Science.gov

Sample records for mechanic-caloric energy transformation

  1. Thermal energy transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  2. Semiosis and Energy Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taborsky, Edwina

    2002-09-01

    Semiosis is understood as a process of transforming energy to mass via measurement. Measurement is an action of codification, organizing energy within different modes of relation. Measurement is examined within a series of ontological and epistemological cuts that increase asymmetry by first differentiating energy/mass into external and internal realms and then differentiating these realms into formal mind-models and informal mass-instances. These realms are examined within the three Peircean modes of Firstness. Secondness and Thirdness to explore five different processes of codification that encode energy to mass within a maturing complexity. Codification within these five processes is examined within classical and quantum mechanics and concludes that we require both mechanics of codification to provide a generative semiosis.

  3. Energy systems transformation.

    PubMed

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  4. Energy systems transformation

    PubMed Central

    Dangerman, A. T. C. Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO2 emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the “Success to the Successful” mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy—the largest business on Earth—expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders. PMID:23297208

  5. Transformational Energy Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: In 2009, ARPA-E issued an open call for the most revolutionary energy technologies to form the agency’s inaugural program. The first open solicitation was open to ideas from all energy areas and focused on funding projects already equipped with strong research and development plans for their potentially high-impact technologies. The 37 projects chosen received a level of financial support that could accelerate technical progress and catalyze additional investment from the private sector. After only 2 months, ARPA-E’s investment in these projects catalyzed an additional $33 million in investments.

  6. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, Roland; Gleckman, Philip L.; O'Gallagher, Joseph J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  7. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOEpatents

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  8. Transforming the U.S. Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Demick

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. energy infrastructure is among the most reliable, accessible and economic in the world. On the other hand, the U.S. energy infrastructure is excessively reliant on foreign sources of energy, experiences high volatility in energy prices, does not practice good stewardship of finite indigenous energy resources and emits significant quantities of greenhouse gases (GHG). This report presents a Technology Based Strategy to achieve a full transformation of the U.S. energy infrastructure that corrects these negative factors while retaining the positives.

  9. Light energy transformation over a few nanometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hung Ji; Liu, Bo-Heng; Su, James; Chen, Po-Jui; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chiang, Hai-Pang; Kao, Tsung Sheng; Chou Chau, Yuan-Fong; Kei, Chi-Chung; Hwang, Chi-Hung

    2017-09-01

    Continuous platinum (Pt) thin film was fabricated via the plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition method for a study of light energy transformation over a few nanometers. Light-to-heat experiments were used to determine the oscillating size effects on electromagnetic energy transformation in quantum wells of smooth and condensed Pt thin films. For Pt-film thicknesses of around 4 nm, 7 nm and 12 nm, electromagnetic heating presented unexpectedly high energy conversion efficiency. An empirical equation acquired from the fitting of the experimental data from various thicknesses of Pt thin films was suggested to describe the oscillating electromagnetic heating and quantized energy transformation. The experimental results show that size control of the nanostructures is extremely important for future applications involving quantum effects in nano devices.

  10. Energy storage transformers-MAPPS test results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, D. E.; Barber, J. P.; Laquer, H. L.

    1989-01-01

    The MAPPS (MegAmpere Pulsed Power Supply) demonstration tests are described, and the results are reviewed. The observed limits to the switch performance and methods to improve performance are discussed. Testing of the 100-kA demonstrator was completed in July 1986. The measured transformer coupling during operation was 0.99. The switch successfully interrupted 460 A and developed 7.5 kV at five commutations per second. Leakage current through the gate-turn-off thyristor prevented the switch from reaching the 1000-A design goal. The switch performed well up to 460 A, commutating current 290 times during testing. Results indicate that energy storage transformers provide a method to store energy at low currents so that high-purity aluminum or superconducting conductors can be used.

  11. TROPEC: Transformative Reductions in Operational Energy Consumption

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    1 May 2012 1 TROPEC Transformative Reductions in Operational Energy Consumption Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents

  12. Transformation energy at photosynthesis in microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotareva, E. K.; Podorvanov, V. V.; Onoiko, E. B.

    Processes of adaptation of plants to stressful changes of an environment should be provided with energy which is originally reserved in a course photosynthetic transformations of light energy in energy of chemical bonds of ATP and NADPH2, and then used for of breath, transpiration, synthesis of organic compounds of a various degree of complexity, growth and development, and also for restoration of cellular structure after its damage as a result of extreme environmental factors. Central enzyme of energy transformation of photosynthetic cell is H+ATP-synthase. The purpose of the present work was studying change of adenylate levels (MP, ADP and ATP) both an energy potential in chloroplasts and cytoplasm at light transitions (light - darkness and darkness - light) in pea leaves which has been grown at a changed gravity. Pea plants grown during 12 days at horizontal clinorotation (2 rev/min) at temperature 22-25° C and 157 μmol.m-2s-1 (16h light and 8h dark) illumination. Leaves were picked up from a plant through the certain intervals after deenergizing light and fixed boiling ethanol. Nucleotides were extracted by 0,6 M HClO_4 and their concentrations were determined by enzymatic method with use of myokinase for determination of AMP content; glucose - 6 - phosphate dehydrogenase for determination of ATP and pyruvate kinase for determination of ADP. Results have shown, that at illumination ATP content grew, and ADP conten dropped both in control and in clinorotated leaves. In the subsequent dark period ATP content decreased and ADP content increased. AMP content in leaves essentially did not change during all cycle light - darkness. At the same time, ATP content in leaves of the plants which have been brought up in conditions of clinorotation, both in darkness, and on light was higher in comparison with the appropriate control. ATPsynthase content in chloroplasts estimated on the rate of Mg2+-ATPase reaction at the presence of octylglucoside. It was shown, that at

  13. Cycle of waste heat energy transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormann, H.; Voneynatten, C.; Krause, R.; Rudolph, W.; Gneuss, G.; Groesche, F.

    1983-08-01

    Transformation of industrial waste heat with temperatures up to 300 C into mechanical or electrical energy using organic Rankine cycles technique is considered. Behavior of working fluid was studied and plant components were optimized. A pilot plant (generated power 30 kW) was installed under industrial operating conditions. The working fluid is a fluorochlorohydrocarbon; the expansion machine is a piston type steam engine. The results of the pilot plant were used for the planning and building of a prototype plant (120 kW) with an additional power heat coupling for preheating the boiler heat water. The waste heat source is a calciner process. The predicted results are obtained although full working load is not reached due to reduced available waste heat of the calciner process.

  14. Bioenergy in Energy Transformation and Climate Management

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, Steven K.; Kriegler, Elmar; Bibas, Ruben; Calvin, Katherine V.; Popp, Alexander; van Vuuren, Detlef; Weyant, John

    2014-04-01

    Unlike fossil fuels, biomass is a renewable resource that can sequester carbon during growth, be converted to energy, and then re-grown. Biomass is also a flexible fuel that can service many end-uses. This paper explores the importance of bioenergy to potential future energy transformation and climate change management. Using a model comparison of fifteen models, we characterize and analyze future dependence on, and the value of, bioenergy in achieving potential long-run climate objectives—reducing radiative forcing to 3.7 and 2.8 W/m2 in 2100 (approximately 550 and 450 ppm carbon dioxide equivalent atmospheric concentrations). Model scenarios project, by 2050, bioenergy growth of 2 to 10% per annum reaching 5 to 35 percent of global primary energy, and by 2100, bioenergy becoming 15 to 50 percent of global primary energy. Non-OECD regions are projected to be the dominant suppliers of biomass, as well as consumers, with up to 35 percent of regional electricity from biopower by 2050, and up to 70 percent of regional liquid fuels from biofuels by 2050. Bioenergy is found to be valuable to many models with significant implications for mitigation costs and world consumption. The availability of bioenergy, in particular biomass with carbon dioxide capture and storage (BECCS), notably affects the cost-effective global emissions trajectory for climate management by accommodating prolonged near-term use of fossil fuels. We also find that models cost-effectively trade-off land carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for the long-run climate change management benefits of bioenergy. Overall, further evaluation of the viability of global large-scale bioenergy is merited.

  15. Determination analysis of energy conservation standards for distribution transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Das, S.

    1996-07-01

    This report contains information for US DOE to use in making a determination on proposing energy conservation standards for distribution transformers as required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Potential for saving energy with more efficient liquid-immersed and dry-type distribution transformers could be significant because these transformers account for an estimated 140 billion kWh of the annual energy lost in the delivery of electricity. Objective was to determine whether energy conservation standards for distribution transformers would have the potential for significant energy savings, be technically feasible, and be economically justified from a national perspective. It was found that energy conservation for distribution transformers would be technically and economically feasible. Based on the energy conservation options analyzed, 3.6-13.7 quads of energy could be saved from 2000 to 2030.

  16. Ferroelectric Phase Transformations for Energy Conversion and Storage Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Hwan Ryul

    Ferroelectric materials possess a spontaneous polarization and actively respond to external mechanical, electrical, and thermal loads. Due to their coupled behavior, ferroelectric materials are used in products such as sensors, actuators, detectors, and transducers. However, most current applications rely on low-energy conversion that involves low magnitude fields. They utilize the low-field linear properties of ferroelectric materials (piezoelectric, pyroelectric) and do not take full advantage of the large-field nonlinear behavior (irreversible domain wall motion, phase transformations) that can occur in ferroelectric materials. When external fields exceed a certain critical level, a structural transformation of the crystal can occur. These phase transformations are accompanied by a much larger response than the linear piezoelectric and pyroelectric responses, by as much as a multiple of ten times in the magnitude. This makes the non-linear behavior in ferroelectric materials promising for energy harvesting and energy storage technologies which will benefit from large-energy conversion. Yet, the ferroelectric phase transformation behavior under large external fields have been less studied and only a few studies have been directed at utilizing this large material response in applications. This dissertation addresses the development ferroelectric phase transformation-based applications, with particular focus on the materials. Development of the ferroelectric phase transformation-based applications was approached in several steps. First, the phase transformation behavior was fully characterized and understood by measuring the phase transformation responses under mechanical, electrical, thermal, and combined loads. Once the behavior was well characterized, systems level applications were addressed. This required assessing the effect of the phase transformation behavior on system performance. The performance of ferroelectric devices is strongly dependent on material

  17. 77 FR 10997 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 431 RIN 1904-AC04 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers; Correction AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy....

  18. Fluxes of electromagnetic field energy in HTSC transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, E. P.; Dzhafarov, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    The transfer of electric power in an HTSC electromagnetic system is considered using the Poynting vector. An analysis of the process of transfer of electromagnetic field energy in HTSC transformers with and without an iron core is given. It is shown that the power of an HTSC transformer increases when its magnetic core is made from amorphous electrical steel. Schemes of HTSC transformers with a localized magnetic field are given with cylindrical and disk symmetrical interleaved windings providing the cost-saving process of transfer of large electromagnetic energy at a high degree of its uniformity and improve the factor of nonuniformity of electromagnetic flux density.

  19. ARPA-E: Transforming Our Energy Future

    ScienceCinema

    Williams, Ellen; Raman, Aaswath

    2016-07-12

    ARPA-E helps to translate cutting-edge inventions into technological innovations that could change how we use, generate and store energy. In just seven years, ARPA-E technologies are demonstrating technical and commercial progress, surpassing $1.25 billion in private sector follow on funding. In this video, ARPA-E Director Dr. Ellen D. Williams highlights an exciting project from Stanford University that is developing a radiative cooling technology that could enable buildings, power plants, solar cells and even clothing to cool without using electric power or loss of water. This project is just one example among ARPA-E’s 400+ innovative technologies that are reimagining energy and helping to create a more secure, affordable and sustainable American energy future.

  20. ARPA-E: Transforming Our Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Ellen; Raman, Aaswath

    2016-03-02

    ARPA-E helps to translate cutting-edge inventions into technological innovations that could change how we use, generate and store energy. In just seven years, ARPA-E technologies are demonstrating technical and commercial progress, surpassing $1.25 billion in private sector follow on funding. In this video, ARPA-E Director Dr. Ellen D. Williams highlights an exciting project from Stanford University that is developing a radiative cooling technology that could enable buildings, power plants, solar cells and even clothing to cool without using electric power or loss of water. This project is just one example among ARPA-E’s 400+ innovative technologies that are reimagining energy and helping to create a more secure, affordable and sustainable American energy future.

  1. Energy Transformation in Molecular Electronic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasha, Michael

    1999-05-17

    This laboratory has developed many new ideas and methods in the electronic spectroscopy of molecules. This report covers the contract period 1993-1995. A number of the projects were completed in 1996, and those papers are included in the report. The DOE contract was terminated at the end of 1995 owing to a reorganizational change eliminating nationally the projects under the Office of Health and Environmental Research, U. S. Department of Energy.

  2. America's Energy Future: Technology and Transformation-Summary Edition

    SciTech Connect

    Committee On America's Energy Future,

    2009-12-31

    The National Academy of Sciences' America's Energy Future study began in 2007. The security and sustainability of the nation's energy system have been perennial concerns since World War II. The concerns have focused on energy-supply, especially a growing dependence on imported petroleum, and the environmental impact of fossil fuel combustion--particularly direct effects of pollutant emissions on human health, greenhouse gasses and the carbon dioxide impact on climate change. The United States needs to lower its dependence on fragile supply chains for some energy sources, particularly petroleum at present and possibly natural gas in the future, to avoid the impacts of dependence on the nation's economy and national security. The nation must fundamentally transform the ways in which it produces, distributes, and consumes useful energy. The size and complexity of the U.S. energy system with its reach into all aspects of American life, necessitates a transformation of tremendous undertaking to protect the nation's energy transmission and distribution systems with fundamental changes both structural and behavioral among producers and consumers alike. The challenge is great and cannot be met overnight. A meaningful and timely transformation to a more sustainable and secure energy system will likely entail a generation or more of sustained efforts by both the public and private sectors. Additionally, it is clear that the country’s economic, security, and environmental goals as pertains to energy consumption and sustainability cannot be achieved without collective international action. U.S. prosperity and security is tied to global prosperity and security. U.S. environmental goals depend on environmental protection actions taken globally. The full realization of goals of the United States for transforming its energy sector requires effectively working with other nations, many facing similar challenges. The key to U.S. success in protecting, sustaining, and achieving

  3. Energy transformation in molecular electronic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kasha, M.

    1985-07-25

    Our new optical pumping spectroscopy (steady state, and double-laser pulse) allows the production and study of the unstable rare tautomer in its ground and excited states, including picosecond dynamic studies. Molecules under study here included 7-azaindole (model for biological purines), 3-hydroxyflavone (model for plant flavones), lumichrome, and other heterocyclics. New detailed molecular mechanisms for proton transfer are derived, especially with catalytic assisting molecules. A new proton-transfer laser of extraordinary efficiency has become a side dividend, possibly worth of industrial development. The excited and highly reactive singlet molecular oxygen species /sup 1/..delta../sub g/) has proven to be ubiquitous in chemical peroxide systems and in physically excited sensitizer-oxygen systems. Hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms in biology probably involve singlet oxygen. We have undertaken a spectroscopic study of tris - dibenzoylmethane chelates of Al, Gd, Eu, and Yb trivalent ions. These chelates offer a variety of electronic behaviors, from Z-effects on ..pi..-electron spin-orbital coupling (Al, Gd) to Weissman intramolecular energy transfer to 4f mestable levels (Eu, Gd). Elegant new spectroscopic resolution at 77K permits separation of tautomeric, parasitic self-absorption, dissociation, and cage effects to be resolved. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Energy transformation in molecular electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasha, M.

    1985-07-01

    Our new optical pumping spectroscopy allows the production and study of the unstable rate tautomer in its ground and excited states, including picosecond dynamic studies. Molecules under study here included 7-azaindole 3-hydroxyflavone, lumichrome, and other heterocyclics. New detailed molecular mechanisms for proton transfer are derived, especially with catalytic assisting molecules. A new proton-transfer laser of extraordinary efficiency has become a side dividend, possibly worthy of industrial development. The excited and highly reactive singlet molecular oxygen species (1) DELTA sub g has proven to be ubiquitous in chemical peroxide systems and in physically excited sensitizer-oxygen systems. Hyperbaric oxygen mechanisms in biology probably involve singlet oxygen. We have undertaken a spectroscopic study of trisdibenzoylmethane chelates of Al, Gd, Eu, and Yb trivalent ions. These chelates offer a variety of electronic behaviors, from Z-effects on (PI)--electron spin-orbital coupling (Al, Gd) to Weissman intramolecular energy transfer to 4f mestable levels (Eu, Gd). Elegant new spectroscopic resolution at 77K permits separation of tautomeric, parasitic self-absorption, dissociation, and cage effects to be resolved.

  5. 78 FR 23335 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including distribution transformers. EPCA also requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine whether more-stringent standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this final rule, DOE is adopting more- stringent energy conservation standards for distribution transformers. It has determined that the amended energy conservation standards for this equipment would result in significant conservation of energy, and are technologically feasible and economically justified.

  6. How to buy energy-efficient distribution transformer

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    Section 161 of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) encourages energy-efficient federal procurement. Executive Order 12902 and FAR section 23.704 direct agencies to purchase products in the upper 25% of energy efficiency. Agencies that use these guidelines to buy efficient products can realize substantial operating cost savings and help prevent pollution. As the world`s largest consumer, the federal government can help pull the entire US market towards greater energy efficiency, while saving taxpayer dollars. The efficiency levels in this Recommendation are the same as those in NEMA`s TP-1 standard. Additionally, the EPA/DOE ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program identifies efficient low-voltage distribution transformers with the ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} label. Complying models meet the same efficiency criteria specified in this Recommendation (and TP-1).

  7. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  8. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  9. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  10. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Test Procedures § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The...

  11. Clean Energy Policies Analysis: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation was written and presented by Elizabeth Doris (NREL) at the November 17 TAP Webinar to provide background detail about how state policies are transforming the clean energy market in different regions of the country.

  12. DARK ENERGY FROM THE LOG-TRANSFORMED CONVERGENCE FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Hee-Jong; Sato, Masanori; Takada, Masahiro; Dodelson, Scott

    2012-03-20

    A logarithmic transform of the convergence field improves 'the information content', i.e., the overall precision associated with the measurement of the amplitude of the convergence power spectrum, by improving the covariance matrix properties. The translation of this improvement in the information content to that in cosmological parameters, such as those associated with dark energy, requires knowing the sensitivity of the log-transformed field to those cosmological parameters. In this paper, we use N-body simulations with ray tracing to generate convergence fields at multiple source redshifts as a function of cosmology. The gain in information associated with the log-transformed field does lead to tighter constraints on dark energy parameters, but only if shape noise is neglected. The presence of shape noise quickly diminishes the advantage of the log-mapping, more quickly than we would expect based on the information content. With or without shape noise, using a larger pixel size allows for a more efficient log-transformation.

  13. 10 CFR 431.193 - Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. 431.193 Section 431.193 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY... § 431.193 Test procedures for measuring energy consumption of distribution transformers. The test...

  14. 77 FR 7281 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ...The Energy Policy and Conservation Act of 1975 (EPCA), as amended, prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including low-voltage dry-type distribution transformers, and directs the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to prescribe standards for various other products and equipment, including other types of distribution transformers. EPCA also requires DOE to determine whether more- stringent, amended standards would be technologically feasible and economically justified, and would save a significant amount of energy. In this notice, DOE proposes amended energy conservation standards for distribution transformers. The notice also announces a public meeting to receive comment on these proposed standards and associated analyses and results.

  15. Increasing the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations: selected case studies.

    PubMed

    Politov, Anatoly; Golyazimova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    The products of mechanical treatment are surface atoms or molecules, substances with a crystal structure different from their initial one (another polymorph, amorphous), point or linear defects, radicals and new chemical substances. It is often assumed, that to increase the yield of the products of a mechanical treatment, it is necessary to increase the treatment time and the mechanical power input. In view of the low energy yield of many mechanochemical transformations, this leads to high power consumption and contamination of the matter under treatment with the wear products of the material of a mill or reactor, in which the mechanical treatment is carried out. As a result, the technological attractiveness of mechanochemical processes is reduced, so that many mechanochemical transformations that have been discovered recently do not reach the stage of commercialization. In the present paper we describe different examples of increasing successfully the energy yield of mechanochemical processes, by a factor of several times to several orders of magnitude, for inorganic and organic substances. An increase in the energy yield of mechanochemical transformations opens new possibilities for their practical usage. In particular, the methods of preliminary treatment and the modes of conducting enzymatic processes that may find application in the production of second-generation biofuels are discussed using lignocellulose materials as examples.

  16. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  17. Energy Transformation: Teaching Youth about Energy Efficiency while Meeting Science Essential Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sarah D.; Chilcote, Amy G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Energy Transformation 4-H school enrichment curriculum. The curriculum addresses energy efficiency and conservation while meeting sixth-grade science essential standards requirements. Through experiential learning, including building and testing a model home, youth learn the relationship between various technologies and…

  18. High-energy glycoconjugates: synthetic transformations of carbohydrates using microwave and ultrasonic energy.

    PubMed

    Cioffi, Eugene A

    2008-01-01

    Methods to transform carbohydrates are often complex and tedious, both due to the vast array of naturally occurring and synthetically designed scaffolds which may manifest meager to drastic reactivity, dependent upon the transformation sought and the stereogenic site chosen. In order to facilitate and expedite desired synthetic transformation, many researchers are utililizing microwave and ultrasonic irradiation to achieve their goals, in generally high yields within a shorter period of time, and often without undesirous byproducts. The basic physical principles underlying the energy regimes are qualitatively discussed prior to review of the applications in carbohydrate syntheses and transformation. This literature review looks at research involving glycosylations, -OH group conversions, isotopic incorporation, and C-N bond formation. Instances of improved yields and selectivities resultant from the use of these high-energy sources will be highlighted.

  19. Transformation between divacancy defects induced by an energy pulse in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Jun; Liu, XiaoYi; Zhou, Wei; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn

    2016-07-01

    The mutual transformations among the four typical divacancy defects induced by a high-energy pulse were studied via molecular dynamics simulation. Our study revealed all six possible mutual transformations and found that defects transformed by absorbing energy to overcome the energy barrier with bonding, debonding, and bond rotations. The reversibility of defect transformations was also investigated by potential energy analysis. The energy difference was found to greatly influence the transformation reversibility. The direct transformation path was irreversible if the energy difference was too large. We also studied the correlation between the transformation probability and the input energy. It was found that the transformation probability had a local maxima at an optimal input energy. The introduction of defects and their structural evolutions are important for tailoring the exceptional properties and thereby performances of graphene-based devices, such as nanoporous membranes for the filtration and desalination of water.

  20. Transformation between divacancy defects induced by an energy pulse in graphene.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jun; Liu, XiaoYi; Zhou, Wei; Wang, FengChao; Wu, HengAn

    2016-07-08

    The mutual transformations among the four typical divacancy defects induced by a high-energy pulse were studied via molecular dynamics simulation. Our study revealed all six possible mutual transformations and found that defects transformed by absorbing energy to overcome the energy barrier with bonding, debonding, and bond rotations. The reversibility of defect transformations was also investigated by potential energy analysis. The energy difference was found to greatly influence the transformation reversibility. The direct transformation path was irreversible if the energy difference was too large. We also studied the correlation between the transformation probability and the input energy. It was found that the transformation probability had a local maxima at an optimal input energy. The introduction of defects and their structural evolutions are important for tailoring the exceptional properties and thereby performances of graphene-based devices, such as nanoporous membranes for the filtration and desalination of water.

  1. Transforming intermittent wind energy to a baseload power supply economically

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload power supply cost-effectively by taking advantage of the fundamental properties of wind and by the efficient utilization of compressed air energy storage (CAES) systems. A utility scale wind-CAES-transmission system can have a 95 percent capacity factor at a cost of delivered electricity that is about 15 percent greater than a conventional wind energy system with a 34 percent capacity factor. This approach has several compelling advantages. It is based on existing technology and makes best use of costly transmission lines. It produces electricity that is the technical equivalent of that from fossil fuel or nuclear power stations. It minimizes greenhouse gas and other fossil fuel pollution, and is an industrial scale system that could cover a significant fraction of total electrical demand in regions such as the US, Mexico, China or Europe.

  2. Energy localization and shape transformations in semiflexible polymer rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaididei, Yu. B.; Archilla, J. F. R.; Sánchez-Morcillo, V. J.; Gorria, C.

    2016-06-01

    Shape transformations in driven and damped molecular chains are considered. Closed chains of weakly coupled molecular subunits under the action of spatially homogeneous time-periodic external field are studied. The coupling between the internal excitations and the bending degrees of freedom of the chain modifies the local bending rigidity of the chain. In the absence of driving the array takes a circular shape. When the energy pumped into the system exceeds some critical value the chain undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition: The circular shape of the aggregate becomes unstable and the chain takes the shape of an ellipse or, in general, of a polygon. The excitation energy distribution becomes spatially nonuniform: It localizes in such places where the chain is more flat. The weak interaction of the chain with a flat surface restricts the dynamics to a flat manifold.

  3. Energy localization and shape transformations in semiflexible polymer rings.

    PubMed

    Gaididei, Yu B; Archilla, J F R; Sánchez-Morcillo, V J; Gorria, C

    2016-06-01

    Shape transformations in driven and damped molecular chains are considered. Closed chains of weakly coupled molecular subunits under the action of spatially homogeneous time-periodic external field are studied. The coupling between the internal excitations and the bending degrees of freedom of the chain modifies the local bending rigidity of the chain. In the absence of driving the array takes a circular shape. When the energy pumped into the system exceeds some critical value the chain undergoes a nonequilibrium phase transition: The circular shape of the aggregate becomes unstable and the chain takes the shape of an ellipse or, in general, of a polygon. The excitation energy distribution becomes spatially nonuniform: It localizes in such places where the chain is more flat. The weak interaction of the chain with a flat surface restricts the dynamics to a flat manifold.

  4. Linking Transformational Materials and Processing for an Energy-Efficient and Low-Carbon Economy, 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Warren H.; Brindle, Ross; James, Mallory; Justiniano, Mauricio; Sabouni, Ridah; Seader, Melanie; Ruch, Jennifer; Andres, Howard; Zafar, Muhammad

    2010-06-01

    The Energy Materials Blue Ribbon Panel, representing experts from industry, academia, and government, identifies new materials and processing breakthroughs that could lead to transformational advances in energy efficiency, energy security, and carbon reduction.

  5. Poynting Theorem, Relativistic Transformation of Total Energy-Momentum and Electromagnetic Energy-Momentum Tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Missevitch, Oleg; Yarman, Tolga

    2016-02-01

    We address to the Poynting theorem for the bound (velocity-dependent) electromagnetic field, and demonstrate that the standard expressions for the electromagnetic energy flux and related field momentum, in general, come into the contradiction with the relativistic transformation of four-vector of total energy-momentum. We show that this inconsistency stems from the incorrect application of Poynting theorem to a system of discrete point-like charges, when the terms of self-interaction in the product {\\varvec{j}} \\cdot {\\varvec{E}} (where the current density {\\varvec{j}} and bound electric field {\\varvec{E}} are generated by the same source charge) are exogenously omitted. Implementing a transformation of the Poynting theorem to the form, where the terms of self-interaction are eliminated via Maxwell equations and vector calculus in a mathematically rigorous way (Kholmetskii et al., Phys Scr 83:055406, 2011), we obtained a novel expression for field momentum, which is fully compatible with the Lorentz transformation for total energy-momentum. The results obtained are discussed along with the novel expression for the electromagnetic energy-momentum tensor.

  6. 77 FR 32916 - Energy Conservation Standards for Distribution Transformers: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Transformers: Public Meeting and Availability of Supplementary Analysis AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... additional information that it is making available about the liquid-immersed distribution transformer... transformers. In addition to this notice and the public meeting, DOE has several documents and analytical...

  7. Amorphous metal distribution transformers: The energy-efficient alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Garrity, T.F.

    1994-12-31

    Amorphous metal distribution transformers have been commercially available for the past 13 years. During that time, they have realized the promise of exceptionally high core efficiency as compared to silicon steel transformer cores. Utility planners today must consider all options available to meet the requirements of load growth. While additional generation capacity will be added, many demand-side initiatives are being undertaken as complementary programs to generation expansion. The efficiency improvement provided by amorphous metal distribution transformers deserves to be among the demand-side options. The key to understanding the positive impact of amorphous metal transformer efficiency is to consider the aggregate contribution those transformers can make towards demand reduction. It is estimated that distribution transformer core losses comprise at least 1% of the utility`s peak demand. Because core losses are continuous, any significant reduction in their magnitude is of great significance to the planner. This paper describes the system-wide economic contributions amorphous metal distribution transformers can make to a utility and suggests evaluation techniques that can be used. As a conservation tool, the amorphous metal transformer contributes to reduced power plant emissions. Calibration of those emissions reductions is also discussed in the paper.

  8. Reimagining What's Possible: How NREL's Energy Analysis and Decision Support Capabilities are Guiding Energy Systems Transformation at Home and Around the World; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect

    2015-03-01

    This engaging brochure shows examples of how NREL enables energy system transformation through robust capabilities in energy analysis and decision support. By reimagining what's possible for renewable energy, NREL contributes to the Department of Energy mission to create energy systems that are cleaner, more reliable, and more secure.

  9. An energy criterion for the stress-induced martensitic transformation in a ductile system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, A.; Weng, G. J.

    1994-11-01

    An energy criterion is developed to calculate the stress-strain behavior of a ductile system involving martensitic transformation under the application of stress. The martensitic inclusions are taken to develop from the ductile austenitic matrix due to the reduction in the Gibbs free energy, which consists of the chemical free energy and the surface energy of the parent and product phases, and the mechanical potential energy of the nonlinear system. The inclusions thus formed are assumed to be thin spheroidal platelets, randomly oriented in the matrix, each possessing a normal and shear component of transformation strain. A micromechanical theory is established to determine the nonlinear potential energy and the change in Gibbs free energy of the two-phase system at a given stage of transformation. It is found that the stressstrain behavior of the metastable system is the outcome of two competing effects, one from the ductility due to the plastic deformation of the ductile matrix and the phase transformation strain of the martensite inclusions, and the other from the stiffness due to the purely elastic response of the transformed martensites. While the ductility prevails in the early stage of deformation the stiffening effect later becomes more dominant with increasing amount of transformation. The resulting stress-strain curve then exhibits the familiar sigmoidal shape, characteristically different from that of an ordinary ductile phase. The theory does not assume any a priori law for the evolving volume fraction of the martensite ; it is calculated incrementally based on the change of Gibbs free energy between the current and the transformed state. Nor does the theory assume any a priori flow rule for the transformation strains, which are calculated strictly from the lattice parameters of the parent and transformed phase. Comparison with some available experimental data for the stress-strain behavior of a TRIP steel and the corresponding evolution of the

  10. Using Research on Teachers' Transformations of Innovations to Inform Teacher Education: The Case of Energy Degradation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinto, Roser; Couso, Digna; Gutierrez, Rufina

    2005-01-01

    This Spanish contribution to the STTIS (Science Teacher Training in an Information Society) investigations of transformations of curriculum innovations studies the implementation of a particular innovative teaching sequence on energy degradation in Spanish secondary schools. The paper describes the transformations found in teachers'…

  11. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  12. Free energy functionals for efficient phase field crystal modeling of structural phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Michael; Provatas, Nikolas; Rottler, Jörg

    2010-07-23

    The phase field crystal (PFC) method is a promising technique for modeling materials with atomic resolution on mesoscopic time scales. While numerically more efficient than classical density functional theory (CDFT), its single mode free energy limits the complexity of structural transformations that can be simulated. We introduce a new PFC model inspired by CDFT, which uses a systematic construction of two-particle correlation functions that allows for a broad class of structural transformations. Our approach considers planar spacings, lattice symmetries, planar atomic densities, and atomic vibrational amplitudes in the unit cell, and parameterizes temperature and anisotropic surface energies. The power of our approach is demonstrated by two examples of structural phase transformations.

  13. Phase transformations of carbon under extreme energy action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oreshkin, V. I.; Chaikovskii, S. A.; Labetskaya, N. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Khishchenko, K. V.; Levashov, P. R.; Kuskova, N. I.; Rud', A. D.

    2012-02-01

    Experiments are performed on a high-current MIG generator (current amplitude 2.5 MA, current rise time 100 ns) to synthesize diamond-like carbon forms. Magnetohydrodynamic calculations carried out before the experiments show that the conditions required for synthesizing diamond-like structures appear during the compression of copper tubes 2-4 mm in diameter filled with graphite. The explosion products are analyzed on an EM-125 diffraction transmission electron microscope. During an explosion, the entire graphite is found to transform into cubic carbon: crystals with the simple cubic lattice and a lattice parameter a = 0.5545 nm and with the face-centered cubic lattice and a = 0.3694 nm are detected. The crystallite size is 5-25 nm.

  14. Transformative research issues and opportunities in energy efficiency

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article presents a summary of research opportunities in energy efficiency identified in a workshop by a panel of experts assembled for the Civil, Mechanical and Manufacturing Innovation Division of the U.S. National Science Foundation. The workshop and article are restricted to two areas – red...

  15. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  16. How to Transform, with a Capacitor, Thermal Energy into Usable Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is taken into account to study the energy change in a capacitor that follows a cycle between a cold and a hot thermal reservoir. There is a net energy gain in the process that, in principle, can be transformed into usable work. The paper is simple enough as to be used with keen…

  17. How to Transform, with a Capacitor, Thermal Energy into Usable Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, E. N.

    2010-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the dielectric permittivity is taken into account to study the energy change in a capacitor that follows a cycle between a cold and a hot thermal reservoir. There is a net energy gain in the process that, in principle, can be transformed into usable work. The paper is simple enough as to be used with keen…

  18. Transforming PV installations toward dispatchable, schedulable energy solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Mesa

    2015-06-15

    The Advanced Energy led SEGIS-AC program represents an industry partnership driven collaborative effort to continue to lower the barriers to increasing penetration of PV on the grid while also lowering overall system cost consistent with the Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The SEGIS-AC program follows the DOE sponsored three year SEGIS program, which had similar high level goals, but with a broader exploratory scope. In SEGIS-AC, the team carries forward a new communications based islanding detection technology developed during the SEGIS program. Advanced utility interactive controls are further developed, and a storage inverter system is developed focused on intermittency mitigation due to cloud induced transients. Communications based island detection coupled with advanced controls and a storage system are shown to improve utility distribution feeder performance and to enable increased solar PV penetration levels. By the conclusion of the program, multiple utilities and customers have expressed awareness and desire to make use of the technologies developed and demonstrated under this program. This factor has led the Advanced Energy led team to deem the program an overall success. The report following details the technologies developed and demonstrated, as well as industry engagement.

  19. A scoping study on energy-efficiency market transformation by California Utility DSM Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Prahl, R.; Schlegel, J.

    1996-07-01

    Market transformation has emerged as a central policy objective for future publicly-funded energy-efficiency programs in California. California Public Utilities Commission (CPUC) Decision 95-12-063 calls for public funding to shift to activities designed to transform the energy-efficiency market. The CPUC envisions that funding {open_quotes}would only be needed for specific and limited periods of time to cause the market to be transformed{close_quotes}. At the same time, the CPUC also acknowledges that {open_quotes}there are many definitions of market transformation{close_quotes} ... and does {open_quotes}not attempt to refine those definitions today{close_quotes}. We argue that a definition of market transformation is essential. The literature is now replete with definitions, and an operational definition is needed for the CPUC to decide on which programs should be supported with public funds. The CPUC decision initially indicated a preference for programs that do not provide financial assistance 4-efficiency programs that rely on financial assistance to customers. However, energy customers have traditionally accounted for a substantial portion of California utility`s DSM programs, so the CPUC`s direction to use ratepayer funds to support programs that will transform the market raises critical questions about how to analyze what has happened in order to plan effectively for the future: Which utility energy-efficiency programs, including those that provide financial assistance to customers, have had market transforming effects? To what extent do current regulatory rules and practices encourage or discourage utilities from running programs that are designed to transform the market? Should the rules and programs be modified, and, if so, how, to promote market transformation?

  20. The food-energy-water nexus: Transforming science for society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R.; Ruddell, Ben L.; Reed, Patrick M.; Hook, Ruth I.; Zheng, Chunmiao; Tidwell, Vince C.; Siebert, Stefan

    2017-05-01

    Emerging interdisciplinary science efforts are providing new understanding of the interdependence of food, energy, and water (FEW) systems. These science advances, in turn, provide critical information for coordinated management to improve the affordability, reliability, and environmental sustainability of FEW systems. Here we describe the current state of the FEW nexus and approaches to managing resource conflicts through reducing demand and increasing supplies, storage, and transport. Despite significant advances within the past decade, there are still many challenges for the scientific community. Key challenges are the need for interdisciplinary science related to the FEW nexus; ground-based monitoring and modeling at local-to-regional scales; incorporating human and institutional behavior in models; partnerships among universities, industry, and government to develop policy relevant data; and systems modeling to evaluate trade-offs associated with FEW decisions.

  1. New method for the transformation of solar radiation energy into electric power for energy feeding of the space vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludanov, K. I.

    The author proposes a new method for the transformation of solar radiation energy into electric power, which is alternative for photo-transformation. Ukrpatents's positive decisions are obtained for the method and for the installation for its realization. The method includes two phases: concentration of solar radiation by paraboloid mirrors with high potential heat obtaining in the helio receiver and the next heat transformation into electric power in the framework of the thermal cycle "high temperature electrolytic steam decomposition on the components (H2 and O2) + electrochemical generation by the way of the water recombination from H2 and O2 in the low temperature fuel cell". The new method gives the double superiority in comparison with the photo-transformation.

  2. Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Jon M.; Virden, Jud W.; Walton, Terry L.; Brog, Terrence K.; Stiles, Dennis L.; Alderson, Karis P.; Melland, Jodi C.; Hobbs, Lori L.; Martinez, Sam J.; Quadrel, Marilyn J.; Quinn, Rod K.

    2008-12-29

    Setting the Foundation for Transforming the U.S. Energy System: Three Federal Action Plans for Near- and Long-term Success is a short document written for the incoming U.S. Federal Administration's Transistion Team. The document represents what we believe to be foundational elements of a broad campaign to make rapid progress towards these goals for the longterm transformation necessary to meet our national economic, security, and environmental goals. The three immediate action plans include: * Creating Tomorrow’s Electricity Infrastructure * Decarbonizing the Energy Economy *Enabling Science-Based Policy

  3. Association between shortage of energy supply and nuclear gene mutations leading to carcinomatous transformation.

    PubMed

    DU, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic bacteria use glycolysis, an oxygen-independent metabolic pathway, whereas energy metabolism in the evolved eukaryotic cell is performed via oxidative phosphorylation, with all eukaryotic cell activities depending upon high energy consumption. However, in cancer cells evolving from eukaryotic cells, the energy metabolism switches from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis. The shortage of energy supply induces cancer cells to acquire specific characteristics. Base pair renewal is the most energy-consuming process in the cell, and shortage of energy supply may lead to errors in this process; the more prominent the shortage in energy supply, the more errors are likely to occur in base pair renewal, resulting in gene mutations and expression of cancer cell characteristics. Thus, shortage of energy supply is associated with carcinomatous transformation.

  4. FY 2009 National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Annual Report: A Year of Energy Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-01-01

    This FY2009 Annual Report surveys the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) accomplishments in renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development, commercialization and deployment of technologies, and strategic energy analysis. It offers NREL's vision and progress in building a clean, sustainable research campus and reports on community involvement.

  5. Energy-efficient cognitive radio sensor networks: parametric and convex transformations.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Muhammad; Illanko, Kandasamy; Karmokar, Ashok; Anpalagan, Alagan; Jaseemuddin, Muhammad

    2013-08-21

    Designing energy-efficient cognitive radio sensor networks is important to intelligently use battery energy and to maximize the sensor network life. In this paper, the problem of determining the power allocation that maximizes the energy-efficiency of cognitive radio-based wireless sensor networks is formed as a constrained optimization problem, where the objective function is the ratio of network throughput and the network power. The proposed constrained optimization problem belongs to a class of nonlinear fractional programming problems. Charnes-Cooper Transformation is used to transform the nonlinear fractional problem into an equivalent concave optimization problem. The structure of the power allocation policy for the transformed concave problem is found to be of a water-filling type. The problem is also transformed into a parametric form for which a ε-optimal iterative solution exists. The convergence of the iterative algorithms is proven, and numerical solutions are presented. The iterative solutions are compared with the optimal solution obtained from the transformed concave problem, and the effects of different system parameters (interference threshold level, the number of primary users and secondary sensor nodes) on the performance of the proposed algorithms are investigated.

