles and their association with glycolysis-related gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, L Y; Luo, J; Lei, H G; Jiang, Y Z; Bai, L; Li, M Z; Tang, G Q; Li, X W; Zhang, S H; Zhu, L

    2015-11-13

    The myosin heavy chain (MyHC) composition, glycolytic potential, mitochondrial content, and gene expression related to energy metabolism were analyzed in eight muscles from Tibetan pigs, to study how meat quality develops in different muscle tissues. The muscles were classified into three clusters, based on MyHC composition: masseter, trapezius, and latissimus dorsi as 'slow-oxidative-type'; psoas major and semimembranosus as 'intermediate-type'; and longissimus dorsi, obliquus externus abdominis, and semitendinosus as 'fast-glycolytic-type'. The 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles had the highest MyHC I and MyHC IIA content (P < 0.01); 'intermediate-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIx content (P < 0.01); and 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles, the highest MyHC IIb content (P < 0.01). The pH values measured in 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles were higher than those in the other clusters were; however, the color of 'fast-glycolytic-type' muscles was palest (P < 0.01). Mitochondrial content increased in the order: fast-glycolytic-type < intermediate-type < slow-oxidative-type. In the 'slow-oxidative-type' muscles, the expression levels of genes related to ATP synthesis were higher, but were lower for those related to glycogen synthesis and glycolysis. Mitochondrial content was significantly positively correlated with MyHC I content, but negatively correlated with MyHC IIb content. MyHC I and mitochondrial content were both negatively correlated with glycolytic potential. Overall, muscles used frequently in exercise had a higher proportion of type I fibers. 'Slow-oxidative-type' muscles, rich in type I fibers with higher mitochondrial and lower glycogen and glucose contents, had a higher ATP synthesis efficiency and lower glycolytic capacity, which contributed to their superior meat quality.

  13. Court Reporting Curriculum for an Associate in Applied Science Degree at Alvin Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethscheider, John; Knapp, Mary

    The court reporting curriculum at Alvin Community College, which leads to an associate of applied science degree, has been praised by the National Shorthand Reporters Association, which sets the standards for court reporting schools. The court reporter uses a method of taking notes called stenotypy which entails taking down verbatim everything…

  14. Court Reporting Curriculum for an Associate in Applied Science Degree at Alvin Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethscheider, John; Knapp, Mary

    The court reporting curriculum at Alvin Community College, which leads to an associate of applied science degree, has been praised by the National Shorthand Reporters Association, which sets the standards for court reporting schools. The court reporter uses a method of taking notes called stenotypy which entails taking down verbatim everything…

  15. Meat and meat-mutagen intake, doneness preference and the risk of colorectal polyps: the Tennessee Colorectal Polyp Study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Aesun; Shrubsole, Martha J; Ness, Reid M; Wu, Huiyun; Sinha, Rashmi; Smalley, Walter E; Shyr, Yu; Zheng, Wei

    2007-07-01

    Although meat intake has been fairly consistently linked to the risk of colorectal cancer, only a few studies have evaluated meat intake by doneness level and the heterocyclic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) produced by high temperature cooking of meat in relation to colorectal adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps. We evaluated these associations in a large colonoscopy-based case-control study. Included in this study were participants with adenomatous polyp only (n = 573), hyperplastic polyp only (n = 256), or both adenomatous and hyperplastic polyps (n = 199), and 1,544 polyp-free controls. In addition to information related to demographic and other lifestyle factors, meat intake by cooking method and doneness preference were obtained through telephone interviews. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for the association between exposures and colorectal polyp risks. Presence of hyperplastic polyp was found to be positively associated with high consumption of total meat (p(trend) = 0.076) or red meat (p(trend) = 0.060), with an approximate 50-60% elevated risk observed in the highest vs. the lowest intake group. High intake of 2-amino-I-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo [4,5]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) were associated with increased risk for hyperplastic polyp (p(trend) = 0.036 and 0.038, respectively). With a possible exception of the intake of total well-done meats (p(trend) = 0.055) or well-done red meats (p(trend) = 0.074) with the risk of large adenomas, no other positive association was found specifically for the risk of adenomas with any of the exposure variables aforementioned. This study provides additional support for a positive association of high intake of red meat with colorectal adenomas, and suggests that high intake of meats and meat carcinogens may also be associated with hyperplastic polyps.

  16. Implications of domestic food practices for the presence of bioactive components in meats with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco; Cofrades, Susana; Herrero, Ana M; Ruiz-Capillas, Claudia

    2017-06-14

    Although an essential component of the diet, the consumption of meat is in question. Meat is a major source of beneficial compounds but it also contains other substances with negative health implications. Functional foods, which are leading trends in the food industry, constitute an excellent opportunity for the meat sector to improve healthier meat options. Most studies on meat-based functional foods have focused mainly on the application of different strategies (animal production practices and meat transformation systems) to improve (increase/reduce) the presence of bioactive (healthy/unhealthy) compounds; these have led to the development of numerous products, many of them by the meat industry. However, like other foods, after purchase meats undergo certain processes before they are consumed, and these affect their composition. Although domestic handling practices can significantly alter the make-up of the marketed product in terms of healthy/unhealthy compounds, there are very few studies on their consequences. This paper provides an overview of the influence of different domestic practices (from shopping to eating) habitually followed by consumers on the presence of, and consequently on the levels of exposure to, (healthy and unhealthy) food components associated with the consumption of meats, with special reference to meat-based functional foods.

