Science.gov

Sample records for mechanical loads

  1. Transfer Mechanisms for Heavy Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassisi, V.

    1986-01-01

    Soft hydraulic system gently maneuvers loads. Upper and lower load-transfer mechanisms attach through mounting holes in vertical beam adjustable or gross positioning. Fine positioning of load accomplished by hydraulic cylinders that move trunnion support and trunnion clamp through short distances. Useful in transferring large loads in railroads, agriculture, shipping, manufacturing, and even precision assembly of large items.

  2. Load measurement system with load cell lock-out mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Thang; Carroll, Monty; Liu, Jonathan

    1995-01-01

    In the frame work of the project Shuttle Plume Impingement Flight Experiment (SPIFEX), a Load Measurement System was developed and fabricated to measure the impingement force of Shuttle Reaction Control System (RCS) jets. The Load Measurement System is a force sensing system that measures any combination of normal and shear forces up to 40 N (9 lbf) in the normal direction and 22 N (5 lbf) in the shear direction with an accuracy of +/- 0.04 N (+/- 0.01 lbf) Since high resolution is required for the force measurement, the Load Measurement System is built with highly sensitive load cells. To protect these fragile load cells in the non-operational mode from being damaged due to flight loads such as launch and landing loads of the Shuttle vehicle, a motor driven device known as the Load Cell Lock-Out Mechanism was built. This Lock-Out Mechanism isolates the load cells from flight loads and re-engages the load cells for the force measurement experiment once in space. With this highly effective protection system, the SPIFEX load measurement experiment was successfully conducted on STS-44 in September 1994 with all load cells operating properly and reading impingement forces as expected.

  3. Combined mechanical loading of composite tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derstine, Mark S.; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bowles, David E.

    1988-01-01

    An analytical/experimental investigation was performed to study the effect of material nonlinearities on the response of composite tubes subjected to combined axial and torsional loading. The effect of residual stresses on subsequent mechanical response was included in the investigation. Experiments were performed on P75/934 graphite-epoxy tubes with a stacking sequence of (15/0/ + or - 10/0/ -15), using pure torsion and combined axial/torsional loading. In the presence of residual stresses, the analytical model predicted a reduction in the initial shear modulus. Experimentally, coupling between axial loading and shear strain was observed in laminated tubes under combined loading. The phenomenon was predicted by the nonlinear analytical model. The experimentally observed linear limit of the global shear response was found to correspond to the analytically predicted first ply failure. Further, the failure of the tubes was found to be path dependent above a critical load level.

  4. Mechanical Predictors of Discomfort during Load Carriage

    PubMed Central

    Wettenschwiler, Patrick D.; Lorenzetti, Silvio; Stämpfli, Rolf; Rossi, René M.; Ferguson, Stephen J.; Annaheim, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort during load carriage is a major issue for activities using backpacks (e.g. infantry maneuvers, children carrying school supplies, or outdoor sports). It is currently unclear which mechanical parameters are responsible for subjectively perceived discomfort. The aim of this study was to identify objectively measured mechanical predictors of discomfort during load carriage. We compared twelve different configurations of a typical load carriage system, a commercially available backpack with a hip belt. The pressure distribution under the hip belt and the shoulder strap, as well as the tensile force in the strap and the relative motion of the backpack were measured. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate possible predictors of discomfort. The results demonstrate that static peak pressure, or alternatively, static strap force is a significant (p<0.001) predictor of discomfort during load carriage in the shoulder and hip region, accounting for 85% or more of the variation in discomfort. As an additional finding, we discovered that the regression coefficients of these predictors are significantly smaller for the hip than for the shoulder region. As static peak pressure is measured directly on the body, it is less dependent on the type of load carriage system than static strap force. Therefore, static peak pressure is well suited as a generally applicable, objective mechanical parameter for the optimization of load carriage system design. Alternatively, when limited to load carriage systems of the type backpack with hip belt, static strap force is the most valuable predictor of discomfort. The regionally differing regression coefficients of both predictors imply that the hip region is significantly more tolerant than the shoulder region. In order to minimize discomfort, users should be encouraged to shift load from the shoulders to the hip region wherever possible, at the same time likely decreasing the risk of low back pain or injury

  5. Mechanical stability of trees under dynamic loads.

    PubMed

    James, Kenneth R; Haritos, Nicholas; Ades, Peter K

    2006-10-01

    Tree stability in windstorms and tree failure are important issues in urban areas where there can be risks of damage to people and property and in forests where wind damage causes economic loss. Current methods of managing trees, including pruning and assessment of mechanical strength, are mainly based on visual assessment or the experience of people such as trained arborists. Only limited data are available to assess tree strength and stability in winds, and most recent methods have used a static approach to estimate loads. Recent research on the measurement of dynamic wind loads and the effect on tree stability is giving a better understanding of how different trees cope with winds. Dynamic loads have been measured on trees with different canopy shapes and branch structures including a palm (Washingtonia robusta), a slender Italian cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) and trees with many branches and broad canopies including hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii) and two species of eucalypt (Eucalyptus grandis, E. teretecornus). Results indicate that sway is not a harmonic, but is very complex due to the dynamic interaction of branches. A new dynamic model of a tree is described, incorporating the dynamic structural properties of the trunk and branches. The branch mass contributes a dynamic damping, termed mass damping, which acts to reduce dangerous harmonic sway motion of the trunk and so minimizes loads and increases the mechanical stability of the tree. The results from 12 months of monitoring sway motion and wind loading forces are presented and discussed.

  6. Surface Damage Mechanism of Monocrystalline Si Under Mechanical Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhang, Quanli; To, Suet; Guo, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Single-point diamond scratching and nanoindentation on monocrystalline silicon wafer were performed to investigate the surface damage mechanism of Si under the contact loading. The results showed that three typical stages of material removal appeared during dynamic scratching, and a chemical reaction of Si with the diamond indenter and oxygen occurred under the high temperature. In addition, the Raman spectra of the various points in the scratching groove indicated that the Si-I to β-Sn structure (Si-II) and the following β-Sn structure (Si-II) to amorphous Si transformation appeared under the rapid loading/unloading condition of the diamond grit, and the volume change induced by the phase transformation resulted in a critical depth (ductile-brittle transition) of cut (˜60 nm ± 15 nm) much lower than the theoretical calculated results (˜387 nm). Moreover, it also led to abnormal load-displacement curves in the nanoindentation tests, resulting in the appearance of elbow and pop-out effects (˜270 nm at 20 s, 50 mN), which were highly dependent on the loading/unloading conditions. In summary, phase transformation of Si promoted surface deformation and fracture under both static and dynamic mechanical loading.

  7. Apparatus for loading shape memory gripper mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Benett, William J.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Fitch, Joseph P.

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SM material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  8. Molecular mechanics of silk nanostructures under varied mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Bratzel, Graham; Buehler, Markus J

    2012-06-01

    Spider dragline silk is a self-assembling tunable protein composite fiber that rivals many engineering fibers in tensile strength, extensibility, and toughness, making it one of the most versatile biocompatible materials and most inviting for synthetic mimicry. While experimental studies have shown that the peptide sequence and molecular structure of silk have a direct influence on the stiffness, toughness, and failure strength of silk, few molecular-level analyses of the nanostructure of silk assemblies, in particular, under variations of genetic sequences have been reported. In this study, atomistic-level structures of wildtype as well as modified MaSp1 protein from the Nephila clavipes spider dragline silk sequences, obtained using an in silico approach based on replica exchange molecular dynamics and explicit water molecular dynamics, are subjected to simulated nanomechanical testing using different force-control loading conditions including stretch, pull-out, and peel. The authors have explored the effects of the poly-alanine length of the N. clavipes MaSp1 peptide sequence and identify differences in nanomechanical loading conditions on the behavior of a unit cell of 15 strands with 840-990 total residues used to represent a cross-linking β-sheet crystal node in the network within a fibril of the dragline silk thread. The specific loading condition used, representing concepts derived from the protein network connectivity at larger scales, have a significant effect on the mechanical behavior. Our analysis incorporates stretching, pull-out, and peel testing to connect biochemical features to mechanical behavior. The method used in this study could find broad applications in de novo design of silk-like tunable materials for an array of applications.

  9. Biaxial load effects in fracture mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebowitz, H.; Lee, J. D.; Eftis, J.

    1977-01-01

    It is found that the standard expressions for elastic stress and displacement in the crack-tip region (i.e., the so-called singular solution) cannot be considered to be approximations that are acceptable in a completely general sense. This conclusion is best illustrated by the instance of a biaxially loaded infinite sheet with a flat horizontal central crack, where the effect of load applied parallel to the plane of the crack appears entirely in the second terms of the series representations for local stresses and displacements. An elastoplastic finite-element analysis of the same biaxially loaded finite specimen geometry shows that the global energy release rate, the J-integral, the plastic stress and strain intensity factors (in the sense of Hilton and Hutchinson), and the size of the crack border region plastic yield, all have pronounced biaxial load dependence.

  10. Prediction of glycosaminoglycan synthesis in intervertebral disc under mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Zhu, Qiaoqiao; Gu, Weiyong

    2016-09-06

    The loss of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content is a major biochemical change during intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. Abnormal mechanical loading is one of the major factors causing disc degeneration. In this study, a multiscale mathematical model was developed to quantify the effect of mechanical loading on GAG synthesis. This model was based on a recently developed cell volume dependent GAG synthesis theory that predicts the variation of GAG synthesis rate of a cell under the influence of mechanical stimuli, and the biphasic theory that describes the deformation of IVD under mechanical loading. The GAG synthesis (at the cell level) was coupled with the mechanical loading (at the tissue level) via a cell-matrix unit approach which established a relationship between the variation of cell dilatation and the local tissue dilatation. This multiscale mathematical model was used to predict the effect of static load (creep load) on GAG synthesis in bovine tail discs. The predicted results are in the range of experimental results. This model was also used to investigate the effect of static (0.2MPa) and diurnal loads (0.1/0.3MPa and 0.15/0.25MPa in 12/12 hours shift with an average of 0.2MPa over a cycle) on GAG synthesis. It was found that static load and diurnal loads have different effects on GAG synthesis in a diurnal cycle, and the diurnal load effects depend on the amplitude of the load. The model is important to understand the effect of mechanical loading at the tissue level on GAG synthesis at the cellular level, as well as to optimize the mechanical loading in growing engineered tissue.

  11. The mechanism of phloem loading in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Eom, Joon-Seob; Choi, Sang-Bong; Ward, John M; Jeon, Jong-Seong

    2012-05-01

    Carbohydrates, mainly sucrose, that are synthesized in source organs are transported to sink organs to support growth and development. Phloem loading of sucrose is a crucial step that drives long-distance transport by elevating hydrostatic pressure in the phloem. Three phloem loading strategies have been identified, two active mechanisms, apoplastic loading via sucrose transporters and symplastic polymer trapping, and one passive mechanism. The first two active loading mechanisms require metabolic energy, carbohydrate is loaded into the phloem against a concentration gradient. The passive process, diffusion, involves equilibration of sucrose and other metabolites between cells through plasmodesmata. Many higher plant species including Arabidopsis utilize the active loading mechanisms to increase carbohydrate in the phloem to higher concentrations than that in mesophyll cells. In contrast, recent data revealed that a large number of plants, especially woody species, load sucrose passively by maintaining a high concentration in mesophyll cells. However, it still remains to be determined how the worldwide important cereal crop, rice, loads sucrose into the phloem in source organs. Based on the literature and our results, we propose a potential strategy of phloem loading in rice. Elucidation of the phloem loading mechanism should improve our understanding of rice development and facilitate its manipulation towards the increase of crop productivity.

  12. Behavior of cracked cylinders under combined thermal and mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Ignaccolo, S.

    1996-12-01

    Nuclear pressure vessels and pipings can be submitted in their life to severe mechanical and thermal loadings. Engineering methods easy to apply, but sufficiently accurate, are needed to assess the flaws. In the field of non-linear fracture mechanics a lot of work has been achieved for structures submitted to mechanical loadings. But for thermal loadings, and particularly for thermal gradients, only few contributions are available. The authors propose, here, to present the main results of a complete set of finite element computations, conducted in France by CEA, EDF and FRAMATOME, on cracked cylinders submitted to combined mechanical and thermal loads. The interaction between these two types of loads is analyzed in the cases of austenitic and ferritic structures. Moreover, these results are compared to the predictions obtained by simplified engineering methods (R6 procedure, J{sub SA16}, and J{sub EDF} approaches). Their domain of validity is also discussed.

  13. The mechanics of elastic loading and recoil in anuran jumping.

    PubMed

    Astley, Henry C; Roberts, Thomas J

    2014-12-15

    Many animals use catapult mechanisms to produce extremely rapid movements for escape or prey capture, resulting in power outputs far beyond the limits of muscle. In these catapults, muscle contraction loads elastic structures, which then recoil to release the stored energy extremely rapidly. Many arthropods employ anatomical 'catch mechanisms' to lock the joint in place during the loading period, which can then be released to allow joint motion via elastic recoil. Jumping vertebrates lack a clear anatomical catch, yet face the same requirement to load the elastic structure prior to movement. There are several potential mechanisms to allow loading of vertebrate elastic structures, including the gravitational load of the body, a variable mechanical advantage, and moments generated by the musculature of proximal joints. To test these hypothesized mechanisms, we collected simultaneous 3D kinematics via X-ray Reconstruction of Moving Morphology (XROMM) and single-foot forces during the jumps of three Rana pipiens. We calculated joint mechanical advantage, moment and power using inverse dynamics at the ankle, knee, hip and ilio-sacral joints. We found that the increasing proximal joint moments early in the jump allowed for high ankle muscle forces and elastic pre-loading, and the subsequent reduction in these moments allowed the ankle to extend using elastic recoil. Mechanical advantage also changed throughout the jump, with the muscle contracting against a poor mechanical advantage early in the jump during loading and a higher mechanical advantage late in the jump during recoil. These 'dynamic catch mechanisms' serve to resist joint motion during elastic loading, then allow it during elastic recoil, functioning as a catch mechanism based on the balance and orientation of forces throughout the limb rather than an anatomical catch.

  14. Design of a biaxial mechanical loading bioreactor for tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Bilgen, Bahar; Chu, Danielle; Stefani, Robert; Aaron, Roy K

    2013-04-25

    We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0

  15. Design of a Biaxial Mechanical Loading Bioreactor for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Bilgen, Bahar; Chu, Danielle; Stefani, Robert; Aaron, Roy K.

    2013-01-01

    We designed a loading device that is capable of applying uniaxial or biaxial mechanical strain to a tissue engineered biocomposites fabricated for transplantation. While the device primarily functions as a bioreactor that mimics the native mechanical strains, it is also outfitted with a load cell for providing force feedback or mechanical testing of the constructs. The device subjects engineered cartilage constructs to biaxial mechanical loading with great precision of loading dose (amplitude and frequency) and is compact enough to fit inside a standard tissue culture incubator. It loads samples directly in a tissue culture plate, and multiple plate sizes are compatible with the system. The device has been designed using components manufactured for precision-guided laser applications. Bi-axial loading is accomplished by two orthogonal stages. The stages have a 50 mm travel range and are driven independently by stepper motor actuators, controlled by a closed-loop stepper motor driver that features micro-stepping capabilities, enabling step sizes of less than 50 nm. A polysulfone loading platen is coupled to the bi-axial moving platform. Movements of the stages are controlled by Thor-labs Advanced Positioning Technology (APT) software. The stepper motor driver is used with the software to adjust load parameters of frequency and amplitude of both shear and compression independently and simultaneously. Positional feedback is provided by linear optical encoders that have a bidirectional repeatability of 0.1 μm and a resolution of 20 nm, translating to a positional accuracy of less than 3 μm over the full 50 mm of travel. These encoders provide the necessary position feedback to the drive electronics to ensure true nanopositioning capabilities. In order to provide the force feedback to detect contact and evaluate loading responses, a precision miniature load cell is positioned between the loading platen and the moving platform. The load cell has high accuracies of 0

  16. Influence of structural load-bearing scaffolds on mechanical load- and BMP-2-mediated bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Anna M; Mason, Devon E; Lin, Angela S P; Guldberg, Robert E; Boerckel, Joel D

    2016-09-01

    A common design constraint in functional tissue engineering is that scaffolds intended for use in load-bearing sites possess similar mechanical properties to the replaced tissue. Here, we tested the hypothesis that in vivo loading would enhance bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2)-mediated bone regeneration in the presence of a load-bearing PLDL scaffold, whose pores and central core were filled with BMP-2-releasing alginate hydrogel. First, we evaluated the effects of in vivo mechanical loading on bone regeneration in the structural scaffolds. Second, we compared scaffold-mediated bone regeneration, independent of mechanical loading, with alginate hydrogel constructs, without the structural scaffold, that have been shown previously to facilitate in vivo mechanical stimulation of bone formation. Contrary to our hypothesis, mechanical loading had no effect on bone formation, distribution, or biomechanical properties in structural scaffolds. Independent of loading, the structural scaffolds reduced bone formation compared to non-structural alginate, particularly in regions in which the scaffold was concentrated, resulting in impaired functional regeneration. This is attributable to a combination of stress shielding by the scaffold and inhibition of cellular infiltration and tissue ingrowth. Collectively, these data question the necessity of scaffold similarity to mature tissue at the time of implantation and emphasize development of an environment conducive to cellular activation of matrix production and ultimate functional regeneration.

  17. Mechanical Loading for Peripheral Nerve Stabilization and Regeneration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    design, nerves are readily lengthened, but the device configuration is not amenable to reattachment (i.e., there is nowhere for outgrowing axons to...Award Number: W81XWH-10-1-0773 TITLE: Mechanical Loading for Peripheral Nerve Stabilization and...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Mechanical Loading for Peripheral Nerve Stabilization and Regeneration 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-10

  18. Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R2 = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting.

  19. Design and analysis of a novel mechanical loading machine for dynamic in vivo axial loading.

    PubMed

    Macione, James; Nesbitt, Sterling; Pandit, Vaibhav; Kotha, Shiva

    2012-02-01

    This paper describes the construction of a loading machine for performing in vivo, dynamic mechanical loading of the rodent forearm. The loading machine utilizes a unique type of electromagnetic actuator with no mechanically resistive components (servotube), allowing highly accurate loads to be created. A regression analysis of the force created by the actuator with respect to the input voltage demonstrates high linear correlation (R(2) = 1). When the linear correlation is used to create dynamic loading waveforms in the frequency (0.5-10 Hz) and load (1-50 N) range used for in vivo loading, less than 1% normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) is computed. Larger NRMSE is found at increased frequencies, with 5%-8% occurring at 40 Hz, and reasons are discussed. Amplifiers (strain gauge, linear voltage displacement transducer (LVDT), and load cell) are constructed, calibrated, and integrated, to allow well-resolved dynamic measurements to be recorded at each program cycle. Each of the amplifiers uses an active filter with cutoff frequency at the maximum in vivo loading frequencies (50 Hz) so that electronic noise generated by the servo drive and actuator are reduced. The LVDT and load cell amplifiers allow evaluation of stress-strain relationships to determine if in vivo bone damage is occurring. The strain gauge amplifier allows dynamic force to strain calibrations to occur for animals of different sex, age, and strain. Unique features are integrated into the loading system, including a weightless mode, which allows the limbs of anesthetized animals to be quickly positioned and removed. Although the device is constructed for in vivo axial bone loading, it can be used within constraints, as a general measurement instrument in a laboratory setting.

  20. Rat Achilles tendon healing: mechanical loading and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Eliasson, Pernilla; Andersson, Therese; Aspenberg, Per

    2009-08-01

    Injured tendons require mechanical tension for optimal healing, but it is unclear which genes are upregulated and responsible for this effect. We unloaded one Achilles tendon in rats by Botox injections in the calf muscles. The tendon was then transected and left to heal. We studied mechanical properties of the tendon calluses, as well as mRNA expression, and compared them with loaded controls. Tendon calluses were studied 3, 8, 14, and 21 days after transection. Intact tendons were studied similarly for comparison. Altogether 110 rats were used. The genes were chosen for proteins marking inflammation, growth, extracellular matrix, and tendon specificity. In intact tendons, procollagen III and tenascin-C were more expressed in loaded than unloaded tendons, but none of the other genes was affected. In healing tendons, loading status had small effects on the selected genes. However, TNF-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta1, and procollagens I and III were less expressed in loaded callus tissue at day 3. At day 8 procollagens I and III, lysyl oxidase, and scleraxis had a lower expression in loaded calluses. However, by days 14 and 21, procollagen I, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, tenascin-C, tenomodulin, and scleraxis were all more expressed in loaded calluses. In healing tendons, the transverse area was larger in loaded samples, but material properties were unaffected, or even impaired. Thus mechanical loading is important for growth of the callus but not its mechanical quality. The main effect of loading during healing might thereby be sought among growth stimulators. In the late phase of healing, tendon-specific genes (scleraxis and tenomodulin) were upregulated with loading, and the healing tissue might to some extent represent a regenerate rather than a scar.

  1. HOW DO BONE CELLS SENSE MECHANICAL LOADING?

    PubMed Central

    Gusmão, Carlos Vinícius Buarque de; Belangero, William Dias

    2015-01-01

    Influenced by gravidity, bone tissue experiences stronger or lighter deformation according to the strength of the activities of daily life. Activities resulting in impact are particularly known to stimulate osteogenesis, thus reducing bone mass loss. Knowing how bone cells recognize the mechanical deformation imposed to the bone and trigger a series of biochemical chain reactions is of crucial importance for the development of therapeutic and preventive practices in orthopaedic activity. There is still a long way to run until we can understand the whole process, but current knowledge has shown a strong progression, with researches being conducted focused on therapies. For a mechanical sign to be transformed into a biological one (mechanotransduction), it must be amplified at cell level by the histological structure of bone tissue, producing tensions in cell membrane proteins (integrins) and changing their spatial structure. Such change activates bindings between these and the cytoskeleton, producing focal adhesions, where cytoplasmatic proteins are recruited to enable easier biochemical reactions. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is the most important one being self-activated when its structure is changed by integrins. Activated FAK triggers a cascade of reactions, resulting in the activation of ERK-1/2 and Akt, which are proteins that, together with FAK, regulate the production of bone mass. Osteocytes are believed to be the mechanosensor cells of the bone and to transmit the mechanical deformation to osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Ionic channels and gap junctions are considered as intercellular communication means for biochemical transmission of a mechanical stimulus. These events occur continuously on bone tissue and regulate bone remodeling. PMID:27022510

  2. MECHANICS OF CRACK BRIDGING UNDER DYNAMIC LOADS

    SciTech Connect

    N. SRIDHAR; ET AL

    2001-02-01

    A bridging law for fiber reinforced composites under dynamic crack propagation conditions has been derived. Inertial effects in the mechanism of fiber pullout during dynamic propagation of a bridged crack are critically examined for the first time. By reposing simple shear lag models of pullout as problems of dynamic wave propagation, the effect of the frictional coupling between the fibers and the matrix is accounted for in a fairly straightforward way. The solutions yield the time-dependent relationship between the crack opening displacement and the bridging traction. Engineering criteria and the role of material and geometrical parameters for significant inertial effects are identified.

  3. Role of Integrin in Mechanical Loading of Osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Demsky, Caroline

    2000-01-01

    Mechanical forces generated by gravity, weightbearing, and muscle contraction play a key role in the genesis and maintenance of skeletal structure. The molecular mechanisms that mediate changes in osteoblast activity in response to altered patterns of skeletal loading are not known, and a better understanding of these processes may be essential for developing effective treatment strategies to prevent disuse osteoporosis. We have elucidated specific integrin/ECM (extracellular matrix) interactions that are required for osteoblast differentiation and survival and have developed a useful loading system to further explore the molecular basis of mechano-sensitivity of osteoblasts. The long term goal of our collaborative research is to understand how the ECM and cell adhesion proteins and integrins interaction to mediate the response of osteoblasts and their progenitors to mechanical loading. We suggest that integrin/ECM interactions are crucial for basic cellular processes, including differentiation and survival, as well as to participate in detecting and mediating cellular responses to mechanical stimuli.

  4. Microleakage of temporary restorations after thermocycling and mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Mayer, T; Eickholz, P

    1997-05-01

    The marginal seal of four temporary filling materials in endodontic access cavities was examined in vitro after thermocycling and mechanical loading using dye penetration tests and a quantitative marginal analysis of replicas in the SEM. Class I cavities were prepared in 44 extracted human molars and filled either with Cavit, Kalsogen, IRM, or TERM. After setting the reaction and thermocycling procedure, Cavit showed less microleakage in the dye penetration test and fewer marginal crevices in the quantitative marginal analysis. After loading, two Cavit fillings collapsed into the endodontic cavity. The marginal conditions of TERM were comparable to Cavit after thermocycling and mechanical loading. Kalsogen and IRM restorations demonstrated significantly increased microleakage and a higher percentage of marginal crevices after thermocycling and loading. In contrast to dye penetration tests, the effects of different factors on the marginal integrity of temporary fillings can be examined with the replica technique and quantitative marginal analysis.

  5. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, R.L.; Casamajor, A.B.; Parsons, R.E.

    1980-09-12

    A coupling mechanism for engaging and lifting a load has a housing with a guide passage for receiving a knob which is secured to the load through a neck of smaller diameter. A hollow ball in the housing has an opening which receives the knob and the ball is then turned to displace the opening from the housing passage and to cause the neck to enter a slot in the ball thereby securing the load to the coupling mechanism as elements of the housing block travel of the neck back into the opening when the ball is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball is preferably turned by a motor through worm gearing and the coupling mechanism may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements.

  6. Self locking coupling mechanism for engaging and moving a load

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Richard L.; Casamajor, Alan B.; Parsons, Richard E.

    1982-01-01

    Coupling mechanism (11) for engaging and lifting a load (12) has a housing (19) with a guide passage (18) for receiving a knob (13) which is secured to the load (12) through a neck (15) of smaller diameter. A hollow ball (23) in the housing (19) has an opening (27) which receives the knob (13) and the ball (23) is then turned to displace the opening (27) from the housing passage (18) and to cause the neck (15) to enter a slot (29) in the ball (23) thereby securing the load (12) to the coupling mechanism (11) as elements (49) of the housing (19) block travel of the neck (15) back into the opening (27) when the ball (23) is turned to the load holding orientation. As engagement of the load (12) and locking of the coupling mechanism are accomplished simultaneously by the same ball (23) motion, operation is simplified and reliability is greatly increased. The ball (23) is preferably turned by a motor (32) through worm gearing (36) and the coupling mechanism (11) may be controlled from a remote location. Among other uses, the coupling mechanism (11) is adaptable to the handling of spent nuclear reactor fuel elements (12).

  7. Mechanical response of ceramics to creep loading

    SciTech Connect

    Blumenthal, W.R.

    1983-08-01

    The mechanical response of small, semi-elliptical, identification-induced surface cracks in fine-grain alumina was studied. The deformation behavior of the crack tip region was monitored using crack opening and surface displacements. Results indicate values of the secondary creep exponent, n, between 1.5 and 2 with a temperature dependence consistent with secondary creep data from the same material. Crack growth was measured at 1300 and 1400/sup 0/C and a narrow power-law growth regime was revealed. Again the power-law exponent and activation energy were very close to creep values. Asymptotic behavior was exhibited near both K/sub Ic/ and K/sub th/, the crack growth threshold. The threshold occurred near 0.4 K/sub Ic/, independent of temperature. Crack tip damage in the form of grain boundary cavities growing by diffusion was responsible for crack extension. The damage also exerts a strong influence on the displacement field as predicted by recent theories. The crack growth threshold is preceded by a transition in the size and distribution of damage. At K/sub I/ near K/sub Ic/ the damage is restricted to a few facets directly ahead of the crack tip. Near K/sub th/ damage concentrates in side-lobes far ahead of the crack tip and at angles between 20/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/ from the plane of the crack. The transition between frontal and side-lobe damage is anticipated to be moderately dependent on grain size. 34 figures.

  8. Features of structural response of mechanically loaded crystallites to irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.

    2015-10-27

    A molecular dynamics method is employed to investigate the origin and evolution of plastic deformation in elastically deformed iron and vanadium crystallites due to atomic displacement cascades. Elastic stress states of crystallites result from different degrees of specimen deformation. Crystallites are deformed under constant-volume conditions. Atomic displacement cascades with the primary knock-on atom energy up to 50 keV are generated in loaded specimens. It is shown that irradiation may cause not only the Frenkel pair formation but also large-scale structural rearrangements outside the irradiated area, which prove to be similar to rearrangements proceeding by the twinning mechanism in mechanically loaded specimens.

  9. Muscle forces or gravity: what predominates mechanical loading on bone?

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Wendy M; Barry, Daniel W; Schwartz, Robert S

    2009-11-01

    Most mechanical forces acting on the skeleton are generated either through impact with the ground (i.e., gravitational loading) or through muscle contractions (i.e., muscle loading). If one of these conduits for activating mechanotransduction in bone is more effective than the other with respect to developing or maintaining bone strength, this would have important clinical implications for prescribing physical activity for the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis. This section of the symposium considered whether there is evidence from studies of humans that the effectiveness of physical activity to preserve bone health is dependent on whether the activities stimulate the skeleton primarily through gravitational or muscle loading. Conclusive evidence is lacking, but several lines of research suggest that physical activities that involve impact forces, and therefore generate both gravitation and muscle loading, are most likely to have beneficial effects on bone metabolism and reduce fracture risk.

  10. Mechanical loading, damping, and load-driven bone formation in mouse tibiae.

    PubMed

    Dodge, Todd; Wanis, Mina; Ayoub, Ramez; Zhao, Liming; Watts, Nelson B; Bhattacharya, Amit; Akkus, Ozan; Robling, Alexander; Yokota, Hiroki

    2012-10-01

    Mechanical loads play a pivotal role in the growth and maintenance of bone and joints. Although loading can activate anabolic genes and induce bone remodeling, damping is essential for preventing traumatic bone injury and fracture. In this study we investigated the damping capacity of bone, joint tissue, muscle, and skin using a mouse hindlimb model of enhanced loading in conjunction with finite element modeling to model bone curvature. Our hypothesis was that loads were primarily absorbed by the joints and muscle tissue, but that bone also contributed to damping through its compression and natural bending. To test this hypothesis, fresh mouse distal lower limb segments were cyclically loaded in axial compression in sequential bouts, with each subsequent bout having less surrounding tissue. A finite element model was generated to model effects of bone curvature in silico. Two damping-related parameters (phase shift angle and energy loss) were determined from the output of the loading experiments. Interestingly, the experimental results revealed that the knee joint contributed to the largest portion of the damping capacity of the limb, and bone itself accounted for approximately 38% of the total phase shift angle. Computational results showed that normal bone curvature enhanced the damping capacity of the bone by approximately 40%, and the damping effect grew at an accelerated pace as curvature was increased. Although structural curvature reduces critical loads for buckling in beam theory, evolution apparently favors maintaining curvature in the tibia. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia revealed that in response to axial loading, bone formation was significantly enhanced in the regions that were predicted to receive a curvature-induced bending moment. These results suggest that in addition to bone's compressive damping capacity, surrounding tissues, as well as naturally-occurring bone curvature, also contribute to mechanical damping, which may ultimately affect

  11. Prostaglandin E2 increases the skeletal response to mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, L. Y.; Cullen, D. M.; Yee, J. A.; Jee, W. S.; Kimmel, D. B.

    1997-01-01

    The study tested the influence of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on the skeletal response to increased in vivo mechanical loading through a four-point bending device. One hundred and twenty Sprague-Dawley female rats (6 months old, 354 +/- 34 g) were divided into 12 groups to accommodate all possible combinations of doses of loads (25, 30, or 35 N) and PGE2 (0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg). Rats received subcutaneous injections of PGE2 daily and in vivo loading of the right tibia every Monday, Wednesday, and Friday for four weeks. Histomorphometric analysis of the periosteal and endocortical surfaces following in vivo dual fluorochrome labeling was performed on both the loaded region of the right tibial diaphysis and a similar region of the left tibial diaphysis. Without PGE2, the threshold for loading to stimulate bone formation was 30 N (peak strain 1360 mu epsilon) at the periosteal surface and 25 N (peak strain 580 mu epsilon) at the endocortical surface. Without loading, the minimum dose of PGE2 to stimulate bone formation at all surfaces was 1 mg/kg/day. When 1 mg/kg/day PGE2 was combined with the minimum effective load, an additive effect of PGE2 and loading on bone formation was observed at the endocortical surface, but a synergistic effect was noted at the periosteal surface. No combined effect of ineffective doses of loading and PGE2 was found. A synergistic effect at peak strains of approximately 1625 mu epsilon on the periosteal surface could suggest either the involvement of locally produced growth factors or autoregulation of endogenous synthesis of PGE2 by exogenously administered PGE2.

  12. Global mechanical behavior of Sutong Bridge under static loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. B.; Zhang, Q. W.

    2010-04-01

    The global mechanical behaviors of Sutong Bridge, China, the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, are presented by using measurements from field static load tests compared with numerical analysis in this paper. A total of 37 loading cases with 64 test trucks, each being 300kN in weight, were conducted on 10 key sections to investigate the bridge behavior. The level of loading is about 50-88% of the code-specified serviceability load. A three-dimensional finite-element model is developed and calibrated to match the experiment data. The results show that, under the load test conditions, the incremental deflections, stresses as well as cable force of the structure are linearly proportional to the incremental loads. Moreover, the transverse shear lag effects of the steel box girder are significant and the longitudinal stress distributions in the slabs and diaphragms of the box girder are non-uniform. A good agreement is achieved between the experimental tests and the numerical simulations based on the nonlinear theories of long span bridges.

  13. Mechanisms of Bone Mineralization and Effects of Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babich, Michael

    1996-01-01

    The data suggest that PTH and PKC inhibit nodule formation, and that alternative energy sources are utilized by osteoblasts in the process of mineralization. The conditions and techniques to grow, fix, photograph, and measure bone mineralization in vitro were defined. The results are presently in preliminary form and require further assessment as follows; quantitate the surface area of nodules + treatments via computer-aided image analysis; use PTH + inhibitors of signaling pathways to determine the mechanism of nodule formation; determine how protein kinase C is involved as a promotor of nodule formation; cell proliferation vs. cell death affected by modulation of signal transduction (i.e., PTH, enzyme inhibitors and activators); identify mRNA induced or decreased in response to PTH and signaling modulators that encode proteins that regulate cell morphology, proliferation, and nodule formation. Therefore, several follow-up studies between the laboratories at NASA-Ames Research Center and my laboratory at the University of Illinois have been initiated.

  14. Microcracking in composite laminates under thermal and mechanical loading. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maddocks, Jason R.

    1995-01-01

    Composites used in space structures are exposed to both extremes in temperature and applied mechanical loads. Cracks in the matrix form, changing the laminate thermoelastic properties. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a predictive methodology to quantify microcracking in general composite laminates under both thermal and mechanical loading. This objective is successfully met through a combination of analytical modeling and experimental investigation. In the analysis, the stress and displacement distributions in the vicinity of a crack are determined using a shear lag model. These are incorporated into an energy based cracking criterion to determine the favorability of crack formation. A progressive damage algorithm allows the inclusion of material softening effects and temperature-dependent material properties. The analysis is implemented by a computer code which gives predicted crack density and degraded laminate properties as functions of any thermomechanical load history. Extensive experimentation provides verification of the analysis. AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates are manufactured with three different layups to investigate ply thickness and orientation effects. Thermal specimens are cooled to progressively lower temperatures down to -184 C. After conditioning the specimens to each temperature, cracks are counted on their edges using optical microscopy and in their interiors by sanding to incremental depths. Tensile coupons are loaded monotonically to progressively higher loads until failure. Cracks are counted on the coupon edges after each loading. A data fit to all available results provides input parameters for the analysis and shows them to be material properties, independent of geometry and loading. Correlation between experiment and analysis is generally very good under both thermal and mechanical loading, showing the methodology to be a powerful, unified tool. Delayed crack initiation observed in a few cases is attributed to a

  15. Pushing and pulling: personal mechanics influence spine loads.

    PubMed

    Lett, Kelly K; McGill, Stuart M

    2006-07-15

    This study assessed several mechanical issues related to low back loading during pushing and/or pulling tasks. Nine male participants performed two-handed pushing and pulling tasks at two handle heights with three loads, using a cable pulley system. Four of these men were professional firefighters trained in performing pushing and pulling tasks while the other five were graduate students who lacked manual work experience. The more experienced firefighters produced less spinal compression and shearing forces when compared to the less experienced students under the same conditions. The firefighters were able to create less muscle activation as compared to the students, which indicated a more efficient technique. The main contributing factors to the forces produced on the low back were the quantity of the load being pushed or pulled, handle height, experience level and the technique of the participant. Thus, attempts to set load limits for pushing and pulling tasks are difficult, since technique has such a large influence on back loading. In order to create safer working environments, education on proper pushing and pulling techniques is very important--more important than the physical variables in many cases.

  16. Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2002-01-01

    Thick rubber components are employed by the Army to carry large loads. In tanks, rubber covers road wheels and track systems to protect roadways. It is difficult for design engineers to simulate the details of the hysteretic heating for large strain viscoelastic deformations. In this study, an approximation to the viscoelastic energy dissipated per unit time is investigated for use in estimating mechanically induced viscoelastic heating. Coupled thermo-mechanical simulations of large cyclic deformations of rubber cylinders are presented. The cylinders are first compressed axially and then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. Details of the algorithm and some computational issues are discussed. The coupled analyses are conducted for tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without imbedded metal disks.

  17. Damage Evolution On Mechanical Parts Under Cyclic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestriez, P.; Bogard, F.; Shan, J. L.; Guo, Y. Q.

    2007-05-01

    This paper presents a fatigue damage model, based on the continuum damage mechanics and general thermodynamic theory, proposed by Lemaitre and Chaboche, for rolling bearings under very numerous loading cycles. A flow surface of fatigue using the Sines criterion is adopted. The coupling between the hardening plasticity and damage effects is considered in the constitutive equations. An explicit algorithm of weak coupling leads to a calculation very fast. This fatigue damage model is implemented into Abaqus/Explicit using a Vumat user's subroutine. Moreover, the damage variable in function of time is transformed into a function of number of cycles. An algorithm of cycle jump, with a criterion for choosing the number increment of cycles, is proposed, which allows to largely reduce the CPU time. The present damage simulation allows to determine the lifetime of mechanical parts under cyclic loading.

  18. Investigation of defect nucleation in titanium under mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Zolnikov, Konstantin P. Kryzhevich, Dmitrij S.; Korchuganov, Aleksandr V.; Psakhie, Sergey G.

    2014-11-14

    The paper undertakes a study of plastic deformation in a titanium crystallite under mechanical loading (uniaxial tension and indentation) in terms of atomic mechanisms of its generation and development. The molecular dynamics method with many-body interatomic potentials is employed. It is shown that there is a threshold strain, at which a crystal reveals the generation of local structural transformations associated with changes in atomic configurations of the first and second coordination spheres. The onset of plastic deformation in a crystallite is accompanied by a stepwise decrease in potential energy. The effect of free surfaces and grain boundaries on the generation of local structural transformations in a titanium crystallite is investigated.

  19. Mechanical loading of bovine pericardium accelerates enzymatic degradation.

    PubMed

    Ellsmere, J C; Khanna, R A; Lee, J M

    1999-06-01

    Bioprosthetic heart valves fail as the result of two simultaneous processes: structural deterioration and calcification. Leaflet deterioration and perforation have been correlated with regions of highest stress in the tissue. The failures have long been assumed to be due to simple mechanical fatigue of the collagen fibre architecture; however, we have hypothesized that local stresses-and particularly dynamic stresses-accelerate local proteolysis, leading to tissue failure. This study addresses that hypothesis. Using a novel, custom-built microtensile culture system, strips of bovine pericardium were subjected to static and dynamic loads while being exposed to solutions of microbial collagenase or trypsin (a non-specific proteolytic enzyme). The time to extend to 30% strain (defined here as time to failure) was recorded. After failure, the percentage of collagen solubilized was calculated based on the amount of hydroxyproline present in solution. All data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In collagenase, exposure to static load significantly decreased the time to failure (P < 0.002) due to increased mean rate of collagen solubilization. Importantly, specimens exposed to collagenase and dynamic load failed faster than those exposed to collagenase under the same average static load (P = 0.02). In trypsin, by contrast, static load never led to failure and produced only minimal degradation. Under dynamic load, however, specimens exposed to collagenase, trypsin, and even Tris/CaCl2 buffer solution, all failed. Only samples exposed to Hanks' physiological solution did not fail. Failure of the specimens exposed to trypsin and Tris/CaCl2 suggests that the non-collagenous components and the calcium-dependent proteolytic enzymes present in pericardial tissue may play roles in the pathogenesis of bioprosthetic heart valve degeneration.

  20. Static strength and failure mechanism of CFRP under biaxial loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. S.; Hwang, W.; Park, H. C.; Han, K. S.

    1998-01-01

    Tests of cross-ply composite tubes were performed under combined axial and torsional loading up to failure. Strength properties and failure mechanisms were evaluated with reference to the biaxiality ratio of the loading. The scattering of the biaxial strength data was analyzed using the Weibull distribution. The axial contraction of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) tubes under biaxial loading was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Artificial neural networks were introduced to predict the failure strength using the algorithm of the error back-propagation. The prediction was also made by the Tsai-Wu theory using the experimental data and by the combined optimized tensor-polynomial theory. A comparison shows that the artificial neural network has the smallest root-mean square (RMS) error of the three prediction methods. The prediction of the axial contraction of the tubes correlates well with the results of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) of the testing machine. From the phenomenological analysis of the failure and the fractographic observations of the fracture surface, three types of failure modes and microscopic failure were investigated, depending on the biaxiality ratio, and the corresponding failure mechanisms are suggested.

  1. The effect of mechanical damping loads on disabling action tremor.

    PubMed

    Aisen, M L; Arnold, A; Baiges, I; Maxwell, S; Rosen, M

    1993-07-01

    Patients with severe action tremor have uncontrollable, relatively rapid oscillatory motion super-imposed on otherwise useable slower voluntary motor activity. Because a mechanical damper produces an opposing force proportional to velocity, applying damping loads to tremorous limbs should attenuate the (high-velocity) tremor component of movement while permitting the slower purposeful portion to proceed relatively unopposed. In this study, the effect of upper extremity damping in three degrees of freedom was examined in 10 patients with cerebellar action tremor due to multiple sclerosis or traumatic brain injury. Variable amounts of damping were applied by prototype energy-dissipating orthoses which generated resistive viscous loads by means of computer-controlled magnetic particle brakes. All patients experienced statistically and functionally significant tremor reduction with the application of damping.

  2. Cell and matrix response of temporomandibular cartilage to mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    Utreja, Achint; Dyment, Nathaniel A.; Yadav, Sumit; Villa, Max M.; Li, Yingcui; Jiang, Xi; Nanda, Ravindra; Rowe, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The generation of transgenic mice expressing green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) has greatly aided our understanding of the development of connective tissues such as bone and cartilage. Perturbation of a biological system such as the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) within its adaptive remodeling capacity is particularly useful in analyzing cellular lineage progression. The objectives of this study were to determine: (i) if GFP reporters expressed in the TMJ indicate the different stages of cell maturation in fibrocartilage and (ii) how mechanical loading affects cellular response in different regions of the cartilage. Design/Methods Four-week-old transgenic mice harboring combinations of fluorescent reporters (Dkk3-eGFP, Col1a1(3.6kb)-GFPcyan, Col1a1(3.6kb)-GFPtpz, Col2a1-GFPcyan, and Col10a1-RFPcherry) were used to analyze the expression pattern of transgenes in the mandibular condylar cartilage. To study the effect of TMJ loading, animals were subjected to forced mouth opening with custom springs exerting 50 grams force for 1 hour/day for 5 days. Dynamic mineralization and cellular proliferation (EdU-labeling) were assessed in loaded vs control mice. Results Dkk3 expression was seen in the superficial zone of the mandibular condylar cartilage, followed by Col1 in the cartilage zone, Col2 in the prehypertrophic zone, and Col10 expression hypertrophic zone at and below the tidemark. TMJ loading increased expression of the GFP reporters and EdU-labeling of cells in the cartilage, resulting in a thickness increase of all layers of the cartilage. In addition, mineral apposition increased resulting in Col10 expression by unmineralized cells above the tidemark. Conclusion The TMJ responded to static loading by forming thicker cartilage through adaptive remodeling. PMID:26362410

  3. Method for loading shape memory polymer gripper mechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Abraham P.; Benett, William J.; Schumann, Daniel L.; Krulevitch, Peter A.; Fitch, Joseph P.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for loading deposit material, such as an embolic coil, into a shape memory polymer (SMP) gripping/release mechanism. The apparatus enables the application of uniform pressure to secure a grip by the SMP mechanism on the deposit material via differential pressure between, for example, vacuum within the SMP mechanism and hydrostatic water pressure on the exterior of the SMP mechanism. The SMP tubing material of the mechanism is heated to above the glass transformation temperature (Tg) while reshaping, and subsequently cooled to below Tg to freeze the shape. The heating and/or cooling may, for example, be provided by the same water applied for pressurization or the heating can be applied by optical fibers packaged to the SMP mechanism for directing a laser beam, for example, thereunto. At a point of use, the deposit material is released from the SMP mechanism by reheating the SMP material to above the temperature Tg whereby it returns to its initial shape. The reheating of the SMP material may be carried out by injecting heated fluid (water) through an associated catheter or by optical fibers and an associated beam of laser light, for example.

  4. Cellular and molecular mechanisms for the bone response to mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, S. A.

    2001-01-01

    To define the cellular and molecular mechanisms for the osteogenic response of bone to increased loading, several key steps must be defined: sensing of the mechanical signal by cells in bone, transduction of the mechanical signal to a biochemical one, and transmission of that biochemical signal to effector cells. Osteocytes are likely to serve as sensors of loading, probably via interstitial fluid flow produced during loading. Evidence is presented for the role of integrins, the cell's actin cytoskeleton, G proteins, and various intracellular signaling pathways in transducing that mechanical signal to a biochemical one. Nitric oxide, prostaglandins, and insulin-like growth factors all play important roles in these pathways. There is growing evidence for modulation of these mechanotransduction steps by endocrine factors, particularly parathyroid hormone and estrogen. The efficiency of this process is also impaired in the aged animal, yet what remains undefined is at what step mechanotransduction is affected.

  5. Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analyses of Dynamically Loaded Rubber Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Arthur R.; Chen, Tzi-Kang

    2000-01-01

    A procedure that models coupled thermo-mechanical deformations of viscoelastic rubber cylinders by employing the ABAQUS finite element code is described. Computational simulations of hysteretic heating are presented for several tall and short rubber cylinders both with and without a steel disk at their centers. The cylinders are compressed axially and are then cyclically loaded about the compressed state. The non-uniform hysteretic heating of the rubber cylinders containing a steel disk is presented. The analyses performed suggest that the coupling procedure should be considered for further development as a design tool for rubber degradation studies.

  6. Modulation of mechanical and muscular load by footwear during catering.

    PubMed

    Kersting, U G; Janshen, L; Böhm, H; Morey-Klapsing, G M; Brüggemann, G-P

    2005-03-15

    The BGN (Berufsgenossenschaft Nahrungsmithl und Gaststätten) reports 70% of job induced days off work to be connected with traumas of the ankle joint or overloading of the leg, knee and lower back, with an increased incidence in service areas outdoors (R. Grieshaber, personal communication). Workspace environments usually contain narrow passages, slopes or stairs and sudden changes between different surfaces. The aim of this study was to investigate the biomechanical load on the lower extremity and the low back during catering service when wearing different types of footwear. Thus, the potential for altering mechanical stress experienced during catering by variations in footwear was explored. Sixteen experienced waiters followed a course typical for a combined indoor-outdoor service area. Three different types of footwear were investigated using pressure distribution measurements, rearfoot goniometry and electromyography. A discriminant analysis revealed that the factors subject, shoe and surface affect rear foot movement or pressure distribution in different ways. A MANOVA demonstrated significant differences in loading parameters between footwear types. In general, these differences increased in magnitude in critical situations, such as climbing stairs or crossing slippery surfaces. The results of this study demonstrate that manipulations to footwear offer a great potential for modulating loads experienced during catering. Based on the results, the effects of constructional features are discussed. The method proposed can be applied to evaluate shoe modifications under realistic workplace conditions.

  7. Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading.

    PubMed

    Nagode, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress-strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history.

  8. Continuous damage parameter calculation under thermo-mechanical random loading

    PubMed Central

    Nagode, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a method on how the mean stress effect on fatigue damage can be taken into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. From known stress, elastoplastic strain and temperature histories the cycle amplitudes and cycle mean values are extracted and the damage parameter is computed. In contrast to the existing methods the proposed method enables continuous damage parameter computation without the need of waiting for the cycles to close. The limitations of the standardized damage parameters are thus surpassed. The damage parameters derived initially for closed and isothermal cycles assuming that the elastoplastic stress–strain response follows the Masing and memory rules can now be used to take the mean stress effect into account under an arbitrary low cycle thermo-mechanical loading. The method includes:•stress and elastoplastic strain history transformation into the corresponding amplitude and mean values;•stress and elastoplastic strain amplitude and mean value transformation into the damage parameter amplitude history;•damage parameter amplitude history transformation into the damage parameter history. PMID:26150939

  9. Damage mechanisms in PBT-GF30 under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Schaaf, A. De Monte, M. Hoffmann, C.; Vormwald, M.; Quaresimin, M.

    2014-05-15

    The scope of this paper is the investigation of damage mechanisms at microscopic scale on a short glass fiber reinforced polybutylene terephthalate (PBT-GF30) under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. In addition the principal mechanisms are verified through micro mechanical FE models. In order to investigate the fatigue behavior of the material both isothermal strain controlled fatigue (ISCF) tests at three different temperatures and thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on plain and notched specimens, manufactured by injection molding. The goal of the work is to determine the damage mechanisms occurring under TMF conditions and to compare them with the mechanisms occurring under ISCF. For this reason fracture surfaces of TMF and ISCF samples loaded at different temperature levels were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, specimens that failed under TMF were examined on microsections revealing insight into both crack initiation and crack propagation. The findings of this investigation give valuable information about the main damage mechanisms of PBT-GF30 under TMF loading and serve as basis for the development of a TMF life estimation methodology.

  10. Shock Loading of Granular Ni/Al Composites. Part 1. Mechanics of Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Cherukara, Mathew J.; Germann, Timothy C.; Kober, Edward M.; Strachan, Alejandro

    2014-10-16

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the thermomechanical response under shock loading of a granular material consisting of laminated Ni/Al grains. We observe two regimes: At low piston velocities (up ≲ 1km/s), the shock wave is diffuse, and the width of the shock front decreases with increasing piston velocity. Beyond a critical shock strength, however, the width remains relatively constant at approximately the mean grain radius. This change in behavior follows from an evolution of the mechanism of compaction with increasing insult strength. Furthermore, the mechanism evolves from plastic deformation-mediated pore collapse for relatively weak shocks, to solid extrusion and fluid ejecta filling pores ahead of the shock front at intermediate strengths, and finally to atomic jetting into the pore for very strong shocks (up ≳ 2 km/s). High-energy fluid ejecta into pores leads to the formation of flow vorticity and can result in a large fraction of the input energy localizing into translational kinetic energy components including the formation of hot spots. This has implications for the mechanical mixing of Ni and Al in these reactive composites.

  11. Shock Loading of Granular Ni/Al Composites. Part 1. Mechanics of Loading

    DOE PAGES

    Cherukara, Mathew J.; Germann, Timothy C.; Kober, Edward M.; ...