  6. Energy-Efficient Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks: Parametric and Convex Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Naeem, Muhammad; Illanko, Kandasamy; Karmokar, Ashok; Anpalagan, Alagan; Jaseemuddin, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Designing energy-efficient cognitive radio sensor networks is important to intelligently use battery energy and to maximize the sensor network life. In this paper, the problem of determining the power allocation that maximizes the energy-efficiency of cognitive radio-based wireless sensor networks is formed as a constrained optimization problem, where the objective function is the ratio of network throughput and the network power. The proposed constrained optimization problem belongs to a class of nonlinear fractional programming problems. Charnes-Cooper Transformation is used to transform the nonlinear fractional problem into an equivalent concave optimization problem. The structure of the power allocation policy for the transformed concave problem is found to be of a water-filling type. The problem is also transformed into a parametric form for which a ε-optimal iterative solution exists. The convergence of the iterative algorithms is proven, and numerical solutions are presented. The iterative solutions are compared with the optimal solution obtained from the transformed concave problem, and the effects of different system parameters (interference threshold level, the number of primary users and secondary sensor nodes) on the performance of the proposed algorithms are investigated. PMID:23966194

  7. Path Integral Computation of Quantum Free Energy Differences Due to Alchemical Transformations Involving Mass and Potential.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Alejandro; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2011-08-09

    Thermodynamic integration, perturbation theory, and λ-dynamics methods were applied to path integral molecular dynamics calculations to investigate free energy differences due to "alchemical" transformations. Several estimators were formulated to compute free energy differences in solvable model systems undergoing changes in mass and/or potential. Linear and nonlinear alchemical interpolations were used for the thermodynamic integration. We find improved convergence for the virial estimators, as well as for the thermodynamic integration over nonlinear interpolation paths. Numerical results for the perturbative treatment of changes in mass and electric field strength in model systems are presented. We used thermodynamic integration in ab initio path integral molecular dynamics to compute the quantum free energy difference of the isotope transformation in the Zundel cation. The performance of different free energy methods is discussed.

  8. Executive Summary - Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2013-01-01

    In November 2012, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) released a new report, 'Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity.' The study provides a new methodological approach to estimate natural gas related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, tracks trends in regulatory and voluntary industry practices, and explores various electricity futures. The Executive Summary provides key findings, insights, data, and figures from this major study.

  9. Full wave dc-to-dc converter using energy storage transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, E. T.; Wilson, T. G.

    1969-01-01

    Full wave dc-to-dc converter, for an ion thrustor, uses energy storage transformers to provide a method of dc-to-dc conversion and regulation. The converter has a high degree of physical simplicity, is lightweight and has high efficiency.

  10. Pupil's Beliefs about the Transformations of Energy in Three Countries (Canada, France and Morocco)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Métioui, Abdeljalil; MacWillie, Mireille Baulu

    2015-01-01

    A qualitative research approach was chosen to analyse the conceptions of pupils attending elementary school from Canada (N = 135), France (N = 30) and Morocco (N = 92) between 10 and 12 years of age. Their conceptions were identified while being mobilised on energy transformations during the working of a simple electric circuit made of a battery,…

  11. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael D.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposures to space radiation is one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. Evidences show that low- and high- Linear energy transfer (LET)-induced transformation of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) that are immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT. The cells were exposed to gamma rays and high-energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones. Transformed HBEC are identified and analyzed chromosome aberrations (i.e. genomic instability) using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. Our results show chromosomal translocations between different chromosomes and several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed and the parental HBEC regardless of the exposure conditions. We observed chromosomal aberrations in the lowand high-LET radiation-induced transformed clones and they are imperfectly different from clones obtain in spontaneous soft agar growth.

  12. Low-Energy Electron-Induced Transformations in Organolead Halide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Milosavljević, Aleksandar R; Huang, Weixin; Sadhu, Subha; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2016-08-16

    Methylammonium lead iodide perovskite (MAPbI3 ), a prototype material for potentially high-efficient and low-cost organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite solar cells, has been investigated intensively in recent years. A study of low-energy electron-induced transformations in MAPbI3 is presented, performed by combining controlled electron-impact irradiation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Changes were observed in both the elemental composition and the morphology of irradiated MAPbI3 thin films as a function of the electron fluence for incident energies from 4.5 to 60 eV. The results show that low-energy electrons can affect structural and chemical properties of MAPbI3 . It is proposed that the transformations are triggered by the interactions with the organic part of the material (methylammonium), resulting in the MAPbI3 decomposition and aggregation of the hydrocarbon layer.

  13. Nonlinear structure analysis of carbon and energy markets with MFDCCA based on maximum overlap wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Xu, Wei

    2016-02-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear structure between carbon and energy markets by employing the maximum overlap wavelet transform (MODWT) as well as the multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis based on maximum overlap wavelet transform (MFDCCA-MODWT). Based on the MODWT multiresolution analysis and the statistic Qcc(m) significance, relatively significant cross-correlations are obtained between carbon and energy future markets either on different time scales or on the whole. The result of the Granger causality test indicates bidirectional Granger causality between carbon and electricity future markets, although the Granger causality relationship between the carbon and oil price is not evident. The existence of multifractality for the returns between carbon and energy markets is proven with the MFDCCA-MODWT algorithm. In addition, results of investigating the origin of multifractality demonstrate that both long-range correlations and fat-tailed distributions play important roles in the contributions of multifractality.

  14. Transformation of potential energy surfaces for estimating isotopic shifts in anharmonic vibrational frequency calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, Patrick; Oschetzki, Dominik; Rauhut, Guntram; Berger, Robert

    2014-05-14

    A transformation of potential energy surfaces (PES) being represented by multi-mode expansions is introduced, which allows for the calculation of anharmonic vibrational spectra of any isotopologue from a single PES. This simplifies the analysis of infrared spectra due to significant CPU-time savings. An investigation of remaining deviations due to truncations and the so-called multi-level approximation is provided. The importance of vibrational-rotational couplings for small molecules is discussed in detail. In addition, an analysis is proposed, which provides information about the quality of the transformation prior to its execution. Benchmark calculations are provided for a set of small molecules.

  15. Federal Financial Interventions and Subsidies in Energy Markets 1999: Energy Transformation and End Use

    EIA Publications

    2008-01-01

    This is the second report prepared in response to a two-part request from the Office of Policy, U.S. Department of Energy, to provide an estimate of U.S. Federal energy subsidies. In its request, the Office of Policy asked the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to update a 1992 EIA report on Federal energy subsidies, including any additions or deletions of Federal subsidies based on Administration and Congressional action since the 1992 report was written, and to provide an estimate of the size of each current subsidy.

  16. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar; Farese, Philip; Abramson, Alexis; Phelan, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Buildings sector is responsible for about 40% of the national energy expenditures. This is due in part to wasteful use of resources and limited considerations made for energy efficiency during the design and retrofit phases. Recent studies have indicated the potential for up to 30-50% energy savings in the U.S. buildings sector using currently available technologies. This paper discusses efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The tool includes a stock-and-flow model to track stock vintage and efficiency levels with time. The tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios.

  17. Energy spectrum analysis of blast waves based on an improved Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, F.; Shang, F.; Jia, Y.; Zhao, C.; Kong, D.

    2017-05-01

    Using the improved Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT), this paper investigates the problems of analysis and interpretation of the energy spectrum of a blast wave. It has been previously established that the energy spectrum is an effective feature by which to characterize a blast wave. In fact, the higher the energy spectra in a frequency band of a blast wave, the greater the damage to a target in the same frequency band. However, most current research focuses on analyzing wave signals in the time domain or frequency domain rather than considering the energy spectrum. We propose here an improved HHT method combined with a wavelet packet to extract the energy spectrum feature of a blast wave. When applying the HHT, the signal is first roughly decomposed into a series of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by empirical mode decomposition. The wavelet packet method is then performed on each IMF to eliminate noise on the energy spectrum. Second, a coefficient is introduced to remove unrelated IMFs. The energy of each instantaneous frequency can be derived through the Hilbert transform. The energy spectrum can then be obtained by adding up all the components after the wavelet packet filters and screens them through a coefficient to obtain the effective IMFs. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by 12 groups of experimental data, and an energy attenuation model is established based on the experimental data. The improved HHT is a precise method for blast wave signal analysis. For other shock wave signals from blasting experiments, an energy frequency time distribution and energy spectrum can also be obtained through this method, allowing for more practical applications.

  18. Solitons via Lie-Bäcklund transformation for 5D low-energy string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera-Aguilar, A.; Paschalis, J. E.; Téllez-Vázquez, J. O.

    2009-08-01

    We apply a non-linear matrix transformation of Lie-Bäcklund type on a seed soliton configuration in order to obtain a new solitonic solution in the framework of the 5D low-energy effective field theory of the bosonic string. The seed solution represents a stationary axisymmetric two-soliton configuration previously constructed through the inverse scattering method and consists of a massless gravitational field coupled to a non-trivial chargeless dilaton and to an axion field endowed with charge. We apply a fully parameterized non-linear matrix transformation of Ehlers type on this massless solution and get a massive rotating axisymmetric gravitational soliton coupled to charged axion and dilaton fields. We discuss on some physical properties of both the initial and the generated solitons and fully clarify the physical effect of the non-linear normalized Ehlers transformation on the seed solution.

  19. The Fractional Fourier Transform and Its Application to Energy Localization Problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oonincx, Patrick J.; ter Morsche, Hennie G.

    2003-12-01

    Applying the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT) and the Wigner distribution on a signal in a cascade fashion is equivalent to a rotation of the time and frequency parameters of the Wigner distribution. We presented in ter Morsche and Oonincx, 2002, an integral representation formula that yields affine transformations on the spatial and frequency parameters of the[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-dimensional Wigner distribution if it is applied on a signal with the Wigner distribution as for the FRFT. In this paper, we show how this representation formula can be used to solve certain energy localization problems in phase space. Examples of such problems are given by means of some classical results. Although the results on localization problems are classical, the application of generalized Fourier transform enlarges the class of problems that can be solved with traditional techniques.

  20. Transforming the New Brunswick Energy Hub: An Analysis on Renewable Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunter, Christopher

    This research examines the benefits and disadvantages of instituting a shift from fossil fuel dependence to renewable sources of energy in New Brunswick. The New Brunswick Energy Hub is a complex system acting under the mandate of the White Paper New Brunswick Energy Policy. In my research, I consider information derived from statistical indicators developed by Patlitzianas, Doukas, Kagiannas and Psarras (2008) and compare these findings to the efficacy of energy policies in Germany, Denmark and Spain. These countries are similar to New Brunswick in climate and organizational complexity (US Department of Commerce, 2009). Weighing the outcomes of this comparative study, I discuss my recommendations highlighting the environmental and economic benefits. My research investigates subsidies in each country that allowed them early economic and environmental advantages. Specific regional considerations, such as Denmark's trend of selling energy technology for profit over domestic applications, inform my conclusions. The future New Brunswick Energy Policy should focus on creating favorable conditions for renewable energy development to occur. Some proven conditions include infrastructure development subsidies and the development and annual review of a competitive open access transmission tariff. With the expiry of the current White Paper comes the necessity of this investigation, and the opportunity to address the growing financial and environmental concerns that many politicians and policy planners have failed to deal with in past policies.

  1. Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging using a high-resolution linear radon transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Xu, Y.; Liu, J.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we propose to image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). The shot gather is first transformed along the time direction to the frequency domain and then the Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy can be imaged by high-resolution LRT using a weighted preconditioned conjugate gradient algorithm. Synthetic data with a set of linear events are presented to show the process of generating dispersive energy. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that, compared with the slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50%. ?? Birkhaueser 2008.

  2. Transforming the Way DOD Looks at Energy. An Approach to Establishing an Energy Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    energy dependence. Although assessing the strategic, opera- tional, fiscal, and environmental impacts of a change provides a mechanism to value...that the environmental impacts of energy policy needed to be considered. There is increasing national and international consensus on the effect of...strategy based on solutions that have the potential for significant adverse environmental impact may pose chal- lenges in gaining public acceptance

  3. Activation energy of shear transformation zones: a key for understanding rheology of glasses and liquids.

    PubMed

    Mayr, S G

    2006-11-10

    Key manifestations of the glassy and liquid states, such as viscous flow and structural relaxation, occur spatial and temporal heterogeneously, within highly localized rare events, termed shear transformation zones. Characterization of these basic entities with respect to thermal activation and mechanical response is vital for understanding the rheology of glasses across length scales. This is achieved in classical molecular dynamics computer simulations on the model glass, CuTi, by determining the activation energy barrier and plastic yield strain of individual shear transformation zones as a function of size and external stress loading. Sizes of approximately equal to 140 atoms are identified to be especially energetically favorable with an activation energy barrier of approximately equal to 0.35 eV. Using these parameters, a rheology model is proposed to quantitatively explain viscosity.

  4. Activation Energy of Shear Transformation Zones: A Key for Understanding Rheology of Glasses and Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayr, S. G.

    2006-11-01

    Key manifestations of the glassy and liquid states, such as viscous flow and structural relaxation, occur spatial and temporal heterogeneously, within highly localized rare events, termed shear transformation zones. Characterization of these basic entities with respect to thermal activation and mechanical response is vital for understanding the rheology of glasses across length scales. This is achieved in classical molecular dynamics computer simulations on the model glass, CuTi, by determining the activation energy barrier and plastic yield strain of individual shear transformation zones as a function of size and external stress loading. Sizes of ≈140atoms are identified to be especially energetically favorable with an activation energy barrier of ≈0.35eV. Using these parameters, a rheology model is proposed to quantitatively explain viscosity.

  5. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  6. A REVISED SOLAR TRANSFORMITY FOR TIDAL ENERGY RECEIVED BY THE EARTH AND DISSIPATED GLOBALLY: IMPLICATIONS FOR EMERGY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar transformities for the tidal energy received by the earth and the tidal energy dissipated globally can be calculated because both solar energy and the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon drive independent processes that produce an annual flux of geopotential energy...

  7. In Brief: Report calls for transforming the U.S. energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Tretkoff, Ernie

    2010-12-01

    The United States should develop a coordinated, government-wide, federal energy policy to transform the nation's energy system within 1-2 decades, according to a 29 November report by the President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology (PCAST). A key recommendation is for the president to establish a quadrennial energy review process to provide a road map for short- and long-term energy objectives, to outline legislative proposals, to put forward anticipated executive branch actions, and to identify resource requirements for research and development programs. Entitled “Report to the president on accelerating the pace of change in energy technologies through an integrated federal energy policy,” the report also calls for the government to invest $16 billion per year for clean energy innovation. The report indicates that this would be an approximate tripling of current Department of Energy investments in energy science and technology. Stating that “the discretionary budget is under severe pressure,” the report recommends that the president engage the private sector and Congress to generate about $10billion per year of funding through new revenue streams. A small charge on electricity and transportation fuel could be “well within the normal fluctuations in price seen by consumers” and generate billions of dollars for research.

  8. Technology Prioritization: Transforming the U.S. Building Stock to Embrace Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-01

    This paper discusses the efforts to accelerate the transformation in the U.S. building energy efficiency sector using a new technology prioritization framework. The underlying analysis examines building energy use micro segments using the Energy Information Administration Annual Energy Outlook and other publically available information. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technologies Office (BTO) has developed a prioritization tool in an effort to inform programmatic decision making based on the long-term national impact of different energy efficiency measures. The prioritization tool can be used to investigate energy efficiency measures under a variety of scenarios and has a built-in energy accounting framework to prevent double counting of energy savings within any given portfolio. This tool is developed to inform decision making and estimate long term potential energy savings for different market adoption scenarios. It provides an objective comparison of new and existing measures and is being used to inform decision making with respect to BTO’s portfolio of projects.

  9. Imaging ultrasonic dispersive guided wave energy in long bones using linear radon transform.

    PubMed

    Tran, Tho N H T; Nguyen, Kim-Cuong T; Sacchi, Mauricio D; Le, Lawrence H

    2014-11-01

    Multichannel analysis of dispersive ultrasonic energy requires a reliable mapping of the data from the time-distance (t-x) domain to the frequency-wavenumber (f-k) or frequency-phase velocity (f-c) domain. The mapping is usually performed with the classic 2-D Fourier transform (FT) with a subsequent substitution and interpolation via c = 2πf/k. The extracted dispersion trajectories of the guided modes lack the resolution in the transformed plane to discriminate wave modes. The resolving power associated with the FT is closely linked to the aperture of the recorded data. Here, we present a linear Radon transform (RT) to image the dispersive energies of the recorded ultrasound wave fields. The RT is posed as an inverse problem, which allows implementation of the regularization strategy to enhance the focusing power. We choose a Cauchy regularization for the high-resolution RT. Three forms of Radon transform: adjoint, damped least-squares, and high-resolution are described, and are compared with respect to robustness using simulated and cervine bone data. The RT also depends on the data aperture, but not as severely as does the FT. With the RT, the resolution of the dispersion panel could be improved up to around 300% over that of the FT. Among the Radon solutions, the high-resolution RT delineated the guided wave energy with much better imaging resolution (at least 110%) than the other two forms. The Radon operator can also accommodate unevenly spaced records. The results of the study suggest that the high-resolution RT is a valuable imaging tool to extract dispersive guided wave energies under limited aperture. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. On consistent micromechanical estimation of macroscopic elastic energy, coherence energy and phase transformation strains for SMA materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziółkowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus of micromechanics is used to isolate the key ingredients entering macroscopic Gibbs free energy function of a shape memory alloy (SMA) material. A new self-equilibrated eigenstrains influence moduli (SEIM) method is developed for consistent estimation of effective (macroscopic) thermostatic properties of solid materials, which in microscale can be regarded as amalgams of n-phase linear thermoelastic component materials with eigenstrains. The SEIM satisfy the self-consistency conditions, following from elastic reciprocity (Betti) theorem. The method allowed expressing macroscopic coherency energy and elastic complementary energy terms present in the general form of macroscopic Gibbs free energy of SMA materials in the form of semilinear and semiquadratic functions of the phase composition. Consistent SEIM estimates of elastic complementary energy, coherency energy and phase transformation strains corresponding to classical Reuss and Voigt conjectures are explicitly specified. The Voigt explicit relations served as inspiration for working out an original engineering practice-oriented semiexperimental SEIM estimates. They are especially conveniently applicable for an isotropic aggregate (composite) composed of a mixture of n isotropic phases. Using experimental data for NiTi alloy and adopting conjecture that it can be treated as an isotropic aggregate of two isotropic phases, it is shown that the NiTi coherency energy and macroscopic phase strain are practically not influenced by the difference in values of austenite and martensite elastic constants. It is shown that existence of nonzero fluctuating part of phase microeigenstrains field is responsible for building up of so-called stored energy of coherency, which is accumulated in pure martensitic phase after full completion of phase transition. Experimental data for NiTi alloy show that the stored coherency energy cannot be neglected as it considerably influences the characteristic phase transition

  11. Manipulating internal energy of protonated biomolecules in electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinghua; Duursma, Marc C; Kistemaker, Piet G; Nibbering, Nico M M; Vekey, Karoly; Drahos, Laszlo; Heeren, Ron M A

    2003-06-01

    The internal energy of protonated leucine enkephalin has been manipulated in electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry with two newly designed pump-probe experiments. Blackbody infrared radiation was applied to pump an ion population into a well-defined internal energy distribution below the dissociation threshold. Following this pumping stage, the internal energy distribution was probed using on-resonance collisional activation to dissociate the ions. These pump-probe experiments were carried out in two different ways: (a) using on-resonance collisional activation with variable kinetic energies to dissociate the ions at a constant initial ion temperature (determining the precursor ion survival percentage as a function of kinetic energy) and (b) using on-resonance collisional activation with a constant kinetic energy to dissociate the ions at variable initial ion temperatures (to investigate the ion survival yield-initial ion temperature dependence). Using this approach, a detailed study of the effects of the initial ion temperature, the probing kinetic energy and the internal energy loss rate on the effective conversion efficiency of (laboratory-frame) kinetic energy to internal energy was conducted. This conversion efficiency was found to be dependent on the initial ion temperature. Depending on the experimental conditions the conversion efficiency (for collisions with argon) was estimated to be about 4.0 +/- 1.7%, which agrees with that obtained from a theoretical modeling. Finally, the reconstructed curves of the ion survival yield versus the mode of the (final) total internal energy distribution of the activated ion population (after pump and probe events) at different pump-probe conditions reveal the internal energy content of the activated ions. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. The quality transformation: A catalyst for achieving energy`s strategic vision

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This plan describes the initial six corporate quality goals for DOE. It also includes accompanying performance measures which will help DOE determine progress towards meeting these goals. The six goals are: (1) There is effective use of performance measurement based on regular assessment of Energy operations using the Presidential Award for Quality, the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award, or equivalent criteria. (2) All managers champion continuous quality improvement training for all employees through planning, attendance, and active application. (3) The Department leadership has provided the environment in which employees are enabled to satisfy customer requirements and realize their full potential. (4) The Department management practices foster employee involvement, development and recognition. (5) The Department continuously improves customer service and satisfaction, and internal and external customers recognize Energy as an excellent service provider. (6) The Department has a system which aligns strategic and operational planning with strategic intent, ensures this planning drives resource allocation, provides for regular evaluation of results, and provides feedback.

  13. Physical and chemical transformations of highly compressed carbon dioxide at bond energies.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-07

    Carbon dioxide exhibits a richness of high-pressure polymorphs with a great diversity in intermolecular interaction, chemical bonding, and crystal structures. It ranges from typical molecular solids to fully extended covalent solids with crystal structures similar to those of SiO2. These extended solids of carbon dioxide are fundamentally new materials exhibiting interesting optical nonlinearity, low compressibility and high energy density. Furthermore, the large disparity in chemical bonding between the extended network and molecular structures results in a broad metastability domain for these phases to room temperature and almost to ambient pressure and thereby offers enhanced opportunities for novel materials developments. Broadly speaking, these molecular-to-non-molecular transitions occur due to electron delocalization manifested as a rapid increase in electron kinetic energy at high density. The detailed mechanisms, however, are more complex with phase metastabilities, path-dependent phases and phase boundaries, and large lattice strains and structural distortions - all of which are controlled by well beyond thermodynamic constraints to chemical kinetics associated with the governing phases and transitions. As a result, the equilibrium phase boundary is difficult to locate precisely (experimentally or theoretically) and is often obscured by the presence of metastable phases (ordered or disordered). This paper will review the pressure-induced transformations observed in highly compressed carbon dioxide and present chemistry perspectives on those molecular-to-non-molecular transformations that can be applied to other low-Z molecular solids at Mbar pressures where the compression energy rivals the chemical bond energies.

  14. A Benchmark Test Set for Alchemical Free Energy Transformations and Its Use to Quantify Error in Common Free Energy Methods.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Himanshu; Shirts, Michael R

    2011-12-13

    There is a significant need for improved tools to validate thermophysical quantities computed via molecular simulation. In this paper we present the initial version of a benchmark set of testing methods for calculating free energies of molecular transformation in solution. This set is based on molecular changes common to many molecular design problems, such as insertion and deletion of atomic sites and changing atomic partial charges. We use this benchmark set to compare the statistical efficiency, reliability, and quality of uncertainty estimates for a number of published free energy methods, including thermodynamic integration, free energy perturbation, the Bennett acceptance ratio (BAR) and its multistate equivalent MBAR. We identify MBAR as the consistently best performing method, though other methods are frequently comparable in reliability and accuracy in many cases. We demonstrate that assumptions of Gaussian distributed errors in free energies are usually valid for most methods studied. We demonstrate that bootstrap error estimation is a robust and useful technique for estimating statistical variance for all free energy methods studied. This benchmark set is provided in a number of different file formats with the hope of becoming a useful and general tool for method comparisons.

  15. Karyotyping of Chromosomes in Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells Transformed by High Energy Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Park, Seongmi; Story, Michael T.; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer induced from exposure to space radiation is believed to be one of the most significant health risks for long-term space travels. In a previous study, normal human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs), immortalized through the expression of Cdk4 and hTERT, were exposed to gamma rays and high energy Fe ions for the selection of transformed clones induced by low- and high-LET radiation. In this research, we analyzed chromosome aberrations in these selected clones for genomic instability using the multi-color fluorescent in situ hybridization (mFISH), as well as the multi-banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) techniques. In most of the clones, we found chromosomal aberrations involving translocations between different chromosomes, with several of the breaks occurred in the q-arm of chromosome 3. We also identified copy number variations between the transformed clones and the parental HBEC cells regardless of the exposure condition. Our results indicated that the chromosomal aberrations in low- and high radiation-induced transformed clones are inadequately different from spontaneous soft agar growth. Further analysis is underway to reveal the genomic instability in more transformed clones

  16. Thermodynamically consistent phase field theory of phase transformations with anisotropic interface energies and stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levitas, Valery I.; Warren, James A.

    2015-10-01

    The main focus of this paper is to introduce, in a thermodynamically consistent manner, an anisotropic interface energy into a phase field theory for phase transformations. Here we use a small strain formulation for simplicity, but we retain some geometric nonlinearities, which are necessary for introducing correct interface stresses. Previous theories have assumed the free energy density (i.e., gradient energy) is an anisotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the current (deformed) state, which yields a nonsymmetric Cauchy stress tensor. This violates two fundamental principles: the angular momentum equation and the principle of material objectivity. Here, it is justified that for a noncontradictory theory the gradient energy must be an isotropic function of the gradient of the order parameters in the current state, which also depends anisotropically on the direction of the gradient of the order parameters in the reference state. A complete system of thermodynamically consistent equations is presented. We find that the main contribution to the Ginzburg-Landau equation resulting from small strains arises from the anisotropy of the interface energy, which was neglected before. The explicit expression for the free energy is justified. An analytical solution for the nonequilibrium interface and critical nucleus has been found and a parametric study is performed for orientation dependence of the interface energy and width as well as the distribution of interface stresses.

  17. Nonadiabatic dynamics in the semiclassical Liouville representation: Locality, transformation theory, and the energy budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Craig C.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we revisit the semiclassical Liouville approach to describing molecular dynamics with electronic transitions using classical trajectories. Key features of the formalism are highlighted. The locality in phase space and presence of nonclassical terms in the generalized Liouville equations are emphasized and discussed in light of trajectory surface hopping methodology. The representation dependence of the coupled semiclassical Liouville equations in the diabatic and adiabatic bases are discussed and new results for the transformation theory of the Wigner functions representing the corresponding density matrix elements given. We show that the diagonal energies of the state populations are not conserved during electronic transitions, as energy is stored in the electronic coherence. We discuss the implications of this observation for the validity of imposing strict energy conservation in trajectory based methods for simulating nonadiabatic processes.

  18. Reconstructing Folding Energy Landscape Profiles from Nonequilibrium Pulling Curves with an Inverse Weierstrass Integral Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Megan C.; Ritchie, Dustin B.; Foster, Daniel A. N.; Beach, Kevin S. D.; Woodside, Michael T.

    2014-12-01

    The energy landscapes that drive structure formation in biopolymers are difficult to measure. Here we validate experimentally a novel method to reconstruct landscape profiles from single-molecule pulling curves using an inverse Weierstrass transform (IWT) of the Jarzysnki free-energy integral. The method was applied to unfolding measurements of a DNA hairpin, replicating the results found by the more-established weighted histogram (WHAM) and inverse Boltzmann methods. Applying both WHAM and IWT methods to reconstruct the folding landscape for a RNA pseudoknot having a stiff energy barrier, we found that landscape features with sharper curvature than the force probe stiffness could not be recovered with the IWT method. The IWT method is thus best for analyzing data from stiff force probes such as atomic force microscopes.

  19. Studies of Photosynthetic Energy and Charge Transfer by Two-dimensional Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogilvie, Jennifer

    2010-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of energy transfer in complex condensed-phase systems. Its experimental implementation is challenging but can be greatly simplified by implementing a pump-probe geometry, where the two phase-stable collinear pump pulses are created with an acousto-optic pulse-shaper. This approach also allows the use of a continuum probe pulse, expanding the available frequency range of the detection axis and allowing studies of energy transfer and electronic coupling over a broad range of frequencies. We discuss several benefits of 2D electronic spectroscopy and present 2D data on the D1-D2 reaction center complex of Photosystem II from spinach. We discuss the ability of 2D spectroscopy to distinguish between current models of energy and charge transfer in this system.

  20. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONSERVATION ENERGY EFFICIENCY PROGRAM FOR CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution... Loading Level Adjustment. If the output loading level for energy efficiency is different from the level at... energy efficiency load level, Plc2 is as calculated in section 4.5.3.3, Por is the rated transformer...

  1. Efficient and direct generation of multidimensional free energy surfaces via adiabatic dynamics without coordinate transformations.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Jerry B; Tuckerman, Mark E

    2008-12-11

    Adiabatic free energy dynamics (AFED) was introduced by Rosso et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 2002, 116, 4389] for computing free energy profiles quickly and accurately using a dynamical adiabatic separation between a set of collective variables or reaction coordinates and the remaining degrees of freedom of a system. This approach has been shown to lead to a significant gain in efficiency versus traditional methods such as umbrella sampling, thermodynamic integration, and free energy perturbation for generating one-dimensional free energy profiles. More importantly, AFED is able to generate multidimensional free energy surfaces efficiently via full sweeps of the surface that rapidly map out the locations of the free energy minima. The most significant drawback to the AFED approach is the need to transform the coordinates into a generalized coordinate system that explicitly contains the collective variables of interest. Recently, Maragliano and Vanden-Eijnden built upon the AFED approach by introducing a set of extended phase-space variables, to which the adiabatic decoupling and high temperature are applied [Chem. Phys. Lett. 2006, 426, 168]. In this scheme, which the authors termed "temperature accelerated molecular dynamics" or TAMD, the need for explicit coordinate transformations is circumvented. The ability of AFED and TAMD to generate free energy surfaces efficiently depends on the thermostatting mechanism employed, since both approaches are inherently nonequilibrium due to the adiabatic decoupling. Indeed, Maragliano and Vanden-Eijnden did not report any direct generation of free energy surfaces within the overdamped Langevin dynamics employed by these authors. Here, we show that by formulating TAMD in a manner that is closer to the original AFED approach, including the generalized Gaussian moment thermostat (GGMT) and multiple time-scale integration, multidimensional free energy surfaces for complex systems can be generated directly from the probability

  2. Inversion of the broken ray transform in the case of energy-dependent attenuation.

    PubMed

    Krylov, R; Katsevich, A

    2015-06-07

    Broken Ray transform (BRT) arises when one considers a narrow x-ray beam propagating through medium under the assumption of single scattering. Previous algorithms for inverting the BRT assumed that the medium is characterized by a single attenuation coefficient μ. However x-rays lose their energy after Compton scattering and the energy loss depends on the scattering angle. Since the attenuation coefficient depends on energy, the μ's before and after scattering are different. When there are three or more detectors one should distinguish not only between μ's that are 'seen' by x-rays before and after scattering, but also between μ's that are 'seen' by x-rays traveling towards different detectors.The main thrust of this paper is inversion of the BRT with N ⩾ 3 detectors under the assumption that the attenuation coefficient can be accurately approximated by a linear function of energy within the window of relevant energies. When the number of detectors is four or greater, we derive a family of inversion formulas. If N > 4, we find the optimal formula, which provides the best stability with respect to noise in the data. If N = 4, the family collapses into a single formula and no optimization is possible. If μ is independent of energy, N = 3 is sufficient for inversion. We also develop iterative reconstruction algorithms that can use global and local data. The results of testing the algorithms are presented.

  3. Performance analysis of energy conversion via caloric effects in first-order ferroic phase transformations.

    PubMed

    Song, Yintao

    2014-07-07

    A finite-time thermodynamic model of ferroic refrigerators and generators, based on first order phase transformation, is given. We use this model to evaluate a novel method of converting heat directly into electricity based on the martensitic phase transformation accompanied by an abrupt change in magnetic ordering recently discovered [Srivastava et al., Adv. Energy Mater., 2011, 1, 97]. In this paper, we study the efficiency and power output of this method. The formulas of efficiency and power output in terms of material constants, design parameters, and working conditions are derived. The Clausius-Clapeyron coefficient is shown to be important to the efficiency. The figure of merit, as a dimensionless parameter, of energy conversion using the new method is introduced. It is shown that, as the figure of merit goes to infinity, the efficiency approaches the Carnot efficiency. Thermodynamic cycles of the new energy conversion method are optimized for a maximum power output. The matching criteria between materials and working temperatures of such optimized cycles are derived. Using these criteria, one can choose the most suitable materials under given working conditions, or decide the best working conditions for available materials.

  4. Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminger, John C.; Sarrao, John; Crabtree, George; Flemming, Graham; Ratner, Mark

    2015-11-01

    FIVE TRANSFORMATIVE OPPORTUNITIES FOR DISCOVERY SCIENCE As a result of this effort, it has become clear that the progress made to date on the five Grand Challenges has created a springboard for seizing five new Transformative Opportunities that have the potential to further transform key technologies involving matter and energy. These five new Transformative Opportunities and the evidence supporting them are discussed in this new report, “Challenges at the Frontiers of Matter and Energy: Transformative Opportunities for Discovery Science.” Mastering Hierarchical Architectures and Beyond-Equilibrium Matter Complex materials and chemical processes transmute matter and energy, for example from CO2 and water to chemical fuel in photosynthesis, from visible light to electricity in solar cells and from electricity to light in light emitting diodes (LEDs) Such functionality requires complex assemblies of heterogeneous materials in hierarchical architectures that display time-dependent away-from-equilibrium behaviors. Much of the foundation of our understanding of such transformations however, is based on monolithic single- phase materials operating at or near thermodynamic equilibrium. The emergent functionalities enabling next-generation disruptive energy technologies require mastering the design, synthesis, and control of complex hierarchical materials employing dynamic far-from-equilibrium behavior. A key guide in this pursuit is nature, for biological systems prove the power of hierarchical assembly and far- from-equilibrium behavior. The challenges here are many: a description of the functionality of hierarchical assemblies in terms of their constituent parts, a blueprint of atomic and molecular positions for each constituent part, and a synthesis strategy for (a) placing the atoms and molecules in the proper positions for the component parts and (b) arranging the component parts into the required hierarchical structure. Targeted functionality will open the door

  5. Energy landscape investigation by wavelet transform analysis of atomic force spectroscopy data in a biorecognition experiment.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    Force fluctuations recorded in an atomic force spectroscopy experiment, during the approach of a tip functionalized with biotin towards a substrate charged with avidin, have been analyzed by a wavelet transform. The observation of strong transient changes only when a specific biorecognition process between the partners takes place suggests a drastic modulation of the force fluctuations when biomolecules recognize each other. Such an analysis allows to investigate the peculiar features of a biorecognition process. These results are discussed in connection with the possible role of energy minima explored by biomolecules during the biorecognition process.

  6. A 12 mV start-up converter using piezoelectric transformer for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, T.; Pillonnet, G.; Costa, F.

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a novel topology of start-up converter for sub 100 mV thermal energy harvesting based on an Armstrong oscillator topology using a piezoelectric transformer (PT) and a normally-on MOSFET. Based on a Rosen-type PT and off-the-shelf components, the proposed startup topology begins to oscillate at 12 mV input voltage corresponding to a temperature gradient of 2°C and achieves 1 V output voltage with only 18 mV input voltage applied to the harvester.

  7. Improvements on the minimax algorithm for the Laplace transformation of orbital energy denominators

    SciTech Connect

    Helmich-Paris, Benjamin Visscher, Lucas

    2016-09-15

    We present a robust and non-heuristic algorithm that finds all extremum points of the error distribution function of numerically Laplace-transformed orbital energy denominators. The extremum point search is one of the two key steps for finding the minimax approximation. If pre-tabulation of initial guesses is supposed to be avoided, strategies for a sufficiently robust algorithm have not been discussed so far. We compare our non-heuristic approach with a bracketing and bisection algorithm and demonstrate that 3 times less function evaluations are required altogether when applying it to typical non-relativistic and relativistic quantum chemical systems.

  8. Minimax approximation for the decomposition of energy denominators in Laplace-transformed Møller-Plesset perturbation theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsuka, Akio; Ten-No, Seiichiro; Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2008-07-01

    We implement the minimax approximation for the decomposition of energy denominators in Laplace-transformed Møller-Plesset perturbation theories. The best approximation is defined by minimizing the Chebyshev norm of the quadrature error. The application to the Laplace-transformed second order perturbation theory clearly shows that the present method is much more accurate than other numerical quadratures. It is also shown that the error in the energy decays almost exponentially with respect to the number of quadrature points.

  9. Transformative research issues and opportunities in alternative energy generation and storage.

    SciTech Connect

    Rockett, A.; Chung, Y. W.; Blaschek, H.; Butterfield, S.; Chance, R. R.; Ferekides, C.; Robinson, M.; Snyder, S. W; Thackeray, M.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a summary of research issues and opportunities in alternative energy source research identified by panels of experts assembled by the Engineering Directorate of the US National Science Foundation. The objective was to identify transformative research issues and opportunities to make alternative energy sources viable. The article presents motivations for energy research, grand challenges, and specific challenges in the research areas covered. The grand challenges identified for the United States include supplying 30% of US electricity from photovoltaics by 2030, supplying 25% of US electricity from wind by 2025, displacing 30% of US hydrocarbon use by 2030 with bio-based products, and providing a practical 250-300 W h/kg energy storage system by 2025. Similar challenges could be outlined along the same lines for the remainder of the world. Examples of specific areas of research focus identified as promising include high performance p-type transparent conductors, multijunction thin-film photovoltaic devices, defects in chalcogenide semiconductors, experimental study and numerical modeling of the fluid mechanics of airflow as applied to wind turbines, improved materials for wind turbines, methods for creating high energy density transportable biological feedstocks, biorefinery processes yielding infrastructure-compatible biofuels and biochemicals directly, and improved electrodes and electrolytes for Li ion batteries. Arguments for each of these as research priorities are given.

  10. Phase transformation based pyroelectric waste heat energy harvesting with improved practicality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryul Jo, Hwan; Lynch, Christopher S.

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, almost 60% of thermal energy produced in the United States was lost to the environment as waste heat. Ferroelectric based pyroelectric devices can be used to convert some of this waste heat into usable electrical energy using the Olsen cycle, an ideal thermodynamic cycle, but there are a number of barriers to its realization in a practical device. This study uses the Olsen cycle to benchmark a less efficient thermodynamic cycle that is more easily implemented in devices. The ferroelectric pyroelectric material used was (Pb0.97La0.02)(Zr0.55Sn0.32Ti0.13)O3 ceramic, a ferroelectric material that undergoes a temperature driven phase transformation. A net energy density of 0.27 J cm-3 per cycle was obtained from the ferroelectric material using the modified cycle with a temperature change between 25°C and 180°C. This is 15.5% of the Olsen cycle result with the same temperature range and 1-8 MV m-1 applied electric field range. The power density was estimated to 13.5 mW cm-3 with given experimental conditions. A model is presented that quantitatively describes the effect of several parameters on output energy density and can be used to design ferroelectric based pyroelectric energy converters. The model indicates that optimization of material geometry and heating conditions can increase the output power by an order or magnitude.

  11. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    SciTech Connect

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A. Maslova, Olga A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.

    2015-10-27

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru{sub 256}, Rh{sub 256}, Pd{sub 256}) accumulate next storage energies: E{sub Ru} = 2.27 eV/at, E{sub Rh} = 1.67 eV/at, E{sub Pd} = 3.02 eV/at.

  12. Transformations, Inc.. Partnering To Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Wytrykowska, H.

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ("Devens"), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ("Easthampton") and Phase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ("Townsend"). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductless air source heat pump systems ("mini-splits"); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  13. Transformations, Inc.: Partnering to Build Net-Zero Energy Houses in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Wytrykowska, H.

    2013-09-01

    Transformations, Inc. is a residential development and building company that has partnered with Building Science Corporation to build new construction net-zero energy houses in Massachusetts under the Building America program. There are three communities that will be constructed through this partnership: Devens Sustainable Housing ('Devens'), The Homes at Easthampton Meadow ('Easthampton') andPhase II of the Coppersmith Way Development ('Townsend'). This report intends to cover all of the single-family new construction homes that have been completed to date. The houses built in these developments are net zero energy homes built in a cold climate. They will contribute to finding answers to specific research questions for homes with high R double stud walls and high efficiency ductlessair source heat pump systems ('mini-splits'); allow to explore topics related to the financing of photovoltaic systems and basements vs. slab-on-grade construction; and provide feedback related to the performance of ductless mini-split air source heat pumps.