  17. Red meat consumption: an overview of the risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Alison J; McSorley, Emeir M; Cuskelly, Geraldine J; Moss, Bruce W; Wallace, Julie M W; Bonham, Maxine P; Fearon, Anna M

    2010-01-01

    Red meat is long established as an important dietary source of protein and essential nutrients including iron, zinc and vitamin B12, yet recent reports that its consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and colon cancer have led to a negative perception of the role of red meat in health. The aim of this paper is to review existing literature for both the risks and benefits of red meat consumption, focusing on case-control and prospective studies. Despite many studies reporting an association between red meat and the risk of CVD and colon cancer, several methodological limitations and inconsistencies were identified which may impact on the validity of their findings. Overall, there is no strong evidence to support the recent conclusion from the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) report that red meat has a convincing role to play in colon cancer. A substantial amount of evidence supports the role of lean red meat as a positive moderator of lipid profiles with recent studies identifying it as a dietary source of the anti-inflammatory long chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). In conclusion, moderate consumption of lean red meat as part of a balanced diet is unlikely to increase risk for CVD or colon cancer, but may positively influence nutrient intakes and fatty acid profiles, thereby impacting positively on long-term health.

  18. Meat consumption, cancer risk and population groups within New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2002-09-30

    In comparison with other OECD countries with good cancer registries, New Zealand has the highest mortality rate of colon cancer, second highest of breast cancer and third highest of prostate cancer. A possible association with heterocyclic amine consumption has been suggested for each of these cancers. Studies of locally cooked meat suggest that the main contributors to heterocyclic amines in the New Zealand diet would be well-cooked beef, chicken and pork. Well-cooked beef steak, and the specific heterocyclic amine, IFP, showed a weak positive correlation with prostate cancer risk in the New Zealand population, but no studies thus far have considered the role of meat cooking practices or heterocyclic amines in the development of other cancers. The Maori and Pacific Island people, despite a superficially similar diet, have a substantially lower incidence of colon cancer than people of Caucasian origin. These differences are particularly intriguing in view of a report that a very high percentage of these people have a fast acetylator phenotype-a factor suggested to augment the effect of well-cooked red meat in other populations. The three population groups are known to differ in their preferences for meat type (including processed meats), and there are anecdotal suggestions that they may differ in preferred cooking methods. More detailed population studies are warranted to establish the role of meat, meat processing, cooking methods and the interaction with food plants and/or with genotype and phenotype in New Zealand.

  19. 9 CFR 319.80 - Barbecued meats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Cooked Meats § 319.80 Barbecued meats... cooking process. The weight of barbecued meat shall not exceed 70 percent of the weight of the...

  20. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25...

  1. 9 CFR 319.720 - Meat extract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Soups, Soup Mixes, Broths, Stocks, Extracts § 319.720 Meat extract. Meat extract (e.g., “Beef Extract”) shall contain not more than 25...

  2. Can you have your meat and eat it too? Conscientious omnivores, vegetarians, and adherence to diet.

    PubMed

    Rothgerber, Hank

    2015-01-01

    As criticisms of factory farming continue to mount, an increasing number of individuals have changed their existing dietary practices. Perhaps the two most important food movements reacting against industrial farming are (1) vegetarianism, the avoidance of animal flesh; and (2) conscientious omnivorism (CO), the consumption of meat or fish only when it satisfies certain ethical standards. While the former group has been well-studied in the social science literature, there have been few, if any, studies specifically examining those who identify themselves as ethical meat eaters. The present research sought to determine if one particular diet was more greatly adhered to by its followers. Results revealed that COs were less likely to perceive their diet as something that they absolutely needed to follow, reported violating their diet more, felt less guilty when doing so, believed less in animal rights, were less disgusted by factory-farmed meat, rated its sensory characteristics more favorably, and were lower in ingroup identification than vegetarians. Mediation analysis demonstrated that differences in the amount of violations and guilt associated with these violations could in part be traced to practical and psychological factors, making it more difficult to follow conscientious omnivorism.

  3. Physiological traits and meat quality of pigs as affected by genotype and housing system.

    PubMed

    Lebret, B; Prunier, A; Bonhomme, N; Foury, A; Mormède, P; Dourmad, J Y

    2011-05-01

    The influence of pig housing system: alternative (bedding with outdoor area, BO) vs. conventional (slatted floor, SF) on growth performance, reactivity to pre-slaughter handling and meat quality was evaluated in two genotypes differing in the sire line, Duroc (CD) or synthetic (CS) with 40 pigs/genotype. Animal response to housing did not differ between genotypes. BO pigs had higher growth rate and feed intake, but similar carcass composition to SF pigs. Levels of stress related hormones and plasma metabolites at slaughter were not different between BO and SF pigs, suggesting that housing did not influence pig reactivity to pre-slaughter handling. Similar (Longissimus lumborum and Biceps femoris) or slightly reduced (Semimembranosus) pH values, higher drip, lipid content and juiciness were observed in BO compared with SF pork. CD pigs had more tender meat than CS. In conclusion, the BO system resulted in higher feed intake, faster growth rate, increased intramuscular fat, and improved eating quality in both genotypes. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of bamboo salt on the physicochemical properties of meat emulsion systems.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Eui-Soo; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Choi, Ji-Hun; Choi, Yun-Sang; Han, Doo-Jeong; Lee, Mi-Ai; Kim, Si-Young; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of various bamboo salts on meat batter. To accomplish this, three different batters were prepared and compared: CON, which was prepared with NaCl, BS-2, which was prepared with bamboo salt that was baked twice, BS-9, which was prepared with bamboo salt that was baked nine times. The pH of both the uncooked and cooked BS-2 and BS-9 was higher than that of the CON (P<0.05). The emulsion stability, cooking yield, water holding capacity (WHC) and apparent viscosity of BS-2 and BS-9 were higher than those of CON. The correlation coefficient between the viscosity value and WHC was high and positive (R(2)=0.672). The hardness of all treatments was significantly increased with increased cooking temperature (P<0.05). The hardness, gumminess and chewiness of CON were higher than that of BS-9 and BS-2. The overall acceptability score between CON and BS-9 was significantly different (P<0.05). The bamboo salts effectively improved the physicochemical properties of the meat batter. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and risk factors for thermotolerant species of Campylobacter in poultry meat at retail in Europe.