    2014-10-16

    We present molecular dynamics simulations of the thermomechanical response under shock loading of a granular material consisting of laminated Ni/Al grains. We observe two regimes: At low piston velocities (up ≲ 1km/s), the shock wave is diffuse, and the width of the shock front decreases with increasing piston velocity. Beyond a critical shock strength, however, the width remains relatively constant at approximately the mean grain radius. This change in behavior follows from an evolution of the mechanism of compaction with increasing insult strength. Furthermore, the mechanism evolves from plastic deformation-mediated pore collapse for relatively weak shocks, to solid extrusion andmore » fluid ejecta filling pores ahead of the shock front at intermediate strengths, and finally to atomic jetting into the pore for very strong shocks (up ≳ 2 km/s). High-energy fluid ejecta into pores leads to the formation of flow vorticity and can result in a large fraction of the input energy localizing into translational kinetic energy components including the formation of hot spots. This has implications for the mechanical mixing of Ni and Al in these reactive composites.« less

  12. Study of mechanical behavior of AFM silicon tips under mechanical load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopycinska-Mueller, M.; Gluch, J.; Köhler, B.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we address critical issues concerning calibration of AFM based methods used for nanoscale mechanical characterization of materials. It has been shown that calibration approaches based on macroscopic models for contact mechanics may yield excellent results in terms of the indentation modulus of the sample, but fail to provide a comprehensive and actual information concerning the tip-sample contact radius or the mechanical properties of the tip. Explanations for the severely reduced indentation modulus of the tip included the inadequacies of the models used for calculations of the tip-sample contact stiffness, discrepancies in the actual and ideal shape of the tip, presence of the amorphous silicon phase within the silicon tip, as well as negligence of the actual size of the stress field created in the tip during elastic interactions. To clarify these issues, we investigated the influence of the mechanical load applied to four AFM silicon tips on their crystalline state by exposing them to systematically increasing loads, evaluating the character of the tip-sample interactions via the load-unload stiffness curves, and assessing the state of the tips from HR-TEM images. The results presented in this paper were obtained in a series of relatively simple and basic atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM) experiments. The novel combination of TEM imaging of the AFM tips with the analysis of the load-unload stiffness curves gave us a detailed insight into their mechanical behavior under load conditions. We were able to identify the limits for the elastic interactions, as well as the hallmarks for phase transformation and dislocation formation and movement. The comparison of the physical dimensions of the AFM tips, geometry parameters determined from the values of the contact stiffness, and the information on the crystalline state of the tips allowed us a better understanding of the nanoscale contact.

  13. [Preparation of cationic dextran microspheres loaded with tetanus toxoid and study on the mechanism of protein loading].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Chun-li; Liu, Xiao-qing; Zhu, Jia-bi; Zhao, Yu-na

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study is to prepare cationic biodegradable dextran microspheres loaded with tetanus toxoid (TT) and to investigate the mechanism of protein loading. Positively charged microspheres were prepared by polymerization of hydroxylethyl methacrylate derivatized dextran (dex-HEMA) and dimethyl aminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA) in an aqueous two-phase system. The loading of the microspheres with TT was based on electrostatic attraction. The net positive surface charge increased with increasing amounts of DMAEMA. Confocal images showed fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) could penetrate into cationic dextran microspheres but not natural dextran microspheres. TT loading efficiency by post-loading was higher compared with by pre-loading. Even though TT is incorporated in the hydrogel network based on electrostatic interaction, still a controlled release can be achieved by varying the initial network density of the microspheres.

  14. Earthquake nucleation mechanisms and periodic loading: Models, Experiments, and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahmen, K.; Brinkman, B.; Tsekenis, G.; Ben-Zion, Y.; Uhl, J.

    2010-12-01

    The project has two main goals: (a) Improve the understanding of how earthquakes are nucleated ¬ with specific focus on seismic response to periodic stresses (such as tidal or seasonal variations) (b) Use the results of (a) to infer on the possible existence of precursory activity before large earthquakes. A number of mechanisms have been proposed for the nucleation of earthquakes, including frictional nucleation (Dieterich 1987) and fracture (Lockner 1999, Beeler 2003). We study the relation between the observed rates of triggered seismicity, the period and amplitude of cyclic loadings and whether the observed seismic activity in response to periodic stresses can be used to identify the correct nucleation mechanism (or combination of mechanisms). A generalized version of the Ben-Zion and Rice model for disordered fault zones and results from related recent studies on dislocation dynamics and magnetization avalanches in slowly magnetized materials are used in the analysis (Ben-Zion et al. 2010; Dahmen et al. 2009). The analysis makes predictions for the statistics of macroscopic failure events of sheared materials in the presence of added cyclic loading, as a function of the period, amplitude, and noise in the system. The employed tools include analytical methods from statistical physics, the theory of phase transitions, and numerical simulations. The results will be compared to laboratory experiments and observations. References: Beeler, N.M., D.A. Lockner (2003). Why earthquakes correlate weakly with the solid Earth tides: effects of periodic stress on the rate and probability of earthquake occurrence. J. Geophys. Res.-Solid Earth 108, 2391-2407. Ben-Zion, Y. (2008). Collective Behavior of Earthquakes and Faults: Continuum-Discrete Transitions, Evolutionary Changes and Corresponding Dynamic Regimes, Rev. Geophysics, 46, RG4006, doi:10.1029/2008RG000260. Ben-Zion, Y., Dahmen, K. A. and J. T. Uhl (2010). A unifying phase diagram for the dynamics of sheared solids

  15. Creatine Loading, Resistance Exercise Performance, and Muscle Mechanics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Scott W.; Dudley, Gary A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether creatine (CR) monohydrate loading would alter resistance exercise performance, isometric strength, or in vivo contractile properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle compared with placebo loading in resistance-trained athletes. Overall, CR loading did not provide an ergogenic benefit for the unilateral dynamic knee extension…

  16. Failure mechanisms in composite panels subjected to underwater impulsive loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latourte, Félix; Grégoire, David; Zenkert, Dan; Wei, Xiaoding; Espinosa, Horacio D.

    2011-08-01

    This work examines the performance of composite panels when subjected to underwater impulsive loads. The scaled fluid-structure experimental methodology developed by Espinosa and co-workers was employed. Failure modes, damage mechanisms and their distributions were identified and quantified for composite monolithic and sandwich panels subjected to typical blast loadings. The temporal evolutions of panel deflection and center deflection histories were obtained from shadow Moiré fringes acquired in real time by means of high speed photography. A linear relationship of zero intercept between peak center deflections versus applied impulse per areal mass was obtained for composite monolithic panels. For composite sandwich panels, the relationship between maximum center deflection versus applied impulse per areal mass was found to be approximately bilinear but with a higher slope. Performance improvement of sandwich versus monolithic composite panels was, therefore, established specially at sufficiently high impulses per areal mass ( I0/ M¯>170 m s -1). Severe failure was observed in solid panels subjected to impulses per areal mass larger than 300 m s -1. Extensive fiber fracture occurred in the center of the panels, where cracks formed a cross pattern through the plate thickness and delamination was very extensive on the sample edges due to bending effects. Similar levels of damage were observed in sandwich panels but at much higher impulses per areal mass. The experimental work reported in this paper encompasses not only characterization of the dynamic performance of monolithic and sandwich panels but also post-mortem characterization by means of both non-destructive and microscopy techniques. The spatial distribution of delamination and matrix cracking were quantified, as a function of applied impulse, in both monolithic and sandwich panels. The extent of core crushing was also quantified in the case of sandwich panels. The quantified variables represent ideal

  17. Effects of Zoledronate and Mechanical Loading during Simulated Weightlessness on Bone Structure and Mechanical Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, R. T.; Nalavadi, M. O.; Shirazi-Fard, Y.; Castillo, A. B.; Alwood, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    Space flight modulates bone remodeling to favor bone resorption. Current countermeasures include an anti-resorptive drug class, bisphosphonates (BP), and high-force loading regimens. Does the combination of anti-resorptives and high-force exercise during weightlessness have negative effects on the mechanical and structural properties of bone? In this study, we implemented an integrated model to mimic mechanical strain of exercise via cyclical loading (CL) in mice treated with the BP Zoledronate (ZOL) combined with hindlimb unloading (HU). Our working hypothesis is that CL combined with ZOL in the HU model induces additive structural and mechanical changes. Thirty-two C57BL6 mice (male,16 weeks old, n8group) were exposed to 3 weeks of either HU or normal ambulation (NA). Cohorts of mice received one subcutaneous injection of ZOL (45gkg), or saline vehicle, prior to experiment. The right tibia was axially loaded in vivo, 60xday to 9N in compression, repeated 3xweek during HU. During the application of compression, secant stiffness (SEC), a linear estimate of slope of the force displacement curve from rest (0.5N) to max load (9.0N), was calculated for each cycle once per week. Ex vivo CT was conducted on all subjects. For ex vivo mechanical properties, non-CL left femurs underwent 3-point bending. In the proximal tibial metaphysis, HU decreased, CL increased, and ZOL increased the cancellous bone volume to total volume ratio by -26, +21, and +33, respectively. Similar trends held for trabecular thickness and number. Ex vivo left femur mechanical properties revealed HU decreased stiffness (-37),and ZOL mitigated the HU stiffness losses (+78). Data on the ex vivo Ultimate Force followed similar trends. After 3 weeks, HU decreased in vivo SEC (-16). The combination of CL+HU appeared additive in bone structure and mechanical properties. However, when HU + CL + ZOL were combined, ZOL had no additional effect (p0.05) on in vivo SEC. Structural data followed this trend with

  18. Mechanical load-assisted dissolution of metallic implant surfaces: influence of contact loads and surface stress state.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Andrew; Shrotriya, Pranav

    2008-03-01

    Mechanical load-assisted dissolution is identified as one of the key mechanisms governing material removal in fretting and crevice corrosion of biomedical implants. In the current study, material removal on a stressed surface of cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (CoCrMo) subjected to single asperity contact is investigated in order to identify the influence of contact loads and in-plane stress state on surface damage mechanisms. The tip of an atomic force microscope is used as a well-characterized "asperity" to apply controlled contact forces and mechanically stimulate the loaded specimen surface in different aqueous environments from passivating to corroding. The volume of the material removed is measured to determine the influence of contact loads, in-plane stresses and the environment on the material dissolution rate. Experimental results indicate that surface damage is initiated at all the contact loads studied and as expected in a wear situation, removal rate increases with increase in contact loads. Removal rates display a complex dependence on residual stresses and the environment. In a passivating environment, the material removal rate is linearly dependent on the stress state such that surface damage is accelerated under compressive stresses and suppressed under tensile stresses. In a corrosive environment, the dissolution rate demonstrates a quadratic dependence on stress, with both compressive and tensile stresses accelerating material dissolution. A surface damage mechanism based on stress-assisted dissolution is proposed to elucidate the experimental observations.

  19. Contact mechanics of the human finger pad under compressive loads.

    PubMed

    Dzidek, Brygida M; Adams, Michael J; Andrews, James W; Zhang, Zhibing; Johnson, Simon A

    2017-02-01

    The coefficient of friction of most solid objects is independent of the applied normal force because of surface roughness. This behaviour is observed for a finger pad except at long contact times (greater than 10 s) against smooth impermeable surfaces such as glass when the coefficient increases with decreasing normal force by about a factor of five for the load range investigated here. This is clearly an advantage for some precision manipulation and grip tasks. Such normal force dependence is characteristic of smooth curved elastic bodies. It has been argued that the occlusion of moisture in the form of sweat plasticises the surface topographical features and their increased compliance allows flattening under an applied normal force, so that the surfaces of the fingerprint ridges are effectively smooth. While the normal force dependence of the friction is consistent with the theory of elastic frictional contacts, the gross deformation behaviour is not and, for commonly reported values of the Young's modulus of stratum corneum, the deformation of the ridges should be negligible compared with the gross deformation of the finger pad even when fully occluded. This paper describes the development of a contact mechanics model that resolves these inconsistencies and is validated against experimental data.

  20. Mechanism of DNA loading by the DNA repair helicase XPD

    PubMed Central

    Constantinescu-Aruxandei, Diana; Petrovic-Stojanovska, Biljana; Penedo, J. Carlos; White, Malcolm F.; Naismith, James H.

    2016-01-01

    The xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD) helicase is a component of the transcription factor IIH complex in eukaryotes and plays an essential role in DNA repair in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. XPD is a 5′ to 3′ helicase with an essential iron–sulfur cluster. Structural and biochemical studies of the monomeric archaeal XPD homologues have aided a mechanistic understanding of this important class of helicase, but several important questions remain open. In particular, the mechanism for DNA loading, which is assumed to require large protein conformational change, is not fully understood. Here, DNA binding by the archaeal XPD helicase from Thermoplasma acidophilum has been investigated using a combination of crystallography, cross-linking, modified substrates and biochemical assays. The data are consistent with an initial tight binding of ssDNA to helicase domain 2, followed by transient opening of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains, allowing access to a second binding site on helicase domain 1 that directs DNA through the pore. A crystal structure of XPD from Sulfolobus acidocaldiarius that lacks helicase domain 2 has an otherwise unperturbed structure, emphasizing the stability of the interface between the Arch and 4FeS domains in XPD. PMID:26896802

  1. The mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE loaded ALN after mechanical activation for joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Gong, Kemeng; Qu, Shuxin; Liu, Yumei; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Yongchao; Jiang, Chongxi; Shen, Ru

    2016-08-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN) has tremendous potential as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements. However, poor mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN are still obstacle for further application. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and mechanism of mechanical activation on mechanical and tribological properties of 1wt% ALN-loaded UHMWPE (UHMWPE-ALN-ma). In this study, tensile test, small punch test and reciprocating sliding wear test were applied to characterize the mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were employed to characterize UHMWPE-ALN-ma. Tensile test and small punch test showed that Young׳s modulus, tensile strength and work-to-failure (WTF) of UHMWPE-ALN-ma increased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. The friction coefficients and wear factors of UHMWPE-ALN-ma both decreased significantly compared to those of UHMWPE-ALN. Mechanical activation obviously reduced type 1 (void) and type 2 (the disconnected and dislocated machining marks) fusion defects of UHMWPE-ALN-ma, which were revealed by SEM images of freeze fracture surfaces after etching and lateral surfaces of specimens after extension to fracture, respectively. It was attributed to peeled-off layers and chain scission of molecular chains of UHMWPE particles after mechanical activation, which were revealed by SEM images and FTIR spectra of UHMWPE-ALN-ma and UHMWPE-ALN, respectively. Moreover, EDS spectra revealed the more homogeneous distribution of ALN in UHMWPE-ALN-ma compared to that of UHMWPE-ALN. The present results showed that mechanical activation was a potential strategy to improve mechanical and tribological properties of UHMWPE-ALN-ma as an orthopeadic biomaterial for joint replacements.

  2. Is bone's response to mechanical signals dominated by gravitational loading?

    PubMed

    Judex, Stefan; Carlson, Kristian J

    2009-11-01

    During locomotion and exercise, bone is subjected to forces induced by gravitational loading and muscle loading. The inherent link between these modes of loading has confounded emergence of either one as the principal anabolic or anticatabolic signal in bone. A paradigm has emerged in the literature stipulating that muscle loading is the larger of the two, and therefore, bone morphology is predominantly determined by muscle loads. In spite of the intuitive appeal of a muscle-bone unit tuned to the magnitude of contractile forces, little evidence exists for the relatively few, large-magnitude muscle contractions arising during daily activities to dominate the mechanosensory input of bone. Moreover, a review of the literature raises several inconsistencies in this paradigm and indicates that the alternative--gravitational loading--can have a significant role in determining bone mass and morphology. Certainly, the relative contribution of each type of loading will depend on the specific activity, the location of the bone within the skeleton, and whether the bone is weight-bearing or not. Most likely, a more comprehensive paradigm for explaining sensitivity of bone to loading will have to include not only large-magnitude gravitational and muscle loads, but also other factors such as high-frequency, low-magnitude signals generated by the muscles during postural adjustments.

  3. Mechanisms of cell shape change: the cytomechanics of cellular response to chemical environment and mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Processes such as cell locomotion and morphogenesis depend on both the generation of force by cytoskeletal elements and the response of the cell to the resulting mechanical loads. Many widely accepted theoretical models of processes involving cell shape change are based on untested hypotheses about the interaction of these two components of cell shape change. I have quantified the mechanical responses of cytoplasm to various chemical environments and mechanical loading regimes to understand better the mechanisms of cell shape change and to address the validity of these models. Measurements of cell mechanical properties were made with strands of cytoplasm submerged in media containing detergent to permeabilize the plasma membrane, thus allowing control over intracellular milieu. Experiments were performed with equipment that generated sinusoidally varying length changes of isolated strands of cytoplasm from Physarum polycephalum. Results indicate that stiffness, elasticity, and viscosity of cytoplasm all increase with increasing concentration of Ca2+, Mg2+, and ATP, and decrease with increasing magnitude and rate of deformation. These results specifically challenge assumptions underlying mathematical models of morphogenetic events such as epithelial folding and cell division, and further suggest that gelation may depend on both actin cross-linking and actin polymerization. PMID:1556158

  4. Structural concerns in dynamic drop loads on transfer lock mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeiffer, P.A.; Moran, T.J.; Kulak, R.F.

    1997-07-01

    Drop loads are usually low probability events that can generate substantial loading to the impacted structures. When the impacted structure contains slender elements, the concern about dynamic buckling must be addressed. The problem of interest here is a structure is also under significant preload, which must be taken into account in the transient analysis. For complex structures, numerical simulations are the only viable option for assessing the transient response to short duration impactive loads. this paper addresses several analysis issues of preloaded structures with slender members subjected to drop loads. A three-dimensional beam element is validated for use in dynamic buckling analysis. the numerical algorithm used to solve the transient response of preloaded structures is discussed. The methodology is applied to an inter-compartment lock that is under significant preloads, and subjected to a drop load.

  5. Mechanisms of genioglossus responses to inspiratory resistive load in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, N P; Goloubeva, E V; Isaev, G G

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of the present study has been to determine whether pharyngeal dilator muscles participate in inspiratory load compensatory responses and if so, to elucidate role of upper airway mechanoreceptors in these responses. The experiments were performed on anaesthetized rabbits. Each animal was tested in three ways by the imposition of inspiratory resistive load: (1) at upper airways via face mask, (2) at the tracheostomic cannula placed below larynx (all upper airway receptors were 'bypassed') and (3) at the mouth after the section of the hypoglossus nerves (motor denervation of genioglossus muscle). The inspiratory load applied to the upper airways evoked significant increases in integrated genioglossus activity (to 129 +/- 14.7% of control) and its inspiratory duration (to 113 +/- 5% of control) already within the first loaded breath (P < 0.05). The increases in the inspiratory activity of musculius genioglossus were relatively greater than the simultaneous increases in the activity of the diaphragm. Motor denervation of the pharynx dilator muscles (including m. genioglossus) increased airway resistance to 184 +/- 19% of control (P < 0.05) and induced obstructive alterations in the breathing pattern during unloaded breathing: decrease in maximal inspiratory flow (-13%) and increase in the level of negative oesophageal pressure (+14%) and the peak diaphragm activity (+6%). After nervi hypoglossus sections additional increases in motor and pressure outputs were required in order to maintain unaltered ventilation at the same degree of loading as before denervation. The results indicate that the pharyngeal dilator muscles have a role in compensation of added inspiratory load. Activation of these muscles facilitate the load compensating function of 'pump' muscles by decreasing airway resistance. Tracheostomy did not reduce the genioglossus response to inspiratory loading, ruling out any role for upper airways receptors in the genioglossus response to inspiratory

  6. Tissue transglutaminase is involved in mechanical load-induced osteogenic differentiation of human ligamentum flavum cells.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yuan-Hung; Huang, Shih-Yung; Yang, Ruei-Cheng; Sun, Jui-Sheng

    2016-07-01

    Mechanical load-induced osteogenic differentiation might be the key cellular event in the calcification and ossification of ligamentum flavum. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of tissue transglutaminase (TGM2) on mechanical load-induced osteogenesis of ligamentum flavum cells. Human ligamentum flavum cells were obtained from 12 patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. Osteogenic phenotypes of ligamentum flavum cells, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin red-S stain, and gene expression of osteogenic makers were evaluated following the administration of mechanical load and BMP-2 treatment. The expression of TGM2 was evaluated by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis. Our results showed that mechanical load in combination with BMP-2 enhanced calcium deposition and ALP activity. Mechanical load significantly increased ALP and OC gene expression on day 3, whereas BMP-2 significantly increased ALP, OPN, and Runx2 on day 7. Mechanical load significantly induced TGM2 gene expression and enzyme activity in human ligamentum flavum cells. Exogenous TGM2 increased ALP and OC gene expression; while, inhibited TG activity significantly attenuated mechanical load-induced and TGM2-induced ALP activity. In summary, mechanical load-induced TGM2 expression and enzyme activity is involved in the progression of the calcification of ligamentum flavum.

  7. A procedure for combining acoustically induced and mechanically induced loads (first passage failure design criterion)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crowe, D. R.; Henricks, W.

    1983-01-01

    The combined load statistics are developed by taking the acoustically induced load to be a random population, assumed to be stationary. Each element of this ensemble of acoustically induced loads is assumed to have the same power spectral density (PSD), obtained previously from a random response analysis employing the given acoustic field in the STS cargo bay as a stationary random excitation. The mechanically induced load is treated as either (1) a known deterministic transient, or (2) a nonstationary random variable of known first and second statistical moments which vary with time. A method is then shown for determining the probability that the combined load would, at any time, have a value equal to or less than a certain level. Having obtained a statistical representation of how the acoustic and mechanical loads are expected to combine, an analytical approximation for defining design levels for these loads is presented using the First Passage failure criterion.

  8. The interface of mechanical loading and biological variables as they pertain to the development of tendinosis.

    PubMed

    Thornton, G M; Hart, D A

    2011-06-01

    Different tendons are designed to withstand different mechanical loads in their individual environments. Variable physiologic loading ranges and correspondingly different injury thresholds lead to tendon heterogeneity. Also, tendon heterogeneity is evident when examining how different tendons regulate their response to changes in mechanical loading (over- and under-loading). The response of tendons to changes in mechanical loading plays an important role in the induction and progression of tendinosis which is tendon degeneration without inflammation. Tendon overuse injury is likely related to abnormal mechanical loading that deviates from normal mechanical loading in magnitude, frequency, duration and/or direction. Mechanical loading that results in tendon overuse injury can initiate a repair process but, after failed initial repair, non-resolving chronic attempted repair appears to lead to a "smoldering" fibrogenesis. Contributions of regulatory components, including minor components in the "nerve-mast cell-myofibroblast axis", are key features in the development and progression of tendinosis. Hormonal and genetic factors may also influence risk for tendinosis. Further understanding of how tendinosis induction is related to mechanical use/overuse, how tendinosis progression is related to abnormal regulation of attempted repair, and how induction and/or progression are modulated by other risk factors may lead to interventions that mitigate risk and enhance functional repair.

  9. Dynamic loading affects the mechanical properties and failure site of porcine spines.

    PubMed

    Yingling, Vanessa R; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    1997-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of load rate on the mechanical characteristics of spinal motion segments under compressive loading. DESIGN: An in vitro experiment using a porcine model which ensured a homogeneous population for age, weight, genetic background and physical activity. BACKGROUND: Spinal motion segments comprise of viscoelastic materials, and as a result the rate of loading will modulate mechanical characteristics and fracture patterns of the segments. METHODS: Twenty-six cervical porcine spines were excised immediately post-mortem with all soft tissue intact. Spines were then separated into two specimens each consisting of three vertebral bodies and the two intervening intervertebral discs (C2-C4 and C5-C7) and loaded to failure under five loading rates (100, 1000, 3000, 10 000 and 16 000 N s(-1)). After the specimens failed, they were dissected to determine the mode of failure. RESULTS: Dynamic loading increases the ultimate load compared with quasi-static loading (100 N s(-1)), whereas the magnitude of dynamic loading (1000-16 000 N s(-1)) appears not to have a significant affect. Stiffness behaved in a similar manner. The displacement to failure of specimens decreased as load rate increased, although there was a diminishing effect at high load rates. Furthermore, failure at low load rates occurred exclusively in the endplate, whereas failure of the vertebral body appeared with greater frequency at higher load rates. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanical characteristics and resulting injuries of porcine spinal motion segments were affected as the loading rates changed from quasi-static to dynamic. The modulating factors of the mechanical characteristics of the spine need to be understood if valid models are to be designed which will increase the understanding of spinal function, and are important for choosing better injury prevention and rehabilitation programmes.

  10. Mechanical load induces sarcoplasmic wounding and FGF release in differentiated human skeletal muscle cultures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. S.; Feeback, D. L.

    1996-01-01

    The transduction mechanism (or mechanisms) responsible for converting a mechanical load into a skeletal muscle growth response are unclear. In this study we have used a mechanically active tissue culture model of differentiated human skeletal muscle cells to investigate the relationship between mechanical load, sarcolemma wounding, fibroblast growth factor release, and skeletal muscle cell growth. Using the Flexcell Strain Unit we demonstrate that as mechanical load increases, so too does the amount of sarcolemma wounding. A similar relationship was also observed between the level of mechanical load inflicted on the cells and the amount of bFGF (FGF2) released into the surrounding medium. In addition, we demonstrate that the muscle cell growth response induced by chronic mechanical loading in culture can be inhibited by the presence of an antibody capable of neutralizing the biological activity of FGF. This study provides direct evidence that mechanically induced, sarcolemma wound-mediated FGF release is an important autocrine mechanism for transducing the stimulus of mechanical load into a skeletal muscle growth response.

  11. Load monitoring of aerospace structures utilizing micro-electro-mechanical systems for static and quasi-static loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, M.; Rocha, B.; Li, M.; Shi, G.; Beltempo, A.; Rutledge, R.; Yanishevsky, M.

    2012-11-01

    The National Research Council Canada (NRC) has worked on the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) test platforms for assessing the performance of sensor systems for load monitoring applications. The first SHM platform consists of a 5.5 m cantilever aluminum beam that provides an optimal scenario for evaluating the ability of a load monitoring system to measure bending, torsion and shear loads. The second SHM platform contains an added level of structural complexity, by consisting of aluminum skins with bonded/riveted stringers, typical of an aircraft lower wing structure. These two load monitoring platforms are well characterized and documented, providing loading conditions similar to those encountered during service. In this study, a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) for acquiring data from triads of gyroscopes, accelerometers and magnetometers is described. The system was used to compute changes in angles at discrete stations along the platforms. The angles obtained from the MEMS were used to compute a second, third or fourth order degree polynomial surface from which displacements at every point could be computed. The use of a new Kalman filter was evaluated for angle estimation, from which displacements in the structure were computed. The outputs of the newly developed algorithms were then compared to the displacements obtained from the linear variable displacement transducers connected to the platforms. The displacement curves were subsequently post-processed either analytically, or with the help of a finite element model of the structure, to estimate strains and loads. The estimated strains were compared with baseline strain gauge instrumentation installed on the platforms. This new approach for load monitoring was able to provide accurate estimates of applied strains and shear loads.

  12. Mechanical behavior of a continuous fiber reinforced aluminum matrix composite subjected to transverse and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansson, S.; Leckie, F. A.

    1991-01-01

    The transverse properties of an aluminum alloy metal matrix composite reinforced by continuous alumina fibers were investigated. The composite is subjected to both mechanical and cyclic thermal loading. The results of an experimental program indicate that the shakedown concept of structural mechanics provides a means of describing the material behavior. When the loading conditions are within the shakedown region, the material finally responds in an elastic manner after initial plastic response, and for loading conditions outside the shakedown region, the material exhibits a rapid incremental plastic strain accumulation. The failure strain varies by an order of magnitude according to the operating conditions. Hence, for high mechanical and low thermal loading, the failure strains is small; for low mechanical and high thermal loading, the failure strain is large.

  13. Structural Mechanisms of Hexameric Helicase Loading, Assembly, and Unwinding.

    PubMed

    Trakselis, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Hexameric helicases control both the initiation and the elongation phase of DNA replication. The toroidal structure of these enzymes provides an inherent challenge in the opening and loading onto DNA at origins, as well as the conformational changes required to exclude one strand from the central channel and activate DNA unwinding. Recently, high-resolution structures have not only revealed the architecture of various hexameric helicases but also detailed the interactions of DNA within the central channel, as well as conformational changes that occur during loading. This structural information coupled with advanced biochemical reconstitutions and biophysical methods have transformed our understanding of the dynamics of both the helicase structure and the DNA interactions required for efficient unwinding at the replisome.

  14. Structural Mechanisms of Hexameric Helicase Loading, Assembly, and Unwinding

    PubMed Central

    Trakselis, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Hexameric helicases control both the initiation and the elongation phase of DNA replication. The toroidal structure of these enzymes provides an inherent challenge in the opening and loading onto DNA at origins, as well as the conformational changes required to exclude one strand from the central channel and activate DNA unwinding. Recently, high-resolution structures have not only revealed the architecture of various hexameric helicases but also detailed the interactions of DNA within the central channel, as well as conformational changes that occur during loading. This structural information coupled with advanced biochemical reconstitutions and biophysical methods have transformed our understanding of the dynamics of both the helicase structure and the DNA interactions required for efficient unwinding at the replisome. PMID:26918187

  15. Effect of mechanical loading on the electrical durability of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slutsker, A. I.; Veliev, T. M.; Alieva, I. K.; Alekperov, V. A.; Polikarpov, Yu. I.; Karov, D. D.

    2017-01-01

    A decrease in the electrical durability, which is defined as an amount of time required for dielectric breakdown at a constant electric field strength, of polyethylene and Lavsan (polyethylene terephthalate) films under tensile loading is registered in a temperature range from 100 to 300 K. It is established that the pulling apart of the axes of neighbor chain molecules in consequence of tensile loading gives rise to a decrease in the energy level of the intermolecular electron traps. In the amorphous region of a polymer, this accelerates the release of electrons from the traps through over-barrier transitions at higher temperatures ranging from about 230 to 350 K and quantum tunneling transitions at lower temperatures in the range from about 80 to 200 K. As a result, the time required for the formation of a critical space charge, i.e., the waiting period of dielectric breakdown, decreases, which means a reduction in the electrical durability of polymers.

  16. Mechanical contact between rough surfaces at low load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Pin; O'Shea, S. J.

    2012-11-01

    A model is developed to describe the initial contact between rough surfaces. The Greenwood-Williamson statistical approach is used with exponential or Weibull asperity height distributions, and modified with the relative displacement between the surfaces referenced to the initial contact of the highest asperity (within a given area) at zero load. This form provides a framework for investigating contact at low loads or contact over small area e.g. as found in microfabricated structures. The approach gives the expected number of asperities touching, the real area of contact and the normal force in terms of the indentation. The model results show that for hard surface materials (e.g. Silicon), very few asperities may be in contact at low loads (˜1 µN) even over large nominal surface areas (˜20 × 20 µm2), in accordance with observations drawn from microfabrication experiments. This suggests an analytical means to bridge nanoscale concepts and approaches (e.g. superlubricity, friction at a single asperity) to microscale structures.

  17. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed.

  18. Experimental research on buckling of thin films in nano-scale under mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. B.; Jia, H. K.; Ren, X. C.; Li, L. A.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, the mechanical and thermal properties of compressed thin film titanium films with 150nm thickness deposited on an organic glass substrate under mechanical and thermal loads were measured and characterized. In order to simulate the thin films in IT which subjected compound loads and to produce the buckle modes, the external uniaxial compression and thermal loading are subjected to the specimen by the symmetric loading device and the electrical resistance film in this experiment. The temperature of the thin film deposited on substrate was measured using thermoelectric couple. The range of temperature accords with the temperature range of the MEMS. It is found that the size and number of the delamination and buckling of the film are depended upon the pre-fixed mechanical loading. The transient conduction and thermal stability of the film and substrate was studied with finite element method.

  19. Constitutive response of Rene 80 under thermal mechanical loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K. S.; Cook, T. S.; Mcknight, R. L.

    1988-01-01

    The applicability of a classical constitutive model for stress-strain analysis of a nickel base superalloy, Rene' 80, in the gas turbine thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) environment is examined. A variety of tests were conducted to generate basic material data and to investigate the material response under cyclic thermomechanical loading. Isothermal stress-strain data were acquired at a variety of strain rates over the TMF temperature range. Creep curves were examined at 2 temperature ranges, 871 to 982 C and 760 to 871 C. The results provide optimism on the ability of the classical constitutive model for high temperature applications.

  20. The Effects of Load Carriage and Muscle Fatigue on Lower-Extremity Joint Mechanics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, He; Frame, Jeff; Ozimek, Elicia; Leib, Daniel; Dugan, Eric L.

    2013-01-01

    Military personnel are commonly afflicted by lower-extremity overuse injuries. Load carriage and muscular fatigue are major stressors during military basic training. Purpose: To examine effects of load carriage and muscular fatigue on lower-extremity joint mechanics during walking. Method: Eighteen men performed the following tasks: unloaded…

  1. Analysis of Composite Panels Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Peters, Jeanne M.

    1999-01-01

    The results of a detailed study of the effect of cutout on the nonlinear response of curved unstiffened panels are presented. The panels are subjected to combined temperature gradient through-the-thickness combined with pressure loading and edge shortening or edge shear. The analysis is based on a first-order, shear deformation, Sanders-Budiansky-type shell theory with the effects of large displacements, moderate rotations, transverse shear deformation, and laminated anisotropic material behavior included. A mixed formulation is used with the fundamental unknowns consisting of the generalized displacements and the stress resultants of the panel. The nonlinear displacements, strain energy, principal strains, transverse shear stresses, transverse shear strain energy density, and their hierarchical sensitivity coefficients are evaluated. The hierarchical sensitivity coefficients measure the sensitivity of the nonlinear response to variations in the panel parameters, as well as in the material properties of the individual layers. Numerical results are presented for cylindrical panels and show the effects of variations in the loading and the size of the cutout on the global and local response quantities as well as their sensitivity to changes in the various panel, layer, and micromechanical parameters.

  2. Mechanical Model for Dynamic Behavior of Concrete Under Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuanxiang

    Concrete is a geo-material which is used substantively in the civil building and military safeguard. One coupled model of damage and plasticity to describe the complex behavior of concrete subjected to impact loading is proposed in this research work. The concrete is assumed as homogeneous continuum with pre-existing micro-cracks and micro-voids. Damage to concrete is caused due to micro-crack nucleation, growth and coalescence, and defined as the probability of fracture at a given crack density. It induces a decrease of strength and stiffness of concrete. Compaction of concrete is physically a collapse of the material voids. It produces the plastic strain in the concrete and, at the same time, an increase of the bulk modulus. In terms of crack growth model, micro-cracks are activated, and begin to propagate gradually. When crack density reaches a critical value, concrete takes place the smashing destroy. The model parameters for mortar are determined using plate impact experiment with uni-axial strain state. Comparison with the test results shows that the proposed model can give consistent prediction of the impact behavior of concrete. The proposed model may be used to design and analysis of concrete structures under impact and shock loading. This work is supported by State Key Laboratory of Explosion science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology (YBKT14-02).

  3. Analysis of the mechanical behavior of chondrocytes in unconfined compression tests for cyclic loading.

    PubMed

    Wu, John Z; Herzog, Walter

    2006-01-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that the biosynthetic activity of chondrocytes is associated with the mechanical environment. For example, excessive, repetitive loading has been found to induce cell death, morphological and cellular damage, as seen in degenerative joint disease, while cyclic, physiological-like loading has been found to trigger a partial recovery of morphological and ultrastructural aspects in osteoarthritic human articular chondrocytes. Mechanical stimuli are believed to influence the biosynthetic activity via the deformation of cells. However, the in situ deformation of chondrocytes for cyclic loading conditions has not been investigated experimentally or theoretically. The purpose of the present study was to simulate the mechanical response of chondrocytes to cyclic loading in unconfined compression tests using a finite element model. The material properties of chondrocytes and extracellular matrix were considered to be biphasic. The time-histories of the shape and volume variations of chondrocytes at three locations (i.e., surface, center, and bottom) within the cartilage were predicted for static and cyclic loading conditions at two frequencies (0.02 and 0.1 Hz) and two amplitudes (0.1 and 0.2 MPa). Our results show that cells at different depths within the cartilage deform differently during cyclic loading, and that the depth dependence of cell deformation is influenced by the amplitude of the cyclic loading. Cell deformations under cyclic loading of 0.02 Hz were found to be similar to those at 0.1 Hz. We conclude from the simulation results that, in homogeneous cartilage layers, cell deformations are location-dependent, and further are affected by load magnitude. In physiological conditions, the mechanical environment of cells are even more complex due to the anisotropy, depth-dependent inhomogeneity, and tension-compression non-linearity of the cartilage matrix. Therefore, it is feasible to speculate that biosynthetic responses of

  4. Skeletal adaptation to external loads optimizes mechanical properties: fact or fiction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. T.

    2001-01-01

    The skeleton adapts to a changing mechanical environment but the widely held concept that bone cells are programmed to respond to local mechanical loads to produce an optimal mechanical structure is not consistent with the high frequency of bone fractures. Instead, the author suggests that other important functions of bone compete with mechanical adaptation to determine structure. As a consequence of competing demands, bone architecture never achieves an optimal mechanical structure. c2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

  5. Mechanical response of unidirectional boron/aluminum under combined loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1987-01-01

    Three test methods were employed to characterize the response of unidirectional Boron/Aluminum metal matrix composite material under monotonic and cyclic loading conditions, namely, losipescu shear, off-axis tension and compression. The characterization of the elastic and plastic response includes the elastic material properties, yielding and subsequent hardening of the unidirectional composite under different stress ratios in the material principal coordinate system. Yield loci generated for different stress ratios are compared for the three different test methods, taking into account residual stresses and specimen geometry. Subsequently, the yield locus for in-plane shear is compared with the prediction of an analytical, micromechanical model. The influence of the scatter in the experimental data on the predicted yield surface is also analyzed. Lastly, the experimental material strengths in tension and compression are correlated with the maximum stress and the Tsai-Wu failure criterion.

  6. Effects of loading misalignment and tapering angle on the measured mechanical properties of nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yujie; An, Xianghai; Liao, Xiaozhou; Mai, Yiu-Wing

    2015-10-01

    Loading misalignment and tapering of nanowires are usually unavoidable factors in compression and tensile mechanical property testing of nanowires. Herein, we report quantitative finite element analyses and experimental measurements on how these two factors affect the measured compression and tensile mechanical properties if they are not included in the data analysis. The results obtained show that ignoring these two factors leads to different degrees of underestimation of the critical load, Young’s modulus and tensile fracture strength.

  7. Macrocrack propagation in concrete specimens under sustained loading: Study of the physical mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Rossi, Pierre Boulay, Claude; Tailhan, Jean-Louis; Martin, Eric; Desnoyers, Dominic

    2014-09-15

    This study presents a series of 4-point bending tests performed to describe the delayed behavior of unreinforced pre-cracked beams under low, moderate and high sustained loading levels. The deflection creep rate, the failure time and the load level were assessed. A linear relation, in a semi-log scale, was found for the deflection creep rate at high load levels. In addition, a linear relation, in a log–log scale, between the secondary deflection creep rate and failure time was observed. Besides, it was shown that the secondary creep deflection rate increases with the sustained loading level and the macrocrack propagation rate when macrocrack propagation occurs during the sustained loading. Physical mechanisms are proposed to explain these results and may be summarized as follows: the delayed behavior of an unreinforced cracked concrete specimen under sustained loading is mainly due to the cracking evolution, thus the creation of microcracks and/or the propagation of a macrocrack.

  8. A new pressure chamber to study the biosynthetic response of articular cartilage to mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Steinmeyer, J; Torzilli, P A; Burton-Wurster, N; Lust, G

    1993-01-01

    A prototype chamber was used to apply a precise cyclic or static load on articular cartilage explants under sterile conditions. A variable pressure, pneumatic controller was constructed to power the chamber's air cylinder, capable of applying, with a porous load platen, loads of up to 10 MPa at cycles ranging from 0 to 10 Hz. Pig articular cartilage explants were maintained successfully in this chamber for 2 days under cyclic mechanical loading of 0.5 Hz, 0.5 MPa. Explants remained sterile, viable and metabolically active. Cartilage responded to this load with a decreased synthesis of fibronectin and a small but statistically significant elevation in proteoglycan content. Similar but less extensive effects on fibronectin synthesis were observed with the small static load (0.016 MPa) inherent in the design of the chamber.

  9. Resizing procedure for optimum design of structures under combined mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adelman, H. M.; Narayanaswami, R.

    1976-01-01

    An algorithm is reported for resizing structures subjected to combined thermal and mechanical loading. The algorithm is applicable to uniaxial stress elements (rods) and membrane biaxial stress members. Thermal Fully Stressed Design (TFSD) is based on the basic difference between mechanical and thermal stresses in their response to resizing. The TFSD technique is found to converge in fewer iterations than ordinary fully stressed design for problems where thermal stresses are comparable to the mechanical stresses. The improved convergence is demonstrated by example with a study of a simplified wing structure, built-up with rods and membranes and subjected to a combination of mechanical loads and a three dimensional temperature distribution.

  10. Mechanical Behaviour of Bolted Joints Under Impact Rates of Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    bolt. This pressure distribution has led to the conclusion that the compressive pressure drops dramatically after 1.5 bolt radii [ Budynas & Nisbett...Joints. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. Budynas , & Nisbett. (2006). Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design, Eigth Edition. United States: Mcgraw-Hill

  11. Mechanical Loading Attenuates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss in Bone Marrow Transplanted Mice

    PubMed Central

    Govey, Peter M.; Zhang, Yue; Donahue, Henry J.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone’s capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown. We employed a mouse model of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation simulating treatment of hematologic cancers, hypothesizing that compression loading would attenuate bone loss. Furthermore, we hypothesized that loading would upregulate donor cell presence in loaded tibias due to increased engraftment and proliferation. We lethally irradiated 16 female C57Bl/6J mice at age 16 wks with 10.75 Gy, then IV-injected 20 million GFP(+) total bone marrow cells. That same day, we initiated 3 wks compression loading (1200 cycles 5x/wk, 10 N) in the right tibia of 10 of these mice while 6 mice were irradiated, non-mechanically-loaded controls. As anticipated, before-and-after microCT scans demonstrated loss of trabecular bone (-48.2% Tb.BV/TV) and cortical thickness (-8.3%) at 3 wks following irradiation. However, loaded bones lost 31% less Tb.BV/TV and 8% less cortical thickness (both p<0.001). Loaded bones also had significant increases in trabecular thickness and tissue mineral densities from baseline. Mechanical loading did not affect donor cell engraftment. Importantly, these results demonstrate that both cortical and trabecular bone exposed to high-dose therapeutic radiation remain capable of an anabolic response to mechanical loading. These findings inform our management of bone health in cases of radiation exposure. PMID:27936104

  12. Mechanical Properties of a Metal Powder-Loaded Polyurethane Foam

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Neuschwanger; L. L. Whinnery; S. H. Goods

    1999-04-01

    Quasi-static compression tests have been performed on polyurethane foam specimens. The modulus of the foam exhibited a power-law dependence with respect to density of the form: E* {proportional_to} {rho}*{sup n}, where n = 1.7. The modulus data is well described by a simple geometric model (attributed to the work of Gibson and Ashby) for closed-cell foam in which the stiffness of the foam is governed by the flexure of the cell struts and cell walls. The compressive strength of the foam is also found to follow a power-law behavior with respect to foam density. In this instance, Euler buckling is used to rationalize the density dependence. The modulus of the polyurethane foam was modified by addition of a gas atomized, spherical aluminum powder. Additions of 30 and 50 weight percent of the powder significantly increased the foam modulus. However, there were only slight increases in modulus with 5 and 10 weight percent additions of the metal powder. Strength was also slightly increased at high loading fractions of powder. This increase in modulus and strength could be predicted by combining the above geometric model with a well-known model describing the effect on modulus of a rigid dispersoid in a compliant matrix.

  13. Interactive buckling of an inflated envelope under mechanical and thermal loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. G.; Liu, M. X.; Tan, H. F.

    2017-02-01

    This paper elucidates the interactive buckling behaviors of an inflated envelope under coupled mechanical and thermal loads, especially the longitudinal wrinkling bifurcation and hoop ovalization buckling. The longitudinal bending buckling process of the inflated envelope can be divided into three continuous stages, which are global buckling, interactive global-local buckling, and kink. A variety of hoop ovalization buckling modes are observed under coupled mechanical-thermal load. Unlike the mechanical case, thermal load leads to a hoop negative ovalization buckling. In addition, it can accelerate the longitudinal coupled bifurcation and resist the hoop coupled ovalization buckling. Moreover, the bending resistance of the inflated envelope will be improved when the length of the structure is increased, resulting in the difficulty of it to become wrinkled. These results provide a new insight into the buckling behaviors of an inflated envelope under coupled external loads, and give a reference for the design of the inflated envelope.

  14. Mechanical properties of stanene under uniaxial and biaxial loading: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect

    Mojumder, Satyajit; Amin, Abdullah Al; Islam, Md Mahbubul

    2015-09-28

    Stanene, a graphene like two dimensional honeycomb structure of tin has attractive features in electronics application. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using modified embedded atom method potential to investigate mechanical properties of stanene. We studied the effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties of α-stanene for both uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. Our study suggests that with the increasing temperature, both the fracture strength and strain of the stanene decrease. Uniaxial loading in zigzag direction shows higher fracture strength and strain compared to the armchair direction, while no noticeable variation in the mechanical properties is observed for biaxial loading. We also found at a higher loading rate, material exhibits higher fracture strength and strain. These results will aid further investigation of stanene as a potential nano-electronics substitute.

  15. Mechanical properties of stanene under uniaxial and biaxial loading: A molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojumder, Satyajit; Amin, Abdullah Al; Islam, Md Mahbubul

    2015-09-01

    Stanene, a graphene like two dimensional honeycomb structure of tin has attractive features in electronics application. In this study, we performed molecular dynamics simulations using modified embedded atom method potential to investigate mechanical properties of stanene. We studied the effect of temperature and strain rate on mechanical properties of α-stanene for both uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions. Our study suggests that with the increasing temperature, both the fracture strength and strain of the stanene decrease. Uniaxial loading in zigzag direction shows higher fracture strength and strain compared to the armchair direction, while no noticeable variation in the mechanical properties is observed for biaxial loading. We also found at a higher loading rate, material exhibits higher fracture strength and strain. These results will aid further investigation of stanene as a potential nano-electronics substitute.

  16. The importance of mechanical loading in bone biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Martin, R B

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the premise that the skeleton is primarily a mechanical organ, and reviews the reasons that mechanical factors play a major role in bone biology. It begins by considering three basic observations: (1) Galileo's observation that bone proportions become more robust as the species' overall size increases; (2) da Vinci's observation that larger structures are inherently weaker than smaller structures subjected to the same stress; and (3) the general observation that each unit of bone mass provides structural support for about 15 units of soft tissue organ mass. Together, these observations lead to the concept that it can be advantageous to minimize bone mass, consistent with constraints on other factors. This premise is discussed here in relation to the phenomenon of bone remodeling, which is seen to serve two purposes: the adjustment of bone mass and geometry to maintain peak bone strains at their maximum tolerable values, and the continual removal of fatigue damage produced at those strain levels. Finally, it is observed that bone remodeling apparently originated approximately 250 million years ago when the first vertebrates of substantial size became weight-bearing on land, suggesting that mechanical forces associated with weight-bearing were instrumental in the evolution of bone remodeling.

  17. Mechanical behavior of adhesive joints subjected to cyclic thermal loading

    SciTech Connect

    Humfeld, G.R.; Dillard, D.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stresses induced in bimaterial systems due to changing temperature has been the subject of much study since the publication of Timoshenko`s classic paper of 1925. An adhesive bond is one example of a bimaterial system in which thermal stress can play an important role. However, adhesives are viscoelastic in nature, and their mechanical behavior is dictated by the temperature- and time-dependence of their material properties; analytical solutions for elastic materials do not adequately describe their true behavior. The effect of the adhesive`s viscoelasticity on stress in an adhesive bond subjected to changing temperature is therefore of compelling interest and importance for the adhesives industry. The objective of this research is to develop an understanding of the viscoelastic effect in an adhesive bond subjected to cycling temperature, particularly when the temperature range spans a transition temperature of the adhesive. Numerical modeling of a simplified geometry was first undertaken to isolate the influence of viscoelasticity on the stress state from any particular specimen geometry effect. Finite element modeling was then undertaken to examine the mechanical behavior of the adhesive in a layered geometry. Both solution methods predicted development of residual tensile stresses in the adhesive. For the layered geometry this was found to correspond with residual tensile peel stresses, which are thought to be the cause of interfacial debonding.

  18. A Load-Based Multiple-Partial Unloading Micro-Indentation Technique for Mechanical Property Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    C. Feng; J.M. Tannenbaum; B.S. Kang; M.A. Alvin

    2009-07-23

    A load-based multiple-partial unloading microindentation technique has been developed for evaluating mechanical properties of materials. Comparing to the current prevailing nano/micro-indentation methods, which require precise measurements of the indentation depth and load, the proposed technique only measures indentation load and the overall indentation displacement (i.e. including displacement of the loading apparatus). Coupled with a multiple-partial unloading procedure during the indentation process, this technique results in a load-depth sensing indentation system capable of determining Young’s modulus of metallic alloys with flat, tubular, or curved architectures. Test results show consistent and correct elastic modulus values when performing indentation tests on standard alloys such as steel, aluminum, bronze, and single crystal superalloys. The proposed micro-indentation technique has led to the development of a portable loaddepth sensing indentation system capable of on-site, in-situ material property measurement.

  19. Bearing-Load Modeling and Analysis Study for Mechanically Connected Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    Bearing-load response for a pin-loaded hole is studied within the context of two-dimensional finite element analyses. Pin-loaded-hole configurations are representative of mechanically connected structures, such as a stiffener fastened to a rib of an isogrid panel, that are idealized as part of a larger structural component. Within this context, the larger structural component may be idealized as a two-dimensional shell finite element model to identify load paths and high stress regions. Finite element modeling and analysis aspects of a pin-loaded hole are considered in the present paper including the use of linear and nonlinear springs to simulate the pin-bearing contact condition. Simulating pin-connected structures within a two-dimensional finite element analysis model using nonlinear spring or gap elements provides an effective way for accurate prediction of the local effective stress state and peak forces.

  20. The Role of Mechanical Loading in Tendon Development, Maintenance, Injury, and Repair

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Marc T.; Lalley, Andrea L.; Shearn, Jason T.

    2013-01-01

    ➤ Tendon injuries often result from excessive or insufficient mechanical loading, impairing the ability of the local tendon cell population to maintain normal tendon function. ➤ The resident cell population composing tendon tissue is mechanosensitive, given that the cells are able to alter the extracellular matrix in response to modifications of the local loading environment. ➤ Natural tendon healing is insufficient, characterized by improper collagen fibril diameter formation, collagen fibril distribution, and overall fibril misalignment. ➤ Current tendon repair rehabilitation protocols focus on implementing early, well-controlled eccentric loading exercises to improve repair outcome. ➤ Tissue engineers look toward incorporating mechanical loading regimens to precondition cell populations for the creation of improved biological augmentations for tendon repair. PMID:24005204

  1. Imaging-Based Methods for Non-invasive Assessment of Bone Properties Influenced by Mechanical Loading.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Norma J; Lorbergs, Amanda L

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the most common in vivo imaging-based research tools used to assess bone properties that are influenced by mechanical loading associated with exercise, habitual physical activity, or disease states. Bone is a complex metabolically active tissue that adapts to changes in mechanical loading by altering the amount and spatial organization of mineral. Method: Using a narrative review design, the authors provide an overview of bone biology and biomechanics to emphasize the importance of bone size scale, porosity, and degree of mineralization when interpreting measures acquired using quantitative ultrasound (QUS), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and finite element analysis (FEA). For each imaging modality, basic imaging principles, typical outcome measures associated with changes in mechanical loading, and salient features for physiotherapists are described. Main Results: While each imaging modality has strengths and limitations, currently CT-based methods are best suited for determining the effects of mechanical loading on bone properties—particularly in the peripheral skeleton. Conclusions: Regardless of the imaging technology used, the physiotherapist must carefully consider the assumptions of the imaging-based method, the clinical context, the nature of the change in mechanical loading, and the expected time course for change in bone properties.

  2. Effects of Stiffening and Mechanical Load on Thermal Buckling of Stiffened Cylindrical Shells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Card, Michael F.

    1995-01-01

    A study of thermal buckling of stiffened cylindrical shells with the proportions of a preliminary supersonic transport fuselage design (1970) is presented. The buckling analysis is performed using an axisymmetric shell-of-revolution code, BOSOR4. The effects of combined mechanical (axial loading) and thermal loading (heated skins) are investigated. Results indicate that the location of longitudinal eccentric stiffening has a very large effect on the thermal buckling strength of longitudinally stiffened shells, and on longitudinally stiffened shells with rings.

  3. Inertial properties and loading rates affect buckling modes and injury mechanisms in the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Nightingale, R W; Camacho, D L; Armstrong, A J; Robinette, J J; Myers, B S

    2000-02-01

    Cervical spine injuries continue to be a costly societal problem. Future advancements in injury prevention depend on improved physical and computational models which, in turn, are predicated on a better understanding of the responses of the neck during dynamic loading. Previous studies have shown that the tolerance of the neck is dependent on its initial position and its buckling behavior. This study uses a computational model to examine the mechanical factors influencing buckling behavior during impact to the neck. It was hypothesized that the inertial properties of the cervical spine influence the dynamics during compressive axial loading. The hypothesis was tested by performing parametric analyses of vertebral mass, mass moments of inertia, motion segment stiffness, and loading rate. Increases in vertebral mass resulted in increasingly complex kinematics and larger peak loads and impulses. Similar results were observed for increases in stiffness. Faster loading rates were associated with higher peak loads and higher-order buckling modes. The results demonstrate that mass has a great deal of influence on the buckling behavior of the neck, particularly with respect to the expression of higher-order modes. Injury types and mechanisms may be substantially altered by loading rate because inertial effects may influence whether the cervical spine fails in a compressive mode, or a bending mode.