  14. Attosecond nanotechnology: NEMS of energy storage and nanostructural transformations in materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beznosyuk, Sergey A.; Zhukovsky, Mark S.; Maslova, Olga A.

    2015-10-01

    The attosecond technology of the nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) energy storage as active center fast transformation of nanostructures in materials is considered. The self-organizing relaxation of the NEMS active center containing nanocube of 256-atoms limited by planes (100) in the FCC lattice matrix of 4d-transition metals (Ru, Rh, Pd) is described by the quantum NEMS-kinetics (NK) method. Typical for these metals change of the NEMS active center physicochemical characteristics during the time of relaxation is presented. There are three types of intermediate quasistationary states of the NEMS active center. Their forms are plainly distinguishable. The full relaxed NEMS active centers (Ru256, Rh256, Pd256) accumulate next storage energies: ERu = 2.27 eV/at, ERh = 1.67 eV/at, EPd = 3.02 eV/at.

  15. Spectral characteristics and meridional variations of energy transformations during the first and second special observation periods of FGGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, E. C.; Tanaka, H.

    1984-01-01

    The global features and meridional spectral energy transformation variations of the first and second special observation periods of the First Global GARP Experiment (FGGE) are investigated, together with the latitudinal distribution of the kinetic energy balance. Specific seasonal characteristics are shown by the spectral distributions of the global transformations between (1) zonal mean and eddy components of the available potential energy, (2) the zonal mean and eddy components of the kinetic energy, and (3) the available potential energy and the kinetic energy. Maximum kinetic energy production is found to occur at subtropical latitudes, with a secondary maximum at higher middle latitudes. Between these two regions, there is another region characterized by the adiabatic destruction of kinetic energy above the lower troposphere.

  16. The effective energy transformation scheme as a special continuation approach to global optimization with application to molecular conformation

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zhijun

    1996-11-01

    This paper discusses a generalization of the function transformation scheme for global energy minimization applied to the molecular conformation problem. A mathematical theory for the method as a special continuation approach to global optimization is established. We show that the method can transform a nonlinear objective function into a class of gradually deformed, but {open_quote}smoother{close_quote} or {open_quotes}easier{close_quote} functions. An optimization procedure can then be applied to the new functions successively, to trace their solutions back to the original function. Two types of transformation are defined: isotropic and anisotropic. We show that both transformations can be applied to a large class of nonlinear partially separable functions including energy functions for molecular conformation. Methods to compute the transformation for these functions are given.

  17. Energy Transform and Initial Acoustic Pressure Distribution in Microwave-induced Thermoacoustic Tomography.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jing; Tao, Chunjing; Wu, Shizeng

    2005-01-01

    A study of Microwave-induced Thermoacoustic Tomography is presented in this paper. Microwaves illuminate biological tissues to generate acoustic waves by thermoelastic expansion when electromagnetic energy was absorbed by human tissues. The generated acoustic waves carry information about different electromagnetic properties of different tissues which will be collected and processed to reconstruct human cross section image. In this paper, digital electromagnetic human body model with 1cm resolution was founded according to algorithm requirements. Firstly we analyzed the transform and interrelation among electromagnetic energy, heat energy and acoustic energy. On the basis of established human model: (1) we calculated initial acoustic pressure distribution in cross section image under plane microwave radiation with different frequency. It shows that microwave absorption properties and initial acoustic pressure were different with the change of frequency; (2) using single pulse to illuminate human model, initial acoustic pressure maps of thorax cross section at different time steps were analyzed. These results provided a research basis for further study and calculation of acoustic pressure in microwave-induced thermoacoustic tomography.

  18. Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts. The company has been developing strategies for cost-effective super-insulated homes in the New England market since 2006. After years of using various construction techniques, it has developed a specific set of assemblies and specifications that achieve a 44.9% reduction in energy use compared with a home built to the 2009 International Residential Code, qualifying the houses for the DOE's Challenge Home. The super-insulated houses provide data for several research topics in a cold climate. BSC studied the moisture risks in double stud walls insulated with open cell spray foam and cellulose. The mini-split air source heat pump (ASHP) research focused on the range of temperatures experienced in bedrooms as well as the homeowners' perceptions of equipment performance. BSC also examined the developer's financing options for the photovoltaic (PV) systems, which take advantage of Solar Renewable Energy Certificates, local incentives, and state and federal tax credits.

  19. Energy Detection Based on Undecimated Discrete Wavelet Transform and Its Application in Magnetic Anomaly Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Xinhua; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha; Zhou, Han; Chen, Min; Zhang, Wenna

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise) with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0energy detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter α is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method. PMID:25343484

  20. Energy detection based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform and its application in magnetic anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xinhua; Pan, Zhongming; Zhang, Dasha; Zhou, Han; Chen, Min; Zhang, Wenna

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic anomaly detection (MAD) is a passive approach for detection of a ferromagnetic target, and its performance is often limited by external noises. In consideration of one major noise source is the fractal noise (or called 1/f noise) with a power spectral density of 1/fa (0energy detection method based on undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the foundations of magnetic anomaly detection and UDWT are introduced in brief, while a possible detection system based on giant magneto-impedance (GMI) magnetic sensor is also given out. Then our proposed energy detection based on UDWT is described in detail, and the probabilities of false alarm and detection for given the detection threshold in theory are presented. It is noticeable that no a priori assumptions regarding the ferromagnetic target or the magnetic noise probability are necessary for our method, and different from the discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the UDWT is shift invariant. Finally, some simulations are performed and the results show that the detection performance of our proposed detector is better than that of the conventional energy detector even utilized in the Gaussian white noise, especially when the spectral parameter α is less than 1.0. In addition, a real-world experiment was done to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

  1. Measurement of key compositional parameters in two species of energy grass by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Allison, Gordon G; Morris, Catherine; Hodgson, Edward; Jones, Jenny; Kubacki, Michal; Barraclough, Tim; Yates, Nicola; Shield, Ian; Bridgwater, Anthony V; Donnison, Iain S

    2009-12-01

    Two energy grass species, switch grass, a North American tuft grass, and reed canary grass, a European native, are likely to be important sources of biomass in Western Europe for the production of biorenewable energy. Matching chemical composition to conversion efficiency is a primary goal for improvement programmes and for determining the quality of biomass feed-stocks prior to use and there is a need for methods which allow cost effective characterisation of chemical composition at high rates of sample through-put. In this paper we demonstrate that nitrogen content and alkali index, parameters greatly influencing thermal conversion efficiency, can be accurately predicted in dried samples of these species grown under a range of agronomic conditions by partial least square regression of Fourier transform infrared spectra (R(2) values for plots of predicted vs. measured values of 0.938 and 0.937, respectively). We also discuss the prediction of carbon and ash content in these samples and the application of infrared based predictive methods for the breeding improvement of energy grasses.

  2. New Whole-House Case Study: Transformations, Inc. Net Zero Energy Communities, Devens, Easthampton, Townsend, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    2013-11-01

    In 2009, Transformations, Inc. partnered with Building America team Building Science Corporation (BSC) to build new net zero energy houses in three developments in Massachusetts. The company has been developing strategies for cost-effective super-insulated homes in the New England market since 2006. After years of using various construction techniques, it has developed a specific set of assemblies and specifications that achieve a 44.9% reduction in energy use compared with a home built to the 2009 International Residential Code, qualifying the houses for the DOE’s Challenge Home. The super-insulated houses provide data for several research topics in a cold climate. BSC studied the moisture risks in double stud walls insulated with open cell spray foam and cellulose. The mini-split air source heat pump (ASHP) research focused on the range of temperatures experienced in bedrooms as well as the homeowners’ perceptions of equipment performance. BSC also examined the developer’s financing options for the photovoltaic (PV) systems, which take advantage of Solar Renewable Energy Certificates, local incentives, and state and federal tax credits.

  3. Organismal and spatial partitioning of energy and macronutrient transformations within a hypersaline mat.

    PubMed

    Mobberley, Jennifer M; Lindemann, Stephen R; Bernstein, Hans C; Moran, James J; Renslow, Ryan S; Babauta, Jerome; Hu, Dehong; Beyenal, Haluk; Nelson, William C

    2017-03-15

    Phototrophic mat communities are model ecosystems for studying energy cycling and elemental transformations because complete biogeochemical cycles occur over millimeter-to-centimeter scales. Characterization of energy and nutrient capture within hypersaline phototrophic mats has focused on specific processes and organisms, however little is known about community-wide distribution of and linkages between these processes. To investigate energy and macronutrient capture and flow through a structured community, the spatial and organismal distribution of metabolic functions within a compact hypersaline mat community from Hot Lake have been broadly elucidated through species-resolved metagenomics and geochemical, microbial diversity, and metabolic gradient measurements. Draft reconstructed genomes of 34 abundant organisms revealed three dominant cyanobacterial populations differentially distributed across the top layers of the mat suggesting niche separation along light and oxygen gradients. Many organisms contained diverse functional profiles, allowing for metabolic response to changing conditions within the mat. Organisms with partial nitrogen and sulfur metabolisms were widespread indicating dependence upon metabolite exchange. In addition, changes in community spatial structure were observed over the diel. These results indicate that organisms within the mat community have adapted to the temporally dynamic environmental gradients in this hypersaline mat through metabolic flexibility and fluid syntrophic interactions, including shifts in spatial arrangements.

  4. Mechanically Induced Graphite-Nanodiamonds-Phase Transformations During High-Energy Ball Milling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Eskandarany, M. Sherif

    2017-05-01

    Due to their unusual mechanical, chemical, physical, optical, and biological properties, nearly spherical-like nanodiamonds have received much attention as desirable advanced nanomaterials for use in a wide spectrum of applications. Although, nanodiamonds can be successfully synthesized by several approaches, applications of high temperature and/or high pressure may restrict the real applications of such strategic nanomaterials. Distinct from the current preparation approaches used for nanodiamonds preparation, here we show a new process for preparing ultrafine nanodiamonds (3-5 nm) embedded in a homogeneous amorphous-carbon matrix. Our process started from high-energy ball milling of commercial graphite powders at ambient temperature under normal atmospheric helium gas pressure. The results have demonstrated graphite-single wall carbon nanotubes-amorphous-carbon-nanodiamonds phase transformations carried out through three subsequent stages of ball milling. Based on XRD and RAMAN analyses, the percentage of nanodiamond phase + C60 (crystalline phase) produced by ball milling was approximately 81%, while the amorphous phase amount was 19%. The pressure generated on the powder together the with temperature increase upon the ball-powder-ball collision is responsible for the phase transformations occurring in graphite powders.

  5. Power and Energy Management Strategy for Solid State Transformer Interfaced DC Microgrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xunwei

    As a result of more and more applications of renewable energy into our ordinary life, how to construct a microgrid (MG) based on the distributed renewable energy resources and energy storages, and then to supply a reliable and flexible power to the conventional power system are the hottest topics nowadays. Comparing to the AC microgrid (AC MG), DC microgrid (DC MG) gets more attentions, because it has its own advantages, such as high efficiency, easy to integrate the DC energy sources and energy storages, and so on. Furthermore, the interaction between DC MG system and the distribution system is also an important and practical issue. In Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management Systems Center (FREEDM), the Solid State Transformer (SST) is built, which can transform the distribution system to the low AC and DC system directly (usually home application level). Thus, the SST gives a new promising solution for low voltage level MG to interface the distribution level system instead of the traditional transformer. So a SST interfaced DC MG is proposed. However, it also brings new challenges in the design and control fields for this system because the system gets more complicated, which includes distributed energy sources and storages, load, and SST. The purpose of this dissertation is to design a reliable and flexible SST interfaced DC MG based on the renewable energy sources and energy storages, which can operate in islanding mode and SST-enabled mode. Dual Half Bridge (DHB) is selected as the topology for DC/DC converter in DC MG. The DHB operation procedure and average model are analyzed, which is the basis for the system modeling, control and operation. Furthermore, two novel power and energy management strategies are proposed. The first one is a distributed energy management strategy for the DC MG operating in the SST-enabled mode. In this method, the system is not only in distributed control to increase the system reliability, but the power sharing

  6. Energy loss due to eddy current in linear transformer driver cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. A.; Mazarakis, M. G.; Manylov, V. I.; Vizir, V. A.; Stygar, W. A.

    2010-07-01

    In linear transformer drivers [Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050402 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050402; Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 12, 050401 (2009)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.12.050401] as well as any other linear induction accelerator cavities, ferromagnetic cores are used to prevent the current from flowing along the induction cavity walls which are in parallel with the load. But if the core is made of conductive material, the applied voltage pulse generates the eddy current in the core itself which heats the core and therefore also reduces the overall linear transformer driver (LTD) efficiency. The energy loss due to generation of the eddy current in the cores depends on the specific resistivity of the core material, the design of the core, as well as on the distribution of the eddy current in the core tape during the remagnetizing process. In this paper we investigate how the eddy current is distributed in a core tape with an arbitrary shape hysteresis loop. Our model is based on the textbook knowledge related to the eddy current generation in ferromagnetics with rectangular hysteresis loop, and in usual conductors. For the reader’s convenience, we reproduce some most important details of this knowledge in our paper. The model predicts that the same core would behave differently depending on how fast the applied voltage pulse is: in the high frequency limit, the equivalent resistance of the core reduces during the pulse whereas in the low frequency limit it is constant. An important inference is that the energy loss due to the eddy current generation can be reduced by increasing the cross section of the core over the minimum value which is required to avoid its saturation. The conclusions of the model are confirmed with experimental observations presented at the end of the paper.

  7. Low-energy electron scattering from CO. 2: Ab-initio study using the frame-transformation theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, N.

    1976-01-01

    The Wigner-Eisenbud R matrix method has been combined with the frame transformation theory to study electron scattering from molecular systems. The R matrix, calculated at the boundary point of the molecular core radius, has been transformed to the space frame in order to continue the solution of the scattering equations in the outer region where rotational motion of the nuclei is taken into account. This procedure has been applied to a model calculation of thermal energy electron scattering from CO.

  8. The energy-water-food nexus: strategic analysis of technologies for transforming the urban metabolism.

    PubMed

    Villarroel Walker, R; Beck, M B; Hall, J W; Dawson, R J; Heidrich, O

    2014-08-01

    Urban areas are considered net consumers of materials and energy, attracting these from the surrounding hinterland and other parts of the planet. The way these flows are transformed and returned to the environment by the city is important for addressing questions of sustainability and the effect of human behavior on the metabolism of the city. The present work explores these questions with the use of systems analysis, specifically in the form of a Multi-sectoral Systems Analysis (MSA), a tool for research and for supporting decision-making for policy and investment. The application of MSA is illustrated in the context of Greater London, with these three objectives: (a) estimating resource fluxes (nutrients, water and energy) entering, leaving and circulating within the city-watershed system; (b) revealing the synergies and antagonisms resulting from various combinations of water-sector innovations; and (c) estimating the economic benefits associated with implementing these technologies, from the point of view of production of fertilizer and energy, and the reduction of greenhouse gases. Results show that the selection of the best technological innovation depends on which resource is the focus for improvement. Urine separation can potentially recover 47% of the nitrogen in the food consumed in London, with revenue of $33 M per annum from fertilizer production. Collecting food waste in sewers together with growing algae in wastewater treatment plants could beneficially increase the amount of carbon release from renewable energy by 66%, with potential annual revenues of $58 M from fuel production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy efficient low power shared-memory Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processor with dynamic voltage scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitrio, D.; Singh, J.; Stojcevski, A.

    2005-12-01

    Reduction of power dissipations in CMOS circuits needs to be addressed for portable battery devices. Selection of appropriate transistor library to minimise leakage current, implementation of low power design architectures, power management implementation, and the choice of chip packaging, all have impact on power dissipation and are important considerations in design and implementation of integrated circuits for low power applications. Energy-efficient architecture is highly desirable for battery operated systems, which operates in a wide variation of operating scenarios. Energy-efficient design aims to reconfigure its own architectures to scale down energy consumption depending upon the throughput and quality requirement. An energy efficient system should be able to decide its minimum power requirements by dynamically scaling its own operating frequency, supply voltage or the threshold voltage according to a variety of operating scenarios. The increasing product demand for application specific integrated circuit or processor for independent portable devices has influenced designers to implement dedicated processors with ultra low power requirements. One of these dedicated processors is a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processor, which is widely used in signal processing for numerous applications such as, wireless telecommunication and biomedical applications where the demand for extended battery life is extremely high. This paper presents the design and performance analysis of a low power shared memory FFT processor incorporating dynamic voltage scaling. Dynamic voltage scaling enables power supply scaling into various supply voltage levels. The concept behind the proposed solution is that if the speed of the main logic core can be adjusted according to input load or amount of processor's computation "just enough" to meet the requirement. The design was implemented using 0.12 μm ST-Microelectronic 6-metal layer CMOS dual- process technology in Cadence Analogue

  10. Comparative bioenergetic assessment of transformed cells using a cell energy budget platform.

    PubMed

    Zhdanov, A V; Favre, C; O'Flaherty, L; Adam, J; O'Connor, R; Pollard, P J; Papkovsky, D B

    2011-11-01

    The aberrant expression and functional activity of proteins involved in ATP production pathways may cause a crisis in energy generation for cells and compromise their survival under stressful conditions such as excitation, starvation, pharmacological treatment or disease states. Under resting conditions such defects are often compensated for, and therefore masked by, alternative pathways which have significant spare capacity. Here we present a multiplexed 'cell energy budget' platform which facilitates metabolic assessment and cross-comparison of different cells and the identification of genes directly or indirectly involved in ATP production. Long-decay emitting O(2) and pH sensitive probes and time-resolved fluorometry are used to measure changes in cellular O(2) consumption, glycolytic and total extracellular acidification (ECA), along with the measurement of total ATP and protein content in multiple samples. To assess the extent of spare capacity in the main energy pathways, the cells are also analysed following double-treatment with carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone and oligomycin. The four-parametric platform operating in a high throughput format has been validated with two panels of transformed cells: mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking the Krebs cycle enzyme fumarate hydratase (Fh1) and HeLa cells with reduced expression of pyrimidine nucleotide carrier 1. In both cases, a marked reduction in both respiration and spare respiratory capacity was observed, accompanied by a compensatory activation of glycolysis and consequent maintenance of total ATP levels. At the same time, in Fh1-deficient MEFs the contribution of non-glycolytic pathways to the ECA did not change.

  11. Transformations in oxides induced by high-energy ball-milling.

    PubMed

    Šepelák, Vladimir; Bégin-Colin, Sylvie; Le Caër, Gérard

    2012-10-21

    This paper, by no means exhaustive, focuses on high-energy ball-milling of oxides, on their mechanically induced changes and on the consequences of such changes on their physical and chemical properties. High-energy ball-milling offers a fortunate combination of technical simplicity and of complexity both of physical mechanisms which act during milling and of mechanosynthesized materials. Its basic interest, which stems from the large diversity of routes it offers to prepare oxides either directly or indirectly, is illustrated with various families of oxides. The direct path is to be favoured when as-milled oxides are of interest per se because of their nanocrystalline characteristics, their defects or their modified structures which result from mechanically driven phase transformations. The indirect path consists of a sequence of steps starting with mechanically activated oxides which may be subsequently just annealed or submitted to a combination of thermal treatments, with the possible occurrence of various chemical reactions, to prepare the sought-after materials with potential gains in processing temperatures and times. High energy ball-milling of oxides is more and more currently used to activate powders and to prepare nano-oxides at moderate temperatures. The interest of an activation step is well illustrated by the broad development of doped titania powders, synthesized by heat treatment of pre-ground reactants, for photocatalytic applications or to develop antibacterial materials. Another important class of applications of high-energy ball-milling is the formation of composites. It is exemplified here with the case of oxide-dispersed strengthened alloys whose properties are considerably improved by a dispersion of ultra-stable nanosized oxides whose formation mechanisms were recently described. The basic understanding of the mechanisms by which oxides or oxide mixtures evolve by high-energy ball-milling appears to be less advanced than it is for metallic

  12. Conception et developpement d'un environnement d'apprentissage sur les transformations d'energies et leurs rendements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutros, Wissam

    The energy sector is at the heart of the concerns technological, political and economic modern society. This area requires a basic understanding of the scientific concept of energy. It is our opinion essential to any citizen training. We initially, from theoretical and practical considerations, examined why this area is so important in our technological society is so little discussed in the Quebec curriculum? Why do we merely a theoretical and discursive concept? Why, contrary to all scientific education, have we not considered learning situations in the laboratory for the study of energy? In a second step, we proposed an idea of practical and realistic solution to address all these questions. A solution that invites students to engage constructively in laboratory activities to appropriate these concepts. To do this, we have developed global variables energies that allowed students to experiment and measure energy transformations easily. This quest for technological development in education is therefore to take advantage of new technological developments in computing and microelectronics to design, build and test a computerized environment learning laboratory for science and technology. With this energy is at the confluence of three domains, this environment has been designed to support the same activity in the learning of mathematics, science and technology. This integration recommended by the new programs we believe is essential to the understanding of concepts related to energy and its transformations. For this learning activity multidisciplinary, we want, via an empirical and practical address these issues of energy transformations in order to give students the ability to develop the prototypes they build technology to improve their performance. We have shown that this approach techno, similar to the design of an experimental design in science, promotes understanding of concepts related to energy and their transformations. This educational development, open to

  13. Nodal energy weighted transformation: A mistuning projection and its application to FLADE™ turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzner, Colin; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Filippi, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several researchers have developed reduced-order models (ROMs) to efficiently and accurately calculate the forced response of blisks with known small mistuning. Small mistuning consists of the small blade-to-blade structural differences which destroy the inherent cyclic symmetry of the structure. This paper presents a nodal energy weighted transformation (NEWT) which can be used to construct ROMs of mistuned blisks and dual flow path systems, such as FLADE™ turbines. The NEWT approach can be interpreted as a hybrid of two existing techniques: component mode mistuning (CMM) and the subset of nominal modes (SNM). Similar to the previous methods, NEWT assumes that the mistuned modes of the system are a linear combination of tuned modes. However, NEWT differs from its predecessors in the blisk substructuring and in the mistuning projection. Numerical results obtained using full order models, CMM, and NEWT are presented and compared over multiple frequency ranges for a finite element model of a blisk and that of a FLADE™ turbine. These results show that ROMs based on NEWT have several attractive features: (a) the accuracy of the ROMs is comparable to ROMs based on CMM, and can be improved by increasing the size of the projection mode subset; (b) no necessary modifications are needed to analyze FLADE™ turbines; and (c) the response of all modes can be predicted well even if they are not blade dominated.

  14. Directed Magnetic Particle Transport above Artificial Magnetic Domains Due to Dynamic Magnetic Potential Energy Landscape Transformation.

    PubMed

    Holzinger, Dennis; Koch, Iris; Burgard, Stefan; Ehresmann, Arno

    2015-07-28

    An approach for a remotely controllable transport of magnetic micro- and/or nanoparticles above a topographically flat exchange-bias (EB) thin film system, magnetically patterned into parallel stripe domains, is presented where the particle manipulation is achieved by sub-mT external magnetic field pulses. Superparamagnetic core-shell particles are moved stepwise by the dynamic transformation of the particles' magnetic potential energy landscape due to the external magnetic field pulses without affecting the magnetic state of the thin film system. The magnetic particle velocity is adjustable in the range of 1-100 μm/s by the design of the substrate's magnetic field landscape (MFL), the particle-substrate distance, and the magnitude of the applied external magnetic field pulses. The agglomeration of magnetic particles is avoided by the intrinsic magnetostatic repulsion of particles due to the parallel alignment of the particles' magnetic moments perpendicular to the transport direction and parallel to the surface normal of the substrate during the particle motion. The transport mechanism is modeled by a quantitative theory based on the precise knowledge of the sample's MFL and the particle-substrate distance.

  15. Surface tension and energy in multivariant martensitic transformations: phase-field theory, simulations, and model of coherent interface.

    PubMed

    Levitas, Valery I; Javanbakht, Mahdi

    2010-10-15

    The Ginzburg-Landau theory for multivariant martensitic phase transformations is advanced in three directions: the potential is developed that introduces the surface tension at interfaces; a mixed term in gradient energy is introduced to control the martensite-martensite interface energy independent of that for austenite-martensite; and a noncontradictory expression for variable surface energy is suggested. The problems of surface-induced pretransformation, barrierless multivariant nucleation, and the growth of an embryo in a nanosize sample are solved to elucidate the effect of the above contributions. The obtained results represent an advanced model for coherent interface.

  16. Mechanisms of energy transport in BeO over the temperature region of self-trapped exciton transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogorodnikov, I. N.; Kruzhalov, A. V.

    1997-02-01

    The specificity of mechanism of energy transport in BeO over the temperature region of self-trapped exciton transformation is considered in the framework of the model of a field fluctuation process (FFP). The paper discusses the results of the computer simulation of a perturbing effect of FPP on kinetics and parameters of thermally stimulated luminescence in comparison with the appropriate experimental data gained for beryllium oxide crystals. It was shown that the observed peculiarities of recombination processes in BeO over the temperature region between 150 and 180 K are due to the self-trapped exciton transformation.

  17. [Physical model of initial stages of energy transformation during oxidative phosphorylation].

    PubMed

    Chernavskiĭ, D S; Chernavskaia, N M; Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S

    1982-01-01

    A model of non-dissipative energy transmission of activated electron into proton subsystem energy was considered. The model is based on the effect of resonance tunneling of the electrons, which provides for non-dissipative energy transmission. Within the scope of the model the energized proton formed in the protein membrane structure has enough energy to perform phosphorylation.

  18. Transforming Energy Instruction in Middle School to Support Integrated Understanding and Future Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordine, Jeffrey; Krajcik, Joseph; Fortus, David

    2011-01-01

    Energy is a fundamental unifying concept of science, yet common approaches to energy instruction in middle school have shown little success with helping students develop their naive ideas about energy into more sophisticated understandings that are useful for making sense of their experiences. While traditional energy instruction often focuses on…

  19. State of the States 2010. The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, Elizabeth; Gelman, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  20. State of the States 2010: The Role of Policy in Clean Energy Market Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Doris, E.; Gelman, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report builds on the emerging body of literature seeking to identify quantitative connections between clean energy policy and renewable energy. The methods presented test the relationships between a broad set of policies and clean energy resources (energy efficiency, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind). Energy efficiency findings are an initial foray into this type of analysis and indicate significant connections between reduced energy use and buildings codes, energy efficiency resource standards (in some cases), and electricity price. Renewable energy findings specify that there is most often a relationship between state policies and solar and wind development, indicating that while policies might apply to a wide variety of renewable resources, further tailoring of policy specifics to resource needs may lead to increased development of a wider variety of renewable energy resources. Further research is needed to refine the connections between clean energy development and policy, especially in the area of the impact of the length of time that a policy has been in place.

  1. Sizing community energy storage systems to reduce transformer overloading with emphasis on plug-in electric vehicle loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowler, Derik Wesley

    The research objective of this study was to develop a sizing method for community energy storage systems with emphasis on preventing distribution transformer overloading due to plug-in electric vehicle charging. The method as developed showed the formulation of a diversified load profile based upon residential load data for several customers on the American Electric Power system. Once a load profile was obtained, plug-in electric vehicle charging scenarios which were based upon expected adoption and charging trends were superimposed on the load profile to show situations where transformers (in particular 25 kVA, 50 kVA, and 100 kVA) would be overloaded during peak hours. Once the total load profiles were derived, the energy and power requirements of community energy storage systems were calculated for a number of scenarios with different combinations of numbers of homes and plug-in electric vehicles. The results were recorded and illustrated into charts so that one could determine the minimum size per application. Other topics that were covered in this thesis were the state of the art and future trends in plug-in electric vehicle and battery chemistry adoption and development. The goal of the literature review was to confirm the already suspected notion that Li-ion batteries are best suited and soon to be most cost-effective solution for applications requiring small, efficient, reliable, and light-weight battery systems such as plug-in electric vehicles and community energy storage systems. This thesis also includes a chapter showing system modeling in MATLAB/SimulinkRTM. All in all, this thesis covers a wide variety of considerations involved in the designing and deploying of community energy storage systems intended to mitigate the effects of distribution transformer overloading.

  2. Image analysis in unmanned aerial vehicle on-board system for objects detection and recognition with the help of energy characteristics based on wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shleymovich, M. P.; Medvedev, M. V.; Lyasheva, S. A.

    2017-04-01

    In this article the problem of image analysis in unmanned aerial vehicle on-board system for objects detection and recognition with the help of energy characteristics based on wavelet transform is described. The approach of salient points extraction based on wavelet transform is proposed. The salience of the points is substantiated with the energy estimates of their weights. On the basis of wavelet transform salient points extraction the method of image contour segmentation is proposed. For further image recognition the salient points descriptors constructed with the help of wavelet transform are used. The objects detection and recognition system for unmanned aerial vehicles based on proposed methods is simulated using the simulation platform.

  3. Energy-Based Analysis of Mechanisms of Earthquake-Induced Landslide Using Hilbert-Huang Transform and Marginal Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Gang; Zhang, Li-Min; Zhang, Jian-Jing; Ouyang, Fang

    2017-09-01

    Based on the Hilbert-Huang Transform and its marginal spectrum, an energy-based method is proposed to analyse the dynamics of earthquake-induced landslides and a case study is presented to illustrate the proposed method. The results show that the seismic Hilbert energy in the sliding mass of a landslide is larger than that in the sliding bed when subjected to seismic excitations, causing different dynamic responses between the sliding mass and the sliding bed. The seismic Hilbert energy transits from the high-frequency components to the low-frequency components when the seismic waves propagate through the weak zone, causing a nonuniform seismic Hilbert energy distribution in the frequency domain. Shear failure develops first at the crest and toe of the sliding mass due to resonance effects. Meanwhile, the seismic Hilbert energy in the frequency components of 3-5 Hz, which is close to the natural frequency of the slope, is largely dissipated in the initiation and failure processes of the landslide. With the development of dynamic failure, the peak energy transmission ratios in the weak zone decrease gradually. This study offers an energy-based interpretation for the initiation and progression of earthquake-induced landslides with the shattering-sliding failure type.

  4. Application of high-resolution linear Radon transform for Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging and mode separating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luo, Y.; Xia, J.; Miller, R.D.; Liu, J.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Q.

    2008-01-01

    Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) analysis is an efficient tool to obtain the vertical shear-wave profile. One of the key steps in the MASW method is to generate an image of dispersive energy in the frequency-velocity domain, so dispersion curves can be determined by picking peaks of dispersion energy. In this paper, we image Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy and separate multimodes from a multichannel record by high-resolution linear Radon transform (LRT). We first introduce Rayleigh-wave dispersive energy imaging by high-resolution LRT. We then show the process of Rayleigh-wave mode separation. Results of synthetic and real-world examples demonstrate that (1) compared with slant stacking algorithm, high-resolution LRT can improve the resolution of images of dispersion energy by more than 50% (2) high-resolution LRT can successfully separate multimode dispersive energy of Rayleigh waves with high resolution; and (3) multimode separation and reconstruction expand frequency ranges of higher mode dispersive energy, which not only increases the investigation depth but also provides a means to accurately determine cut-off frequencies.

  5. INSIGHT On Transforming Our Global Energy Economy, 2015 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-03-01

    From its inception, JISEA has provided critical clarity and insights to inform decision making through leading-edge interdisciplinary research and objective, credible, cross-functional analysis. JISEA, drawing on the unique capabilities of its founding institutions and research affiliates around the world, continues to inform the landscape of transformation.

  6. A theoretical study of the lowest-energy PtPd co-doped silicon clusters: Chirality and fluxional transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Peng; Lu, Zhansheng; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Xinwei; Xu, Guoliang; Yang, Zongxian

    2017-03-01

    The lowest-energy structures of PtPdSiqn (n = 1- 7; q = 0 , ± 1) clusters are searched based on the PSO algorithm implemented in the CALYPSO code and the first-principle DFT-D computations implemented in DMol3 code. Interestingly, the chirality has been found for the lowest-energy structures of the neutral and charged PtPdSi4, neutral and anionic PtPdSi5, and cationic PtPdSi7 clusters. The first principles molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that the fluxional transformation between the chiral configurations for neutral PtPdSi4 cluster can take place at 400 K, which is also confirmed by the rather small transformation barrier. The equivalent atoms involved in the bond breaking and formation, as well as the other atoms (modulator), may facilitate the dynamical behavior. The current finding is thus beyond imagination. It is noticeable that the current study provides a potential way to create interesting cluster with chirality and transformation, based on silicon.

  7. Energy transformation during erect and 'bent-hip, bent-knee' walking by humans with implications for the evolution of bipedalism.

    PubMed

    Wang, W J; Crompton, R H; Li, Y; Gunther, M M

    2003-05-01

    We have previously reported that predictive dynamic modeling suggests that the 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait, which some attribute to Australopithecus afarensis AL-288-1, would have been much more expensive in mechanical terms for this hominid than an upright gait. Normal walking by modern adult humans owes much of its efficiency to conservation of energy by transformation between its potential and kinetic states. These findings suggest the question if, and to what extent, energy transformation exists in 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait. This study calculates energy transformation in humans walking upright, at three different speeds, and walking 'bent-hip, bent-knee'. Kinematic data were gathered from video sequences and kinetic (ground reaction force) data from synchronous forceplate measurement. Applying Newtonian mechanics to our experimental data, the fluctuations of kinetic and potential energy in the body centre of mass were obtained and the effects of energy transformation evaluated and compared. In erect walking the fluctuations of two forms of energy are indeed largely out-of-phase, so that energy transformation occurs and total energy is conserved. In 'bent-hip, bent-knee' walking, however, the fluctuations of the kinetic and potential energy are much more in-phase, so that energy transformation occurs to a much lesser extent. Among all modes of walking the highest energy recovery is obtained in subjectively 'comfortable' walking, the next highest in subjectively 'fast' or 'slow' walking, and the least lowest in 'bent-hip, bent-knee' walking. The results imply that if 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait was indeed habitually practiced by early bipedal hominids, a very substantial (and in our view as yet unidentified) selective advantage would have had to accrue, to offset the selective disadvantages of 'bent-hip, bent-knee' gait in terms of energy transformation.

  8. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  9. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states.

    PubMed

    Zarkevich, N A; Johnson, D D

    2014-12-31

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy; nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudged elastic band method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between a body-centered orthorhombic (bco) ground state and a newly identified stable austenite ("glassy" B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R phase), and between martensite variants (bco orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, but unstable B2. These high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.

  10. Shape-memory transformations of NiTi: Minimum-energy pathways between austenite, martensites, and kinetically limited intermediate states

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkevich, N. A.; Johnson, D. D.

    2014-12-24

    NiTi is the most used shape-memory alloy, nonetheless, a lack of understanding remains regarding the associated structures and transitions, including their barriers. Using a generalized solid-state nudge elastic band (GSSNEB) method implemented via density-functional theory, we detail the structural transformations in NiTi relevant to shape memory: those between body-centered orthorhombic (BCO) groundstate and a newly identified stable austenite (“glassy” B2-like) structure, including energy barriers (hysteresis) and intermediate structures (observed as a kinetically limited R-phase), and between martensite variants (BCO orientations). All results are in good agreement with available experiment. We contrast the austenite results to those from the often-assumed, butmore » unstable B2. Furthermore, these high- and low-temperature structures and structural transformations provide much needed atomic-scale detail for transitions responsible for NiTi shape-memory effects.« less

  11. Integrated Deployment Model: A Comprehensive Approach to Transforming the Energy Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, M.

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes the Integrated Deployment model to accelerate market adoption of alternative energy solutions to power homes, businesses, and vehicles through a comprehensive and aggressive approach.

  12. Nonlinear Effects in Transformation Optics-Based Metamaterial Shields for Counter Directed Energy Weapon Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    a transformation optics–derived structure in such a high - field intensity regime, we propose to employ an iterative solution to the Maxwell equations...theory, are observed. In order to investigate the behavior of a transforma- tion optics–derived structure in such a high - field intensity regime, we...the delivery of a focused high intensity beam of electromagnetic radiation onto a small area of the target. These weapon systems have been active areas

  13. How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skumiel, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

  14. How to Transform Mechanical Work into Electrical Energy Using a Capacitor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skumiel, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper the method of converting mechanical work into electrical energy with the participation of a preliminarily charged condenser while the electrodes are sliding in it is presented. Using this method, we can obtain a considerable increase of converted electrical power, depending on the initial energy of the charged condenser, distance…

  15. Phase transformations, anisotropic pyroelectric energy harvesting and electrocaloric properties of (Pb,La)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 single crystals.

    PubMed

    Zhuo, Fangping; Li, Qiang; Gao, Jinghan; Yan, Qingfeng; Zhang, Yiling; Xi, Xiaoqing; Chu, Xiangcheng

    2017-05-31

    (Pb,La)(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 (PLZST) single crystals with their chemical composition located at the tetragonal antiferroelectric region are grown via the flux method in a PbO-PbF2-B2O3 mixture. Segregation of the Ti(4+) component in the as-grown crystals is observed due to the strong affinity between the oxygen anion and Ti(4+) ions. The critical electric field of the antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition is determined to be about 0.5 kV mm(-1). The electric field induced ferroelectric phase transforms back into the antiferroelectric phase at a depolarization temperature of 125 °C. Anisotropy of the harvested energy density and electrocaloric behaviors are achieved for the [100], [110] and [111]-oriented PLZST crystals. Based on the thermodynamic theory approach, all the abovementioned behaviors originate from the anisotropic total entropy change. Enhanced electrocaloric strength (0.3 K mm kV(-1)) and the harvested energy density of 0.62 J cm(-3) are obtained in the [111]-oriented PLZST crystals. Our results demonstrate the competence of PLZST single crystals for cooling devices and pyroelectric energy harvesting and provide new opportunities to improve energy harvesting density and electrocaloric properties via the anisotropic structural layout, which make the PLZST crystals attractive for solid state cooling devices and energy conversion technologies.

  16. Unique Perspectives on a Transforming Energy Economy: 2014 Annual Report (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Gossett, S.

    2014-03-01

    What makes JISEA unique? Unique perspectives. This brochure highlights the unique perspectives provided by the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis through JISEA's recent accomplishments and the people behind them.

  17. Very low energy electrons transform the cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer into a highly reactive intermediate.

    PubMed

    Edtbauer, Achim; Denifl, Stephan; Vizcaino, Violaine; An der Lan, Lukas; Russell, Katherine; Taubitz, Jörg; Wille, Uta; Feketeova, Linda; O'Hair, Richard A J; Märk, Tilmann D; Illenberger, Eugen; Scheier, Paul

    2010-02-22

    Electrons with virtually no kinetic energy (close to 0 eV) trigger the decomposition of cytotoxic cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimer (CPD) into a surprisingly large variety of fragment ions plus their neutral counterparts. The response of CPD to low energy electrons is thus comparable to that of explosives like trinitrotoluene (TNT). The dominant unimolecular reaction is the splitting into two thymine like units, which can be considered as the essential molecular step in the photolyase of CPD. We find that CPD is significantly more sensitive towards low energy electrons than its thymine building blocks. It is proposed that electron attachment at very low energy proceeds via dipole bound states, supported by the large dipole moment of the molecule (6.2 D). These states act as effective doorways to dissociative electron attachment (DEA).

  18. Identifying low variance pathways for free energy calculations of molecular transformations in solution phase.

    PubMed

    Pham, Tri T; Shirts, Michael R

    2011-07-21

    Improving the efficiency of free energy calculations is important for many biological and materials design applications, such as protein-ligand binding affinities in drug design, partitioning between immiscible liquids, and determining molecular association in soft materials. We show that for any pair potential, moderately accurate estimation of the radial distribution function for a solute molecule is sufficient to accurately estimate the statistical variance of a sampling along a free energy pathway. This allows inexpensive analytical identification of low statistical error free energy pathways. We employ a variety of methods to estimate the radial distribution function (RDF) and find that the computationally cheap two-body "dilute gas" limit performs as well or better than 3D-RISM theory and other approximations for identifying low variance free energy pathways. With a RDF estimate in hand, we can search for pairwise interaction potentials that produce low variance. We give an example of a search minimizing statistical variance of solvation free energy over the entire parameter space of a generalized "soft core" potential. The free energy pathway arising from this optimization procedure has lower curvature in the variance and reduces the total variance by at least 50% compared to the traditional soft core solvation pathway. We also demonstrate that this optimized pathway allows free energies to be estimated with fewer intermediate states due to its low curvature. This free energy variance optimization technique is generalizable to solvation in any homogeneous fluid and for any type of pairwise potential and can be performed in minutes to hours, depending on the method used to estimate g(r).