    PubMed

    Osimani, Andrea; Aquilanti, Lucia; Pasquini, Marina; Clementi, Francesca

    2017-09-01

    The thermotolerant species Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter coli, Campylobacter lari and Campylobacter upsaliensis are the causative agents of the human illness called campylobacteriosis. This infection represents a threat for the health of consumers in Europe. It is well known that poultry meat is an important food vehicle of Campylobacter infection. As emerged from the reported scientific literature published between 2006 and 2016, poultry meat sold at retail level in Europe represents an important source of the pathogen. The contamination level of poultry meat sold at retail can vary depending on pre- and post-harvest factors. Among the pre-harvest measures, strict biosecurity practices must be guaranteed; moreover, among post-harvest control measures scalding, chilling and removal of faecal residues can reduce the contamination level of Campylobacter. An additional issue is represented by increasing proportion of Campylobacter isolates resistant to tetracyclines, ciprofloxacin, and nalidixic acid, thus feeding a serious concern on the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment for human campylobacteriosis in a near future. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  6. Red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhanwei; Yin, Zifang; Zhao, Qingchuan

    2017-01-01

    The associations between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk have remained inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to analyze these associations. We searched PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies published from inception through October 2016. Subtype analyses of gastric cancer (gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and gastric non-cardiac adenocarcinoma) and dose-response analyses were performed. We finally selected 42 eligible studies. The summary relative risks of highest versus lowest consumption were positive for case-control studies with 1.67 (1.36-2.05) for red meat and 1.76 (1.51-2.05) for processed meat, but negative for cohort studies with 1.14 (0.97-1.34) for red meat and 1.23 (0.98-1.55) for processed meat. Subtype analyses of cohort studies suggested null results for gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (red meat, P = 0.79; processed meat, P = 0.89) and gastric non-cardiac adenocarcinoma (red meat, P = 0.12; processed meat, P = 0.12). In conclusion, the present analysis suggested null results between red and processed meat consumption and gastric cancer risk in cohort studies, although case-control studies yielded positive associations. Further well-designed prospective studies are needed to validate these findings. PMID:28430644

  7. Endometrial cancer and meat consumption: a case-cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Lonkhuijzen, Luc; Kirsh, Victoria A; Kreiger, Nancy; Rohan, Thomas E

    2011-07-01

    Diet plays an important role in the etiology of certain cancers, but there is limited evidence with regard to the association between diet and risk of endometrial cancer. Few prospective studies have investigated meat intake as a potential determinant of endometrial cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine the association between endometrial cancer risk and total meat, red meat, processed meat, fish, and poultry intake. We conducted a case-cohort analysis within the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health, a prospective cohort of 73 909 adults (39 614 women). Participants were recruited from 1992 to 1999, predominantly from three Canadian universities. We conducted a linkage with the Ontario Cancer Registry for the years 1992-2007 for the female cohort members, who resided in Ontario at the time of enrollment (n=26 024), to yield data on cancer incidence. The analytic sample was comprised of 107 incident cases and 1830 subcohort members, the latter being an age-stratified sample of the full cohort. A nonsignificant increase in the risk of endometrial cancer was associated with increased consumption of red meat [hazard ratio (HR)=1.62, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.86-3.08, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.13)], processed meat (HR=1.45, 95% CI=0.80-2.61, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.058), and all meat combined (HR=1.50, 95% CI=0.78-2.89, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.14). No clear patterns were noted for poultry or fish. The results of this study, although based on a limited number of cases, suggest that relatively high meat intake may be associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer.

  8. Addressing the Process Improvement Science Knowledge and Skills of Program Directors and Associate Program Directors

    PubMed Central

    Gravdal, Judith A.; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Background Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. Methods For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. Results The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. Conclusion The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice. PMID:25829878

  9. Addressing the process improvement science knowledge and skills of program directors and associate program directors.

    PubMed

    Gravdal, Judith A; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice.

  10. Associations Between Attitudes Towards Science and Children's Evaluation of Information About Socioscientific Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Sihan; Sandoval, William A.