  4. Common motor mechanisms support body load in serially homologous legs of cockroaches in posture and walking.

    PubMed

    Quimby, Laura A; Amer, Ayman S; Zill, Sasha N

    2006-03-01

    We studied the mechanisms underlying support of body load in posture and walking in serially homologous legs of cockroaches. Activities of the trochanteral extensor muscle in the front or middle legs were recorded neurographically while animals were videotaped. Body load was increased via magnets attached to the thorax and varied through a coil below the substrate. In posture, tonic firing of the slow trochanteral extensor motoneuron (Ds) in each leg was strongly modulated by changing body load. Rapid load increases produced decreases in body height and sharp increments in extensor firing. The peak of extensor activity more closely approximated the maximum velocity of body displacement than the body position. In walking, extensor bursts in front and middle legs were initiated during swing and continued into the stance phase. Moderate tonic increases in body load elicited similar, specific, phase dependent changes in both legs: extensor firing was not altered in swing but was higher after foot placement in stance. These motor adjustments to load are not anticipatory but apparently depend upon sensory feedback. These data are consistent with previous findings in the hind legs and support the idea that body load is countered by common motor mechanisms in serially homologous legs.

  5. Characterization and regulation of mechanical loading-induced compensatory muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Adams, Gregory R; Bamman, Marcas M

    2012-10-01

    In mammalian systems, skeletal muscle exists in a dynamic state that monitors and regulates the physiological investment in muscle size to meet the current level of functional demand. This review attempts to consolidate current knowledge concerning development of the compensatory hypertrophy that occurs in response to a sustained increase in the mechanical loading of skeletal muscle. Topics covered include: defining and measuring compensatory hypertrophy, experimental models, loading stimulus parameters, acute responses to increased loading, hyperplasia, myofiber-type adaptations, the involvement of satellite cells, mRNA translational control, mechanotransduction, and endocrinology. The authors conclude with their impressions of current knowledge gaps in the field that are ripe for future study.

  6. Bolted Double-Lap Composite Joints Under Mechanical and Thermal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kradinov, V.; Barut, A.; Madenci, E.; Walker, Sandra P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This study concerns the determination of the contact stresses and contact region around bolt holes and the bolt load distribution in single- and double-lap joints of composite laminates with arbitrarily located bolts under general mechanical loading conditions and uniform temperature change. The unknown contact stress distribution and contact region between the bolt and laminates and the interaction among the bolts require the bolt load distribution, as well as the contact stresses, to be as part of the solution. The present method is based on the complex potential theory and the variational formulation in order to account for bolt stiffness, bolt-hole clearance, and finite geometry of the composite laminates.

  7. Ovariectomy Enhances Mechanical Load-Induced Solute Transport around Osteocytes in Rat Cancellous Bone

    PubMed Central

    Ciani, Cesare; Sharma, Divya; Doty, Stephen B.; Fritton, Susannah P.

    2014-01-01

    To test if osteoporosis alters mechanical load-induced interstitial fluid flow in bone, this study examined the combined effect of estrogen deficiency and external loading on solute transport around osteocytes. An in vivo tracer, FITC-labeled bovine serum albumin, was injected into anaesthetized ovariectomized and control female Sprague Dawley rats before the right tibia was subjected to a controlled, physiological, non-invasive sinusoidal load to mimic walking. Tracer movement through the lacunar-canalicular system surrounding osteocytes was quantified in cortical and cancellous bone from the proximal tibia using confocal microscopy, with the non-loaded tibia serving as internal control. Overall, the application of mechanical loading increased the percentage of osteocyte lacunae labeled with injected tracer, and ovariectomy further enhanced movement of tracer. An analysis of separate regions demonstrated that ovariectomy enhanced in vivo transport of the injected tracer in the cancellous bone of the tibial epiphysis and metaphysis but not in the cortical bone of the metaphysis. These findings show that bone changes due to reduced estrogen levels alter convectional transport around osteocytes in cancellous bone and demonstrate a functional difference of interstitial fluid flow around osteocytes in estrogen-deficient rats undergoing the same physical activity as controls. The altered interstitial fluid flow around osteocytes is likely related to nanostructural matrix-mineral level differences recently demonstrated at the lacunar-canalicular surface of estrogen-deficient rats, which could affect the transmission of mechanical loads to the osteocyte. PMID:24316418

  8. A Mechanism for the Loading-Unloading Substorm Cycle Missing in MHD Global Magnetospheric Simulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimas, A. J.; Uritsky, V.; Vassiliadis, D.; Baker, D. N.

    2005-01-01

    Loading and consequent unloading of magnetic flux is an essential element of the substorm cycle in Earth's magnetotail. We are unaware of an available global MHD magnetospheric simulation model that includes a loading- unloading cycle in its behavior. Given the central role that MHD models presently play in the development of our understanding of magnetospheric dynamics, and given the present plans for the central role that these models will play in ongoing space weather prediction programs, it is clear that this failure must be corrected. A 2-dimensional numerical driven current-sheet model has been developed that incorporates an idealized current- driven instability with a resistive MHD system. Under steady loading, the model exhibits a global loading- unloading cycle. The specific mechanism for producing the loading-unloading cycle will be discussed. It will be shown that scale-free avalanching of electromagnetic energy through the model, from loading to unloading, is carried by repetitive bursts of localized reconnection. Each burst leads, somewhat later, to a field configuration that is capable of exciting a reconnection burst again. This process repeats itself in an intermittent manner while the total field energy in the system falls. At the end of an unloading interval, the total field energy is reduced to well below that necessary to initiate the next unloading event and, thus, a loading-unloading cycle results. It will be shown that, in this model, it is the topology of bursty localized reconnection that is responsible for the appearance of the loading-unloading cycle.

  9. A Magnetic Resonance-Compatible Loading Device for Dynamically Imaging Shortening and Lengthening Muscle Contraction Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Silder, Amy; Westphal, Christopher J.; Thelen, Darryl G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and test a magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible device to induce either shortening or lengthening muscle contractions for use during dynamic MR imaging. The proposed device guides the knee through cyclic flexion-extension, while either elastic or inertial loads are imposed on the hamstrings. Ten subjects were tested in a motion capture laboratory to evaluate the repeatability of limb motion and imposed loads. Image data were subsequently obtained for all ten subjects using cine phase contrast imaging. Subjects achieved ~30 deg of knee joint motion, with individual subjects remaining within ~1 deg of their average motion across 56 repeated cycles. The maximum hamstring activity and loading occurred when the knee was flexed for the elastic loading condition (shortening contraction), and extended for the inertial loading condition (lengthening contraction). Repeat MR image acquisitions of the same loading condition resulted in similar tissue velocities, while spatial variations in velocity data were clearly different between loading conditions. The proposed device can enable dynamic imaging of the muscle under different types of loads, which has the potential to improve our understanding of basic muscle mechanics, identify potential causes of muscle injury, and provide a basis for quantitatively assessing injury effects at the tissue level. Slight modifications to the device design and/or subject positioning could allow for imaging of the quadriceps or the knee. PMID:24353749

  10. The mechanical response of the ovine lumbar anulus fibrosus to uniaxial, biaxial and shear loads.

    PubMed

    Little, J P; Pearcy, M J; Tevelen, G; Evans, J H; Pettet, G; Adam, C J

    2010-02-01

    Analytical and computational models of the intervertebral disc (IVD) are commonly employed to enhance understanding of the biomechanics of the human spine and spinal motion segments. The accuracy of these models in predicting physiological behaviour of the spine is intrinsically reliant on the accuracy of the material constitutive representations employed to represent the spinal tissues. There is a paucity of detailed mechanical data describing the material response of the reinforced-ground matrix in the anulus fibrosus of the IVD. In the present study, the 'reinforced-ground matrix' was defined as the matrix with the collagen fibres embedded but not actively bearing axial load, thus incorporating the contribution of the fibre-fibre and fibre-matrix interactions. To determine mechanical parameters for the anulus ground matrix, mechanical tests were carried out on specimens of ovine anulus, under unconfined uniaxial compression, simple shear and biaxial compression. Test specimens of ovine anulus fibrosus were obtained with an adjacent layer of vertebral bone/cartilage on the superior and inferior specimen surface. Specimen geometry was such that there were no continuous collagen fibres coupling the two endplates. Samples were subdivided according to disc region - anterior, lateral and posterior - to determine the regional inhomogeneity in the anulus mechanical response. Specimens were loaded at a strain rate sufficient to avoid fluid outflow from the tissue and typical stress-strain responses under the initial load application and under repeated loading were determined for each of the three loading types. The response of the anulus tissue to the initial and repeated load cycles was significantly different for all load types, except biaxial compression in the anterior anulus. Since the maximum applied strain exceeded the damage strain for the tissue, experimental results for repeated loading reflected the mechanical ability of the tissue to carry load, subsequent to

  11. Modification of the in vivo four-point loading model for studying mechanically induced bone adaptation.

    PubMed

    Forwood, M R; Bennett, M B; Blowers, A R; Nadorfi, R L

    1998-09-01

    We modified the noninvasive, in vivo technique for strain application in the tibiae of rats (Turner et al., Bone 12:73-79, 1991). The original model applies four-point bending to right tibiae via an open-loop, stepper-motor-driven spring linkage. Depending on the magnitude of applied load, the model produces new bone formation at periosteal (Ps) or endocortical surfaces (Ec.S). Due to the spring linkage, however, the range of frequencies at which loads can be applied is limited. The modified system replaces this design with an electromagnetic vibrator. A load transducer in series with the loading points allows calibration, the loaders' position to be adjusted, and cyclic loading completed under load control as a closed servo-loop. Two experiments were conducted to validate the modified system: (1) a strain gauge was applied to the lateral surface of the right tibia of 5 adult female rats and strains measured at applied loads from 10 to 60 N; and (2) the bone formation response was determined in 28 adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Loading was applied as a haversine wave with a frequency of 2 Hz for 18 sec, every second day for 10 days. Peak bending loads were applied at 33, 40, 52, and 64 N, and a sham-loading group was included at 64 N. Strains in the tibiae were linear between 10 and 60 N, and the average peak strain at the Ps.S at 60 N was 2664 +/- 250 microstrain, consistent with the results of Turner's group. Lamellar bone formation was stimulated at the Ec.S by applied bending, but not by sham loading. Bending strains above a loading threshold of 40 N increased Ec lamellar bone formation rate, bone forming surface, and mineral apposition rate with a dose response similar to that reported by Turner et al. (J Bone Miner Res 9:87-97, 1994). We conclude that the modified loading system offers precision for applied loads of between 0 and 70 N, versatility in the selection of loading rates up to 20 Hz, and a reproducible bone formation response in the rat tibia

  12. Launch Load Resistant Spacecraft Mechanism Bearings Made From NiTi Superelastic Intermetallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis (Chip) E., III

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional bearing materials (tool steel and ceramics), emerging Superelastic Intermetallic Materials (SIMs), such as 60NiTi, have significantly lower elastic modulus and enhanced strain capability. They are also immune to atmospheric corrosion (rusting). This offers the potential for increased resilience and superior ability to withstand static indentation load without damage. In this paper, the static load capacity of hardened 60NiTi 50mm bore ball-bearing races are measured to correlate existing flat-plate indentation load capacity data to an actual bearing geometry through the Hertz stress relations. The results confirmed the validity of using the Hertz stress relations to model 60NiTi contacts; 60NiTi exhibits a static stress capability (3.1GPa) between that of 440C (2.4GPa) and REX20 (3.8GPa) tool steel. When the reduced modulus and extended strain capability are taken into account, 60NiTi is shown to withstand higher loads than other bearing materials. To quantify this effect, a notional space mechanism, a 5kg mass reaction wheel, was modeled with respect to launch load capability when supported on 440C, 60NiTi and REX20 tool steel bearings. For this application, the use of REX20 bearings increased the static load capability of the mechanism by a factor of three while the use of 60NiTi bearings resulted in an order of magnitude improvement compared to the baseline 440C stainless steel bearings.

  13. Mechanically fastened composite laminates subjected to combined bearing-bypass and shear loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madenci, Erdogan

    1993-01-01

    Bolts and rivets provide a means of load transfer in the construction of aircraft. However, they give rise to stress concentrations and are often the source and location of static and fatigue failures. Furthermore, fastener holes are prone to cracks during take-off and landing. These cracks present the most common origin of structural failures in aircraft. Therefore, accurate determination of the contact stresses associated with such loaded holes in mechanically fastened joints is essential to reliable strength evaluation and failure prediction. As the laminate is subjected to loading, the contact region, whose extent is not known, develops between the fastener and the hole boundary through this contact region, which consists of slip and no-slip zones due to friction. The presence of the unknown contact stress distribution over the contact region between the pin and the composite laminate, material anisotropy, friction between the pin and the laminate, pin-hole clearance, combined bearing-bypass and shear loading, and finite geometry of the laminate result in a complex non-linear problem. In the case of bearing-bypass loading in compression, this non-linear problem is further complicated by the presence of dual contact regions. Previous research concerning the analysis of mechanical joints subjected to combined bearing-bypass and shear loading is non-existent. In the case of bearing-bypass loading only, except for the study conducted by Naik and Crews (1991), others employed the concept of superposition which is not valid for this non-linear problem. Naik and Crews applied a linear finite element analysis with conditions along the pin-hole contact region specified as displacement constraint equations. The major shortcoming of this method is that the variation of the contract region as a function of the applied load should be known a priori. Also, their analysis is limited to symmetric geometry and material systems, and frictionless boundary conditions. Since the

  14. Effect of Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Loads on Fatigue Reliability in Polymer Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shah, A. R.; Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1996-01-01

    A methodology to compute probabilistic fatigue life of polymer matrix laminated composites has been developed and demonstrated. Matrix degradation effects caused by long term environmental exposure and mechanical/thermal cyclic loads are accounted for in the simulation process. A unified time-temperature-stress dependent multi-factor interaction relationship developed at NASA Lewis Research Center has been used to model the degradation/aging of material properties due to cyclic loads. The fast probability integration method is used to compute probabilistic distribution of response. Sensitivities of fatigue life reliability to uncertainties in the primitive random variables (e.g., constituent properties, fiber volume ratio, void volume ratio, ply thickness, etc.) computed and their significance in the reliability- based design for maximum life is discussed. The effect of variation in the thermal cyclic loads on the fatigue reliability for a (0/+/- 45/90)(sub s) graphite/epoxy laminate with a ply thickness of 0.127 mm, with respect to impending failure modes has been studied. The results show that, at low mechanical cyclic loads and low thermal cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life for 0.999 reliability is most sensitive to matrix compressive strength, matrix modulus, thermal expansion coefficient, and ply thickness. Whereas at high mechanical cyclic loads and high thermal cyclic amplitudes, fatigue life at 0.999 reliability is more sensitive to the shear strength of matrix, longitudinal fiber modulus, matrix modulus, and ply thickness.

  15. Ultrasound mimics the effect of mechanical loading on bone formation in vivo on rat ulnae.

    PubMed

    Perry, Mark J; Parry, Laura K; Burton, Victoria J; Gheduzzi, Sabina; Beresford, Jon N; Humphrey, Victor F; Skerry, Tim M

    2009-01-01

    While the effect of ultrasound as an extreme example of low-magnitude high-frequency stimulation has been explored in the response of bone to injury, little is known about its effect on normal bone. This experiment was designed to test the hypothesis that ultrasound exerts a similar influence on bone as mechanical stimulation at a physiological level. Three groups of female Wistar rats were anaesthetised (6 per group). In one group, the left ulna was loaded cyclically in vivo 40 times, repeated on a further 5 occasions on alternate days. In a second group, transcutaneous low-intensity pulsed ultrasound stimulation was applied to the left ulnae for the same duration as the period of loading. In a third group, loading and ultrasound stimulation were applied concurrently. The right ulna served as non-loaded control in each animal. At the end of the experiment after 14 days, both ulnae were removed. Induced bone formation was assessed by measuring the proportion of medial periosteal bone surface with double label (dLS/BS, %) and by calculation of mineral apposition rate (MAR) from the inter-label distance. All three treatments induced a significant periosteal response, increasing dLS/BS values from <10% in control limbs to >80% in treated limbs. Increases in MAR of experimental ulnae versus contralateral control ulnae were 2.9 (+/-0.9), 8.6 (+/-2.4) and 8.7 microm (+/-3.2) for the ultrasound only, ultrasound and load, and load only groups, respectively. The effects of loading plus ultrasound were not significantly different from ultrasound alone. These data suggest that ultrasound is able to induce changes in bone that share at least some features with mechanical loading.

  16. The pendular mechanism does not determine the optimal speed of loaded walking on gradients.

    PubMed

    Gomeñuka, Natalia Andrea; Bona, Renata Luisa; da Rosa, Rodrigo Gomes; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2016-06-01

    The pendular mechanism does not act as a primary mechanism in uphill walking due to the monotonic behavior of the mechanical energies of the center of mass. Nevertheless, recent evidence shows that there is an important minimization of energy expenditure by the pendular mechanism during walking on uphill gradients. In this study, we analyzed the optimum speed (OPT) of loaded human walking and the pendulum-like determining variables (Recovery R, Instantaneous pendular re-conversion Rint, and Congruity percentage %Cong). Ten young men walked on a treadmill at five different speeds and at three different treadmill incline gradients (0, +7 and +15%), with and without a load carried in their backpacks. We used indirect calorimetry and 3D motion analysis, and all of the data were analyzed by computational algorithms. Rint increased at higher speeds and decreased with increasing gradient. R and %Cong decreased with increasing gradient and increased with speed, independent of load. Thus, energy conversion by the pendular mechanism during walking on a 15% gradient is supported, and although this mechanism can explain the maintenance of OPT at low walking speeds, the pendular mechanism does not fully explain the energy minimization at higher speeds.

  17. Mechanical effect of static loading on endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Rallini, Marco; Pagano, Stefano; Eramo, Stefano; D'Errico, Potito; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, José M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical behavior of a dental system built up with fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) endodontic posts with different types of fibers and two cements (the first one used with a primer, the second one without it). Six FRC posts were used. Each system was characterized in terms of structural efficiency under external applied loads similar to masticatory forces. An oblique force was applied and stiffness and maximum load data were obtained. The same test was used for the dentine. The systems were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the surface of the post and inner surface of root canal after failure. The mechanical tests showed that load values in dental systems depend on the post material and used cement. The highest load (281 ± 59 N) was observed for the conical glass fiber posts in the cement without primer. There was a 50 and 85% increase in the maximum load for two of the conical posts with glass fibers and a 229% increase for the carbon fiber posts in the cement without primer as compared with the cement with primer. Moreover, almost all the studied systems showed fracture resistances higher than the typical masticatory loads. The microscopic analysis underlined the good adhesion of the second cement at the interfaces between dentine and post. The mechanical tests confirmed that the strength of the dental systems subjected to masticatory loads was strictly related to the bond at the interface post/cement and cement/dentine.

  18. In situ intracellular calcium oscillations in osteocytes in intact mouse long bones under dynamic mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Da; Baik, Andrew D.; Lu, X. Lucas; Zhou, Bin; Lai, Xiaohan; Wang, Liyun; Luo, Erping; Guo, X. Edward

    2014-01-01

    Osteocytes have been hypothesized to be the major mechanosensors in bone. How in situ osteocytes respond to mechanical stimuli is still unclear because of technical difficulties. In vitro studies have shown that osteocytes exhibited unique calcium (Ca2+) oscillations to fluid shear. However, whether this mechanotransduction phenomenon holds for in situ osteocytes embedded within a mineralized bone matrix under dynamic loading remains unknown. Using a novel synchronized loading/imaging technique, we successfully visualized in real time and quantified Ca2+ responses in osteocytes and bone surface cells in situ under controlled dynamic loading on intact mouse tibia. The resultant fluid-induced shear stress on the osteocyte in the lacunocanalicular system (LCS) was also quantified. Osteocytes, but not surface cells, displayed repetitive Ca2+ spikes in response to dynamic loading, with spike frequency and magnitude dependent on load magnitude, tissue strain, and shear stress in the LCS. The Ca2+ oscillations were significantly reduced by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) depletion and P2 purinergic receptor (P2R)/phospholipase C (PLC) inhibition. This study provides direct evidence that osteocytes respond to in situ mechanical loading by Ca2+ oscillations, which are dependent on the P2R/PLC/inositol trisphosphate/ER pathway. This study develops a novel approach in skeletal mechanobiology and also advances our fundamental knowledge of bone mechanotransduction.—Jing, D., Baik, A. D., Lu, X. L., Zhou, B., Lai, X., Wang, L., Luo, E., Guo, X. E. In situ intracellular calcium oscillations in osteocytes in intact mouse long bones under dynamic mechanical loading. PMID:24347610

  19. Contraction and extension of Vorticella and its mechanical characterization under flow loading.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Moeto; Asai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2010-08-26

    We have studied the contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria and its mechanical properties with a microfluidic loading system. Cells of V. convallaria were injected to a microfluidic channel (500 μm in width and 100 μm in height) and loaded by flow up to ∼350 mm s(-1). The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton on a typical vorticellid cell body. We gradually increased the loading force on the same V. convallaria specimen and examined its mechanical property and stalk motion of V. convallaria. With greater drag forces, the contraction distance linearly decreased; the contracted length was close to around 90% of the stretched length. We estimated the drag force on Vorticella in the channel by calculating the force on a sphere in a linear shear flow.

  20. Contraction and extension of Vorticella and its mechanical characterization under flow loading

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Moeto; Asai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the contraction and extension of Vorticella convallaria and its mechanical properties with a microfluidic loading system. Cells of V. convallaria were injected to a microfluidic channel (500 μm in width and 100 μm in height) and loaded by flow up to ∼350 mm s−1. The flow produced a drag force on the order of nanonewton on a typical vorticellid cell body. We gradually increased the loading force on the same V. convallaria specimen and examined its mechanical property and stalk motion of V. convallaria. With greater drag forces, the contraction distance linearly decreased; the contracted length was close to around 90% of the stretched length. We estimated the drag force on Vorticella in the channel by calculating the force on a sphere in a linear shear flow. PMID:20859534

  1. Mechanics of load-drag-unload contact cleaning of gecko-inspired fibrillar adhesives.

    PubMed

    Abusomwan, Uyiosa A; Sitti, Metin

    2014-10-14

    Contact self-cleaning of gecko-inspired synthetic adhesives with mushroom-shaped tips has been demonstrated recently using load-drag-unload cleaning procedures similar to that of the natural animal. However, the underlying mechanics of contact cleaning has yet to be fully understood. In this work, we present a detailed experiment of contact self-cleaning that shows that rolling is the dominant mechanism of cleaning for spherical microparticle contaminants, during the load-drag-unload procedure. We also study the effect of dragging rate and normal load on the particle rolling friction. A model of spherical particle rolling on an elastomer fibrillar adhesive interface is developed and agrees well with the experimental results. This study takes us closer to determining design parameters for achieving self-cleaning fibrillar adhesives.

  2. Sensitivity of small myosin II ensembles from different isoforms to mechanical load and ATP concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Thorsten; Bartelheimer, Kathrin; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2016-11-01

    Based on a detailed crossbridge model for individual myosin II motors, we systematically study the influence of mechanical load and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) concentration on small myosin II ensembles made from different isoforms. For skeletal and smooth muscle myosin II, which are often used in actomyosin gels that reconstitute cell contractility, fast forward movement is restricted to a small region of phase space with low mechanical load and high ATP concentration, which is also characterized by frequent ensemble detachment. At high load, these ensembles are stalled or move backwards, but forward motion can be restored by decreasing ATP concentration. In contrast, small ensembles of nonmuscle myosin II isoforms, which are found in the cytoskeleton of nonmuscle cells, are hardly affected by ATP concentration due to the slow kinetics of the bound states. For all isoforms, the thermodynamic efficiency of ensemble movement increases with decreasing ATP concentration, but this effect is weaker for the nonmuscle myosin II isoforms.

  3. Removal torque evaluation of three different abutment screws for single implant restorations after mechanical cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    PAEPOEMSIN, T.; REICHART, P. A.; CHAIJAREENONT, P.; STRIETZEL, F. P.; KHONGKHUNTHIAN, P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal torque of three different abutment screws and pull out strength of implant-abutment connection for single implant restorations after mechanical cyclic loading. Methods The study was performed in accordance with ISO 14801:2007. Three implant groups (n=15) were used: group A, PW Plus® with flat head screw; group B, PW Plus® with tapered screw; and group C, Conelog® with flat head screw. All groups had the same implant-abutment connection feature: cone with mandatory index. All screws were tightened with manufacturer’s recommended torque. Ten specimens in each group underwent cyclic loading (1×106 cycles, 10 Hz, and 250 N). Then, all specimens were un-tightened, measured for the removal torque, and underwent a tensile test. The force that dislodged abutment from implant fixture was recorded. The data were analysed using independent sample t-test, ANOVA and Tukey HSD test. Results Before cyclic loading, removal torque in groups A, B and C were significantly different (B> A> C, P<.05). After cyclic loading, removal torque in all groups decreased significantly (P<.05). Group C revealed significantly less removal torque than groups A and B (P<.005). Tensile force in all groups significantly increased after cyclic loading (P<.05), group A had significantly less tensile force than groups B and C (P<.005). Conclusions Removal torque reduced significantly after cyclic loading. Before cyclic loading, tapered screws maintained more preload than did flat head screws. After cyclic loading, tapered and flat head screws maintained even amounts of preload. The tensile force that dislodged abutment from implant fixture increased immensely after cyclic loading. PMID:28042450

  4. Role of mechanical loads in inducing in-cycle tensile stress in thermally grown oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, R.; Jansz, M.; Mossaddad, M.; Raghavan, S.; Okasinski, J.S.; Almer, J.D.; Perez, H.P.; Imbrie, P.

    2012-01-01

    Experimental in situ synchrotron x-ray diffraction results tracking the strain behavior of the various layers during a cycle, under thermo-mechanical conditions are presented in this work. The quantitative strain measurements here show that the thermally grown oxide briefly experiences in-plane tensile stress ({sigma}{sub 22} = +36.4 MPa) with increased mechanical loading during ramp-up in the thermal cycle. These findings are the first in situ experimental observations of these strains under thermo-mechanical conditions, envisaged to serve as a catalyst for crack initiation. The depth resolved measurements of strain taken during applied thermal and mechanical load in this work are a significant step towards achieving realistic testing conditions.

  5. Deformation and failure mechanisms of graphite/epoxy composites under static loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, L. L.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanisms of deformation and failure of graphite epoxy composites under static loading were clarified. The influence of moisture and temperature upon these mechanisms were also investigated. Because the longitudinal tensile properties are the most critical to the performance of the composite, these properties were investigated in detail. Both ultimate and elastic mechanical properties were investigated, but the study of mechanisms emphasized those leading to failure of the composite. The graphite epoxy composite selected for study was the system being used in several NASA sponsored flight test programs.

  6. A path-independent integral for fracture of solids under combined electrochemical and mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haftbaradaran, Hamed; Qu, Jianmin

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we first demonstrate that the J-integral in classical linear elasticity becomes path-dependent when the solid is subjected to combined electrical, chemical and mechanical loadings. We then construct an electro-chemo-mechanical J-integral that is path-independent under such combined multiple driving forces. Further, we show that this electro-chemo-mechanical J-integral represents the rate at which the grand potential releases per unit crack growth. As an example, the path-independent nature of the electro-chemo-mechanical J-integral is demonstrated by solving the problem of a thin elastic film delaminated from a thick elastic substrate.

  7. Optimally oriented grooves on dental implants improve bone quality around implants under repetitive mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Kuroshima, Shinichiro; Nakano, Takayoshi; Ishimoto, Takuya; Sasaki, Muneteru; Inoue, Maaya; Yasutake, Munenori; Sawase, Takashi

    2017-01-15

    The aim was to investigate the effect of groove designs on bone quality under controlled-repetitive load conditions for optimizing dental implant design. Anodized Ti-6Al-4V alloy implants with -60° and +60° grooves around the neck were placed in the proximal tibial metaphysis of rabbits. The application of a repetitive mechanical load was initiated via the implants (50N, 3Hz, 1800 cycles, 2days/week) at 12weeks after surgery for 8weeks. Bone quality, defined as osteocyte density and degree of biological apatite (BAp) c-axis/collagen fibers, was then evaluated. Groove designs did not affect bone quality without mechanical loading; however, repetitive mechanical loading significantly increased bone-to-implant contact, bone mass, and bone mineral density (BMD). In +60° grooves, the BAp c-axis/collagen fibers preferentially aligned along the groove direction with mechanical loading. Moreover, osteocyte density was significantly higher both inside and in the adjacent region of the +60° grooves, but not -60° grooves. These results suggest that the +60° grooves successfully transmitted the load to the bone tissues surrounding implants through the grooves. An optimally oriented groove structure on the implant surface was shown to be a promising way for achieving bone tissue with appropriate bone quality. This is the first report to propose the optimal design of grooves on the necks of dental implants for improving bone quality parameters as well as BMD. The findings suggest that not only BMD, but also bone quality, could be a useful clinical parameter in implant dentistry.

  8. Assessing Cognitive Load Theory to Improve Student Learning for Mechanical Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impelluso, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    A computer programming class for students of mechanical engineering was redesigned and assessed: Cognitive Load Theory was used to redesign the content; online technologies were used to redesign the delivery. Student learning improved and the dropout rate was reduced. This article reports on both attitudinal and objective assessment: comparing…

  9. High-level waste-form-product performance evaluation. [Leaching; waste loading; mechanical stability

    SciTech Connect

    Bernadzikowski, T A; Allender, J S; Stone, J A; Gordon, D E; Gould, Jr, T H; Westberry, III, C F

    1982-01-01

    Seven candidate waste forms were evaluated for immobilization and geologic disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. The waste forms were compared on the basis of leach resistance, mechanical stability, and waste loading. All forms performed well at leaching temperatures of 40, 90, and 150/sup 0/C. Ceramic forms ranked highest, followed by glasses, a metal matrix form, and concrete. 11 tables.

  10. Mechanics of Air-Inflated Drop-Stitch Fabric Panels Subject to Bending Loads

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-15

    materials such as textiles , elastomers, and flexible composites are used for the structure, significant load-carrying capacity per unit weight (or...Drop-Stitch Fabrics Finite Element Analysis Experimental Mechanics Technical Textiles 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...27 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS Figure Page 1 Example of a Drop-Stitch Fabric with Rubber- Laminated

  11. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  12. Cognitive-load approaches to detect deception: searching for cognitive mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Blandón-Gitlin, Iris; Fenn, Elise; Masip, Jaume; Yoo, Aspen H.

    2015-01-01

    A current focus in deception research is on developing cognitive-load approaches (CLAs) to detect deception. The aim is to improve lie detection with evidence-based and ecologically valid procedures. Although these approaches show great potential, research on cognitive processes or mechanisms explaining how they operate is lacking. Potential mechanisms underlying the most popular techniques advocated for field application are highlighted. Cognitive scientists are encouraged to conduct basic research that qualifies the ‘cognitive’ in these new approaches. PMID:25168448

  13. Mechanical Characterization of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Subjected to Impact Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamison, David, IV

    Low back pain is a large and costly problem in the United States. Several working populations, such as miners, construction workers, forklift operators, and military personnel, have an increased risk and prevalence of low back pain compared to the general population. This is due to exposure to repeated, transient impact shocks, particularly while operating vehicles or other machinery. These shocks typically do not cause acute injury, but rather lead to pain and injury over time. The major focus in low back pain is often the intervertebral disc, due to its role as the major primary load-bearing component along the spinal column. The formation of a reliable standard for human lumbar disc exposure to repeated transient shock could potentially reduce injury risk for these working populations. The objective of this project, therefore, is to characterize the mechanical response of the lumbar intervertebral disc subjected to sub-traumatic impact loading conditions using both cadaveric and computational models, and to investigate the possible implications of this type of loading environment for low back pain. Axial, compressive impact loading events on Naval high speed boats were simulated in the laboratory and applied to human cadaveric specimen. Disc stiffness was higher and hysteresis was lower than quasi-static loading conditions. This indicates a shift in mechanical response when the disc is under impact loads and this behavior could be contributing to long-term back pain. Interstitial fluid loss and disc height changes were shown to affect disc impact mechanics in a creep study. Neutral zone increased, while energy dissipation and low-strain region stiffness decreased. This suggests that the disc has greater clinical instability during impact loading with progressive creep and fluid loss, indicating that time of day should be considered for working populations subjected to impact loads. A finite element model was developed and validated against cadaver specimen

  14. Mechanical loading and the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D in primary human osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    van der Meijden, K; Bakker, A D; van Essen, H W; Heijboer, A C; Schulten, E A J M; Lips, P; Bravenboer, N

    2016-02-01

    The metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) is synthesized from its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) by human osteoblasts leading to stimulation of osteoblast differentiation in an autocrine or paracrine way. Osteoblast differentiation is also stimulated by mechanical loading through activation of various responses in bone cells such as nitric oxide signaling. Whether mechanical loading affects osteoblast differentiation through an enhanced synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D by human osteoblasts is still unknown. We hypothesized that mechanical loading stimulates the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D from 25(OH)D in primary human osteoblasts. Since the responsiveness of bone to mechanical stimuli can be altered by various endocrine factors, we also investigated whether 1,25(OH)2D or 25(OH)D affect the response of primary human osteoblasts to mechanical loading. Primary human osteoblasts were pre-incubated in medium with/without 25(OH)D3 (400 nM) or 1,25(OH)2D3 (100 nM) for 24h and subjected to mechanical loading by pulsatile fluid flow (PFF). The response of osteoblasts to PFF was quantified by measuring nitric oxide, and by PCR analysis. The effect of PFF on the synthesis of 1,25(OH)2D3 was determined by subjecting osteoblasts to PFF followed by 24h post-incubation in medium with/without 25(OH)D3 (400 nM). We showed that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the PFF-induced NO response in primary human osteoblasts. 25(OH)D3 did not significantly alter the NO response of primary human osteoblasts to PFF, but 25(OH)D3 increased osteocalcin and RANKL mRNA levels, similar to 1,25(OH)2D3. PFF did not increase 1,25(OH)2D3 amounts in our model, even though PFF did increase CYP27B1 mRNA levels and reduced VDR mRNA levels. CYP24 mRNA levels were not affected by PFF, but were strongly increased by both 25(OH)D3 and 1,25(OH)2D3. In conclusion, 1,25(OH)2D3 may affect the response of primary human osteoblasts to mechanical stimuli, at least with respect to NO production. Mechanical stimuli may affect

  15. Surface damage of metallic implants due to mechanical loading and chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, Jaejoong

    The present study investigates interfacial damage mechanism of modular implants due to synergetic action of mechanical contact loading and corrosion. Modular implants are manufactured such that surfaces have a characteristic degree of roughness determined by tool tip size and motion of tool path or feeding speed. The central hypothesis for this work is that during contact loading of metallic implants, mechanisms of damage and dissolution are determined by contact loads, plastic deformation, residual stresses and environmental conditions at the nanoscale surface asperities; while during subsequent rest periods, mechanism of metallic dissolution is determined by the environmental conditions and residual stress field induced due to long range elastic interactions of the plastically deformed asperities. First part of the thesis is focused on investigating the mechanisms underlying surface roughness evolution due to stress-assisted dissolution during the rest period. The latter part is focused on investigating material removal mechanisms during single asperity contact of implant surfaces. Experimental study was performed to elucidate the roughness evolution mechanism by combined effect of multi-asperity contact and environmental corrosion. Cobalt-chromium-molybdenum specimen was subjected to either contact loading alone or alternating contact loading and exposure to reactive environment. Roughness of the specimen surface was monitored by optical profilometry and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculation was used to characterize the evolving behavior of roughness modes. Finite element analysis (FEA) was employed to identify influences of surface morphological configurations and contact pressures on the residual stress development. Analytical model of multi-asperity contact has been developed for prediction of residual stress field for different roughness configurations during varying magnitude of contact loads based on elastic inclusion theory. Experimental results

  16. The Contribution of Experimental in vivo Models to Understanding the Mechanisms of Adaptation to Mechanical Loading in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Meakin, Lee B.; Price, Joanna S.; Lanyon, Lance E.

    2014-01-01

    Changing loading regimens by natural means such as exercise, with or without interference such as osteotomy, has provided useful information on the structure:function relationship in bone tissue. However, the greatest precision in defining those aspects of the overall strain environment that influence modeling and remodeling behavior has been achieved by relating quantified changes in bone architecture to quantified changes in bones’ strain environment produced by direct, controlled artificial bone loading. Jiri Hert introduced the technique of artificial loading of bones in vivo with external devices in the 1960s using an electromechanical device to load rabbit tibiae through transfixing stainless steel pins. Quantifying natural bone strains during locomotion by attaching electrical resistance strain gages to bone surfaces was introduced by Lanyon, also in the 1960s. These studies in a variety of bones in a number of species demonstrated remarkable uniformity in the peak strains and maximum strain rates experienced. Experiments combining strain gage instrumentation with artificial loading in sheep, pigs, roosters, turkeys, rats, and mice has yielded significant insight into the control of strain-related adaptive (re)modeling. This diversity of approach has been largely superseded by non-invasive transcutaneous loading in rats and mice, which is now the model of choice for many studies. Together such studies have demonstrated that over the physiological strain range, bone’s mechanically adaptive processes are responsive to dynamic but not static strains; the size and nature of the adaptive response controlling bone mass is linearly related to the peak loads encountered; the strain-related response is preferentially sensitive to high strain rates and unresponsive to static ones; is most responsive to unusual strain distributions; is maximized by remarkably few strain cycles, and that these are most effective when interrupted by short periods of rest between them

  17. Load-bearing capacity of screw-retained CAD/CAM-produced titanium implant frameworks (I-Bridge®2) before and after cyclic mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    DITTMER, Marc Philipp; NENSA, Moritz; STIESCH, Meike; KOHORST, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Implant-supported screw-retained fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) produced by CAD/ CAM have been introduced in recent years for the rehabilitation of partial or total endentulous jaws. However, there is a lack of data about the long-term mechanical characteristics. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the failure mode and the influence of extended cyclic mechanical loading on the load-bearing capacity of these frameworks. Material and Methods Ten five-unit FDP frameworks simulating a free-end situation in the mandibular jaw were manufactured according to the I-Bridge®2-concept (I-Bridge®2, Biomain AB, Helsingborg, Sweden) and each was screw-retained on three differently angulated Astra Tech implants (30º buccal angulation/0º angulation/30º lingual angulation). One half of the specimens was tested for static load-bearing capacity without any further treatment (control), whereas the other half underwent five million cycles of mechanical loading with 100 N as the upper load limit (test). All specimens were loaded until failure in a universal testing machine with an occlusal force applied at the pontics. Load-displacement curves were recorded and the failure mode was macro- and microscopically analyzed. The statistical analysis was performed using a t-test (p=0.05). Results All the specimens survived cyclic mechanical loading and no obvious failure could be observed. Due to the cyclic mechanical loading, the load-bearing capacity decreased from 8,496 N±196 N (control) to 7,592 N±901 N (test). The cyclic mechanical loading did not significantly influence the load-bearing capacity (p=0.060). The failure mode was almost identical in all specimens: large deformations of the framework at the implant connection area were obvious. Conclusion The load-bearing capacity of the I-Bridge®2 frameworks is much higher than the clinically relevant occlusal forces, even with considerably angulated implants. However, the performance under functional loading in vivo

  18. In vivo loading increases mechanical properties of scaffold by affecting bone formation and bone resorption rates.

    PubMed

    Roshan-Ghias, Alireza; Lambers, Floor M; Gholam-Rezaee, Mehdi; Müller, Ralph; Pioletti, Dominique P

    2011-12-01

    A successful bone tissue engineering strategy entails producing bone-scaffold constructs with adequate mechanical properties. Apart from the mechanical properties of the scaffold itself, the forming bone inside the scaffold also adds to the strength of the construct. In this study, we investigated the role of in vivo cyclic loading on mechanical properties of a bone scaffold. We implanted PLA/β-TCP scaffolds in the distal femur of six rats, applied external cyclic loading on the right leg, and kept the left leg as a control. We monitored bone formation at 7 time points over 35 weeks using time-lapsed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. The images were then used to construct micro-finite element models of bone-scaffold constructs, with which we estimated the stiffness for each sample at all time points. We found that loading increased the stiffness by 60% at 35 weeks. The increase of stiffness was correlated to an increase in bone volume fraction of 18% in the loaded scaffold compared to control scaffold. These changes in volume fraction and related stiffness in the bone scaffold are regulated by two independent processes, bone formation and bone resorption. Using time-lapsed micro-CT imaging and a newly-developed longitudinal image registration technique, we observed that mechanical stimulation increases the bone formation rate during 4-10 weeks, and decreases the bone resorption rate during 9-18 weeks post-operatively. For the first time, we report that in vivo cyclic loading increases mechanical properties of the scaffold by increasing the bone formation rate and decreasing the bone resorption rate.

  19. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-10-17

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR.

  20. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties After Shock Wave Loading of Cast CrMnNi TRIP Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckner, Ralf; Krüger, L.; Ullrich, C.; Rafaja, D.; Schlothauer, T.; Heide, G.

    2016-10-01

    The mechanical response of shock wave-prestrained high-alloy Cr16-Mn7-Ni6 TRIP steel was investigated under compressive and tensile loading at room temperature. Previous shock wave loading was carried out using a flyer-plate assembly with different amounts of explosives in order to achieve shock pressures of 0.3, 0.6, 0.9, and 1.2 Mbar. A significant increase in hardness and strength was observed as compared with the initial as-cast condition. In contrast, a slight decrease in strain hardening rates was measured together with a decrease in fracture elongation in the tensile test. Microstructural analyses of the shock-loaded samples were performed by light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure revealed a high density of deformation bands consisting of separated stacking faults, ɛ-martensite, or twins. Significant amounts of deformation-induced α'-martensite were only present at the highest shock pressure of 1.2 Mbar. The thickness of the deformation bands and the number of martensite nuclei at their intersections increased with increasing shock pressure. In all shock-loaded specimens, pronounced phase transformation occurred during subsequent mechanical testing. Consequently, the amount of the deformation-induced α'-martensite in the shock-loaded specimens was higher than in the unshocked as-cast samples.

  1. Effect of Thermo-mechanical Load Cycling on Microleakage in Class II Ormocer Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Erdilek, Dina; Dörter, Can; Koray, Fatma; Kunzelmann, Karl-Heinz; Efes, Begum Guray; Gomec, Yavuz

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate the marginal sealing ability of an ormocer in comparison with a hybrid composite when using thermocycling and load cycling procedures together in the study design. Methods Modified proximal Class II cavities were prepared on the mesial and distal surfaces of twenty-two human premolars. Each tooth was restored with Admira and contralaterally with TPH Spectrum. Half of all of the teeth were subjected to thermo-mechanical load cycling. After dye penetration, longitudinal sections in mesio-distal direction were prepared and examined under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed with Mann Whitney U test. Results The results showed that the thermo-mechanical load cycling caused a statistically significant increase in gingival microleakage when compared with the non-thermocycled and non-loaded restorations for both the materials Admira (P=0.006) and TPH Spectrum (P=0.023). Conclusions Simultaneous load cycling and thermocycling are decisive factors in the in vitro assessment of gingival microleakage, which still remains to be a clinical problem even with the ormocer system Admira. PMID:19756194

  2. The Biomechanical Effect of Loading Speed on Metal-on-UHMWPE Contact Mechanics.

    PubMed

    Zdero, Radovan; Bagheri, Zahra S; Rezaey, Mojtaba; Schemitsch, Emil H; Bougherara, Habiba

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material commonly used in total hip and knee joint replacements. Numerous studies have assessed the effect of its viscoelastic properties on phenomena such as creep, stress relaxation, and tensile stress. However, these investigations either use the complex 3D geometries of total hip and knee replacements or UHMWPE test objects on their own. No studies have directly measured the effect of vertical load application speed on the contact mechanics of a metal sphere indenting UHMWPE. To this end, a metal ball was used to apply vertical force to a series of UHMWPE flat plate specimens over a wide range of loading speeds, namely, 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mm/min. Pressure sensitive Fujifilm was placed at the interface to measure contact area. Experimental results showed that maximum contact force ranged from 3596 to 4520 N and was logarithmically related (R(2)=0.96) to loading speed. Average contact area ranged from 76.5 to 79.9 mm(2) and was linearly related (R(2)=0.56) to loading speed. Average contact stress ranged from 45.1 to 58.2 MPa and was logarithmically related (R(2)=0.95) to loading speed. All UHMWPE specimens displayed a circular area of permanent surface damage, which did not disappear with time. This study has practical implications for understanding the contact mechanics of hip and knee replacements for a variety of activities of daily living.

  3. The Biomechanical Effect of Loading Speed on Metal-on-UHMWPE Contact Mechanics

    PubMed Central

    Zdero, Radovan; Bagheri, Zahra S; Rezaey, Mojtaba; Schemitsch, Emil H; Bougherara, Habiba

    2014-01-01

    Ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) is a material commonly used in total hip and knee joint replacements. Numerous studies have assessed the effect of its viscoelastic properties on phenomena such as creep, stress relaxation, and tensile stress. However, these investigations either use the complex 3D geometries of total hip and knee replacements or UHMWPE test objects on their own. No studies have directly measured the effect of vertical load application speed on the contact mechanics of a metal sphere indenting UHMWPE. To this end, a metal ball was used to apply vertical force to a series of UHMWPE flat plate specimens over a wide range of loading speeds, namely, 1, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 mm/min. Pressure sensitive Fujifilm was placed at the interface to measure contact area. Experimental results showed that maximum contact force ranged from 3596 to 4520 N and was logarithmically related (R2=0.96) to loading speed. Average contact area ranged from 76.5 to 79.9 mm2 and was linearly related (R2=0.56) to loading speed. Average contact stress ranged from 45.1 to 58.2 MPa and was logarithmically related (R2=0.95) to loading speed. All UHMWPE specimens displayed a circular area of permanent surface damage, which did not disappear with time. This study has practical implications for understanding the contact mechanics of hip and knee replacements for a variety of activities of daily living. PMID:24893849

  4. Effects of prehydrostatic loading on mechanical and physical properties of nuclear-grade graphites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoda, S.; Eto, M.; Ioka, I.

    1984-06-01

    The effects of prehydrostatic loading on mechanical and physical properties were examined for two isostatistically-molded graphites, grades IG-11 and Iso-20. The increase in loading levels caused the monotonic decrease in specimen volume of both graphites, the change of which was much larger in the case of IG-11 graphite than of Iso-20. The electrical resistivity increased continuously with an increase in prehydrostatic loading levels, where the effect was more pronounced for IG-11 than for Iso-20 graphite. The manner in which the Young's moduli of the two materials changed after prehydrostatic loading was clearly different from each other, i.e., for IG-11 it decreased continuously with increasing pressure, whereas it increased at small hydrostatic pressures and leveled off above 300 MPa for Iso-20. A clear difference was also observed for the flexural strength of both materials: Its continuous decrease was caused by prehydrostatic loading for IG-11 graphite, whereas for Iso-20 it remained at the original value up to 500 MPa and decreased abruptly above that pressure level. An explanation of these features was provided from the viewpoint that microcracks are induced by hydrostatic loading.

  5. Effects of load type (pollen or nectar) and load mass on hovering metabolic rate and mechanical power output in the honey bee Apis mellifera.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Erica; Fewell, Jennifer H; Roberts, Stephen P; Smith, Elizabeth F; Harrison, Jon F

    2003-06-01

    In this study we tested the effect of pollen and nectar loading on metabolic rate (in mW) and wingbeat frequency during hovering, and also examined the effect of pollen loading on wing kinematics and mechanical power output. Pollen foragers had hovering metabolic rates approximately 10% higher than nectar foragers, regardless of the amount of load carried. Pollen foragers also had a more horizontal body position and higher inclination of stroke plane than measured previously for honey bees (probably nectar foragers). Thorax temperatures ranked pollen > nectar > water foragers, and higher flight metabolic rate could explain the higher thorax temperature of pollen foragers. Load mass did not affect hovering metabolic rate or wingbeat frequency in a regression-model experiment. However, using an analysis of variance (ANOVA) design, loaded pollen and nectar foragers (mean loads 27% and 40% of body mass, respectively) significantly increased metabolic rate by 6%. Mean pollen loads of 18% of body mass had no effect on wingbeat frequency, stroke amplitude, body angle or inclination of stroke plane, but increased the calculated mechanical power output by 16-18% (depending on the method of estimating drag). A rise in lift coefficient as bees carry loads without increasing wingbeat frequency or stroke amplitude (and only minimal increases in metabolic rate) suggests an increased use of unsteady power-generating mechanisms.

  6. Mechanical loading prevents the stimulating effect of IL-1{beta} on osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N.; Bakker, Astrid D.; Everts, Vincent; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Osteocyte incubation with IL-1{beta} stimulated osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditioned medium from IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased osteoclastogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer IL-1{beta} upregulated RANKL and downregulated OPG gene expression by osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYR61 is upregulated in mechanically stimulated osteocytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanical loading of osteocytes may abolish IL-1{beta}-induced osteoclastogenesis. -- Abstract: Inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis are often accompanied by higher plasma and synovial fluid levels of interleukin-1{beta} (IL-1{beta}), and by increased bone resorption. Since osteocytes are known to regulate bone resorption in response to changes in mechanical stimuli, we investigated whether IL-1{beta} affects osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in the presence or absence of mechanical loading of osteocytes. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were pre-incubated with IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml) for 24 h. Cells were either or not subjected to mechanical loading by 1 h pulsating fluid flow (PFF; 0.7 {+-} 0.3 Pa, 5 Hz) in the presence of IL-1{beta} (0.1-1 ng/ml). Conditioned medium was collected after 1 h PFF or static cultures. Subsequently mouse bone marrow cells were seeded on top of the IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes to determine osteoclastogenesis. Conditioned medium from mechanically loaded or static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes was added to co-cultures of untreated osteocytes and mouse bone marrow cells. Gene expression of cysteine-rich protein 61 (CYR61/CCN1), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by osteocytes was determined immediately after PFF. Incubation of osteocytes with IL-1{beta}, as well as conditioned medium from static IL-1{beta}-treated osteocytes increased the formation of osteoclasts. However, conditioned medium from mechanically loaded IL

  7. Cyclic mechanical loading promotes bacterial penetration along composite restoration marginal gaps

    PubMed Central

    Khvostenko, D.; Salehi, S.; Naleway, S. E.; Hilton, T. J.; Ferracane, J. L.; Mitchell, J. C.; Kruzic, J. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Secondary caries is the most common reason for composite restoration replacement and usually forms between dentin and the filling. The objective of this study was to investigate the combined effect of cyclic loading and bacterial exposure on bacterial penetration into gaps at the interface between dentin and resin composite restorative material using a novel bioreactor system and test specimen design. Methods Human molars were machined into 3 mm thick disks with 2 mm deep × 5 mm diameter cavity preparations into which composite restorations were placed. A ∼15-30 micrometer (small) or ∼300 micrometer wide (large) dentin-restoration gap was introduced along half of the interface between the dentin and restoration. Streptococcus mutans UA 159 biofilms were grown on each sample prior to testing in a bioreactor both with and without cyclic loading. Both groups of samples were tested for 2 weeks and post-test biofilm viability was confirmed with a live-dead assay. Samples were fixed, mounted and cross-sectioned to reveal the gaps and observe the depth of bacterial penetration. Results It was shown that for large gap samples the bacteria easily penetrated to the full depth of the gap independent of loading or non-loading conditions. The results for all cyclically loaded small gap samples show a consistently deep bacterial penetration down 100% of the gap while the average penetration depth was only 67% for the non-loaded samples with only two of six samples reaching 100%. Significance A new bioreactor was developed that allows combining cyclic mechanical loading and bacterial exposure of restored teeth for bacterial biofilm and demineralization studies. Cyclic loading was shown to aid bacterial penetration into narrow marginal gaps, which could ultimately promote secondary caries formation. PMID:25900624

  8. Allometry of the Tendon Enthesis: Mechanisms of Load Transfer Between Tendon and Bone

    PubMed Central

    Deymier-Black, Alix C.; Pasteris, Jill D.; Genin, Guy M.; Thomopoulos, Stavros

    2015-01-01

    Several features of the tendon-to-bone attachment were examined allometrically to determine load transfer mechanisms. The humeral head diameter increased geometrically with animal mass. Area of the attachment site exhibited a near isometric increase with muscle physiological cross section. In contrast, the interfacial roughness as well as the mineral gradient width demonstrated a hypoallometric relationship with physiologic cross-sectional area (PCSA). The isometric increase in attachment area indicates that as muscle forces increase, the attachment area increases accordingly, thus maintaining a constant interfacial stress. Due to the presence of constant stresses at the attachment, the micrometer-scale features may not need to vary with increasing load. PMID:26355607

  9. The Role of Adaptation in Body Load-Regulating Mechanisms During Locomotion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara; Holt, Christopher; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Bloomberg, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Body loading is a fundamental parameter that modulates motor output during locomotion, and is especially important for controlling the generation of stepping patterns, dynamic balance, and termination of locomotion. Load receptors that regulate and control posture and stance in locomotion include the Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindles at the hip, knee, and ankle joints, and the Ruffini endings and the Pacinian corpuscles in the soles of the feet. Increased body weight support (BWS) during locomotion results in an immediate reorganization of locomotor control, such as a reduction in stance and double support duration and decreased hip, ankle, and knee angles during the gait cycle. Previous studies on the effect during exposure to increased BWS while walking showed a reduction in lower limb joint angles and gait cycle timing that represents a reorganization of locomotor control. Until now, no studies have investigated how locomotor control responds after a period of exposure to adaptive modification in the body load sensing system. The goal of this research was to determine the adaptive properties of body load-regulating mechanisms in locomotor control during locomotion. We hypothesized that body load-regulating mechanisms contribute to locomotor control, and adaptive changes in these load-regulating mechanisms require reorganization to maintain forward locomotion. Head-torso coordination, lower limb movement patterns, and gait cycle timing were evaluated before and after a 30-minute adaptation session during which subjects walked on a treadmill at 5.4 km/hr with 40% body weight support (BWS). Before and after the adaptation period, head-torso and lower limb 3D kinematic data were obtained while performing a goal directed task during locomotion with 0% BWS using a video-based motion analysis system, and gait cycle timing parameters were collected by foot switches positioned under the heel and toe of the subjects shoes. Subjects showed adaptive modification in

  10. Photo-thermal polymerization of nanotube/polymer composites: Effects of load transfer and mechanical strength

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peng; Loomis, James; Panchapakesan, Balaji

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a method where in-situ photon assisted heating of multi-wall carbon nanotubes was utilized for enhanced polymerization of the nanotube/polydimethylsiloxane interface that resulted in significant load transfer and improved mechanical properties. Large Raman shifts (20 cm−1 wavenumbers) of the 2D bands were witnessed for near-infrared light polymerized samples, signifying increased load transfer to the nanotubes for up to ∼80% strains. An increase in elastic modulus of ∼130% for 1 wt. % composites is reported for photon assisted crosslinking. PMID:22509070

  11. Concurrent material-fabrication optimization of metal-matrix laminates under thermo-mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Morel, M. R.; Chamis, C. C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology is developed to tailor fabrication and material parameters of metal-matrix laminates for maximum loading capacity under thermomechanical loads. The stresses during the thermomechanical response are minimized subject to failure constrains and bounds on the laminate properties. The thermomechanical response of the laminate is simulated using nonlinear composite mechanics. Evaluations of the method on a graphite/copper symmetric cross-ply laminate were performed. The cross-ply laminate required different optimum fabrication procedures than a unidirectional composite. Also, the consideration of the thermomechanical cycle had a significant effect on the predicted optimal process.