  19. Large-scale energy transformations in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, E. C.; Masters, S. E.; Corte-Real, J. A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic energy balance and kinetic energy sources are studied for high latitudes north of 55 deg N with twice daily upper air observations during a seven-year period from 1973 to 1979. Energy variables are presented for 5 deg latitudinal zones from 55 to 75 deg N and for the polar cap north of 75 deg N. Spatial distributions of important energy variables are also presented. The upper level maximum of the cross-isobaric generation in high latitudes is observed in th lower stratosphere above the tropopause level in the winter and becomes insignificant during the summer. The flux convergence of potential energy from the source in lower latitudes is identified as the single major source for kinetic energy in higher latitudes. The contribution of the baroclinic conversion is minor. Examination during the First GARP Global Experiment winter indicates that the cold air outbreaks of the Asian winter monsoon are associated with noticeable changes in the hemispherical distributions of the fields of vertical motion and energetics in the high latitudes.

  20. Large-scale energy transformations in the high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kung, E. C.; Masters, S. E.; Corte-Real, J. A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The kinetic energy balance and kinetic energy sources are studied for high latitudes north of 55 deg N with twice daily upper air observations during a seven-year period from 1973 to 1979. Energy variables are presented for 5 deg latitudinal zones from 55 to 75 deg N and for the polar cap north of 75 deg N. Spatial distributions of important energy variables are also presented. The upper level maximum of the cross-isobaric generation in high latitudes is observed in th lower stratosphere above the tropopause level in the winter and becomes insignificant during the summer. The flux convergence of potential energy from the source in lower latitudes is identified as the single major source for kinetic energy in higher latitudes. The contribution of the baroclinic conversion is minor. Examination during the First GARP Global Experiment winter indicates that the cold air outbreaks of the Asian winter monsoon are associated with noticeable changes in the hemispherical distributions of the fields of vertical motion and energetics in the high latitudes.

  1. Calculation of the defect kinetic energy in Kohn-Sham theory by means of local-scaling transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludeña, Eduardo V.; López-Boada, Roberto; Maldonado, Jorge; Koga, Toshikatsu; Kryachko, Eugene S.

    1993-09-01

    The kinetic-energy difference ΔT=T-Ts[ρ0] is calculated for the helium isoelectronic series and for the beryllium atom. Ts[ρ0] is in this case the kinetic energy corresponding to a noninteracting N-particle system which, however, has the same density ρ0 as the exact interacting system. These densities ρ0 were assumed in the present case to be well represented by those coming from the optimal Hylleraas-type expansions for the He isoelectronic series and by the Bunge-Esquivel 650-term configuration-interaction wave function for Be. The calculations are carried out by means of a constrained variational method based on local-scaling transformations. The connection between this approach and the one based on the Kohn-Sham equations is discussed.

  2. Analytical energy gradient based on spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess method with local unitary transformation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2013-12-28

    In this study, the analytical energy gradient for the spin-free infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method at the levels of the Hartree-Fock (HF), density functional theory (DFT), and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) is developed. Furthermore, adopting the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme for the IODKH method improves the efficiency in computation of the analytical energy gradient. Numerical assessments of the present gradient method are performed at the HF, DFT, and MP2 levels for the IODKH with and without the LUT scheme. The accuracies are examined for diatomic molecules such as hydrogen halides, halogen dimers, coinage metal (Cu, Ag, and Au) halides, and coinage metal dimers, and 20 metal complexes, including the fourth-sixth row transition metals. In addition, the efficiencies are investigated for one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. The numerical results confirm the accuracy and efficiency of the present method.

  3. Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and determination of the three dimensional potential energy surface for Ar-CS.

    PubMed

    Niida, Chisato; Nakajima, Masakazu; Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Kohguchi, Hiroshi; Endo, Yasuki

    2014-03-14

    Pure rotational transitions of the Ar-CS van der Waals complex have been observed by Fourier Transform Microwave (FTMW) and FTMW-millimeter wave double resonance spectroscopy. Rotational transitions of v(s) = 0, 1, and 2 were able to be observed for normal CS, together with those of C(34)S in v(s) = 0, where vs stands for the quantum number of the CS stretching vibration. The observed transition frequencies were analyzed by a free rotor model Hamiltonian, where rovibrational energies were calculated as dynamical motions of the three nuclei on a three-dimensional potential energy surface, expressed by analytical functions with 57 parameters. Initial values for the potential parameters were obtained by high-level ab initio calculations. Fifteen parameters were adjusted among the 57 parameters to reproduce all the observed transition frequencies with the standard deviation of the fit to be 0.028 MHz.

  4. Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy and determination of the three dimensional potential energy surface for Ar–CS

    SciTech Connect

    Niida, Chisato; Nakajima, Masakazu; Endo, Yasuki; Sumiyoshi, Yoshihiro; Ohshima, Yasuhiro; Kohguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-03-14

    Pure rotational transitions of the Ar–CS van der Waals complex have been observed by Fourier Transform Microwave (FTMW) and FTMW-millimeter wave double resonance spectroscopy. Rotational transitions of v{sub s} = 0, 1, and 2 were able to be observed for normal CS, together with those of C{sup 34}S in v{sub s} = 0, where v{sub s} stands for the quantum number of the CS stretching vibration. The observed transition frequencies were analyzed by a free rotor model Hamiltonian, where rovibrational energies were calculated as dynamical motions of the three nuclei on a three-dimensional potential energy surface, expressed by analytical functions with 57 parameters. Initial values for the potential parameters were obtained by high-level ab initio calculations. Fifteen parameters were adjusted among the 57 parameters to reproduce all the observed transition frequencies with the standard deviation of the fit to be 0.028 MHz.

  5. Application of the generalized Euler series transformation for calculation of vibration-rotation energy levels of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruglova, T. V.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed spectroscope information about highly excited molecules and radicals such us as H+3, H2, HI, H2O, CH2 is needed for a number of applications in the field of laser physics, astrophysics and chemistry. Studies of highly excited molecular vibration-rotation states face several problems connected with slowly convergence or even divergences of perturbation expansions. The physical reason for a perturbation expansion divergence is the large amplitude motion and strong vibration-rotation coupling. In this case one needs to use the special method of series summation. There were a number of papers devoted to this problem: papers 1-10 in the reference list are only example of studies on this topic. The present report is aimed at the application of GET method (Generalized Euler Transformation) to the diatomic molecule. Energy levels of a diatomic molecule is usually represented as Dunham series on rotational J(J+1) and vibrational (V+1/2) quantum numbers (within the perturbation approach). However, perturbation theory is not applicable for highly excited vibration-rotation states because the perturbation expansion in this case becomes divergent. As a consequence one need to use special method for the series summation. The Generalized Euler Transformation (GET) is known to be efficient method for summing of slowly convergent series, it was already used for solving of several quantum problems Refs.13 and 14. In this report the results of Euler transformation of diatomic molecule Dunham series are presented. It is shown that Dunham power series can be represented of functional series that is equivalent to its partial summation. It is also shown that transformed series has the butter convergent properties, than the initial series.

  6. Utilization of satellite cloud information to diagnose the energy state and transformations in extratropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    A study of the contribution of latent heat release to the synoptic scale vertical motions in the Jan. 9-11, 1975 extratropical cyclone case study was completed. Results indicate that early cyclone development was dominated by dry dynamical forcing. However, as the cyclone matured, the influence of latent heating became more significant. This influence appeared to be of two types, (1) the direct impact of heating causing a lowering of surface pressures, and (2) an indirect role in which the heating altered thermal and vorticity gradients and lead to subsequent increases in dry dynamical forcing. The kinetic energy budget was completed and extended to include an available potential energy budget. Focusing on the eddy component of the budgets, results indicate that kinetic energy increased throughout the cyclone's development, with the increase being most pronounced after the onset of significant latent heat release. Latent heating played a strong role not only in generating available potential energy, but also in forcing baroclinic release of potential energy.

  7. Two Paths to Transforming Markets through Public Sector EnergyEfficiency: Bottom Up versus Top Down

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura; Coleman, Philip; Fridley, David; Harris,Jeffrey; Villasenor Franco, Edgar

    2006-05-10

    The evolution of government purchasing initiatives in Mexicoand China, part of the PEPS (Promoting an Energy-efficient Public Sector)program, demonstrates the need for flexibility in designingenergy-efficiency strategies in the public sector. Several years ofpursuing a top-down (federally led) strategy in Mexico produced fewresults, and it was not until the program was restructured in 2004 tofocus on municipal-level purchasing that the program gained momentum.Today, a new partnership with the Mexican federal government is leadingto an intergovernmental initiative with strong support at the federallevel. By contrast, the PEPS purchasing initiative in China wassuccessfully initiated and led at the central government level withstrategic support from international experts. The very different successtrajectories in these two countries provide valuable lessons fordesigning country-specific public sector energy-efficiency initiatives.Enabling conditions for any successful public sector purchasinginitiative include the existence of mandatory energy-efficiencyperformance standards, an effective energy-efficiency endorsementlabeling program, an immediate need for energy conservation, a simplepilot phase (focusing on a limited number of strategically chosenproducts), and specialized technical assistance. Top-down purchasingprograms are likely to be more successful where there is high-levelpolitical endorsement and a national procurement law in place, supportedby a network of trained purchasers. Bottom-up (municipally led)purchasing programs require that municipalities have the authority to settheir own purchasing policies, and also benefit from existing networks ofcities, supported by motivated municipal leaders and trained purchasingofficials.

  8. Genetic Transformation of Watermelon with Pumpkin DNA by Low Energy Ion Beam-Mediated Introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao-bo; Gao, Xiu-wu; Guo, Jin-hua; Huang, Qun-ce; Yu, Zeng-liang

    2002-12-01

    The No.601 watermelon (citrullus lanatus) seeds were treated with 25 keV N+ implantation at the dosage of 7.8 × 1016 ions/cm2. After treatment, watermelon seeds were incubated with 380 μg/μl pumpkin (Cucubita, maxima Duch) DNA solution at 35 °C for 5 hours. By two-generations of selection and resistance screening at seedling stage, one transformed material was selected out, whose rind color is similar to that of the donor pumpkin and whose size of seeds is between that of the donor and the receptor. Using AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique, two polymorphic DNA fragments were amplified. This primarily testified that the donor DNA fragments/gene were introduced into the receptor cell and integrated into the genomic DNA of the receptor.

  9. Ab Initio Vibrational Spectroscopy of cis- and trans-Formic Acid from a Global Potential Energy Surface.

    PubMed

    Tew, David P; Mizukami, Wataru

    2016-12-15

    A global analytic potential energy surface for the ro-vibrational dynamics of cis- and trans-formic acid is presented, constructed using LASSO-based regression to reproduce CCSD(T)(F12*)/cc-pVTZ-F12 energies. The fit is accurate to 0.25% has an RMS deviation from the ab initio data of 9 cm(-1) for the energy range 0-15000 cm(-1). Converged J = 0 vibrational eigenstates are reported, computed using vibrational configuration interaction with an internal coordinate path Hamiltonian for the torsional motion connecting the cis and trans rotamers. Methodological choices concerning the appropriate definitions of the curvilinear and diabatic bath coordinates are discussed. The zero point of the cis rotamer is 1412 cm(-1) above that of the trans, which lies at 7354 cm(-1). The computed fundamentals match the bands recorded from gas-phase IR spectroscopy with an RMSD of only 3 cm(-1). A fresh assignment of the overtone spectra of both the cis and trans rotamers is presented for the energy range 0-4720 cm(-1), where 14 out of the 51 bands are reassigned on the basis of the VCI calculations.

  10. Theoretical comparison, equivalent transformation, and conjunction operations of electromagnetic induction generator and triboelectric nanogenerator for harvesting mechanical energy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chi; Tang, Wei; Han, Changbao; Fan, Fengru; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-06-11

    Triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is a newly invented technology that is effective using conventional organic materials with functionalized surfaces for converting mechanical energy into electricity, which is light weight, cost-effective and easy scalable. Here, we present the first systematic analysis and comparison of EMIG and TENG from their working mechanisms, governing equations and output characteristics, aiming at establishing complementary applications of the two technologies for harvesting various mechanical energies. The equivalent transformation and conjunction operations of the two power sources for the external circuit are also explored, which provide appropriate evidences that the TENG can be considered as a current source with a large internal resistance, while the EMIG is equivalent to a voltage source with a small internal resistance. The theoretical comparison and experimental validations presented in this paper establish the basis of using the TENG as a new energy technology that could be parallel or possibly equivalently important as the EMIG for general power application at large-scale. It opens a field of organic nanogenerator for chemists and materials scientists who can be first time using conventional organic materials for converting mechanical energy into electricity at a high efficiency.

  11. Coffee Can Speakers: Amazing Energy Transformers--Fifth-Grade Students Learn the Science behind Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kevin; Haake, Monica

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe steps on how to develop a high-impact activity in which students build, test, and improve their own "coffee can" speakers to observe firsthand how loudspeakers work to convert electrical energy to sound. The activity is appropriate for students in grades three to six and lends itself best to students…

  12. Transforming MOFs for energy applications using the guest@MOF concept

    DOE PAGES

    Ullman, Andrew M.; Brown, Jonathan W.; Foster, Michael E.; ...

    2016-07-11

    As the world transitions from fossil fuels to clean energy sources in the coming decades, many technological challenges will require chemists and material scientists to develop new materials for applications related to energy conversion, storage, and efficiency. Because of their unprecedented adaptability, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) will factor strongly in this portfolio. By utilizing the broad synthetic toolkit provided by the fields of organic and inorganic chemistry, MOF pores can be customized to suit a particular application. Of particular importance is the ability to tune the strength of the interaction between the MOF pores and guest molecules. By cleverly controlling thesemore » MOF–guest interactions, the chemist may impart new function into the Guest@MOF materials otherwise lacking in vacant MOF. Herein, we highlight the concept of the Guest@MOF as it relates to our efforts to develop these materials for energy-related applicatons. Additionally, our work in the areas of H2 and noble gas storage, hydrogenolysis of biomass, light-harvesting, and conductive materials will be discussed. Of relevance to light-harvesting applications, we report for the first time a postsynthetic modification strategy for increasing the loading of a light-sensitive electron-donor molecule in the pores of a functionalized MIL-101 structure. Through the demonstrated versatility of these approaches, we show that, by treating guest molecules as integral design elements for new MOF constructs, MOF science can have a significant impact on the advancement of clean energy technologies.« less

  13. Brainstorming transformative solutions - Sustainable Puerto Rico in 2080 - a focus on energy and food security

    EPA Science Inventory

    This narrative scenario depicts one of many possible futures for the island of Puerto Rico in which the goals of energy and food supply resilience have been met. Set in the year 2080, the narrative describes a series of hypothetical (but possible) events, a set of proactive gover...

  14. Transforming MOFs for energy applications using the guest@MOF concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, Andrew M.; Brown, Jonathan W.; Foster, Michael E.; Leonard, Francois; Leong, Kirsty; Stavila, Vitalie; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2016-07-11

    As the world transitions from fossil fuels to clean energy sources in the coming decades, many technological challenges will require chemists and material scientists to develop new materials for applications related to energy conversion, storage, and efficiency. Because of their unprecedented adaptability, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) will factor strongly in this portfolio. By utilizing the broad synthetic toolkit provided by the fields of organic and inorganic chemistry, MOF pores can be customized to suit a particular application. Of particular importance is the ability to tune the strength of the interaction between the MOF pores and guest molecules. By cleverly controlling these MOF–guest interactions, the chemist may impart new function into the Guest@MOF materials otherwise lacking in vacant MOF. Herein, we highlight the concept of the Guest@MOF as it relates to our efforts to develop these materials for energy-related applicatons. Additionally, our work in the areas of H2 and noble gas storage, hydrogenolysis of biomass, light-harvesting, and conductive materials will be discussed. Of relevance to light-harvesting applications, we report for the first time a postsynthetic modification strategy for increasing the loading of a light-sensitive electron-donor molecule in the pores of a functionalized MIL-101 structure. Through the demonstrated versatility of these approaches, we show that, by treating guest molecules as integral design elements for new MOF constructs, MOF science can have a significant impact on the advancement of clean energy technologies.

  15. Transforming MOFs for energy applications using the guest@MOF concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, Andrew M.; Brown, Jonathan W.; Foster, Michael E.; Leonard, Francois; Leong, Kirsty; Stavila, Vitalie; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2016-07-11

    As the world transitions from fossil fuels to clean energy sources in the coming decades, many technological challenges will require chemists and material scientists to develop new materials for applications related to energy conversion, storage, and efficiency. Because of their unprecedented adaptability, metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) will factor strongly in this portfolio. By utilizing the broad synthetic toolkit provided by the fields of organic and inorganic chemistry, MOF pores can be customized to suit a particular application. Of particular importance is the ability to tune the strength of the interaction between the MOF pores and guest molecules. By cleverly controlling these MOF–guest interactions, the chemist may impart new function into the Guest@MOF materials otherwise lacking in vacant MOF. Herein, we highlight the concept of the Guest@MOF as it relates to our efforts to develop these materials for energy-related applicatons. Additionally, our work in the areas of H2 and noble gas storage, hydrogenolysis of biomass, light-harvesting, and conductive materials will be discussed. Of relevance to light-harvesting applications, we report for the first time a postsynthetic modification strategy for increasing the loading of a light-sensitive electron-donor molecule in the pores of a functionalized MIL-101 structure. Through the demonstrated versatility of these approaches, we show that, by treating guest molecules as integral design elements for new MOF constructs, MOF science can have a significant impact on the advancement of clean energy technologies.

  16. Energy Technology Solutions: Public-Private Partnerships Transforming Industry - December 2010

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2010-12-01

    AMO's research and development partnerships with industry have resulted in more than 220 technologies and other solutions that can be purchased today. This document includes a description of each solution, its benefits, and vendor contact information. The document also identifies emerging technologies and other resources to help industry save energy.

  17. Energy and the Transformation of a Metropolitan Landscape: Contrasting Contemporary and Future Settlement Geographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Donald J.

    Because of the rising real cost of energy, geographic patterns that have dominated the contemporary metropolitan landscape are in a state of change. A conceptual model of the contemporary and future metropolitan landscape is presented to stimulate thought about the changes which may evolve in the spatial organization of urban regions as the real…

  18. Coffee Can Speakers: Amazing Energy Transformers--Fifth-Grade Students Learn the Science behind Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kevin; Haake, Monica

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe steps on how to develop a high-impact activity in which students build, test, and improve their own "coffee can" speakers to observe firsthand how loudspeakers work to convert electrical energy to sound. The activity is appropriate for students in grades three to six and lends itself best to students…

  19. Transforming MOFs for Energy Applications Using the Guest@MOF Concept.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Andrew M; Brown, Jonathan W; Foster, Michael E; Léonard, François; Leong, Kirsty; Stavila, Vitalie; Allendorf, Mark D

    2016-08-01

    As the world transitions from fossil fuels to clean energy sources in the coming decades, many technological challenges will require chemists and material scientists to develop new materials for applications related to energy conversion, storage, and efficiency. Because of their unprecedented adaptability, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) will factor strongly in this portfolio. By utilizing the broad synthetic toolkit provided by the fields of organic and inorganic chemistry, MOF pores can be customized to suit a particular application. Of particular importance is the ability to tune the strength of the interaction between the MOF pores and guest molecules. By cleverly controlling these MOF-guest interactions, the chemist may impart new function into the Guest@MOF materials otherwise lacking in vacant MOF. Herein, we highlight the concept of the Guest@MOF as it relates to our efforts to develop these materials for energy-related applicatons. Our work in the areas of H2 and noble gas storage, hydrogenolysis of biomass, light-harvesting, and conductive materials will be discussed. Of relevance to light-harvesting applications, we report for the first time a postsynthetic modification strategy for increasing the loading of a light-sensitive electron-donor molecule in the pores of a functionalized MIL-101 structure. Through the demonstrated versatility of these approaches, we show that, by treating guest molecules as integral design elements for new MOF constructs, MOF science can have a significant impact on the advancement of clean energy technologies.

  20. Unbiased free energy estimates in fast nonequilibrium transformations using Gaussian mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Procacci, Piero

    2015-04-21

    In this paper, we present an improved method for obtaining unbiased estimates of the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states using the work distribution measured in nonequilibrium driven experiments connecting these states. The method is based on the assumption that any observed work distribution is given by a mixture of Gaussian distributions, whose normal components are identical in either direction of the nonequilibrium process, with weights regulated by the Crooks theorem. Using the prototypical example for the driven unfolding/folding of deca-alanine, we show that the predicted behavior of the forward and reverse work distributions, assuming a combination of only two Gaussian components with Crooks derived weights, explains surprisingly well the striking asymmetry in the observed distributions at fast pulling speeds. The proposed methodology opens the way for a perfectly parallel implementation of Jarzynski-based free energy calculations in complex systems.

  1. Unbiased free energy estimates in fast nonequilibrium transformations using Gaussian mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Procacci, Piero

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present an improved method for obtaining unbiased estimates of the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states using the work distribution measured in nonequilibrium driven experiments connecting these states. The method is based on the assumption that any observed work distribution is given by a mixture of Gaussian distributions, whose normal components are identical in either direction of the nonequilibrium process, with weights regulated by the Crooks theorem. Using the prototypical example for the driven unfolding/folding of deca-alanine, we show that the predicted behavior of the forward and reverse work distributions, assuming a combination of only two Gaussian components with Crooks derived weights, explains surprisingly well the striking asymmetry in the observed distributions at fast pulling speeds. The proposed methodology opens the way for a perfectly parallel implementation of Jarzynski-based free energy calculations in complex systems.

  2. The transformation of wind energy by a high altitude power plant /HAPP/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riegler, G.; Riedler, W.; Horvath, E.

    1981-12-01

    Design considerations for a high altitude power plant (HAPP) are discussed. A HAPP has a generator platform supported by a balloon, a tethering and conduction cable, and a ground station for control and energy distribution. Each streamlined balloon would carry six symmetrically arranged wind turbines and could be raised or lowered by a ground winch in response to 4 hr meteorological forecasts. A double bladed, variable pitch, horizontal axis rotor was chosen for HAPP application in the jet stream at 8,000-10,000 m height. Humidity and icing are calculated to be within tolerable limits; higher winter and lower summer heights are indicated. Optimization studies for 2, 5, and 7 MW turbines are presented, and rotor diameters are found to be limited to 40 m for weight considerations. Pilot plant, production, and operating costs are estimated to result in a cost of energy of

  3. Unbiased free energy estimates in fast nonequilibrium transformations using Gaussian mixtures.

    PubMed

    Procacci, Piero

    2015-04-21

    In this paper, we present an improved method for obtaining unbiased estimates of the free energy difference between two thermodynamic states using the work distribution measured in nonequilibrium driven experiments connecting these states. The method is based on the assumption that any observed work distribution is given by a mixture of Gaussian distributions, whose normal components are identical in either direction of the nonequilibrium process, with weights regulated by the Crooks theorem. Using the prototypical example for the driven unfolding/folding of deca-alanine, we show that the predicted behavior of the forward and reverse work distributions, assuming a combination of only two Gaussian components with Crooks derived weights, explains surprisingly well the striking asymmetry in the observed distributions at fast pulling speeds. The proposed methodology opens the way for a perfectly parallel implementation of Jarzynski-based free energy calculations in complex systems.

  4. Rotational transformations and transverse energy flow in paraxial light beams: linear azimuthons.

    PubMed

    Bekshaev, Aleksandr; Soskin, Marat

    2006-07-15

    Paraxial beams whose transverse structure rotates upon free propagation (spiral beams) can be treated as analogs of azimuthons recently found in nonlinear media [Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 203904 (2005)]. These linear azimuthons have essentially a nonlocalized character and can possess an almost arbitrary rotation rate independent of the angular momentum of the beam. Such beams can be assimilated into fluent mechanical bodies with intrinsic mass flows determined by transverse energy redistribution over the beam cross section.

  5. Transforming the Energy Landscape of a Coiled-Coil Peptide via Point Mutations.

    PubMed

    Röder, Konstantin; Wales, David J

    2017-03-14

    We analyze the effect of point mutations on the energy landscape of a coiled-coil peptide, GCN4-pLI, where the native state is a parallel tetrameric configuration formed from two identical dimers. Experimentally, a single mutation, E20S, supports both antiparallel and parallel structures. Here, we analyze the potential energy landscapes of the dimeric units for the parent sequence and four mutants, namely E20S, E20A, E20P, and E20G. Despite sharing characteristic funnels containing the parallel and antiparallel structures, the point mutations change some parts of the landscape quite dramatically, and we predict new intermediate structures and characterize the associated heat capacities. For the mutants we predict that kinked intermediate structures facilitate the transition between parallel and antiparallel morphologies, in contrast to the parent sequence. Furthermore, we predict a change from a multifunnel energy landscape in the E20S mutant to a landscape dominated by an underlying single funnel in the parent sequence, with accompanying heat capacity signatures. Our results imply that changes in the landscape due to mutations might provide useful tools for functional protein design.

  6. Energy changes in transforming solids. Continuation proposal for the period January 1--December 31, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, G.; Barnett, D.M.

    1989-09-15

    This report describes work completed, work in progress, and work planned during the continuation of funding. Research is being carried out on the following: bonded inclusions are being treated as problems of a homogeneous body; the problem of two cavities or inclusions is being studied; the examination of non-classical transformations is leading to conservation laws in statics and dynamics with applications in fracture and defect mechanics; mathematical and physical modeling of damage in brittle solids is being performed; a theoretical and numerical study of subsonic interfacial waves in bonded piezoelectric dissimilar half-spaces has been completed; the study of which crystal classes are capable of admitting the so-called Type 3 transonic state in anisotropic elasticity is also complete; and wave studies will be extended into the supersonic regime. The authors also intend to complete a study of the general self-force on a 3-dimensional dislocation loop element in an elastic medium of arbitrary anisotropy, as this is currently a needed ingredient in modern fracture and damage mechanics and in the study of defects in integrated circuit materials.

  7. Energize New York -- Residential Energy Efficiency Market Transformation in New York

    SciTech Connect

    Bregman, Thomas M.

    2013-12-31

    Energize New York (ENY) is focused on addressing known barriers to widespread energy efficiency (EE) adoption by property owners. In simple terms ENY works to; 1) increase homeowner trust by using known and trusted community leaders to communicate their own positive experiences with EE and ENY, 2) reduce friction points by integrating support staff and creative use of technology that ease a homeowner’s way forward through the EE upgrade process, 3) increase homeowner knowledge and trust of specific EE benefits through access to the ENY energy coach, 4) provide information on available financing options that show benefits (e.g. positive cash flow), and 5) provide tools and mechanisms that give homeowners greater comfort in evaluating and selecting the right contractor. These five fundamental program aspects are supported by a hyper-local communications and outreach model and a “lead by example” philosophy that requires community leaders to step forward and model energy efficiency behavior by example. In the communities where the program has successfully engaged local leadership and “trusted community sources” there has been a significant increase in the uptake of energy efficiency work. Quantitatively this growth translated into an increase of 240% in completed Home Performance projects from the two year pre-pilot period (2009-10) to the two year post-pilot period (2012-13). Additionally, the program has seen measureable increases in the output and performance of contractors who are members of the Energize Comfort Corps, a program innovation which included a subset of the NYSERDA approved and Building Performance Institute accredited home performance contractors. This innovation, launched in the later stages of the pilot, is paired with the Energize Contractor Ratings Index (CRI) and helps frame the provider market by giving homeowners a mechanism to provide and receive feedback on their contractor experience. The data incorporated into the CRI along with

  8. Transforming high-dimensional potential energy surfaces into sum-of-products form using Monte Carlo methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Markus; Meyer, Hans-Dieter

    2017-08-01

    We propose a Monte Carlo method, "Monte Carlo Potfit," for transforming high-dimensional potential energy surfaces evaluated on discrete grid points into a sum-of-products form, more precisely into a Tucker form. To this end we use a variational ansatz in which we replace numerically exact integrals with Monte Carlo integrals. This largely reduces the numerical cost by avoiding the evaluation of the potential on all grid points and allows a treatment of surfaces up to 15-18 degrees of freedom. We furthermore show that the error made with this ansatz can be controlled and vanishes in certain limits. We present calculations on the potential of HFCO to demonstrate the features of the algorithm. To demonstrate the power of the method, we transformed a 15D potential of the protonated water dimer (Zundel cation) in a sum-of-products form and calculated the ground and lowest 26 vibrationally excited states of the Zundel cation with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method.

  9. MRI-PET image fusion based on NSCT transform using local energy and local variance fusion rules.

    PubMed

    Amini, Nasrin; Fatemizadeh, E; Behnam, Hamid

    2014-05-01

    Image fusion means to integrate information from one image to another image. Medical images according to the nature of the images are divided into structural (such as CT and MRI) and functional (such as SPECT, PET). This article fused MRI and PET images and the purpose is adding structural information from MRI to functional information of PET images. The images decomposed with Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform and then two images were fused with applying fusion rules. The coefficients of the low frequency band are combined by a maximal energy rule and coefficients of the high frequency bands are combined by a maximal variance rule. Finally, visual and quantitative criteria were used to evaluate the fusion result. In visual evaluation the opinion of two radiologists was used and in quantitative evaluation the proposed fusion method was compared with six existing methods and used criteria were entropy, mutual information, discrepancy and overall performance.

  10. Energy potential of residue from wood transformation industry in the central metropolitan area of the Principality of Asturias (northwest Spain).

    PubMed

    Paredes-Sánchez, José Pablo; Gutiérrez-Trashorras, Antonio José; Xiberta-Bernat, Jorge

    2014-03-01

    The development of modern cities favours the formation of metropolitan zones with urban and industrial areas. The central metropolitan area (CMA) of the Principality of Asturias (northwest Spain), takes up 9.6% of the territory and represents 78% of its population. The first and second wood transformation industries of the CMA generate rather large amounts of biomass residues suitable for both reclaim and energy valuation considering technical, economic, and environmental restrictions. The results obtained from the evaluation of the biomass and the bioenergy of these residues are 7.9 kt/year and 114.7 TJ/year, respectively. The location for the development of a densified solid biofuels plant to produce pellets from these available residues is proposed for the Siero municipality, which is in the CMA. The plant would have an annual potential production capacity for the conventional pelletization process equivalent to 10 MW of fuel output.

  11. Loss of cellular transformation efficiency induced by DNA irradiation with low-energy (10 eV) electrons.

    PubMed

    Kouass Sahbani, Saloua; Sanche, Leon; Cloutier, Pierre; Bass, Andrew D; Hunting, Darel J

    2014-11-20

    Low energy electrons (LEEs) of energies less than 20 eV are generated in large quantities by ionizing radiation in biological matter. While LEEs are known to induce single (SSBs) and double strand breaks (DSBs) in DNA, their ability to inactivate cells by inducing nonreparable lethal damage has not yet been demonstrated. Here we observe the effect of LEEs on the functionality of DNA, by measuring the efficiency of transforming Escherichia coli with a [pGEM-3Zf (-)] plasmid irradiated with 10 eV electrons. Highly ordered DNA films were prepared on pyrolitic graphite by molecular self-assembly using 1,3-diaminopropane ions (Dap(2+)). The uniformity of these films permits the inactivation of approximately 50% of the plasmids compared to <10% using previous methods, which is sufficient for the subsequent determination of their functionality. Upon LEE irradiation, the fraction of functional plasmids decreased exponentially with increasing electron fluence, while LEE-induced isolated base damage, frank DSB, and non DSB-cluster damage increased linearly with fluence. While DSBs can be toxic, their levels were too low to explain the loss of plasmid functionality observed upon LEE irradiation. Similarly, non-DSB cluster damage, revealed by transforming cluster damage into DSBs by digestion with repair enzymes, also occurred relatively infrequently. The exact nature of the lethal damage remains unknown, but it is probably a form of compact cluster damage in which the lesions are too close to be revealed by purified repair enzymes. In addition, this damage is either not repaired or is misrepaired by E. coli, since it results in plasmid inactivation, when they contain an average of three lesions. Comparison with previous results from a similar experiment performed with γ-irradiated plasmids indicates that the type of clustered DNA lesions, created directly on cellular DNA by LEEs, may be more difficult to repair than those produced by other species from radiolysis.

  12. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, Jeffrey; Heath, Garvin; Macknick, Jordan; Paranhos, Elizabeth; Boyd, William; Carlson, Ken

    2012-11-01

    Domestic natural gas production was largely stagnant from the mid-1970s until about 2005. However, beginning in the late 1990s, advances linking horizontal drilling techniques with hydraulic fracturing allowed drilling to proceed in shale and other formations at much lower cost. The result was a slow, steady increase in unconventional gas production. The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset from the wider dialogue on natural gas; regarding the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity; existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and changes in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns; natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices; and demand for natural gas in the electric sector.

  13. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.; Heath, G.; Macknick, J.; Paranhos, E.; Boyd, W.; Carlson, K.

    2012-11-01

    The Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) designed this study to address four related key questions, which are a subset of the wider dialogue on natural gas: 1. What are the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas compared to conventional natural gas and other fuels used to generate electricity?; 2. What are the existing legal and regulatory frameworks governing unconventional gas development at federal, state, and local levels, and how are they changing in response to the rapid industry growth and public concerns?; 3. How are natural gas production companies changing their water-related practices?; and 4. How might demand for natural gas in the electric sector respond to a variety of policy and technology developments over the next 20 to 40 years?

  14. Pathways of energy transformation in antenna reaction center complexes of Heliobacillus mobilis.

    PubMed

    Neerken, S; Aartsma, T J; Amesz, J

    2000-03-28

    The conversion of excitation energy in the antenna reaction center complex of Heliobacillus mobilis was investigated at 10 K as well as at 275 K by means of time-resolved absorbance difference spectroscopy of isolated membranes in the (sub)picosecond time range. Selective excitation of the primary electron acceptor, chlorophyll (Chl) a 670, and of the different spectral pools of bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) g (BChl g 778, BChl g 793, and BChl g 808) was applied. At 10 K, excitation at 770 or 793 nm resulted on the one hand in rapid energy transfer to BChl g 808 and on the other hand in fast charge separation from excited BChl g 793 ( approximately 1 ps). Once the excitations were on BChl g 808, the bleaching band shifted gradually to the red, from 806 to 813 nm, and charge separation from excited BChl g 808 occurred by a very slow process ( approximately 500 ps). The main purpose of our experiments was to answer the question whether an "alternative" pathway for charge separation exists upon excitation of Chl a 670. Our measurements showed that the amount of oxidized primary donor (P798(+)) relative to that of excited BChl g produced by excitation of Chl a 670 was considerably larger than upon direct excitation of BChl g. This indicates the existence of an alternative pathway for charge separation that does not involve excited antenna BChl g. This effect occurred at 10 K as well as at 275 K. The mechanism for this process is discussed in relation to different trapping models; it is concluded that charge separation occurs directly from excited Chl a 670.

  15. Emerging Roles for the Transforming Growth Factor-β Superfamily in Regulating Adiposity and Energy Expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Nader

    2011-01-01

    Members of the TGF-β superfamily regulate many aspects of development, including adipogenesis. Studies in cells and animal models have characterized the effects of superfamily signaling on adipocyte development, adiposity, and energy expenditure. Although bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) 4 is generally considered a protein that promotes the differentiation of white adipocytes, BMP7 has emerged as a selective regulator of brown adipogenesis. Conversely, TGF-β and activin A inhibit adipocyte development, a process augmented in TGF-β-treated cells by Smads 6 and 7, negative regulators of canonical TGF-β signaling. Other superfamily members have mixed effects on adipogenesis depending on cell culture conditions, the timing of expression, and the cell type, and many of these effects occur by altering the expression or activities of proteins that control the adipogenic cascade, including members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein family and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. BMP7, growth differentiation factor (GDF) 8, and GDF3 are versatile in their mechanisms of action, and altering their normal expression characteristics has significant effects on adiposity in vivo. In addition to their roles in adipogenesis, activins and BMP7 regulate energy expenditure by affecting the expression of genes that contribute to mitochondrial biogenesis and function. GDF8 signals through its own receptors during adipogenesis while antagonizing BMP7, an example of a ligand from one major branch of the superfamily regulating the other. With such intricate relationships that ultimately affect adiposity, TGF-β superfamily signaling holds considerable promise as a target for treating human obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:21173384

  16. The potential of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of milk samples to predict energy intake and efficiency in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    McParland, S; Berry, D P

    2016-05-01

    Knowledge of animal-level and herd-level energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency affect day-to-day herd management strategies; information on these traits at an individual animal level is also useful in animal breeding programs. A paucity of data (especially at the individual cow level), of feed intake in particular, hinders the inclusion of such attributes in herd management decision-support tools and breeding programs. Dairy producers have access to an individual cow milk sample at least once daily during lactation, and consequently any low-cost phenotyping strategy should consider exploiting measureable properties in this biological sample, reflecting the physiological status and performance of the cow. Infrared spectroscopy is the study of the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with matter and it is used globally to predict milk quality parameters on routinely acquired individual cow milk samples and bulk tank samples. Thus, exploiting infrared spectroscopy in next-generation phenotyping will ensure potentially rapid application globally with a negligible additional implementation cost as the infrastructure already exists. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIRS) analysis is already used to predict milk fat and protein concentrations, the ratio of which has been proposed as an indicator of energy balance. Milk FTIRS is also able to predict the concentration of various fatty acids in milk, the composition of which is known to change when body tissue is mobilized; that is, when the cow is in negative energy balance. Energy balance is mathematically very similar to residual energy intake (REI), a suggested measure of feed efficiency. Therefore, the prediction of energy intake, energy balance, and feed efficiency (i.e., REI) from milk FTIRS seems logical. In fact, the accuracy of predicting (i.e., correlation between predicted and actual values; root mean square error in parentheses) energy intake, energy balance, and REI from milk FTIRS in

  17. Photocatalysis versus photosynthesis: A sensitivity analysis of devices for solar energy conversion and chemical transformations

    DOE PAGES

    Osterloh, Frank E.

    2017-01-18

    Here, the chemical literature often does not differentiate between photocatalytic (PC) and photosynthetic (PS) processes (including artificial photosynthesis) even though these reactions differ in their thermodynamics. Photocatalytic processes are thermodynamically downhill (ΔG < 0) and are merely accelerated by the catalyst, whereas photosynthetic processes are thermodynamically unfavorable (ΔG > 0) and require photochemical energy input to occur. Here we apply this differentiation to analyze the basic functions of PC and PS devices and to formulate design criteria for improved performance. As will be shown, the corresponding devices exhibit distinctly different sensitivities to their functional parameters. For example, under conditions ofmore » optimal light absorption, carrier lifetimes, and electrochemical rates, the performance of PCs is limited only by their surface area, while type 1 PS devices are limited by their carrier mobility and mass transport, and type 2 PS devices are limited by electrochemical charge-transfer selectivity. Strategies for the optimization of type 1 and 2 photosynthetic devices and photocatalysts are also discussed.« less

  18. Utilization of satellite cloud information to diagnose the energy state and transformations in extratropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An important component of the research was a continuing investigation of the impact of latent release on extratropical cyclone development. Previous efforts to accomplish this task have focused on the energy balance and the vertical motion field of an intense winter extratropical cyclone over the United States. During this fiscal year researchers turned their attention to a more fundamental diagnostic variable, the height tendency. Central to this effort is the use of a modified form of the quasi-geostrophic height tendency equation, in which geostrophic wind components have been replaced by observed winds and a latent heat release term has been added. This methodology was adopted to produce a simple diagnostic model which retains the essential mechanisms of quasi-geostrophic theory but more faithfully describes observed wave development when the Rossby Number approaches and exceeds 0.5. Results to date indicate that the new model yields height tendencies that are superior to those obtained from the quasi-geostrophic formulation and are sufficiently close to the observed tendencies to be a useful tool for diagnosing the principle large-scale forcing mechanisms in th e700-300 mb layer. Of the three forcing terms included in the new model, vortity advection is in general dominant. The most persistent challenge to this dominance is made by the thermal advection. On the whole, latent heat release plays a secondary role. Finally, during the rapid intensification observed for this cyclone, all three processes complement each other in forcing height falls.