    2017-05-01

    Science educators are typically dismayed by the failure of students to use relevant scientific knowledge when reasoning about socioscientific issues. Except for the well-documented association between having more knowledge about a topic and a tendency to use that knowledge, the influences on students' evaluation of information in socioscientific issues are not well understood. This study presents an initial investigation into the associations between upper elementary students' attitudes towards science and their evaluation of information about a socioscientific issue. We surveyed the science attitudes of 49 sixth grade students and then asked them to evaluate information about a socioscientific issue (alternative energy use). Positive attitudes were associated with a more scientific approach to evaluating information in the task. When trying to make judgments, students with generally positive attitudes towards science were more likely to attend to scientific information than other sources. Scientific information, nonetheless, served a variety of socially oriented goals in students' evaluations. These findings warrant further research on the relationship between science attitudes and reasoning about socioscientific issues and support the argument for connecting school science more clearly with everyday concerns.

  11. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-07-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high-heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar nonnitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar nonoxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make nonpromoting processed meat. 2010 AACR.

  12. Meat processing and colon carcinogenesis: cooked, nitrite-treated, and oxidized high-heme cured meat promotes mucin-depleted foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Viau, Michelle; Genot, Claude; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2010-01-01

    Processed meat intake is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but no experimental study supports the epidemiologic evidence. To study the effect of meat processing on carcinogenesis promotion, we first did a 14-day study with 16 models of cured meat. Studied factors, in a 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 design, were muscle color (a proxy for heme level), processing temperature, added nitrite, and packaging. Fischer 344 rats were fed these 16 diets, and we evaluated fecal and urinary fat oxidation and cytotoxicity, three biomarkers of heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. A principal component analysis allowed for selection of four cured meats for inclusion into a promotion study. These selected diets were given for 100 days to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Colons were scored for preneoplastic lesions: aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF). Cured meat diets significantly increased the number of ACF/colon compared with a no-meat control diet (P = 0.002). Only the cooked nitrite-treated and oxidized high heme meat significantly increased the fecal level of apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (P < 0.05). This nitrite-treated and oxidized cured meat specifically increased the MDF number compared with similar non nitrite-treated meat (P = 0.03) and with similar non oxidized meat (P = 0.004). Thus, a model cured meat, similar to ham stored aerobically, increased the number of preneoplastic lesions, which suggests colon carcinogenesis promotion. Nitrite treatment and oxidation increased this promoting effect, which was linked with increased fecal ATNC level. This study could lead to process modifications to make non promoting processed meat. PMID:20530708

  13. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: Development of bacteriophage treatments to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination of beef products and produce.

    PubMed

    Hong, Y; Pan, Y; Ebner, P D

    2014-04-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 remains a foodborne pathogen of concern with infections associated with products ranging from ground beef to produce to processed foods. We previously demonstrated that phage-based technologies could reduce foodborne pathogen colonization in live animals. Here, we examined if a 3-phage cocktail could reduce E. coli O157:H7 in experimentally contaminated ground beef, spinach, and cheese. The 3 phages were chosen from our E. coli O157:H7 phage library based on their distinct origins of isolation, lytic ranges, and rapid growth (40- to 50-min life cycle). Two phages belonged to the Myoviridae family and the other phage belonged to the Siphoviridae family. The phage cocktail was added to ground beef, spinach leaves, and cheese slices contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 (10(7) cfu) at a multiplicity of infection of 1. Phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) the concentrations of E. coli O157:H7 by 1.97 log10 cfu/mL in ground beef when stored at room temperature (24 °C) for 24 h, 0.48 log10 cfu/mL at refrigeration (4 °C), and 0.56 log10 cfu/mL in undercooked condition (internal temperature of 46 °C). Likewise, phage treatment reduced (P < 0.05) E. coli O157:H7 by 3.28, 2.88, and 2.77 log10 cfu/mL in spinach when stored at room temperature for 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Phage treatment, however, did not reduce E. coli O157:H7 concentrations in contaminated cheese. Additionally, 3 phage-resistant E. coli O157:H7 strains (309-PR [phage resistant] 1, 309-PR4, and 502-PR5) were isolated and characterized to test if phage resistance could limit long-term use of phages as biocontrol agents. Growth kinetics and adsorption assays indicated that phage resistance in strains 309-PR4 and 502-PR5 was mediated, at least in part, by prevention of phage adsorption. Phage resistance in strain 309-PR1 was the result of limited phage proliferation. Phage resistance was stably maintained in vitro throughout a 4-d subculture period in the absence of phage. No

  14. The Meat and Protein Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating from the meat and protein group. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words…

  15. The Meat and Protein Group. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of using the Food Guide Pyramid and eating from the meat and protein group. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words…

  16. Carcinogenicity of consumption of red meat and processed meat: A review of scientific news since the IARC decision.

    PubMed

    Domingo, José L; Nadal, Martí

    2017-07-01

    In October 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) issued a press release on the results of the evaluation of the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat. Based on the accumulated scientific literature, the consumption of red meat was classified as "probably carcinogenic to humans" and processed meat as "carcinogenic to humans". Given the importance of this topic, this review was aimed at revising the current state-of-the-art on the carcinogenicity of red and processed meat, some time after the IARC decision. Some new epidemiological studies and new reviews clearly supporting the IARC decision have been published during these months. However, a number of gaps still exist. It is basic to establish the mechanisms leading to the increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and other cancers arising from red and processed meat consumption. Another important pending issue is to establish the role of known/suspected carcinogens contained in uncooked or unprocessed meats, as well as the influence of cooking. Finally, it would be highly recommended to conduct new epidemiological studies to elucidate whether the consumption of white meat, such as pork and/or poultry, are -positively or inversely-associated with an increased risk of CRC and other types of cancer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Colonocyte telomere shortening is greater with dietary red meat than white meat and is attenuated by resistant starch.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Nathan J; Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Fenech, Michael; Conlon, Michael A