  12. Combined exposure to big endothelin-1 and mechanical loading in bovine sternal cores promotes osteogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Luisa A; Johnson, Michael G; Cullen, Diane M; Vivanco, Juan F; Blank, Robert D; Ploeg, Heidi-Lynn; Smith, Everett L

    2016-04-01

    Increased bone formation resulting from mechanical loading is well documented; however, the interactions of the mechanotransduction pathways are less well understood. Endothelin-1, a ubiquitous autocrine/paracrine signaling molecule promotes osteogenesis in metastatic disease. In the present study, it was hypothesized that exposure to big endothelin-1 (big ET1) and/or mechanical loading would promote osteogenesis in ex vivo trabecular bone cores. In a 2×2 factorial trial of daily mechanical loading (-2000με, 120cycles daily, "jump" waveform) and big ET1 (25ng/mL), 48 bovine sternal trabecular bone cores were maintained in bioreactor chambers for 23days. The bone cores' response to the treatment stimuli was assessed with percent change in core apparent elastic modulus (ΔEapp), static and dynamic histomorphometry, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion. Two-way ANOVA with a post hoc Fisher's LSD test found no significant treatment effects on ΔEapp (p=0.25 and 0.51 for load and big ET1, respectively). The ΔEapp in the "no load + big ET1" (CE, 13±12.2%, p=0.56), "load + no big ET1" (LC, 17±3.9%, p=0.14) and "load + big ET1" (LE, 19±4.2%, p=0.13) treatment groups were not statistically different than the control group (CC, 3.3%±8.6%). Mineralizing surface (MS/BS), mineral apposition (MAR) and bone formation rates (BFR/BS) were significantly greater in LE than CC (p=0.037, 0.0040 and 0.019, respectively). While the histological bone formation markers in LC trended to be greater than CC (p=0.055, 0.11 and 0.074, respectively) there was no difference between CE and CC (p=0.61, 0.50 and 0.72, respectively). Cores in LE and LC had more than 50% greater MS/BS (p=0.037, p=0.055 respectively) and MAR (p=0.0040, p=0.11 respectively) than CC. The BFR/BS was more than two times greater in LE (p=0.019) and LC (p=0.074) than CC. The PGE2 levels were elevated at 8days post-osteotomy in all groups and the treatment groups remained elevated compared to the CC group on days 15

  13. Investigation of mechanical properties of twin gold crystal nanowires under uniaxial load by molecular dynamics method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guo-Wei; Yang, Zai-Lin; Luo, Gang

    2016-08-01

    Twin gold crystal nanowires, whose loading direction is parallel to the twin boundary orientation, are simulated. We calculate the nanowires under tensile or compressive loads, different length nanowires, and different twin boundary nanowires respectively. The Young modulus of nanowires under compressive load is about twice that under tensile load. The compressive properties of twin gold nanowires are superior to their tensile properties. For different length nanowires, there is a critical value of length with respect to the mechanical properties. When the length of nanowire is greater than the critical value, its mechanical properties are sensitive to length. The twin boundary spacing hardly affects the mechanical properties. Project supported by the National Science and Technology Pillar Program, China (Grant No. 2015BAK17B06), the Earthquake Industry Special Science Research Foundation Project, China (Grant No. 201508026-02), the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. A201310), and the Scientific Research Starting Foundation for Post Doctorate of Heilongjiang Province, China (Grant No. LBHQ13040).

  14. High temperature fatigue behaviour of TZM molybdenum alloy under mechanical and thermomechanical cyclic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, H. J.; Niu, L. S.; Korn, C.; Pluvinage, G.

    2000-02-01

    High temperature isothermal mechanical fatigue and in-phase thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests in load control were carried out on a molybdenum-based alloy, one of the best known of the refractory alloys, TZM. The stress-strain response and the cyclic life of the material were measured during the tests. The fatigue lives obtained in the in-phase TMF tests are lower than those obtained in the isothermal mechanical tests at the same load amplitude. It appears that an additional damage is produced by the reaction of mechanical stress cycles and temperature cycles in TMF situation. Ratcheting phenomenon occurred during the tests with an increasing creep rate and it was dependent on temperature and load amplitude. A model of lifetime prediction, based on the Woehler-Miner law, was discussed. Damage coefficients that are functions of the maximum temperature and the variation of temperature are introduced in the model so as to evaluate TMF lives in load control. With this method the lifetime prediction gives results corresponding well to experimental data.

  15. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, Nick; Silverman, Timothy J.; Wohlgemuth, John; Kurtz, Sarah; Inoue, Masanao; Sakurai, Keiichiro; Shioda, Tsuyoshi; Zenkoh, Hirofumi; Hirota, Kusato; Miyashita, Masanori; Tadanori, Tanahashi; Suzuki, Soh; Chen, Yifeng; Verlinden, Pierre J.

    2014-12-31

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours of testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  16. Evaluation of Dynamic Mechanical Loading as an Accelerated Test Method for Ribbon Fatigue: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T. J.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shinoda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Hirota, K.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2015-04-07

    Dynamic Mechanical Loading (DML) of photovoltaic modules is explored as a route to quickly fatigue copper interconnect ribbons. Results indicate that most of the interconnect ribbons may be strained through module mechanical loading to a level that will result in failure in a few hundred to thousands of cycles. Considering the speed at which DML may be applied, this translates into a few hours o testing. To evaluate the equivalence of DML to thermal cycling, parallel tests were conducted with thermal cycling. Preliminary analysis suggests that one +/-1 kPa DML cycle is roughly equivalent to one standard accelerated thermal cycle and approximately 175 of these cycles are equivalent to a 25-year exposure in Golden Colorado for the mechanism of module ribbon fatigue.

  17. Determination of Temperature- Dependent Mechanical Properties of Carbon Composites Under Tensile and Flexural Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chripunow, Andre; Kubisch, Aline; Ruder, Matthias; Forster, Andreas; Korber, Hannes

    2014-06-01

    The presented test setup utilises a custom-built furnace realising test temperatures of up to 500°C. In order to ensure always optimal test conditions the temperature cell can be exchanged depending on the mechanical tests and specimen sizes. Cells for tensile and flexural loadings had been developed. With the latter one it is possible to perform three-point-bending tests, interlaminar-shear-strength tests as well as tests to determine the interlaminar fracture toughness. In this work the effect of fibre orientation on the mechanical properties of CFRP prepreg material under tensile and flexural loads at elevated temperatures was studied. Especially the matrix dominated layups showed a rather early decay of the mechanical properties even at temperatures quite lower than Tg. An analytical model has been used to describe the temperature-dependent properties. The model shows good agreement concerning the strength whereas the proper prediction of the moduli was only possible for the matrix dominated layups.

  18. Progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wanlei; Chang, Xinlong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Zhang, Youhong

    A multiscale model based bridge theory is proposed for the progressive damage analysis of carbon/epoxy laminates under couple laser and mechanical loading. The ablation model is adopted to calculate ablation temperature changing and ablation surface degradation. The polynomial strengthening model of matrix is used to improve bridging model for reducing parameter input. Stiffness degradation methods of bridging model are also improved in order to analyze the stress redistribution more accurately when the damage occurs. Thermal-mechanical analyses of the composite plate are performed using the ABAQUS/Explicit program with the developed model implemented in the VUMAT. The simulation results show that this model can be used to proclaim the mesoscale damage mechanism of composite laminates under coupled loading.

  19. Preclinical models for in vitro mechanical loading of bone-derived cells.

    PubMed

    Michael Delaine-Smith, Robin; Javaheri, Behzad; Helen Edwards, Jennifer; Vazquez, Marisol; Rumney, Robin Mark Howard

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that bone responds to mechanical stimuli whereby physical forces are translated into chemical signals between cells, via mechanotransduction. It is difficult however to study the precise cellular and molecular responses using in vivo systems. In vitro loading models, which aim to replicate forces found within the bone microenvironment, make the underlying processes of mechanotransduction accessible to the researcher. Direct measurements in vivo and predictive modeling have been used to define these forces in normal physiological and pathological states. The types of mechanical stimuli present in the bone include vibration, fluid shear, substrate deformation and compressive loading, which can all be applied in vitro to monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) cultures. In monolayer, vibration can be readily applied to cultures via a low-magnitude, high-frequency loading rig. Fluid shear can be applied to cultures in multiwell plates via a simple rocking platform to engender gravitational fluid movement or via a pump to cells attached to a slide within a parallel-plate flow chamber, which may be micropatterned for use with osteocytes. Substrate strain can be applied via the vacuum-driven FlexCell system or via a four-point loading jig. 3D cultures better replicate the bone microenvironment and can also be subjected to the same forms of mechanical stimuli as monolayer, including vibration, fluid shear via perfusion flow, strain or compression. 3D cocultures that more closely replicate the bone microenvironment can be used to study the collective response of several cell types to loading. This technical review summarizes the methods for applying mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vitro.

  20. Preclinical models for in vitro mechanical loading of bone-derived cells

    PubMed Central

    Michael Delaine-Smith, Robin; Javaheri, Behzad; Helen Edwards, Jennifer; Vazquez, Marisol; Rumney, Robin Mark Howard

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that bone responds to mechanical stimuli whereby physical forces are translated into chemical signals between cells, via mechanotransduction. It is difficult however to study the precise cellular and molecular responses using in vivo systems. In vitro loading models, which aim to replicate forces found within the bone microenvironment, make the underlying processes of mechanotransduction accessible to the researcher. Direct measurements in vivo and predictive modeling have been used to define these forces in normal physiological and pathological states. The types of mechanical stimuli present in the bone include vibration, fluid shear, substrate deformation and compressive loading, which can all be applied in vitro to monolayer and three-dimensional (3D) cultures. In monolayer, vibration can be readily applied to cultures via a low-magnitude, high-frequency loading rig. Fluid shear can be applied to cultures in multiwell plates via a simple rocking platform to engender gravitational fluid movement or via a pump to cells attached to a slide within a parallel-plate flow chamber, which may be micropatterned for use with osteocytes. Substrate strain can be applied via the vacuum-driven FlexCell system or via a four-point loading jig. 3D cultures better replicate the bone microenvironment and can also be subjected to the same forms of mechanical stimuli as monolayer, including vibration, fluid shear via perfusion flow, strain or compression. 3D cocultures that more closely replicate the bone microenvironment can be used to study the collective response of several cell types to loading. This technical review summarizes the methods for applying mechanical stimuli to bone cells in vitro. PMID:26331007

  1. In vivo mechanical loading rapidly activates β-catenin signaling in osteocytes through a prostaglandin mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lara-Castillo, N; Kim-Weroha, N A; Kamel, M A; Javaheri, B; Ellies, D L; Krumlauf, R E; Thiagarajan, G; Johnson, M L

    2015-07-01

    The response of the skeleton to loading appears to be mediated through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and osteocytes have long been postulated to be the primary mechanosensory cells in bone. To examine the kinetics of the mechanoresponse of bone and cell types involved in vivo, we performed forearm loading of 17-week-old female TOPGAL mice. β-catenin signaling was observed only in embedded osteocytes, not osteoblasts, at 1h post-loading, spreading to additional osteocytes and finally to cells on the bone surface by 24h. This early activation at 1h appeared to be independent of receptor (Lrp5/6) mediated activation as it occurred in the presence of the inhibitors sclerostin and/or Dkk1. The COX-2 inhibitor, Carprofen, blocked the activation of β-catenin signaling and decline in sclerostin positive osteocytes post-loading implying an important role for prostaglandin. In vitro, PI3K/Akt activation was shown to be required for β-catenin nuclear translocation downstream from prostaglandin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells supporting this mechanism. Downstream targets of β-catenin signaling, sclerostin and Dkk1, were also examined and found to be significantly downregulated in osteocytes in vivo at 24h post-loading. The pattern of initially activated osteocytes appeared random and in order to understand this heterogeneous expression, a novel finite element model of the strain field in the ulna was developed, which predicts highly variable local magnitudes of strain experienced by osteocytes. In summary, both in vivo and in vitro models show the rapid activation of β-catenin in response to load through the early release of prostaglandin and that strain fields in the bone are extremely heterogeneous resulting in heterogeneous activation of the β-catenin pathway in osteocytes in vivo.

  2. In Vivo Mechanical Loading Rapidly Activates β–catenin Signaling in Osteocytes through a Prostaglandin Mediated Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lara-Castillo, N; Kim-Weroha, NA; Kamel, MA; Javaheri, B; Ellies, DL; Krumlauf, RE; Thiagarajan, G; Johnson, ML

    2015-01-01

    The response of the skeleton to loading appears to be mediated through the activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and osteocytes have long been postulated to be the primary mechanosensory cells in bone. To examine the kinetics of the mechanoresponse of bone and cell types involved in the in vivo, we performed forearm loading of 17-week-old female TOPGAL mice. β-catenin signaling was observed only in embedded osteocytes, not osteoblasts, at 1 hour post loading, spreading to additional osteocytes and finally to cells on the bone surface by 24 hrs. This early activation at 1 hour appeared to be independent of receptor (Lrp5/6) mediated activation as it occurred in the presence of the inhibitors sclerostin and/or Dkk1. The COX-2 inhibitor, Carprofen, blocked the activation of β-catenin signaling and decline in sclerostin positive osteocytes post-loading implying an important role for prostaglandin. In vitro, PI3K/Akt activation was shown to be required for β-catenin nuclear translocation downstream from prostaglandin in MLO-Y4 osteocyte-like cells supporting this mechanism. Downstream targets of β-catenin signaling, sclerostin and Dkk1, were also examined and found to be significantly down regulated in osteocytes in vivo at 24 hours post-loading. The pattern of initially activated osteocytes appeared random and in order to understand this heterogeneous expression, a novel finite element model of the strain field in the ulna was developed, which predicts highly variable local magnitudes of strain experienced by osteocytes. In summary, both in vivo and in vitro models show the rapid activation of β-catenin in response to load through the early release of prostaglandin and that strain fields in the bone are extremely heterogeneous resulting in heterogeneous activation of the β-catenin pathway in osteocytes in vivo. PMID:25836764

  3. Evolution of dislocation mechanisms in single-crystal Cu under shock loading in different directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2017-02-01

    Even though there are numerous experiments and molecular dynamic simulations of Cu under shock loading, there appears to be no literature on the evolution of different types of dislocation mechanisms and their mutual interactions during the process of shock loading, which this article addresses through molecular dynamic simulations using the Mishin EAM potential for Cu. Three different directions < 100> , < 110> , and < 111> that have been considered in this article are subjected to shock compression with piston velocities ranging between 0.3–3 km s‑1. The evolution of Hirth locks, Lomer–Cottrell locks, cross-slips, jogs, and dislocation-originated stacking-fault tetrahedra are demonstrated in this article for different direction shock loading of single-crystal Cu.

  4. Characterization of debond growth mechanism in adhesively bonded composites under mode II static and fatigue loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, S.; Kochhar, N. K.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental investigation of adhesively bonded composite joint was conducted to characterize the debond growth mechanism under mode II static and fatigue loadings. For this purpose, end-notched flexure specimens of graphite/epoxy (T300/5208) adherends bonded with EC 3445 adhesive were tested. In all specimen tested, the fatigue failure occurred in the form of cyclic debonding. The present study confirmed the result of previous studies that total strain-energy-release rate is the driving parameter for cyclic debonding. Further, the debond growth resistance under cyclic loading with full shear reversal (i.e., stress ratio, R = -1) is drastically reduced in comparison to the case when subjected to cyclic shear loading with no shear reversal (i.e., R = 0.1).

  5. Computational modeling of dynamic mechanical properties of pure polycrystalline magnesium under high loading strain rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qizhen

    2015-09-01

    Computational simulations were performed to investigate the dynamic mechanical behavior of pure polycrystalline magnesium under different high loading strain rates with the values of 800, 1000, 2000, and 3600 s-1. The Johnson-Cook model was utilized in the simulations based on finite element modeling. The results showed that the simulations provided well-matched predictions of the material behavior such as the strain rate-time history, the stress-strain curve, and the temperature increase. Under high loading strain rates, the tested material experienced linear strain hardening at the early stage of plastic deformation, increased strain hardening at the intermediate plastic deformation region, and decreased strain hardening at the region before fracture. The strain hardening rates for the studied high loading strain rate cases do not vary much with the change of strain rates.

  6. Launch Load Resistant Spacecraft Mechanism Bearings Made From NiTi Superelastic Intermetallic Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III

    2014-01-01

    Compared to conventional bearing materials (tool steel and ceramics), emerging Superelastic Intermetallic Materials (SIMs), such as 60NiTi, have significantly lower elastic modulus and enhanced strain capability. They are also immune to atmospheric corrosion (rusting). This offers the potential for increased resilience and superior ability to withstand static indentation load without damage. In this paper, the static load capacity of hardened 60NiTi 50-mm-bore ball bearing races are measured to correlate existing flat-plate indentation load capacity data to an actual bearing geometry through the Hertz stress relations. The results confirmed the validity of using the Hertz stress relations to model 60NiTi contacts; 60NiTi exhibits a static stress capability (approximately 3.1 GPa) between that of 440C (2.4 GPa) and REX20 (3.8 GPa) tool steel. When the reduced modulus and extended strain capability are taken into account, 60NiTi is shown to withstand higher loads than other bearing materials. To quantify this effect, a notional space mechanism, a 5-kg mass reaction wheel, was modeled with respect to launch load capability when supported on standard (catalogue geometry) design 440C; 60NiTi and REX20 tool steel bearings. For this application, the use of REX20 bearings increased the static load capability of the mechanism by a factor of three while the use of 60NiTi bearings resulted in an order of magnitude improvement compared to the baseline 440C stainless steel bearings

  7. Fluid load support and contact mechanics of hemiarthroplasty in the natural hip joint.

    PubMed

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2011-01-01

    The articular cartilage covering the ends of the bones of diarthrodial synovial joints is thought to have evolved so that the loads are transferred under different and complex conditions, with a very high degree of efficiency and without compromising the structural integrity of the tissue for the life of an individual. These loading conditions stem from different activities such as walking, and standing. The integrity of cartilage may however become compromised due to congenital disease, arthritis or trauma. Hemiarthroplasty is a potentially conservative treatment when only the femoral cartilage is affected as in case of femoral neck fractures. In hemiarthroplasty, a metallic femoral prosthesis is used to articulate against the natural acetabular cartilage. It has also been hypothesized that biphasic lubrication is the predominant mechanism protecting the cartilage through a very high fluid load support which lowers friction. This may be altered due to hemiarthroplasty and have a direct effect on the frictional shear stresses and potentially cartilage degradation and wear. This study modelled nine activities of daily living and investigated the contact mechanics of a hip joint with a hemiarthroplasty, focussing particularly on the role of the fluid phase. It was shown that in most of the activities studied the peak contact stresses and peak fluid pressures were in the superior dome or lateral roof of the acetabulum. Total fluid load support was very high (~90%) in most of the activities which would shield the solid phase from being subjected to very high contact stresses. This was dependent not only on the load magnitude but also the direction and hence on the location of the contact area with respect to the cartilage coverage. Lower fluid load support was found when the contact area was nearer the edges where the fluid drained easily.

  8. Mechanism of augmented exercise hyperpnea in chronic heart failure and dead space loading

    PubMed Central

    Poon, Chi-Sang; Tin, Chung

    2013-01-01

    Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) suffer increased alveolar VD/VT (dead-space-to-tidal-volume ratio), yet they demonstrate augmented pulmonary ventilation such that arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) remains remarkably normal from rest to moderate exercise. This paradoxical effect suggests that the control law governing exercise hyperpnea is not merely determined by metabolic CO2 production (V̇CO2) per se but is responsive to an apparent (real-feel) metabolic CO2 load (V˙CO2o) that also incorporates the adverse effect of physiological VD/VT on pulmonary CO2 elimination. By contrast, healthy individuals subjected to dead space loading also experience augmented ventilation at rest and during exercise as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but the resultant response is hypercapnic instead of eucapnic, as with CO2 breathing. The ventilatory effects of dead space loading are therefore similar to those of increased alveolar VD/VT and CO2 breathing combined. These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the increased series VD/VT in dead space loading adds to V˙CO2o as with increased alveolar VD/VT in CHF, but this is through rebreathing of CO2 in dead space gas thus creating a virtual (illusory) airway CO2 load within each inspiration, as opposed to a true airway CO2 load during CO2 breathing that clogs the mechanism for CO2 elimination through pulmonary ventilation. Thus, the chemosensing mechanism at the respiratory controller may be responsive to putative drive signals mediated by within-breath PaCO2 oscillations independent of breath-to-breath fluctuations of the mean PaCO2 level. Skeletal muscle afferents feedback, while important for early-phase exercise cardioventilatory dynamics, appears inconsequential for late-phase exercise hyperpnea. PMID:23274121

  9. Fibrin Networks Support Recurring Mechanical Loads by Adapting their Structure across Multiple Scales.

    PubMed

    Kurniawan, Nicholas A; Vos, Bart E; Biebricher, Andreas; Wuite, Gijs J L; Peterman, Erwin J G; Koenderink, Gijsje H

    2016-09-06

    Tissues and cells sustain recurring mechanical loads that span a wide range of loading amplitudes and timescales as a consequence of exposure to blood flow, muscle activity, and external impact. Both tissues and cells derive their mechanical strength from fibrous protein scaffolds, which typically have a complex hierarchical structure. In this study, we focus on a prototypical hierarchical biomaterial, fibrin, which is one of the most resilient naturally occurring biopolymers and forms the structural scaffold of blood clots. We show how fibrous networks composed of fibrin utilize irreversible changes in their hierarchical structure at different scales to maintain reversible stress stiffening up to large strains. To trace the origin of this paradoxical resilience, we systematically tuned the microstructural parameters of fibrin and used a combination of optical tweezers and fluorescence microscopy to measure the interactions of single fibrin fibers for the first time, to our knowledge. We demonstrate that fibrin networks adapt to moderate strains by remodeling at the network scale through the spontaneous formation of new bonds between fibers, whereas they adapt to high strains by plastic remodeling of the fibers themselves. This multiscale adaptation mechanism endows fibrin gels with the remarkable ability to sustain recurring loads due to shear flows and wound stretching. Our findings therefore reveal a microscopic mechanism by which tissues and cells can balance elastic nonlinearity and plasticity, and thus can provide microstructural insights into cell-driven remodeling of tissues.

  10. The early mouse 3D osteocyte network in the presence and absence of mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Yasuyo; Kamioka, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Yoshihito; Fujisawa, Naoko; Kawanabe, Noriaki; Yamashiro, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    Osteocytes are considered to act as mechanosensory cells in bone. They form a functional synctia in which their processes become interconnected to constitute a three-dimensional (3D) network. Previous studies reported that in mice, the two-dimensional osteocyte network becomes progressively more regular as they grow, although the key factors governing the arrangement of the osteocyte network during bone growth remain unknown. In this study, we characterized the 3D formation of the osteocyte network during bone growth. Morphological skeletal changes have been reported to occur in response to mechanical loading and unloading. In order to evaluate the effect of mechanical unloading on osteocyte network formation, we subjected newborn mice to sciatic neurectomy in order to immobilize their left hind limb as an unloading model. The osteocyte network was visualized by staining osteocyte cell bodies and processes with fluorescently labeled phalloidin. First, we compared the osteocyte network in the femora of embryonic and 6-week-old mice in order to understand the morphological changes that occur with normal growth and mechanical loading. In embryonic mice, the osteocyte network in the femur cortical bone displayed a random cell body distribution, non-directional orientation of cell processes, and irregularly shaped cells. In 6-week-old mice, the 3D network contained spindle-shaped osteocytes, which were arranged parallel to the longitudinal axis of the femur. In addition, more and longer cell processes radiated from each osteocyte. Second, we compared the cortical osteocyte networks of 6-week-old mice that had or had not undergone sciatic neurectomy in order to evaluate the effect of unloading on osteocyte network formation. The osteocyte network formation in both cortical bone and cancellous bone was affected by mechanical loading. However, there were differences in the extent of network formation between cortical bone and cancellous bone in response to mechanical

  11. Antimicrobial, mechanical and thermal studies of silver particle-loaded polyurethane.

    PubMed

    Paul, Deepen; Paul, Sharmistha; Roohpour, Nima; Wilks, Mark; Vadgama, Pankaj

    2013-12-09

    Silver-particle-incorporated polyurethane films were evaluated for antimicrobial activity towards two different bacteria: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Distributed silver particles sourced from silver nitrate, silver lactate and preformed silver nanoparticles were mixed with polyurethane (PU) and variously characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and contact angle measurement. Antibacterial activity against E.coli was confirmed for films loaded with 10% (w/w) AgNO3, 1% and 10% (w/w) Ag lactate and preformed Ag nanoparticles. All were active against S. aureus, but Ag nanoparticles loaded with PU had a minor effect. The apparent antibacterial performance of Ag lactate-loaded PU is better than other Ag ion-loaded films, revealed from the zone of inhibition study. The better performance of silver lactate-loaded PU was the likely result of a porous PU structure. FESEM and FTIR indicated direct interaction of silver with the PU backbone, and XRD patterns confirmed that face-centred cubic-type silver, representative of Ag metal, was present. Young's modulus, tensile strength and the hardness of silver containing PU films were not adversely affected and possibly marginally increased with silver incorporation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated greater thermal stability.

  12. Fatigue characteristics and microcosmic mechanism of Al-Si-Mg alloys under multiaxial proportional loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiao-Song; He, Guo-Qiu; Liu, Bing; Zhu, Zheng-Yu; Zhang, Wei-Hua

    2011-08-01

    With the increasing use of Al-Si-Mg alloys in the automotive industry, the fatigue performance of Al-Si-Mg alloy has become a major concern with regard to their reliability. The fatigue characteristics and microcosmic mechanism of an Al-Si-Mg alloy under multiaxial proportional loadings were investigated in this research. As low cycle fatigue life and material strengthening behavior are closely related, the effect of equivalent strain amplitude on the multiaxial fatigue properties was analyzed. Fatigue tests were conducted to determine the influence of equivalent strain amplitude on the multiaxial proportional fatigue properties. The fatigue life exhibits a stable behavior under multiaxial proportional loadings. The dislocation structures of the Al-Si-Mg alloy were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The dislocation structure evolution of the Al-Si-Mg alloy under multiaxial proportional loadings during low cycle fatigue develops step by step by increasing fatigue cycles. Simultaneously, the dislocation structure changes with the change in equivalent strain amplitude under multiaxial proportional loadings. The experimental evidence indicates that the multiaxial fatigue behavior and life are strongly dependent on the microstructure of the material, which is caused by multiaxial proportional loadings.

  13. Antimicrobial, Mechanical and Thermal Studies of Silver Particle-Loaded Polyurethane

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Deepen; Paul, Sharmistha; Roohpour, Nima; Wilks, Mark; Vadgama, Pankaj

    2013-01-01

    Silver-particle-incorporated polyurethane films were evaluated for antimicrobial activity towards two different bacteria: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Distributed silver particles sourced from silver nitrate, silver lactate and preformed silver nanoparticles were mixed with polyurethane (PU) and variously characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and contact angle measurement. Antibacterial activity against E.coli was confirmed for films loaded with 10% (w/w) AgNO3, 1% and 10% (w/w) Ag lactate and preformed Ag nanoparticles. All were active against S. aureus, but Ag nanoparticles loaded with PU had a minor effect. The apparent antibacterial performance of Ag lactate-loaded PU is better than other Ag ion-loaded films, revealed from the zone of inhibition study. The better performance of silver lactate-loaded PU was the likely result of a porous PU structure. FESEM and FTIR indicated direct interaction of silver with the PU backbone, and XRD patterns confirmed that face-centred cubic-type silver, representative of Ag metal, was present. Young’s modulus, tensile strength and the hardness of silver containing PU films were not adversely affected and possibly marginally increased with silver incorporation. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated greater thermal stability. PMID:24956194

  14. An experimental system for high temperature X-ray diffraction studies with in situ mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, Benjamin B.; Pagan, Darren C.; Miller, Matthew P.; Schuren, Jay C.

    2013-03-15

    An experimental system with in situ thermomechanical loading has been developed to enable high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of crystalline materials. The system applies and maintains loads of up to 2250 N in uniaxial tension or compression at a frequency of up to 100 Hz. The furnace heats the specimen uniformly up to a maximum temperature of 1200 Degree-Sign C in a variety of atmospheres (oxidizing, inert, reducing) that, combined with in situ mechanical loading, can be used to mimic processing and operating conditions of engineering components. The loaded specimen is reoriented with respect to the incident beam of x-rays using two rotational axes to increase the number of crystal orientations interrogated. The system was used at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source to conduct experiments on single crystal silicon and polycrystalline Low Solvus High Refractory nickel-based superalloy. The data from these experiments provide new insights into how stresses evolve at the crystal scale during thermomechanical loading and complement the development of high-fidelity material models.

  15. Non-Invasive Investigation of Bone Adaptation in Humans to Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental studies have identified peak cyclic forces, number of loading cycles, and loading rate as contributors to the regulation of bone metabolism. We have proposed a theoretical model that relates bone density to a mechanical stimulus derived from average daily cumulative peak cyclic 'effective' tissue stresses. In order to develop a non-invasive experimental model to test the theoretical model we need to: (1) monitor daily cumulative loading on a bone, (2) compute the internal stress state(s) resulting from the imposed loading, and (3) image volumetric bone density accurately, precisely, and reproducibly within small contiguous volumes throughout the bone. We have chosen the calcaneus (heel) as an experimental model bone site because it is loaded by ligament, tendon and joint contact forces in equilibrium with daily ground reaction forces that we can measure; it is a peripheral bone site and therefore more easily and accurately imaged with computed tomography; it is composed primarily of cancellous bone; and it is a relevant site for monitoring bone loss and adaptation in astronauts and the general population. This paper presents an overview of our recent advances in the areas of monitoring daily ground reaction forces, biomechanical modeling of the forces on the calcaneus during gait, mathematical modeling of calcaneal bone adaptation in response to cumulative daily activity, accurate and precise imaging of the calcaneus with quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and application to long duration space flight.

  16. An experimental system for high temperature X-ray diffraction studies with in situ mechanical loading

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Benjamin B.; Schuren, Jay C.; Pagan, Darren C.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental system with in situ thermomechanical loading has been developed to enable high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction studies of crystalline materials. The system applies and maintains loads of up to 2250 N in uniaxial tension or compression at a frequency of up to 100 Hz. The furnace heats the specimen uniformly up to a maximum temperature of 1200 °C in a variety of atmospheres (oxidizing, inert, reducing) that, combined with in situ mechanical loading, can be used to mimic processing and operating conditions of engineering components. The loaded specimen is reoriented with respect to the incident beam of x-rays using two rotational axes to increase the number of crystal orientations interrogated. The system was used at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source to conduct experiments on single crystal silicon and polycrystalline Low Solvus High Refractory nickel-based superalloy. The data from these experiments provide new insights into how stresses evolve at the crystal scale during thermomechanical loading and complement the development of high-fidelity material models. PMID:23556825

  17. Mechanical Assessment of the Drep Shield Subject to Vibratory Motion and Dynamic and Static Rock Loading

    SciTech Connect

    R.C. Quittmeyer

    2005-11-16

    The purpose of the drip shield (DS) is to divert water that may seep into emplacement drifts from contacting the waste packages, and to protect the waste packages from impact or static loading from rockfall. The objective of this document is to summarize, into one location, the results of a series of supporting engineering calculations that were developed to study the effect of static and dynamic loads on the mechanical performance of the DS. The potential DS loads are a result of: (1) Potential earthquake vibratory ground motion, and resulting interaction of the DS, waste package and pallet, and drift invert; (2) Dynamic impacts of rockfall resulting from emplacement drift damage as a result of earthquake vibratory motion; and (3) Static load of the caved rock rubble that may come to rest on the DS as a result of vibratory motion or from time-dependent yielding of the rock mass surrounding the emplacement drift. The potential mechanical failure mechanisms that may result from these loads include: (1) Overturning and/or separation of the interlocking DS segments; (2) Loss of structural integrity and stability of the DS, including excessive deformation or buckling; and (3) Localized damage to the top and side-wall plates of the DS. The scope of this document is limited to summarizing results presented in the supporting calculations in the areas of analysis of the potential for DS collapse, and determination of the damaged surface area of the DS plates. New calculations are presented to determine whether or not separation of DSs occur under vibratory motion.

  18. A mathematical method for quantifying in vivo mechanical behaviour of heel pad under dynamic load.

    PubMed

    Naemi, Roozbeh; Chatzistergos, Panagiotis E; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2016-03-01

    Mechanical behaviour of the heel pad, as a shock attenuating interface during a foot strike, determines the loading on the musculoskeletal system during walking. The mathematical models that describe the force deformation relationship of the heel pad structure can determine the mechanical behaviour of heel pad under load. Hence, the purpose of this study was to propose a method of quantifying the heel pad stress-strain relationship using force-deformation data from an indentation test. The energy input and energy returned densities were calculated by numerically integrating the area below the stress-strain curve during loading and unloading, respectively. Elastic energy and energy absorbed densities were calculated as the sum of and the difference between energy input and energy returned densities, respectively. By fitting the energy function, derived from a nonlinear viscoelastic model, to the energy density-strain data, the elastic and viscous model parameters were quantified. The viscous and elastic exponent model parameters were significantly correlated with maximum strain, indicating the need to perform indentation tests at realistic maximum strains relevant to walking. The proposed method showed to be able to differentiate between the elastic and viscous components of the heel pad response to loading and to allow quantifying the corresponding stress-strain model parameters.

  19. The effect of crank position and backrest inclination on shoulder load and mechanical efficiency during handcycling.

    PubMed

    Arnet, U; van Drongelen, S; Schlüssel, M; Lay, V; van der Woude, L H V; Veeger, H E J

    2014-04-01

    Handbikes come in different models and setups, but only limited knowledge is available on the handbike-user interface. The aim of this study was to identify optimal handbike setups, assuming that in such a setup mechanical efficiency is high, while shoulder load is low. Thirteen subjects with a spinal cord injury (paraplegia) performed handcycling with different handbike setups at constant power output: four crank positions (two distances, two heights) and four backrest inclinations. The O2-consumption, kinetics, and kinematics were measured to calculate mechanical efficiency and shoulder load (glenohumeral contact force, net shoulder moments, and rotator cuff force). The analysis showed that more upright backrest positions resulted in lower shoulder load compared with the most reclined position [glenohumeral contact force (260 vs 335 N), supraspinatus (14.4% vs 18.2%), and infraspinatus force (5.4% vs 9.8%)], while there was no difference in efficiency. Except for a reduction in subscapularis force at the distant position, no differences in shoulder load or efficiency were found between crank positions. Recreational handbike users, who want to improve their physical capacity in a shoulder-friendly way, should set up their handbike with a more upright backrest position and a distant crank placement.

  20. Interactive evolution concept for analyzing a rock salt cavern under cyclic thermo-mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Diethard; Mahmoudi, Elham; Khaledi, Kavan; von Blumenthal, Achim; Schanz, Tom

    2016-04-01

    The excess electricity produced by renewable energy sources available during off-peak periods of consumption can be used e.g. to produce and compress hydrogen or to compress air. Afterwards the pressurized gas is stored in the rock salt cavities. During this process, thermo-mechanical cyclic loading is applied to the rock salt surrounding the cavern. Compared to the operation of conventional storage caverns in rock salt the frequencies of filling and discharging cycles and therefore the thermo-mechanical loading cycles are much higher, e.g. daily or weekly compared to seasonally or yearly. The stress strain behavior of rock salt as well as the deformation behavior and the stability of caverns in rock salt under such loading conditions are unknown. To overcome this, existing experimental studies have to be supplemented by exploring the behavior of rock salt under combined thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. Existing constitutive relations have to be extended to cover degradation of rock salt under thermo-mechanical cyclic loading. At least the complex system of a cavern in rock salt under these loading conditions has to be analyzed by numerical modeling taking into account the uncertainties due to limited access in large depth to investigate material composition and properties. An interactive evolution concept is presented to link the different components of such a study - experimental modeling, constitutive modeling and numerical modeling. A triaxial experimental setup is designed to characterize the cyclic thermo-mechanical behavior of rock salt. The imposed boundary conditions in the experimental setup are assumed to be similar to the stress state obtained from a full-scale numerical simulation. The computational model relies primarily on the governing constitutive model for predicting the behavior of rock salt cavity. Hence, a sophisticated elasto-viscoplastic creep constitutive model is developed to take into account the dilatancy and damage progress, as well as

  1. Hydraulic mechanism to limit torsional loads between the IUS and space transportation system orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, James R.

    1986-01-01

    The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) is a two-stage booster used by NASA and the Defense Department to insert payloads into geosynchronous orbit from low-Earth orbit. The hydraulic mechanism discussed here was designed to perform a specific dynamic and static interface function within the Space Transportation System's Orbiter. Requirements, configuration, and application of the hydraulic mechanism with emphasis on performance and methods of achieving zero external hydraulic leakage are discussed. The hydraulic load-leveler mechanism meets the established design requirements for operation in a low-Earth orbit. Considerable testing was conducted to demonstrate system performance and verification that external leakage had been reduced to zero. Following each flight use of an ASE, all hydraulic mechanism components are carefully inspected for leakage. The ASE, including the hydraulic mechanism, has performed without any anomalies during all IUS flights.

  2. Gravity-Off-loading System for Large-Displacement Ground Testing of Spacecraft Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Olyvia; Kienholz, David; Janzen, Paul; Kidney, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-off-loading of deployable spacecraft mechanisms during ground testing is a long-standing problem. Deployable structures which are usually too weak to support their own weight under gravity require a means of gravity-off-loading as they unfurl. Conventional solutions to this problem have been helium-filled balloons or mechanical pulley/counterweight systems. These approaches, however, suffer from the deleterious effects of added inertia or friction forces. The changing form factor of the deployable structure itself and the need to track the trajectory of the center of gravity also pose a challenge to these conventional technologies. This paper presents a novel testing apparatus for high-fidelity zero-gravity simulation for special application to deployable space structures such as solar arrays, magnetometer booms, and robotic arms in class 100,000 clean room environments

  3. Detection of Micro-Leaks Through Complex Geometries Under Mechanical Load and at Cryogenic Temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, H. Kevin; Sikora, J. G.; Sankaran, S. N.

    2001-01-01

    Polymer Matrix Composite (PMC) hydrogen tanks have been proposed as an enabling technology for reducing the weight of Single-Stage-to-Orbit reusable launch vehicles where structural mass has a large impact on vehicle performance. A key development issue of these lightweight structures is the leakage of hydrogen through the composite material. The rate of hydrogen leakage can be a function of the material used, method of 6 fabrication used to manufacture the tank, mechanical load the tank must react, internal damage-state of the material, and the temperatures at which the tank must operate. A method for measuring leakage through a geometrically complex structure at cryogenic temperature and under mechanical load was developed, calibrated and used to measure hydrogen leakage through complex X-33 liquid-hydrogen tank structure sections.

  4. Time-dependent combinatory effects of active mechanical loading and passive topographical cues on cell orientation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Huang, Hanyang; Wei, Kang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical stretching and topographical cues are both effective mechanical stimulations for regulating cell morphology, orientation, and behaviors. The competition of these two mechanical stimulations remains largely underexplored. Previous studies have suggested that a small cyclic mechanical strain is not able to reorient cells that have been pre-aligned by relatively large linear microstructures, but can reorient those pre-aligned by small linear micro/nanostructures if the characteristic dimension of these structures is below a certain threshold. Likewise, for micro/nanostructures with a given characteristic dimension, the strain must exceed a certain magnitude to overrule the topographic cues. There are however no in-depth investigations of such "thresholds" due to the lack of close examination of dynamic cell orientation during and shortly after the mechanical loading. In this study, the time-dependent combinatory effects of active and passive mechanical stimulations on cell orientation are investigated by developing a micromechanical stimulator. The results show that the cells pre-aligned by linear micro/nanostructures can be altered by cyclic in-plane strain, regardless of the structure size. During the loading, the micro/nanostructures can resist the reorientation effects by cyclic in-plane strain while the resistive capability (measured by the mean orientation angle change and the reorientation speed) increases with the increasing characteristic dimension. The micro/nanostructures also can recover the cell orientation after the cessation of cyclic in-plane strain, while the recovering capability increases with the characteristic dimension. The previously observed thresholds are largely dependent on the observation time points. In order to accurately evaluate the combinatory effects of the two mechanical stimulations, observations during the active loading with a short time interval or endpoint observations shortly after the loading are preferred. This

  5. The effects of mechanical loading on tendons--an in vivo and in vitro model study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianying; Wang, James H-C

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading constantly acts on tendons, and a better understanding of its effects on the tendons is essential to gain more insights into tendon patho-physiology. This study aims to investigate tendon mechanobiological responses through the use of mouse treadmill running as an in vivo model and mechanical stretching of tendon cells as an in vitro model. In the in vivo study, mice underwent moderate treadmill running (MTR) and intensive treadmill running (ITR) regimens. Treadmill running elevated the expression of mechanical growth factors (MGF) and enhanced the proliferative potential of tendon stem cells (TSCs) in both patellar and Achilles tendons. In both tendons, MTR upregulated tenocyte-related genes: collagen type I (Coll. I ∼10 fold) and tenomodulin (∼3-4 fold), but did not affect non-tenocyte-related genes: LPL (adipocyte), Sox9 (chondrocyte), Runx2 and Osterix (both osteocyte). However, ITR upregulated both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼7-11 fold; tenomodulin ∼4-5 fold) and non-tenocyte-related genes (∼3-8 fold). In the in vitro study, TSCs and tenocytes were stretched to 4% and 8% using a custom made mechanical loading system. Low mechanical stretching (4%) of TSCs from both patellar and Achilles tendons increased the expression of only the tenocyte-related genes (Coll. I ∼5-6 fold; tenomodulin ∼6-13 fold), but high mechanical stretching (8%) increased the expression of both tenocyte (Coll. I ∼28-50 fold; tenomodulin ∼14-48 fold) and non-tenocyte-related genes (2-5-fold). However, in tenocytes, non-tenocyte related gene expression was not altered by the application of either low or high mechanical stretching. These findings indicate that appropriate mechanical loading could be beneficial to tendons because of their potential to induce anabolic changes in tendon cells. However, while excessive mechanical loading caused anabolic changes in tendons, it also induced differentiation of TSCs into non-tenocytes, which may lead to the development of

  6. Mechanical Response of Open Channel Cover Made of Concrete Foam Due to External Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syam, Bustami; Sebayang, Alexander; Gunawan, Indra; Muttaqin, Maraghi; Darmadi, Herry; Basuki, WS; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2017-01-01

    Open channel conduit is commonly constructed on side roadway, car park area, etc., with the aims to collect rainwater or seapage water. To avoid garbages following the waterflow, the conduit is equipped with adequate cover. In addition, the cover can also be functioned for temporary car park area. Thus, the conduit cover should strong enough to sustain external loading. This paper discusses the design and response of the conduit cover using finite element software ANSYS MECHANICAL version 17.5.

  7. The study on ``load relief`` mechanism of multiple cracks in thick-wall cylinder

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.H.; Huang, Z.Z.; Tan, Y.; Chen, L.Y.; Pan, B.Z.

    1995-11-01

    In this paper, the stress field on a given cross section in a thick-wall cylinder with single or multiple cracks is analyzed by means of 3-D photoelastic. Based on the study of the effect of crack on stress field, the concept of ``Additional Bending Moment`` is presented and the expression for non-dimensional ABM, M, is derived. The ``load relief`` mechanism of multiple cracks in a thick-wall cylinder is studied.

  8. Mechanical behaviour of Bioactive Glass granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in load bearing defects.

    PubMed

    Hulsen, D J W; Geurts, J; van Gestel, N A P; van Rietbergen, B; Arts, J J

    2016-05-03

    Bioactive Glass (BAG) granules are osteoconductive and possess unique antibacterial properties for a synthetic biomaterial. To assess the applicability of BAG granules in load-bearing defects, the aim was to compare mechanical behaviour of graft layers consisting of BAG granules and morselized cancellous bone allograft in different volume mixtures under clinically relevant conditions. The graft layers were mechanically tested, using two mechanical testing modalities with simulated physiological loading conditions: highly controllable confined compression tests (CCT) and more clinically realistic in situ compression tests (ISCT) in cadaveric porcine bone defects. Graft layer impaction strain, residual strain, aggregate modulus, and creep strain were determined in CCT. Graft layer porosity was determined using micro computed tomography. The ISCT was used to determine graft layer subsidence in bone environment. ANOVA showed significant differences (p<0.001) between different graft layer compositions. True strains absolutely decreased for increasing BAG content: impaction strain -0.92 (allograft) to -0.39 (BAG), residual strain -0.12 to -0.01, and creep strain -0.09 to 0.00 respectively. Aggregate modulus increased with increasing BAG content from 116 to 653MPa. Porosity ranged from 66% (pure allograft) to 15% (pure BAG). Subsidence was highest for allograft, and remarkably low for a 1:1 BAG-allograft volume mixture. Both BAG granules and allograft morsels as stand-alone materials exhibit suboptimal mechanical behaviour for load-bearing purpose. BAG granules are difficult to handle and less porous, whereas allograft subsides and creeps. A 1:1 volume mixture of BAG and allograft is therefore proposed as the best graft material in load-bearing defects.

  9. The stiffness of bone marrow cell-knit composites is increased during mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Bruinink, A; Siragusano, D; Ettel, G; Brandsberg, T; Brandsberg, F; Petitmermet, M; Müller, B; Mayer, J; Wintermantel, E

    2001-12-01

    A novel device for mechanical stimulation of primary adult rat bone marrow cells cultured on three-dimensional knitted textiles has been prototyped. A method has been developed ensuring a well-defined, high-density, and reproducible cell seeding on the knitted fabric. After culturing for 18-52 days the cell-knit composites were subjected to uniaxial 2% stretching and relaxation. The frequency was altered between 0.1 Hz (196 min, loading phase) and 0.01 Hz (360 min, resting phase). Identically treated knits without cells exhibited a slight stiffness reduction, whereas the stiffness of knits with cells increased from cycle to cycle. The stiffness increase was found to depend on the duration of the culture period before mechanical loading. Our data suggest that the extracellular matrix deposited by the cells on the knit and intact microtubuli of living cells cause the observed stiffness increase. In comparison to the unstrained static cell-knit composites cell proliferation and bone cell differentiation were reduced by the mechanical load.

  10. Molecular dynamics analysis of relaxation state control of metallic glasses via thermal and mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Narumasa; Masato Wakeda Team; Shigenobu Ogata Team

    2014-03-01

    Metallic glasses have excellent properties such as high fracture toughness and large elastic strain limit, high corrosion resistance, however they generally exhibit brittle fracture mode at ambient temperature. Since mechanical properties of metallic glasses depend on the degree of relaxation state, it can be tuned by controlling the degree of relaxation state. In this computational study, we focus on a method to control the relaxation state of metallic glasses via thermal and mechanical loadings. Using molecular dynamics, a metallic glass model was applied thermal loading composed of heating, annealing and quenching with external stress. Here, different annealing temperatures ranging from 0.5Tg to 1.5Tg [K] (Tg: the glass transition temperature), and external stresses ranging from 0 to 10 [GPa] were applied. We found that thermal loading below Tg leads the metallic glasses more relaxed state. On the other hand, the external stress brings metallic glasses less relaxed state, because external stress changes the shape of potential energy surface. These finding allow us to control the relaxation state of metallic glasses. Department of Mechanical Science and Bioengineering, Osaka Univ., Center for Elements Strategy Initiative for Structural Materials, Kyoto Univ.

  11. Aging and loading rate effects on the mechanical behavior of equine bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulin, Robb M.; Jiang, Fengchun; Vecchio, Kenneth S.

    2008-06-01

    Whether due to a sporting accident, high-speed impact, fall, or other catastrophic event, the majority of clinical bone fractures occur under dynamic loading conditions. However, although extensive research has been performed on the quasi-static fracture and mechanical behavior of bone to date, few high-quality studies on the fracture behavior of bone at high strain rates have been performed. Therefore, many questions remain regarding the material behavior, including not only the loading-rate-dependent response of bone, but also how this response varies with age. In this study, tests were performed on equine femoral bone taken post-mortem from donors 6 months to 28 years of age. Quasi-static and dynamic tests were performed to determine the fracture toughness and compressive mechanical behavior as a function of age at varying loading rates. Fracture paths were then analyzed using scanning confocal and scanning-electron microscopy techniques to assess the role of various microstructural features on toughening mechanisms.