  19. Energy transformations in organometallic complexes. Progress report, July 1, 1984-September 31, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The primary purpose of research projects performed during this report period was to characterize the fundamental photoproperties of a variety of ortho-metalated species. The proposal which was submitted and approved in 1984 describes our initial work on dichloro-bridged dimeric complexes of Ir(III) and Rh(III) with 2-phenylpyridine (ppy) and benzo(h)quinoline (bzq). During 1985 efforts have been expanded to incorporate the additional metal centers, Re(1) and Pd(II), as well as different ortho-metalating ligands including 3-methyl-2-phenylpyridine (mppy), 2-(p-tolylpyridine) (tpy), azobenzene (azb) and 2-phenylpyrimidine (ppyr). In addition, several new, mononuclear complexes of Ir(III) and Rh(III) with various combinations of metallated ppy or bzq and coordinated 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) ligands have been prepared and studied. The goals of studies of these complexes are to provide a basis for evaluating their potential application as photocatalysts and to generally provide initial characterizations of the effects of metal-carbon sigma bonds on the identity, photophysics, and photochemistry of their low energy excited states. For purposes of organization the work described in this report is divided into four projects corresponding to the four graduate students who are currently working in this program. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Utilization of satellite cloud information to diagnose the energy state and transformations in extratropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    An important component of the research was a continuing investigation of the impact of latent release on extratropical cyclone development. Previous efforts to accomplish this task have focused on the energy balance and the vertical motion field of an intense winter extratropical cyclone over the United States. During this fiscal year researchers turned their attention to a more fundamental diagnostic variable, the height tendency. Central to this effort is the use of a modified form of the quasi-geostrophic height tendency equation, in which geostrophic wind components have been replaced by observed winds and a latent heat release term has been added. This methodology was adopted to produce a simple diagnostic model which retains the essential mechanisms of quasi-geostrophic theory but more faithfully describes observed wave development when the Rossby Number approaches and exceeds 0.5. Results to date indicate that the new model yields height tendencies that are superior to those obtained from the quasi-geostrophic formulation and are sufficiently close to the observed tendencies to be a useful tool for diagnosing the principle large-scale forcing mechanisms in th e700-300 mb layer. Of the three forcing terms included in the new model, vortity advection is in general dominant. The most persistent challenge to this dominance is made by the thermal advection. On the whole, latent heat release plays a secondary role. Finally, during the rapid intensification observed for this cyclone, all three processes complement each other in forcing height falls.

  1. Energy transformations early in the bacteriorhodopsin photocycle revealed by DNP-enhanced solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Mak-Jurkauskas, Melody L; Bajaj, Vikram S; Hornstein, Melissa K; Belenky, Marina; Griffin, Robert G; Herzfeld, Judith

    2008-01-22

    By exploiting dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at 90 K, we observe the first NMR spectrum of the K intermediate in the ion-motive photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin. The intermediate is identified by its reversion to the resting state of the protein in red light and by its thermal decay to the L intermediate. The (15)N chemical shift of the Schiff base in K indicates that contact has been lost with its counterion. Under these circumstances, the visible absorption of K is expected to be more red-shifted than is observed and this suggests torsion around single bonds of the retinylidene chromophore. This is in contrast to the development of a strong counterion interaction and double bond torsion in L. Thus, photon energy is stored in electrostatic modes in K and is transferred to torsional modes in L. This transfer is facilitated by the reduction in bond alternation that occurs with the initial loss of the counterion interaction, and is driven by the attraction of the Schiff base to a new counterion. Nevertheless, the process appears to be difficult, as judged by the multiple L substates, with weaker counterion interactions, that are trapped at lower temperatures. The double-bond torsion ultimately developed in the first half of the photocycle is probably responsible for enforcing vectoriality in the pump by causing a decisive switch in the connectivity of the active site once the Schiff base and its counterion are neutralized by proton transfer.

  2. Transforming Markets for Energy-Efficient Buildings in China: Final Report on Activity Conducted by the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) Under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC01-00EE10672 with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, Mark

    2013-09-16

    This report summarizes activity conducted by the Institute for Market Transformation and a team of American and Chinese partners in development of a new building energy-efficiency code for the transitional climate zone in the People's Republic of China.

  3. [Transformation toughening

    SciTech Connect

    Rafa, M.J.

    1993-04-19

    In NiAl, we have succeeded in determining the complete Ginzburg-Landau strain free energy function necessary to model the cubic to tetragonal martensite transformation in a sample of any size. We believe that this is the first time that the parameters of a Ginzburg-Landau functional and the complete strain spinodal for any three-dimensional displacive transformation were used in simulating the transformation near a crack tip under Mode I loading; the transformation pattern and toughening are different from standard transformation toughening theories. Furthermore, the strain spinodal has an approximately conical shape which can be specified by two material dependent experimentally accessible parameters, rather than the ellipsoidal shape in standard theories. Stress induced martensitic transformation in a polycrystalline sample of NiAl was simulated. In the ZrO[sub 2] system, first principles calculations to determine the semi-empirical potentials for simulating the cubic-tetragonal and tetragonal-monoclinic transformations have been started by doing a more elaborate total energy calculation.In the Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] system, we have discovered that the first principles calculations and semi-empirical potentials have just been completed byanother group in England which we will use instead to base our molecular dynamics simulations on.

  4. Existing machine propulsion is transformed by state-of-the-art gearbox apparatus saves at least 50% energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramov, V.

    2013-12-01

    This innovation on www.repowermachine.com is finalist at Clean-tech and Energy of 2012 Minnesota's TEKNE AWARDS. Vehicles are pushed by force of friction between their wheels and land, propellers and water or air according to Third Newton's law of physics of moving. Force of friction is dependent to vehicle weight as highest torque of wheel or propeller for vehicle moving from stop. Friction force DOES NOT dependent to motor power. Why existing SUV of 2,000 lb uses 550 hp motor when first vehicle has 0.75 hp motor (Carl Benz';s patent #37435, January 29, 1886 in Germany)? Gas or magnet field reaches needed torque of wheels too slowly because requires huge motor power for acceleration SUV from 0 to 100 mph for 5 second. The acceleration system by gas or magnet field uses additional energy for increasing motor shaft idle speed and reduces its highest torque of physical volume because necessary to increase motor power that equal/exceed motor power according to vehicle weight. Therefore, any transmission torque DOES NOT NEED and it is use as second brake. Ship, locomotives, helicopters, CNC machine tools, etc motor(s) directly turn wheels, propellers, spindles or ignore to use gear -transmission designs. How do you follow to Creator's physics law of LEVER for saving energy? Existing machine propulsion is transformed by one comprising least numbers of gears and maybe shafts from above state-of-the-art 1,000 gearbox apparatus designs. It is installed or replaced transmission in existing propulsion that is transformed to non-accelerated propulsion. It cuts about 80% mechanical energy that acceleration system wastes in motor heat form, cuts time of movement by reaching each speed for 1-2 seconds. It produces all needed speeds and uses only idle speed of cheapest motor with reduced power and cost that have replaced existing motor too. There is opportunity to eliminate vehicle/machine roads traffics in cities that creates additional unknown GHG emissions Revolutionary

  5. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  6. Effects of Dietary Energy Sources on Post Mortem Glycolysis, Meat Quality and Muscle Fibre Type Transformation of Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yanjiao; Li, Jiaolong; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Changning; Lin, Meng; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Guanghong; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Yuanfang; Nuldnali, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Dietary energy source can influence muscle glycogen storage at slaughter. However, few studies have demonstrated whether the diet-induced change of muscle glycogen is achieved by the transformation of muscle fibre type. This study investigated the effects of dietary energy sources on meat quality, post mortem glycolysis and muscle fibre type transformation of finishing pigs. Seventy-two barrows with an average body weight of 65.0 ± 2.0 kg were selected and were allotted to three iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets A, B or C, and each treatment consisted of three replicates (pens) of eight pigs each. Diet A contained 44.1% starch, 5.9% crude fat and 12.6% neutral detergent fiber (NDF); diet B contained 37.6% starch, 9.5% crude fat and 15.4% NDF; and diet C contained 30.9% starch, 14.3% crude fat and 17.8% NDF. The duration of the experiment was 28 days. After feed withdrawal 12 h, 24 pigs (eight per treatment) were slaughtered, samples from M. longissimus lumborum (LL) were collected for subsequent analysis. The results showed that pigs fed diet C had lesser average daily gain, average daily feed intake and back fat depth than those fed diet A (P<0.05). Diet C increased pH45min (P<0.05) and decreased drip loss (P<0.05) in LL muscles compared with diet A. Meat from pigs fed diet A showed increased contents of lactate and greater glycolytic potential (GP) compared with those fed diet C (P<0.05). Greater mRNA expression of myosin heavy-chain (MyHC)-I and IIa and lesser expression of MyHC-IIx and IIb (P<0.05) in LL muscles were found in pigs fed diet C, than in pigs fed diet A. In addition, pigs fed diet C resulted in downregulation of miR23a and upregulation of miR409 and miR208b (P<0.05), associated with conserved changes of their corresponding targets. These findings indicated that diets containing low starch and high fibre were beneficial in reducing muscle glycolysis, improving meat quality of finishing pigs. This reduction of GP may be partially associated

  7. Wavelet-transform-based power management of hybrid vehicles with multiple on-board energy sources including fuel cell, battery and ultracapacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xi; Mi, Chris Chunting; Masrur, Abul; Daniszewski, David

    A wavelet-transform-based strategy is proposed for the power management of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) with multiple on-board energy sources and energy storage systems including a battery, a fuel cell, and an ultra-capacitor. The proposed wavelet-transform algorithm is capable of identifying the high-frequency transient and real time power demand of the HEV, and allocating power components with different frequency contents to corresponding sources to achieve an optimal power management control algorithm. By using the wavelet decomposition algorithm, a proper combination can be achieved with a properly sized ultra-capacitor dealing with the chaotic high-frequency components of the total power demand, while the fuel cell and battery deal with the low and medium frequency power demand. Thus the system efficiency and life expectancy can be greatly extended. Simulation and experimental results validated the effectiveness of wavelet-transform-based power management algorithm.

  8. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  9. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  10. The Development of Veteran 9th-Grade Physics Teachers' Knowledge for Using Representations to Teach the Topics of Energy Transformation and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the experiences that informed the development of three veteran (15+ years of teaching experience) 9th grade physics teachers' specialized knowledge, or PCK, for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer. Through the lens of phenomenography, the study…

  11. The Development of Veteran 9th-Grade Physics Teachers' Knowledge for Using Representations to Teach the Topics of Energy Transformation and Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the experiences that informed the development of three veteran (15+ years of teaching experience) 9th grade physics teachers' specialized knowledge, or PCK, for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer. Through the lens of phenomenography, the study…

  12. The detection of food soils on stainless steel using energy dispersive X-ray and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, K A; Benson, P S; Verran, J

    2011-09-01

    Organic soiling is a major issue in the food processing industries, causing a range of biofouling and microbiological problems. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used to quantify and determine the biochemical groups of food soils on stainless steel surfaces. EDX quantified organic material on surfaces where oily based residues predominated, but was limited in its usefulness since other food soils were difficult to detect. FT-IR provided spectral 'fingerprints' for each of the soils tested. Key soiling components were associated with specific peaks, viz. oils at 3025 cm(-1)-3011 cm(-1), proteins at 1698 cm(-1)-1636 cm(-1) and carbohydrates at 1658 cm(-1)-1596 cm(-1), 783 cm(-1)-742 cm(-1). High concentrations of some soils (10%) were needed for detection by both EDX and FT-IR. The two techniques may be of use for quantifying and identifying specific recalcitrant soils on surfaces to improve cleaning and hygiene regimes.

  13. Transformation of an active pharmaceutical ingredient upon high-energy milling: A process-induced disorder in Biclotymol.

    PubMed

    Schammé, Benjamin; Couvrat, Nicolas; Malpeli, Pascal; Dudognon, Emeline; Delbreilh, Laurent; Dupray, Valérie; Dargent, Éric; Coquerel, Gérard

    2016-02-29

    This study investigates for the first time the thermodynamic changes of Biclotymol upon high-energy milling at various levels of temperature above and below its glass transition temperature (Tg). Investigations have been carried out by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TM-DSC) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Results indicate that Biclotymol undergoes a solid-state amorphization upon milling at Tg-45 °C. It is shown that recrystallization of amorphous milled Biclotymol occurs below the glass transition temperature of Biclotymol (Tg=20 °C). This displays molecular mobility differences between milled Biclotymol and quenched liquid. A systematic study at several milling temperatures is performed and the implication of Tg in the solid-state transformations generally observed upon milling is discussed. Influence of analysis temperature with respect to interpretation of results was investigated. Finally, it is shown that co-milling Biclotymol with only 20 wt% of amorphous PVP allows a stable amorphous dispersion during at least 5 months of storage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Accurate spectroscopic models for methane polyads derived from a potential energy surface using high-order contact transformations.

    PubMed

    Tyuterev, Vladimir; Tashkun, Sergei; Rey, Michael; Kochanov, Roman; Nikitin, Andrei; Delahaye, Thibault

    2013-12-19

    A new spectroscopic model is developed for theoretical predictions of vibration-rotation line positions and line intensities of the methane molecule. Resonance coupling parameters of the effective polyad Hamiltionians were obtained via high-order contact transformations (CT) from ab initio potential energy surface. This allows converging vibrational and rotational levels to the accuracy of best variational calculations. Average discrepancy with centers of 100 reliably assigned experimental bands up to the triacontad range was 0.74 cm(-1) and 0.001 cm(-1) for GS rotational levels up to J = 17 in direct CT calculations without adjustable parameters. A subsequent "fine tuning" of the diagonal parameters allows achieving experimental accuracy for about 5600 Dyad and Pentad line positions, whereas all resonance coupling parameters were held fixed to ab initio values. Dipole transition moment parameters were determined from selected ab initio line strengths previously computed from a dipole moment surface by variational method. New polyad model allows generating a spectral line list for the Dyad and Pentad bands with the accuracy ~10(-3) cm(-1) for line positions combined with ab initio predictions for line intensities. The overall integrated intensity agreement with Hitran-2008 empirical database is of 4.4% for the Dyad and of 1.8% for the Pentad range.

  15. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  16. Energy transformations associated with the synoptic and planetary scales during the evolution of a blocking anticyclone and an upstream explosively-developing cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.; Tsou, Chih-Hua

    1992-01-01

    The eddy kinetic energy (KE), release of eddy potential energy, generation of eddy kinetic energy, and exchange between eddy and zonal kinetic energy are investigated for a blocking anticyclone over the North Atlantic Ocean and an extratropical cyclone that developed during January 17-21, 1979. The results indicate that KE was maintained by baroclinic conversion of potential to kinetic. As released potential energy was being used to generate KE, a portion of the KE was barotropically converted to zonal KE. These transformations were dominated by the synoptic-scale component. While changes in the mass field depended not only on the synoptic scale but also on the interactions between the synoptic and planetary scales, the corresponding changes in the eddy motion fields responded largely to synoptic-scale processes.

  17. Energy transformations associated with the synoptic and planetary scales during the evolution of a blocking anticyclone and an upstream explosively-developing cyclone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Phillip J.; Tsou, Chih-Hua

    1992-01-01

    The eddy kinetic energy (KE), release of eddy potential energy, generation of eddy kinetic energy, and exchange between eddy and zonal kinetic energy are investigated for a blocking anticyclone over the North Atlantic Ocean and an extratropical cyclone that developed during January 17-21, 1979. The results indicate that KE was maintained by baroclinic conversion of potential to kinetic. As released potential energy was being used to generate KE, a portion of the KE was barotropically converted to zonal KE. These transformations were dominated by the synoptic-scale component. While changes in the mass field depended not only on the synoptic scale but also on the interactions between the synoptic and planetary scales, the corresponding changes in the eddy motion fields responded largely to synoptic-scale processes.

  18. Transformational Learners: Transformational Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marguerite

    2009-01-01

    Transformational learning, according to Mezirow (1981), involves transforming taken-for-granted frames of reference into more discriminating, flexible "habits of mind". In teacher education, transformative learning impacts on the development of students' action theories, self-efficacy and professional attributes. Although considered…

  19. The Transformations of Transformations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Francis Y.

    2000-01-01

    Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)

  20. Component analyses of urinary nanocrystallites of uric acid stone formers by combination of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fast Fourier transformation, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Xue, Jun-Fa; Xia, Zhi-Yue; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to analyse the components of nanocrystallites in urines of patients with uric acid (UA) stones. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), fast Fourier transformation (FFT) of HRTEM, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were performed to analyse the components of these nanocrystallites. XRD and FFT showed that the main component of urinary nanocrystallites was UA, which contains a small amount of calcium oxalate monohydrate and phosphates. EDS showed the characteristic absorption peaks of C, O, Ca and P. The formation of UA stones was closely related to a large number of UA nanocrystallites in urine. A combination of HRTEM, FFT, EDS and XRD analyses could be performed accurately to analyse the components of urinary nanocrystallites.

  1. Thermodynamic properties of Ag2O--B2O3 glasses by a modified scale-transformed energy space sampling Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Hideaki; Aniya, Masaru

    2006-03-01

    The density of states of Ag(2)O--B(2)O(3) glasses has been calculated by using a modified scale-transformed energy space sampling algorithm. This algorithm combines the scale-transformed energy space sampling algorithm and the Wang-Landau method. It is shown how the two algorithms can be combined to improve the efficiency of calculation. The thermodynamic properties, in particular the specific heat C(V), of the above-mentioned glass system is studied. At temperatures above 80 K, the value of specific heat C(v) is close to 22 J/mol/K. At low temperatures, the deviations of C(v) from a T(3) behavior are discernible, that is, C(v)/T(3) exhibits a hump at T = 7 K, which is in good agreement with the reported experimental behavior.

  2. A study on the interplay between energy and matter transformation: the effect of elevated temperatures on the leaf morphology of Vitis vinifera var. Merlot.

    PubMed

    Maze, Jack; Bowen, Patricia; Bogdanoff, Carl

    2003-12-01

    This investigation explores the relationship between increased energy levels and leaf morphology. It tests the idea that the causal agent of development is the dissipation of energy into transformed matter. The energy under which leaves developed was modified by increasing temperatures in grape cordons through wrapping them in clear plastic sleeves in the early spring. At the higher temperatures, and energy levels, there was a small but statistically significant decrease in leaf size and a change in organization the leaves. The decrease in leaf size may be due to a reallocation of resources, either to greater shoot growth as a previous study demonstrated or to the appearance of more vectors of development in the leaves, i.e. the appearance of more developmental subsystems. The leaves that grew under the higher temperature regime were more complex, perhaps indicating that the grapes on those same vines may produce more complex juice, another expression of more developmental subsystems. The change in organization in these leaves that developed at higher temperature argues that the causal agent in plant development is energy dissipation and the concomitant transformation of matter, the latter expressed in the appearance of more growth vectors.

  3. Fluorescence lifetime analyses reveal how the high light-responsive protein LHCSR3 transforms PSII light-harvesting complexes into an energy-dissipative state.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunchul; Akimoto, Seiji; Tokutsu, Ryutaro; Yokono, Makio; Minagawa, Jun

    2017-09-27

    In green algae, light-harvesting complex stress-related 3 (LHCSR3) is responsible for the pH-dependent dissipation of absorbed light energy, a function vital for survival under high-light conditions. LHCSR3 binds the photosystem II and light-harvesting complex II (PSII-LHCII) supercomplex and transforms it into an energy-dissipative form under acidic conditions, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, LHCSR3 modulates the excitation energy flow and dissipates the excitation energy within the light-harvesting complexes of the PSII supercomplex. Using fluorescence decay-associated spectra analysis, we found that, when the PSII supercomplex is associated with LHCSR3 under high-light conditions, excitation energy transfer from light-harvesting complexes to the chlorophyll-binding protein CP43 is selectively inhibited compared with that to CP47, preventing excess excitation energy from overloading the reaction center. By analyzing femtosecond upconversion fluorescence kinetics, we further found that pH- and LHCSR3-dependent quenching of the PSII-LHCII-LHCSR3 supercomplex is accompanied by a fluorescence emission centered at 684 nm, with a decay time constant of 18.6 ps, which is equivalent to the rise time constant of the lutein radical cation generated within a chlorophyll-lutein heterodimer. These results suggest a mechanism in which LHCSR3 transforms the PSII supercomplex into an energy-dissipative state and provide critical insight into the molecular events and characteristics in LHCSR3-dependent energy quenching. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Efficiency and energy requirements for the transformation of organic micropollutants by ozone, O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2.

    PubMed

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Canonica, Silvio; von Gunten, Urs

    2011-07-01

    The energy consumptions of conventional ozonation and the AOPs O(3)/H(2)O(2) and UV/H(2)O(2) for transformation of organic micropollutants, namely atrazine (ATR), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) were compared. Three lake waters and a wastewater were assessed. With p-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA) as a hydroxyl radical ((•)OH) probe compound, we experimentally determined the rate constants of organic matter of the selected waters for their reaction with (•)OH (k(OH,DOM)), which varied from 2.0 × 10(4) to 3.5 × 10(4) L mgC(-1) s(-1). Based on these data we calculated (•)OH scavenging rates of the various water matrices, which were in the range 6.1-20 × 10(4) s(-1). The varying scavenging rates influenced the required oxidant dose for the same degree of micropollutant transformation. In ozonation, for 90% pCBA transformation in the water with the lowest scavenging rate (lake Zürich water) the required O(3) dose was roughly 2.3 mg/L, and in the water with the highest scavenging rate (Dübendorf wastewater) it was 13.2 mg/L, corresponding to an energy consumption of 0.035 and 0.2 kWh/m(3), respectively. The use of O(3)/H(2)O(2) increased the rate of micropollutant transformation and reduced bromate formation by 70%, but the H(2)O(2) production increased the energy requirements by 20-25%. UV/H(2)O(2) efficiently oxidized all examined micropollutants but energy requirements were substantially higher (For 90% pCBA conversion in lake Zürich water, 0.17-0.75 kWh/m(3) were required, depending on the optical path length). Energy requirements between ozonation and UV/H(2)O(2) were similar only in the case of NDMA, a compound that reacts slowly with ozone and (•)OH but is transformed efficiently by direct photolysis.

  5. High-energy X-ray diffuse scattering studies on deformation-induced spatially confined martensitic transformations in multifunctional Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. P.; Wang, Y. D.; Hao, Y. L.; Wang, H. L.; Wang, Y.; Nie, Z. H.; Su, R.; Wang, D.; Ren, Y.; Lu, Z. P.; Wang, J. G.; Hui, X. D.; Yang, R.

    2014-12-01

    Two main explanations exist for the deformation mechanisms in Ti-Nb-based gum metals, i.e. the formation of reversible nanodisturbance and reversible stress-induced martensitic transformation. In this work, we used the in situ synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffuse-scattering technique to reveal the existence of a specific deformation mechanism, i.e. deformation-induced spatially confined martensitic transformations, in Ti-24Nb-4Zr-8Sn-0.10O single crystals with cubic 13 parent phase, which explains well some anomalous mechanical properties of the alloy such as low elastic modulus and nonlinear superelasticity. Two kinds of nanosized martensites with different crystal structures were found during uniaxial tensile loading along the [11 0](beta) axis at room temperature and 190 K, respectively. The detailed changes in the martensitic phase transformation characteristics and the transformation kinetics were experimentally observed at different temperatures. The domain switch from non-modulated martensite to a modulated one occurred at 190 K, with its physical origin attributed to the heterogeneity of local phonon softening depending on temperature and inhomogeneous composition in the parent phase. An in-depth understanding of the formation of stress-induced spatially confined nanosized martensites with a large gradient in chemical composition may benefit designs of high-strength and high-ductility alloys. (C) 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... replacements can be made until adequate stability is reached. 3.5Conversion of Resistance Measurements. (a... required: (a) When the waveform of the applied voltage is non-sinusoidal; and (b) When the core temperature..., then the core temperature of the transformer during no-load loss measurement (Tnm) must be determined...

  7. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Measured quantity Test systemaccuracy Power Losses ±3.0% Voltage ±0.5% Current ±0.5% Resistance ±0.5... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct current resistance (Rdc) of transformer windings by one of the methods outlined in section 3.3....

  8. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Measured quantity Test systemaccuracy Power Losses ± 3.0% Voltage ± 0.5% Current ± 0.5% Resistance ± 0.5... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct current resistance (Rdc) of transformer windings by one of the methods outlined in section 3.3....

  9. 10 CFR Appendix A to Subpart K of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...% Temperature ± 1.0 °C (b) Only instrument transformers meeting the 0.3 metering accuracy class, or better, may... establish the winding temperature at the time of the winding resistance measurement. (b) Measure the direct... methods of section 3.5 must be used to correct load losses to the applicable reference temperature from...

  10. Approaches to the Organization of the Energy Efficient Activity at the Regional Level in the Context of Limited Budget Resources during the Transformation of Energy Market Paradigm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vakulenko, Ihor; Myroshnychenko, Iuliia

    2015-12-01

    The research is devoted to the problem of the assessment of the integrated projects investment efficiency, energy saving and energy efficiency measures for social and municipal buildings within the course aimed at the reduction of the natural gas consumption and its replacement by alternative fuel types, that is important for a number of European countries, and Ukraine in particular. The objectives of the research are as follows: comparative assessment of the quality of integrated and element-by-element approaches to energy saving encompassing investment, environmental, social and organizational aspects; the formulation of practical recommendations to improve the efficiency of development and implementation of integrated programs in the field of energy saving and energy efficiency. It is proposed to use the methodology of system analysis with the elements of deduction that is practical and that allows to set key factors that influence the processes of energy replacement and energy efficiency increase, as well as factors that constrain them.

  11. High Energy Particle Radiation-associated Oncogenic Transformation in Normal Mice: Insight into the Connection between Activation of Oncotargets and Oncogene Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Aravindan, Sheeja; Manickam, Krishnan; Natarajan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Concerns on high-energy particle radiation-induced tumorigenic transformation of normal tissue in astronauts, and in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, emphasizes the significance of elucidating the mechanisms involved in radiogenic transformation processes. Mostly used genetically modified or tumor-prone models are less reliable in determining human health risk in space or protracted post-treatment normal tissue toxicity. Here, in wild type C57BL/6 mice, we related the deregulation of distinctive set of tissue-specific oncotargets in major organs upon 56Fe (600 MeV/amu; 0.5 Gy/min; 0.8 Gy) particle radiation and compared the response with low LET γ-radiation (137Cs; 0.5 Gy/min; 2 Gy). One of the novel findings is the ‘tissue-independent’ activation of TAL2 upon high-energy radiation, and thus qualifies TAL2 as a potential biomarker for particle and other qualities of radiation. Heightened expression of TAL2 gene transcript, which sustained over four weeks post-irradiation foster the concept of oncogene addiction signaling in radiogenic transformation. The positive/negative expression of other selected oncotargets that expresses tissue-dependent manner indicated their role as a secondary driving force that addresses the diversity of tissue-dependent characteristics of tumorigenesis. This study, while reporting novel findings on radiogenic transformation of normal tissue when exposed to particle radiation, it also provides a platform for further investigation into different radiation quality, LET and dose/dose rate effect in healthy organs. PMID:27876887

  12. High Energy Particle Radiation-associated Oncogenic Transformation in Normal Mice: Insight into the Connection between Activation of Oncotargets and Oncogene Addiction.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Aravindan, Sheeja; Manickam, Krishnan; Natarajan, Mohan

    2016-11-23

    Concerns on high-energy particle radiation-induced tumorigenic transformation of normal tissue in astronauts, and in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, emphasizes the significance of elucidating the mechanisms involved in radiogenic transformation processes. Mostly used genetically modified or tumor-prone models are less reliable in determining human health risk in space or protracted post-treatment normal tissue toxicity. Here, in wild type C57BL/6 mice, we related the deregulation of distinctive set of tissue-specific oncotargets in major organs upon (56)Fe (600 MeV/amu; 0.5 Gy/min; 0.8 Gy) particle radiation and compared the response with low LET γ-radiation ((137)Cs; 0.5 Gy/min; 2 Gy). One of the novel findings is the 'tissue-independent' activation of TAL2 upon high-energy radiation, and thus qualifies TAL2 as a potential biomarker for particle and other qualities of radiation. Heightened expression of TAL2 gene transcript, which sustained over four weeks post-irradiation foster the concept of oncogene addiction signaling in radiogenic transformation. The positive/negative expression of other selected oncotargets that expresses tissue-dependent manner indicated their role as a secondary driving force that addresses the diversity of tissue-dependent characteristics of tumorigenesis. This study, while reporting novel findings on radiogenic transformation of normal tissue when exposed to particle radiation, it also provides a platform for further investigation into different radiation quality, LET and dose/dose rate effect in healthy organs.

  13. Diverse dissolution-recrystallization structural transformations and sequential Förster resonance energy transfer behavior of a luminescent porous Cd-MOF.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li-Hui; Li, Hai-Yang; Xu, Hong; Wei, Yong-Li; Zang, Shuang-Quan

    2017-09-12

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with light-harvesting building blocks provide an excellent platform to study energy transfer in networks with well-defined structures. Here, we report the synthesis, dissolution-recrystallization structural transformation (DRST) and the Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) properties of a 2D microporous MOF {[Cd2(L1)3(Hdabco)2]·5DMAc·6H2O}n (Cd-MOF, 1). Complex 1 can be dissolved in water and three other products with different dimensions recrystallized from the aqueous solution under diverse reaction conditions were obtained. Due to the porosity and excellent blue luminescence properties of complex 1, we also studied the FRET process between 1 and guest dyes. Two distinct organic dye molecules viz., acridine orange (AO) and rhodamine B (RhB), are encapsulated in 1 which has honeycomb-type nanochannels, and their influence on fluorescence emission has also been studied. The microporous complex 1 in (AO + RhB)@1 serves as an energy funnel that harvests high energy excitation and channels it onto AO and then onto RhB. The steady-state fluorescence and fluorescence dynamics of emission reveal successfully the process of stepwise vectorial energy transfer. Therefore, MOFs could be a class of promising host materials to be further explored in the field of energy transfer between MOF-host and organic guests.

  14. Determination of the sequence of intersecting lines from laser toner and seal ink by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscope / energy dispersive X-ray mapping.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuanfeng; Li, Bing

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to verify that the combination of Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscope / energy dispersive X-ray mapping could be applied to line intersection problems. The spectral data of red seal ink, laser toner and their intersections, such as peak location and peak intensity, were described. Relative peak height ratios of different chemical components in intersecting lines were used to distinguish the sequences. Energy dispersive X-ray mapping characteristics of intersecting areas were also detailed. The results show that both the laser toner and the seal ink appear on the surface of intersections, regardless of the sequence. The distribution of the two inks on the surface is influenced not only by the sequence of heterogeneous lines but also by diffusion. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy and scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive X-ray mapping are able to explore the chemical components and the corresponding elemental distribution in the intersections. The combination of these two techniques has provided a reliable method for sequencing intersecting lines of red seal ink and laser toner, and more importantly, this method may be a basis for sequencing superimposed lines from other writing instruments.

  15. Anomaly transform methods based on total energy and ocean heat content norms for generating ocean dynamic disturbances for ensemble climate forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Vanya; Hense, Andreas

    2017-08-01

    In our study we use the anomaly transform, a special case of ensemble transform method, in which a selected set of initial oceanic anomalies in space, time and variables are defined and orthogonalized. The resulting orthogonal perturbation patterns are designed such that they pick up typical balanced anomaly structures in space and time and between variables. The metric used to set up the eigen problem is taken either as the weighted total energy with its zonal, meridional kinetic and available potential energy terms having equal contributions, or the weighted ocean heat content in which a disturbance is applied only to the initial temperature fields. The choices of a reference state for defining the initial anomalies are such that either perturbations on seasonal timescales and or on interannual timescales are constructed. These project a-priori only the slow modes of the ocean physical processes, such that the disturbances grow mainly in the Western Boundary Currents, in the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and the El Nino Southern Oscillation regions. An additional set of initial conditions is designed to fit in a least square sense data from global ocean reanalysis. Applying the AT produced sets of disturbances to oceanic initial conditions initialized by observations of the MPIOM-ESM coupled model on T63L47/GR15 resolution, four ensemble and one hind-cast experiments were performed. The weighted total energy norm is used to monitor the amplitudes and rates of the fastest growing error modes. The results showed minor dependence of the instabilities or error growth on the selected metric but considerable change due to the magnitude of the scaling amplitudes of the perturbation patterns. In contrast to similar atmospheric applications, we find an energy conversion from kinetic to available potential energy, which suggests a different source of uncertainty generation in the ocean than in the atmosphere mainly associated with changes in the density field.

  16. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth.

  17. MgH2 → Mg phase transformation driven by a high-energy electron beam: An in situ transmission electron microscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paik, B.; Jones, I. P.; Walton, A.; Mann, V.; Book, D.; Harris, I. R.

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of a phase change have been studied using the electron beam in a transmission electron microscope to transform MgH2 into Mg. The study involved selected-area diffraction and electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). The orientation relation ( ? and ? ), obtained from the electron diffraction study, has been used to propose a model for the movements of magnesium atoms during the phase change. The in situ EELS results have been compared with the existing H-desorption model. The study aims to describe the sorption dynamics of hydrogen in MgH2, which is a base material for a number of promising hydrogen storage systems.

  18. Simulated annealing with restrained molecular dynamics using CONGEN: energy refinement of the NMR solution structures of epidermal and type-alpha transforming growth factors.

    PubMed Central

    Tejero, R.; Bassolino-Klimas, D.; Bruccoleri, R. E.; Montelione, G. T.

    1996-01-01

    The new functionality of the program CONGEN (Bruccoleri RE, Karplus M, 1987, Biopolymers 26:137-168; Bassolino-Klimas D et al., 1996, Protein Sci 5:593-603) has been applied for energy refinement of two previously determined solution NMR structures, murine epidermal growth factor (mEGF) and human type-alpha transforming growth factor (hTGF alpha). A summary of considerations used in converting experimental NMR data into distance constraints for CONGEN is presented. A general protocol for simulated annealing with restrained molecular dynamics is applied to generate NMR solution structures using CONGEN together with real experimental NMR data. A total of 730 NMR-derived constraints for mEGF and 424 NMR-derived constraints for hTGF alpha were used in these energy-refinement calculations. Different weighting schemes and starting conformations were studied to check and/or improve the sampling of the low-energy conformational space that is consistent with all constraints. The results demonstrate that loosened (i.e., "relaxed") sets of the EGF and hTGF alpha internuclear distance constraints allow molecules to overcome local minima in the search for a global minimum with respect to both distance restraints and conformational energy. The resulting energy-refined structures of mEGF and hTGF alpha are compared with structures determined previously and with structures of homologous proteins determined by NMR and X-ray crystallography. PMID:8845748

  19. Dynamics of equilibrium upset and electromagnetic energy transformation in the geomagnetotail: A theory and simulation using particles. 2. Numerical simulation using particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, V. I.; Kropotkin, A. P.

    2007-06-01

    The process of rapid geomagnetotail reconfiguration after the equilibrium upset (substorm activation) has been studied using the numerical simulation. The decisive reconfiguration feature consists in the spontaneous formation of nonlinear kinetic small-scale structures in the position of the initial current sheet (CS). Substantially different reconfiguration channels are possible depending on the value of the magnetic field component normal to CS: the dominating process can be the formation of a collisionless slow magnetosonic shock or a forced kinetic current sheet (FKCS). The first option is presented in this part of the work. During the late stages, the process is independent of the type of an initial disturbance; the disturbance intensity is spontaneously formed at a certain final level. Far from CS, the disturbance has the form of a rarefaction wave propagating from CS in background plasma. The reconfiguration results in a large-scale transformation of electromagnetic energy into the energy of plasma flows and heat.

  20. Influence of sample preparation on the transformation of low-density to high-density amorphous ice: An explanation based on the potential energy landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Starr, Francis W.; Poole, Peter H.

    2017-07-01

    Experiments and computer simulations of the transformations of amorphous ices display different behaviors depending on sample preparation methods and on the rates of change of temperature and pressure to which samples are subjected. In addition to these factors, simulation results also depend strongly on the chosen water model. Using computer simulations of the ST2 water model, we study how the sharpness of the compression-induced transition from low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) is influenced by the preparation of LDA. By studying LDA samples prepared using widely different procedures, we find that the sharpness of the LDA-to-HDA transformation is correlated with the depth of the initial LDA sample in the potential energy landscape (PEL), as characterized by the inherent structure energy. Our results show that the complex phenomenology of the amorphous ices reported in experiments and computer simulations can be understood and predicted in a unified way from knowledge of the PEL of the system.

  1. Martensitic transformation of Ni2FeGa ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy studied via transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H. R.; Ma, C.; Tian, H. F.; Wu, G. H.; Li, J. Q.

    2008-06-01

    The structural properties of Ni2FeGa Heusler alloy synthesized by melt-spinning technique have been systematically studied by means of in situ heating and cooling transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the Ni2FeGa alloy was annealed into a well-defined L21 structure at around 980 K, and complex microstructural domains appeared along with lowering temperature. At room temperature (293 K), a rich variety of micromodulated domains were observed. The domain structures were aligned along the ⟨110⟩ or ⟨100⟩ directions resulting to complex tweed structures. Below martensitic transformation (MT) temperature (Ms,˜142K) , the cubic parent phase transformed into unmodulated martensitic variants and modulated martensitic variants. The variants were alternated along the ⟨100⟩ direction with various arrangements and steplike incommensurate boundaries. The modulated martensitic variants were composed of lamellar structures that have predominately a 5M modulation structure along the ⟨110⟩ directions. The electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of the low-loss region and the electron energy-loss near-edge fine structure revealed a visible change of the electronic structure along with MT, which can be well interpreted by means of intra-atomic or intraband charge redistribution due to spd orbital hybridization among the Ni-Fe-Ga atoms.

  2. Influence of sample preparation on the transformation of low-density to high-density amorphous ice: An explanation based on the potential energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Giovambattista, Nicolas; Starr, Francis W; Poole, Peter H

    2017-07-28

    Experiments and computer simulations of the transformations of amorphous ices display different behaviors depending on sample preparation methods and on the rates of change of temperature and pressure to which samples are subjected. In addition to these factors, simulation results also depend strongly on the chosen water model. Using computer simulations of the ST2 water model, we study how the sharpness of the compression-induced transition from low-density amorphous ice (LDA) to high-density amorphous ice (HDA) is influenced by the preparation of LDA. By studying LDA samples prepared using widely different procedures, we find that the sharpness of the LDA-to-HDA transformation is correlated with the depth of the initial LDA sample in the potential energy landscape (PEL), as characterized by the inherent structure energy. Our results show that the complex phenomenology of the amorphous ices reported in experiments and computer simulations can be understood and predicted in a unified way from knowledge of the PEL of the system.

  3. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the Energy Sector in The Netherlands / Gaz Ziemny A Transformacja Sektora Energii W Holandii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frączek, Paweł; Kaliski, Maciej; Siemek, Paweł

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the conditions for the modernization of the energy sector in the Netherlands following the discovery of natural gas deposits in the country and a rapidly growing importance of this fuel. Hence the paper presents the essence of the model of transition management in the energy sector. It also shows the nature of changes in the structure of primary energy sources in the Netherlands and the decisive factors that led to the prominent role of natural gas in this country. These considerations formed the basis for discussion on the contemporary energy policy in the Netherlands. Celem opracowania jest omówienie uwarunkowań modernizacji sektora energii w Holandii związanych z odkryciem złóż gazu ziemnego w tym kraju oraz szybkim zwiększeniem znaczenia tego paliwa. Dla realizacji tego celu przedstawiono istotę modelu zarządzania zmianą w sektorze energii. Pokazano istotę zmian struktury źródeł energii pierwotnej w Holandii oraz na czynniki decydujące na zwiększenie znaczenia gazu ziemnego w tym kraju. Rozważania te były podstawą do omówienia współczesnej polityki energetycznej w Holandii.