    2012-02-01

    Population studies indicate that greater red meat consumption increases colorectal cancer risk while dietary fibre is protective. Previous work in rats showed that diets high in protein, including red meat, increase colonocyte DNA strand breaks and that this effect is attenuated by resistant starches (RS). Telomeres are long hexamer repeats that protect against spontaneous DNA damage which would lead to chromosomal instability. Telomere shortening is associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. The current study aimed to determine the effects of cooked red and white meat intake on colonocyte telomere length in rats and whether dietary RS modified their effects. After four weeks of feeding cooked beef or chicken at 15, 25 and 35% of diet with or without RS, colonocyte telomere length was measured. Telomere length decreased in proportion to red meat content of the diet. A similar trend was observed in the white meat group. Colonocyte telomere shortening due to increased dietary meat was attenuated by the inclusion of RS. These data support previous findings of increased colonocyte DNA damage with greater red and white meat intake and also the protective effect of dietary fibre. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Red meat intake may increase the risk of colon cancer in Japanese, a population with relatively low red meat consumption.

    PubMed

    Takachi, Ribeka; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Baba, Keisuke; Inoue, Manami; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Iwasaki, Motoki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2011-01-01

    Asian populations have changed from traditional to Westernized diets, with increased red meat intake. They are suggested to be particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of red meat on the development of colorectal cancers, however, few prospective studies of this putative link have been conducted. We examined associations between the consumption of red and processed meat and the risk of subsite-specific colorectal cancer by gender in a large Japanese cohort. During 1995-1998, a validated food frequency questionnaire was administered to 80,658 men and women aged 45-74 years. During 758,116 person-years of follow-up until the end of 2006, 1,145 cases of colorectal cancer were identified. Higher consumption of red meat was significantly associated with a higher risk of colon cancer among women [multivariate hazard ratios (95%CIs) for the highest versus lowest quintiles (HR): 1.48 (1.01, 2.17; trend p=0.03)], as was higher consumption of total meat among men [HR=1.44 (1.06, 1.98; trend p=0.07)]. By site, these positive associations were found for the risk of proximal colon cancer among women and for distal colon cancer among men. No association was found between the consumption of processed meat and risk of either colon or rectal cancer. In conclusion, red meat intake may modestly increase the risk of colon cancer in middle-aged Japanese, although the highest quintile of red meat consumption could be considered moderate by Western standards.

  19. Processed and unprocessed red meat consumption and risk of heart failure: prospective study of men.

    PubMed

    Kaluza, Joanna; Akesson, Agneta; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-07-01

    Epidemiological studies of red meat consumption in relation to risk of heart failure (HF) are scarce. We examined the associations of unprocessed and processed red meat consumption with HF incidence and mortality in men. The population-based prospective Cohort of Swedish Men included 37 035 men, aged 45 to 79 years, with no history of HF, ischemic heart disease, or cancer at baseline. Meat consumption was assessed with a self-administered questionnaire in 1997. During a mean follow-up of 11.8 years, 2891 incidences and 266 deaths from HF were ascertained. Consumption of processed meat was statistically significant positively associated with risk of HF in both age- and multivariable-adjusted models. Men who consumed ≥75 g/d processed meat compared with those who consumed <25 g/d had a 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.10-1.48, P trend=0.01) higher risk of HF incidence and 2.43 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-3.88, P trend<0.001) higher risk of HF mortality. The consumption of unprocessed meat was not associated with increased risk of incidence of HF or mortality from HF. Findings from this prospective study of men with low to moderate red meat consumption indicate that processed red meat consumption, but not unprocessed red meat, is associated with an increased risk of HF. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Irradiation and additive combinations on the pathogen reduction and quality of poultry meat.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Dong U; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Eun Joo

    2013-02-01

    Reduction of foodborne illnesses and deaths by improving the safety of poultry products is one of the priority areas in the United States, and developing and implementing effective food processing technologies can be very effective to accomplish that goal. Irradiation is an effective processing technology for eliminating pathogens in poultry meat. Addition of antimicrobial agents during processing can be another approach to control pathogens in poultry products. However, the adoption of irradiation technology by the meat industry is limited because of quality and health concerns about irradiated meat products. Irradiation produces a characteristic aroma as well as alters meat flavor and color that significantly affect consumer acceptance. The generation of a pink color in cooked poultry and off-odor in poultry by irradiation is a critical issue because consumers associate the presence of a pink color in cooked poultry breast meat as contaminated or undercooked, and off-odor in raw meat and off-flavor in cooked meat with undesirable chemical reactions. As a result, the meat industry has difficulties in using irradiation to achieve its food safety benefits. Antimicrobials such as sodium lactate, sodium diacetate, and potassium benzoate are extensively used to extend the shelf-life and ensure the safety of meat products. However, the use of these antimicrobial agents alone cannot guarantee the safety of poultry products. It is known that some of the herbs, spices, and antimicrobials commonly used in meat processing can have synergistic effects with irradiation in controlling pathogens in meat. Also, the addition of spices or herbs in irradiated meat improves the quality of irradiated poultry by reducing lipid oxidation and production of off-odor volatiles or masking off-flavor. Therefore, combinations of irradiation with these additives can accomplish better pathogen reduction in meat products than using them alone even at lower levels of antimicrobials/herbs and

  1. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry.

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-09-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed.