  12. Role of extracellular matrix in adaptation of tendon and skeletal muscle to mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Michael

    2004-04-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), and especially the connective tissue with its collagen, links tissues of the body together and plays an important role in the force transmission and tissue structure maintenance especially in tendons, ligaments, bone, and muscle. The ECM turnover is influenced by physical activity, and both collagen synthesis and degrading metalloprotease enzymes increase with mechanical loading. Both transcription and posttranslational modifications, as well as local and systemic release of growth factors, are enhanced following exercise. For tendons, metabolic activity, circulatory responses, and collagen turnover are demonstrated to be more pronounced in humans than hitherto thought. Conversely, inactivity markedly decreases collagen turnover in both tendon and muscle. Chronic loading in the form of physical training leads both to increased collagen turnover as well as, dependent on the type of collagen in question, some degree of net collagen synthesis. These changes will modify the mechanical properties and the viscoelastic characteristics of the tissue, decrease its stress, and likely make it more load resistant. Cross-linking in connective tissue involves an intimate, enzymatical interplay between collagen synthesis and ECM proteoglycan components during growth and maturation and influences the collagen-derived functional properties of the tissue. With aging, glycation contributes to additional cross-linking which modifies tissue stiffness. Physiological signaling pathways from mechanical loading to changes in ECM most likely involve feedback signaling that results in rapid alterations in the mechanical properties of the ECM. In developing skeletal muscle, an important interplay between muscle cells and the ECM is present, and some evidence from adult human muscle suggests common signaling pathways to stimulate contractile and ECM components. Unaccostumed overloading responses suggest an important role of ECM in the adaptation of myofibrillar

  13. Locomotor loading mechanics in the hindlimbs of tegu lizards (Tupinambis merianae): comparative and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, K Megan; Butcher, Michael T; Shugart, S Katherine; Gander, Jennifer C; Blob, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    Skeletal elements are usually able to withstand several times their usual load before they yield, and this ratio is known as the bone's safety factor. Limited studies on amphibians and non-avian reptiles have shown that they have much higher limb bone safety factors than birds and mammals. It has been hypothesized that this difference is related to the difference in posture between upright birds and mammals and sprawling ectotherms; however, limb bone loading data from a wider range of sprawling species are needed in order to determine whether the higher safety factors seen in amphibians and non-avian reptiles are ancestral or derived conditions. Tegus (family Teiidae) are an ideal lineage with which to expand sampling of limb bone loading mechanics for sprawling taxa, particularly for lizards, because they are from a different clade than previously sampled iguanas and exhibit different foraging and locomotor habits (actively foraging carnivore versus burst-activity herbivore). We evaluated the mechanics of locomotor loading for the femur of the Argentine black and white tegu (Tupinambus merianae) using three-dimensional measurements of the ground reaction force and hindlimb kinematics, in vivo bone strains and femoral mechanical properties. Peak bending stresses experienced by the femur were low (tensile: 10.4 ± 1.1 MPa; compressive: -17.4 ± 0.9 MPa) and comparable to those in other reptiles, with moderate shear stresses and strains also present. Analyses of peak femoral stresses and strains led to estimated safety factor ranges of 8.8-18.6 in bending and 7.8-17.5 in torsion, both substantially higher than typical for birds and mammals but similar to other sprawling tetrapods. These results broaden the range of reptilian and amphibian taxa in which high femoral safety factors have been evaluated and further indicate a trend for the independent evolution of lower limb bone safety factors in endothermic taxa.

  14. Theoretical study of β-HMX decomposition mechanism of the solid phase under shock loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Guangfu; Ge, Nina; Chen, Xiangrong

    2015-06-01

    Study material properties under extreme conditions is a fundamental problem in the field of condensed matter physics. The decomposition mechanisms of energetic materials under the shock wave become a hot topic in recent years. In this paper, molecular dynamics simulations combined with multi-scale shock technology (MSST) are used to study the decomposition mechanism, shock sensitivity and electronic structure of β-HMX. First, the decomposition mechanism of β-HMX perfect crystal were studied at different shock speeds. We found that when the shock wave at a speed 8 km / s is loaded, the decomposition reaction start at N-NO2 bond breakage; when the shock wave at a speed of 10 km / s and 11 km / s is loaded, the the first decomposition reaction is CH bond breaking, and accompanied by the formation of five-membered ring and transfer of hydrogen ions. The simulation results also show that when the shock wave velocity is increased, the higher the pressure generated in the high-pressure N-NO2 bond cleavage was inhibited significantly. Secondly, the impact of its initial chemical reaction process along different crystal axis directions were studied, the results showed that along the a-axis and c-axis shock sensitivity is higher, and along the b-axis sensitivity is lower. We believe that the system of all sensitivity of direction is due to the rotation of the friction between the slip plane of crystals and molecules. Finally, we discussed the solid phase β-HMX electronic properties change under the shock wave loadings. We found that in the 11 km/s under the impact load, when the pressure reaches 130 GPa, zero bandgap is reached.

  15. Theoretical Modeling of Tribochemical Reaction on Pt and Au Contacts: Mechanical Load and Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yubo; Yang, Jing; Rappe, Andrew M

    2016-03-23

    Microelectromechanical system and nanoelectromechanical system (MEMS and NEMS) transistors are considered promising for size-reducing and power-maximizing electronic devices. However, the tribopolymer which forms due to the mechanical load to the contacts affects the conductivity dramatically. This is one of the challenging problems that prevents the widespread practical use of these otherwise promising devices. Here, we use density functional theory (DFT) to investigate the mechanisms of tribopolymer formation, including normal mechanical load and the catalytic effect, as well as the electrochemical effect of the metal contacts. We select benzene as the background gas, because it is one of the most common and severe hydrocarbon contaminants. Two adsorption cases are considered: one is benzene on the reactive metal surface, Pt(111), and the other is benzene on the noble metal, Au(111). We demonstrate that the formation of tribopolymer is induced by both the mechanical load and the catalytic effect of the contact. First, benzene molecules are adsorbed on the Pt surfaces. Then, due to the closure of the Pt contacts, stress is applied to the adsorbates, making the C-H bonds more fragile. As the stress increases further, H atoms are pressed close to the Pt substrate and begin to bond with Pt atoms. Thus, Pt acts as a catalyst, accelerating the dehydrogenation process. When there is voltage applied across the contacts, the catalytic effect is enhanced by electrochemistry. Finally, due to the loss of H atoms, C atoms become more reactive and link together or pile up to form tribopolymer. By understanding these mechanisms, we provide guidance on designing strategies for suppressing tribopolymer formation.

  16. COD removal efficiency and mechanism of HMBR in high volumetric loading for ship domestic sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linan; He, Hailing; Wang, Chunli

    2016-10-01

    The hybrid membrane bioreactor (HMBR) has been applied in ship domestic sewage treatment under high volumetric loading for ship space saving. The mechanism and influence factors on the efficiency, including hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO) of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were investigated. The HMBR's average COD removal rate was up to 95.13% on volumetric loading of 2.4 kgCOD/(m(3)•d) and the COD concentration in the effluent was 48.5 mg/L, far below the International Maritime Organization (IMO) discharge standard of 125 mg/L. DO had a more remarkable effect on the COD removal efficiency than HRT. In addition, HMBR revealed an excellent capability of resisting organics loading impact. Within the range of volumetric loading of 0.72 to 4.8 kg COD/(m(3)•d), the effluent COD concentration satisfied the discharge requirement of IMO. It was found that the organics degradation in the aeration tank followed the first-order reaction, with obtained kinetic parameters of vmax (2.79 d(-1)) and Ks (395 mg/L). The original finding of this study had shown the effectiveness of HMBR in organic contaminant degradation at high substrate concentration, which can be used as guidance in the full scale of the design, operation and maintenance of ship domestic sewage treatment devices.

  17. Experimental study of low amplitude, long-duration mechanical loading of reactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W

    2000-10-03

    Studies of the low amplitude, long-duration mechanical loading of reactive materials rely very heavily on the experimental data in general and in particular on the data obtained from gauges placed within the experimental test sample to measure accurately the local changes of parameters of the investigated material. For a complete description of these changes taking place in a dynamically loaded material one would like to know both the spatial and the temporal resolution of pressure, temperature, volume, wave and mass velocity. However, temperature and volume are not easily attainable. Therefore, most of the in-situ work is limited to measurements of pressure and both wave and mass velocities. Various types of these gauges will be discussed and their records will be illustrated. Some of these gauges have limitations but are better suited for particular applications than others. These aspects will also be discussed. Main limitation of most in-situ gauges is that they are built for one-dimensional application. However, some work is being done to develop two-dimensional gauges. This work will also be briefly discussed. While these experiments are necessary to validate theoretical models of the phenomenon, they can also provide sufficient amount of data to yield complete information on material characteristics such as its equation of state (EOS), its phase change under certain loads and its sensitivity to shock loading. Processing of these data to get important information on the behavior of both reactive and non-reactive materials will also be demonstrated.

  18. Corner Wrinkling at a Square Membrane Due to Symmetric Mechanical Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blandino, Joseph R.; Johnston, John D.; Dharamsi, Urmil K.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thin-film membrane structures are under consideration for use in many future gossamer spacecraft systems. Examples include sunshields for large aperture telescopes, solar sails, and membrane optics. The development of capabilities for testing and analyzing pre-tensioned, thin film membrane structures is an important and challenging aspect of gossamer spacecraft technology development. This paper presents results from experimental and computational studies performed to characterize the wrinkling behavior of thin-fi[m membranes under mechanical loading. The test article is a 500 mm square membrane subjected to symmetric comer loads. Data is presented for loads ranging from 0.49 N to 4.91 N. The experimental results show that as the load increases the number of wrinkles increases, while the wrinkle amplitude decreases. The computational model uses a finite element implementation of Stein-Hedgepeth membrane wrinkling theory to predict the behavior of the membrane. Comparisons were made with experimental results for the wrinkle angle and wrinkled region. There was reasonably good agreement between the measured wrinkle angle and the predicted directions of the major principle stresses. The shape of the wrinkle region predicted by the finite element model matches that observed in the experiments; however, the size of the predicted region is smaller than that determined in the experiments.

  19. Mechanical response of lithium fluoride under off-principal dynamic shock-ramp loading

    DOE PAGES

    Seagle, Christopher T.; Davis, Jean-Paul; Knudson, Marcus D.

    2016-10-26

    Single crystal lithium fluoride (LiF), oriented [100], was shock loaded and subsequently shocklessly compressed in two experiments at the Z Machine. We employed velocimetry measurements in order to obtain an impactor velocity, shock transit times, and in-situ particle velocities for LiF samples up to ~1.8 mm thick. We also performed a dual thickness Lagrangian analysis on the in-situ velocimetry data to obtain the mechanical response along the loading path of these experiments. Finally, we observed an elastic response on one experiment during initial shockless compression from 100 GPa before yielding. The relatively large thickness differences utilized for the dual samplemore » analyses (up to ~1.8 mm) combined with a relative timing accuracy of ~0.2 ns resulted in an uncertainty of less than 1% on density and stress at ~200 GPa peak loading on one experiment and <4% on peak loading at ~330 GPa for another. The stress-density analyses from these experiments compare favorably with recent equation of state models for LiF.« less

  20. Mechanical response of lithium fluoride under off-principal dynamic shock-ramp loading

    SciTech Connect

    Seagle, Christopher T.; Davis, Jean-Paul; Knudson, Marcus D.

    2016-10-26

    Single crystal lithium fluoride (LiF), oriented [100], was shock loaded and subsequently shocklessly compressed in two experiments at the Z Machine. We employed velocimetry measurements in order to obtain an impactor velocity, shock transit times, and in-situ particle velocities for LiF samples up to ~1.8 mm thick. We also performed a dual thickness Lagrangian analysis on the in-situ velocimetry data to obtain the mechanical response along the loading path of these experiments. Finally, we observed an elastic response on one experiment during initial shockless compression from 100 GPa before yielding. The relatively large thickness differences utilized for the dual sample analyses (up to ~1.8 mm) combined with a relative timing accuracy of ~0.2 ns resulted in an uncertainty of less than 1% on density and stress at ~200 GPa peak loading on one experiment and <4% on peak loading at ~330 GPa for another. The stress-density analyses from these experiments compare favorably with recent equation of state models for LiF.

  1. Calculating frequency at loads in simulations of electro-mechanical transients

    SciTech Connect

    Nutaro, James J; Protopopescu, Vladimir A

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a new method for calculating frequency at an electrical load in simulations of electro-mechanical transients. The method is designed for simulation studies that require accurate models of sensors such as phasor measurement units and F-Net devices, which measure frequency at locations away from generating plants. These sensors are poised to become critical components in the control systems of electrical power grids, and therefore simulation tools that incorporate accurate models of these devices are essential. The method proposed here corrects two drawbacks of using numerically computed phase angle derivatives to approximate frequency. First, it eliminates spurious spikes in frequencies calculated at loads. Second, it eliminates instabilities induced by the simulator in studies of frequency responsive loads. The proposed method is derived from a simplified model of the generators and loads in an electrical system, but in the final analysis does not depend critically on these simplifications and is therefore applicable to more sophisticated models. The method is demonstrated with the simplified model applied to the IEEE 14 and 300 bus systems.

  2. Mechanisms involved in regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by mechanical stress-loaded osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneuji, Takeshi; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Toshinaga, Akihiro; Takahashi, Tetsu; Nishihara, Tatsuji

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Effect of compressive force on osteoblasts were examined. {yields} Compressive force induced OPG expression and suppressed osteoclastogenesis. {yields} This enhancement of OPG is dependent on Wnt/Ca2+ signal pathway. -- Abstract: Mechanical stress is known to be important for regulation of bone turnover, though the detailed mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of mechanical stress on osteoblasts using a novel compression model. Mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were embedded in three-dimensional (3D) gels and cultured with continuous compressive force (0-10.0 g/cm{sup 2}) for 48 h, and the conditioned medium were collected. RAW264.7 cells were then incubated with the conditioned medium for various times in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL). Conditioned medium was found to inhibit the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts induced by RANKL via down-regulation of the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), phosphorylation of I{kappa}B{alpha}, and nuclear translocation of p50 and p65. Interestingly, the conditioned medium also had a high level of binding activity to RANKL and blocked the binding of RANK to RANKL. Furthermore, the binding activity of conditioned medium to RANKL was reduced when the 3D gel was supplemented with KN-93, an inhibitor of non-canonical Wnt/Ca{sup 2+} pathway. In addition, expression level of osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA was increased in time- and force-dependent manners, and remarkably suppressed by KN-93. These results indicate that osteoblastic cells subjected to mechanical stress produce OPG, which binds to RANKL. Furthermore, this binding activity strongly inhibited osteoclastogenesis through suppression of TRAF6 and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) signaling pathway, suggesting that enhancement of OPG expression induced by mechanical stress is dependent on non-canonical Wnt

  3. Mechanical Behavior of Tissue Simulants and Soft Tissues Under Extreme Loading Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalcioglu, Zeynep Ilke

    Recent developments in computer-integrated surgery and in tissue-engineered constructs necessitate advances in experimental and analytical techniques in characterizing properties of mechanically compliant materials such as gels and soft tissues, particularly for small sample volumes. One goal of such developments is to quantitatively predict and mimic tissue deformation due to high rate impact events typical of industrial accidents and ballistic insults. This aim requires advances in mechanical characterization to establish tools and design principles for tissue simulant materials that can recapitulate the mechanical responses of hydrated soft tissues under dynamic contact-loading conditions. Given this motivation, this thesis studies the mechanical properties of compliant synthetic materials developed for tissue scaffold applications and of soft tissues, via modifying an established contact based technique for accurate, small scale characterization under fully hydrated conditions, and addresses some of the challenges in the implementation of this method. Two different engineered material systems composed of physically associating block copolymer gels, and chemically crosslinked networks including a solvent are presented as potential tissue simulants for ballistic applications, and compared directly to soft tissues from murine heart and liver. In addition to conventional quasistatic and dynamic bulk mechanical techniques that study macroscale elastic and viscoelastic properties, new methodologies are developed to study the small scale mechanical response of the aforementioned material systems to concentrated impact loading. The resistance to penetration and the energy dissipative constants are quantified in order to compare the deformation of soft tissues and mechanically optimized simulants, and to identify the underlying mechanisms by which the mechanical response of these tissue simulant candidates are modulated. Finally, given that soft tissues are biphasic in

  4. Simulation of ionomer membrane fatigue under mechanical and hygrothermal loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorasany, Ramin M. H.; Kjeang, Erik; Wang, G. G.; Rajapakse, R. K. N. D.

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the fatigue lifetime of common perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) ionomer membranes under fluctuating hygrothermal conditions is essential for the development of durable fuel cell technologies. For this purpose, a finite element based fatigue lifetime prediction model is developed based on an elastic-plastic constitutive model combined with a Smith-Watson-Topper (SWT) fatigue formulation. The model is validated against previously reported experimental results for a membrane under cyclic mechanical loadings. The validated model is then utilized to investigate the membrane fatigue lifetime in ex-situ applications under cyclic humidity and temperature conditions. The simulations suggest that the membrane fatigue lifetime is shorter under fluctuating humidity loadings than for temperature loadings. Additionally, the membrane fatigue lifetime is found to be more sensitive to the amplitude of the strain oscillations than to the mean strain under hygrothermal cycling. Most notably, the model predicts that simultaneous humidity and temperature cycling can exacerbate the fatigue process and reduce the fatigue lifetime by several orders of magnitude compared to isolated humidity or temperature cycling. The combination of measured mechanical fatigue data and the present numerical model provides a useful toolkit for analysis of membrane fatigue due to hygrothermal variations, which can be costly and time-consuming when addressed experimentally.

  5. Dynamic mechanical response of magnesium single crystal under compression loading: Experiments, model, and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qizhen

    2011-05-01

    Magnesium single crystal samples are compressed at room temperature under quasistatic (˜0.001 s-1) loading in a universal testing machine and dynamic (430, 1000, and 1200 s-1) loading in a split Hopkinson pressure bar system. Stress-strain curves show that (a) the fracture strain slightly increases with the strain rate; and (b) the maximum strength and strain hardening rate increase significantly when the testing changes from quasistatic to dynamic, although they do not vary much when the strain rate for dynamic testing varies in the range of 430-1200 s-1. The operation of the secondary pyramidal slip system is the dominating deformation mechanism, which leads to a fracture surface with an angle of ˜42° with respect to the loading axial direction. A theoretical material model based on Johnson-Cook law is also derived. The model includes the strain hardening and strain rate hardening terms, and provides the stress-strain relations matching with the experimental results. Finite element simulations for the strain rates used in the experiments predict the mechanical responses of the material that agree well with the experimental data.

  6. Axially compressed buckling of an embedded boron nitride nanotube subjected to thermo-electro-mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehi-Khojin, Amin; Jalili, Nader

    2007-04-01

    Unlike widely-used carbon nanotubes, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) have shown to possess stable semiconducting behavior and strong piezoelectricity. Such properties along with their outstanding mechanical properties and thermal conductivity, make BNNTs promising candidate reinforcement materials for a verity of applications especially nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices. Motivated by these abilities, we aim to study the buckling behavior of BNNT-reinforced piezoelectric polymeric composites when subjected to combined electro-thermo-mechanical loadings. For this, the multi-walled structure of BNNT is considered as elastic media and a set of concentric cylindrical shell with van der Waals interaction between them. Using three-dimensional equilibrium equations, Donnell shell theory is utilized to show that the axially compressive resistance of BNNT varies with applying thermal and electrical loads. The effect of BNNT piezoelectric property on the buckling behavior of the composites is demonstrated. More specifically, it is shown that applying direct and reverse voltages to BNNT changes the buckling loads for any axial and circumferential wavenumbers. Such capability could be uniquely utilized when designing BNNT-reinforced composites.

  7. The aging of Wolff's "law": ontogeny and responses to mechanical loading in cortical bone.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Osbjorn M; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2004-01-01

    The premise that bones grow and remodel throughout life to adapt to their mechanical environment is often called Wolff's law. Wolff's law, however, is not always true, and in fact comprises a variety of different processes that are best considered separately. Here we review the molecular and physiological mechanisms by which bone senses, transduces, and responds to mechanical loads, and the effects of aging processes on the relationship (if any) between cortical bone form and mechanical function. Experimental and comparative evidence suggests that cortical bone is primarily responsive to strain prior to sexual maturity, both in terms of the rate of new bone growth (modeling) as well as rates of turnover (Haversian remodeling). Rates of modeling and Haversian remodeling, however, vary greatly at different skeletal sites. In addition, there is no simple relationship between the orientation of loads in long bone diaphyses and their cross-sectional geometry. In combination, these data caution against assuming without testing adaptationist views about form-function relationships in order to infer adult activity patterns from skeletal features such as cross-sectional geometry, cortical bones density, and musculo-skeletal stress markers. Efforts to infer function from shape in the human skeleton should be based on biomechanical and developmental models that are experimentally tested and validated.

  8. Mechanical loading regulates human MSC differentiation in a multi-layer hydrogel for osteochondral tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Neven J; Aisenbrey, Elizabeth A; Westbrook, Kristofer K; Qi, H Jerry; Bryant, Stephanie J

    2015-07-01

    A bioinspired multi-layer hydrogel was developed for the encapsulation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a platform for osteochondral tissue engineering. The spatial presentation of biochemical cues, via incorporation of extracellular matrix analogs, and mechanical cues, via both hydrogel crosslink density and externally applied mechanical loads, were characterized in each layer. A simple sequential photopolymerization method was employed to form stable poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogels with a soft cartilage-like layer of chondroitin sulfate and low RGD concentrations, a stiff bone-like layer with high RGD concentrations, and an intermediate interfacial layer. Under a compressive load, the variation in hydrogel stiffness within each layer produced high strains in the soft cartilage-like layer, low strains in the stiff bone-like layer, and moderate strains in the interfacial layer. When hMSC-laden hydrogels were cultured statically in osteochondral differentiation media, the local biochemical and matrix stiffness cues were not sufficient to spatially guide hMSC differentiation after 21 days. However dynamic mechanical stimulation led to differentially high expression of collagens with collagen II in the cartilage-like layer, collagen X in the interfacial layer and collagen I in the bone-like layer and mineral deposits localized to the bone layer. Overall, these findings point to external mechanical stimulation as a potent regulator of hMSC differentiation toward osteochondral cellular phenotypes.

  9. Load redistribution rules for progressive failure in shallow landslides: Threshold mechanical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Linfeng; Lehmann, Peter; Or, Dani

    2017-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are often preceded by progressive failures that culminate in abrupt mass release. Local failure progression is captured by a landslide hydro-mechanical triggering model that represents the soil mantle as interacting columns linked by tensile and compressive mechanical "bonds." Mechanical bonds may fail at a prescribed threshold leaving a modeling challenge of how to redistribute their load to neighboring intact soil columns. We employed an elastic spring-block model to analytically derive redistribution rules defined by the stiffness ratio of compressive to tensile bonds. These linear-elastic rules were generalized to real soil using measurable Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio. Results indicate that "local" failure characteristics of ductile-like soils (e.g., clay) are reproduced by low stiffness ratios, whereas "global" failure of brittle sandy soils corresponds to large stiffness ratios. Systematic analyses yield guidelines for selecting load redistribution rules for failure of geological materials and mass-movement phenomena represented by discrete threshold-mechanics.

  10. The Effect of Asymmetric Mechanical and Thermal Loading on Membrane Wrinkling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blandino, Joseph R.; Johnston, John D.; Miles, Jonathan J.; Dharamsi, Urmil K.; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Large, tensioned membranes are being considered for future gossamer spacecraft systems. Examples include sunshields, solar sails, and membrane optics. In many. cases a relatively flat membrane with minimal wrinkling is desired. Developing methods to predict and measure membrane wrinkling is important to the future development of gossamer spacecraft. Numerical and experimental data are presented for a 0.5 m square, tensioned membrane. The membrane is subjected to symmetric and asymmetric mechanical loading. Data are also presented for a symmetrically loaded membrane subjected to spot heating in the center. The numerical model shows good agreement with the experiment for wrinkle angle data. There is. also reasonable agreement for the wrinkled area for both isothermal and elevated temperature tests.

  11. An experimental study of the mechanism of failure of rocks under borehole jack loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van, T. K.; Goodman, R. E.

    1971-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests with an experimental jack and an NX-borehole jack are reported. The following conclusions were made: Under borehole jack loading, a circular opening in a brittle solid fails by tensile fracturing when the bearing plate width is not too small. Two proposed contact stress distributions can explain the mechanism of tensile fracturing. The contact stress distribution factor is a material property which can be determined experimentally. The borehole tensile strength is larger than the rupture flexural strength. Knowing the magnitude and orientation of the in situ stress field, borehole jack test results can be used to determine the borehole tensile strength. Knowing the orientation of the in situ stress field and the flexural strength of the rock substance, the magnitude of the in situ stress components can be calculated. The detection of very small cracks is essential for the accurate determination of the failure loads which are used in the calculation of strengths and stress components.

  12. Mechanical response of a fibre reinforced earthen material under static and impact loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aymerich, Francesco; Fenu, Luigi; Francesconi, Luca; Meloni, Paola

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the improvements provided by the insertion of hemp fibres with different weight fractions and lengths in an earthen material. The structural response of the materials was investigated by means of static and impact bending tests carried out on notched samples. The main focus of the analyses was in the characterization of the structural properties of the materials in terms of fracture resistance, post-cracking performance and energy absorption capability. The results of the study show that hemp fibres improve significantly the mechanical and fracture properties of the earthen material under both static and dynamic bending. It was also found that the structural properties of unreinforced and reinforced earthen materials are highly sensitive to the stress-rate, with higher strength and fracture resistance under impact loading than under static loading.

  13. Cortical bone development under the growth plate is regulated by mechanical load transfer.

    PubMed

    Tanck, E; Hannink, G; Ruimerman, R; Buma, P; Burger, E H; Huiskes, R

    2006-01-01

    Longitudinal growth of long bones takes place at the growth plates. The growth plate produces new bone trabeculae, which are later resorbed or merged into the cortical shell. This process implies transition of trabecular metaphyseal sections into diaphyseal sections. We hypothesize that the development of cortical bone is governed by mechanical stimuli. We also hypothesize that trabecular and cortical bone share the same regulatory mechanisms for adaptation to mechanical loads. To test these hypotheses, we monitored the development of the tibial cortex in growing pigs, using micro-computer tomography and histology. We then tested the concept that regulatory mechanisms for trabecular bone adaptation can also explain cortical bone development using our mechanical stimulation theory, which could explain trabecular bone (re)modelling. The main results showed that, from the growth plate towards the diaphysis, the pores of the trabecular structure were gradually filled in with bone, which resulted in increased density and cortical bone. The computer model largely predicted this morphological development. We conclude that merging of metaphyseal trabeculae into cortex is likely to be governed by mechanical stimuli. Furthermore, cortex development of growing long bones can be explained as a form of trabecular bone adaptation, without the need for different regulatory mechanisms for cortical and trabecular bone.

  14. Modeling microstructure evolution of binary systems subjected to irradiation and mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Shchokotova, Olga M.; Lysenko, Irina O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.

    2015-07-01

    We study a change in mechanical properties of binary systems subjected to irradiation influence described by ballistic flux of atomic mixing having regular and stochastic contributions. By using numerical modeling based on the phase field approach we study dynamics of deformation fields in a previously irradiated system and in the binary system deformed during irradiation. An influence of both deterministic and stochastic components of ballistic flux onto both yield strength and ultimate strength is studied. We have found that degradation of mechanical properties relates to the formation of percolating clusters of shear bands. Considering a hardening coefficient we analyze stages of plastic deformation of both initially irradiated alloy and alloy subjected to sustained irradiation. Stability of binary alloy under mechanical loading in the form of shear strain with a constant rate and cyclic deformation is discussed.

  15. Subcritical crack-growth behavior of borosilicate glass under cyclic loads: Evidence of a mechanical fatigue effect

    SciTech Connect

    Dill, S.J.; Dauskardt, R.H.; Bennison, S.J.

    1997-03-01

    Amorphous glasses are generally considered immune to mechanical fatigue effects associated with cyclic loading. In this study surprising new evidence is presented for a mechanical fatigue effect in borosilicate glass, in both moist air and dry nitrogen environments. The fatigue effect occurs at near threshold subcritical crack-growth rates (da/dt < 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} m/s) as the crack extension per cycle approaches the dimensions of the borosilicate glass network. While subcritical crack growth under cyclic loads at higher load levels is entirely consistent with environmentally assisted crack growth, lower growth rates actually exceed those measured under monotonic loads. This suggests a mechanical fatigue effect which accelerates subcritical crack-growth rates. Likely mechanisms for the mechanical fatigue effect are presented.

  16. The effect of mechanical properties of iron oxide nanoparticle-loaded functional nano-carrier on tumor targeting and imaging.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Il; Kim, Ja-Young; Heo, Seon U; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kim, Young Ha; Tae, Giyoong

    2012-09-10

    To achieve a sufficient targeting efficiency and prolonged half-life in-vivo, the physicochemical parameters including size and surface chemistry of therapeutic and imaging agents should be controlled. In this study, we prepared an iron oxide nanoparticle (IONP)-loaded, functional nano-carrier with different loading contents to modulate the mechanical properties of the system, and compared the characteristics of tumor targeting and imaging in terms of loading contents of IONP. As a functional nano-carrier, chitosan-conjugated, Pluronic-based nano-carrier with useful properties such as long blood circulation, good tumor targeting, and easy loading of macromolecules was used. IONPs were efficiently encapsulated into the nano-carrier (high loading efficiency over 95%) and the mechanical properties of the IONP-loaded nano-carrier were controlled by varying the loading amount of IONP. The IONP-loaded nano-carrier with the higher loading content of IONP (40 wt.%) was significantly more rigid (over 2×) than those with lower loading contents of IONP (5 and 15 wt.%). Although the nano-carrier with the higher loading content of IONP showed more enhanced MR contrast effect with higher T(2) relaxivity and higher intracellular uptake in vitro, characteristics of in-vivo tumor targeting and MR cancer imaging were not good compared to that of the nano-carrrier with the lower loading contents of IONP. Since different loading contents did not affect other characteristics of the system (size, surface chemistry, and surface charge), the present result suggests that the mechanical properties (strength/flexibility) of nano-systems are also important factors to be controlled for targeted delivery and imaging.

  17. Using the Enhanced Daily Load Stimulus Model to Quantify the Mechanical Load and Bone Mineral Density Changes Experienced by Crew Members on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genc, K. O.; Gopalakrishnan, R.; Kuklis, M. M.; Maender, C. C.; Rice, A. J.; Cavanagh, P. R.

    2009-01-01

    Despite the use of exercise countermeasures during long-duration space missions, bone mineral density (BMD) and predicted bone strength of astronauts continue to show decreases in the lower extremities and spine. This site-specific bone adaptation is most likely caused by the effects of microgravity on the mechanical loading environment of the crew member. There is, therefore, a need to quantify the mechanical loading experienced on Earth and on-orbit to define the effect of a given "dose" of loading on bone homeostasis. Gene et al. recently proposed an enhanced DLS (EDLS) model that, when used with entire days of in-shoe forces, takes into account recently developed theories on the importance of factors such as saturation, recovery, and standing and their effects on the osteogenic response of bone to daily physical activity. This algorithm can also quantify the tinting and type of activity (sit/unload, stand, walk, run or other loaded activity) performed throughout the day. The purpose of the current study was to use in-shoe force measurements from entire typical work days on Earth and on-orbit in order to quantify the type and amount of loading experienced by crew members. The specific aim was to use these measurements as inputs into the EDLS model to determine activity timing/type and the mechanical "dose" imparted on the musculoskeletal system of crew members and relate this dose to changes in bone homeostasis.

  18. Mechanical durability of polymeric coatings studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy: correlation between cyclic loading and free volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Peng, Q.; Huang, Y. Y.; Zhang, R.; Mallon, P. E.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Wu, Y.; Richardson, J. R.; Sandreczki, T. C.; Jean, Y. C.; Suzuki, R.; Ohdaira, T.

    2002-06-01

    The mechanical durability of seven commercially polymeric coatings is investigated using slow positron beam techniques to monitor changes in sub-nanometer defects during the process of cyclic loading. Doppler broadened energy spectra and positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) measurements were performed as a function of the slow positron energy at different periods of cycling loading. The positron annihilation dada show that both S-defect parameter and o-positronium (Ps) lifetime decrease as the loading cycle increases. The results indicate a loss of free volumes due to the loss of mechanical durability by cyclic loading. A direct correlation between the loss of S-defect parameter and the period of loading cycle is observed. This is interpreted as that durability of polymeric coatings is controlled by the atomic level free volumes. It is shown that the slow positron beam is a very successful probe in detecting the very early stages of coating degradation due to mechanical processes.

  19. Mechanical scale and load cell underwater weighing: a comparison of simultaneous measurements and the reliability of methods.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jordan R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Walter, Ashley A; Smith, Abbie E; Stock, Matt S; Herda, Trent J; Sherk, Vanessa D; Young, Kaelin C; Lockwood, Christopher M; Kendall, Kristina L; Fukuda, David H; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Beck, Travis W; Esposito, Enrico N

    2011-03-01

    Both load cell and mechanical scale-based hydrostatic weighing (HW) systems are used for the measurement of underwater weight. However, there has been no direct comparison of the 2 methods. The purpose of the current investigation was to simultaneously compare a load cell and mechanical scale for use in HW. Twenty-seven men and women (mean ± SD, age: 22 ± 2 years) participated in the 2-day investigation. Each subject completed 2 HW assessments 24 hours apart. Single-day comparisons of all trials for both days revealed no significant difference between the mechanical scale and the load cell (mean difference < 0.016 kg, p > 0.05). True underwater weight values were not significantly different between methods for either days (mean difference < 0.014 kg, p > 0.05) and accounted for a mean difference in percent fat (%FAT) of <0.108%. The 95% limits of agreement indicated a maximum difference between methods of 0.53% FAT. Both methods produced similar reliability SEM values (mechanical SEM < 0.72%FAT, load cell SEM < 0.75%FAT). In conclusion, there was no difference between mechanical scale and load cell measurements of underwater weights and the added precision of the load cell only marginally (<0.16%FAT) improved day-to-day reliability. Either a mechanical scale or load cell can be used for HW with similar accuracy and reliability in young adults with a body mass index of 18.7-34.4 (5-25%FAT).

  20. Damage mechanisms and failure modes of cortical bone under components of physiological loading.

    PubMed

    George, W T; Vashishth, D

    2005-09-01

    Fatigue damage development in cortical bone was investigated in vitro under different mechanical components of physiological loading including tension, compression, and torsion. During each test, stress and strain data were collected continuously to monitor and statistically determine the occurrence of the primary, secondary, and tertiary stages associated with fatigue and/or creep failure of bone. The resultant microdamage and failure modes were identified by histological and fractographic analysis, respectively. The tensile group demonstrated Mode I cracking and the three classic stages of fatigue and creep suggesting a low crack initiation threshold, steady crack propagation and final failure by coalescence of microcracks. In contrast, the compressive group displayed Mode II cracking and a two-stage fatigue behavior with limited creep suggesting a high crack initiation threshold followed by a sudden fracture. The torsion group also displayed a two-stage fatigue profile but demonstrated extensive damage from mixed mode (Modes II and III) microcracking and predominant time-dependent damage. Thus, fatigue behavior of bone was found to be uniquely related to the individual mechanical components of physiological loading and the latter determined the specific damage mechanisms associated with fatigue fracture.

  1. Resistance Against the Intrinsic Rate of Fracture Mechanics Parameters for Polymeric Materials Under Moderate Impact Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lach, R.; Seidler, S.; Grellmann, W.

    2005-09-01

    This study contributes towards understanding crack toughness as resistance against the intrinsic rate of fracture mechanics parameters. Up to now only few investigations have been done under moderate impact loading conditions. Based on experimental investigations using the crack resistance (R) concept, it has been shown that the stop block method combined with the multiple-specimen technique is a unique method for polymers under impact loading conditions in comparison with different R-curve methods. Other methods for the determination of R curve such as the low-blow technique are normally not applicable for polymers due to their time-dependent mechanical properties. The crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) rate is a measurement of the rate sensibility of stable fracture process depending on the type of deformation, which can provide deep insights into the micromechanics and activation mechanisms during the fracture processes. In the polymeric materials mostly investigated, one can understand the stable crack propagation with three-stage processes; crack-tip blunting/crack initiation, non-stationary stable crack growth and steady-state stable crack growth (an equilibrium state). In this stable crack propagation, the values of normalized CTOD rate converge rapidly to a ‘matrix’-specific threshold. The stop block method in the multiple-specimen technique assures the criteria of the time-independent strain field around the crack tip and constant crack speed therewith and the J-integral is a valid toughness parameter.

  2. The Effects of Explosive Loading and Neutron Irradiation on Mechanical Properties of Titanium and Copper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chikhradze, Nikoloz

    2016-10-01

    It is known that properties of materials sufficiently depend on their initial defect structure. One of the methods of mechanical treatment of materials is explosive working (strengthening, welding and etc.). High strain rate deformation of materials under explosive loading caused significant changes of defect structure of crystals and as a result appropriate variations of their physical and mechanical properties. Radiation effects in crystals with nonequilibrium defect structure represents great interest for scientific as well as from applied points of view. The paper describes the results of experimental investigations of strengthening processes of titanium (purity-99.5%) and copper (purity 99.98%) using axial-symmetric explosive loading. Shock loading of materials was carried out by axis-symmetric cylindrical scheme. For shock wave generation the industrial explosive substances ANFO, Ammonite and Hexogen were used. The experiments show that the intensive shift deformations caused by the explosive pressure of intensity 10-20 GPa increase the strength and flow limits approximately 2.0-2.5 times above-mentioned materials. The samples strengthened by shock waves were subjected to the neutron irradiation. Results of the interaction of structural defects induced by shock waves followed by fast neutron irradiation (exposure of irradiation 8 x 1021 m-2; E=0.5 MeV) and its influence on strength characteristics are discusses. Samples for mechanical testing as well as for investigation of thermal stability of explosive strengthening in combination with shock and neutron action, were annealed in vacuum furnace (10-6 torr). The temperature during annealing of samples was controlled by the thermo-regulator. Accuracy of temperature fluctuation during the sample annealing for mechanical testing was ± 30C. It is shown that: a) shock loading of titanium and copper significantly increases strength characteristics with a simultaneous decrease (up to total disappearance) of

  3. Deformation mechanisms of carbon nanotube fibres under tensile loading by in situ Raman spectroscopy analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiu; Kang, Yi-Lan; Qiu, Wei; Li, Ya-Li; Huang, Gan-Yun; Guo, Jian-Gang; Deng, Wei-Lin; Zhong, Xiao-Hua

    2011-06-03

    Deformation mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT) fibres under tensile loading are studied by means of in situ Raman spectroscopy to detect the CNT deformation and stress distributions in the fibres. The G' band in the Raman spectrum responds distinctly to the tensile stress in Raman shift, width and intensity. The G' band changes with the tensile deformation of the fibre at different stages, namely elastic deformation, strengthening and damage-fracture. It is deduced that the individual CNTs only deform elastically without obvious damage or bond breaking. The yield and fracture of fibres can be due to the slippage among the CNTs.

  4. Fracture Mechanics Analyses of Subsurface Defects in Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Joggles Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Raju, Ivatury S.; Song, Kyongchan

    2011-01-01

    Coating spallation events have been observed along the slip-side joggle region of the Space Shuttle Orbiter wing-leading-edge panels. One potential contributor to the spallation event is a pressure build up within subsurface voids or defects due to volatiles or water vapor entrapped during fabrication, refurbishment, or normal operational use. The influence of entrapped pressure on the thermo-mechanical fracture-mechanics response of reinforced carbon-carbon with subsurface defects is studied. Plane-strain simulations with embedded subsurface defects are performed to characterize the fracture mechanics response for a given defect length when subjected to combined elevated-temperature and subsurface-defect pressure loadings to simulate the unvented defect condition. Various subsurface defect locations of a fixed-length substrate defect are examined for elevated temperature conditions. Fracture mechanics results suggest that entrapped pressure combined with local elevated temperatures have the potential to cause subsurface defect growth and possibly contribute to further material separation or even spallation. For this anomaly to occur, several unusual circumstances would be required making such an outcome unlikely but plausible.

  5. Computational Simulation of Damage Progression of Composite Thin Shells Subjected to Mechanical Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotsis, P. K.; Chamis, C. C.; Minnetyan, L.

    1996-01-01

    Defect-free and defected composite thin shells with ply orientation (90/0/+/-75) made of graphite/epoxy are simulated for damage progression and fracture due to internal pressure and axial loading. The thin shells have a cylindrical geometry with one end fixed and the other free. The applied load consists of an internal pressure in conjunction with an axial load at the free end, the cure temperature was 177 C (350 F) and the operational temperature was 21 C (70 F). The residual stresses due to the processing are taken into account. Shells with defect and without defects were examined by using CODSTRAN an integrated computer code that couples composite mechanics, finite element and account for all possible failure modes inherent in composites. CODSTRAN traces damage initiation, growth, accumulation, damage propagation and the final fracture of the structure. The results show that damage initiation started with matrix failure while damage/fracture progression occurred due to additional matrix failure and fiber fracture. The burst pressure of the (90/0/+/- 75) defected shell was 0.092% of that of the free defect. Finally the results of the damage progression of the (90/0/+/- 75), defective composite shell was compared with the (90/0/+/- theta, where theta = 45 and 60, layup configurations. It was shown that the examined laminate (90/0/+/- 75) has the least damage tolerant of the two compared defective shells with the (90/0/+/- theta), theta = 45 and 60 laminates.

  6. Direct Observation of Folding Energy Landscape of RNA Hairpin at Mechanical Loading Rates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huizhong; Plaut, Benjamin; Zhu, Xiran; Chen, Maverick; Mavinkurve, Udit; Maiti, Anindita; Song, Guangtao; Murari, Krishna; Mandal, Maumita

    2017-03-16

    By applying a controlled mechanical load using optical tweezers, we measured the diffusive barrier crossing in a 49 nt long P5ab RNA hairpin. We find that in the free-energy landscape the barrier height (G(‡)) and transition distance (x(‡)) are dependent on the loading rate (r) along the pulling direction, x, as predicted by Bell. The barrier shifted toward the initial state, whereas ΔG(‡) reduced significantly from 50 to 5 kT, as r increased from 0 to 32 pN/s. However, the equilibrium work (ΔG) during strand separation, as estimated by Crook's fluctuation theorem, remained unchanged at different rates. Previously, helix formation and denaturation have been described as two-state (F ↔ U) transitions for P5ab. Herein, we report three intermediate states I1, I, and I2 located at 4, 11, and 16 nm respectively, from the folded conformation. The intermediates were observed only when the hairpin was subjected to an optimal r, 7.6 pN/s. The results indicate that the complementary strands in P5ab can zip and unzip through complex routes, whereby mismatches act as checkpoints and often impose barriers. The study highlights the significance of loading rates in force-spectroscopy experiments that are increasingly being used to measure the folding properties of biomolecules.

  7. Small scale mechanical characterization of thin foil materials via pin load microtesting

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, Robert; Pandey, Amit; Shyam, Amit; Tan, Ting; Lara-Curzio, Edgar

    2015-05-06

    In situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) experiments, where small-scale mechanical tests are conducted on micro- and nanosized specimens, allow direct visualization of elastic and plastic responses over the entirety of the volume being deformed. This enables precise spatial and temporal correlation of slip events contributing to the plastic flow evidenced in a stress–strain curve. A new pin-loading methodology has been employed, in situ within the SEM, to conduct microtensile tests on thin polycrystalline metal foils. This approach can be tailored to a specific foil whose particular grain size may range from microns to tens of microns. Manufacture of the specialized pin grip was accomplished via silicon photolithography-based processing followed by subsequent focused ion beam finishing. Microtensile specimen preparation was achieved by combining a stencil mask methodology employing broad ion beam sputtering along with focused ion beam milling in the study of several metallic foil materials. Finite-element analyses were performed to characterize the stress and strain distributions in the pin grip and micro-specimen under load. Furthermore, under appropriately conceived test conditions, uniaxial stress–strain responses measured within these foils by pin-load microtensile testing exhibit properties consistent with larger scale tests.

  8. Small scale mechanical characterization of thin foil materials via pin load microtesting

    DOE PAGES

    Wheeler, Robert; Pandey, Amit; Shyam, Amit; ...

    2015-05-06

    In situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) experiments, where small-scale mechanical tests are conducted on micro- and nanosized specimens, allow direct visualization of elastic and plastic responses over the entirety of the volume being deformed. This enables precise spatial and temporal correlation of slip events contributing to the plastic flow evidenced in a stress–strain curve. A new pin-loading methodology has been employed, in situ within the SEM, to conduct microtensile tests on thin polycrystalline metal foils. This approach can be tailored to a specific foil whose particular grain size may range from microns to tens of microns. Manufacture of the specializedmore » pin grip was accomplished via silicon photolithography-based processing followed by subsequent focused ion beam finishing. Microtensile specimen preparation was achieved by combining a stencil mask methodology employing broad ion beam sputtering along with focused ion beam milling in the study of several metallic foil materials. Finite-element analyses were performed to characterize the stress and strain distributions in the pin grip and micro-specimen under load. Furthermore, under appropriately conceived test conditions, uniaxial stress–strain responses measured within these foils by pin-load microtensile testing exhibit properties consistent with larger scale tests.« less

  9. Mechanical stability analysis on spherical sandwich sheet at low temperature loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shanshuai; Li, Shuhui; Li, Zhimin

    2013-12-01

    The spherical sandwich sheet (S-S-S) is generally used in the aerospace industry, for example, the airplane, the rocket's fairing, the spacecraft and the satellite for the purpose of heat-insulation, weight-saving and dimension-reducing. The stability of the S-S-S is of general concern because of its particularly thin but large size. For some S-S-S used in fuel tank storing liquid oxygen of the rocket, it must be facing low temperature down to about -183 °C. Low temperature condition affects the stability of the S-S-S and then causes buckling of the structure. In this paper, a finite element (FE) model is established for evaluating the stability of the S-S-S via the sequential coupling mode. The material mechanical properties related to temperature are concerned in the FE model. The buckling modes and critical buckling loading are predicted accurately, since the FE model includes heat transfer simulating, thermal stress computing, buckling and post buckling process. It is found that the thermal stress generated from the low temperature loading reduces the critical buckling loading and changes the buckling modes of the S-S-S.

  10. On the failure load and mechanism of polycrystalline graphene by nanoindentation.

    PubMed

    Sha, Z D; Wan, Q; Pei, Q X; Quek, S S; Liu, Z S; Zhang, Y W; Shenoy, V B

    2014-12-11

    Nanoindentation has been recently used to measure the mechanical properties of polycrystalline graphene. However, the measured failure loads are found to be scattered widely and vary from lab to lab. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of nanoindentation on polycrystalline graphene at different sites including grain center, grain boundary (GB), GB triple junction, and holes. Depending on the relative position between the indenter tip and defects, significant scattering in failure load is observed. This scattering is found to arise from a combination of the non-uniform stress state, varied and weakened strengths of different defects, and the relative location between the indenter tip and the defects in polycrystalline graphene. Consequently, the failure behavior of polycrystalline graphene by nanoindentation is critically dependent on the indentation site, and is thus distinct from uniaxial tensile loading. Our work highlights the importance of the interaction between the indentation tip and defects, and the need to explicitly consider the defect characteristics at and near the indentation site in polycrystalline graphene during nanoindentation.

  11. Bone's responses to mechanical loading are impaired in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Ashutosh; Liu, Chao; Li, Wen; Gu, Xiaoyu; Lai, Xiaohan; Pei, Shaopeng; Price, Christopher; You, Lidan; Lu, X Lucas; Wang, Liyun

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes adversely impacts many organ systems including the skeleton. Clinical trials have revealed a startling elevation in fracture risk in diabetic patients. Bone fractures can be life threatening: nearly 1 in 6 hip fracture patients die within one year. Because physical exercise is proven to improve bone properties and reduce fracture risk in non-diabetic subjects, we tested its efficacy in type 1 diabetes. We hypothesized that diabetic bone's response to anabolic mechanical loading would be attenuated, partially due to impaired mechanosensing of osteocytes under hyperglycemia. Heterozygous C57BL/6-Ins2(Akita)/J (Akita) male and female diabetic mice and their age- and gender-matched wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J controls (7-month-old, N=5-7 mice/group) were subjected to unilateral axial ulnar loading with a peak strain of 3500 με at 2 Hz and 3 min/day for 5 days. The Akita female mice, which exhibited a relatively normal body weight and a mild 40% elevation of blood glucose level, responded with increased bone formation (+6.5% in Ct.B.Ar, and 4 to 36-fold increase in Ec.BFR/BS and Ps.BFR/BS), and the loading effects, in terms of changes of static and dynamic indices, did not differ between Akita and WT females (p ≥ 0.1). However, loading-induced anabolic effects were greatly diminished in Akita males, which exhibited reduced body weight, severe hyperglycemia (+230%), diminished bone formation (ΔCt.B.Ar: 0.003 vs. 0.030 mm(2), p=0.005), and suppressed periosteal bone appositions (ΔPs.BFR/BS, p=0.02). Hyperglycemia (25 mM glucose) was further found to impair the flow-induced intracellular calcium signaling in MLO-Y4 osteocytes, and significantly inhibited the flow-induced downstream responses including reduction in apoptosis and sRANKL secretion and PGE2 release. These results, along with previous findings showing adverse effects of hyperglycemia on osteoblasts and mesenchymal stem cells, suggest that failure to maintain normal glucose levels may impair bone

  12. Improved tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect): size and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bonuccelli, Sandra; Muscelli, Elza; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Barsotti, Elisabetta; Astiarraga, Brenno D; Holst, Jens J; Mari, Andrea; Ferrannini, Ele

    2009-08-01

    Improved glucose tolerance to sequential glucose loading (Staub-Traugott effect) is an important determinant of day-to-day glycemic exposure. Its mechanisms have not been clearly established. We recruited 17 healthy volunteers to receive two sequential oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs), at time 0 min and 180 min (Study I). The protocol was repeated on a separate day (Study II) except that plasma glucose was clamped at 8.3 mmol/l between 60 and 180 min. beta-Cell function was analyzed by mathematical modeling of C-peptide concentrations. In a subgroup, glucose kinetics were measured by a triple-tracer technique (infusion of [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose and labeling of the 2 glucose loads with [1-(2)H]glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose). In both Studies I and II, the plasma glucose response to the second OGTT equaled 84 +/- 2% (P = 0.003) of the response to the first OGTT. Absolute insulin secretion was lower (37.8 +/- 4.3 vs. 42.8 +/- 5.1 nmol/m(2), P = 0.02), but glucose potentiation (i.e., higher secretion at the same glycemia) was stronger (1.08 +/- 0.02- vs. 0.92 +/- 0.02-fold, P = 0.006), the increment being higher in Study II (+36 +/- 5%) than Study I (+19 +/- 6%, P < 0.05). In pooled data, a higher glucose area during the first OGTT was associated with a higher potentiation during the second OGTT (rho=0.60, P = 0.002). Neither insulin clearance nor glucose clearance differed between loads, and appearance of glucose over 3 h totalled 60 +/- 6 g for the first load and 52 +/- 5 g for the second load (P = not significant). Fasting endogenous glucose production [13.3 +/- 0.6 micromol x min(-1) x kg fat-free mass (FFM)(-1)] averaged 6.0 +/- 3.8 micromol x min(-1) x kg FFM(-1) between 0 and 180 min and 1.7 +/- 2.6 between 180 and 360 min (P < 0.03). Glucose potentiation and stronger suppression of endogenous glucose release are the main mechanisms underlying the Staub-Traugott effect.

  13. An anisotropic damage mechanics model for concrete with applications for fatigue loading and freeze-thaw effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reberg, Andrew Steven

    It is well known that the formation and propagation of microcracks within concrete is anisotropic in nature, and has a degrading effect on its mechanical performance. In this thesis an anisotropic damage mechanics model is formulated for concrete which can predict the behavior of the material subjected to monotonic loading, fatigue loading, and freeze-thaw cycles. The constitutive model is formulated using the general framework of the internal variable theory of thermodynamics. Kinetic relations are used to describe the directionality of damage accumulation and the associated softening of mechanical properties. The rate independent model is then extended to cover fatigue loading cycles and freeze-thaw cycles. Two simple softening functions are used to predict the mechanical properties of concrete as the number of cyclic loads as well as freeze-thaw cycles increases. The model is compared with experimental data for fatigue and freeze-thaw performance of plain concrete.