  4. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  5. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  6. A philosophical theory on human communication and modern physics: e(,2)c(,2)H('2)T energy-exchange and consciousness-change toward humanism, healing, and transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins-Tate, Marnishia Laverne

    This dissertation addresses the need for a body of human communication theory that can be useful toward advancing personal and social transformation. Of the humanistic genre, it suggests that there is a need to promote humanism, healing, and personal transformation in the non-clinical settings of everyday living. Three questions guide the effort. First, it asks: what kind of human communication theory might describe some of the underlying dynamics of human interaction, while also suggesting ways to improve the quality of interactions of any related philosophical theory be grounded by some scientific discipline? Then finally, it asks: how might these proposed concepts be captured in a manner that can be useful to human beings in everyday human interaction? Extending the work of modern physics to the realm of human communication, the theory integrates conceptual aspects of quantum theory, relativity theory, communication accommodation theory, and various nonverbal communication theory. Then, it proposes the philosophical framework for a new body of theory which it calls the energy-exchange theory of human communication. Treating human beings as living forms of matter, it suggests that ``energy'' is the life-force that sustains all human beings, and that ``consciousness'' is that qualitative level of development at which energy manifests itself in the human experience. It proposes that human beings have the capacity to exchange energy and influence consciousness during the human communication process, and that these interactions can advance humanism, healing, and transformation-which it proposes are the higher states and levels of human consciousness. Thus, this research effort sought to know and to describe a phenomenon that is the interactive human being; and to suggest useful ways that this volitional being can know and transform itself through human interaction. With verisimilitude as a driving factor in describing human beings as communicators, the research is

  7. High energy halogen atom reactions activated by nuclear transformations. Progress report, February 15, 1979-February 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Rack, E.P.

    1980-02-01

    The program consists of six interrelated areas: (1) Reactions of iodine with alkenes and alkynes activated by radiative neutron capture and isomeric transition in low pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators, high pressure, and liquid systems. Special attention was given to the reactivity of excited complex formation and structural effects of electrophilic iodine attack on various pi-bond systems. (2) The gas-to-condensed phase transition in halogen high energy chemistry. Current interest involves the study of caging effects of an ice lattice on recombination reactions involving neutron-irradiated frozen aqueous solutions of halogenated organic and biochemical solutes in order to learn more about kinetic energy effects, halogen size, solute molecule size, steric effects and hydrogen bonding within an ice lattice cage. (3) Systematics of halogen hot atom reactions. The reactions of /sup 80m/Br, /sup 80/Br, /sup 82m/Br + /sup 82/Br, /sup 82/Br, /sup 82/Br, /sup 128/I, /sup 130/I, and /sup 130m/I + /sup 130/I activated by radiative neutron capture or isomeric transition in hydrocarbons and halo-substituted alkanes in low pressure and high pressure gaseous systems employing additives and rare gas moderators are currently being studied. (4) Mathematical and computer simulation studies of caging events within an ice lattice are being investigated. (5) At Brookhaven National Laboratory, cyclotron-produced chlorine and fluorine hot atoms substitution reactions with molecules possessing a single chiral center are under investigation to determine the role of hot atom kinetic energy, halogen atom, enantioner structure, steric effects and phase on the extent of substitution by retention of configuration or by Walden inversion. (6) The applications of high energy techniques and concepts to neutron activation analysis for trace element determinations in biological systems was continued.

  8. Effects of matrix types on formation and transformation of energy-accumulating substances in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR).

    PubMed

    Li, D; Fang, Z; Long, X; Tang, R; Di, S

    2016-12-30

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) has been widely used in wastewater treatment. In this study, a laboratory investigation of activated sludge in A/O-SBR reactor was conducted to probe the effects of the matrix types on EBPR polyphosphate, intracellular polysaccharide, polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) formation and transformation. There is a decrease in anaerobic condition and an increase in aerobic condition for the intracellular glycogen of sodium propionate matrix and sodium acetate matrix. While the intracellular glycogen of glucose matrix shows a decreasing tendency in both anaerobic and aerobic reaction process. Sodium acetate matrix is beneficial to the formation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), but the content of PHB is relatively small. PHB and poly-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHV) contents in PHA are quite similar in both anaerobic and aerobic reactions with a PHB/PHV ratio of 0.83-1.45. The synthesis of PHV and PHB is mainly in the initial anaerobic stage (0 h - 1 h). Glucose matrix is helpful to the formation of PHV. The content of polymphosphorus shows an increasing tendency in both anaerobic and aerobic stages, suggesting that glucose matrix acclimation of the reactor favors the formation of polymphosphorus.

  9. Spectroscopic investigations of high-energy-density plasma transformations in a simulated early reducing atmosphere containing methane, nitrogen and water.

    PubMed

    Civiš, Martin; Ferus, Martin; Knížek, Antonín; Kubelík, Petr; Kamas, Michal; Španěl, Patrik; Dryahina, Ksenia; Shestivska, Violetta; Juha, Libor; Skřehot, Petr; Laitl, Vojtěch; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2016-10-05

    Large-scale plasma was created in gas mixtures containing methane using high-power laser-induced dielectric breakdown (LIDB). The composition of the mixtures corresponded to a cometary and/or meteoritic impact into the early atmosphere of either Titan or Earth. A multiple-centimeter-sized fireball was created by focusing a single 100 J, 450 ps near-infrared laser pulse into the center of a 15 L gas cell. The excited reaction intermediates formed during the various stages of the LIDB plasma chemical evolution were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) with temporal resolution. The chemical consequences of laser-produced plasma generation in a CH4-N2-H2O mixture were investigated using high resolution Fourier-transform infrared absorption spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas selected ion flow tube spectrometry (SIFT). Several simple inorganic and organic compounds were identified in the reaction mixture exposed to ten laser sparks. Deuterated water (D2O) in a gas mixture was used to separate several of the produced isotopomers of acetylene, which were then quantified using the FTIR technique.

  10. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    SciTech Connect

    Korecko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Cerveny, J.

    2010-10-15

    Since the eighties of the 20th century, various types of linear glass rasters for architectural usage have been developed in the Czech Republic made by the continuous melting technology. The development was focused on two main groups of rasters - active rasters with linear Fresnel lenses in fixed installation and with movable photo-thermal and/or photo-thermal/photo-voltaic absorbers. The second group are passive rasters based on total reflection of rays on an optical prism. During the last years we have been working on their standardization, exact measuring of their optical and thermal-technical characteristics and on creation of a final product that could be applied in solar architecture. With the project supported by the Ministry of Environment of the Czech Republic we were able to build an experimental greenhouse using these active and passive optical glass rasters. The project followed the growing number of technical objectives. The concept of the greenhouse consisted of interdependence construction - structural design of the greenhouse with its technological equipment securing the required temperature and humidity conditions in the interior of the greenhouse. This article aims to show the merits of the proposed scheme and presents the results of the mathematical model in the TRNSYS environment through which we could predict the future energy balance carried out similar works, thus optimizing the investment and operating costs. In this article description of various technology applications for passive and active utilization of solar radiation is presented, as well as some results of short-term and long-term experiments, including evaluation of 1-year operation of the greenhouse from the energy and interior temperature viewpoints. A comparison of the calculated energy flows in the greenhouse to real measured values, for verification of the installed model is also involved. (author)

  11. Balloon energy based on parametric active contour and directional Walsh-Hadamard transform and its application in tracking of texture object in texture background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvilian, Homa; Moallem, Payman; Monadjemi, Amirhassan

    2012-12-01

    One of the popular approaches in object boundary detecting and tracking is active contour models (ACM). This article presents a new balloon energy in parametric active contour for tracking a texture object in texture background. In this proposed method, by adding the balloon energy to the energy function of the parametric ACM, a precise detection and tracking of texture target in texture background has been elaborated. In this method, texture feature of contour and object points have been calculated using directional Walsh-Hadamard transform, which is a modified version of the Walsh-Hadamard. Then, by comparing the texture feature of contour points with texture feature of the target object, movement direction of the balloon has been determined, whereupon contour curves are expanded or shrunk in order to adapt to the target boundaries. The tracking process is iterated to the last frames. The comparison between our method and the active contour method based on the moment demonstrates that our method is more effective in tracking object boundary edges used for video streams with a changing background. Consequently, the tracking precision of our method is higher; in addition, it converges more rapidly due to it slower complexity.

  12. Computer simulation of martensitic transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ping

    1993-11-01

    The characteristics of martensitic transformations in solids are largely determined by the elastic strain that develops as martensite particles grow and interact. To study the development of microstructure, a finite-element computer simulation model was constructed to mimic the transformation process. The transformation is athermal and simulated at each incremental step by transforming the cell which maximizes the decrease in the free energy. To determine the free energy change, the elastic energy developed during martensite growth is calculated from the theory of linear elasticity for elastically homogeneous media, and updated as the transformation proceeds.

  13. In-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction investigation on stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ti-Nb binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.

    2016-01-10

    Microstructure evolution, mechanical behaviors of cold rolled Ti-Nb alloys with different Nb contents subjected to different heat treatments were investigated. Optical microstructure and phase compositions of Ti-Nb alloys were characterized using optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometre, while mechanical behaviors of Ti-Nb alloys were examined by using tension tests. Stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Ti-30. at%Nb binary alloy was in-situ explored by synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD). The results obtained suggested that mechanical behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, especially Young's modulus was directly dependent on chemical compositions and heat treatment process. According to the results of HE-XRD, α"-V1 martensite generated prior to the formation of α"-V2 during loading and a partial reversible transformation from α"-V1 to β phase was detected while α"-V2 tranformed to β completely during unloading.

  14. The influence of moisture on the activation energy of the conductivity of paper-oil insulation of power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kierczyński, Konrad

    2016-09-01

    In the paper presents the influence of moisture content and electric field intensity on the activation energy of the conductivity DC electrical pressboard impregnated with insulating oil in the measuring temperature range of from 20 °C to 80 °C and the electric field intensity range from 10 kV/m to 1000 kV/m. With Arrhenius plots for each of the moisture content and for all seven of the electric field intensity was determined coefficients of determination R2, which are very close to one. This proves the high accuracy of approximation linear experimental results on the Arrhenius plots and highly accurate measurements of conductivity, accurate stabilization and measurements temperature. It was found that the moisture content of range from 1.15% to 6.5% wt. and the electric field intensity does not affect (in the margin of error) on the activation energy value of the DC conductivity, which is (1.0338 +/- 0.02000) eV.

  15. Energy-efficient 0.26-Tb/s coherent-optical OFDM transmission using photonic-integrated all-optical discrete Fourier transform.

    PubMed

    Kang, I; Liu, X; Chandrasekhar, S; Rasras, M; Jung, H; Cappuzzo, M; Gomez, L T; Chen, Y F; Buhl, L; Cabot, S; Jaques, J

    2012-01-16

    We propose a novel energy-efficient coherent-optical OFDM transmission scheme based on hybrid optical-electronic signal processing. We demonstrate transmission of a 0.26-Tb/s OFDM superchannel, consisting of 13 x 20-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed QPSK subcarrier channels, over 400-km standard single-mode fiber (SSMF) with BER less than 6.3x10(-4) using all-optical Fourier transform processing and electronic 7-tap blind digital equalization per subchannel. We further explore long-haul transmission over up to 960 km SSMF and show that the electronic signal processing is capable of compensating chromatic dispersion up to 16,000 ps/nm using only 15 taps per subchannel, even in the presence of strong inter-carrier interference.

  16. Characterization of Japanese color sticks by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Valadas, S.; Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2010-04-01

    This work comprises the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques for the study of the composition of twentieth century traditional Japanese color sticks. By using the combination of analytical techniques it was possible to obtain information on inorganic and organic pigments, binders and fillers present in the sticks. The colorant materials identified in the sticks were zinc and titanium white, chrome yellow, yellow and red ochre, vermillion, alizarin, indigo, Prussian and synthetic ultramarine blue. The results also showed that calcite and barite were used as inorganic mineral fillers while Arabic gum was the medium used. EDXRF offered great potential for such investigations since it allowed the identification of the elements present in the sample preserving its integrity. However, this information alone was not enough to clearly identify some of the materials in study and therefore it was necessary to use XRD and FTIR techniques.

  17. Second Annual Transformative Vertical Flight Concepts Workshop: Enabling New Flight Concepts Through Novel Propulsion and Energy Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Michael R. (Editor); Duffy, Michael; Hirschberg, Michael; Moore, Mark; German, Brian; Goodrich, Ken; Gunnarson, Tom; Petermaier,Korbinian; Stoll, Alex; Fredericks, Bill; Gibson, Andy; Newman, Aron; Ouellette, Richard; Antcliff, Kevin; Sinkula, Michael; Buettner-Garrett, Josh; Ricci, Mike; Keogh, Rory; Moser, Tim; Borer, Nick; Rizzi, Steve; Lighter, Gwen

    2015-01-01

    On August 3rd and 4th, 2015, a workshop was held at the NASA Ames Research Center, located at the Moffett Federal Airfield in California to explore the aviation communities interest in Transformative Vertical Flight (TVF) Concepts. The Workshop was sponsored by the AHS International (AHS), the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and hosted by the NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). This second annual workshop built on the success and enthusiasm generated by the first TVF Workshop held in Washington, DC in August of 2014. The previous Workshop identified the existence of a multi-disciplinary community interested in this topic and established a consensus among the participants that opportunities to establish further collaborations in this area are warranted. The desire to conduct a series of annual workshops augmented by online virtual technical seminars to strengthen the TVF community and continue planning for advocacy and collaboration was a direct outcome of the first Workshop. The second Workshop organizers focused on four desired action-oriented outcomes. The first was to establish and document common stakeholder needs and areas of potential collaborations. This includes advocacy strategies to encourage the future success of unconventional vertiport capable flight concept solutions that are enabled by emerging technologies. The second was to assemble a community that can collaborate on new conceptual design and analysis tools to permit novel configuration paths with far greater multi-disciplinary coupling (i.e., aero-propulsive-control) to be investigated. The third was to establish a community to develop and deploy regulatory guidelines. This community would have the potential to initiate formation of an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F44 Committee Subgroup for the development of consensus-based certification standards for General Aviation scale vertiport

  18. Photoinduced volume change and energy storage associated with the early transformations of the photoactive yellow protein from Ectothiorhodospira halophila.

    PubMed Central

    van Brederode, M E; Gensch, T; Hoff, W D; Hellingwerf, K J; Braslavsky, S E

    1995-01-01

    The photocycle of the photoactive yellow protein (PYP) isolated from Ectothiorhodospira halophila was analyzed by flash photolysis with absorption detection at low excitation photon densities and by temperature-dependent laser-induced optoacoustic spectroscopy (LIOAS). The quantum yield for the bleaching recovery of PYP, assumed to be identical to that for the phototransformation of PYP (pG), to the red-shifted intermediate, pR, was phi R = 0.35 +/- 0.05, much lower than the value of 0.64 reported in the literature. With this value and the LIOAS data, an energy content for pR of 120 kJ/mol was obtained, approximately 50% lower than for excited pG. Concomitant with the photochemical process, a volume contraction of 14 ml/photoconverted mol was observed, comparable with the contraction (11 ml/mol) determined for the bacteriorhodopsin monomer. The contraction in both cases is interpreted to arise from a protein reorganization around a phototransformed chromophore with a dipole moment different from that of the initial state. The deviations from linearity of the LIOAS data at photon densities > 0.3 photons per molecule are explained by absorption by pG and pR during the laser pulse duration (i.e., a four-level system, pG, pR, and their respective excited states). The data can be fitted either by a simple saturation process or by a photochromic equilibrium between pG and pR, similar to that established between the parent chromoprotein and the first intermediate(s) in other biological photoreceptors. This nonlinearity has important consequences for the interpretation of the data obtained from in vitro studies with powerful lasers. PMID:7756529

  19. Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ernest L.

    1977-01-01

    Schools must teach pupils about the wide nature of our energy dilemma and prepare them for a future in which not only will conservation of energy be essential, but also the conservation and preservation of our total natural resources. (JD)

  20. The development of veteran 9th-grade physics teachers' knowledge for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Andrew

    The purpose of this study was to explore and identify the experiences that informed the development of three veteran (15+ years of teaching experience) 9th grade physics teachers' specialized knowledge, or PCK, for using representations to teach the topics of energy transformation and transfer. Through the lens of phenomenography, the study was guided by the assumption that there are a limited number of experiences in which teachers engage throughout their career that contribute in significant ways to the development of their knowledge. The primary sources of data were observations of an entire unit of instruction on energy and a series of four stimulated-recall interviews throughout the unit of instruction. The stimulated recall interviews focused on the participants' instruction and knowledge regarding the representations used throughout the energy unit. These data sources were supported by interviews focused on the participants' work history and professional development as well interviews focused on their unit/lesson plans. The results of the phenomenographic analysis revealed that nine categories of experiences informed the development of the three participant's PCK for using representations to teach the energy topics. The categories included: 1) teaching experience, 2) Physics First professional development, 3) other school district-supported professional development 4) collaboration with current colleagues, 5) past collaboration with experienced teachers, 6) academic experiences as a learner of science, 7) school district expectations, 8) collaboration with university faculty and other university professional development, and 9) non-academic life experiences. The analysis also revealed that as a result of engaging in the nine experiences, the participants developed more integrated knowledge for using representations in their instruction, which included understandings regarding the essential features of specific representations, knowledge of barriers to

  1. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

    2011-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with `natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and

  2. Transformed Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mary Ann; Blombery, Piers; Seymour, John F

    2016-12-01

    Transformed lymphoma is a complex syndrome that encompasses an array of different underlying low-grade lymphoproliferative conditions transforming into more aggressive disease as manifest by morphologic, clinical, and genetic features. Over the last decade, advances in chemoimmunotherapy have led to new options. Knowledge surrounding the genetic changes driving the process of transformation is leading to novel targeted therapies. This article focuses on the transformation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia and follicular lymphoma into diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

  3. A mechano-chemiosmotic model for the coupling of electron and proton transfer to ATP synthesis in energy-transforming membranes: a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Kasumov, Eldar A; Kasumov, Ruslan E; Kasumova, Irina V

    2015-01-01

    ATP is synthesized using ATP synthase by utilizing energy either from the oxidation of organic compounds, or from light, via redox reactions (oxidative- or photo phosphorylation), in energy-transforming membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria. ATP synthase undergoes several changes during its functioning. The generally accepted model for ATP synthesis is the well-known rotatory model (see e.g., Junge et al., Nature 459:364-370, 2009; Junge and Müller, Science 333:704-705, 2011). Here, we present an alternative modified model for the coupling of electron and proton transfer to ATP synthesis, which was initially developed by Albert Lester Lehninger (1917-1986). Details of the molecular mechanism of ATP synthesis are described here that involves cyclic low-amplitude shrinkage and swelling of mitochondria. A comparison of the well-known current model and the mechano-chemiosmotic model is also presented. Based on structural, and other data, we suggest that ATP synthase is a Ca(2+)/H(+)-K(+) Cl(-)-pump-pore-enzyme complex, in which γ-subunit rotates 360° in steps of 30°, and 90° due to the binding of phosphate ions to positively charged amino acid residues in the N-terminal γ-subunit, while in the electric field. The coiled coil b 2-subunits are suggested to act as ropes that are shortened by binding of phosphate ions to positively charged lysines or arginines; this process is suggested to pull the α 3 β 3-hexamer to the membrane during the energization process. ATP is then synthesized during the reverse rotation of the γ-subunit by destabilizing the phosphated N-terminal γ-subunit and b 2-subunits under the influence of Ca(2+) ions, which are pumped over from storage-intermembrane space into the matrix, during swelling of intermembrane space. In the process of ATP synthesis, energy is first, predominantly, used in the delivery of phosphate ions and protons to the α 3 β 3-hexamer against the energy barrier with the help of C-terminal alpha

  4. Institutional Transformation Model

    SciTech Connect

    2015-10-19

    Reducing the energy consumption of large institutions with dozens to hundreds of existing buildings while maintaining and improving existing infrastructure is a critical economic and environmental challenge. SNL's Institutional Transformation (IX) work integrates facilities and infrastructure sustainability technology capabilities and collaborative decision support modeling approaches to help facilities managers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) simulate different future energy reduction strategies and meet long term energy conservation goals.

  5. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  6. Analysis of specific absorption rate and internal electric field in human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil-type transcutaneous energy transmission transformer.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Kenji; Zulkifli, Nur Elina Binti; Ishioka, Yuji

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we analyzed the internal electric field E and specific absorption rate (SAR) of human biological tissues surrounding an air-core coil transcutaneous energy transmission transformer. Using an electromagnetic simulator, we created a model of human biological tissues consisting of a dry skin, wet skin, fat, muscle, and cortical bone. A primary coil was placed on the surface of the skin, and a secondary coil was located subcutaneously inside the body. The E and SAR values for the model representing a 34-year-old male subject were analyzed using electrical frequencies of 0.3-1.5 MHz. The transmitting power was 15 W, and the load resistance was 38.4 Ω. The results showed that the E values were below the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) limit for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.9 and 1.5 MHz, and SAR values were well below the limit prescribed by the ICNIRP for the general public exposure between the frequencies of 0.3 and 1.2 MHz.

  7. Analysis of specific absorption rate and current density in biological tissues surrounding energy transmission transformer for an artificial heart: using magnetic resonance imaging-based human body model.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Naoya; Shiba, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    The transcutaneous energy transmission system used for artificial hearts is a transmission system that uses electromagnetic induction. Use of the TETS improves quality of life and reduces the risk of infection caused by percutaneous connections. This article reports the changes in the electromagnetic effects of TETS that influence a human body when the locations of the air-core coils of the transcutaneous transformer are changed. The specific absorption rate and current density in a model consisting of a human trunk that included 24 different organs are analyzed using an electromagnetic simulator. The air-core coils are located on the pectoralis major muscle near the collarbone in model 1, whereas they are located on the axillary region of the serratus anterior muscle, which overlies the rib in model 2. The maximum current densities in models 1 and 2 are 5.2 A/m(2) and 6.1 A/m(2), respectively. The current density observed in model 2 slightly exceeds the limiting value prescribed by International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). When the volumes of biological tissues whose current densities exceed the limiting value of current density for general public exposure are compared, the volume in model 2 (156.1 cm(3)) is found to be larger than that in model 1 (93.7 cm(3)). Hence, it is speculated that the presence of the ribs caused an increase in the current density. Therefore, it is concluded that model 1 satisfies the ICNIRP standards.

  8. In situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction analysis on phase transformations in Ti-Al alloys processed by equal-channel angular pressing.

    PubMed

    Liss, Klaus Dieter; Whitfield, Ross E; Xu, Wei; Buslaps, Thomas; Yeoh, Lareine A; Wu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Deliang; Xia, Kenong

    2009-11-01

    Mixtures of 47-Al and 53-Ti powders (atomic %) have been consolidated using back pressure equal-channel angular pressing starting with both raw and ball-milled powders. In situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction studies are presented with continuous Rietveld analysis obtained upon a heating ramp from 300 K to 1075 K performed after the consolidation process. Initial phase distributions contain all intermetallic compounds of this system except Al, with distribution maxima in the outer regions of the concentrations (alpha-Ti, TiAl(3)). Upon annealing, the phase evolution and lattice parameter changes owing to chemical segregation, which is in favour for the more equilibrated phases such as gamma-TiAl, alpha(2)-Ti(3)Al and TiAl(2), were followed unprecedentedly in detail. An initial delta-TiH(2) content with a phase transition at about 625 K upon heating created an intermediate beta-Ti phase which played an important role in the reaction chain and gradually transformed into the final products.

  9. Fourier Transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherer, Philipp O. J.

    Fourier transformation is a very important tool for signal analysis but also helpful to simplify the solution of differential equations or the calculation of convolution integrals. An important numerical method is the discrete Fourier transformation which can be used for trigonometric interpolation and also as a numerical approximation to the continuous Fourier integral. It can be realized efficiently by Goertzel's algorithm or the family of fast Fourier transformation methods. For real valued even functions the computationally simpler discrete cosine transformation can be applied. Several computer experiments demonstrate the principles of trigonometric interpolation and nonlinear filtering.

  10. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  11. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  12. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  13. Transformational Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  14. Transformers and the Electric Utility System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

  15. Transformers and the Electric Utility System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2005-01-01

    For electric energy to get from the generating station to a home, it must pass through a transformer, a device that can change voltage levels easily. This article describes how transformers work, covering the following topics: (1) the magnetism-electricity link; (2) transformer basics; (3) the energy seesaw; (4) the turns ratio rule; and (5)…

  16. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  17. Lightweight transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Swallom, D.W.; Enos, G.

    1990-05-01

    The technical effort described in this report relates to the program that was performed to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight transformer for Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) mission requirements. The objectives of this program were two-fold: (1) design and fabricate a lightweight transformer using liquid hydrogen as the coolant; and (2) test the completed transformer assembly with a low voltage, dc power source. Although the full power testing with liquid helium was not completed, the program demonstrated the viability of the design approach. The lightweight transformer was designed and fabricated, and low and moderate power testing was completed. The transformer is a liquid hydrogen cooled air core transformer that uses thin copper for its primary and secondary windings. The winding mass was approximately 12 kg, or 0.03 kg/kW. Further refinements of the design to a partial air core transformer could potentially reduce the winding mass to as low as 4 or 5 kg, or 0.0125 kg/kW. No attempt was made on this program to reduce the mass of the related structural components or cryogenic container. 8 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Triple transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farrukh I.; Schinn, Dustin S.

    2013-08-01

    A new business plan that enables policy transformation and resource mobilization at the national and international level, while improving access to resources, will allow the Green Climate Fund to integrate development goals and action on climate change.

  19. The impact of energy production on the atmosphere: Laboratory and field studies of emissions from oil and gas production and their chemical transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui

    Over the past decades, the rapid development of energy production in the U.S. has led to significant changes in atmospheric emissions and transformation of trace gas and particles, which are still very uncertain and poorly understood. Through laboratory, modeling and field experiments we hope to better understand the trace gas emission and their contribution to secondary organic aerosols (SOA) formation in the oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations. A fast time-response Oxidation Flow Reactor (OFR) is used for the study of SOA formation from oil vapors. The radical chemistry and quantification of OH exposure (OHexp) in the reactor under various conditions were investigated using a photochemical kinetic model. An OHexp estimation equation derived from the model was shown to agree with measurements in several field campaigns. This work further establishes the usefulness of such reactors in atmospheric studies. Motivated from the SOA observations of Gulf of Mexico oil spill, the SOA formation from organic compounds of different volatility in the oil vapors was studied in the laboratory using OFR. We use the evaporation time dependence on volatility of the precursors to quantify their contribution to total SOA formation. This study shows (1) organic compounds of intermediate volatility contribute the large majority of SOA mass formed, (2) the mass spectral signature of SOA shows good agreement with that of ambient SOA formed during oil spill. These results in O&NG operations, the air toxic hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) can be released at wellheads, separation and storage tanks. Here, quantitative, fast time-response measurements of H2S using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass-Spectrometry (PTR-MS) instruments in an O&NG field are presented. A laboratory calibration study was performed to measure the humidity dependent sensitivities of H2S. The close correlation between H2S and CH4 and significant H2S levels downwind of storage tanks suggest that H2S emissions associated with O

  20. Transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Luzinski, Craig

    2011-12-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment?

  1. Implementation of Analytical Energy Gradient of Spin-Dependent General Hartree-Fock Method Based on the Infinite-Order Douglas-Kroll-Hess Relativistic Hamiltonian with Local Unitary Transformation.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yuya; Seino, Junji; Nakai, Hiromi

    2016-05-10

    An analytical energy gradient for the spin-dependent general Hartree-Fock method based on the infinite-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (IODKH) method was developed. To treat realistic systems, the local unitary transformation (LUT) scheme was employed both in energy and energy gradient calculations. The present energy gradient method was numerically assessed to investigate the accuracy in several diatomic molecules containing fifth- and sixth-period elements and to examine the efficiency in one-, two-, and three-dimensional silver clusters. To arrive at a practical calculation, we also determined the geometrical parameters of fac-tris(2-phenylpyridine)iridium and investigated the efficiency. The numerical results confirmed that the present method describes a highly accurate relativistic effect with high efficiency. The present method can be a powerful scheme for determining geometries of large molecules, including heavy-element atoms.

  2. Three Forms of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petursson, Sigthor

    2003-01-01

    Identifies practical ways to introduce students to thermodynamic concepts, such as heat and mechanical energy. Introduces three different energy transformations that everyone should be able to envisage. (SOE)

  3. Psychoanalytic transformations.

    PubMed

    Riolo, Fernando

    2007-12-01

    The author describes how Bion took Freud's conception of dreams as a form of thought and used it as the basis of his theory of transformations. Bion developed an expanded theory of 'dream thought', understood as a process of selection and transformation of sensory and emotional experiences. In this theory, the work of analysis is in turn conceived as a process not only of deciphering symbols, of revealing already existing unconscious meanings, but also of symbol production--of a process for generating thoughts and conferring meaning on experiences that have never been conscious and never been repressed because they have never been 'thought'. Analysis, in its specific operational sense, becomes a system of transformation whereby unconscious somatopsychic processes acquire the conditions for representability and become capable of translation into thoughts, words and interpretations. The rules of transformation applied by the patient in his representations and those applied by the analyst in his interpretations have the same importance for the analytic process as those described by Freud for the process of dreaming. The author discusses the broad categories of transformation adduced by Bion (rigid motion, projective, and in hallucinosis) and introduces some further distinctions within them.

  4. Recyclable transmission line (RTL) and linear transformer driver (LTD) development for Z-pinch inertial fusion energy (Z-IFE) and high yield.

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Robin Arthur; Kingsep, Alexander S. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Smith, David Lewis; Olson, Craig Lee; Ottinger, Paul F. (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Schumer, Joseph Wade (Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC); Welch, Dale Robert (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Kim, Alexander (High Currents Institute, Tomsk, Russia); Kulcinski, Gerald L. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Kammer, Daniel C. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Rose, David Vincent (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Nedoseev, Sergei L. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Pointon, Timothy David; Smirnov, Valentin P.; Turgeon, Matthew C.; Kalinin, Yuri G. (Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, Russia); Bruner, Nichelle "Nicki" (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Barkey, Mark E. (University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL); Guthrie, Michael (University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI); Thoma, Carsten (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Genoni, Tom C. (Voss Scientific, Albuquerque, NM); Langston, William L.; Fowler, William E.; Mazarakis, Michael Gerrassimos

    2007-01-01

    Z-Pinch Inertial Fusion Energy (Z-IFE) complements and extends the single-shot z-pinch fusion program on Z to a repetitive, high-yield, power plant scenario that can be used for the production of electricity, transmutation of nuclear waste, and hydrogen production, all with no CO{sub 2} production and no long-lived radioactive nuclear waste. The Z-IFE concept uses a Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) accelerator, and a Recyclable Transmission Line (RTL) to connect the LTD driver to a high-yield fusion target inside a thick-liquid-wall power plant chamber. Results of RTL and LTD research are reported here, that include: (1) The key physics issues for RTLs involve the power flow at the high linear current densities that occur near the target (up to 5 MA/cm). These issues include surface heating, melting, ablation, plasma formation, electron flow, magnetic insulation, conductivity changes, magnetic field diffusion changes, possible ion flow, and RTL mass motion. These issues are studied theoretically, computationally (with the ALEGRA and LSP codes), and will work at 5 MA/cm or higher, with anode-cathode gaps as small as 2 mm. (2) An RTL misalignment sensitivity study has been performed using a 3D circuit model. Results show very small load current variations for significant RTL misalignments. (3) The key structural issues for RTLs involve optimizing the RTL strength (varying shape, ribs, etc.) while minimizing the RTL mass. Optimization studies show RTL mass reductions by factors of three or more. (4) Fabrication and pressure testing of Z-PoP (Proof-of-Principle) size RTLs are successfully reported here. (5) Modeling of the effect of initial RTL imperfections on the buckling pressure has been performed. Results show that the curved RTL offers a much greater buckling pressure as well as less sensitivity to imperfections than three other RTL designs. (6) Repetitive operation of a 0.5 MA, 100 kV, 100 ns, LTD cavity with gas purging between shots and automated operation is

  5. Designs of pulsed power cryogenic transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Heyne, C.J.; Hackowrth, D.T.; Shestak, E.J.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.

    1988-03-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has completed designs of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These transformers will be configured to transfer their stored energy sequentially to an electro-magnetic launcher and form a three-stage power supply. The pulse transformers will act as two winding energy storage solenoids which provide a high current and energy pulse compression by transforming a 50 kA power supply into a megamp level power supply more appropriate for the electromagnetic launcher duty. This system differs from more traditional transformer applications in that significant current levels do not exists simultaneously in the two windings of the pulse transformer. This paper describes the designs of the pulsed power cryogenic transformers.

  6. Lightweight Transformer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    could be used in any power conditioning circuit, inserted between any power source and load combination. Thus, its applicability is universal and...Typical Current Waveform from the Power Supply with a 5 ß Electrical Load -63- FILTER r—*-. REPRESENTS 16 OTOS IN PARELLEL , TEST / TRANSFORMER

  7. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  8. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  9. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  10. Transformation Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation"…

  11. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  12. Transformative Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popham, W. James

    2008-01-01

    If you're at all skeptical that "formative assessment" is just another buzzword, then here's a book that will change the way you think about the role that formative assessment can play in transforming education into a more powerful and positive process. Renowned expert W. James Popham clarifies what formative assessment really is, why…

  13. Transforming Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cronin, C. H.; Feldman, Phillip

    1994-01-01

    Presents comparisons between the traditional curriculum and the essential learnings curriculum implemented at the Moss Point School District in Moss Point, Mississippi. Describes in detail the curriculum transformation process. Provides insight into the role of technology in the reading/language arts curriculum. (RS)

  14. Transformation Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation"…

  15. Nonprojective Transformations In Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornwell, Dean F.

    1982-02-01

    Optical systems that perform non-projective transformations are rarely synthesized by intent. Most systems familiar in practice are designed to provide the closest approximation to a projective transformation that is allowed by physics, technology, or economy. The advent of the laser brings many new applications for optical transformations - the non-projective variety being a late-comer. Requirements in the fields of laser materials processing, optical data processing, high energy lasers, and laser fusion, just to name those areas already penetrated, lead one to consideration for unconventional grooming of wavefront irradiance profiles. Transformations such as changing a wavefront irradiance distribution from flat-like to gaussian-like, or vice versa, or changing the wavefront area obscuration while maintaining its focusability, are typical examples of applications gaining an increasing interest. Following the laws of geometrical optics, yet violating certain fundamental rules of imaging, the present paper develops principles of design and analysis of non-projective transformations in optics, and explores one possible application.

  16. Rapid analysis of taurine in energy drinks using amino acid analyzer and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as basis for toxicological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Triebel, S; Sproll, C; Reusch, H; Godelmann, R; Lachenmeier, D W

    2007-09-01

    So-called energy drinks with very high amounts of taurine (up to 4000 mg/l are usually granted by certificates of exemption) are increasingly offered on the market. To control the currently valid maximum limits of taurine in energy drinks, a simple and rapid analytical method is required to use it routinely in food monitoring. In this article, we describe a fast and efficient analytical method (FTIR-spectroscopy) that is able to reliably characterize and quantify taurine in energy drinks. The determination of taurine in energy drinks by FTIR was compared with amino acid analyzer (ion chromatography with ninhydrin-postcolumn derivatization). During analysis of 80 energy drinks, a median concentration of 3180 mg/l was found in alcohol-free products, 314 mg/l in energy drinks with spirits, 151 mg/l in beer-containing drinks and 305 mg/l in beverages with wine. Risk analysis of these products is difficult due to the lack of valid toxicological information about taurine and its interferences with other ingredients of energy drinks (for example caffeine and alcohol). So far, the high taurine concentrations of energy drinks in comparison to the rest of the diet are scientifically doubtful, as the advertised physiological effects and the value of supplemented taurine are unproven.

  17. Natural Gas and the Transformation of the U.S. Energy Sector: A Program Studying Multi-sector Opportunities and Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Gossett, S.

    2013-01-01

    In recognition of the major transitions occurring within the U.S. energy economy, the Joint Institute for Strategic Energy Analysis (JISEA) and Stanford University's Precourt Institute for Energy (PIE) engaged energy system stakeholders from government, industry, academia, and the environmental community in a discussion about the priority issues for a program of rigorous research relating to natural gas. Held December 10-11, 2012 on the Golden, CO campus of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the workshop provided invited experts opportunity to describe the state of current knowledge in defined topic areas, and to suggest analytic priorities for that topic area. Following discussion, all stakeholders then contributed potential research questions for each topic, and then determined priorities through an interactive voting process. This record of proceedings focuses on the outcomes of the discussion.

  18. RF transformer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  19. Transformation plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Guenneau, Sébastien; Enoch, Stefan; Huidobro, Paloma A.; Martín-Moreno, Luis; García-Vidal, Francisco J.; Renger, Jan; Quidant, Romain

    2012-07-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons (SPPs) at metal/dielectric interfaces have raised lots of expectations in the on-going quest towards scaling down optical devices. SPP optics offers a powerful and flexible platform for real two-dimensional integrated optics, capable of supporting both light and electrons. Yet, a full exploitation of the features of SPPs is conditioned by an accurate control of their flow. Most efforts have so far focused on the extrapolation of concepts borrowed from guided optics. This strategy has already led to many important breakthroughs but a fully deterministic control of SPP modes remains a challenge. Recently, the field of optics was stimulated by a novel paradigm, transformation optics, which offers the capability to control light flow in any desired fashion. While it has already significantly contributed to the design of metamaterials with unprecedented optical properties, its versatility offers new opportunities towards a fully deterministic control of SPPs and the design of a new class of plasmonic functionalities. Here, we review recent progress in the application of transformation optics to SPPs. We first briefly describe the theoretical formalism of transformation plasmonics, focusing on its specificities over its three-dimensional optical counterpart. Numerical simulations are then used to illustrate its capability to tame SPP flows at a metal interface patterned with a dielectric load. Finally, we review recent experimental implementations leading to unique SPP functionalities at optical frequencies.

  20. Slant transform watermarking for digital images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Anthony T. S.; Zhu, Xunzhan; Shen, Jun

    2003-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a digital watermarking algorithm based on the Slant transform for the copyright protection of images. Our earlier research work associated with the fast Hadamard transform for robust watermark embedding and retrieval of images and characters suggests that this transform could also provide a good "hidden" space for digital watermarking. The Slant transform has many similar properties to the Walsh-Hadamard transform. In terms of transform coding, the Slant transform is considered to be a sub-optimum orthogonal transform for energy compaction. For digital watermarking, the energy spread becomes a significant advantage, as there is now a good spread of middle to higher frequencies with significant energies for robust information hiding. In this paper, an analytical comparative study on the performance of the Slant transform adapting our earlier watermarking schemes for fast Hadamrd transform will be performed based on its robustness against various Stirmark attacks. The performance results of the Slant transform for image watermarking against other transforms such as Cosine transform will also be presented.

  1. Computer Simulation of Martensitic Transformations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rifkin, Jonathan A.

    This investigation attempted to determine the mechanism of martensitic nucleation by employing computer molecular dynamics; simulations were conducted of various lattices defects to see if they can serve as nucleation sites. As a prerequisite to the simulations the relation between transformation properties and interatomic potential was studied. It was found that the interatomic potential must have specific properties to successfully simulate solid-solid transformations; in particular it needs a long range oscillating tail. We've also studied homogeneous transformations between BCC and FCC structures and concluded it is unlikely that any has a lower energy barrier energy than the Bain transformation. A two dimensional solid was modelled first to gain experience on a relatively simple system; the transformation was from a square lattice to a triangular one. Next a three dimensional system was studied whose interatomic potential was chosen to mimic sodium. Because of the low transition temperature (18K) the transformation from the low temperature phase to high temperature phase was studied (FCC to BCC). The two dimensional system displayed many phenomena characteristic of real martensitic systems: defects promoted nucleation, the martensite grew in plates, some plates served to nucleate new plates (autocatalytic nucleation) and some defects gave rise to multiple plates (butterfly martensite). The three dimensional system did not undergo a permanent martensitic transformation but it did show signs of temporary transformations where some martensite formed and then dissipated. This happened following the dissociation of a screw dislocation into two partial dislocations.

  2. A System of Systems (SoS) Approach to transforming to a low carbon resource-efficient energy system: Insights for the European Union (EU)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madani, K.; Jess, T.; Mahlooji, M.; Ristic, B.