  2. Detection of IgG against Toxocara in Sera of Employees of Meat Industry

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevárez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Guido-Arreola, Carlos Alberto; Saenz-Soto, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Contact with raw meat could represent a risk for Toxocara infection. We assessed the association of Toxocara infection with an occupation of meat worker though a case-control seroprevalence study of 124 meat workers and 248 subjects without this occupation. Sera of participants was analyzed for the presence of anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. One (0.8%) of the 124 meat workers, and 5 (2.0%) of the 248 controls were positive for anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies (OR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.04-3.41; P=0.66). The seropositive meat worker was a male aged 28 years old, without vision impairment. None of the work characteristics i.e. frequency of contact with raw meat, use of safety practices, history of splashes at face with blood or raw meat, and injuries with sharp material at work was associated with Toxocara exposure. Seroprevalence of Toxocara infection was significantly higher (P=0.04) in meat workers with consumption of boar meat (1/6: 16.7%) than in those without this consumption (0/117: 0%). We conclude that meat workers do not have a higher risk for Toxocara infection than subjects without this occupation do. The 2% seroprevalence of Toxocara infection found in control subjects might suggest a low seroprevalence of this infection among people with other occupations in Durango City. However, additional case-control studies with larger sample sizes to confirm our results are needed. PMID:26508909

  3. Cultured Meat in Islamic Perspective.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Mohammad Naqib; Post, Mark J; Ramli, Mohd Anuar; Mustafa, Amin Rukaini

    2017-04-29

    Cultured meat is a promising product that is derived through biotechnology that partially circumvents animal physiology, thereby being potentially more sustainable, environmentally friendly and animal friendly than traditional livestock meat. Such a novel technology that can impact many consumers evokes ethical, philosophical and religious discussions. For the Islamic community, the crucial question is whether cultured meat is halal, meaning compliant with Islamic laws. Since the culturing of meat is a new discovery, invention and innovation by scientists that has never been discussed by classical jurists (fuqaha'), an ijtihad by contemporary jurists must look for and provide answers for every technology introduced, whether it comply the requirements of Islamic law or not. So, this article will discuss an Islamic perspective on cultured meat based on the original scripture in the Qur'an and interpretations by authoritative Islamic jurists. The halal status of cultured meat can be resolve through identifying the source cell and culture medium used in culturing the meat. The halal cultured meat can be obtained if the stem cell is extracted from a (Halal) slaughtered animal, and no blood or serum is used in the process. The impact of this innovation will give positive results in the environmental and sustain the livestock industry.

  4. Meats, processed meats, obesity, weight gain and occurrence of diabetes among adults: findings from Adventist Health Studies.

    PubMed

    Vang, Arnold; Singh, Pramil N; Lee, Jerry W; Haddad, Ella H; Brinegar, Charles H

    2008-01-01

    To examine the relation between meat intake and diabetes occurrence in adults. In a prospective cohort study we examined the relation between diet and incident diabetes recorded among 8,401 cohort members (ages 45-88 years) of the Adventist Mortality Study and Adventist Health Study (California, USA) who were non-diabetic at baseline. During the 17-year follow-up, we identified 543 incident diabetes cases. (1) Subjects who were weekly consumers of all meats were 29% (OR = 1.29; 95% CI 1.08, 1.55) more likely (relative to zero meat intake) to develop diabetes. (2) Subjects who consumed any processed meats (salted fish and frankfurters) were 38% (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.05-1.82) more likely to develop diabetes. (3) Long-term adherence (over a 17-year interval) to a diet that included at least weekly meat intake was associated with a 74% increase (OR = 1.74; 95% CI 1.36-2.22) in odds of diabetes relative to long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet (zero meat intake). Further analyses indicated that some of this risk may be attributable to obesity and/or weight gain--both of which were strong risk factors in this cohort. It is noteworthy that even after control for weight and weight change, weekly meat intake remained an important risk factor (OR = 1.38; 95% CI 1.06-1.68) for diabetes [corrected]. Our findings raise the possibility that meat intake, particularly processed meats, is a dietary risk factor for diabetes. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. No effect of meat, meat cooking preferences, meat mutagens or heme iron on lung cancer risk in the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Nataša; Cross, Amanda J; Dodd, Kevin W; Ziegler, Regina G; Caporaso, Neil E; Sinha, Rashmi

    2011-01-15

    Recent epidemiological studies have suggested that red and processed meat may increase the risk of lung cancer. Possible underlying mechanisms include mutagens produced during high-temperature cooking or preservation, or formed endogenously from heme iron in meat. We used data from 99,579 participants of both screened and nonscreened arms of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, aged 55-74 years, to investigate whether meat type, cooking method, doneness level, intake of specific meat mutagens 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline] (DiMeIQx), 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P)] and heme iron are associated with lung cancer. Participants' diet was assessed prospectively using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire and an additional meat-cooking module. Dietary data were used in conjunction with a database to estimate intake of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, PhIP, B(a)P and heme iron. After up to 8 years of follow-up, 782 incident lung cancer cases were ascertained. Lung cancer risk was not associated with the consumption of either red (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.11, 95% CI = 0.79-1.56, P(trend) = 0.42; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.87-1.95, P(trend) = 0.65) or processed meat (men: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁1) = 1.12, 95% CI = 0.83-1.53, P(trend) = 0.22; women: HR(Q₅ vs. Q₁) = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.68-1.41, P(trend) = 0.32) in multivariable models. High-temperature cooking methods, level of meat doneness, meat mutagens and heme iron had no effect on lung cancer risk. In this population, we found no association between meat type, cooking method, doneness level or intake of specific meat mutagens or heme iron and lung cancer risk.