  14. A multiscale 3D finite element analysis of fluid/solute transport in mechanically loaded bone.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lixia; Pei, Shaopeng; Lucas Lu, X; Wang, Liyun

    2016-01-01

    The transport of fluid, nutrients, and signaling molecules in the bone lacunar-canalicular system (LCS) is critical for osteocyte survival and function. We have applied the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) approach to quantify load-induced fluid and solute transport in the LCS in situ, but the measurements were limited to cortical regions 30-50 μm underneath the periosteum due to the constrains of laser penetration. With this work, we aimed to expand our understanding of load-induced fluid and solute transport in both trabecular and cortical bone using a multiscaled image-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach. An intact murine tibia was first re-constructed from microCT images into a three-dimensional (3D) linear elastic FEA model, and the matrix deformations at various locations were calculated under axial loading. A segment of the above 3D model was then imported to the biphasic poroelasticity analysis platform (FEBio) to predict load-induced fluid pressure fields, and interstitial solute/fluid flows through LCS in both cortical and trabecular regions. Further, secondary flow effects such as the shear stress and/or drag force acting on osteocytes, the presumed mechano-sensors in bone, were derived using the previously developed ultrastructural model of Brinkman flow in the canaliculi. The material properties assumed in the FEA models were validated against previously obtained strain and FRAP transport data measured on the cortical cortex. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of this computational approach in estimating the fluid flux in the LCS and the cellular stimulation forces (shear and drag forces) for osteocytes in any cortical and trabecular bone locations, allowing further studies of how the activation of osteocytes correlates with in vivo functional bone formation. The study provides a promising platform to reveal potential cellular mechanisms underlying the anabolic power of exercises and physical activities in treating

  15. A multiscale 3D finite element analysis of fluid/solute transport in mechanically loaded bone

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lixia; Pei, Shaopeng; Lucas Lu, X; Wang, Liyun

    2016-01-01

    The transport of fluid, nutrients, and signaling molecules in the bone lacunar–canalicular system (LCS) is critical for osteocyte survival and function. We have applied the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) approach to quantify load-induced fluid and solute transport in the LCS in situ, but the measurements were limited to cortical regions 30–50 μm underneath the periosteum due to the constrains of laser penetration. With this work, we aimed to expand our understanding of load-induced fluid and solute transport in both trabecular and cortical bone using a multiscaled image-based finite element analysis (FEA) approach. An intact murine tibia was first re-constructed from microCT images into a three-dimensional (3D) linear elastic FEA model, and the matrix deformations at various locations were calculated under axial loading. A segment of the above 3D model was then imported to the biphasic poroelasticity analysis platform (FEBio) to predict load-induced fluid pressure fields, and interstitial solute/fluid flows through LCS in both cortical and trabecular regions. Further, secondary flow effects such as the shear stress and/or drag force acting on osteocytes, the presumed mechano-sensors in bone, were derived using the previously developed ultrastructural model of Brinkman flow in the canaliculi. The material properties assumed in the FEA models were validated against previously obtained strain and FRAP transport data measured on the cortical cortex. Our results demonstrated the feasibility of this computational approach in estimating the fluid flux in the LCS and the cellular stimulation forces (shear and drag forces) for osteocytes in any cortical and trabecular bone locations, allowing further studies of how the activation of osteocytes correlates with in vivo functional bone formation. The study provides a promising platform to reveal potential cellular mechanisms underlying the anabolic power of exercises and physical activities in

  16. Mechanical loading influences the viscoelastic performance of the resin-carious dentin complex.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel; López-López, Modesto T; Aguilera, Fátima S; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Estrella

    2017-04-04

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the mechanical behavior and bonding capability of Zn-doped resin-infiltrated caries-affected dentin interfaces. Dentin surfaces were treated with 37% phosphoric acid (PA) followed by application of a dentin adhesive, single bond (SB) (PA+SB) or by 0.5 M ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) followed by SB (EDTA+SB). ZnO microparticles of 10 wt. % or 2 wt. % ZnCl2 was added into SB, resulting in the following groups: PA+SB, PA+SB-ZnO, PA+SB-ZnCl2, EDTA+SB, EDTA+SB-ZnO, EDTA+SB-ZnCl2. Bonded interfaces were stored for 24 h, and tested or submitted to mechanical loading. Microtensile bond strength was assessed. Debonded surfaces were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. The hybrid layer, bottom of the hybrid layer, and peritubular and intertubular dentin were evaluated using a nanoindenter. The load/displacement responses were used for the nanodynamic mechanical analysis III to estimate complex modulus, tan delta, loss modulus, and storage modulus. The modulus mapping was obtained by imposing a quasistatic force setpoint to which a sinusoidal force was superimposed. Atomic force microscopy imaging was performed. Load cycling decreased the tan delta at the PA+SB-ZnCl2 and EDTA+SB-ZnO interfaces. Tan delta was also diminished at peritubular dentin when PA+SB-ZnO was used, hindering the dissipation of energy throughout these structures. Tan delta increased at the interface after using EDTA+SB-ZnCl2, lowering the energy for recoil or failure. After load cycling, loss moduli at the interface decreased when using ZnCl2 as doping agent, increasing the risk of fracture; but when using ZnO, loss moduli was dissimilarly affected if dentin was EDTA-treated. The border between intertubular and peritubular dentin attained the highest discrepancy in values of viscoelastic properties, meaning a risk for cracking and breakdown of the resin-dentin interface. PA used on dentin provoked

  17. X-ray tomography system to investigate granular materials during mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Athanassiadis, Athanasios G.; La Rivière, Patrick J.; Sidky, Emil; Pan, Xiaochuan; Pelizzari, Charles; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2014-08-15

    We integrate a small and portable medical x-ray device with mechanical testing equipment to enable in situ, non-invasive measurements of a granular material's response to mechanical loading. We employ an orthopedic C-arm as the x-ray source and detector to image samples mounted in the materials tester. We discuss the design of a custom rotation stage, which allows for sample rotation and tomographic reconstruction under applied compressive stress. We then discuss the calibration of the system for 3D computed tomography, as well as the subsequent image reconstruction process. Using this system to reconstruct packings of 3D-printed particles, we resolve packing features with 0.52 mm resolution in a (60 mm){sup 3} field of view. By analyzing the performance bounds of the system, we demonstrate that the reconstructions exhibit only moderate noise.

  18. Poly(glycerol sebacate) elastomer: a novel material for mechanically loaded bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zaky, Samer Helal; Lee, Kee-Won; Gao, Jin; Jensen, Adrianna; Close, John; Wang, Yadong; Almarza, Alejandro J; Sfeir, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The selection criteria for potential bone engineering scaffolds are based chiefly on their relative mechanical comparability to mature bone. In this study, we challenge this notion by obtaining full regeneration of a rabbit ulna critical size defect by employing the elastomeric polymer, poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS). We tested the regeneration facilitated by PGS alone, PGS in combination with hydroxyapatite particles, or PGS seeded with bone marrow stromal cells. We investigated the quantity and quality of the regenerated bone histologically, by microcomputed tomography and by four-point bending flexural mechanical testing at 8 weeks postimplantation. We conclude that the relatively lower stiffness of this biocompatible elastomer allows a load-transducing milieu in which osteogenesis, matrix deposition, and eventual bone maturation can take place. This study's results suggest that PGS elastomer is an auspicious osteoconductive material for the regeneration of bony defects. These results call for an innovative reassessment of the current art of selection for novel bone scaffold materials.

  19. Modelling of powder consolidation using electro heating assisted by mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knyazeva, A.; Sorokova, S.

    2017-01-01

    The model of the process of reactive sintering assisted by mechanical loading is suggested. The conjugate heat exchange of powder mixture is taken into account. The powder mixture motion is described as viscous liquid with effective viscosity. Mechanical sub problem is one dimensional because friction near the wall is assumed negligible small. Conjugate thermal conductivity problem includes thermal conduction equations for various materials (reactive mixture and walls of the camber. Heat release is possible due to external electrical heating, viscous dissipation and chemical reactions. Kinetical equations correspond to detailed reaction scheme. The problem is solved numerically with special algorithm. As a result the composition of the mixture is obtained for different time moments. The final composition is not uniform.

  20. Size and Geometry Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Carrara Marble Under Dynamic Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Chunjiang; Wong, Louis Ngai Yuen

    2016-05-01

    The effects of specimen size and geometry on the dynamic mechanical properties of Carrara marble including compressive strength, failure strain and elastic modulus are investigated in this research. Four different groups of specimens of different sizes and cross-sectional geometries are loaded under a wide range of strain rates by the split Hopkinson pressure bar setup. The experimental results indicate that all these mechanical properties are significantly influenced by the specimen size and geometry to different extent, hence highlighting the importance of taking into account of the specimen size and geometry in dynamic tests on rock materials. In addition, the transmission coefficient and the determination of strain rate under dynamic tests are discussed in detail.

  1. Outperforming hummingbirds’ load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work. PMID:27444790

  2. Outperforming hummingbirds' load-lifting capability with a lightweight hummingbird-like flapping-wing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Leys, Frederik; Reynaerts, Dominiek; Vandepitte, Dirk

    2016-08-15

    The stroke-cam flapping mechanism presented in this paper closely mimics the wing motion of a hovering Rufous hummingbird. It is the only lightweight hummingbird-sized flapping mechanism which generates a harmonic wing stroke with both a high flapping frequency and a large stroke amplitude. Experiments on a lightweight prototype of this stroke-cam mechanism on a 50 mm-long wing demonstrate that a harmonic stroke motion is generated with a peak-to-peak stroke amplitude of 175° at a flapping frequency of 40 Hz. It generated a mass lifting capability of 5.1 g, which is largely sufficient to lift the prototype's mass of 3.39 g and larger than the mass-lifting capability of a Rufous hummingbird. The motor mass of a hummingbird-like robot which drives the stroke-cam mechanism is considerably larger (about five times) than the muscle mass of a hummingbird with comparable load-lifting capability. This paper presents a flapping wing nano aerial vehicle which is designed to possess the same lift- and thrust-generating principles of the Rufous hummingbird. The application is indoor flight. We give an overview of the wing kinematics and some specifications which should be met to develop an artificial wing, and also describe the applications of these in the mechanism which has been developed in this work.

  3. Influences of Newly Formed Woven Bone on Tissue Stresses in Rat Caudal Vertebrae Subjected to Mechanical Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurata, Kosaku; Higaki, Hidehiko; Miura, Hiromasa; Mawatari, Taro; Murakami, Teruo; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    Bone tissue stresses in mechanically loaded vertebrae were computationally investigated in order to reveal the influences of adaptive remodeling/modeling on stress distribution. Morphological alteration of the rat fifth caudal vertebrae was periodically and non-invasively measured with a microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). Von Mises stresses were calculated by using a finite element analysis (FEA) together with rigid-body spring models based on the consecutive micro-CT images. Median cross-sectional area periodically increased in the loaded rats depending on the duration of stimuli, which was caused by periosteal woven bone formation. FEA including the newly formed bone demonstrated that the loaded vertebrae showed the lower stress levels compared with non-loaded one. Averaged stress of the offset-loaded rat was markedly symmetry between ventral and dorsal sides under offset loading condition, while that of the non-loaded rat indicated asymmetry. Stress analyses suggested that the loaded vertebrae would adapt to the daily mechanical loading by depositing and calcifying woven bone over periosteum.

  4. Dependence of some mechanical properties of elastic bands on the length and load time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, C. A.; Fajardo, F.

    2012-07-01

    We present a study of the maximum stress supported by elastics bands of nitrile as a function of the natural length and the load time. The maximum tension of rupture and the corresponding variation in length were found by measuring the elongation of an elastic band when a mass is suspended from its free end until it reaches the breaking point. The work done by non-conservative forces was calculated by means of mechanical hysteresis cycles. Measurement of the hysteresis cycle was performed by the controlled addition and subtraction of masses to produce the band's stretching and contraction processes. It was found that the tension of rupture of an elastic band is independent of its natural length and that it decreases linearly with increasing load time. The mechanical work lost in the hysteresis cycle increases linearly with the natural length of the elastic band. An analysis using a state equation of the thermodynamics of rubber bands was performed obtaining good agreement with the experimental results. Also shown is the dependence on the work done by non-conservative forces in repetitive processes of cyclic hysteresis. This experiment is suitable to be implemented in experimental physics courses as an example of showing the characteristics of elastic materials; furthermore it can be done with inexpensive equipment.

  5. Physiological and metabolic responses as function of the mechanical load in resistance exercise.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Sebastian; Wirtz, Nicolas; Flenker, Ulrich; Kleinöder, Heinz

    2014-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between the mechanical load during resistance exercise and the elicited physiological responses. Ten resistance-trained healthy male subjects performed 1 set of resistance exercise each at 55%, 70%, and 85% of 1 repetition maximum for as many repetitions as possible and in 4 training modes: 4-1-4-1 (4 s concentric, 1 s isometric, 4 s eccentric, and 1 s isometric successive actions), 2-1-2-1, 1-1-1-1, and explosive (maximum velocity concentric). Mean concentric power and total concentric work were determined. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) was measured during exercise and for 30 min post exercise. Total volume of consumed oxygen (O2 consumed) and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were calculated. Maximum blood lactate concentration (LAmax) was also determined. V̇O2 exhibited a linear dependency on mean concentric power. Mean concentric power did not have a detectable effect on EPOC and LAmax. An augmentation of total concentric work resulted in significant linear increase of O2 consumed and EPOC. Total concentric work caused a significant increase in LAmax. In general, a higher mechanical load induced a larger physiological response. An increase in mean concentric power elicited higher aerobic energy turnover rates. However, a higher extent of total concentric work augments total energy cost covered by oxidative and (or) glycolytic pathways.

  6. Thermo-mechanical modelling of salt caverns due to fluctuating loading conditions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, N.

    2015-12-01

    This work summarizes the development and application of a numerical model for the thermo-mechanical behaviour of salt caverns during cyclic gas storage. Artificial salt caverns are used for short term energy storage, such as power-to-gas or compressed air energy storage. Those applications are characterized by highly fluctuating operation pressures due to the unsteady power levels of power plants based on renewable energy. Compression and expansion of the storage gases during loading and unloading stages lead to rapidly changing temperatures in the host rock of the caverns. This affects the material behaviour of the host rock within a zone that extends several meters into the rock mass adjacent to the cavern wall, and induces thermo-mechanical stresses and alters the creep response.The proposed model features the thermodynamic behaviour of the storage medium, conductive heat transport in the host rock, as well as temperature dependent material properties of rock salt using different thermo-viscoplastic material models. The utilized constitutive models are well known and state-of-the-art in various salt mechanics applications. The model has been implemented into the open-source software platform OpenGeoSys. Thermal and mechanical processes are solved using a finite element approach, coupled via a staggered coupling scheme. The simulation results allow the conclusion, that the cavern convergence rate (and thus the efficiency of the cavern) is highly influenced by the loading cycle frequency and the resulting gas temperatures. The model therefore allows to analyse the influence of operation modes on the cavern host rock or on neighbouring facilities.

  7. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    1998-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

  8. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  9. Load cell

    DOEpatents

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

  10. Influence of a 12.8-km military load carriage activity on lower limb gait mechanics and muscle activity.

    PubMed

    Rice, Hannah; Fallowfield, Joanne; Allsopp, Adrian; Dixon, Sharon

    2016-07-27

    The high stress fracture occurrence in military populations has been associated with frequent load carriage activities. This study aimed to assess the influence of load carriage and of completing a load carriage training activity on gait characteristics. Thirty-two Royal Marine recruits completed a 12.8-km load carriage activity as part of their military training. Data were collected during walking in military boots, pre and post-activity, with and without the additional load (35.5 kg). Ground contact time, lower limb sagittal plane kinematics and kinetics, and electromyographic variables were obtained for each condition. When carrying load, there was increased ground contact time, increased joint flexion and joint moments, and increased plantar flexor and knee extensor muscle activity. Post-activity, there were no changes to kinematic variables, knee extensor moments were reduced, and there was evidence of plantar flexor muscle fatigue. The observed gait changes may be associated with stress fracture development. Practitioner Summary: This study identified gait changes due to load carriage and after a military load carriage training activity. Such activities are associated with lower limb stress fractures. A pre-post study design was used. Gait mechanics changed to a greater extent when carrying load, than after completion of the activity when assessed without load.

  11. The effects of axial and multi-plane loading of the extensor mechanism on the patellofemoral joint.

    PubMed

    Powers, Christopher M.; Lilley, James C.; Lee, Thay Q.

    1998-12-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of axial loading, and anatomically based multi-plane loading of the extensor mechanism on the patellofemoral joint. DESIGN: Repeated measures design using an in-vitro cadaver model. BACKGROUND: Since the extensor mechanism is the primary contributor to the patellofemoral joint reaction force and can affect patellar kinematics, it is essential that the forces produced by this musculature be accurately represented in a simulation model. METHODS: Patellar kinematics (magnetic tracking device), contact pressures and areas (pressure sensitive film) were measured from 6 cadaver knees under two different loading conditions: 1) axial (rectus femoris loaded in the frontal plane), and 2) multiplane (individual components of the quadriceps loaded along their respective fiber directions in both the frontal and sagittal planes). Specimens were mounted in a custom knee jig, with muscle forces being simulated using a pulley system and weight. Data were collected at 0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 45 degrees, 60 degrees, 75 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. RESULTS: Compared to the axial loading condition, multi-plane loading of the vasti resulted in significantly greater contact pressure at 0 degrees and significantly less contact pressure at 90 degrees of knee flexion. Furthermore, the multi-plane loading condition resulted in greater lateral patellar rotation from 0-75 degrees of knee flexion, and greater lateral glide at 30 degrees of knee flexion. Greater patellar flexion was observed with the axial loading condition. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that axial loading of the extensor mechanism underestimates contact pressure at 0 degrees and overestimates contact pressure at 90 degrees of knee flexion when compared to multi-plane loading. Additionally, loading of the individual vasti appears to have an effect on patellar kinematics. RELEVANCE: The results of this study indicate that anatomically based, multi-plane loading of the

  12. DEFORMATION CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUSHED-STONE LAYER UNDER CYCLIC IMPACT LOADING FROM MICRO-MECHANICAL VIEW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kono, Akiko; Matsushima, Takashi

    'Hanging sleepers', which have gaps between sleepers and ballast layer are often found in the neighborhood of rail joints or rugged surface rails. This suggests that differential settlement of the ballast layer is due to impact loading generated by the contact between running wheel and rugged surface rail. Then cyclic loading tests were performed on crushed-stone layer with two loading patterns, the one is a cyclic impact loading and the other one is cyclic 'standard' loading controlled at 1/10 loading velocity of the impact loading. It was shown that the crashed-stone layer deforms with volumetric expansion during every off-loading processes under the cyclic impact loading. This phenomena prevents crushed stone layer from forming stable grain columns, then the residual settlement under the cyclic impact loading is larger than that under the cyclic 'standard' loading. A simple mass-spring model simulates that two masses move in the opposite direction with increased frequency of harmonic excitation.

  13. Time-Varying Multifractal Characteristics and Formation Mechanism of Loaded Coal Electromagnetic Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shaobin; Wang, Enyuan; Li, Zhonghui; Shen, Rongxi; Liu, Jie

    2014-09-01

    Dynamic collapses of deeply mined coal rocks are severe threats to miners. To predict the collapses more accurately using electromagnetic radiation (EMR), we investigate the time-varying multifractal characteristics and formation mechanism of EMR induced by underground coal mining. A series of uniaxial compression and multi-stage loading experiments with coal samples of different mechanical properties were carried out. The EMR signals during their damage evolution were monitored in real-time; the inherent law of EMR time series was analyzed by fractal theory. The results show that the time-varying multifractal characteristics of EMR are determined by damage evolutions process, the dissipated energy caused by damage evolutions such as crack propagation, fractal sliding and shearing can be regard as the fingerprint of various EMR micro-mechanics. Based on the Irreversible thermodynamics and damage mechanics, we introduced the damage internal variable, constructed the dissipative potential function and established the coupled model of the EMR and the dissipative energy, which revealed the nature of dynamic nonlinear characteristics of EMR. Dynamic multifractal spectrum is the objective response of EMR signals, thus it can be used to evaluate the coal deformation and fracture process.

  14. Fracture Mechanical Analysis of Open Cell Ceramic Foams Under Thermal Shock Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settgast, C.; Abendroth, M.; Kuna, M.

    2016-11-01

    Ceramic foams made by replica techniques containing sharp-edged cavities, which are potential crack initiators and therefore have to be analyzed using fracture mechanical methods. The ceramic foams made of novel carbon bonded alumina are used as filters in metal melt filtration applications, where the filters are exposed to a thermal shock. During the casting process the filters experience a complex thermo-mechanical loading, which is difficult to measure. Modern numerical methods allow the simulation of such complex processes. As a simplified foam structure an open Kelvin cell is used as a representative volume element. A three-dimensional finite element model containing realistic sharp-edged cavities and three-dimensional sub-models along these sharp edges are used to compute the transient temperature, stress and strain fields at the Kelvin foam. The sharp edges are evaluated using fracture mechanical methods like the J-integral technique. The results of this study describe the influence of the pore size, relative density of the ceramic foam, the heat transfer and selected material parameters on the fracture mechanical behaviour.

  15. Damage and failure mechanisms of a 3-directional carbon/carbon composite under uniaxial tensile and shear loads

    SciTech Connect

    Siron, O.; Lamon, J.

    1998-11-20

    The mechanical behavior of a three-directional carbon/carbon (C/C) composite under tensile and shear loads is investigated in relation with the failure mechanisms and, the fiber architecture. This three-directional C/C composite was produced by Chemical Vapor Infiltration of a needled fiber preform of multiple layers of satin woven tows. The C/C composite exhibited several interesting features including an essentially non-linear stress-strain behavior and permanent deformations. Three families of matrix cracks were identified under tensile and shear loads, including microcracks in the tows, intertow delamination and cracks across the longitudinal tows. It was found that the delamination cracks affect preponderantly the stress-strain behavior and the mechanical properties. Similar features in the mechanical behavior and the failure mechanisms were highlighted under tension and under shear loading.

  16. Mechanisms of CO2 Capture into Monoethanolamine Solution with Different CO2 Loading during the Absorption/Desorption Processes.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bihong; Guo, Bingsong; Zhou, Zuoming; Jing, Guohua

    2015-09-01

    Though the mechanism of MEA-CO2 system has been widely studied, there is few literature on the detailed mechanism of CO2 capture into MEA solution with different CO2 loading during absorption/desorption processes. To get a clear picture of the process mechanism, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to analyze the reaction intermediates under different CO2 loadings and detailed mechanism on CO2 absorption and desorption in MEA was evaluated in this work. The results demonstrated that the CO2 absorption in MEA started with the formation of carbamate according to the zwitterion mechanism, followed by the hydration of CO2 to form HCO3(-)/CO3(2-), and accompanied by the hydrolysis of carbamate. It is interesting to find that the existence of carbamate will be influenced by CO2 loading and that it is rather unstable at high CO2 loading. At low CO2 loading, carbamate is formed fast by the reaction between CO2 and MEA. At high CO2 loading, it is formed by the reaction of CO3(-)/CO3(2-) with MEA, and the formed carbamate can be easily hydrolyzed by H(+). Moreover, CO2 desorption from the CO2-saturated MEA solution was proved to be a reverse process of absorption. Initially, some HCO3(-) were heated to release CO2 and other HCO3(-) were reacted with carbamic acid (MEAH(+)) to form carbamate, and the carbamate was then decomposed to MEA and CO2.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of Liquid Route Processed SiCf/Ti Composites Under Longitudinal and Transverse Loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle, Roger; Daux, Jean-Claude

    2017-02-01

    Due to the high melting point and strong chemical reactivity of titanium alloys, titanium matrix composites (TMCs) are usually processed through solid-state routes such as the foil-fiber-foil technique. An alternative method consists in the deposition of the matrix on the fibers. However, techniques such as physical vapor deposition lead to a very low deposition rate, contrary to liquid route processing using a levitating liquid alloy sphere held in a cold crucible. In order to investigate the effects of the resulting thermal shock on carbon-coated SiC fibers, and select an appropriate fiber, fibers are subjected to a pure thermal shock using a laser bench facility. These fibers are then tensile tested to failure in order to evaluate the resulting fiber strength degradation and, thus, the maximum acceptable temperature. Mechanical characterization of the liquid route processed TMC is then investigated through longitudinal and transverse tensile and creep tests at temperatures representative of aeronautical applications. The specimens, unbroken after long-duration creep tests, are then subjected to tensile loading to failure: conditions representative of service, i.e., short-time overspeeding of a gas turbine. Finally, interpretation of the mechanical tests through micrographical and microfractographical examinations is focused on the identification of the deformation and failure mechanisms specific to the liquid route processed composite, e.g., nucleation, under either longitudinal or transverse loadings, of internal cracks in the α-phase of the titanium-based matrix, explained through a physical model involving a high shear stress and normal stress combination, leading to cleavage.

  18. Runx1 Activities in Superficial Zone Chondrocytes, Osteoarthritic Chondrocyte Clones and Response to Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Kimberly T.; Walcott, Marie E.; Gaur, Tripti; O’Connell, Shannon L.; Basil, Kirti; Tadiri, Christina P.; Mason-Savas, April; Silva, Jason A.; van Wijnen, Andre J.; Stein, Janet L.; Stein, Gary S; Ayers, David C.; Lian, Jane B.; Fanning, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Runx1, the hematopoietic lineage determining transcription factor, is present in perichondrium and chondrocytes. Here we addressed Runx1 functions, by examining expression in cartilage during mouse and human osteoarthritis (OA) progression and in response to mechanical loading. Methods Spared and diseased compartments in knees of OA patients and in mice with surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus were examined for changes in expression of Runx1 mRNA (Q-PCR) and protein (immunoblot, immunohistochemistry). Runx1 levels were quantified in response to static mechanical compression of bovine articular cartilage. Runx1 function was assessed by cell proliferation (Ki67, PCNA) and cell type phenotypic markers. Results Runx1 is enriched in superficial zone (SZ) chondrocytes of normal bovine, mouse, and human tissues. Increasing loading conditions in bovine cartilage revealed a positive correlation with a significant elevation of Runx1. Runx1 becomes highly expressed at the periphery of mouse OA lesions and in human OA chondrocyte ‘clones’ where Runx1 co-localizes with Vcam1, the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) marker and lubricin (Prg4), a cartilage chondroprotective protein. These OA induced cells represent a proliferative cell population, Runx1 depletion in MPCs decreases cell growth, supporting Runx1 contribution to cell expansion. Conclusion The highest Runx1 levels in SZC of normal cartilage suggest a function that supports the unique phenotype of articular chondrocytes, reflected by upregulation under conditions of compression. We propose Runx1 co-expression with Vcam1 and lubricin in murine cell clusters and human ‘clones’ of OA cartilage, participate in a cooperative mechanism for a compensatory anabolic function. PMID:25078095

  19. Performance of nanoscale metallic multilayer systems under mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economy, David Ross

    Reports of nanoscale metallic multilayers (NMM) performance show a relatively high strength and radiation damage resistance when compared their monolithic components. Hardness of NMMs has been shown to increase with increasing interfacial density (i.e. decreasing layer thickness). This interface density-dependent behavior within NMMs has been shown to deviate from Hall-Petch strengthening, leading to higher measured strengths during normal loading than those predicted by a rule of mixtures. To fully understand why this occurs, other researchers have looked at the influence of the crystal structures of the component layers, orientations, and compositions on deformation processes. Additionally, a limited number of studies have focused on the structural stability and possible performance variation between as-deposited systems and those exposed to mechanical and thermal loading. This dissertation identified how NMM as-deposited structures and performance are altered by mechanical loading (sliding/wear contact) and/or thermal (such as diffusion, relaxation) loading. These objectives were pursued by tracking hardness evolution during sliding wear and after thermal loading to as-deposited stress and mechanical properties. Residual stress progression was also examined during thermal loading and supporting data was collected to detail structural and chemical changes. All of these experimental observations were conducted using Cu/Nb NMMs with 2 nm, 20 nm, or 100 nm thick individual layers deposited with either 1 microm or 10 microm total thicknesses with two geometries (Cu/Nb and Nb/Cu) on (100) Si. Wear boxes were performed on Cu/Nb NMM using a nanoindentation system with a 1 microm conical diamond counterface. After nano-wear deformation, the hardness of the deformed regions significantly rose with respect to as-deposited measurements, which further increased with greater wear loads. Additionally, NMMs with thinner layers showed less volume loss as measured by laser

  20. Loading mechanics of the femur in tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) during terrestrial locomotion.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, K Megan; Blob, Richard W

    2011-08-01

    Salamanders are often used as representatives of the basal tetrapod body plan in functional studies, but little is known about the loads experienced by their limb bones during locomotion. Although salamanders' slow walking speeds might lead to low locomotor forces and limb bone stresses similar to those of non-avian reptiles, their highly sprawled posture combined with relatively small limb bones could produce elevated limb bone stresses closer to those of avian and mammalian species. This study evaluates the loads on the femur of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) during terrestrial locomotion using three-dimensional measurements of the ground reaction force (GRF) and hindlimb kinematics, as well as anatomical measurements of the femur and hindlimb muscles. At peak stress (29.8 ± 2.0% stance), the net GRF magnitude averaged 0.42 body weights and was directed nearly vertically for the middle 20-40% of the contact interval, essentially perpendicular to the femur. Although torsional shear stresses were significant (4.1 ± 0.3 MPa), bending stresses experienced by the femur were low compared with other vertebrate lineages (tensile: 14.9 ± 0.8 MPa; compressive: -18.9 ± 1.0 MPa), and mechanical property tests indicated yield strengths that were fairly standard for tetrapods (157.1 ± 3.7 MPa). Femoral bending safety factors (10.5) were considerably higher than values typical for birds and mammals, and closer to the elevated values calculated for reptilian species. These results suggest that high limb bone safety factors may have an ancient evolutionary history, though the underlying cause of high safety factors (e.g. low limb bone loads, high bone strength or a combination of the two) may vary among lineages.

  1. Mechanical Differences between Barbell and Body Optimum Power Loads in the Jump Squat Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Lucas A.; Zanetti, Vinicius; Kitamura, Katia; Abad, César C. Cal; Kobal, Ronaldo; Nakamura, Fabio Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study compared the values of bar-peak force (PFBar) and power (PPBar), body-peak force (PFBody) and power (PPBody) and bar-mean propulsive power (MPPBar) in different jump-squat (JS) conditions: unloaded condition (UC); bar-loaded condition (BLC) and optimum bar-MPP condition (OBC). Twenty-five soccer players performed the JS using a bar with negligible mass (UC), using the Smith-machine bar (BLC) and using the load capable of maximizing the bar-MPP (OBC). The PFBody was significantly higher in the UC (2847.9 ± 489.1 N) than in the OBC (2655.4 ± 444.3 N). The UC presented greater PPBody (3775.9 ± 631.5 W) than the BLC (3359.7 ± 664.3 W) and OBC (3357.8 ± 625.3 W). The OBC presented higher values of PFBar, PPBar and MPPBar (676.2 ± 109.4 W) than the BLC (MPPBar = 425.8 ± 53.7 W) (all p < 0.05). In the OBC (compared to the UC), the body peak-power presented a reduction of ≈ 11%, while generating bar-power output from ≈ 59 to 73% higher than the BLC. While the fact that the body-peak power is maximized in the UC denotes a mechanical phenomenon, the bar-optimum load represents an intensity at which both components of the power equation (force and velocity) are optimized. This has important implications for sports training. PMID:28031767

  2. Simulated-physiological loading conditions preserve biological and mechanical properties of caprine lumbar intervertebral discs in ex vivo culture.

    PubMed

    Paul, Cornelis P L; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Zandieh Doulabi, Behrouz; van der Veen, Albert J; van de Ven, Peter M; Smit, Theo H; Helder, Marco N; van Royen, Barend J; Mullender, Margriet G

    2012-01-01

    Low-back pain (LBP) is a common medical complaint and associated with high societal costs. Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is assumed to be an important causal factor of LBP. IVDs are continuously mechanically loaded and both positive and negative effects have been attributed to different loading conditions.In order to study mechanical loading effects, degeneration-associated processes and/or potential regenerative therapies in IVDs, it is imperative to maintain the IVDs' structural integrity. While in vivo models provide comprehensive insight in IVD biology, an accompanying organ culture model can focus on a single factor, such as loading and may serve as a prescreening model to reduce life animal testing. In the current study we examined the feasibility of organ culture of caprine lumbar discs, with the hypothesis that a simulated-physiological load will optimally preserve IVD properties.Lumbar caprine IVDs (n = 175) were cultured in a bioreactor up to 21 days either without load, low dynamic load (LDL), or with simulated-physiological load (SPL). IVD stiffness was calculated from measurements of IVD loading and displacement. IVD nucleus, inner- and outer annulus were assessed for cell viability, cell density and gene expression. The extracellular matrix (ECM) was analyzed for water, glycosaminoglycan and total collagen content.IVD biomechanical properties did not change significantly with loading conditions. With SPL, cell viability, cell density and gene expression were preserved up to 21 days. Both unloaded and LDL resulted in decreased cell viability, cell density and significant changes in gene expression, yet no differences in ECM content were observed in any group.In conclusion, simulated-physiological loading preserved the native properties of caprine IVDs during a 21-day culture period. The characterization of caprine IVD response to culture in the LDCS under SPL conditions paves the way for controlled analysis of degeneration- and

  3. Evaluation of Damage and Fracture Mechanisms of Different Characteristic Honeycomb Structures Under Thermomechanical Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Settet, A. T.; Nour, A.; Zahloul, H.; Naceur, H.

    2014-11-01

    A model able to predict the delamination mechanisms of composite honeycomb structures under thermal loading is presented. The use of a simulation software for some applications may not be sufficient to obtain the results expected; hence, the interest in developing modular calculation codes which would allow one to determine the rigidity matrix of a honeycomb panel, the deformation of its members, the field of shear strains, strains, and stresses in the panel plane on varying the physical parameters and checking the strength of each layer and of the entire panel. In order to test the reliability of the program developed, the results obtained are compared with those given in the literature. A specific model of Young's modulus under thermal loads is proposed, which takes into consideration the heat flux function, the thermal conductivity, the convection heat-transfer coefficients of the surrounding area inside and outside the panel, the exchange area in contact with air, the thickness of the honeycomb core, the upper and lower skins, and the adhesive layer. To verify the fracture strength of each panel, the Tsai-Wu criterion is used.

  4. Contribution of laminar myofiber architecture to load-dependent changes in mechanics of LV myocardium.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Yasuo; Costa, Kevin D; Covell, James W

    2002-04-01

    The ventricular myocardium consists of a syncytium of myocytes organized into branching, transmurally oriented laminar sheets approximately four cells thick. When systolic deformation is expressed in an axis system determined by the anatomy of the laminar architecture, laminar sheets of myocytes shear and laterally extend in an approximately radial direction. These deformations account for ~90% of normal systolic wall thickening in the left ventricular free wall. In the present study, we investigated whether the changes in systolic and diastolic function of the sheets were sensitive to alterations in systolic and diastolic load. Our results indicate that there is substantial reorientation of the laminar architecture during systole and diastole. Moreover, this reorientation is both site and load dependent. Thus as end-diastolic pressure is increased and the left ventricular wall thins, sheets shorten and rotate away from the radial direction due to transverse shearing, opposite of what occurs in systole. Both mechanisms of thickening contribute substantially to normal left ventricular wall function. Whereas the relative contributions of shear and extension are comparable at the base, sheet shear is the predominant factor at the apex. The magnitude of shortening/extension and shear increases with preload and decreases with afterload. These findings underscore the essential contribution of the laminar myocardial architecture for normal ventricular function throughout the cardiac cycle.

  5. Integrity of the osteocyte bone cell network in osteoporotic fracture: Implications for mechanical load adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuliwaba, J. S.; Truong, L.; Codrington, J. D.; Fazzalari, N. L.

    2010-06-01

    The human skeleton has the ability to modify its material composition and structure to accommodate loads through adaptive modelling and remodelling. The osteocyte cell network is now considered to be central to the regulation of skeletal homeostasis; however, very little is known of the integrity of the osteocyte cell network in osteoporotic fragility fracture. This study was designed to characterise osteocyte morphology, the extent of osteocyte cell apoptosis and expression of sclerostin protein (a negative regulator of bone formation) in trabecular bone from the intertrochanteric region of the proximal femur, for postmenopausal women with fragility hip fracture compared to age-matched women who had not sustained fragility fracture. Osteocyte morphology (osteocyte, empty lacunar, and total lacunar densities) and the degree of osteocyte apoptosis (percent caspase-3 positive osteocyte lacunae) were similar between the fracture patients and non-fracture women. The fragility hip fracture patients had a lower proportion of sclerostin-positive osteocyte lacunae in comparison to sclerostin-negative osteocyte lacunae, in contrast to similar percent sclerostin-positive/sclerostin-negative lacunae for non-fracture women. The unexpected finding of decreased sclerostin expression in trabecular bone osteocytes from fracture cases may be indicative of elevated bone turnover and under-mineralisation, characteristic of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Further, altered osteocytic expression of sclerostin may be involved in the mechano-responsiveness of bone. Optimal function of the osteocyte cell network is likely to be a critical determinant of bone strength, acting via mechanical load adaptation, and thus contributing to osteoporotic fracture risk.

  6. FEA Based Tool Life Quantity Estimation of Hot Forging Dies Under Cyclic Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrens, B.-A.; Bouguecha, A.; Schäfer, F.; Hadifi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Hot forging dies are exposed during service to a combination of cyclic thermo-mechanical, tribological and chemical loads. Besides abrasive and adhesive wear on the die surface, fatigue crack initiation with subsequent fracture is one of the most frequent causes of failure. In order to extend the tool life, the finite element analysis (FEA) may serve as a means for process design and process optimisation. So far the FEA based estimation of the production cycles until initial cracking is limited as tool material behaviour due to repeated loading is not captured with the required accuracy. Material models which are able to account for cyclic effects are not verified for the fatigue life predictions of forging dies. Furthermore fatigue properties from strain controlled fatigue tests of relevant hot work steels are to date not available to allow for a close-to-reality fatigue life prediction. Two industrial forging processes, where clear fatigue crack initiation has been observed are considered for a fatigue analysis. For this purpose the relevant tool components are modelled with elasto-plastic material behaviour. The predicted sites, where crack initiation occurs, agree with the ones observed on the real die component.

  7. Mechanisms of Active Aerodynamic Load Reduction on a Rotorcraft Fuselage With Rotor Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffler, Norman W.; Allan, Brian G.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Bartram, Scott M.; Mace, W. Derry; Wong, Oliver D.; Tanner, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of the aerodynamic load that acts on a generic rotorcraft fuselage by the application of active flow control was investigated in a wind tunnel test conducted on an approximately 1/3-scale powered rotorcraft model simulating forward flight. The aerodynamic mechanisms that make these reductions, in both the drag and the download, possible were examined in detail through the use of the measured surface pressure distribution on the fuselage, velocity field measurements made in the wake directly behind the ramp of the fuselage and computational simulations. The fuselage tested was the ROBIN-mod7, which was equipped with a series of eight slots located on the ramp section through which flow control excitation was introduced. These slots were arranged in a U-shaped pattern located slightly downstream of the baseline separation line and parallel to it. The flow control excitation took the form of either synthetic jets, also known as zero-net-mass-flux blowing, and steady blowing. The same set of slots were used for both types of excitation. The differences between the two excitation types and between flow control excitation from different combinations of slots were examined. The flow control is shown to alter the size of the wake and its trajectory relative to the ramp and the tailboom and it is these changes to the wake that result in a reduction in the aerodynamic load.

  8. Evaluating the effects of loading parameters on single-crystal slip in tantalum using molecular mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, Coleman; Ghosh, Somnath; Luscher, D. J.; Bronkhorst, Curt A.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at developing a physics-based crystal plasticity finite element model for body-centred cubic (BCC) metals, through the introduction of atomic-level deformation information from molecular dynamics (MD) investigations of dislocation motion at the onset of plastic flow. In this study, three critical variables governing crystal plasticity mediated by dislocation motion are considered. MD simulations are first performed across a range of finite temperatures up to 600K to quantify the temperature dependence of critical stress required for slip initiation. An important feature of slip in BCC metals is that it is not solely dependent on the Schmid law measure of resolved shear stress, commonly employed in crystal plasticity models. The configuration of a screw dislocation and its subsequent motion is studied under different load orientations to quantify these non-Schmid effects. Finally, the influence of strain rates on thermal activation is studied by inducing higher stresses during activation at higher applied strain rates. Functional dependence of the critical resolved shear stress on temperature, loading orientation and strain rate is determined from the MD simulation results. The functional forms are derived from the thermal activation mechanisms that govern the plastic behaviour and quantification of relevant deformation variables. The resulting physics-based rate-dependent crystal plasticity model is implemented in a crystal plasticity finite element code. Uniaxial simulations reveal orientation-dependent tension-compression asymmetry of yield that more accurately represents single-crystal experimental results than standard models.

  9. Fracture Mechanisms of Zirconium Diboride Ultra-High Temperature Ceramics under Pulse Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skripnyak, Vladimir V.; Bragov, Anatolii M.; Skripnyak, Vladimir A.; Lomunov, Andrei K.; Skripnyak, Evgeniya G.; Vaganova, Irina K.

    2015-06-01

    Mechanisms of failure in ultra-high temperature ceramics (UHTC) based on zirconium diboride under pulse loading were studied experimentally by the method of SHPB and theoretically using the multiscale simulation method. The obtained experimental and numerical data are evidence of the quasi-brittle fracture character of nanostructured zirconium diboride ceramics under compression and tension at high strain rates and the room temperatures. Damage of nanostructured porous zirconium diboride -based UHTC can be formed under stress pulse amplitude below the Hugoniot elastic limit. Fracture of nanostructured ultra-high temperature ceramics under pulse and shock-wave loadings is provided by fast processes of intercrystalline brittle fracture and relatively slow processes of quasi-brittle failure via growth and coalescence of microcracks. A decrease of the shear strength can be caused by nano-voids clusters in vicinity of triple junctions between ceramic matrix grains and ultrafine-grained ceramics. This research was supported by grants from ``The Tomsk State University Academic D.I. Mendeleev Fund Program'' and also N. I. Lobachevski State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Grant of post graduate mobility).

  10. Mechanical response of metals under dynamic loading off the principal Hugoniot and isentrope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seagle, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    Controlled dynamic loading of materials on phase-space paths off the principal Hugoniot and isentrope provide a stringent test of equation of state models in regions not typically experimentally constrained. Maturation of hardware design and pulse-shaping capabilities for shock-ramp experiments at Sandia's Z Machine have been exploited to test the mechanical response of a wide range of metals on ramp compression initiated from a well-defined Hugoniot state. A range of 1-8 km/s impact velocities are possible before initiating a ramp wave in a test sample. Capabilities and challenges of this type of experiment will be presented along with recent data on platinum, tin, cerium, and tantalum. Results of these experiments will be discussed in relation to existing equation of state data and models, and the future outlook for experimental constraints on material response on controlled off-principal loading paths. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  11. Quantification of finger joint loadings using musculoskeletal modelling clarifies mechanical risk factors of hand osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Goislard de Monsabert, Benjamin; Vigouroux, Laurent; Bendahan, David; Berton, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Owing to limited quantitative data related to the loadings (forces and pressures) acting upon finger joints, several clinical observations regarding mechanical risk factors of hand osteoarthritis remain misunderstood. To improve the knowledge of this pathology, the present study used musculoskeletal modelling to quantify the forces and pressures acting upon hand joints during two grasping tasks. Kinematic and grip force data were recorded during both a pinch and a power grip tasks. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging measurements were conducted to quantify joint contact areas. Using these datasets as input, a musculoskeletal model of the hand and wrist, including twenty-three degrees of freedom and forty-two muscles, has been developed to estimate joint forces and joint pressures. When compared with the power grip task, the pinch grip task resulted in two to eight times higher joint loadings whereas the grip forces exerted on each finger were twice lower. For both tasks, joint forces and pressures increased along a disto-proximal direction for each finger. The quantitative dataset provided by the present hand model clarified two clinical observations about osteoarthritis development which were not fully understood, i.e., the strong risk associated to pinch grip tasks and the high frequency of thumb-base osteoarthritis.

  12. Mechanical analysis of a rodent segmental bone defect model: the effects of internal fixation and implant stiffness on load transfer.

    PubMed

    Yavari, S Amin; van der Stok, J; Ahmadi, S M; Wauthle, R; Schrooten, J; Weinans, H; Zadpoor, A A

    2014-08-22

    Segmental bone defect animal models are often used for evaluating the bone regeneration performance of bone substituting biomaterials. Since bone regeneration is dependent on mechanical loading, it is important to determine mechanical load transfer after stabilization of the defect and to study the effects of biomaterial stiffness on the transmitted load. In this study, we assess the mechanical load transmitted over a 6mm femur defect that is stabilized with an internal PEEK fixation plate. Subsequently, three types of selective laser melted porous titanium implants with different stiffness values were used to graft the defect (five specimens per group). In one additional group, the defect was left empty. Micro strain gauges were used to measure strain values at four different locations of the fixation plate during external loading on the femoral head. The load sharing between the fixation plate and titanium implant was highly variable with standard deviations of measured strain values between 31 and 93% of the mean values. As a consequence, no significant differences were measured between the forces transmitted through the titanium implants with different elastic moduli. Only some non-significant trends were observed in the mean strain values that, consistent with the results of a previous finite element study, implied the force transmitted through the implant increases with the implant stiffness. The applied internal fixation method does not standardize mechanical loading over the defect to enable detecting small differences in bone regeneration performances of bone substituting biomaterials. In conclusion, the fixation method requires further optimization to reduce the effects of the operative procedure and make the mechanical loading more consistent and improve the overall sensitivity of this rat femur defect model.

  13. Magnesium alloys as body implants: fracture mechanism under dynamic and static loadings in a physiological environment.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Lokesh; Raman, R K Singh

    2012-02-01

    It is essential that a metallic implant material possesses adequate resistance to cracking/fracture under the synergistic action of a corrosive physiological environment and mechanical loading (i.e. stress corrosion cracking (SCC)), before the implant can be put to actual use. This paper presents a critique of the fundamental issues with an assessment of SCC of a rapidly corroding material such as magnesium alloys, and describes an investigation into the mechanism of SCC of a magnesium alloy in a physiological environment. The SCC susceptibility of the alloy in a simulated human body fluid was established by slow strain rate tensile (SSRT) testing using smooth specimens under different electrochemical conditions for understanding the mechanism of SCC. However, to assess the life of the implant devices that often possess fine micro-cracks, SCC susceptibility of notched specimens was investigated by circumferential notch tensile (CNT) testing. CNT tests also produced important design data, i.e. threshold stress intensity for SCC (KISCC) and SCC crack growth rate. Fractographic features of SCC were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The SSRT and CNT results, together with fractographic evidence, confirmed the SCC susceptibility of both smooth and notched specimens of a magnesium alloy in the physiological environment.

  14. Photoelasticity and DIC as optical techniques for monitoring masonry specimens under mechanical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colla, C.; Gabrielli, E.

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the complex behaviour of masonry structures under mechanical loads, numerical models are developed and continuously implemented at diverse scales, whilst, from an experimental viewpoint, laboratory standard mechanical tests are usually carried out by instrumenting the specimens via traditional measuring devices. Extracted values collected in the few points where the tools were installed are assumed to represent the behaviour of the whole specimen but this may be quite optimistic or approximate. Optical monitoring techniques may help in overcoming some of these limitations by providing full-field visualization of mechanical parameters. Photoelasticity and the more recent DIC, employed to monitor masonry columns during compression tests are here presented and a lab case study is compared listing procedures, data acquisitions, advantages and limitations. It is shown that the information recorded by traditional measuring tools must be considered limited to the specific instrumented points. Instead, DIC in particular among the optical techniques, is proving both a very precise global and local picture of the masonry performance, opening new horizons towards a deeper knowledge of this complex construction material. The applicability of an innovative DIC procedure to cultural heritage constructions is also discussed.

  15. Multi-scale concurrent material and structural design under mechanical and thermal loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Guo, Xu; Cheng, Gengdong

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, multi-scale concurrent topology optimization of material and structural design under mechanical and thermal loads is considered. To this end, the Porous Anisotropic Material with Penalization (PAMP) model which includes both microscopic material density and macroscopic material density as design variables, is employed to distribute material on two length scales in an optimal way. Corresponding problem formulation and numerical solution procedures are also developed and validated through a number of numerical examples. It is found that the proposed method is effective for the solution of concurrent material and structural optimization problems. Numerical evidences also suggest that compared with solid material, porous material with well-designed microstructure may be a better choice when thermo-elastic effects are considered.

  16. Control of a hair bundle’s mechanosensory function by its mechanical load

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Joshua D.; Ó Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid; Fabella, Brian A.; Tobin, Mélanie; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Hair cells, the sensory receptors of the internal ear, subserve different functions in various receptor organs: they detect oscillatory stimuli in the auditory system, but transduce constant and step stimuli in the vestibular and lateral-line systems. We show that a hair cell's function can be controlled experimentally by adjusting its mechanical load. By making bundles from a single organ operate as any of four distinct types of signal detector, we demonstrate that altering only a few key parameters can fundamentally change a sensory cell’s role. The motions of a single hair bundle can resemble those of a bundle from the amphibian vestibular system, the reptilian auditory system, or the mammalian auditory system, demonstrating an essential similarity of bundles across species and receptor organs. PMID:25691749

  17. Dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Harold; Otto, Edward W; Ransom, Victor L

    1953-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads is developed and experimental verification is presented. The analysis, which is developed in terms of two physical parameters, yields direct expressions for the following dynamic responses: (1) the transient response to a step input and the maximum cylinder pressure during the transient and (2) the variation of amplitude attenuation and phase shift with the frequency of a sinusoidally varying input. The validity of the analysis is demonstrated by means of recorded transient and frequency responses obtained on two servomotors. The calculated responses are in close agreement with the measured responses. The relations presented are readily applicable to the design as well as to the analysis of hydraulic servomotors.

  18. Osteocyte-derived HB-GAM (pleiotrophin) is associated with bone formation and mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Imai, S; Heino, T J; Hienola, A; Kurata, K; Büki, K; Matsusue, Y; Väänänen, H K; Rauvala, H

    2009-05-01

    HB-GAM (also known as pleiotrophin) is a cell matrix-associated protein that is highly expressed in bone. It affects osteoblast function, and might therefore play a role in bone development and remodeling. We aimed to investigate the role of HB-GAM in bone in vivo and in vitro. The bones of HB-GAM deficient mice with an inbred mouse background were studied by histological, histomorphometrical, radiological, biomechanical and mu-CT analyses and the effect of immobilization was evaluated. HB-GAM localization in vivo was studied. MLO-Y4 osteocytes were subjected to fluid shear stress in vitro, and gene and protein expression were studied by subtractive hybridization, quantitative PCR and Western blot. Human osteoclasts were cultured in the presence of rhHB-GAM and their formation and resorption activities were assayed. In agreement with previous reports, the skeletal structure of the HB-GAM knockout mice developed normally. However, a growth retardation of the weight-bearing bones was observed by 2 months of age, suggesting a link to physical activity. Adult HB-GAM deficient mice were characterized by low bone formation and osteopenia, as well as resistance to immobilization-dependent bone remodeling. HB-GAM was localized around osteocytes and their processes in vivo and furthermore, osteocytic HB-GAM expression was upregulated by mechanical loading in vitro. HB-GAM did not affect on human osteoclast formation or resorption in vitro. Taken together, our results suggest that HB-GAM is an osteocyte-derived factor that could participate in mediating the osteogenic effects of mechanical loading on bone.

  19. Functional adaptation to mechanical loading in both cortical and cancellous bone is controlled locally and is confined to the loaded bones.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Price, Joanna S; Lanyon, Lance E

    2010-02-01

    In order to validate whether bones' functional adaptation to mechanical loading is a local phenomenon, we randomly assigned 21 female C57BL/6 mice at 19 weeks of age to one of three equal numbered groups. All groups were treated with isoflurane anesthesia three times a week for 2 weeks (approximately 7 min/day). During each anaesthetic period, the right tibiae/fibulae in the DYNAMIC+STATIC group were subjected to a peak dynamic load of 11.5 N (40 cycles with 10-s intervals between cycles) superimposed upon a static "pre-load" of 2.0 N. This total load of 13.5 N engendered peak longitudinal strains of approximately 1400 microstrain on the medial surface of the tibia at a middle/proximal site. The right tibiae/fibulae in the STATIC group received the static "pre-load" alone while the NOLOAD group received no artificial loading. After 2 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and both tibiae, fibulae, femora, ulnae and radii analyzed by three-dimensional high-resolution (5 mum) micro-computed tomography (microCT). In the DYNAMIC+STATIC group, the proximal trabecular percent bone volume and cortical bone volume at the proximal and middle levels of the right tibiae as well as the cortical bone volume at the middle level of the right fibulae were markedly greater than the left. In contrast, the left bones in the DYNAMIC+STATIC group showed no differences compared to the left or right bones in the NOLOAD or STATIC group. These microCT data were confirmed by two-dimensional examination of fluorochrome labels in bone sections which showed the predominantly woven nature of the new bone formed in the loaded bones. We conclude that the adaptive response in both cortical and trabecular regions of bones subjected to short periods of dynamic loading, even when this response is sufficiently vigorous to stimulate woven bone formation, is confined to the loaded bones and does not involve changes in other bones that are adjacent, contra-lateral or remote to them.