    2015-12-01

    The world's energy sector is experiencing a serious transition from reliance on fossil fuel energy sources to extensive reliance on renewable energies. Europe is leading the way in this transition to a low carbon economy in an attempt to keep climate change below 2oC. Member States have committed themselves to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% and increasing the share of renewables in the EU's energy mix to 20% by 2020. The EU has now gone a step further with the objective of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 80-95% by 2050. Nevertheless, the short-term focus of the European Commission is at "cost-efficient ways" to cut its greenhouse gas emissions which forgoes the unintended impacts of a large expansion of low-carbon energy technologies on major natural resources such as water and land. This study uses the "System of Systems (SoS) Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment" (Hadian and Madani, 2015) to evaluate the Relative Aggregate Footprint (RAF) of energy sources in different European Union (EU) member states. RAF reflects the overall resource-use efficiency of energy sources with respect to four criteria: carbon footprint, water footprint, land footprint, and economic cost. Weights are assigned to the four resource use efficiency criteria based on each member state's varying natural and economic resources to examine the changes in the desirability of energy sources based on regional resource availability conditions, and to help evaluating the overall resource use efficiency of the EU's energy portfolio. A longer-term strategy in Europe has been devised under the "Resource Efficient Europe" flagship imitative intended to put the EU on course to using resources in a sustainable way. This study will highlight the resource efficiency of the EU's energy sector in order to assist in a sustainable transition to a low carbon economy in Europe. ReferenceHadian S, Madani K (2015) A System of Systems Approach to Energy Sustainability Assessment: Are All

  3. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    DOEpatents

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  4. Designs of pulsed power cryogenic transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.K.; Heyne, C.J.; Hackworth, D.T.; Shestak, E.J.; Eckels, P.W.; Rogers, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation has completed designs of three pulsed power cryogenic transformers for the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These transformers will be configured to transfer their stored energy sequentially to an electromagnetic launcher and form a three-stage power supply. The pulse transformers will act as two winding energy storage solenoids which provide a high current and energy pulse compression by transforming a 50 kA power supply into a megamp level power supply more appropriate for the electromagnetic launcher duty. This system differs from more traditional transformer applications in that significant current levels do not exist simultaneously in the two windings of the pulse transformer. This paper describes the designs of the pulsed power cryogenic transformers.

  5. Experimental Evidence of Long-Range Intramolecular Vibrational Energy Redistribution through Eight Covalent Bonds: NIR Irradiation Induced Conformational Transformation of E-Glutaconic Acid.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Benjámin; Kuş, Nihal; Tarczay, György; Fausto, Rui

    2017-05-11

    Long-range intramolecular vibrational energy redistribution (IVR) driven conformational changes were investigated in a matrix-isolated open-chain, asymmetrical dicarboxylic acid, E-glutaconic acid. Although the analysis was challenging due to the presence of multiple backbone conformers and short lifetimes of the prepared higher energy cis conformers, it was shown that the selective excitation of the O-H stretching overtone of one of the carboxylic groups can induce the conformational change (trans to cis) of the other carboxylic group, located at the other end of the E-glutaconic acid molecule. This is a direct proof that the IVR process can act through eight covalent bonds in a flexible molecule before the excess energy completely dissipates into the matrix. The lifetime of the prepared higher energy conformers (averaged over the different backbones) was measured to be 12 s.

  6. High-temperature superconducting transformer evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    DeSteese, J.G.; Dagle, J.E.; Dirks, J.A.

    1995-04-01

    The advancing development of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials is encouraging the evaluation of many practical applications. This paper summarizes a study that examined the future potential of HTS power transformers in the 30-MVA to 1000-MVA capacity range. Transformer performance was characterized on the basis of potentially achievable HTS materials capabilities and dominant transformer design parameters. Life-cycle costs were estimated and compared with those of conventional transformers to evaluate the economic viability and market potential of HTS designs. HTS transformers are projected to have both capital and energy cost advantages attributable to their ability to be intrinsically smaller and lighter than conventional transformers of comparable capacity.

  7. Hamlet's Transformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  8. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  9. Rotary Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  10. 10 CFR 429.47 - Distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Distribution transformers. 429.47 Section 429.47 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.47 Distribution transformers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to distribution...

  11. 10 CFR 429.47 - Distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Distribution transformers. 429.47 Section 429.47 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.47 Distribution transformers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to distribution...

  12. 10 CFR 429.47 - Distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Distribution transformers. 429.47 Section 429.47 Energy... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Certification § 429.47 Distribution transformers. (a) Sampling plan for selection of units for testing. (1) The requirements of § 429.11 are applicable to distribution...

  13. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  14. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.

    1980-01-01

    The theory of eutectic transformation was examined to find guidelines to the best material combinations to examine. The heats of transformation were measured calorimetrically, and the volume changes of expanding solid mixtures and homogeneous liquid solutions, especially during the transformation between the two states at fixed temperature, were measured by changes in X-ray absorption. Heat flow models appropriate to storage in phase change materials were developed along with efficient calculating procedures so that the relative importance of the problems associated with energy storage density, heat conduction, and similar properties could be assessed.

  15. Intelligent Transformer: Possibilities and Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viktor, Beldjajev; Indrek, Roasto; Tõnu, Lehtla

    2011-01-01

    This paper covers the concept of an intelligent transformer that is a good candidate to replace a conventional low frequency transformer in the microgrids. As the power production and consumption can vary in a wide range, the new substations have to meet many requirements to guarantee reliable energy management in the autonomous networks. Different topologies of intelligent transformers can be used to meet these requirements. Therefore the advantages and disadvantages of the existing topologies were analyzed. The future trends and challenges are also discussed.

  16. Biophysical cancer transformation pathway.

    PubMed

    Pokorný, J

    2009-01-01

    Coherent vibration states in biological systems excited in nonlinear electrically polar structures by metabolic energy supply were postulated by H. Fröhlich. Fröhlich's requirements for coherent vibrations and generation of electromagnetic field are satisfied by microtubules whose subunits are electric dipoles. Static electric field around mitochondria and "wasted energy" efflux from them provide nonlinear conditions and coherent excitation. Numerical models are used for analysis of coherent vibration states. A hypothesis is presented that dysfunction of mitochondria (i.e., extinction of the zones of the static electric field and of the efflux of "wasted energy") and disintegration of the cytoskeleton on the pathway of cancer transformation result in disturbances of coherence of the cellular electrically polar oscillations and of the generated electromagnetic field with consequences in cellular organization and interactions between cells. Local invasion, detachment, and metastasis of cancer cells are subsequent events of disturbed electromagnetic interactions.

  17. [Transformation toughening]. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rafa, M.J.

    1993-04-19

    In NiAl, we have succeeded in determining the complete Ginzburg-Landau strain free energy function necessary to model the cubic to tetragonal martensite transformation in a sample of any size. We believe that this is the first time that the parameters of a Ginzburg-Landau functional and the complete strain spinodal for any three-dimensional displacive transformation were used in simulating the transformation near a crack tip under Mode I loading; the transformation pattern and toughening are different from standard transformation toughening theories. Furthermore, the strain spinodal has an approximately conical shape which can be specified by two material dependent experimentally accessible parameters, rather than the ellipsoidal shape in standard theories. Stress induced martensitic transformation in a polycrystalline sample of NiAl was simulated. In the ZrO{sub 2} system, first principles calculations to determine the semi-empirical potentials for simulating the cubic-tetragonal and tetragonal-monoclinic transformations have been started by doing a more elaborate total energy calculation.In the Al{sub 2}0{sub 3} system, we have discovered that the first principles calculations and semi-empirical potentials have just been completed byanother group in England which we will use instead to base our molecular dynamics simulations on.

  18. Energy Informatics Panel (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Brodt-Giles, D.

    2012-06-01

    Designed to be the world's most comprehensive, open, and collaborative energy information network, Open Energy Information (OpenEI - openei.org) supplies essential energy data to decision makers and supports a global energy transformation. The platform, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is intended for global contribution and collaboration.

  19. Experimental Investigations of the Internal Energy of Molecules Evaporated via Laser-induced Acoustic Desorption into a Fourier-transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer (LIAD/FT-ICR)

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Ryan C.; Petzold, Christopher J.; Liu, Ji-ang; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2008-01-01

    The internal energy of neutral gas-phase organic and biomolecules, evaporated by means of laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) into a Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR), was investigated through several experimental approaches. The desorbed molecules were demonstrated not to undergo degradation during the desorption process by collecting LIAD-evaporated molecules and subjecting them to analysis by electrospray ionization/quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometry. Previously established gas-phase basicity (GB) values were remeasured for LIAD-evaporated organic molecules and biomolecules with the use of the bracketing method. No endothermic reactions were observed. The remeasured basicity values are in close agreement with the values reported in the literature. The amount of internal energy deposited during LIAD is concluded to be less than a few kcal/mol. Chemical ionization with a series of proton transfer reagents was employed to obtain a breakdown curve for a protonated dipeptide, val-pro, evaporated by LIAD. Comparison of this breakdown curve with a previously published analogous curve obtained by using substrate-assisted laser desorption (SALD) to evaporate the peptide suggests that the molecules evaporated via LIAD have less internal energy than those evaporated via SALD. PMID:17263513

  20. Energy Theater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daane, Abigail R.; Wells, Lindsay; Scherr, Rachel E.

    2014-05-01

    Energy Theater is a dynamic, full-body activity that engages all students in representing the flow of energy in various phenomena, such as a light bulb burning steadily or a refrigerator cooling food. In Energy Theater, each participant acts as a unit of energy that has one form at a time. Regions on the floor correspond to objects in a physical scenario, and participants move from one region to another to demonstrate the flow of energy among objects. (See Figs. 1, 3, and 4.) The goal of Energy Theater is for students to track energy transfers and transformations in real-world energy scenarios while employing the principle of energy conservation and disambiguating matter and energy. Unlike most representations of energy, which are static before-and-after accounting schemes for energy changes, Energy Theater is a dynamic representation that provides a natural stepping stone toward the more advanced ideas of energy density, energy current, and a continuity equation relating them. The fact that conservation of energy is embedded in the representation encourages students to "find the energy" in situations where it may be imperceptible. The rules of Energy Theater are listed in Fig. 2.

  1. Crystallizations, solid-state phase transformations and dissolution behavior explained by dispersive kinetic models based on a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of activation energies: theory, applications, and practical limitations.

    PubMed

    Skrdla, Peter J

    2009-08-20

    The potential applications of dispersive kinetic models range from solid-state conversions to gas-phase chemical physics and to microbiology. Here, the derivation and application of two such models, for use in solid-state applications, is presented. The models are based on the concept of a Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of activation energies. The ability of the models to fit/explain an assortment of asymmetric, sigmoidal conversion-versus-time transients presented in the recent literature, as well as to provide physicochemical interpretations of the kinetics via the two fit parameters, alpha and beta, makes them a powerful tool for understanding nucleation/denucleation rate-limited processes that are involved in many phase transformations, dissolutions and crystallizations.

  2. In-situ investigation of stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ti–Nb binary alloys with low Young's modulus [In-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction investigation on stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ti-Nb binary alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, L. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.

    2015-11-04

    Microstructure evolution, mechanical behaviors of cold rolled Ti-Nb alloys with different Nb contents subjected to different heat treatments were investigated. Here, optical microstructure and phase compositions of Ti-Nb alloys were characterized using optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometre, while mechanical behaviors of Ti-Nb alloys were examined by using tension tests. Stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Ti-30. at%Nb binary alloy was in-situ explored by synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD). The results obtained suggested that mechanical behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, especially Young's modulus was directly dependent on chemical compositions and heat treatment process. According to the results of HE-XRD, α"-V1 martensite generated prior to the formation of α"-V2 during loading and a partial reversible transformation from α"-V1 to β phase was detected while α"-V2 tranformed to β completely during unloading.

  3. In-situ investigation of stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ti–Nb binary alloys with low Young's modulus [In-situ high-energy X-ray diffraction investigation on stress-induced martensitic transformation in Ti-Nb binary alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Chang, L. L.; Wang, Y. D.; Ren, Y.

    2015-11-04

    Microstructure evolution, mechanical behaviors of cold rolled Ti-Nb alloys with different Nb contents subjected to different heat treatments were investigated. Here, optical microstructure and phase compositions of Ti-Nb alloys were characterized using optical microscopy and X-ray diffractometre, while mechanical behaviors of Ti-Nb alloys were examined by using tension tests. Stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Ti-30. at%Nb binary alloy was in-situ explored by synchrotron-based high-energy X-ray diffraction (HE-XRD). The results obtained suggested that mechanical behavior of Ti-Nb alloys, especially Young's modulus was directly dependent on chemical compositions and heat treatment process. According to the results of HE-XRD, α"-V1 martensite generated priormore » to the formation of α"-V2 during loading and a partial reversible transformation from α"-V1 to β phase was detected while α"-V2 tranformed to β completely during unloading.« less

  4. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  5. Lattice strain alteration and activation energy of phase transformation of TiO2 nanorods doped with silver and iron oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riazian, M.

    2013-10-01

    TiO2 nanorods are synthesized by a thermal corrosion. In present work, synthesis of TiO2 nanorods in anatase, rutile and Ti8O15 phases, TiO2 nanorods embedded with silver and iron oxides as dopant by using the sol-gel method and alkaline corrosion are reported. The morphologies and crystal structures of TiO2 nanorods are characterized by use of field emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and X-ray diffractometer techniques. The obtained results illustrate an aggregative structure at high calcined temperatures with production of spherical particles. The effects of chemical compositions and calcined temperatures on surface topography and crystallization of phases are studied. Moreover, activation energy of nanoparticles formation in pure and doped state are calculated during thermal treatment.

  6. [Technique for the determination of the quantum yield of the primary process in the course of photosynthesis energy transformation. III. Experimental data obtained for different photosynthetic organisms].

    PubMed

    Barskiĭ, E L; Borisov, A Iu; Il'ina, M D; Samuilov, V D; Fetisova, Z G

    1975-01-01

    A relative method in two modifications has been developed for determination of the quantum yield of primary photosynthesis energy conversion. The purple bacteria E. chaposhnikovii and Chr. minutissimum, R. rubrum chromatophores, cell extracts of E. shaposhnikovii, Rps. spheroides strains GA and R-26, pigment-protein complexes from green bacterium Chl. limicola and light subchloroplast particles, enriched in the photosystem I, were investigated. The quantum yields for all these objects were shown to be 90-98%. The accuracy of the relative method used is very high (within 2--4+). The photosynthetic units were proved to be of a multicentral type for all these systems. The quantum yield values permit estimation of the coefficient of efficiency of the primary conversion process as being approximately equal to 35-38% for bacteria and approximately equal to 50% plants.

  7. Transform coding for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Data compression coding requirements for aerospace applications differ somewhat from the compression requirements for entertainment systems. On the one hand, entertainment applications are bit rate driven with the goal of getting the best quality possible with a given bandwidth. Science applications are quality driven with the goal of getting the lowest bit rate for a given level of reconstruction quality. In the past, the required quality level has been nothing less than perfect allowing only the use of lossless compression methods (if that). With the advent of better, faster, cheaper missions, an opportunity has arisen for lossy data compression methods to find a use in science applications as requirements for perfect quality reconstruction runs into cost constraints. This paper presents a review of the data compression problem from the space application perspective. Transform coding techniques are described and some simple, integer transforms are presented. The application of these transforms to space-based data compression problems is discussed. Integer transforms have an advantage over conventional transforms in computational complexity. Space applications are different from broadcast or entertainment in that it is desirable to have a simple encoder (in space) and tolerate a more complicated decoder (on the ground) rather than vice versa. Energy compaction with new transforms are compared with the Walsh-Hadamard (WHT), Discrete Cosine (DCT), and Integer Cosine (ICT) transforms.

  8. Solid State Transformer Concept Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    stealdonstbutos nottdlmonstrete D slto hrceiti fnra rnfres *~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~Pr Several chaacteicsoftenia ci appear ver attacve such asice Wdvlerglto and...level at. the generating source, distribute the energy via transmission lines at the high level, then transform the voltage back down to a lower level...energy consciousness and envi- ronmental restrictions, all aspects of electrical hardware engineering - from power generation through distribution to

  9. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  10. Entanglement continuous unitary transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román

    2017-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.

  11. GREENER SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are expedited because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The MW application under s...

  12. GREENER SYNTHETIC TRANSFORMATIONS USING MICROWAVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microwave irradiation has been used for a variety of organic transformations wherein chemical reactions are expedited because of selective adsorption of microwave (MW) energy by polar molecules, non-polar molecules being inert to the MW dielectric loss. The MW application under s...

  13. Dynamics of equilibrium upset and electromagnetic energy transformation in the geomagnetotail: A theory and simulation using particles. 3. Versions of formation of thin current sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domrin, V. I.; Kropotkin, A. P.

    2007-10-01

    The final part of the study is devoted to the process of rapid reconfiguration of the geomagnetotail after the upset of the equilibrium, i.e., to substorm activation. Such a version of spontaneous formation of nonlinear kinetic small-scale structures at the site occupied by an initial current sheet (CS), which results in the formation of a specific equilibrium current structure with strong ion anisotropy (forced kinetic current sheet, FKCS), has been revealed in the course of numerical simulation. This reconfiguration “channel” is realized when the relative value of the magnetic field component normal to CS is smaller than a certain critical value. In this case the disturbance intensity is SPONTANEOUSLY settled at a certain final level at the late stages. The obtained results are compared with the previous study of the system evolution under the action of the external trigger. The physical causes and specific features of different CS evolution regimes are considered. The studied plasma mechanisms are responsible for the effects of rapid energy transformation—magnetic field “annihilation”—that took place in the geomagnetotail.

  14. The Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave Cp-Ftmw Spectrum and Potential Energy Calculations for AN Aromatic Claisen Rearrangement Molecule, Allyl Phenyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grubbs, G. S. Grubbs, Ii; Cooke, S. A.; Novick, Stewart E.

    2012-06-01

    Claisen rearrangement ethers are a fundamental organic, pericyclic rearrangement reaction reagent. In the mechanism of a Claisen rearrangement, a vinyl allyl ether is needed to provide the necessary Lewis acid/base sites on the molecule for the rearrangement and are simply heated. This rearrangement was first discovered by heating up the title molecule, allyl phenyl ether. However, much like the Diels-Alder, Cope, and other pericyclic reactions, conformation and coordination of chemical groups is key to the Claisen mechanism. In this study, the authors present some structural characteristics of allyl phenyl ether from an analysis of the microwave spectra in the 8-14 GHz region using a CP-FTMW spectrometer. This is, to the authors knowledge, the first known microwave region study of the title molecule. Three conformers have been observed and assigned to date and will be discussed. Along with the rotational spectra, geometry calculations and potential energy surfaces performed at the MP2/6-311G++(3d,2p) level will be discussed and compared to the experimental results. Modeling the Claisen aromatic rearrangement mechanism using CP-FTMW spectroscopy will also be discussed. L. Claisen Chemische Berichte 45, 3157, October 1912.

  15. Direct Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Direct energy conversion involves energy transformation without moving parts. The concepts of direct and dynamic energy conversion plus the laws governing energy conversion are investigated. Among the topics…

  16. Hough transform from the radon transform.

    PubMed

    Deans, S R

    1981-02-01

    An appropriate special case of a transform developed by J. Radon in 1917 is shown to have the major properties of the Hough transform which is useful for finding line segments in digital pictures. Such an observation may be useful in further efforts to generalize the Hough transform. Techniques for applying the Radon transform to lines and pixels are developed through examples, and the appropriate generalization to arbitrary curves is discussed.

  17. The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villegas-Blas, Carlos

    2002-05-01

    This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]—when the configuration space is the two-sphere S2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S3. It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C3 or C4. We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L2(S2) or L2(S3), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms.

  18. Transforming Power Systems through Global Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-04-01

    Ambitious and integrated policy and regulatory frameworks are crucial to achieve power system transformation. The 21st Century Power Partnership -- a multilateral initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial -- serves as a platform for public-private collaboration to advance integrated solutions for the large-scale deployment of renewable energy in combination with energy efficiency and grid modernization.

  19. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in this issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.

  20. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.

  1. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part II

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-10-30

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance. In this issue, aspects of liquid–solid and solid-state phase transformations and microstructural evolution are highlighted. Many papers in thismore » issue are highlighted by this paper, giving a brief summary of what they bring to the scientific community.« less

  2. Phase Transformations and Microstructural Evolution: Part I

    DOE PAGES

    Clarke, Amy Jean

    2015-08-29

    The activities of the Phase Transformations Committee of the Materials Processing & Manufacturing Division (MPMD) of The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) are oriented toward understanding the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Emphasis is placed on the thermodynamic driving forces for phase transformations, the kinetics of nucleation and growth, interfacial structures and energies, transformation crystallography, surface reliefs, and, above all, the atomic mechanisms of phase transformations. Phase transformations and microstructural evolution are directly linked to materials processing, properties, and performance, including in extreme environments, of structural metal alloys. In this paper, aspects of phase transformations and microstructural evolution aremore » highlighted from the atomic to the microscopic scale for ferrous and non-ferrous alloys. Many papers from this issue are highlighted with small summaries of their scientific achievements given.« less

  3. Crystal Level Continuum Modeling of Phase Transformations: The (alpha) <--> (epsilon) Transformation in Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, N R; Benson, D J; Becker, R; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M

    2004-10-18

    We present a crystal level model for thermo-mechanical deformation with phase transformation capabilities. The model is formulated to allow for large pressures (on the order of the elastic moduli) and makes use of a multiplicative decomposition of the deformation gradient. Elastic and thermal lattice distortions are combined into a single lattice stretch to allow the model to be used in conjunction with general equation of state relationships. Phase transformations change the mass fractions of the material constituents. The driving force for phase transformations includes terms arising from mechanical work, from the temperature dependent chemical free energy change on transformation, and from interaction energy among the constituents. Deformation results from both these phase transformations and elasto-viscoplastic deformation of the constituents themselves. Simulation results are given for the {alpha} to {epsilon} phase transformation in iron. Results include simulations of shock induced transformation in single crystals and of compression of polycrystals. Results are compared to available experimental data.

  4. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic

  5. Radiogenic cell transformation and carcinogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Georgy, K. A.; Mei, M.; Durante, M.; Craise, L. M.

    1995-01-01

    Radiation carcinogenesis is one of the major biological effects considered important in the risk assessment for space travel. Various biological model systems, including both cultured cells and animals, have been found useful for studying the carcinogenic effects of space radiations, which consist of energetic electrons, protons and heavy ions. The development of techniques for studying neoplastic cell transformation in culture has made it possible to examine the cellular and molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. Cultured cell systems are thus complementary to animal models. Many investigators have determined the oncogenic effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation in cultured mammalian cells. One of the cell systems used most often for radiation transformation studies is mouse embryonic cells (C3H10T1/2), which are easy to culture and give good quantitative dose-response curves. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for heavy ions with various energies and linear energy transfer (LET) have been obtained with this cell system. Similar RBE and LET relationship was observed by investigators for other cell systems. In addition to RBE measurements, fundamental questions on repair of sub- and potential oncogenic lesions, direct and indirect effect, primary target and lesion, the importance of cell-cell interaction and the role of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in radiogenic carcinogenesis have been studied, and interesting results have been found. Recently several human epithelial cell systems have been developed, and ionizing radiation have been shown to transform these cells. Oncogenic transformation of these cells, however, requires a long expression time and/or multiple radiation exposures. Limited experimental data indicate high-LET heavy ions can be more effective than low-LET radiation in inducing cell transformation. Cytogenetic and molecular analyses can be performed with cloned transformants to provide insights into basic genetic

  6. Self-organization, transformity, and information.

    PubMed

    Odum, H T

    1988-11-25

    Ecosystems and other self-organizing systems develop system designs and mathematics that reinforce energy use, characteristically with alternate pulsing of production and consumption, increasingly recognized as the new paradigm. Insights from the energetics of ecological food chains suggest the need to redefine work, distinguishing kinds of energy with a new quantity, the transformity (energy of one type required per unit of another). Transformities may be used as an energy-scaling factor for the hierarchies of the universe including information. Solar transformities in the biosphere, expressed as solar emjoules per joule, range from one for solar insolation to trillions for categories of shared information. Resource contributions multiplied by their transformities provide a scientifically based value system for human service, environmental mitigation, foreign trade equity, public policy alternatives, and economic vitality.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Testing of Distribution Transformers (a) When testing distribution transformers, the number of units...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Testing of Distribution Transformers (a) When testing distribution transformers, the number of units...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix C to Subpart C of... - Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sampling Plan for Enforcement Testing of Distribution Transformers C Appendix C to Subpart C of Part 429 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION... Testing of Distribution Transformers (a) When testing distribution transformers, the number of units...

  10. Energy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) is a coalition of leading Australian universities, intensive in research and comprehensive in general and professional education. The Go8 member universities recognise that the issue of energy usage and transformation is one of vital importance not only to Australia but to the world as a whole. The universities aim to make…

  11. Transformational silicon electronics.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-02-25

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications.

  12. The Funk transform as a Penrose transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Toby N.; Eastwood, Michael G.; Gover, A. Rod; Mason, Lionel J.

    1999-01-01

    The Funk transform is the integral transform from the space of smooth even functions on the unit sphere S2[subset or is implied by][open face R]3 to itself defined by integration over great circles. One can regard this transform as a limit in a certain sense of the Penrose transform from [open face C][open face P]2 to [open face C][open face P]*ast;2. We exploit this viewpoint by developing a new proof of the bijectivity of the Funk transform which proceeds by considering the cohomology of a certain involutive (or formally integrable) structure on an intermediate space. This is the simplest example of what we hope will prove to be a general method of obtaining results in real integral geometry by means of complex holomorphic methods derived from the Penrose transform.

  13. Phase shift cavity ring down and Fourier transform infrared measurements of C-H vibrational transitions, energy levels, and intensities of (CH3)3Si-C≡C-H

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barroso, Jenny Z.; Perez-Delgado, Yasnahir; Manzanares, Carlos E.

    2013-07-01

    Phase shift cavity ring down and Fourier transform IR techniques have been used to observe the C-H stretch fundamental and overtone absorptions of the acetylenic (Δυ = 1-5) and methyl (Δυ = 1-6) C-H bonds of trimethyl-silyl-acetylene [(CH3)3CSi≡CH] at 295 K. Harmonic frequencies ω(ν1), ωa, and ωs and anharmonicities x(ν1), ωaxa, ωsxs were calculated for the acetylenic, methyl out-of-plane, and methyl in-plane C-H bonds, respectively. The harmonically coupled anharmonic oscillator (HCAO) model was used to determine the overtone energy levels and assign the absorption bands to vibrational transitions of methyl C-H bonds. A hot band, assigned as υν1 + ν24 - ν24 is observed for transitions with Δυ = 1-5 in a region near the acetylenic stretch. The intensity of the hot band is reduced considerably at 240 K. The strength of a Fermi resonance between C-Ha transition (υνa) and the combination band ((υ-1)νa + 2νbend) with (υ = 3-6) was calculated using the experimental perturbed energies and relative intensities. The main bands are separated by computer deconvolution and are integrated at each level to get the experimental band strengths. For methyl absorptions, the dipole moment function is expanded as a function of two C-H stretching coordinates and the intensities are calculated in terms of the HCAO model where only the C-H modes are considered. Acetylenic intensities are derived with a one dimensional dipole moment function. The expansion coefficients are obtained from molecular orbital calculations. The intensities are calculated without using adjustable parameters and they are of the same order of magnitude of the experimental intensities for all C-H transitions.

  14. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.; Gueceri, S. I.; Farkas, D.; Labdon, M. B.; Nagaswami, N.; Pregger, B.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was determined. The following major elements were studied: (1) identification of congruently transforming alloys and thermochemical property measurements; (2) development of a precise and convenient method for measuring volume change during phase transformation and thermal expansion coefficients; (3) development of a numerical modeling routine for calculating heat flow in cylindrical heat exchangers containing phase change materials; and (4) identification of materials that could be used to contain the metal alloys. Several eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation from data obtained during one continuous experimental test. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented. The development of the numerical modeling method is presented and results are discussed for both salt and metal alloy phase change media.

  15. Adaptive boxcar/wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sezer, Osman G.; Altunbasak, Yucel

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new adaptive Boxcar/Wavelet transform for image compression. Boxcar/Wavelet decomposition emphasizes the idea of average-interpolation representation which uses dyadic averages and their interpolation to explain a special case of biorthogonal wavelet transforms (BWT). This perspective for image compression together with lifting scheme offers the ability to train an optimum 2-D filter set for nonlinear prediction (interpolation) that will adapt to the context around the low-pass wavelet coefficients for reducing energy in the high-pass bands. Moreover, the filters obtained after training is observed to posses directional information with some textural clues that can provide better prediction performance. This work addresses a firrst step towards obtaining this new set of training-based fillters in the context of Boxcar/Wavelet transform. Initial experimental results show better subjective quality performance compared to popular 9/7-tap and 5/3-tap BWTs with comparable results in objective quality.

  16. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  17. Transformation of the diamond /110/ surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1982-01-01

    The diamond surface undergoes a transformation in its electronic structure by a vacuum anneal at approximately 900 C. This transformation is characterized by the appearance of a feature in the band gap region of the energy loss spectrum. The kinetics of the transformation on the (110) surface is studied by observing the growth of this feature with time and temperature. The transformation is found to be consistent with first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 4.8 eV. It is also found that the band gap feature could be removed by exposure of the transformed surface to excited hydrogen. The results are consistent with the polished diamond (110) surface being covered with hydrogen which removes the band gap states and can be thermally desorbed at approximately 900 C.

  18. Improving collision induced dissociation (CID), high energy collision dissociation (HCD), and electron transfer dissociation (ETD) fourier transform MS/MS degradome-peptidome identifications using high accuracy mass information.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yufeng; Tolić, Nikola; Purvine, Samuel O; Smith, Richard D

    2012-02-03

    MS dissociation methods, including collision induced dissociation (CID), high energy collision dissociation (HCD), and electron transfer dissociation (ETD), can each contribute distinct peptidome identifications using conventional peptide identification methods (Shen et al. J. Proteome Res. 2011), but such samples still pose significant informatics challenges. In this work, we explored utilization of high accuracy fragment ion mass measurements, in this case provided by Fourier transform MS/MS, to improve peptidome peptide data set size and consistency relative to conventional descriptive and probabilistic scoring methods. For example, we identified 20-40% more peptides than SEQUEST, Mascot, and MS_GF scoring methods using high accuracy fragment ion information and the same false discovery rate (FDR) from CID, HCD, and ETD spectra. Identified species covered >90% of the collective identifications obtained using various conventional peptide identification methods, which significantly addresses the common issue of different data analysis methods generating different peptide data sets. Choice of peptide dissociation and high-precision measurement-based identification methods presently available for degradomic-peptidomic analyses needs to be based on the coverage and confidence (or specificity) afforded by the method, as well as practical issues (e.g., throughput). By using accurate fragment information, >1000 peptidome components can be identified from a single human blood plasma analysis with low peptide-level FDRs (e.g., 0.6%), providing an improved basis for investigating potential disease-related peptidome components.

  19. Steerable Discrete Fourier Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fracastoro, Giulia; Magli, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    Directional transforms have recently raised a lot of interest thanks to their numerous applications in signal compression and analysis. In this letter, we introduce a generalization of the discrete Fourier transform, called steerable DFT (SDFT). Since the DFT is used in numerous fields, it may be of interest in a wide range of applications. Moreover, we also show that the SDFT is highly related to other well-known transforms, such as the Fourier sine and cosine transforms and the Hilbert transforms.

  20. Homopolar Transformer for Conversion of Electrical Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-10-13

    electrical current Hows through a conductor situated in a magnetic field during rotation of the machine rotor. In L the case of a homopolar motor ...10, incorporated within a homopolar machine 12 corresponding for example to the motor or generator disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 3,657,580 to Doyle. The...During operation of the homopolar machine 12 as a motor , a voltage source 16 connected to the stator terminals 26 and 28 causes a current to flow

  1. Homopolar Transformer for Conversion of Electrical Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-08-14

    machine rotor. In the case of a 14 homopolar motor , the current will develop a force perpendicular to the direction of its flow 15 through the conductor...reference numeral 10, incorporated within a homopolar 14 machine 12 corresponding for example to the motor or generator disclosed in U.S. Patent No...current flow. During 3 operation of the homopolar machine 12 as a motor , a voltage source 16 connected to the stator 5 terminals 26 and 28 causes a

  2. Wavelet transform application in human face recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qiang; Thompson, Wiley E.; Flachs, Gerald M.; Jordan, Jay B.

    1997-07-01

    A wavelet transformation is introduced as a new method to extract sideview face features in human face recognition. Utilizing the wavelet transformation, a sideview profile is decomposed as high frequency and low frequency components. Signal reconstruction, autocorrelation and energy distribution are used to decide a optimal decomposition level in the wavelet transformation without losing sideview features. To evaluate the feasibility of the wavelet transformation features in human sideview face recognition, the tie statistic is used to compute the complexity of the wavelet transform features. Using wavelet transformation, the sideview data size is reduced. The reduced features have almost the same ability as the original sideview face profile data in terms of distinguishing different people. The computational expense is greatly decreased. The results of the experiments are also shown in this paper.

  3. Treatment of tooth fracture by medium energy CO2 laser and DP-bioactive glass paste: thermal behavior and phase transformation of human tooth enamel and dentin after irradiation by CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, C P; Lee, B S; Kok, S H; Lan, W H; Tseng, Y C; Lin, F H

    2000-06-01

    Acute trauma or trauma associated with occlusal disharmony can produce tooth crack or fracture. Although several methods are proposed to treat the defect, however, the prognosis is generally poor. If the fusion of a tooth fracture by laser is possible it will offer an alternative to extraction or at least serve as an adjunctive treatment in the reconstruction. The responses of soft tissues to lasers of different wavelengths are fairly well known, but the reactions of hard tissues are still to be understood. The purpose of this research was to study the feasibility of using a medium energy continuous-wave CO(2) laser and a low melting-point bioactive glass to fuse or bridge tooth fractures. The present report is focused on the first part of the research, the analysis of changes in laser-irradiated human tooth enamel/dentin by means of X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Fourier-transforming infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). After CO(2) laser irradiation, there were no marked changes in the X-ray diffraction pattern of the enamel when compared to that before laser treatment. However, a small peak belonging to alpha-TCP appeared at the position of 2theta=30.78 degrees C. After being treated with CO(2) laser, the dentin showed much sharper peaks on the diffraction patterns because of grain growth and better crystallinity. alpha-TCP and beta-TCP were identified after laser treatment. In the FTIR analysis, an HPO(4)(-2) absorption band was noted before laser treatment disappeared after the irradiation. No significant change in the absorption band of HPO(4)(-2) was found on the FTIR curves of enamel after laser treatment. The results of DTA/TGA indicated that loss of water and organic materials occurred in both enamel and dentin after laser treatment. Under SEM, melting and resolidification occurred in both enamel and dentin by medium energy of CO(2) laser. This implies that

  4. Transforming the Way We Teach Function Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulkenberry, Eileen Durand; Faulkenberry, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss "function," a well-defined rule that relates inputs to outputs. They have found that by using the input-output definition of "function," they can examine transformations of functions simply by looking at changes to input or output and the respective changes to the graph. Applying transformations to the input…

  5. Bioenergy and African transformation.

    PubMed

    Lynd, Lee R; Sow, Mariam; Chimphango, Annie Fa; Cortez, Luis Ab; Brito Cruz, Carlos H; Elmissiry, Mosad; Laser, Mark; Mayaki, Ibrahim A; Moraes, Marcia Afd; Nogueira, Luiz Ah; Wolfaardt, Gideon M; Woods, Jeremy; van Zyl, Willem H

    2015-01-01

    Among the world's continents, Africa has the highest incidence of food insecurity and poverty and the highest rates of population growth. Yet Africa also has the most arable land, the lowest crop yields, and by far the most plentiful land resources relative to energy demand. It is thus of interest to examine the potential of expanded modern bioenergy production in Africa. Here we consider bioenergy as an enabler for development, and provide an overview of modern bioenergy technologies with a comment on application in an Africa context. Experience with bioenergy in Africa offers evidence of social benefits and also some important lessons. In Brazil, social development, agricultural development and food security, and bioenergy development have been synergistic rather than antagonistic. Realizing similar success in African countries will require clear vision, good governance, and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, and business models to myriad local circumstances. Strategies for integrated production of food crops, livestock, and bioenergy are potentially attractive and offer an alternative to an agricultural model featuring specialized land use. If done thoughtfully, there is considerable evidence that food security and economic development in Africa can be addressed more effectively with modern bioenergy than without it. Modern bioenergy can be an agent of African transformation, with potential social benefits accruing to multiple sectors and extending well beyond energy supply per se. Potential negative impacts also cut across sectors. Thus, institutionally inclusive multi-sector legislative structures will be more effective at maximizing the social benefits of bioenergy compared to institutionally exclusive, single-sector structures.

  6. 10 CFR 431.198 - Enforcement testing for distribution transformers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. 431.198... COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Distribution Transformers Compliance and Enforcement § 431.198 Enforcement testing for distribution transformers. (a) Test notice. Upon receiving information in...

  7. Phase transformations upon doping in WO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wennie; Janotti, Anderson; Van de Walle, Chris G.

    2017-06-01

    High levels of doping in WO3 have been experimentally observed to lead to structural transformation towards higher symmetry phases. We explore the structural phase diagram with charge doping through first-principles methods based on hybrid density functional theory, as a function of doping the room-temperature monoclinic phase transitions to the orthorhombic, tetragonal, and finally cubic phase. Based on a decomposition of energies into electronic and strain contributions, we attribute the transformation to a gain in energy resulting from a lowering of the conduction band on an absolute energy scale.

  8. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  9. Laplace Transforms without Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Calculating Laplace transforms from the definition often requires tedious integrations. This paper provides an integration-free technique for calculating Laplace transforms of many familiar functions. It also shows how the technique can be applied to probability theory.

  10. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  11. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  12. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  13. Single-particle characterization of summertime Antarctic aerosols collected at King George Island using quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Maskey, Shila; Geng, Hong; Song, Young-Chul; Hwang, Heejin; Yoon, Young-Jun; Ahn, Kang-Ho; Ro, Chul-Un

    2011-08-01

    Single-particle characterization of Antarctic aerosols was performed to investigate the impact of marine biogenic sulfur species on the chemical compositions of sea-salt aerosols in the polar atmosphere. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis was used to characterize 2900 individual particles in 10 sets of aerosol samples collected between March 12 and 16, 2009 at King Sejong Station, a Korean scientific research station located at King George Island in the Antarctic. Two size modes of particles, i.e., PM(2.5-10) and PM(1.0-2.5), were analyzed, and four types of particles were identified, with sulfur-containing sea-salt particles being the most abundant, followed by genuine sea-salt particles without sulfur species, iron-containing particles, and other species including CaCO(3)/CaMg(CO(3))(2), organic carbon, and aluminosilicates. When a sulfur-containing sea-salt particle showed an atomic concentration ratio of sulfur to sodium of >0.083 (seawater ratio), it is regarded as containing nonsea-salt sulfate (nss-SO(4)(2-)) and/or methanesulfonate (CH(3)SO(3)(-)), which was supported by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform-infrared imaging measurements. These internal mixture particles of sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) were very frequently encountered. As nitrate-containing particles were not encountered, and the air-masses for all of the samples originated from the Pacific Ocean (based on 5-day backward trajectories), the oxidation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) emitted from phytoplanktons in the ocean is most likely to be responsible for the formation of the mixed sea-salt/CH(3)SO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-) particles.

  14. The Laguerre Transform.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    equations. - , Part 2 of this paper deals with functions having support on (-oO) via a bilateral Laguerre transform which is an extension of the...the Laguerre Transform to Non- Integrable Functions Via Exponential Trans- formation 22 6. The Rate of Convergence of the Laguerre Coefficients 23 7...analy- tically via Laplace transformation , and full answers may be obtained when the Laplace transforms are invertible. More often than not, such

  15. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e.,…

  16. Mechanisms of transformation toughening

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.

    1992-02-01

    Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

  17. Transformation through Knowledge--Knowledge through Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadena, Felix

    1991-01-01

    Defines systematization as the process of creating critical knowledge (conscientization), a form of transformative research. Explains how systematization contributes to popular education and presents the form components of the process: identifying limits of research, obtaining data, interpretation, and socialization. (SK)

  18. Design of electromagnetic refractor and phase transformer using coordinate transformation theory.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan; Wang, Wei; Cui, Jianhua; Du, Chunlei; Luo, Xiangang

    2008-05-12

    We designed an electromagnetic refractor and a phase transformer using form-invariant coordinate transformation of Maxwell's equations. The propagation direction of electromagnetic energy in these devices can be modulated as desired. Unlike the conventional dielectric refractor, electromagnetic fields at our refraction boundary do not conform to the Snell's law in isotropic materials and the impedance at this boundary is matched which makes the reflection extremely low; and the transformation of the wave front from cylindrical to plane can be realized in the phase transformer with a slab structure. Two dimensional finite-element simulations were performed to confirm the theoretical results.