  6. Relationship between pectoralis major muscle histology and quality traits of chicken meat.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, M; Petracci, M; Meluzzi, A; Cavani, C; Clavenzani, P; Sirri, F

    2015-01-01

    water holding/binding capacities of the meat. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Meat consumption, genetic susceptibility, and colon cancer risk: a United States multicenter case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kampman, E; Slattery, M L; Bigler, J; Leppert, M; Samowitz, W; Caan, B J; Potter, J D

    1999-01-01

    Meat consumption may especially increase risk of colon cancer when the meat is prepared at high temperatures and consumed by subjects with an inherited susceptibility to well-done meat. In this United States case-control study, the association between meat consumption, genetic susceptibility, and colon cancer risk was studied. Meat consumption data were available from a detailed diet history questionnaire and from questions about methods of preparation. Molecular variants in the carcinogen-metabolizing genes NAT2 and GSTM1 were determined in DNA extracted from WBCs. A total of 1542 cases and 1860 population-based controls were included in these analyses. The amount of red and white meat consumed was not associated with overall colon cancer risk. Processed meat consumption was weakly positively associated with colon cancer risk in men only (odds ratio for highest versus lowest quintile of intake = 1.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.9). The frequency of fried, broiled, baked, or barbecued meat, use of drippings, and doneness of meat were not significantly associated with risk. The Mutagen Index, as an estimate for exposure to mutagenic or carcinogenic substances, was slightly positively associated with colon cancer risk in men (odds ratio = 1.3, 95% confidence interval = 1.0-1.7). No significant associations with colon cancer risk were observed for different NAT2 and GSTM1 gene variants. The observed associations with processed meat and the Mutagen Index were strongest for those with the intermediate or rapid NAT2 acetylator phenotype. Associations were not markedly influenced by lack of the GSTM1 gene. This study provides little support for an association between meat consumption and colon cancer risk but does provide some, albeit not strong, evidence for a modifying effect of molecular variants of the NAT2 gene.

  8. Residual Antibiotics Disrupt Meat Fermentation and Increase Risk of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kjeldgaard, Jette; Cohn, Marianne T.; Casey, Pat G.; Hill, Colin; Ingmer, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fermented sausages, although presumed safe for consumption, sometimes cause serious bacterial infections in humans that may be deadly. Not much is known about why and when this is the case. We tested the hypothesis that residual veterinary antibiotics in meat can disrupt the fermentation process, giving pathogenic bacteria a chance to survive and multiply. We found that six commercially available starter cultures were susceptible to commonly used antibiotics, namely, oxytetracycline, penicillin, and erythromycin. In meat, statutorily tolerable levels of oxytetracycline and erythromycin inhibited fermentation performance of three and five of the six starter cultures, respectively. In model sausages, the disruption of meat fermentation enhanced survival of the pathogens Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium compared to successful fermentations. Our work reveals an overlooked risk associated with the presence of veterinary drugs in meat. PMID:22930338

  9. Spanish, French and British consumers' acceptability of Uruguayan beef, and consumers' beef choice associated with country of origin, finishing diet and meat price.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Font i Furnols, M; Sañudo, C; Montossi, F; Oliver, M A; Guerrero, L

    2013-09-01

    The effect of country of origin (local, Switzerland, Argentina, Uruguay), finishing diet (grass, grass plus concentrate, concentrate), and price (low, medium, high) on consumer's beef choice and segmentation was evaluated in Spain, France and United Kingdom. Sensory acceptability of Uruguayan beef from different production systems was also evaluated and contrasted with consumers' beef choices. Origin was the most important characteristic for the choice of beef with preference for meat produced locally. The second most important factor was animal feed followed by price with preference for beef from grass-fed animals and lowest price. The least preferred product was beef from Uruguay, concentrate-fed animals and highest price. Sensory data showed higher acceptability scores for Uruguayan beef from grass-fed animals with or without concentrate supplementation than animals fed concentrate only. Consumer segments with distinct preferences were identified. Foreign country promotion seems to be fundamental for marketing beef in Europe, as well as the development of different marketing strategies to satisfy each consumer segment.

  10. Animal welfare and meat quality: the perspective of Uruguay, a "small" exporter country.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Brito, G; Montossi, F; Soares de Lima, J M; San Julián, R

    2014-11-01

    Public sensitivity towards animal welfare has risen in recent years. Uruguay is a primary meat exporter. Therefore, it is compulsory not only to provide good quality and safe meat, but also to project a welfare friendly image. Uruguayan meat production systems are mainly based on rangeland pastures but, due to international meat prices and the opening of new markets, intensive fattening systems increased. These systems include a wide range of feeding alternatives between pasture and concentrate utilization, involving differences in terms of animal welfare, carcass and meat quality, that require to be studied. Accordingly, some husbandry practices associated mainly with extensive systems must be evaluated, as well as their applicability to international recommendations related to pre-slaughter handling which may not be suitable for local conditions. In the present paper we share scientific results related to the impact of different production systems, husbandry practices and pre-slaughter procedures associated to animal welfare and meat quality in Uruguayan conditions.