  20. Mechanically braked elliptical Wingate test: modification considerations, load optimization, and reliability.

    PubMed

    Ozkaya, Ozgur; Colakoglu, Muzaffer; Kuzucu, Erinc O; Yildiztepe, Engin

    2012-05-01

    The 30-second, all-out Wingate test evaluates anaerobic performance using an upper or lower body cycle ergometer (cycle Wingate test). A recent study showed that using a modified electromagnetically braked elliptical trainer for Wingate testing (EWT) leads to greater power outcomes because of larger muscle group recruitment. The main purpose of this study was to modify an elliptical trainer using an easily understandable mechanical brake system instead of an electromagnetically braked modification. Our secondary aim was to determine a proper test load for the EWT to reveal the most efficient anaerobic test outcomes such as peak power (PP), average power (AP), minimum power (MP), power drop (PD), and fatigue index ratio (FI%) and to evaluate the retest reliability of the selected test load. Delta lactate responses (ΔLa) were also analyzed to confirm all the anaerobic performance of the athletes. Thirty healthy and well-trained male university athletes were selected to participate in the study. By analysis of variance, an 18% body mass workload yielded significantly greater test outcomes (PP = 19.5 ± 2.4 W·kg, AP = 13.7 ± 1.7 W·kg, PD = 27.9 ± 5 W·s, FI% = 58.4 ± 3.3%, and ΔLa = 15.4 ± 1.7 mM) than the other (12-24% body mass) tested loads (p < 0.05). Test and retest results for relative PP, AP, MP, PD, FI%, and ΔLa were highly correlated (r = 0.97, 0.98, 0.94, 0.91, 0.81, and 0.95, respectively). In conclusion, it was found that the mechanically braked modification of an elliptical trainer successfully estimated anaerobic power and capacity. A workload of 18% body mass was optimal for measuring maximal and reliable anaerobic power outcomes. Anaerobic testing using an EWT may be more useful to athletes and coaches than traditional cycle ergometers because a greater proportion of muscle groups are worked during exercise on an elliptical trainer.

  1. Elastic-Plastic Nonlinear Response of a Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer. Part 2; Thermal and Mechanical Loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Warren, Jerry E.; Elliott, Kenny B.; Song, Kyongchan; Raju, Ivatury S.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic-plastic, large-deflection nonlinear thermo-mechanical stress analyses are performed for the Space Shuttle external tank s intertank stringers. Detailed threedimensional finite element models are developed and used to investigate the stringer s elastic-plastic response for different thermal and mechanical loading events from assembly through flight. Assembly strains caused by initial installation on an intertank panel are accounted for in the analyses. Thermal loading due to tanking was determined to be the bounding loading event. The cryogenic shrinkage caused by tanking resulted in a rotation of the intertank chord flange towards the center of the intertank, which in turn loaded the intertank stringer feet. The analyses suggest that the strain levels near the first three fasteners remain sufficiently high that a failure may occur. The analyses also confirmed that the installation of radius blocks on the stringer feet ends results in an increase in the stringer capability.

  2. Differential gene expression from microarray analysis distinguishes woven and lamellar bone formation in the rat ulna following mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Jennifer A; Bixby, Elise C; Silva, Matthew J

    2011-01-01

    Formation of woven and lamellar bone in the adult skeleton can be induced through mechanical loading. Although much is known about the morphological appearance and structural properties of the newly formed bone, the molecular responses to loading are still not well understood. The objective of our study was to use a microarray to distinguish the molecular responses between woven and lamellar bone formation induced through mechanical loading. Rat forelimb loading was completed in a single bout to induce the formation of woven bone (WBF loading) or lamellar bone (LBF loading). A set of normal (non-loaded) rats were used as controls. Microarrays were performed at three timepoints after loading: 1 hr, 1 day and 3 days. Confirmation of microarray results was done for a select group of genes using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The micorarray identified numerous genes and pathways that were differentially regulated for woven, but not lamellar bone formation. Few changes in gene expression were evident comparing lamellar bone formation to normal controls. A total of 395 genes were differentially expressed between formation of woven and lamellar bone 1 hr after loading, while 5883 and 5974 genes were differentially expressed on days 1 and 3, respectively. Results suggest that not only are the levels of expression different for each type of bone formation, but that distinct pathways are activated only for woven bone formation. A strong early inflammatory response preceded an increase in angiogenic and osteogenic gene expression for woven bone formation. Furthermore, at later timepoints there was evidence of bone resorption after WBF loading. In summary, the vast coverage of the microarray offers a comprehensive characterization of the early differences in expression between woven and lamellar bone formation.

  3. Mechanical Impedance of the Non-loaded Lower Leg with Relaxed Muscles in the Transverse Plane

    PubMed Central

    Ficanha, Evandro Maicon; Ribeiro, Guilherme Aramizo; Rastgaar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the protocols and results of the experiments for the estimation of the mechanical impedance of the humans’ lower leg in the External–Internal direction in the transverse plane under non-load bearing condition and with relaxed muscles. The objectives of the estimation of the lower leg’s mechanical impedance are to facilitate the design of passive and active prostheses with mechanical characteristics similar to the humans’ lower leg, and to define a reference that can be compared to the values from the patients suffering from spasticity. The experiments were performed with 10 unimpaired male subjects using a lower extremity rehabilitation robot (Anklebot, Interactive Motion Technologies, Inc.) capable of applying torque perturbations to the foot. The subjects were in a seated position, and the Anklebot recorded the applied torques and the resulting angular movement of the lower leg. In this configuration, the recorded dynamics are due mainly to the rotations of the ankle’s talocrural and the subtalar joints, and any contribution of the tibiofibular joints and knee joint. The dynamic mechanical impedance of the lower leg was estimated in the frequency domain with an average coherence of 0.92 within the frequency range of 0–30 Hz, showing a linear correlation between the displacement and the torques within this frequency range under the conditions of the experiment. The mean magnitude of the stiffness of the lower leg (the impedance magnitude averaged in the range of 0–1 Hz) was determined as 4.9 ± 0.74 Nm/rad. The direct estimation of the quasi-static stiffness of the lower leg results in the mean value of 5.8 ± 0.81 Nm/rad. An analysis of variance shows that the estimated values for the stiffness from the two experiments are not statistically different. PMID:26697424

  4. Joint mimicking mechanical load activates TGFβ1 in fibrin-poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds seeded with mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Oliver F W; Fahy, Niamh; Alini, Mauro; Stoddart, Martin J

    2016-07-22

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is widely used in an active recombinant form to stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Recently, it has been shown that the application of multiaxial load, that mimics the loading within diarthrodial joints, to MSCs seeded in to fibrin-poly(ester-urethane) scaffolds leads to the endogenous production and secretion of TGF-β1 by the mechanically stimulated cells, which in turn drives the chondrogenic differentiation of the cells within the scaffold. The work presented in this short communication provides further evidence that the application of joint mimicking multiaxial load induces the secretion of TGF-β1 by mechanically stimulated MSCs. The results of this work also show that joint-like multiaxial mechanical load activates latent TGF-β1 in response to loading in the presence or absence of cells; this activation was not seen in non-loaded control scaffolds. Despite the application of mechanical load to scaffolds with different distributions/numbers of cells no significant differences were seen in the percentage of active TGF-β1 quantified in the culture medium of scaffolds from different groups. The similar level of activation in scaffolds containing different numbers of cells, cells at different stages of differentiation or with different distributions of cells suggests that this activation results from the mechanical forces applied to the culture system rather than differences in cellular behaviour. These results are relevant when considering rehabilitation protocols after cell therapy or microfracture, for articular cartilage repair, where increased TGF-β1 activation in response to joint mobilization may improve the quality of developing cartilaginous repair material. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Daunorubicin-Loaded DNA Origami Nanostructures Circumvent Drug-Resistance Mechanisms in a Leukemia Model.

    PubMed

    Halley, Patrick D; Lucas, Christopher R; McWilliams, Emily M; Webber, Matthew J; Patton, Randy A; Kural, Comert; Lucas, David M; Byrd, John C; Castro, Carlos E

    2016-01-20

    Many cancers show primary or acquired drug resistance due to the overexpression of efflux pumps. A novel mechanism to circumvent this is to integrate drugs, such as anthracycline antibiotics, with nanoparticle delivery vehicles that can bypass intrinsic tumor drug-resistance mechanisms. DNA nanoparticles serve as an efficient binding platform for intercalating drugs (e.g., anthracyclines doxorubicin and daunorubicin, which are widely used to treat acute leukemias) and enable precise structure design and chemical modifications, for example, for incorporating targeting capabilities. Here, DNA nanostructures are utilized to circumvent daunorubicin drug resistance at clinically relevant doses in a leukemia cell line model. The fabrication of a rod-like DNA origami drug carrier is reported that can be controllably loaded with daunorubicin. It is further directly verified that nanostructure-mediated daunorubicin delivery leads to increased drug entry and retention in cells relative to free daunorubicin at equal concentrations, which yields significantly enhanced drug efficacy. Our results indicate that DNA origami nanostructures can circumvent efflux-pump-mediated drug resistance in leukemia cells at clinically relevant drug concentrations and provide a robust DNA nanostructure design that could be implemented in a wide range of cellular applications due to its remarkably fast self-assembly (≈5 min) and excellent stability in cell culture conditions.

  6. Optimum design of bolted composite lap joints under mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kradinov, Vladimir Yurievich

    A new approach is developed for the analysis and design of mechanically fastened composite lap joints under mechanical and thermal loading. Based on the combined complex potential and variational formulation, the solution method satisfies the equilibrium equations exactly while the boundary conditions are satisfied by minimizing the total potential. This approach is capable of modeling finite laminate planform dimensions, uniform and variable laminate thickness, laminate lay-up, interaction among bolts, bolt torque, bolt flexibility, bolt size, bolt-hole clearance and interference, insert dimensions and insert material properties. Comparing to the finite element analysis, the robustness of the method does not decrease when modeling the interaction of many bolts; also, the method is more suitable for parametric study and design optimization. The Genetic Algorithm (GA), a powerful optimization technique for multiple extrema functions in multiple dimensions search spaces, is applied in conjunction with the complex potential and variational formulation to achieve optimum designs of bolted composite lap joints. The objective of the optimization is to acquire such a design that ensures the highest strength of the joint. The fitness function for the GA optimization is based on the average stress failure criterion predicting net-section, shear-out, and bearing failure modes in bolted lap joints. The criterion accounts for the stress distribution in the thickness direction at the bolt location by applying an approach utilizing a beam on an elastic foundation formulation.

  7. Effective Mechanism for Synthesis of Neurotransmitter Glutamate and its Loading into Synaptic Vesicles.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Kouji; Ueda, Tetsufumi

    2017-01-01

    Glutamate accumulation into synaptic vesicles is a pivotal step in glutamate transmission. This process is achieved by a vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT) coupled to v-type proton ATPase. Normal synaptic transmission, in particular during intensive neuronal firing, would demand rapid transmitter re-filling of emptied synaptic vesicles. We have previously shown that isolated synaptic vesicles are capable of synthesizing glutamate from α-ketoglutarate (not from glutamine) by vesicle-bound aspartate aminotransferase for immediate uptake, in addition to ATP required for uptake by vesicle-bound glycolytic enzymes. This suggests that local synthesis of these substances, essential for glutamate transmission, could occur at the synaptic vesicle. Here we provide evidence that synaptosomes (pinched-off nerve terminals) also accumulate α-ketoglutarate-derived glutamate into synaptic vesicles within, at the expense of ATP generated through glycolysis. Glutamine-derived glutamate is also accumulated into synaptic vesicles in synaptosomes. The underlying mechanism is discussed. It is suggested that local synthesis of both glutamate and ATP at the presynaptic synaptic vesicle would represent an efficient mechanism for swift glutamate loading into synaptic vesicles, supporting maintenance of normal synaptic transmission.

  8. Elution kinetics, antimicrobial activity, and mechanical properties of 11 different antibiotic loaded acrylic bone cement.

    PubMed

    Gálvez-López, Ruben; Peña-Monje, Alejandro; Antelo-Lorenzo, Ramón; Guardia-Olmedo, Juan; Moliz, Juan; Hernández-Quero, José; Parra-Ruiz, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic-loaded acrylic bone cements (ALABC) spacers are routinely used in the treatment of prosthetic joint infections. The objectives of our study were to evaluate different ALABC for elution kinetics, thermal stability, and mechanical properties. A 10 or 20% mixture (w/w) beads of medium viscosity bone cement (DePuy, Inc) and vancomycin (VAN), gentamycin (GM), daptomycin (DAP), moxifloxacin (MOX), rifampicin (RIF), cefotaxime (CTX), cefepime (FEP), amoxicillin clavulanate (AmC), ampicillin (AMP), meropenem (MER), and ertapenem (ERT) were formed and placed into wells filled with phosphate-buffered saline. Antibiotic concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Antimicrobial activity was tested against Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341 or Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. AmC, AMP, and FEP concentration rapidly decreased after day 2, being almost undetectable at day 4. Sustained and high elution rates were observed with VAN, GM, MOX, and RIF for the 30-day duration of the experiment. DAP, MER, ERT, and CTX elution rates constantly decreased from day 4. All antibiotics tested retained antimicrobial activity proving thermal stability. Mechanical properties of ALABC were maintained except when RIF was used.

  9. Mechanism of ATP-driven PCNA clamp loading by S. cerevisiae RFC.

    PubMed

    Chen, Siying; Levin, Mikhail K; Sakato, Miho; Zhou, Yayan; Hingorani, Manju M

    2009-05-08

    Circular clamps tether polymerases to DNA, serving as essential processivity factors in genome replication, and function in other critical cellular processes as well. Clamp loaders catalyze clamp assembly onto DNA, and the question of how these proteins construct a topological link between a clamp and DNA, especially the mechanism by which ATP is utilized for the task, remains open. Here we describe pre-steady-state analysis of ATP hydrolysis, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) clamp opening, and DNA binding by Saccharomyces cerevisiae replication factor C (RFC), and present the first kinetic model of a eukaryotic clamp-loading reaction validated by global data analysis. ATP binding to multiple RFC subunits initiates a slow conformational change in the clamp loader, enabling it to bind and open PCNA and to bind DNA as well. PCNA opening locks RFC into an active state, and the resulting RFC.ATP.PCNA((open)) intermediate is ready for the entry of DNA into the clamp. DNA binding commits RFC to ATP hydrolysis, which is followed by PCNA closure and PCNA.DNA release. This model enables quantitative understanding of the multistep mechanism of a eukaryotic clamp loader and furthermore facilitates comparative analysis of loaders from diverse organisms.

  10. A finite element model technique to determine the mechanical response of a lumbar spine segment under complex loads.

    PubMed

    Tsouknidas, Alexander; Michailidis, Nikoalos; Savvakis, Savvas; Anagnostidis, Kleovoulos; Bouzakis, Konstantinos-Dionysios; Kapetanos, Georgios

    2012-08-01

    This study presents a CT-based finite element model of the lumbar spine taking into account all function-related boundary conditions, such as anisotropy of mechanical properties, ligaments, contact elements, mesh size, etc. Through advanced mesh generation and employment of compound elements, the developed model is capable of assessing the mechanical response of the examined spine segment for complex loading conditions, thus providing valuable insight on stress development within the model and allowing the prediction of critical loading scenarios. The model was validated through a comparison of the calculated force-induced inclination/deformation and a correlation of these data to experimental values. The mechanical response of the examined functional spine segment was evaluated, and the effect of the loading scenario determined for both vertebral bodies as well as the connecting intervertebral disc.

  11. The dynamic conductance response and mechanics-modulated memristive behavior of the Azurin monolayer under cyclic loads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyue; Shao, Jian; Chen, Yun; Chen, Weijin; Yu, Jing; Wang, Biao; Zheng, Yue

    2017-03-01

    Azurin (Az) has been considered as the research hotspot in molecular electronics, as well as a promising material for building functional devices on the molecular scale because of its special electrical properties and force-dependent conductance effects. Here we carry out an in-depth investigation combined with molecular scale experiments, molecular dynamics simulations, first-principles calculations and theoretical models to reveal the dynamic conductance response of the Az monolayer under cyclic mechanical loading. Experimentally, the conductance of the Az monolayer under continuous cyclic loads was recorded using a conductive atomic force microscope. Our results demonstrate the strong nonlinear force-dependence and significant time-delayed characteristics, which distinctly differ from the results obtained under stepwise loading. It is also found that the period and amplitude of cyclic loads have a great impact on the magnitude, peak value and change rate of the current. The regular dynamic response of the Az conductance under mechanical force looks like a type of memristive behavior, which is defined as mechanics-modulated memristive behavior in this work. In order to verify these peculiar experimental results, we employed both molecular dynamics simulations and first-principles calculations to analyze the structural deformation and molecular orbitals of Az under cyclic loads. A phenomenological model is also established to explain experimental findings and further illustrate mechanics-modulated memristive behavior.

  12. A threshold of mechanical strain intensity for the direct activation of osteoblast function exists in a murine maxilla loading model.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Natsuki; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Marcián, Petr; Borák, Libor; Wakabayashi, Noriyuki

    2016-10-01

    The response to the mechanical loading of bone tissue has been extensively investigated; however, precisely how much strain intensity is necessary to promote bone formation remains unclear. Combination studies utilizing histomorphometric and numerical analyses were performed using the established murine maxilla loading model to clarify the threshold of mechanical strain needed to accelerate bone formation activity. For 7 days, 191 kPa loading stimulation for 30 min/day was applied to C57BL/6J mice. Two regions of interest, the AWAY region (away from the loading site) and the NEAR region (near the loading site), were determined. The inflammatory score increased in the NEAR region, but not in the AWAY region. A strain intensity map obtained from [Formula: see text] images was superimposed onto the images of the bone formation inhibitor, sclerostin-positive cell localization. The number of sclerostin-positive cells significantly decreased after mechanical loading of more than [Formula: see text] in the AWAY region, but not in the NEAR region. The mineral apposition rate, which shows the bone formation ability of osteoblasts, was accelerated at the site of surface strain intensity, namely around [Formula: see text], but not at the site of lower surface strain intensity, which was around [Formula: see text] in the AWAY region, thus suggesting the existence of a strain intensity threshold for promoting bone formation. Taken together, our data suggest that a threshold of mechanical strain intensity for the direct activation of osteoblast function and the reduction of sclerostin exists in a murine maxilla loading model in the non-inflammatory region.

  13. Analysis of graphite/polyimide rail shear specimens subjected to mechanical and thermal loading. [finite element analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, T. A.; Garcia, R.

    1979-01-01

    A two-dimensional, linear-elastic, finite element analysis of selected graphite/polyimide rail shear test specimens was made to determine the mechanical loading and the effect of heating the specimen to a uniform temperature. The presence of specimen free edges and their influence on the accuracy of the rail shear test is discussed. Parameters include the length-to-width ratio of the specimen and the ply layup for symmetric, balanced laminates. Results presented include shear and normal stress distributions and the deflection behavior of various specimens caused by the mechanical loading and elevated temperature.

  14. Thermomechanical loading applied on the cladding tube during the pellet cladding mechanical interaction phase of a rapid reactivity initiated accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellouin de Menibus, Arthur; Sercombe, Jerome; Auzoux, Quentin; Poussard, Christophe

    2014-10-01

    Calculations of the CABRI REP-Na5 pulse were performed with the ALCYONE code in order to determine the evolution of the thermomechanical loading applied on the cladding tube during the Pellet-Cladding Mechanical Interaction (PCMI) phase of a rapid Reactivity Initiated Accident (RIA) initiated at 280 °C that lasted 8.8 ms. The evolution of the following parameters are reported: the cladding temperature, heating rate, strain rate and loading biaxiality. The impact of these parameters on the cladding mechanical behavior and fracture are then briefly reviewed.

  15. Mechanical load and physiological responses of four different resistance training methods in bench press exercise.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Sebastian; Wirtz, Nicolas; Yue, Zengyuan; Kleinöder, Heinz; Mester, Joachim

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the mechanical impact and the corresponding physiological responses of 4 different and often practically applied resistance training methods (RTMs). Ten healthy male subjects (27.3 ± 3.2 years) experienced in resistance training performed 1 exhausting set of bench press exercise until exhaustion for each of the following RTMs: strength endurance (SE), fast force endurance (FFE), hypertrophy (HYP), and maximum strength (MAX). The RTMs were defined by different lifting masses and different temporal distributions of the contraction modes per repetition. Mean concentric power (P), total concentric work (W), and exercise time (EXTIME) were determined. Oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2) was measured during exercise and for 30 minutes postexercise. Mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2, volume of consumed O2, and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were calculated over 30 minutes of recovery. Maximum blood lactate concentration (LAmax) was also determined postexercise. The P was significantly higher (p < 0.01) for FFE and MAX compared with that for SE and HYP. The W was significantly higher for FFE than for all other RTMs (p < 0.01), and it was also lower for SE than for MAX (p < 0.05). EXTIME for SE was significantly higher (p < 0.01) than for all other RTMs, whereas EXTIME for MAX was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than for all other RTMs. Mean V[Combining Dot Above]O2 was significantly higher during FFE than during all other RTMs (p < 0.01). Consumed O2 was significantly higher (p < 0.05) during SE than for HYP and MAX, and it was also significantly higher for FFE and HYP compared with MAX (p < 0.05). The LAmax was significantly higher after FFE than after MAX (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in EPOC between all RTMs. The results indicate that FFE and MAX are adequate to train muscular power despite the discrepancy in the external load. Because FFE performance achieves the highest amount in mechanical

  16. Reversible-strain criteria of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys under cyclic 3D magneto-mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y. J.; Chen, X.; Moumni, Z.

    2012-08-01

    Recent researches revealed that ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMA) in 2D/3D configurations (with multi-axial stresses) had much more advantages (e.g., higher working stress and more application flexibility) than that in 1D configuration (with uniaxial stress). In literature, however, there is no simple criterion to judge whether a cyclic 3D magneto-mechanical loading can induce a large reversible strain (via martensite reorientation in FSMA). In this paper, a 3D magneto-mechanical energy analysis is proposed and incorporated into a phase diagram in terms of deviatoric stresses (including mechanical and magneto-stresses) to study the path-dependent (hysteretic) martensite reorientation in FSMA under 3D cyclic loadings. Based on the phase diagram (a plane graph), general criteria for obtaining reversible strain under cyclic magneto-mechanical loadings are derived, which provide basic guidelines for FSMA's applications under multi-axial loadings. Particularly for FSMA actuators driven by cyclic magnetic fields, the criteria of setting the 3D mechanical stresses to allow field-induced reversible strain are formulated. The 3D criteria can be reduced to 1D and 2D criteria which agree with the existing 1D/2D theoretical and experimental studies.

  17. The effect of mechanical loading on osteogenesis of human dental pulp stromal cells in a novel in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun; Sun, Weibin; Wang, Wenmei; Munyombwe, Theresa; Yang, Xuebin B

    2014-10-01

    Tooth loss often results in alveolar bone resorption because of lack of mechanical stimulation. Thus, the mechanism of mechanical loading on stem cell osteogenesis is crucial for alveolar bone regeneration. We have investigated the effect of mechanical loading on osteogenesis in human dental pulp stromal cells (hDPSCs) in a novel in vitro model. Briefly, 1 × 10(7) hDPSCs were seeded into 1 ml 3% agarose gel in a 48-well-plate. A loading tube was then placed in the middle of the gel to mimic tooth-chewing movement (1 Hz, 3 × 30 min per day, n = 3). A non-loading group was used as a control. At various time points, the distribution of live/dead cells within the gel was confirmed by fluorescence markers and confocal microscopy. The correlation and interaction between the factors (e.g. force, time, depth and distance) were statistically analysed. The samples were processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. After 1-3 weeks of culture in the in-house-designed in vitro bioreactor, fluorescence imaging confirmed that additional mechanical loading increased the viable cell numbers over time as compared with the control. Cells of various phenotypes formed different patterns away from the reaction tube. The cells in the middle part of the gel showed enhanced alkaline phosphatase staining at week 1 but reduced staining at weeks 2 and 3. Additional loading enhanced Sirius Red and type I collagen staining compared with the control. We have thus successfully developed a novel in-house-designed in vitro bioreactor mimicking the biting force to enhance hDPSC osteogenesis in an agarose scaffold and to promote bone formation and/or prevent bone resorption.

  18. Prediction of contact mechanics in metal-on-metal Total Hip Replacement for parametrically comprehensive designs and loads.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Finn E; Nyman, Edward; Coburn, James C

    2015-07-16

    Manufacturers and investigators of Total Hip Replacement (THR) bearings require tools to predict the contact mechanics resulting from diverse design and loading parameters. This study provides contact mechanics solutions for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings that encompass the current design space and could aid pre-clinical design optimization and evaluation. Stochastic finite element (FE) simulation was used to calculate the head-on-cup contact mechanics for five thousand combinations of design and loading parameters. FE results were used to train a Random Forest (RF) surrogate model to rapidly predict the contact patch dimensions, contact area, pressures and plastic deformations for arbitrary designs and loading. In addition to widely observed polar and edge contact, FE results included ring-polar, asymmetric-polar, and transitional categories which have previously received limited attention. Combinations of design and load parameters associated with each contact category were identified. Polar contact pressures were predicted in the range of 0-200 MPa with no permanent deformation. Edge loading (with subluxation) was associated with pressures greater than 500 MPa and induced permanent deformation in 83% of cases. Transitional-edge contact (with little subluxation) was associated with intermediate pressures and permanent deformation in most cases, indicating that, even with ideal anatomical alignment, bearings may face extreme wear challenges. Surrogate models were able to accurately predict contact mechanics 18,000 times faster than FE analyses. The developed surrogate models enable rapid prediction of MoM bearing contact mechanics across the most comprehensive range of loading and designs to date, and may be useful to those performing bearing design optimization or evaluation.

  19. Mechanism of heat generation from loading gaseous hydrogen isotopes into palladium nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriyeva, Olga

    I have carried out the study of hydrogen isotope reactions in the presence of palladium nanoparticles impregnated into oxide powder. My goal was to explain the mechanisms of heat generation in those systems as a result of exposure to deuterium gas. Some researchers have associated this heating with a nuclear reaction in the Pd lattice. While some earlier experiments showed a correlation between the generation of excess heat and helium production as possible evidence of a nuclear reaction, the results of that research have not been replicated by the other groups and the search for radiation was unsuccessful. Therefore, the unknown origin of the excess heat produced by these systems is of great interest. I synthesized different types of Pd and Pt-impregnated oxide samples similar to those used by other research groups. I used different characterization techniques to confirm that the fabrication method I used is capable of producing Pd nanoparticles on the surface of alumina support. I used a custom built gas-loading system to pressurize the material with hydrogen and deuterium gas while measuring heat output as a result of these pressurizations. My initial study confirmed the excess heat generation in the presence of deuterium. However, the in-situ radiometry and alpha-particle measurements did not show any abnormal increase in counts above the background level. In the absence of nuclear reaction products, I decided to look for a conventional chemical process that could account for the excess heat generation. It was earlier suggested that Pd in its nanoparticle form catalyzes hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions in the material. To prove the chemical nature of the observed phenomena I demonstrated that the reaction can be either exo- or endothermic based on the water isotope trapped in the material and the type of gas provided to the system. The H/D exchange was confirmed by RGA, NMR and FTIR analysis. I quantified the amount of energy that can be released due

  20. Bone's early responses to mechanical loading differ in distinct genetic strains of chick: selection for enhanced growth reduces skeletal adaptability.

    PubMed

    Pitsillides, A A; Rawlinson, S C; Mosley, J R; Lanyon, L E

    1999-06-01

    Bone's functional competence is established and maintained, at least partly, by mechanisms involving appropriate adaptation to mechanical loading. These appear to fail in chickens selectively bred either for maximum egg (Egg-type) or meat (Meat-type) production, which show high rates of fracture and skeletal abnormality, respectively. By measuring several early strain-induced responses in cultured embryonic tibiotarsi from commercially bred (Egg-type and Meat-type) and wild-type (Wild-type) chicks, we have investigated the possibility that these skeletal failures are the product of a compromised ability to respond appropriately to loading-induced mechanical strain. Axial loads engendering peak dynamic (1 Hz) longitudinal strains of between -1300 microepsilon and -1500 microepsilon (for 10 minutes) in vitro in tibiotarsi from the three types of 18-day-old chicks increased periosteal osteoblast glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity in both Wild-type (26%, p < 0.01) and Egg-type (49%, p < 0.001) chicks in situ, while Meat-type chicks did not show any significant changes (11%). Load-induced increases in medium nitrite accumulation (stable nitric oxide [NO] metabolite) were produced in Egg-type and Wild-type tibiotarsi (82 +/- 12%, p < 0.01; 39 +/- 8%, p < 0.01), respectively. In contrast, loading produced no change in NO release from Meat-type chick tibiotarsi. These changes in NO release correlated with load-related increases in G6PD activity (R2 = 0.98, p < 0.05) in the different chick types. Wild-type and Meat-type tibiotarsal periosteal osteoblasts responded in a biphasic manner to exogenous prostacyclin (PGI2), with maximal stimulation of G6PD activity at 10(-7) M and 10(-6) M PGI2. However, Egg-type chick osteoblasts showed smaller, progressive increases up to 10(-5) M PGI2. These results indicate that early phases of the adaptive response to loading differ in different genetic strains of embryonic chick; that skeletal abnormalities which develop in

  1. [Mechanisms of changes in the human spinal column in response to static and dynamic axial mechanic loading].

    PubMed

    Moiseev, Yu B

    2014-01-01

    The study was concerned with the human spinal column reaction to axial static and dynamic loading. Fresh segments of the column from dorsal vertebra XI to lumber vertebra II were exposed to axial static (20 mm/min) and dynamic (200 and 500 mm/min) loading. Measured variables included load value, whole segment deformation, anterior surfaces of intervertebral disk Th(XI)-Th(XII) and dorsal vertebra XII, and acoustic emission signals indicative of spongy bone microdestruction. It was found that vertebral body deformation augmented less in comparison with the intervertebral disk and that central parts of the spinal end plates compress greater than peripheral. This difference was more considerable due to static loading rather than dynamic. To produce deformation of a spinal segment by dynamic loading same as by the static one, it is necessary to overcome a stronger resistance of a larger number of trabecular bones. Herefrom it follows that, first, to cause an equal segment compression the dynamic load must be heavier than static and, which is of paramount practical significance, dynamic strength of the column is markedly higher than static. Secondly, spinal stiffness during impact is higher as compared with the static condition. Thirdly, same degree of deformation due to dynamic loading should result in a larger volume of microdestructions comparing with static loading, which is testified by a reliable difference in the number of AE signals accumulated prior to fracture. The number of AE signals amounts to 444.2 ± 308.2 and 85.0 ± 36.6 in case of the dynamic and static loading, respectively (p < 0.05 according to Student's t-criterion).

  2. Optimized design of thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bars by using a variational method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, P.; Saha, K. N.

    2016-08-01

    The present paper evaluates the axial strain and stress of a thermo-mechanically loaded non-uniform bar by using a numerical method based on a variational principle. The solutions are obtained up to the elastic limit of the material based on the assumptions that material properties are independent of temperature variation and plane cross-sections remain plane maintaining axisymmetry. This approximation is carried out by Galerkin's principle, using a linear combination of sets of orthogonal co-ordinate functions which satisfy prescribed boundary conditions. The solution algorithm is implemented with the help of MATLAB® computational simulation software. Some numerical results of thermoelastic field are presented and discussed for different bar materials such as mild steel, copper, aluminium alloy 6061 (Al alloy 6061), aluminium alloy 7075 (Al alloy 7075) and diamond. The effect of geometry parameters like aspect ratio, slenderness ratio and the type of taperness is investigated and the relevant results are obtained in dimensional form. The term bar used in this paper is in generic sense and hence the formulation is applicable for all one dimensional elements, e.g., rods, pipes, truss members, etc.

  3. Myosin IC generates power over a range of loads via a new tension-sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Michael J; Lin, Tianming; Goldman, Yale E; Shuman, Henry; Ostap, E Michael

    2012-09-11

    Myosin IC (myo1c), a widely expressed motor protein that links the actin cytoskeleton to cell membranes, has been associated with numerous cellular processes, including insulin-stimulated transport of GLUT4, mechanosensation in sensory hair cells, endocytosis, transcription of DNA in the nucleus, exocytosis, and membrane trafficking. The molecular role of myo1c in these processes has not been defined, so to better understand myo1c function, we utilized ensemble kinetic and single-molecule techniques to probe myo1c's biochemical and mechanical properties. Utilizing a myo1c construct containing the motor and regulatory domains, we found the force dependence of the actin-attachment lifetime to have two distinct regimes: a force-independent regime at forces < 1 pN, and a highly force-dependent regime at higher loads. In this force-dependent regime, forces that resist the working stroke increase the actin-attachment lifetime. Unexpectedly, the primary force-sensitive transition is the isomerization that follows ATP binding, not ADP release as in other slow myosins. This force-sensing behavior is unique amongst characterized myosins and clearly demonstrates mechanochemical diversity within the myosin family. Based on these results, we propose that myo1c functions as a slow transporter rather than a tension-sensitive anchor.

  4. Microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior of a high strength dual-phase steel under monotonic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Nesterova, E.V.; Bouvier, S.; Bacroix, B.

    2015-02-15

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) microstructures of a high-strength dual-phase steel DP800 have been examined after moderate plastic deformations in simple shear and uniaxial tension. Special attention has been paid to the effect of the intergranular hard phase (martensite) on the microstructure evolution in the near-grain boundary regions. Quantitative parameters of dislocation patterning have been determined and compared with the similar characteristics of previously examined single-phase steels. The dislocation patterning in the interiors of the ferrite grains in DP800 steel is found to be similar to that already observed in the single-phase IF (Interstitial Free) steel whereas the martensite-affected zones present a delay in patterning and display very high gradients of continuous (gradual) disorientations associated with local internal stresses. The above stresses are shown to control the work-hardening of dual-phase materials at moderate strains for monotonic loading and are assumed to influence their microstructure evolution and mechanical behavior under strain-path changes. - Highlights: • The microstructure evolution has been studied by TEM in a DP800 steel. • It is influenced by both martensite and dislocations in the initial state. • The DP800 steel presents a high work-hardening rate due to internal stresses.

  5. Experimental study on crack coalescence mechanisms of pre-existing flaws under blast loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Zhong-wen; Yang, Ren-shu; Ma, Xin-min; Guo, Dong-ming

    2008-11-01

    The PMMA model transmission-type experiment of dynamic caustics was carried out to simulate the fracture blasting process of material containing pre-existing flaws using the dynamic caustic-test system. The mechanism of the fracture coalescence among four prefabricated flaws with echelon geometry distribution was studied under blast loading. The experiment results show that two wing cracks respectively coalescing with the flaw F2 and flaw F3 appear at both tips of the flaw F1 closest to the blasthole. Whereas the flaw F4 doesn't produce wing cracks, the flaw F2 and flaw F3 also respectively generate two wing cracks which don't link up the flaw F4. Crack propagation is greatly affected by preexisting flaws. During the whole fracture process, the wing crack velocity oscillates with the increase of crack propagating time. The value of dynamic stress intensity factor reaches the maximum in a moment and then gradually decreases. The changes of dynamic stress intensity factor also oscillate in the whole time. Furthermore, the value of dynamic stress intensity factor KdII is smaller than that of dynamic stress intensity factor KdI. The results of the present research can provide the theoretical basis for the study on blasting of rock containing flaws.

  6. Frataxin and the molecular mechanism of mitochondrial iron-loading in Friedreich's ataxia.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Shannon; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Sahni, Sumit; Lane, Darius J R; Merlot, Angelica M; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Huang, Michael L-H; Richardson, Des R

    2016-06-01

    The mitochondrion is a major site for the metabolism of the transition metal, iron, which is necessary for metabolic processes critical for cell vitality. The enigmatic mitochondrial protein, frataxin, is known to play a significant role in both cellular and mitochondrial iron metabolism due to its iron-binding properties and its involvement in iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) and heme synthesis. The inherited neuro- and cardio-degenerative disease, Friedreich's ataxia (FA), is caused by the deficient expression of frataxin that leads to deleterious alterations in iron metabolism. These changes lead to the accumulation of inorganic iron aggregates in the mitochondrial matrix that are presumed to play a key role in the oxidative damage and subsequent degenerative features of this disease. Furthermore, the concurrent dys-regulation of cellular antioxidant defense, which coincides with frataxin deficiency, exacerbates oxidative stress. Hence, the pathogenesis of FA underscores the importance of the integrated homeostasis of cellular iron metabolism and the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial redox environments. This review focuses on describing the pathogenesis of the disease, the molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial iron-loading and the dys-regulation of cellular antioxidant defense due to frataxin deficiency. In turn, current and emerging therapeutic strategies are also discussed.

  7. Application of CCG Sensors to a High-Temperature Structure Subjected to Thermo-Mechanical Load

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Weihua; Meng, Songhe; Jin, Hua; Du, Chong; Wang, Libin; Peng, Tao; Scarpa, Fabrizio; Xu, Chenghai

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a simple methodology to perform a high temperature coupled thermo-mechanical test using ultra-high temperature ceramic material specimens (UHTCs), which are equipped with chemical composition gratings sensors (CCGs). The methodology also considers the presence of coupled loading within the response provided by the CCG sensors. The theoretical strain of the UHTCs specimens calculated with this technique shows a maximum relative error of 2.15% between the analytical and experimental data. To further verify the validity of the results from the tests, a Finite Element (FE) model has been developed to simulate the temperature, stress and strain fields within the UHTC structure equipped with the CCG. The results show that the compressive stress exceeds the material strength at the bonding area, and this originates a failure by fracture of the supporting structure in the hot environment. The results related to the strain fields show that the relative error with the experimental data decrease with an increase of temperature. The relative error is less than 15% when the temperature is higher than 200 °C, and only 6.71% at 695 °C. PMID:27754356

  8. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles loading doxorubicin reverse multidrug resistance: performance and mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianan; He, Qianjun; Gao, Yu; Shi, Jianlin; Li, Yaping

    2011-10-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major obstacles for successful chemotherapy in cancer. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, we first report that the performance and mechanism of an inorganic engineered delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loading doxorubicin (DMNs) to overcome the MDR of MCF-7/ADR (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The experimental results showed that DMNs could enhance the cellular uptake of doxorubicin (DOX) and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells. The IC50 of DMNs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 8-fold lower than that of free DOX. However, an improved effect of DOX in DMNs against MCF-7 cells (a DOX-sensitive cancer cell line) was not found. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DMNs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and could result from the down-regulation of P-gp and bypassing the efflux action by MSNs themselves. The cellular uptake mechanism of DMNs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of DMNs by MCF-7/ADR cells. The in vivo biodistribution showed that DMNs induced a higher accumulation of DOX in drug resistant tumors than free DOX. These results suggested that MSNs could be an effective delivery system to overcome multidrug resistance.

  9. Optic Nerve Sheath as a Novel Mechanical Load on the Globe in Ocular Duction

    PubMed Central

    Demer, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The optic nerve (ON) sheath's role in limiting duction has been previously unappreciated. This study employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to demonstrate this constraint on adduction. Methods High-resolution, surface coil axial MRI was obtained in 11 normal adults, 14 subjects with esotropia (ET) having normal axial length (AL) < 25.8 mm, 13 myopic subjects with ET and mean AL 29.3 ± 3.3 (SD) mm, and 7 subjects with exotropia (XT). Gaze angles and ON lengths were measured for scans employing eccentric lateral fixation in which an ON became completely straightened. Results In all groups, ON straightening occurred only in the adducting, not abducting, eye. Adduction at ON straightening was 26.0 ± 8.8° in normal subjects, not significantly different from XT at 22.2 ± 11.8°. However, there was significant increase in comparable adduction in ET to 36.3 ± 9.3°, and in myopic ET to 33.6 ± 10.7° (P < 0.04). Optic nerve length at straightening was 27.6 ± 2.7 mm in normals, not significantly different from 28.2 ± 2.8 mm in ET and 27.8 ± 2.7 mm in XT. In myopic ET, ON length at straightening was significantly reduced to 24.0 ± 2.9 mm (P < 0.002) and was associated with globe retraction in adduction, suggesting ON tethering. Conclusions Large adduction may exhaust length redundancy in the normally sinuous ON and sheath, so that additional adduction must stretch the sheath and retract or deform the globe. These mechanical effects are most significant in ET with axial myopia, but may also exert traction on the posterior sclera absent strabismus or myopia. Tethering by the ON sheath in adduction is an important, novel mechanical load on the globe. PMID:27082297

  10. The effect of loading in mechanical response predictions of bone lengthening.

    PubMed

    Okyar, A Fethi; Bayoglu, Riza

    2012-11-01

    Intramedullary (IM) distractor nails have become a viable alternative in bone-distraction operations. Upon stabilization of the fractured/dissected limb via the nail, the resulting construct accommodates the load bearing function of the otherwise healthy limb. In establishing design performance targets for these devices, in vitro test conditions are widely accepted leaving the in vivo conditions aside. However, in vivo device failures due to distraction forces necessitate novel modeling considerations. It is especially important to simulate the loads in limb distraction, as this brings the bone-implant construct to a totally different regime than the hip-joint contact force (Point-Force Model, PFM). In this work we used a simplified approach to incorporate ligament stretching due to limb distraction via self-equilibrating spring elements in a finite-element setting (spring-force model, SFM). We compared the effect of loading type on load transmission paths through the locking pins, for these two distinct loading modes, namely, SFM and PFM. The two modes illustrate entirely different load transfer regimes around the bone/nail interface region. In order to avoid high contact stresses between the nail and the bone segments, it is advisable to keep the osteotomy away from the mid-range between the pin connections. It was also seen for both loading modes that including an additional pin at a load transfer location does not significantly alter the load carried by a single pin (the additional pin rather acts as a geometric stabilizer).

  11. Report on Toyota/Prius Motor Torque-Capability, Torque-Property, No-Load Back EMF, and Mechanical Losses

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, J.S.

    2004-09-30

    In today's hybrid vehicle market, the Toyota Prius drive system is currently considered the leader in electrical, mechanical, and manufacturing innovations. It is significant that in today's marketplace, Toyota is able to manufacture and sell the vehicle for a profit. This project's objective is to test the torque capability of the 2004 Prius motor and to analyze the torque properties relating to the rotor structure. The tested values of no-load back electromotive force (emf) and mechanical losses are also presented.

  12. Ceramic composites: Fabrication by rolling of highly loaded suspensions, and their mechanical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Mohan

    A novel technique for fabrication of dense, crack free ceramic composites by repeated rolling and folding of highly loaded suspensions has been developed. Coagulated suspensions of Alsb2Osb3 and CeOsb2 stabilized ZrOsb2 tetragonal polycrystals (Ce-TZP) were prepared. The rheology of the highly loaded suspensions were characterized. The suspensions were shear thinning and possessed a yield stress, which was a function of the salt concentration, confirming Lange and co-workers' studies. The Alsb2Osb3 and Ce-TZP suspensions were rolled to obtain tapes. Laminates were fabricated by repeated rolling and folding of these tapes. The flat interface separating suspensions with differing yield stress was found to be unstable under rolling, and was distorted to a wavy shape. When the perturbation was of the order of layer thickness the layered structure broke down into a cellular one, with the harder phase as the included one. The critical number of foldings at which the microstructural transition occurs was found to depend on the yield stress ratio of the constituent suspensions. Typically, it takes from 6 to 9 foldings of 50% thickness reduction to induce the microstructural transition. The rolled samples were dried and pressureless sintered in air to near full density regardless of the number of foldings. The shrinkage anisotropy (in direction parallel and perpendicular to rolling) in shrinkage was found to decrease with decreasing thickness and especially after the microstructural transition, with the cellular material showing no anisotropy. Sintering cracks were formed in some layers thicker than 60 mum and the crack spacing increased with increasing layer thickness. In the layers devoid of sintering cracks, thermal cracks formed during cooling in layers thicker than 50 mum and the crack spacing decreased with increasing layer thickness and saturated at 150 mum. The strength in three point flexure, R-curve behavior and indentation behavior of these composites were

  13. Influence of the Pulse Duration in the Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) Lower-Leg Loading Mechanics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    mitigating floor mat, the Finite Element Analysis ( FEA ) was conducted in various loading conditions. Through the FEA’s results, the pulse-duration...1 2.2 Loading Conditions in the FEA .......................................................................................... 4 2.3 Lower...3.1 FEA Results ......................................................................................................................... 9 3.2

  14. Regulation of adult cardiocyte growth: effects of active and passive mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, M. L.; Janes, D. M.; Barclay, M. M.; Harger, L.; Decker, R. S.

    1997-01-01

    Fluctuations in hemodynamic load have been documented to modulate contractile protein turnover and myofibrillar structure in the heart; however, the relative importance of active and passive loading in regulating adult cardiocyte growth remains unresolved. To address this issue at the cellular level, adult feline cardiocytes were cultured either on Silastic membranes or plastic surfaces. Cardiocyte-laden membranes were stretched 10% of their rest length to enhance passive loading, whereas heart cells cultured on plastic or Silastic were field stimulated at 1 Hz to mimic active loading. Turnover of contractile proteins and structural integrity of the contractile-cytoskeletal apparatus were monitored for periods ranging from 4 to 72 h. Active and passive loading elevated contractile protein synthesis nearly equally (approximately 50%) and promoted the attachment of remodeled myofibrils to vinculin-positive focal contacts and/or costameres during the first 24 h of loading. Thereafter, rates of contractile protein synthesis returned to control values in passively stretched heart cells but remained elevated in field-stimulated cultures. The fractional rate of growth was increased significantly (approximately 8%/day) in electrically paced cells, whereas in passively stretched cardiocytes the growth rate rose only modestly (approximately 2%/day). Changes in the rate of myocyte growth appeared more closely correlated with the development of focal contacts and myofibril remodeling than with changes in myofibrillar protein turnover per se. 2,3-Butanedione monoxime, nifedipine, and, to a lesser extent, ryanodine blocked field-stimulated contractile protein synthesis and myofibrillar remodeling but had no impact on protein turnover or myofibril reassembly in passively loaded cardiocytes. The results of these experiments imply that both active and passive loading stimulate contractile protein turnover and myofibril remodeling, but the generation of active tension accelerates

  15. Biaxial Mechanical Evaluation of Absorbable and Nonabsorbable Synthetic Surgical Meshes Used for Hernia Repair: Physiological Loads Modify Anisotropy Response.

    PubMed

    Cordero, A; Hernández-Gascón, B; Pascual, G; Bellón, J M; Calvo, B; Peña, E

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain information about the mechanical properties of six meshes commonly used for hernia repair (Surgipro(®), Optilene(®), Infinit(®), DynaMesh(®), Ultrapro™ and TIGR(®)) by planar biaxial tests. Stress-stretch behavior and equibiaxial stiffness were evaluated, and the anisotropy was determined by testing. In particular, equibiaxial test (equal simultaneous loading in both directions) and biaxial test (half of the load in one direction following the Laplace law) were selected as a representation of physiologically relevant loads. The majority of the meshes displayed values in the range of 8 and 18 (N/mm) in each direction for equibiaxial stiffness (tangent modulus under equibiaxial load state in both directions), while a few achieved 28 and 50 (N/mm) (Infinit (®) and TIGR (®)). Only the Surgipro (®) mesh exhibited planar isotropy, with similar mechanical properties regardless of the direction of loading, and an anisotropy ratio of 1.18. Optilene (®), DynaMesh (®), Ultrapro (®) and TIGR (®) exhibited moderate anisotropy with ratios of 1.82, 1.84, 2.17 and 1.47, respectively. The Infinit (®) scaffold exhibited very high anisotropy with a ratio of 3.37. These trends in material anisotropic response changed during the physiological state in the human abdominal wall, i.e. T:0.5T test, which the meshes were loaded in one direction with half the load used in the other direction. The Surgipro (®) mesh increased its anisotropic response (Anis[Formula: see text] = 0.478) and the materials that demonstrated moderate and high anisotropic responses during multiaxial testing presented a quasi-isotropic response, especially the Infinit(®) mesh that decreased its anisotropic response from 3.369 to 1.292.

  16. Neurite, a Finite Difference Large Scale Parallel Program for the Simulation of Electrical Signal Propagation in Neurites under Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    García-Grajales, Julián A.; Rucabado, Gabriel; García-Dopico, Antonio; Peña, José-María; Jérusalem, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    With the growing body of research on traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, computational neuroscience has recently focused its modeling efforts on neuronal functional deficits following mechanical loading. However, in most of these efforts, cell damage is generally only characterized by purely mechanistic criteria, functions of quantities such as stress, strain or their corresponding rates. The modeling of functional deficits in neurites as a consequence of macroscopic mechanical insults has been rarely explored. In particular, a quantitative mechanically based model of electrophysiological impairment in neuronal cells, Neurite, has only very recently been proposed. In this paper, we present the implementation details of this model: a finite difference parallel program for simulating electrical signal propagation along neurites under mechanical loading. Following the application of a macroscopic strain at a given strain rate produced by a mechanical insult, Neurite is able to simulate the resulting neuronal electrical signal propagation, and thus the corresponding functional deficits. The simulation of the coupled mechanical and electrophysiological behaviors requires computational expensive calculations that increase in complexity as the network of the simulated cells grows. The solvers implemented in Neurite—explicit and implicit—were therefore parallelized using graphics processing units in order to reduce the burden of the simulation costs of large scale scenarios. Cable Theory and Hodgkin-Huxley models were implemented to account for the electrophysiological passive and active regions of a neurite, respectively, whereas a coupled mechanical model accounting for the neurite mechanical behavior within its surrounding medium was adopted as a link between electrophysiology and mechanics. This paper provides the details of the parallel implementation of Neurite, along with three different application examples: a long myelinated axon, a segmented

  17. Neurite, a finite difference large scale parallel program for the simulation of electrical signal propagation in neurites under mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    García-Grajales, Julián A; Rucabado, Gabriel; García-Dopico, Antonio; Peña, José-María; Jérusalem, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    With the growing body of research on traumatic brain injury and spinal cord injury, computational neuroscience has recently focused its modeling efforts on neuronal functional deficits following mechanical loading. However, in most of these efforts, cell damage is generally only characterized by purely mechanistic criteria, functions of quantities such as stress, strain or their corresponding rates. The modeling of functional deficits in neurites as a consequence of macroscopic mechanical insults has been rarely explored. In particular, a quantitative mechanically based model of electrophysiological impairment in neuronal cells, Neurite, has only very recently been proposed. In this paper, we present the implementation details of this model: a finite difference parallel program for simulating electrical signal propagation along neurites under mechanical loading. Following the application of a macroscopic strain at a given strain rate produced by a mechanical insult, Neurite is able to simulate the resulting neuronal electrical signal propagation, and thus the corresponding functional deficits. The simulation of the coupled mechanical and electrophysiological behaviors requires computational expensive calculations that increase in complexity as the network of the simulated cells grows. The solvers implemented in Neurite--explicit and implicit--were therefore parallelized using graphics processing units in order to reduce the burden of the simulation costs of large scale scenarios. Cable Theory and Hodgkin-Huxley models were implemented to account for the electrophysiological passive and active regions of a neurite, respectively, whereas a coupled mechanical model accounting for the neurite mechanical behavior within its surrounding medium was adopted as a link between electrophysiology and mechanics. This paper provides the details of the parallel implementation of Neurite, along with three different application examples: a long myelinated axon, a segmented

  18. Lung stress, strain, and energy load: engineering concepts to understand the mechanism of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI).

    PubMed

    Nieman, Gary F; Satalin, Joshua; Andrews, Penny; Habashi, Nader M; Gatto, Louis A

    2016-12-01

    It was recently shown that acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) mortality has not been reduced in over 15 years and remains ~40 %, even with protective low tidal volume (LVt) ventilation. Thus, there is a critical need to develop novel ventilation strategies that will protect the lung and reduce ARDS mortality. Protti et al. have begun to analyze the impact of mechanical ventilation on lung tissue using engineering methods in normal pigs ventilated for 54 h. They used these methods to assess the impact of a mechanical breath on dynamic and static global lung strain and energy load. Strain is the change in lung volume in response to an applied stress (i.e., Tidal Volume-Vt). This study has yielded a number of exciting new concepts including the following: (1) Individual mechanical breath parameters (e.g., Vt or Plateau Pressure) are not directly correlated with VILI but rather any combination of parameters that subject the lung to excessive dynamic strain and energy/power load will cause VILI; (2) all strain is not equal; dynamic strain resulting in a dynamic energy load (i.e., kinetic energy) is more damaging to lung tissue than static strain and energy load (i.e., potential energy); and (3) a critical consideration is not just the size of the Vt but the size of the lung that is being ventilated by this Vt. This key concept merits attention since our current protective ventilation strategies are fixated on the priority of keeping the Vt low. If the lung is fully inflated, a large Vt is not necessarily injurious. In conclusion, using engineering concepts to analyze the impact of the mechanical breath on the lung is a novel new approach to investigate VILI mechanisms and to help design the optimally protective breath. Data generated using these methods have challenged some of the current dogma surrounding the mechanisms of VILI and of the components in the mechanical breath necessary for lung protection.

  19. A servo-mechanical load frame for in situ, non-invasive, imaging of damage development

    SciTech Connect

    Breunig, T.M.; Nichols, M.C.; Gruver, J.S.; Kinney, J.H.; Haupt, D.L.