  19. Leak Location in Plates Using Spatial Fourier Transform Based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, R.; Holland, S.; Strei, M.; Song, J.; Chimenti, D. E.

    2005-04-01

    The location of air leaks in plate-like structures is examined using a spatial Fourier transform based analysis. Noise data is collected over 2-D spatial arrays at sensor locations, from which mean cross-correlations are compiled. Propagation properties, transit times, and energy distribution among modes are extracted through spatial Fourier transformation of these data. A simple algorithm to determine source location using a reduced set of transform data is demonstrated experimentally, based upon extraction of energy propagation direction.

  20. Solar energy emplacement developer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mortensen, Michael; Sauls, Bob

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design was developed for a Lunar Power System (LPS) composed of photovoltaic arrays and microwave reflectors fabricated from lunar materials. The LPS will collect solar energy on the surface of the Moon, transform it into microwave energy, and beam it back to Earth where it will be converted into usable energy. The Solar Energy Emplacement Developer (SEED) proposed will use a similar sort of solar energy collection and dispersement to power the systems that will construct the LPS.

  1. Genetic transformation of obligately chemolithotrophic thiobacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Yankofsky, S A; Gurevich, R; Grimland, N; Stark, A A

    1983-01-01

    Genetic transformation of Thiobacaillus thioparus auxotrophs to prototrophy was obtained at frequencies of up to 10(-2) when proliferating cell populations were exposed to chromosomal DNA from a nutritionally independent strain of the same bacterium. The rate at which transformation occurred depended on recipient growth rate and could be drastically reduced by depriving otherwise competent cells of either nitrogen or exogenous energy substrate. Interspecies marker transfer was also shown among several obligately chemolithotrophic members of the genus. PMID:6571832

  2. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  3. Energy: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews transformations in the field of energy over the last 30 years, including the 1970s energy crisis and the legislative response, the abandonment of nuclear energy, growing dependence on natural gas, growing dependence on electricity rather than oil, and superconducting technologies. (EV)

  4. Energy: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qayoumi, Mohammad H.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews transformations in the field of energy over the last 30 years, including the 1970s energy crisis and the legislative response, the abandonment of nuclear energy, growing dependence on natural gas, growing dependence on electricity rather than oil, and superconducting technologies. (EV)

  5. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-01-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the "Next Generation Science Standards," the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they "track" the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of…

  6. Evaluation of Amorphous Transformer by Optimum Capacity Selection based on the Load Curve Pattern of Customers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Yamaji, Kenji

    Energy loss in transformer is composed of no-load loss and load loss. No-load loss of amorphous transformer (i.e. amorphous metal-based transformer) is less by about 70% compared with traditional transformers (e.g. silicon steel-based transformer). However, amorphous transformers have disadvantages of high cost and high load loss parameter compared with traditional transformers. Furthermore, there are varieties of transformer capacities, and the customers who would buy new transformer have many choices. In this paper, the authors propose an algorithm for optimum transformer selection based on the load curve patterns of customers. It is possible to select the capacity that minimizes the total cost by measuring equivalent load Qe that is the root mean square of load. It becomes clear that amorphous transformer is effective in achieving substantial energy saving compared with traditional transformer.

  7. Energy Tracking Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Harrer, Benedikt W.; Close, Hunter G.; Daane, Abigail R.; DeWater, Lezlie S.; Robertson, Amy D.; Seeley, Lane; Vokos, Stamatis

    2016-02-01

    Energy is a crosscutting concept in science and features prominently in national science education documents. In the Next Generation Science Standards, the primary conceptual learning goal is for learners to conserve energy as they track the transfers and transformations of energy within, into, or out of the system of interest in complex physical processes. As part of tracking energy transfers among objects, learners should (i) distinguish energy from matter, including recognizing that energy flow does not uniformly align with the movement of matter, and should (ii) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is transferred among objects, such as mechanical work and thermal conduction. As part of tracking energy transformations within objects, learners should (iii) associate specific forms with specific models and indicators (e.g., kinetic energy with speed and/or coordinated motion of molecules, thermal energy with random molecular motion and/or temperature) and (iv) identify specific mechanisms by which energy is converted from one form to another, such as incandescence and metabolism. Eventually, we may hope for learners to be able to optimize systems to maximize some energy transfers and transformations and minimize others, subject to constraints based in both imputed mechanism (e.g., objects must have motion energy in order for gravitational energy to change) and the second law of thermodynamics (e.g., heating is irreversible). We hypothesize that a subsequent goal of energy learning—innovating to meet socially relevant needs—depends crucially on the extent to which these goals have been met.

  8. Structural transformation in monolayer materials: a 2D to 1D transformation.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Kasra; Attariani, Hamed; LeSar, Richard A

    2016-07-20

    Reducing the dimensions of materials to atomic scales results in a large portion of atoms being at or near the surface, with lower bond order and thus higher energy. At such scales, reduction of the surface energy and surface stresses can be the driving force for the formation of new low-dimensional nanostructures, and may be exhibited through surface relaxation and/or surface reconstruction, which can be utilized for tailoring the properties and phase transformation of nanomaterials without applying any external load. Here we used atomistic simulations and revealed an intrinsic structural transformation in monolayer materials that lowers their dimension from 2D nanosheets to 1D nanostructures to reduce their surface and elastic energies. Experimental evidence of such transformation has also been revealed for one of the predicted nanostructures. Such transformation plays an important role in bi-/multi-layer 2D materials.

  9. Energy Storage: George Crabtree

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George

    2016-10-06

    George Crabtree, Argonne scientist and Director of Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, discusses the importance of developing the next generation of batteries and how that could help transform the electricity grid.

  10. Energy Storage: George Crabtree

    ScienceCinema

    Crabtree, George

    2016-12-14

    George Crabtree, Argonne scientist and Director of Joint Center for Energy Storage Research, discusses the importance of developing the next generation of batteries and how that could help transform the electricity grid.

  11. Transformations of visuospatial images.

    PubMed

    Zacks, Jeffrey M; Michelon, Pascale

    2005-06-01

    Transformations of visuospatial mental images are important for action, navigation, and reasoning. They depend on representations in multiple spatial reference frames, implemented in the posterior parietal cortex and other brain regions. The multiple systems framework proposes that different transformations can be distinguished in terms of which spatial reference frame is updated. In an object-based transformation, the reference frame of an object moves relative to those of the observer and the environment. In a perspective transformation, the observer's egocentric reference frame moves relative to those of the environment and of salient objects. These two types of spatial reference frame updating rely on distinct neural processing resources in the parietal, occipital, and temporal cortex. They are characterized by different behavioral patterns and unique individual differences. Both object-based transformations and perspective transformations interact with posterior frontal cortical regions subserving the simulation of body movements. These interactions indicate that multiple systems coordinate to support everyday spatial problem solving.

  12. Steerable Discrete Cosine Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fracastoro, Giulia; Fosson, Sophie M.; Magli, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    In image compression, classical block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when image blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely a discrete cosine transform (DCT) that can be steered in any chosen direction. Such transform, called steerable DCT (SDCT), allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, and enables precise matching of directionality in each image block, achieving improved coding efficiency. The optimal rotation angles for SDCT can be represented as solution of a suitable rate-distortion (RD) problem. We propose iterative methods to search such solution, and we develop a fully fledged image encoder to practically compare our techniques with other competing transforms. Analytical and numerical results prove that SDCT outperforms both DCT and state-of-the-art directional transforms.

  13. Steerable Discrete Cosine Transform.

    PubMed

    Fracastoro, Giulia; Fosson, Sophie M; Magli, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    In image compression, classical block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when image blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) that can be steered in any chosen direction. Such transform, called steerable DCT (SDCT), allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, and enables precise matching of directionality in each image block, achieving improved coding efficiency. The optimal rotation angles for SDCT can be represented as solution of a suitable rate-distortion (RD) problem. We propose iterative methods to search such solution, and we develop a fully fledged image encoder to practically compare our techniques with other competing transforms. Analytical and numerical results prove that SDCT outperforms both DCT and state-of-the-art directional transforms.

  14. Transformative environmental governance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaffin, Brian C.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Harm Benson, Melinda; Angeler, David G.; Arnold, Craig Anthony (Tony); Cosens, Barbara; Kundis Craig, Robin; Ruhl, J.B.; Allen, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to alternative, more desirable, or more functional regimes by altering the structures and processes that define the system. Transformative governance is rooted in ecological theories to explain cross-scale dynamics in complex systems, as well as social theories of change, innovation, and technological transformation. Similar to adaptive governance, transformative governance involves a broad set of governance components, but requires additional capacity to foster new social-ecological regimes including increased risk tolerance, significant systemic investment, and restructured economies and power relations. Transformative governance has the potential to actively respond to regime shifts triggered by climate change, and thus future research should focus on identifying system drivers and leading indicators associated with social-ecological thresholds.

  15. Transformation Toughening of Ceramics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-01

    TRANSFORMATION ZONE SHAPE EFFECTS IN CRACK SHIELDING IN CERIA-PARTIALLY STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (Ce-TZP). ALUMINA COMPOSITES to be published in J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 13 Cl...lS85HWejw TRANSFORMATION ZONE SHAPE EFFECTS ON CRACK SHIELDING IN CERIA-PARTIALLY-STABILIZED ZIRCONIA (Ce-TZP)- ALUMINA S..COMPOSITES Cheng-Sheng Yu...zones in Ce-TZP/Al203 composites, in which the transformation zone sizes were changed significantly by varying the sintering temperature to control

  16. Program Transformation in HATS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.

    1999-02-24

    HATS is a general purpose syntax derivation tree based transformation system in which transformation sequences are described in special purpose language. A powerful feature of this language is that unification is an explicit operation. By making unification explicit, an elegant framework arises in which to express complex application conditions which in turn enables refined control strategies to be realized. This paper gives an overview of HATS, focusing especially on the framework provided by the transformation language and its potential with respect to control and general purpose transformation.

  17. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  18. Transformative Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Knud

    2014-01-01

    Transformative learning has usually been defined as transformations of meaning perspectives, frames of reference, and habits of mind--as proposed initially by Jack Mezirow. However, several authors have found this definition too narrow and too cognitively oriented, and Mezirow has later emphasized that emotional and social conditions are also…

  19. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

  20. Direct current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  1. Two Different Squeeze Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. While these transformations are similar to those in squeezed states of light, they are fundamentally different from both physical and mathematical points of view. The difference is illustrated in terms of two coupled harmonic oscillators, and in terms of the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism.

  2. Transformative environmental governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  3. Transformative Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Knud

    2014-01-01

    Transformative learning has usually been defined as transformations of meaning perspectives, frames of reference, and habits of mind--as proposed initially by Jack Mezirow. However, several authors have found this definition too narrow and too cognitively oriented, and Mezirow has later emphasized that emotional and social conditions are also…

  4. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  5. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

  6. English Transformational Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Roderick A.; Rosenbaum, Peter S.

    The authors present for the undergraduate and graduate linguistics student a transformational approach to the study of English grammar. Their discussion begins with a description of the structure of sentences, outlined according to the transformational grammarian's framework of linguistic universals. This set of principles "makes possible the…

  7. Orthogonal transform feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, G. S.

    1971-01-01

    The application of various orthogonal transformations to communication was investigated, with particular emphasis placed on speech and visual signal processing. The fundamentals of the one- and two-dimensional orthogonal transforms and their application to speech and visual signals are treated in detail.

  8. Metamaterials and Transformation Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-01

    Cross-section comparisons of cloaks designed by transformation optical and optical conformal mapping approaches Yaroslav A Urzhumov, Nathan B Kundtz ...B82, 205109, (2010). 9. Electromagnetic design with transformation optics Nathan B. Kundtz , David R. Smith, and John B. Pendry Proceedings of the

  9. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

  10. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  11. Transformative environmental governance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Transformative governance is an approach to environmental governance that has the capacity to respond to, manage, and trigger regime shifts in coupled social-ecological systems (SESs) at multiple scales. The goal of transformative governance is to actively shift degraded SESs to ...

  12. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  13. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  14. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  15. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  16. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    SciTech Connect

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  17. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  18. Transformation optics and cloaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCall, Martin

    2013-11-01

    Invisibility, a long sought-for speculation in science fiction, has been turned into reality in the laboratory through the use of a theoretical technique called Transformation Optics. The principles of transformation optics show that any desired smooth deformation of the electromagnetic field can be implemented exactly by an appropriately engineered metamaterial. All demonstrations of cloaking to date have had limitations, however, reflecting our technological inability to implement the transformation optics algorithm exactly. However, the scientific principles leading to perfect invisibility are now established, and practical improvements on the initial designs are now occurring very rapidly. Most recently, researchers have re-examined transformation optics to include time as well as space, describing and then implementing the concept of a cloak that hides events, a conceptual breakout that promises many new applications. This review describes the general ideas underlying transformation optics, and how the various types of cloak based on these ideas have been implemented practically to date.

  19. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

  20. Impurities block the alpha to omega martensitic transformation in titanium.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Richard G; Trinkle, Dallas R; Bouchet, Johann; Srinivasan, Srivilliputhur G; Albers, Robert C; Wilkins, John W

    2005-02-01

    Impurities control phase stability and phase transformations in natural and man-made materials, from shape-memory alloys to steel to planetary cores. Experiments and empirical databases are still central to tuning the impurity effects. What is missing is a broad theoretical underpinning. Consider, for example, the titanium martensitic transformations: diffusionless structural transformations proceeding near the speed of sound. Pure titanium transforms from ductile alpha to brittle omega at 9 GPa, creating serious technological problems for beta-stabilized titanium alloys. Impurities in the titanium alloys A-70 and Ti-6Al-4V (wt%) suppress the transformation up to at least 35 GPa, increasing their technological utility as lightweight materials in aerospace applications. These and other empirical discoveries in technological materials call for broad theoretical understanding. Impurities pose two theoretical challenges: the effect on the relative phase stability, and the energy barrier of the transformation. Ab initio methods calculate both changes due to impurities. We show that interstitial oxygen, nitrogen and carbon retard the transformation whereas substitutional aluminium and vanadium influence the transformation by changing the d-electron concentration. The resulting microscopic picture explains the suppression of the transformation in commercial A-70 and Ti-6Al-4V alloys. In general, the effect of impurities on relative energies and energy barriers is central to understanding structural phase transformations.

  1. Metagenomic scaffolds enable combinatorial lignin transformation

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Cameron R.; Singh, Rahul; VanInsberghe, David; Ievdokymenko, Kateryna; Budwill, Karen; Mohn, William W.; Eltis, Lindsay D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Engineering the microbial transformation of lignocellulosic biomass is essential to developing modern biorefining processes that alleviate reliance on petroleum-derived energy and chemicals. Many current bioprocess streams depend on the genetic tractability of Escherichia coli with a primary emphasis on engineering cellulose/hemicellulose catabolism, small molecule production, and resistance to product inhibition. Conversely, bioprocess streams for lignin transformation remain embryonic, with relatively few environmental strains or enzymes implicated. Here we develop a biosensor responsive to monoaromatic lignin transformation products compatible with functional screening in E. coli. We use this biosensor to retrieve metagenomic scaffolds sourced from coal bed bacterial communities conferring an array of lignin transformation phenotypes that synergize in combination. Transposon mutagenesis and comparative sequence analysis of active clones identified genes encoding six functional classes mediating lignin transformation phenotypes that appear to be rearrayed in nature via horizontal gene transfer. Lignin transformation activity was then demonstrated for one of the predicted gene products encoding a multicopper oxidase to validate the screen. These results illuminate cellular and community-wide networks acting on aromatic polymers and expand the toolkit for engineering recombinant lignin transformation based on ecological design principles. PMID:24982175

  2. Rate-distortion optimized adaptive transform coding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung-Chang; Kim, Dae-Yeon; Jeong, Seyoon; Choi, Jin Soo; Choi, Haechul; Lee, Yung-Lyul

    2009-08-01

    We propose a rate-distortion optimized transform coding method that adaptively employs either integer cosine transform that is an integer-approximated version of discrete cosine transform (DCT) or integer sine transform (IST) in a rate-distortion sense. The DCT that has been adopted in most video-coding standards is known as a suboptimal substitute for the Karhunen-Loève transform. However, according to the correlation of a signal, an alternative transform can achieve higher coding efficiency. We introduce a discrete sine transform (DST) that achieves the high-energy compactness in a correlation coefficient range of -0.5 to 0.5 and is applied to the current design of H.264/AVC (advanced video coding). Moreover, to avoid the encoder and decoder mismatch and make the implementation simple, an IST that is an integer-approximated version of the DST is developed. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a Bjøntegaard Delta-RATE gain up to 5.49% compared to Joint model 11.0.

  3. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    SciTech Connect

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  4. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  5. Heat storage in alloy transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenall, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using metal alloys as thermal energy storage media was investigated. The elements selected as candidate media were limited to aluminum, copper, magnesium, silicon, zinc, calcium, and phosphorus on the basis of low cost and latent heat of transformation. Several new eutectic alloys and ternary intermetallic phases were determined. A new method employing X-ray absorption techniques was developed to determine the coefficients of thermal expansion of both the solid and liquid phases and the volume change during phase transformation. The method and apparatus are discussed and the experimental results are presented for aluminum and two aluminum-eutectic alloys. Candidate materials were evaluated to determine suitable materials for containment of the metal alloys. Graphite was used to contain the alloys during the volume change measurements. Silicon carbide was identified as a promising containment material and surface-coated iron alloys were also evaluated. System considerations that are pertinent if alloy eutectics are used as thermal energy storage media are discussed. Potential applications to solar receivers and industrial furnaces are illustrated schematically.

  6. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  7. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  8. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Material was presented to assist transformer designers in the transition from long-used English units to the less familiar metric equivalents. A coordination between the area product numbers ap (product of window and core cross-section areas) and current density J was developed for a given regulation and temperature rise. Straight-line relationships for Ap and Volume, Ap and surface area At and, Ap and weight were developed. These relationships can now be used as new tools to simplify and standardize the process of transformer design. They also made it possible to design transformers of small bulk and volume or to optimize efficiency.

  9. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  10. Overview of transformer platform showing three original stepup transformer (center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of transformer platform showing three original step-up transformer (center), steel switchback (right), and modern step-down transformer (foreground), view to northwest - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  11. High-voltage air-core pulse transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Rohwein, G. J.

    1981-01-01

    General types of air core pulse transformers designed for high voltage pulse generation and energy transfer applications are discussed with special emphasis on pulse charging systems which operate up to the multi-megavolt range. The design, operation, dielectric materials, and performance are described. It is concluded that high voltage air core pulse transformers are best suited to applications outside the normal ranges of conventional magnetic core transformers. In general these include charge transfer at high power levels and fast pulse generation with comparatively low energy. When properly designed and constructed, they are capable of delivering high energy transfer efficiency and have demonstrated superior high voltage endurance. The principal disadvantage of high voltage air core transformers is that they are not generally available from commercial sources. Consequently, the potential user must become thoroughly familiar with all aspects of design, fabrication and system application before he can produce a high performance transformer system. (LCL)

  12. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  13. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  14. A Classical Science Transformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

  15. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  16. A Classical Science Transformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

  17. Fractals and Transformations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are several different transformations based on the generation of fractals including self-similar designs, the chaos game, the koch curve, and the Sierpinski Triangle. Three computer programs which illustrate these concepts are provided. (CW)

  18. 25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. Transformation: A Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-30

    SSC 2005 Lam) Lathroum, John A . The Transformational Quality of Base Realignment and Closure 2005. Strategy Research Project. Carlisle Barracks, PA...Special Warfare 19 (July/August 2006): 16- 19. ProQuest Tirpak, John A . “Expeditionary – and Seriously Extended.” Air Force Magazine 89, no. 8 (2006): 28...all of the works listed are dated from 2003 to the present. For earlier works please see Transformation: A Selected Bibliography (July 2004), compiled

  20. Metamaterials and Transformation Optics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-31

    research is extend the analytical work in transformation optics (relating complex systems to simpler systems with the same spectral properties ) to... optics which via a transformation relates complex systems to simpler systems possessed of the same spectral properties . One good example is to be...mediated by the quantum fluctuations in electron density at the metal surfaces and are the most long ranged forces between nanoparticles . Fig. 1(a

  1. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  2. Transformational change in action.

    PubMed

    Lucy, Botting

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, there has been an imperative to improve productivity in the NHS. This requires the use of appropriate tools and appropriate leadership at all levels of organisations. This article outlines to concept of transformational change, discusses productivity as a national driver for improving healthcare services, looks at the most appropriate tools to use at various levels of organisations to achieve this, and considers why leadership is a vital component in transformational change.

  3. Natural competence for transformation.

    PubMed

    Blokesch, Melanie

    2016-11-07

    While most molecular biologists are familiar with the artificial transformation of bacteria in the context of laboratory cloning experiments, natural competence for transformation refers to a specific physiological state in which prokaryotes are able to take up genetic material from their surroundings. Occasionally, such absorbed DNA is recombined into the organism's own genome, resulting in natural transformation (Figure 1). As a consequence, natural competence for transformation is considered a primary mode of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) in prokaryotes, together with conjugation (direct cell to cell transfer of DNA via a specialized conjugal pilus) and phage transduction (DNA transfer mediated by viruses). HGT plays a major role in bacterial evolution, and past research has demonstrated that HGT, including natural competence for transformation, contributes to the emergence of pathogens and the spread of virulence factors. Indeed, Frederick Griffith discovered natural competence for transformation in 1928 while he was investigating the exchange of pathogenic traits in pneumococci. Due to the increase in the abundance and spread of multidrug-resistant microbes, research on HGT is even more important today than ever before.

  4. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  5. Activities: Geometric Transformations. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eddins, Susan K.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents a lesson that connects basic transformational concepts with transformations on a Cartesian-coordinate system, culminating with the application of matrix operations to perform geometric transformations. Includes reproducible student worksheets and assessment activities. (MKR)

  6. Parameter estimation for transformer modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Don

    Large Power transformers, an aging and vulnerable part of our energy infrastructure, are at choke points in the grid and are key to reliability and security. Damage or destruction due to vandalism, misoperation, or other unexpected events is of great concern, given replacement costs upward of $2M and lead time of 12 months. Transient overvoltages can cause great damage and there is much interest in improving computer simulation models to correctly predict and avoid the consequences. EMTP (the Electromagnetic Transients Program) has been developed for computer simulation of power system transients. Component models for most equipment have been developed and benchmarked. Power transformers would appear to be simple. However, due to their nonlinear and frequency-dependent behaviors, they can be one of the most complex system components to model. It is imperative that the applied models be appropriate for the range of frequencies and excitation levels that the system experiences. Thus, transformer modeling is not a mature field and newer improved models must be made available. In this work, improved topologically-correct duality-based models are developed for three-phase autotransformers having five-legged, three-legged, and shell-form cores. The main problem in the implementation of detailed models is the lack of complete and reliable data, as no international standard suggests how to measure and calculate parameters. Therefore, parameter estimation methods are developed here to determine the parameters of a given model in cases where available information is incomplete. The transformer nameplate data is required and relative physical dimensions of the core are estimated. The models include a separate representation of each segment of the core, including hysteresis of the core, lambda-i saturation characteristic, capacitive effects, and frequency dependency of winding resistance and core loss. Steady-state excitation, and de-energization and re-energization transients

  7. Physical Particle Representation and Generalized Transformation Theory

    PubMed Central

    Prigogine, I.; George, Cl.; Henin, F.; Mandel, P.; Turner, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    The investigation of the recently described generalized transformation theory which leads to a non-Hamiltonian description of dynamics is pursued. The concept of generalized unitary transformations of superoperators is introduced and a specific class of transformations studied. For nondissipative systems it is equivalent to the usual unitary transformations that diagonalize the Hamiltonian. The important point is that this class of transformations remains meaningful for dissipative systems, hence a new representation of dynamics that we shall call the „physical particle” representation. It has the following properties: (a) The energy (or an arbitrary function of the energy) is represented by a diagonal matrix. (b) In the (0)II space (see these Proceedings, 65, 789 (1970)) corresponding to the coherent processes, the evolution can be described in terms of the changes in population of the physical particles. (c) At thermodynamic equilibrium, the physical particles are uncorrelated and behave as independent entities; the entropy has a purely combinatorial meaning. A full description of dynamics in this representation will be given in a forth-coming paper. PMID:16578707

  8. Integral Transform Methods: A Critical Review of Various Kernels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlandini, Giuseppina; Turro, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    Some general remarks about integral transform approaches to response functions are made. Their advantage for calculating cross sections at energies in the continuum is stressed. In particular we discuss the class of kernels that allow calculations of the transform by matrix diagonalization. A particular set of such kernels, namely the wavelets, is tested in a model study.

  9. Ultrarelativistic decoupling transformation for generalized Dirac equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, J. H.; Jentschura, U. D.

    2015-07-01

    The Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation is known to uncover the nonrelativistic limit of a generalized Dirac Hamiltonian, lending an intuitive physical interpretation to the effective operators within Schrödinger-Pauli theory. We here discuss the opposite, ultrarelativistic limit which requires the use of a fundamentally different expansion where the leading kinetic term in the Dirac equation is perturbed by the mass of the particle and other interaction (potential) terms, rather than vice versa. The ultrarelativistic decoupling transformation is applied to free Dirac particles (in the Weyl basis) and to high-energy tachyons, which are faster-than-light particles described by a fully Lorentz-covariant equation. The effective gravitational interactions are found. For tachyons, the dominant gravitational interaction term in the high-energy limit is shown to be attractive and equal to the leading term for subluminal Dirac particles (tardyons) in the high-energy limit.

  10. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high-order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high-order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high-order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two-dimensional and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and a standard approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, that is, surface area, surface-enclosed volume, solvation free energy, and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform-based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second-order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform-based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a

  11. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and the MSMS approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, solvation free energy and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a virus

  12. Canonical Transformations in Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, A.

    1994-06-01

    Quantum canonical transformations are defined algebraically outside of a Hilbert space context. This generalizes the quantum canonical transformations of Weyl and Dirac to include non-unitary transformations. The importance of non-unitary transformations for constructing solutions of the Schrödinger equation is discussed. Three elementary canonical transformations are shown both to have quantum implementations as finite transformations and to generate, classically and infinitesimally, the full canonical algebra. A general canonical transformation can be realized quantum mechanically as a product of these transformations. Each transformation corresponds to a familiar tool used in solving differential equations, and the procedure of solving a differential equation is systematized by the use of the canonical transformations. Several examples are done to illustrate the use of the canonical transformations.

  13. Plastid transformation in eggplant.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Kailash C; Singh, Ajay K

    2014-01-01

    Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Here we describe a procedure for eggplant plastid transformation, which involves preparation of explants, biolistic delivery of plastid transformation vector into green stem segments, selection procedure, and identification of the transplastomic plants. Shoot buds appear from cut ends of the stem explants following 5-6 weeks of spectinomycin selection after bombardment with the plastid transformation vector containing aadA gene as selectable marker. Transplastomic lines are obtained after the regenerated shoots are subjected to several rounds of spectinomycin selection over a period of 9 weeks. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines are further confirmed by spectinomycin and streptomycin double selection. The transplastomic technology development in this plant species will open up exciting possibilities for improving crop performance, metabolic engineering, and the use of plants as factories for producing biopharmaceuticals.

  14. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  15. On spinors transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budinich, Marco

    2016-07-01

    We begin showing that for even dimensional vector spaces V all automorphisms of their Clifford algebras are inner. So all orthogonal transformations of V are restrictions to V of inner automorphisms of the algebra. Thus under orthogonal transformations P and T—space and time reversal—all algebra elements, including vectors v and spinors φ, transform as v → xvx-1 and φ → xφx-1 for some algebra element x. We show that while under combined PT spinor φ → xφx-1 remains in its spinor space, under P or T separately φ goes to a different spinor space and may have opposite chirality. We conclude with a preliminary characterization of inner automorphisms with respect to their property to change, or not, spinor spaces.

  16. Invariants of polarization transformations.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2007-05-20

    The use of polarization-sensitive sensors is being explored in a variety of applications. Polarization diversity has been shown to improve the performance of the automatic target detection and recognition in a significant way. However, it also brings out the problems associated with processing and storing more data and the problem of polarization distortion during transmission. We present a technique for extracting attributes that are invariant under polarization transformations. The polarimetric signatures are represented in terms of the components of the Stokes vectors. Invariant algebra is then used to extract a set of signature-related attributes that are invariant under linear transformation of the Stokes vectors. Experimental results using polarimetric infrared signatures of a number of manmade and natural objects undergoing systematic linear transformations support the invariancy of these attributes.

  17. Translating and Transforming Care

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document. PMID:25792487

  18. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  19. Transformer room fire tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fustich, C. D.

    1980-03-01

    A series of transformer room fire tests are reported to demonstate the shock hazard present when automatic sprinklers operate over energized electrical equipment. Fire protection was provided by standard 0.5 inch pendent automatic sprinklers temperature rated at 135 F and installed to give approximately 150 sq ft per head coverage. A 480 v dry transformer was used in the room to provide a three phase, four wire distribution system. It is shown that the induced currents in the test room during the various tests are relatively small and pose no appreciable personnel shock hazard.

  20. Earth Limb Radiance Transformation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-02

    AD-A097 523 AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CA CHEMISTRY AND PHYSICS LAB F/G 4/1 EARTH LIMB RADIANCE TRANSFORMATION (U) MAR AI S 4 YOUNG F0701-80 -C-0081... Earth Limb Radiance Trafisformation Prepared by S. J. YOUNG Chemistr and Physics Laboratory Laboratory Operations The Aerospace Corporation S.El...ITLEK (and Subtitle) TYPE OF REPORT & P53100 COVERED Earth Limb Radiance Transformation. ( Interim ./ / /TR-OJ081(697j7-g4)-l-- i7.Step hen J. Young

  1. Fundamentals of energy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harder, E. L.

    The theory, methods of conversion, and costs of various energy sources, transformations, and production techniques are summarized. Specific attention is given to carbon-based fuels in liquid, gaseous, and solid forms and processes for producing synthetic fuels. Additional details are presented for hydrogen and biomass technologies, as well as nuclear fuel-based electricity production. Renewable energy methods are dealt with in terms of the potentials and current applications of tidal generating stations, hydroelectric installations, solar thermal and electrical energy production, and the development of large wind turbines. Consideration is given to the environmental effects of individual energy technologies, along with associated costs and transportability of the energy produced.

  2. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  3. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  4. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-08-03

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  5. Biophysical Insights into Cancer Transformation and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pokorný, Jiří; Foletti, Alberto; Kobilková, Jitka; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan; Nedbalová, Martina; Čoček, Aleš; Danani, Andrea; Tuszyński, Jack A.

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems are hierarchically self-organized complex structures characterized by nonlinear interactions. Biochemical energy is transformed into work of physical forces required for various biological functions. We postulate that energy transduction depends on endogenous electrodynamic fields generated by microtubules. Microtubules and mitochondria colocalize in cells with microtubules providing tracks for mitochondrial movement. Besides energy transformation, mitochondria form a spatially distributed proton charge layer and a resultant strong static electric field, which causes water ordering in the surrounding cytosol. These effects create conditions for generation of coherent electrodynamic field. The metabolic energy transduction pathways are strongly affected in cancers. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells (Warburg effect) or in fibroblasts associated with cancer cells (reverse Warburg effect) results in decreased or increased power of the generated electromagnetic field, respectively, and shifted and rebuilt frequency spectra. Disturbed electrodynamic interaction forces between cancer and healthy cells may favor local invasion and metastasis. A therapeutic strategy of targeting dysfunctional mitochondria for restoration of their physiological functions makes it possible to switch on the natural apoptotic pathway blocked in cancer transformed cells. Experience with dichloroacetate in cancer treatment and reestablishment of the healthy state may help in the development of novel effective drugs aimed at the mitochondrial function. PMID:23844381

  6. KSI's Cross Insulated Core Transformer Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Uhmeyer, Uwe

    2009-08-04

    Cross Insulated Core Transformer (CCT) technology improves on Insulated Core Transformer (ICT) implementations. ICT systems are widely used in very high voltage, high power, power supply systems. In an ICT transformer ferrite core sections are insulated from their neighboring ferrite cores. Flux leakage is present at each of these insulated gaps. The flux loss is raised to the power of stages in the ICT design causing output voltage efficiency to taper off with increasing stages. KSI's CCT technology utilizes a patented technique to compensate the flux loss at each stage of an ICT system. Design equations to calculate the flux compensation capacitor value are presented. CCT provides corona free operation of the HV stack. KSI's CCT based High Voltage power supply systems offer high efficiency operation, high frequency switching, low stored energy and smaller size over comparable ICT systems.

  7. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Phillips, Nathaniel Steven

    2006-01-01

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  8. Inelastic neutron scattering studies on the incommensurate-to-commensurate transformation of low energy magnetic excitations in Fe1 + δ - y(Ni / Cu) y Te1 - x Sex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhijun; Wen, Jinsheng; Schneeloch, John; Zhao, Yang; Matsuda, Masaaki; Ku, Wei; Liu, Xuerong; Gu, Genda; Lee, D.-H.; Birgeneau, R. J.; Tranquada, J. M.; Xu, Guangyong

    2013-03-01

    We have performed a series of neutron scattering and magnetization measurements on Fe1 + δ - y(Ni / Cu) y Te1 - x Sex system to study the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity. Both non-superconducting and superconducting samples with Tc 8 ~15K are studied. The low energy magnetic excitations of all samples at T > >Tc consist of two incommensurate vertical columns. They change to a distinctly different U-shaped dispersion at T >Tc for the superconducting samples and the transition temperature depend on the composition. On the other hand, for all non-superconducting samples, there is no clear temperature dependence, and the low energy magnetic excitations remain two columns for temperatures down to 1.5 K. Work is supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DOE.

  9. Fixture for winding transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  10. Computerized toroidal transformer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program designs transformers which have one primary /center tap permissible/ and up to 20 untapped secondaries, and which can handle up to 500 V across any one winding. Computer determines total secondary power, core type, primary turns, secondary turns, and wire sizes for primary and secondary windings.

  11. Transforming Education with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    2011-01-01

    In this EL interview, Karen Cator, the director of the Office of Educational Technology at the U.S. Department of Education, talks about ways to realize the potential of technology to transform education. She discusses what students need: their own digital devices for classroom use, the ability to use the information they access, the skills to…

  12. Leading System Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines progress made towards education transformation in Wales. It explores the way in which tri-level reform is guiding system level change in Wales and looks at the implementation of the School Effectiveness Framework, which is at the heart of the reform process. It describes the way in which professional learning communities are…

  13. Transforming American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.; Mackey, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors accept as a given the National Education Technology Plan's vision of a transformed education system powered by technology such that learners receive personalized and engaging learning experiences, and where assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity are redefined. The article analyzes this vision of a…

  14. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  15. Education as Habitus Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Rosenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Unlike a conventional reading of Bourdieu, this article focuses on his work with regard to the transformation of social structure. In the context of a rereading, from an educational theory perspective, the article proposes an approach that allows for the linking of empirically informed social theory, on the one hand, and biography research…

  16. Transforming Data into Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lane

    2006-01-01

    School systems can be data rich and information poor if they do not understand and manage their data effectively. The task for school leaders is to put existing data into a format that lends itself to answering questions and improving outcomes for the students. Common barriers to transforming data into knowledge in education settings often include…

  17. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  18. Transforming Young Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of transformational change pervade the field of business but are rare in work with young people at risk--those most in need of deep change. Instead, the nation seems preoccupied with punishing or medicating problem behavior. Some propose the alternative of "rehabilitation," but that term means "to restore to former…

  19. Transformer and Meter Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  20. Transformable descent vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichkhadze, K. M.; Finchenko, V. S.; Aleksashkin, S. N.; Ostreshko, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    This article presents some types of planetary descent vehicles, the shape of which varies in different flight phases. The advantages of such vehicles over those with unchangeable form (from launch to landing) are discussed. It is shown that the use of transformable descent vehicles widens the scope of possible tasks to solve.

  1. Winthrop College Transformed Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawisher, Margaret F.

    Dealing with the issue of a changing society and recognizing that teacher education has remained basically unchanged for 100 years, the faculty of the Winthrop College School of Education agreed to take the risk involved with transforming the teacher education curriculum. Three interdisciplinary teams have identified curriculum to be taught to…

  2. Transforming teaching into scholarship.

    PubMed

    Turner, Teri; Palazzi, Debra; Ward, Mark; Lorin, Martin

    2012-12-01

    Traditionally, scholarship has been defined very narrowly as the number of one's publications and grant awards. Recently this definition has broadened to include dissemination of knowledge, experience or a tangible product shared with the educational community. In an effort to enhance our own educational development, in 2005 we formed a 'community of practice' centred on teaching. The group was formed to share ideas, to reflect on teaching experiences and to transmit new knowledge to other clinician-educators within our paediatrics department. By examining what we do as clinicians and teachers, we were able to gather information about how we teach and how our students learn. As we reflected on this information within our small learning community, we began to realise the value of other people's input as a great source of learning. One of our first activities as a community was to develop a series of conferences on clinical teaching. We also asked ourselves how we could transform what we were doing into educational scholarship. It occurred to us that the conference topics could be the chapters of a book. Therefore, we chose to create a handbook that was a 'learning journal' on teaching. We transformed the initial list of conference topics to scholarship by using a three-phase model for transforming teaching into scholarship. Using this framework, we have demonstrated how clinician-educators can transform teaching activities into scholarship, and how important a community of practice can be for professional development. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  3. Education as Habitus Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Rosenberg, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Unlike a conventional reading of Bourdieu, this article focuses on his work with regard to the transformation of social structure. In the context of a rereading, from an educational theory perspective, the article proposes an approach that allows for the linking of empirically informed social theory, on the one hand, and biography research…

  4. Transforming American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.; Mackey, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors accept as a given the National Education Technology Plan's vision of a transformed education system powered by technology such that learners receive personalized and engaging learning experiences, and where assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity are redefined. The article analyzes this vision of a…

  5. Transformative Change Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, D. D.; Kirby, C.; Witt, M. A.; Richie, D.; Mix, S.; Feldbaum, M.; Liu, S.; Mason, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Transformative Change Initiative (TCI) is dedicated to assisting community colleges to scale up innovation in the form of guided pathways, programs of study, and evidence-based strategies to improve student outcomes and program, organization, and system performance. The impetus for TCI is the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and…

  6. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  7. Teaching, Caring, and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Educator Bell Hooks acknowledged the fundamental truth that teaching, caring, and transformation are closely linked, that is, that true teaching must be accompanied by a deep level of care in order for learning to take place. No matter how young or old, no matter the subject matter, and no matter where teaching and learning take place--a…

  8. Leadership Coaching That Transforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Leading a school can be a lonely, challenging job, Elena Aguilar has found in her years coaching principals. Aguilar describes how coaching approach she's developed--transformational coaching--helps principals get three things most of them need: a neutral person they can talk with confidentially, job-embedded professional development, and a safe…

  9. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  10. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  11. Military Culture and Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    mines the success of transformation. The period between 1914 and 1945 shows the dynamic nature of military innova - tion and the difficulty military...maximized unity of effort. Leaders can foster a disciplined culture that encourages change and innova - tion by “creating a consistent system with clear

  12. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  13. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  14. Improved Transformation of Anthurium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Methods to increase transformation efficiency and yields of transgenic Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex. André hybrids were sought while effecting gene transfer for resistance to the two most important pests, bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae) and nematodes (Radopholus simili...

  15. Transforming Young Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of transformational change pervade the field of business but are rare in work with young people at risk--those most in need of deep change. Instead, the nation seems preoccupied with punishing or medicating problem behavior. Some propose the alternative of "rehabilitation," but that term means "to restore to former…

  16. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in…

  17. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  18. Beyond Reform: Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Jill

    2007-01-01

    The Coalition of Essential Schools (CES) is not a reform movement. To reform is to make a thing again; reformation implies a stasis that doesn't deliver enough for the educational future. This issue of Horace demonstrates that Essential schools and the districts and networks that support them are at various points in the journey of transformation,…

  19. Winthrop College Transformed Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawisher, Margaret F.

    Dealing with the issue of a changing society and recognizing that teacher education has remained basically unchanged for 100 years, the faculty of the Winthrop College School of Education agreed to take the risk involved with transforming the teacher education curriculum. Three interdisciplinary teams have identified curriculum to be taught to…

  20. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).