  11. Managing meat tenderness.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John

    2002-11-01

    This paper discusses the management of meat tenderness using a carcass grading scheme which utilizes the concept of total quality management of those factors which impact on beef palatability. The scheme called Meat Standards Australia (MSA) has identified the Critical Control Points (CCPs) from the production, pre-slaughter, processing and value adding sectors of the beef supply chain and quantified their relative importance using large-scale consumer testing. These CCPs have been used to manage beef palatability in two ways. Firstly, CCPs from the pre-slaughter and processing sectors have been used as mandatory criteria for carcasses to be graded. Secondly, other CCPs from the production and processing sectors have been incorporated into a model to predict palatability for individual muscles. The evidence for the importance of CCPs from the production (breed, growth path and HGP implants), pre-slaughter and processing (pH/temperature window, alternative carcass suspension, marbling and ageing) sectors are reviewed and the accuracy of the model to predict palatability for specific muscle×cooking techniques is presented.

  12. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    PubMed

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Meat Consumption as a Risk Factor for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Neal; Levin, Susan; Trapp, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Disease risk factors identified in epidemiological studies serve as important public health tools, helping clinicians identify individuals who may benefit from more aggressive screening or risk-modification procedures, allowing policymakers to prioritize intervention programs, and encouraging at-risk individuals to modify behavior and improve their health. These factors have been based primarily on evidence from cross-sectional and prospective studies, as most do not lend themselves to randomized trials. While some risk factors are not modifiable, eating habits are subject to change through both individual action and broader policy initiatives. Meat consumption has been frequently investigated as a variable associated with diabetes risk, but it has not yet been described as a diabetes risk factor. In this article, we evaluate the evidence supporting the use of meat consumption as a clinically useful risk factor for type 2 diabetes, based on studies evaluating the risks associated with meat consumption as a categorical dietary characteristic (i.e., meat consumption versus no meat consumption), as a scalar variable (i.e., gradations of meat consumption), or as part of a broader dietary pattern. PMID:24566443

  14. Meat and fish consumption and cancer in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinfu; La Vecchia, Carlo; DesMeules, Marie; Negri, Eva; Mery, Les

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the association between meat and fish intake and the risk of various cancers. Mailed questionnaires were completed by 19,732 incident, histologically confirmed cases of cancer of the stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast, ovary, prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, brain, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (NHL), and leukemia and 5,039 population controls between 1994 and 1997 in 8 Canadian provinces. Measurement included information on socioeconomic status, lifestyle habits, and diet. A 69-item food frequency questionnaire provided data on eating habits 2 yr before data collection. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived through unconditional logistic regression. Total meat and processed meat were directly related to the risk of stomach, colon, rectum, pancreas, lung, breast (mainly postmenopausal), prostate, testis, kidney, bladder, and leukemia. Red meat was significantly associated with colon, lung (mainly in men), and bladder cancer. No relation was observed for cancer of the ovary, brain, and NHL. No consistent excess risk emerged for fish and poultry, which were inversely related to the risk of a number of cancer sites. These findings add further evidence that meat, specifically red and processed meat, plays an unfavorable role in the risk of several cancers. Fish and poultry appear to be favorable diet indicators.

  15. Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Linda E., Ed.

    This document contains the following papers on science instruction and technology: "A 3-D Journey in Space: A New Visual Cognitive Adventure" (Yoav Yair, Rachel Mintz, and Shai Litvak); "Using Collaborative Inquiry and Interactive Technologies in an Environmental Science Project for Middle School Teachers: A Description and…

  16. Meat traditions. The co-evolution of humans and meat.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Frédéric; Praet, Istvan

    2015-07-01

    The debate on the future of meat centres on recent environmental, economical, ethical, and health issues, whereas historical dimensions are all too often overlooked. The fiery discussions are nevertheless affected by an underlying legacy of "meat traditions" and accompanying hunting, slaughtering, eating, and sharing activities, rituals, and rites. Eating meat is a biocultural activity. Therefore, a closer inspection of the evolutionary, collective, and semiotic aspects of meat in human societies is required. This study ventures such an exploration based on a heuristic model inspired by Maslow's pyramid of needs, distinguishing between physiological, security, community, value, and holistic levels. Besides the potential relevance of an innate craving, it is argued that meat has interfered with the development of fundamental human characteristics, both as a physical and conceptual resource. This relates, amongst others, to elements of gender differentiation, cooperation and reciprocity, social stratification and power, religion, cultural expression, and identity. As such, meat traditions provide a basis for evolutionary and long-term social processes, on which more recent and shallow courses of action are superposed, affecting contemporary behaviour. Several research questions were identified to further explore and anticipate the impact of meat on human populations and their societal and economic functioning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of selection for growth rate and slaughter age on carcass composition and meat quality traits in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hernández, P; Aliaga, S; Pla, M; Blasco, A

    2004-11-01

    The effect of selection for growth rate on carcass and meat quality was assessed by comparing selected and control populations of rabbits measured at the same stage of maturity and slaughtered at 9 and 13 wk of age. Embryos belonging to Generation 7 were frozen, thawed, and implanted in does to produce the control group. The control group was formed from the offspring of the embryos belonging to the Generation 7. Selected animals belonging to Generation 18 (S) were compared with contemporary animals of the control group (C). Carcasses were dissected and measured according to World Rabbit Science Association recommended practices. When animals were compared at similar degrees of maturity, selection for growth rate did not produce a negative effect on carcass and meat quality. There was no increase in fat content of the carcass, and there was an improvement of the