    1993-12-31

    The X-ray tomographic microscope (XTM) is a non-invasive X-ray imaging instrument for characterizing a material`s structure three-dimensionally with microscopic spatial resolution. The authors have designed a servomechanical load frame for use with the XTM which will allow imaging of samples under load. The load frame is capable of generating tensile or compressive forces up to 15.6 kN with a design system stiffness of 8.76 {times} 10{sup 8} N/m. The test specimen can be rotated through 360{degree}, without induced bending or torque. Torqueless motion is accomplished by synchronously rotating the grips on precision bearings with an accuracy of 0.01{degree}. With this load frame it will be possible, for the first time, to image the initiation and accumulation of internal damage (0.5 {mu}m detectability) formed in a 6 mm diameter specimen during the application of a monotonic or low frequency cyclic load. This is accomplished by interrupting the test and maintaining a fixed load (or displacement) during the non-invasive XTM data collection procedure. This paper describes the in situ load frame design and experimental capabilities. This system can be used to enhance the understanding of failure in composite materials.

  20. Residual thermal stress control in composite reinforced metal structures. [by mechanical loading of metal component prior to bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, J. B.; June, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    Advanced composite materials, composed of boron or graphite fibers and a supporting matrix, make significant structural efficiency improvements available to aircraft and aerospace designers. Residual stress induced during bonding of composite reinforcement to metal structural elements can be reduced or eliminated through suitable modification to the manufacturing processes. The most successful method employed during this program used a steel tool capable of mechanically loading the metal component in compression prior to the adhesive bonding cycle. Compression loading combined with heating to 350 F during the bond cycle can result in creep deformation in aluminum components. The magnitude of the deformation increases with increasing stress level during exposure to 350 F.

  1. Influence of increased mechanical loading by hypergravity on the microtubule cytoskeleton and prostaglandin E2 release in primary osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Searby, Nancy D.; Steele, Charles R.; Globus, Ruth K.

    2005-01-01

    Cells respond to a wide range of mechanical stimuli such as fluid shear and strain, although the contribution of gravity to cell structure and function is not understood. We hypothesized that bone-forming osteoblasts are sensitive to increased mechanical loading by hypergravity. A centrifuge suitable for cell culture was developed and validated, and then primary cultures of fetal rat calvarial osteoblasts at various stages of differentiation were mechanically loaded using hypergravity. We measured microtubule network morphology as well as release of the paracrine factor prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). In immature osteoblasts, a stimulus of 10x gravity (10 g) for 3 h increased PGE2 2.5-fold and decreased microtubule network height 1.12-fold without affecting cell viability. Hypergravity (3 h) caused dose-dependent (5-50 g) increases in PGE2 (5.3-fold at 50 g) and decreases (1.26-fold at 50 g) in microtubule network height. PGE2 release depended on duration but not orientation of the hypergravity load. As osteoblasts differentiated, sensitivity to hypergravity declined. We conclude that primary osteoblasts demonstrate dose- and duration-dependent sensitivity to gravitational loading, which appears to be blunted in mature osteoblasts.

  2. Effect of Mechanical Loads and Surface Roughness on Wear of Silorane and Methacrylate-Based Posterior Composites

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Masomeh Hasani; Arami, Sakineh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Dental composite wear in posterior restorations is a concern and is affected by different factors. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of polishing and mechanical loads on wear of silorane-based and methyl methacrylate-based composites resins. Materials and Methods: Of each dental composite (Filtek P90 and Filtek P60), 40 samples were fabricated in a polyethylene mold (4mm diameter, 10mm height). According to the finishing and/or polishing protocols (180-grit or 2500-grit silicon carbide papers), the samples of each composite were divided into two groups. Surface roughness (R ә ) was measured and recorded using a contact profilometer. The weight of each sample was also measured in grams. The wear test was performed in a pin-on-disc device under two different loads (70N, 150N). Afterwards, samples were subjected to profilometry and their weight was measured again. Data were analyzed using t-test and univariate ANOVA. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Higher mechanical load resulted in greater weight loss (P<0.001). Samples polished with 2500-grit papers showed significantly lower Ra changes compared to those polished with 180-grit papers (P<0.001). Filtek P90 had greater weight loss than Filtek P60 except in one condition (180-grit, 70N). Conclusions: Results showed that wear of posterior composite restorations depends on mechanical load, type of composite resin and surface properties. PMID:28243302

  3. The effect of mechanical strains in soft tissues of the shoulder during load carriage.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Amir; Belzer, Noa; Shabshin, Nogah; Zeilig, Gabi; Gefen, Amit; Epstein, Yoram

    2015-11-26

    Soldiers and recreational backpackers are often required to carry heavy loads during military operations or hiking. Shoulder strain appears to be one of the limiting factors of load carriage due to skin and underlying soft tissue deformations, trapped nerves, or obstruction of blood vessels. The present study was aimed to determine relationships between backpack weights and the state of loads in the shoulder׳s inner tissues, with a special focus on the deformations in the brachial plexus. Open-MRI scans were used for developing and then verifying a three-dimensional, non-linear, large deformation, finite element model of the shoulder. Loads were applied at the strap-shoulder contact surfaces of the model by pulling the strap towards the shoulder until the desired load was reached. Increasing the strap tensile forces up to a load that represents 35kg backpack resulted in gradual increase in strains within the underlying soft tissues: the maximal tensile strain in the brachial plexus for a 25kg backpack was 12%, and while carrying 35kg, the maximal tensile strain increased to 16%. The lateral aspect of the brachial plexus was found to be more vulnerable to deformation-inflicted effects than the medial aspect. This is due to the anatomy of the clavicle that poorly shields the plexus from compressive loads applied during load carriage, while the neural tissue in the medial aspect of the shoulder is better protected by the clavicle. The newly developed model can serve as a tool to estimate soft tissue deformations in the brachial plexus for heavy backpack loads, up to 35kg. This method will allow further development of new strap structures and materials for alleviating the strains applied on the shoulder soft tissues.

  4. Comparative study of mechanical properties of dental restorative materials and dental hard tissues in compressive loads

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jong Yeop

    2014-01-01

    There are two objectives. One is to show the differences in the mechanical properties of various dental restorative materials compared to those of enamel and dentin. The other is to ascertain which dental restorative materials are more suitable for clinical treatments. Amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy were processed as dental restorative material specimens. The specimens (width, height, and length of 1.2, 1.2, and 3.0 mm, respectively) were compressed at a constant loading speed of 0.1 mm/min. The maximum stress (115.0 ± 40.6, 55.0 ± 24.8, 291.2 ± 45.3, 274.6 ± 52.2, 2206.0 ± 522.9, and 953.4 ± 132.1 MPa), maximum strain (7.8% ± 0.5%, 4.0% ± 0.1%, 12.7% ± 0.8%, 32.8% ± 0.5%, 63.5% ± 14.0%, and 45.3% ± 7.4%), and elastic modulus (1437.5 ± 507.2, 1548.4 ± 583.5, 2323.4 ± 322.4, 833.1 ± 92.4, 3895.2 ± 202.9, and 2222.7 ± 277.6 MPa) were evident for amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy, respectively. The reference hardness value of amalgam, dental ceramic, gold alloy, dental resin, zirconia, and titanium alloy was 90, 420, 130–135, 86.6–124.2, 1250, and 349, respectively. Since enamel grinds food, its abrasion resistance is important. Therefore, hardness value should be prioritized for enamel. Since dentin absorbs bite forces, mechanical properties should be prioritized for dentin. The results suggest that gold alloy simultaneously has a hardness value lower than enamel (74.8 ± 18.1), which is important in the wear of the opposing natural teeth, and higher maximum stress, maximum strain, and elastic modulus than dentin (193.7 ± 30.6 MPa, 11.9% ± 0.1%, 1653.7 ± 277.9 MPa, respectively), which are important considering the rigidity to absorb bite forces. PMID:25352921

  5. The effect of fullerene C60 on the mechanical and dielectrical behavior of epoxy resins at low loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikhurov, D. V.; Zuev, Vjacheslav V.

    2014-05-01

    Fullerene C60 / epoxy polymers nanocomposites with different C60 loading have (0.01-0.12 wt.%) been prepared. Mechanical testing shows that compared with neat epoxy, mechanical and toughning properties of composites are greatly improved. The addition of fullerene C60 increased the modulus of the epoxy (up to 20%), but the glass transition temperature was unaffected. The measured impact strength was also increased, from 38 to to 115 kJ/m2 with the addition of 0.12wt.% of fullerene C60. The toughning mechanism has been discussed. Dielectric spectroscopy was used to investigate the influence of nanoparticles on the relaxation processes in polymer matrix.

  6. Analysis of shell-type structures subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.; Carlson, R. L.; Riff, R.

    1987-01-01

    A general mathematical model and solution methodologies are being developed for analyzing structural response of thin, metallic shell-type structures under large transient, cyclic, or static thermomechanical loads. Among the system responses, which were associated with these load conditions, were thermal buckling, creep buckling, and ratcheting. Thus, geometric as well as material-type nonlinearities (of high order) can be anticipated and must be considered in the development of the mathematical model. Furthermore, this must also be accommodated in the solution process.

  7. Mechanical loading induces the expression of a Pol I regulon at the onset of skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    von Walden, Ferdinand; Casagrande, Vandre; Östlund Farrants, Ann-Kristin; Nader, Gustavo A

    2012-05-15

    The main goal of the present study was to investigate the regulation of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene transcription at the onset of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Mice were subjected to functional overload of the plantaris by bilateral removal of the synergist muscles. Mechanical loading resulted in muscle hypertrophy with an increase in rRNA content. rDNA transcription, as determined by 45S pre-rRNA abundance, paralleled the increase in rRNA content and was consistent with the onset of the hypertrophic response. Increased transcription and protein expression of c-Myc and its downstream polymerase I (Pol I) regulon (POL1RB, TIF-1A, PAF53, TTF1, TAF1C) was also consistent with the increase in rRNA. Similarly, factors involved in rDNA transcription, such as the upstream binding factor and the Williams syndrome transcription factor, were induced by mechanical loading in a corresponding temporal fashion. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that these factors, together with Pol I, were enriched at the rDNA promoter. This, in addition to an increase in histone H3 lysine 9 acetylation, demonstrates that mechanical loading regulates rRNA synthesis by inducing a gene expression program consisting of a Pol I regulon, together with accessory factors involved in transcription and chromatin remodeling at the rDNA promoter. Altogether, these data indicate that transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms take place in the regulation of ribosome production at the onset of muscle hypertrophy.

  8. Dynamics of Fragmentation: Developing a non-Equilibrium Mechanism for Impact-loading tests on Rock Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffari, H.; Griffith, W. A.; Barber, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Formation of fragments as the result of dynamic processes associated with impulsive loads has been the subject of numerous studies ranging from shaped-charge jet break up and rock blasting to bolide impacts, and, more recently, earthquake rupture. The dynamic strength of solids is varies as a strong function of loading rate, and, in completely failed solids, the characteristic size of fragments is related to the loading dynamics. In this study, we present some novel results using fragmentation of an "order" parameter in an isotropic body, while we use a non-equilibrium thermodynamic formulation to infer characteristics of the fragments. The order parameter is related to general rigidity of the system and is investigated in 3D space including amplitude and phase modes. To this end, we use the idea of the formation of topological defects in the course of rapid pressure changes and show that a power-law scaling describes transient strength versus inverse of the stress-ramp time. Furthermore, we illustrate that the coefficient of this power-law is deeply connected to relaxation (healing) time of the body. In addition, we show that dynamic polarization patterns of the dynamic cracks are analogous to the transition from ferrimagnets to paramagnets, providing insight to the dynamics of microscopic-scale catastrophic failure. This connection helps us to use the Kibble-Zurek mechanism (KZM) to infer the size of fragments from loading rate when considering a linear loading ramp. The idea behind the KZM is to compare the relaxation time (or healing time of the system in equilibrium) with the timescale of change of the control parameter (ɛ). In addition, we discuss a case where inherent defects are present prior to the impulse load and discuss the effect of impurities on the scaling coefficients. To support our approach, we use the results of fast-loading experiments on Westerly Granite supported by recording multiple acoustic emissions.

  9. The deformation and acoustic emission of aluminum-magnesium alloy under non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, S. V.; Plotnikov, V. A.; Lysikov, M. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-01

    The following study investigates the deformation behavior and acoustic emission in aluminum-magnesium alloy under conditions of non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading. The accumulation of deformation in the alloy, in conditions of change from room temperature to 500°C, occurs in two temperature intervals (I, II), characterized by different rates of deformation. The rate of deformation accumulation is correlated with acoustic emission. With load increasing in cycles from 40 to 200 MPa, the value of the boundary temperature (Tb) between intervals I and II changes non-monotonically. In cycles with load up to 90 MPa, the Tb value increases, while an increase up to 200 MPa makes Tb shift toward lower temperatures. This suggests that the shift of boundaries in the region of low temperatures and the appearance of high-amplitude pulses of acoustic emission characterize the decrease of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations with increasing mechanical load, leading to the rupture of interatomic bonds in an elementary deformation act.

  10. The deformation and acoustic emission of aluminum-magnesium alloy under non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, S. V.; Plotnikov, V. A. Lysikov, M. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2015-10-27

    The following study investigates the deformation behavior and acoustic emission in aluminum-magnesium alloy under conditions of non-isothermal thermo-mechanical loading. The accumulation of deformation in the alloy, in conditions of change from room temperature to 500°C, occurs in two temperature intervals (I, II), characterized by different rates of deformation. The rate of deformation accumulation is correlated with acoustic emission. With load increasing in cycles from 40 to 200 MPa, the value of the boundary temperature (T{sub b}) between intervals I and II changes non-monotonically. In cycles with load up to 90 MPa, the T{sub b} value increases, while an increase up to 200 MPa makes T{sub b} shift toward lower temperatures. This suggests that the shift of boundaries in the region of low temperatures and the appearance of high-amplitude pulses of acoustic emission characterize the decrease of the magnitude of thermal fluctuations with increasing mechanical load, leading to the rupture of interatomic bonds in an elementary deformation act.

  11. The functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the mechanical loading of the pubis in the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Fechner, Regina; Stratmann, Matthias; Gößling, Rainer; Sverdlova, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissues other than muscles are supposed to be of mechanical importance, yet they are rarely integrated into finite element models. Here, we investigate the functional role of the ischiopubic membrane for the loading of the pubis of the domestic fowl using 2D finite element analysis. For this purpose, a specimen of the domestic fowl was dissected and soft tissues attaching to the pubis were studied in great detail. Muscles were removed and measurements taken. For the 2D finite element model, the outline was taken from the dissected specimen. Two 2D finite element models were generated: one without and one with ischiopubic membrane. The same muscular loading based on own measurements and electromyographic data was applied to both models. The model without ischiopubic membrane shows anteroventral bending deformation of the scapus pubis, resulting in high compressive and tensile principal stresses at the level of ultimate bone stress values. The model with ischiopubic membrane shows low compressive principal stresses in the pubis consistent with the levels of steady state remodelling of bone. Based on these results, the ischiopubic membrane of the domestic fowl potentially establishes a physiological loading of the pubis and therefore might be of great mechanical significance for the loading of the bone. PMID:23171269

  12. A model for the excitation of osteocytes by mechanical loading-induced bone fluid shear stresses.

    PubMed

    Weinbaum, S; Cowin, S C; Zeng, Y

    1994-03-01

    A new experimentally testable hypothesis is advanced for the mechanosensory transduction mechanism by which communicating osteocytes sense the very small in vivo strains in the calcified matrix components of bone. We propose that the osteocytes, although not responsive to substantial fluid pressures, can be stimulated by relatively small fluid shear stresses acting on the membranes of their osteocytic processes. Biot's porous media theory is used to relate the combined axial and bending loads applied to a whole bone to the flow past the osteocytic processes in their canaliculi. In this theory, the bone pores of interest are the proteoglycan filled fluid annuli that surround the osteocytic processes in the canaliculi. We show that previously predicted fluid pore pressure relaxation times were a hundred-fold too short for the lacunar-canalicular porosity because they neglected the fluid drag associated with proteoglycan matrix on the surface membrane of the osteocyte and its cell processes. The recent theory developed in Tsay and Weinbaum [J. Fluid Mech. 226, 125-148 (1991)] for flow through cross-linked fiber filled channels is used to model the flow through this proteoglycan matrix. The predicted pore relaxation time, 1-2 s, closely corresponds to the times measured by Salzstein and Pollack [J. Biomechanics 20, 271-280 (1987)]. Furthermore, using this model, the magnitude of the predicted fluid induced shear stresses, 8-30 dyn cm-2, is shown to be similar to the fluid shear stresses measured in osteoblasts and other cells in which an intracellular Ca2+ shear stress response had been observed. This model is also used, in conjunction with anatomical data and the pore fluid pressure relaxation time data, to show that the spacing between the fibers is approximately 7 nm. The result is consistent with the notion that the canalicular pore space is filled with glycosaminoglycans that are ordered by albumin according to the model of Michel [J. Physiol. 404, 1-29 (1988

  13. Different mechanical loading protocols influence serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein levels in young healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Niehoff, A; Kersting, U G; Helling, S; Dargel, J; Maurer, J; Thevis, M; Brüggemann, G-P

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate whether a relationship between the loading mode of physical activity and serum cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) concentration exists and whether the lymphatic system contributes to COMP release into the serum. Serum COMP levels were determined in healthy male subjects before, after and at 18 further time points within 7 h at four separate experimental days with four different loading interventions. The loading intervention included high impact running exercise, slow but deep knee bends, and lymphatic drainage of 30 min duration, respectively, and a resting protocol. The serum COMP levels were measured using a commercially available quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An increase (p < 0.001) in serum COMP concentration was detected immediately after 30 min running exercise. Slow but deep knee bends did not cause any significant changes in serum COMP levels. Lymphatic drainage also had no effect on the serum COMP concentration. After 30 min of complete rest the serum COMP level was significantly (p = 0.008) reduced. The elevation of COMP serum concentration seems to depend on the loading mode of the physical activity and to reflect the extrusion of COMP fragments from the impact loaded articular cartilage or synovial fluid.

  14. Experimental studies on fatigue behavior of macro fiber composite (MFC) under mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Akash; Arockiarajan, A.

    2016-04-01

    Macro fiber Composite (MFC) finds its application in active control, vibration control and sensing elements. MFC can be laminated to surfaces or embedded in the structures to be used as an actuator and sensors. Due to its attractive properties and applications, it may be subjected to continuous loading, which leads to the deterioration of the properties. This study is focused on the fatigue lifetime of MFC under tensile and compressive loading at room temperature. Experiments were performed using 4 point bending setup, with MFC pasted at the center of the mild steel beam, to maintain constant bending stress along MFC. MFC is pasted using vacuum bagging technique. Sinusoidal loading is given to sample while maintaining R=0.13 (for tensile testing) and R=10 (for compressive testing). For d31 and d33 type of MFC, test was conducted for the strain values of 727 μ strain, 1400 μ strain, 1700 μ strain and 1900 μ strain for fatigue under tensile loading. For fatigue under compressive loading, both d33 and d31, was subjected to minimum strain of -2000 μ strain. Decrease in the slope of dielectric displacement vs. strain is the measure for the degradation. 10 percent decrease in the slope is set as the failure criteria. Experimental results show that MFC is very reliable below 1700 μ strain (R=0.13) at the room temperature.

  15. Mechanical Loads Test Report for the U.S. Department of Energy 1.5-Megawatt Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, Rick; van Dam, Jeroen

    2015-07-16

    The objective of the test was to obtain a baseline characterization of the mechanical loads of the DOE 1.5 wind turbine located at NREL. The test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Technical Specification, IEC 61400-13 Wind Turbine Generator Systems – Part 13: Measurement of mechanical loads; First Edition 2001-06 [1]. The National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at NREL conducted this test in accordance with its quality system procedures so that the final test report meets the full requirements of its accreditation by the American Association for Laboratory Accreditation (A2LA). NREL’s quality system requires that all applicable requirements specified by A2LA and International Standards Organization/IEC 17025 be met or to note any exceptions in the test report.

  16. Non-Invasive Investigation of Bone Adaptation in Humans to Cumulative Daily Mechanical Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Cleek, Tammy; Sode, Miki

    2003-01-01

    The goal of our research is to better understand the functional relationship between cumulative daily skeletal loading generated by daily activity and the regulation of bone density and bone structure. We have proposed the calcaneus and tibia as useful model bone sites loaded by internal forces in equilibrium with the ground reaction force during gait. The daily history of the ground reaction force is a good relative measure of daily lower limb and calcaneal loading that can be compared to bone density and structure of the calcaneus and cross-sectional geometry of the tibia and fibula. Over the past several years, we have developed image-processing technologies to improve our ability to measure bone density and structure in the calcaneus and lower leg non-invasively with computed tomography and bone densitometry, or DXA. The objective of our current research effort is to determine the accuracy and precision of our CT and DXA image processing methods.

  17. On the mechanism of loading the PCNA sliding clamp by RFC.

    PubMed

    Dionne, Isabelle; Brown, Nicola J; Woodgate, Roger; Bell, Stephen D

    2008-04-01

    Sliding clamps play central roles in a broad range of DNA replication and repair processes. The clamps form circular molecules that must be opened and resealed around DNA by the clamp loader complex to fulfil their function. While most eukaryotes and many archea possess a homo-trimeric PCNA, the PCNA of Sulfolobus solfataricus is a heterotrimer. Here, we exploit the asymmetry of S. solfataricus PCNA to create a series of circularly permuted PCNA subunit fusions, thereby covalently closing defined interfaces within the heterotrimer. Using these concatamers, we investigate the requirements for loading the clamp onto DNA and reveal that a single defined interface within the heterotrimer is opened during the loading process. Subunit-specific interactions between S. solfataricus RFC clamp loader and PCNA permit us to superimpose our data upon the structure of yeast RFC-PCNA complex, thereby presenting a general model for PCNA loading by RFC in archaea and eukaryotes.

  18. Rapid increase in training load affects markers of skeletal muscle damage and mechanical performance.

    PubMed

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Snieckus, Audrius; Venckunas, Tomas; Aagaard, Per; Masiulis, Nerijus; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the changes in indirect markers of muscle damage during 3 weeks (9 training sessions) of stretch-shortening (drop jump) exercise with constant load alternated with steep increases in load. Physically active men (n = 9, mean age 19.1 years) performed a program involving a rapid stepwise increase in the number of jumps, drop height, and squat depth, and the addition of weight. Concentric, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and stimulated knee extension torque were measured before and 10 minutes after each session. Muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase activity were assessed after each session. Steep increments in stretch-shortening exercise load in sessions 4 and 7 amplified the postexercise decrease in stimulated muscle torque and slightly increased muscle soreness but had a minimal effect on the recovery of MVC and stimulated torque. Maximal jump height increased by 7.8 ± 6.3% (p < 0.05), 11.4 ± 3.3% (p < 0.05), and 12.8 ± 3.6% (p < 0.05) at 3, 10, and 17 days after the final training session, respectively. Gains in isometric knee extension MVC (7.9 ± 8.2%) and 100-Hz-evoked torque (9.9 ± 9.6%) (both p < 0.05) were observed within 17 days after the end of the training. The magnitude of improvement was greater after this protocol than that induced by a continuous constant progression loading pattern with small gradual load increments in each training session. These findings suggest that plyometric training using infrequent but steep increases in loading intensity and volume may be beneficial to athletic performance.

  19. Analysis of shell-type structures subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.; Riff, R.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a general mathematical model and solution methodologies for analyzing structural response of thin, metallic shell-type structures under large transient, cyclic or static thermomechanical loads. Among the system responses, which are associated with these load conditions, are thermal buckling, creep buckling and racheting. Thus, geometric as well as material-type nonlinearities (of high order) can be anticipated and must be considered in the development of the mathematical model. Furthermore, this must also be accommodated in the solution procedures.

  20. Analysis of shell-type structures subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.; Riff, R.

    1988-01-01

    This research is performed to develop a general mathematical model and solution methodologies for analyzing structural response of thin, metallic shell-type structures under large transient, cyclic or static thermomechanical loads. Among the system responses, which are associated with these load conditions, are thermal buckling, creep buckling, and ratcheting. Thus, geometric as well as material-type nonlinearities (of high order) can be anticipated and must be considered in the development of the mathematical model. Furthermore, this must also be accommodated in the solution procedures.

  1. Mechanical Behaviors and Elastic Parameters of Laminated Fabric URETEK3216LV Subjected to Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianwen; Chen, Wujun; Wang, Mingyang; Ding, Yong; Zhou, Han; Zhao, Bing; Fan, Jin

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive experimental study of the laminated fabric URETEK3216LV subjected to mono-uniaxial, uniaxial cyclic and biaxial cyclic loading was performed to expose the detailed mechanical behaviors and determine proper elastic parameters for the laminated fabrics under specific stress states. The elastic modulus-strain curves and elastic parameter response surfaces were used to reveal the mechanical behaviors, and a weighted average method of integrals was proposed to calculate the elastic parameters for different stress states. Results show that typical stress-strain curves consist of three distinct regions during loading: crimp region, nonlinear transition region and yarn extension region, which is consistent with those of the constitutive yarns. The elastic parameters and mechanical behaviors of the laminated fabric are stress-state specific, and they vary noticeably with the experimental protocols, stress ratios and stress levels. The proposed method is feasible to evaluate the elastic parameters no matter what stress states the materials are subjected to, and thus it may offer potential access to obtain accurate design and analysis of the airship structures under different loading conditions.

  2. Antagonizing the αv β3 integrin inhibits angiogenesis and impairs woven but not lamellar bone formation induced by mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Ryan E; Schmieder, Anne H; Quirk, James D; Lanza, Gregory M; Silva, Matthew J

    2014-09-01

    Angiogenesis and osteogenesis are critically linked, although the role of angiogenesis is not well understood in osteogenic mechanical loading. In this study, either damaging or non-damaging cyclic axial compression was used to generate woven bone formation (WBF) or lamellar bone formation (LBF), respectively, at the mid-diaphysis of the adult rat forelimb. αv β3 integrin-targeted nanoparticles or vehicle was injected intravenously after mechanical loading. β3 integrin subunit expression on vasculature was maximal 7 days after damaging mechanical loading, but was still robustly expressed 14 days after loading. Accordingly, targeted nanoparticle delivery in WBF-loaded limbs was increased compared with non-loaded limbs. Vascularity was dramatically increased after WBF loading (+700% on day 14) and modestly increased after LBF loading (+50% on day 14). This increase in vascularity was inhibited by nanoparticle treatment in both WBF- and LBF-loaded limbs at days 7 and 14 after loading. Decreased vascularity led to diminished woven, but not lamellar, bone formation. Decreased woven bone formation resulted in impaired structural properties of the skeletal repair, particularly in post-yield behavior. These results demonstrate that αv β3 integrin-mediated angiogenesis is critical for recovering fracture resistance after bone injury but is not required for bone modeling after modest mechanical strain. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  3. Antagonizing the αvβ3 Integrin Inhibits Angiogenesis and Impairs Woven but Not Lamellar Bone Formation Induced by Mechanical Loading

    PubMed Central

    Tomlinson, Ryan E.; Schmieder, Anne H.; Quirk, James D.; Lanza, Gregory M.; Silva, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis and osteogenesis are critically linked, though the role of angiogenesis is not well understood in osteogenic mechanical loading. In this study, either damaging or non-damaging cyclic axial compression was used to generate woven bone formation (WBF) or lamellar bone formation (LBF), respectively, at the mid-diaphysis of the adult rat forelimb. αvβ3 integrin targeted nanoparticles or vehicle was injected intravenously following mechanical loading. β3 integrin subunit expression on vasculature was maximal 7 days after damaging mechanical loading, but was still robustly expressed 14 days after loading. Accordingly, targeted nanoparticle delivery in WBF loaded limbs was increased compared to non-loaded limbs. Vascularity was dramatically increased after WBF loading (+700% on day 14) and modestly increased after LBF loading (+50% on day 14). This increase in vascularity was inhibited by nanoparticle treatment in both WBF and LBF loaded limbs at days 7 and 14 after loading. Decreased vascularity led to diminished woven, but not lamellar, bone formation. Decreased woven bone formation resulted in impaired structural properties of the skeletal repair, particularly in post-yield behavior. These results demonstrate that αvβ3 integrin mediated angiogenesis is critical for recovering fracture resistance following bone injury, but is not required for bone modeling after modest mechanical strain. PMID:24644077

  4. Numerical simulation of effective mechanical properties of stochastic composites with consideration for structural evolution under intensive dynamic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Karakulov, Valerii V.; Smolin, Igor Yu. E-mail: skrp@ftf.tsu.ru; Skripnyak, Vladimir A. E-mail: skrp@ftf.tsu.ru

    2014-11-14

    Mechanical behavior of stochastic metal-ceramic composites with the aluminum matrix under high-rate deformation at shock-wave loading is numerically simulated with consideration for structural evolution. Effective values of mechanical parameters of metal-ceramic composites AlB{sub 4}C, AlSiC, and AlAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} are evaluated depending on different concentration of ceramic inclusions.

  5. Dependence of Some Mechanical Properties of Elastic Bands on the Length and Load Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triana, C. A.; Fajardo, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a study of the maximum stress supported by elastics bands of nitrile as a function of the natural length and the load time. The maximum tension of rupture and the corresponding variation in length were found by measuring the elongation of an elastic band when a mass is suspended from its free end until it reaches the breaking point. The…

  6. Effect of Protective Devices on Brain Trauma Mechanics Under Idealized Shock Wave Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-29

    head form and potential shockwave interactions. Blue square indicates location of sensor 1 with respect to the brim of the helmet. The shock fronts...outside may be due to the jet wind effect. As the RED head is loaded due to the traversing shockwave , it springs back due to the energy stored in the

  7. Structural mechanism of RPA loading on DNA during activation of a simple pre-replication complex.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaohua; Klimovich, Vitaly; Arunkumar, Alphonse I; Hysinger, Erik B; Wang, Yingda; Ott, Robert D; Guler, Gulfem D; Weiner, Brian; Chazin, Walter J; Fanning, Ellen

    2006-11-29

    We report that during activation of the simian virus 40 (SV40) pre-replication complex, SV40 T antigen (Tag) helicase actively loads replication protein A (RPA) on emerging single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). This novel loading process requires physical interaction of Tag origin DNA-binding domain (OBD) with the RPA high-affinity ssDNA-binding domains (RPA70AB). Heteronuclear NMR chemical shift mapping revealed that Tag-OBD binds to RPA70AB at a site distal from the ssDNA-binding sites and that RPA70AB, Tag-OBD, and an 8-nucleotide ssDNA form a stable ternary complex. Intact RPA and Tag also interact stably in the presence of an 8-mer, but Tag dissociates from the complex when RPA binds to longer oligonucleotides. Together, our results imply that an allosteric change in RPA quaternary structure completes the loading reaction. A mechanistic model is proposed in which the ternary complex is a key intermediate that directly couples origin DNA unwinding to RPA loading on emerging ssDNA.

  8. Deletion of Nrf2 reduces skeletal mechanical properties and decreases load-driven bone formation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong-Xin; Li, Lei; Corry, Kylie A; Zhang, Pei; Yang, Yang; Himes, Evan; Mihuti, Cristina Layla; Nelson, Cecilia; Dai, Guoli; Li, Jiliang

    2015-05-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor expressed in many cell types, including osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts. Nrf2 has been considered a master regulator of cytoprotective genes against oxidative and chemical insults. The lack of Nrf2 can induce pathologies in multiple organs. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Nrf2 in load-driven bone metabolism using Nrf2 knockout (KO) mice. Compared to age-matched littermate wild-type controls, Nrf2 KO mice have significantly lowered femoral bone mineral density (-7%, p<0.05), bone formation rate (-40%, p<0.05), as well as ultimate force (-11%, p<0.01). The ulna loading experiment showed that Nrf2 KO mice were less responsive than littermate controls, as indicated by reduction in relative mineralizing surface (rMS/BS, -69%, p<0.01) and relative bone formation rate (rBFR/BS, -84%, p<0.01). Furthermore, deletion of Nrf2 suppressed the load-driven gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Wnt5a in cultured primary osteoblasts. Taken together, the results suggest that the loss-of-function mutation of Nrf2 in bone impairs bone metabolism and diminishes load-driven bone formation.

  9. Generation of shear waves as an effective mechanism of dynamic load of the lithotripter shock wave on the kidney stone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.; Cleveland, Robin O.; Bailey, Michael R.; Crum, Lawrence A.

    2003-10-01

    A number of stone comminution mechanisms have been studied in lithotripsy. Except cavitation erosion, these mechanisms (namely, spallation, dynamic fatigue, shear, and circumferential compression) are associated with stresses generated in the stone by the shock wave. The mechanical load on the stone depends on the waveform and stone structure, size, and shape. We modeled the propagation of lithotripter shock waves through a cylindrical stone with a finite differences simulation based on Lame's equation. The stone parameters were similar to those of natural kidney stones. A new mechanism of tensile stress generation is predicted that may be 5-10 times more efficient than spalling. Shear elasticity of the stone gave rise to the peak tensile strain in the bulk of the stone; this strain occurs near the stone axis due to coherent arrival of shear waves from the front edges of the stone. The position of the region of maximum strain and direction of corresponding tensile forces is similar to those predicted by the spalling mechanism. The modeling also showed that circumferential compression is not activated by the dynamic load produced by a short shock wave typical for lithotripsy. [Work supported by NIH PO1 DK43881, RO1 DK55674 and FOGARTY, CDRF, ONRIFO, and NSBRI.

  10. Application of Fracture Mechanics to Specify the Proof Load Factor for Clamp Band Systems of Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singaravelu, J.; Sundaresan, S.; Nageswara Rao, B.

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a methodology for evaluation of the proof load factor (PLF) for clamp band system (CBS) made of M250 Maraging steel following fracture mechanics principles.CBS is most widely used as a structural element and as a separation system. Using Taguchi's design of experiments and the response surface method (RSM) the compact tension specimens were tested to establish an empirical relation for the failure load ( P max) in terms of the ultimate strength, width, thickness, and initial crack length. The test results of P max closely matched with the developed RSM empirical relation. Crack growth rates of the maraging steel in different environments were examined. Fracture strength (σf) of center surface cracks and through-crack tension specimens are evaluated utilizing the fracture toughness ( K IC). Stress induced in merman band at flight loading conditions is evaluated to estimate the higher load factor and PLF. Statistical safety factor and reliability assessments were made for the specified flaw sizes useful in the development of fracture control plan for CBS of launch vehicles.

  11. Silver nanoparticles-loaded activated carbon fibers using chitosan as binding agent: Preparation, mechanism, and their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chengli; Hu, Dongmei; Cao, Qianqian; Yan, Wei; Xing, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The effective and strong adherence of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) to the substrate surface is pivotal to the practical application of those AgNPs-modified materials. In this work, AgNPs were synthesized through a green and facile hydrothermal method. Chitosan was introduced as the binding agent for the effective loading of AgNPs on activated carbon fibers (ACF) surface to fabricate the antibacterial material. Apart from conventional instrumental characterizations, i. e., scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), zeta potential and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area measurement, molecular dynamics simulation method was also applied to explore the loading mechanism of AgNPs on the ACF surface. The AgNPs-loaded ACF material showed outstanding antibacterial activity for S. aureus and E. coli. The combination of experimental and theoretical calculation results proved chitosan to be a promising binding agent for the fabrication of AgNPs-loaded ACF material with excellent antibacterial activity.

  12. Effects of Tangential Edge Constraints on the Postbuckling Behavior of Flat and Curved Panels Subjected to Thermal and Mechanical Loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, W.; Librescu, L.; Nemeth, M. P.; Starnes, J. H. , Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of tangential edge constraints on the postbuckling response of flat and shallow curved panels subjected to thermal and mechanical loads is presented. The mechanical loads investigated are uniform compressive edge loads and transverse lateral pressure. The temperature fields considered are associated with spatially nonuniform heating over the panels, and a linear through-the-thickness temperature gradient. The structural model is based on a higher-order transverse-shear-deformation theory of shallow shells that incorporates the effects of geometric nonlinearities, initial geometric imperfections, and tangential edge motion constraints. Results are presented for three-layer sandwich panels made from transversely isotropic materials. Simply supported panels are considered in which the tangential motion of the unloaded edges is either unrestrained, partially restrained, or fully restrained. These results focus on the effects of the tangential edge restraint on the postbuckling response. The results of this study indicate that tangentially restraining the edges of a curved panel can make the panel insensitive to initial geometric imperfections in some cases.

  13. Identification of genes regulated during mechanical load-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnatty, S. E.; Dyck, J. R.; Michael, L. H.; Olson, E. N.; Abdellatif, M.; Schneider, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is associated with both adaptive and adverse changes in gene expression. To identify genes regulated by pressure overload, we performed suppressive subtractive hybridization between cDNA from the hearts of aortic-banded (7-day) and sham-operated mice. In parallel, we performed a subtraction between an adult and a neonatal heart, for the purpose of comparing different forms of cardiac hypertrophy. Sequencing more than 100 clones led to the identification of an array of functionally known (70%) and unknown genes (30%) that are upregulated during cardiac growth. At least nine of those genes were preferentially expressed in both the neonatal and pressure over-load hearts alike. Using Northern blot analysis to investigate whether some of the identified genes were upregulated in the load-independent calcineurin-induced cardiac hypertrophy mouse model, revealed its incomplete similarity with the former models of cardiac growth. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  14. Simplified strategies based on damage mechanics for concrete under dynamic loading.

    PubMed

    Mazars, Jacky; Grange, Stéphane

    2017-01-28

    Based on previous work, the µ damage model has been designed to figure out the various damage effects in concrete correlated with monotonic and cyclic loading, including unilateral effects. Assumptions are formulated to simplify constitutive relationships while still allowing for a correct description of the main nonlinear effects. In this context, the paper presents an enhanced simplified finite-element description including a damage description, based on the use of multifibre beam elements and including strain rate effects. Applications show that such a strategy leads to an efficient tool to simulate dynamic loading at low, medium and high velocities.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  15. Experimental study of mechanical properties of liquids under shock wave loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannikova, I. A.; Uvarov, S. V.; Zubareva, A. N.; Utkin, A. V.; Naimark, O. B.

    2016-11-01

    Glycerol and silicone oil were studied experimentally under shock-wave loading conditions at different temperatures and strain rates. It was found that the temperature has a significant influence on the spall strength of glycerol near the point of phase transition and weak influence on the spall strength of silicone oil. The spall strength of the silicone oil does not depend on the strain rate also. Dynamic viscosity of glycerol measured at the wave front found to be strain rate sensitive.

  16. Capturing the Energy Absorbing Mechanisms of Composite Structures under Crash Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Bonnie

    As fiber reinforced composite material systems become increasingly utilized in primary aircraft and automotive structures, the need to understand their contribution to the crashworthiness of the structure is of great interest to meet safety certification requirements. The energy absorbing behavior of a composite structure, however, is not easily predicted due to the great complexity of the failure mechanisms that occur within the material. Challenges arise both in the experimental characterization and in the numerical modeling of the material/structure combination. At present, there is no standardized test method to characterize the energy absorbing capability of composite materials to aide crashworthy structural design. In addition, although many commercial finite element analysis codes exist and offer a means to simulate composite failure initiation and propagation, these models are still under development and refinement. As more metallic structures are replaced by composite structures, the need for both experimental guidelines to characterize the energy absorbing capability of a composite structure, as well as guidelines for using numerical tools to simulate composite materials in crash conditions has become a critical matter. This body of research addresses both the experimental characterization of the energy absorption mechanisms occurring in composite materials during crushing, as well as the numerical simulation of composite materials undergoing crushing. In the experimental investigation, the specific energy absorption (SEA) of a composite material system is measured using a variety of test element geometries, such as corrugated plates and tubes. Results from several crush experiments reveal that SEA is not a constant material property for laminated composites, and varies significantly with the geometry of the test specimen used. The variation of SEA measured for a single material system requires that crush test data must be generated for a range of

  17. Observations, models, and mechanisms of failure of surface rocks surrounding planetary surface loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, R. A.; Zuber, M. T.

    1994-01-01

    Geophysical models of flexural stresses in an elastic lithosphere due to an axisymmetric surface load typically predict a transition with increased distance from the center of the load of radial thrust faults to strike-slip faults to concentric normal faults. These model predictions are in conflict with the absence of annular zones of strike-slip faults around prominent loads such as lunar maria, Martian volcanoes, and the Martian Tharsis rise. We suggest that this paradox arises from difficulties in relating failure criteria for brittle rocks to the stress models. Indications that model stresses are inappropriate for use in fault-type prediction include (1) tensile principal stresses larger than realistic values of rock tensile strength, and/or (2) stress differences significantly larger than those allowed by rock-strength criteria. Predictions of surface faulting that are consistent with observations can be obtained instead by using tensile and shear failure criteria, along with calculated stress differences and trajectories, with model stress states not greatly in excess of the maximum allowed by rock fracture criteria.

  18. Excess nitrate loads to coastal waters reduces nitrate removal efficiency: mechanism and implications for coastal eutrophication.

    PubMed

    Lunau, Mirko; Voss, Maren; Erickson, Matthew; Dziallas, Claudia; Casciotti, Karen; Ducklow, Hugh

    2013-05-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are becoming increasingly nitrogen-saturated due to anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural loading with artificial fertilizer. Thus, more and more reactive nitrogen is entering streams and rivers, primarily as nitrate, where it is eventually transported towards the coastal zone. The assimilation of nitrate by coastal phytoplankton and its conversion into organic matter is an important feature of the aquatic nitrogen cycle. Dissolved reactive nitrogen is converted into a particulate form, which eventually undergoes nitrogen removal via microbial denitrification. High and unbalanced nitrate loads to the coastal zone may alter planktonic nitrate assimilation efficiency, due to the narrow stochiometric requirements for nutrients typically shown by these organisms. This implies a cascade of changes for the cycling of other elements, such as carbon, with unknown consequences at the ecosystem level. Here, we report that the nitrate removal efficiency (NRE) of a natural phytoplankton community decreased under high, unbalanced nitrate loads, due to the enhanced recycling of organic nitrogen and subsequent production and microbial transformation of excess ammonium. NRE was inversely correlated with the amount of nitrate present, and mechanistically controlled by dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and organic carbon (Corg) availability. These findings have important implications for the management of nutrient runoff to coastal zones.

  19. Enhanced microwave shielding and mechanical properties of high loading MWCNT-epoxy composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B. P.; Prasanta; Choudhary, Veena; Saini, Parveen; Pande, Shailaja; Singh, V. N.; Mathur, R. B.

    2013-04-01

    Dispersion of high loading of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in epoxy resin is a challenging task for the development of efficient and thin electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding materials. Up to 20 wt% of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) loading in the composite was achieved by forming CNT prepreg in the epoxy resin as a first step. These prepreg laminates were then compression molded to form composites which resulted in EMI shielding effectiveness of -19 dB for 0.35 mm thick film and -60 dB at for 1.75 mm thick composites in the X-band (8.2-12.4 GHz). One of the reasons for such high shielding is attributed to the high electrical conductivity of the order of 9 S cm-1 achieved in these composites which is at least an order of magnitude higher than previously reported results at this loading. In addition, an improvement of 40 % in the tensile strength over the neat resin value is observed. Thermal conductivity of the MWCNTs-epoxy composite reached 2.18 W/mK as compared to only 0.14 W/mK for cured epoxy.

  20. Liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass but is dispensable for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in female mice.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Johan; Windahl, Sara H; Saxon, Leanne; Sjögren, Klara; Koskela, Antti; Tuukkanen, Juha; Ohlsson, Claes

    2016-07-01

    Low circulating IGF-I is associated with increased fracture risk. Conditional depletion of IGF-I produced in osteoblasts or osteocytes inhibits the bone anabolic effect of mechanical loading. Here, we determined the role of endocrine IGF-I for the osteogenic response to mechanical loading in young adult and old female mice with adult, liver-specific IGF-I inactivation (LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice, serum IGF-I reduced by ≈70%) and control mice. The right tibia was subjected to short periods of axial cyclic compressive loading three times/wk for 2 wk, and measurements were performed using microcomputed tomography and mechanical testing by three-point bending. In the nonloaded left tibia, the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice had lower cortical bone area and increased cortical porosity, resulting in reduced bone mechanical strength compared with the controls. Mechanical loading induced a similar response in LI-IGF-I(-/-) and control mice in terms of cortical bone area and trabecular bone volume fraction. In fact, mechanical loading produced a more marked increase in cortical bone mechanical strength, which was associated with a less marked increase in cortical porosity, in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice compared with the control mice. In conclusion, liver-derived IGF-I regulates cortical bone mass, cortical porosity, and mechanical strength under normal (nonloaded) conditions. However, despite an ∼70% reduction in circulating IGF-I, the osteogenic response to mechanical loading was not attenuated in the LI-IGF-I(-/-) mice.

  1. Nonlinear postbuckling of imperfect doubly curved thin shallow FGM shells resting on elastic foundations and subjected to mechanical loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Nguyen Dinh; Quan, Tran Quoc

    2013-11-01

    The nonlinear response of buckling and posbuckling of imperfect thin functionally graded doubly curved thin shallow shells resting on elastic foundations and subjected to some mechanical loads is investigated analytically. The elastic moduli of materials, Young's modulus, and Poisson ratio are all graded in the shell thickness direction according to a simple power-law in terms of volume fractions of constituents. All formulations are based on the classical theory of shells with account of geometrical nonlinearity, an initial geometrical imperfection, and a Pasternak-type elastic foundation. By employing the Galerkin method, explicit relations for the load-deflection curves of simply supported doubly curved shallow FGM shells are determined. The effects of material and geometrical properties, foundation stiffness, and imperfection of shells on the buckling and postbuckling loadcarrying capacity of spherical and cylindrical shallow FGM shells are analyzed and discussed.

  2. [Preparation and characterization of irinotecan hydrochloride loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles and its mechanism of decreasing drug intestinal toxicity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Xin; Guo, Shi-Yan; Li, Fei-Fei; Gan, Yong

    2012-11-01

    In this work, we developed PEO-PPO-PEO micelles loaded with irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) using breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitory material PEO20-PPO70-PEO20, and studied its mechanism of decreasing CPT-11 induced delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity. BCRP-overexpressing MDCKII (MDCKII/BCRP) cells were used to evaluate the effect of PEO20-PPO70-PEO20 and PEO-PPO-PEO micelles on transmembrane transport of CPT-11 in vitro. The biliary excretion, delayed diarrhea and intestinal damage of CPT-11 loaded PEO-PPO-PEO micelles of rats were investigated. The results showed that the obtained micelles could decrease the biliary excretion of CPT-11, ameliorate delayed diarrhea and intestinal toxicity of rats through inhibiting BCRP-mediated CPT-11 efflux. PEO-PPO-PEO micelles were promising carriers to reduce intestinal toxicity of CPTs.

  3. Superior Mechanical Properties of AlCoCrFeNiTi x High-Entropy Alloys upon Dynamic Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Z. M.; Ma, S. G.; Chu, M. Y.; Yang, H. J.; Wang, Z. H.; Zhang, Y.; Qiao, J. W.

    2016-02-01

    High-entropy alloys with composition of AlCoCrFeNiTi x ( x: molar ratio; x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) under quasi-static and dynamic compression exhibit excellent mechanical properties. A positive strain-rate sensitivity of yield strength and the strong work-hardening behavior during plastic flows dominate upon dynamic loading in the present alloy system. The constitutive relationships are extracted to model flow behaviors by employing the Johnson-Cook constitutive model. Upon dynamic loading, the ultimate strength and fracture strain of AlCoCrFeNiTi x alloys are superior to most of bulk metallic glasses and in situ metallic glass matrix composites.

  4. Experimental characterization and constitutive modeling of the mechanical behavior of molybdenum under electromagnetically applied compression-shear ramp loading

    DOE PAGES

    Alexander, C. Scott; Ding, Jow -Lian; Asay, James Russell

    2016-03-09

    Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPSmore » experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. Additionally, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material

  5. Experimental characterization and constitutive modeling of the mechanical behavior of molybdenum under electromagnetically applied compression-shear ramp loading

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C. Scott; Ding, Jow -Lian; Asay, James Russell

    2016-03-09

    Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPS experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. Additionally, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material model for

  6. Experimental characterization and constitutive modeling of the mechanical behavior of molybdenum under electromagnetically applied compression-shear ramp loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, C. S.; Ding, J. L.; Asay, J. R.

    2016-03-01

    Magnetically applied pressure-shear (MAPS) is a new experimental technique that provides a platform for direct measurement of material strength at extreme pressures. The technique employs an imposed quasi-static magnetic field and a pulsed power generator that produces an intense current on a planar driver panel, which in turn generates high amplitude magnetically induced longitudinal compression and transverse shear waves into a planar sample mounted on the drive panel. In order to apply sufficiently high shear traction to the test sample, a high strength material must be used for the drive panel. Molybdenum is a potential driver material for the MAPS experiment because of its high yield strength and sufficient electrical conductivity. To properly interpret the results and gain useful information from the experiments, it is critical to have a good understanding and a predictive capability of the mechanical response of the driver. In this work, the inelastic behavior of molybdenum under uniaxial compression and biaxial compression-shear ramp loading conditions is experimentally characterized. It is observed that an imposed uniaxial magnetic field ramped to approximately 10 T through a period of approximately 2500 μs and held near the peak for about 250 μs before being tested appears to anneal the molybdenum panel. In order to provide a physical basis for model development, a general theoretical framework that incorporates electromagnetic loading and the coupling between the imposed field and the inelasticity of molybdenum was developed. Based on this framework, a multi-axial continuum model for molybdenum under electromagnetic loading is presented. The model reasonably captures all of the material characteristics displayed by the experimental data obtained from various experimental configurations. In addition, data generated from shear loading provide invaluable information not only for validating but also for guiding the development of the material model for

  7. Characterization of single actomyosin rigor bonds: load dependence of lifetime and mechanical properties.

    PubMed Central

    Nishizaka, T; Seo, R; Tadakuma, H; Kinosita, K; Ishiwata, S

    2000-01-01

    Load dependence of the lifetime of the rigor bonds formed between a single myosin molecule (either heavy meromyosin, HMM, or myosin subfragment-1, S1) and actin filament was examined in the absence of nucleotide by pulling the barbed end of the actin filament with optical tweezers. For S1, the relationship between the lifetime (tau) and the externally imposed load (F) at absolute temperature T could be expressed as tau(F) = tau(0).exp(-F.d/k(B)T) with tau(0) of 67 s and an apparent interaction distance d of 2.4 nm (k(B) is the Boltzmann constant). The relationship for HMM was expressed by the sum of two exponentials, with two sets of tau(0) and d being, respectively, 62 s and 2.7 nm, and 950 s and 1.4 nm. The fast component of HMM coincides with tau(F) for S1, suggesting that the fast component corresponds to single-headed binding and the slow component to double-headed binding. These large interaction distances, which may be a common characteristic of motor proteins, are attributed to the geometry for applying an external load. The pulling experiment has also allowed direct estimation of the number of myosin molecules interacting with an actin filament. Actin filaments tethered to a single HMM molecule underwent extensive rotational Brownian motion, indicating a low torsional stiffness for HMM. From these results, we discuss the characteristics of interaction between actin and myosin, with the focus on the manner of binding of myosin. PMID:10920026

  8. Stress-strain state and durability of mechanically inhomogeneous welds under low-cycle loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazenas, A.; Daunis, M.

    2008-02-01

    Relations are proposed for the determination of the stress-strain state, strength, and life of butt welds with mild and hard interlayers under cyclic elastoplastic tension-compression. The accumulation of cyclic and quasistatic damages is determined with allowance for the redistribution of the cyclic elastoplastic strains and hardness of the stress state due to changes in the cyclic properties of separate regions of welds. The theoretical distribution of cyclic strains and the durability of welds under cyclic elastoplastic loading are supported by experimental data

  9. Mechanism-Based Enhanced Delivery of Drug-Loaded Targeted Nanoparticles for Breast Cancer Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    of the reaction mixtures, against (1) 0.5% aqueous ammonia in the presence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and (2) distilled water. The...organs of the reticuloendothelial system such as the liver and spleen . Such high uptake of nanoparticles in liver and spleen has been reported for...0.4 Liver 147 425 2.9 Spleen 218 1601 7.3 Kidney 75 69 0.9 Lung 222 90 0.4 aAUC ratio = AUC of DOX-loaded nanogels/AUC of free DOX Fig. 4

  10. A geometrically nonlinear analysis of interlaminar stresses in unsymmetrically laminated plates subjected to inplane mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norwood, D. Scott; Shuart, Mark J.; Herakovich, Carl T.

    1991-01-01

    The present analysis of interlaminar stresses in unsymmetrically laminates plates gives attention to the linear elastic large-deflection response of square laminated composite plates subjected to either uniaxial tension or compression loading. The effects of Poisson-ratio and mutual-influence coefficient mismatching between adjacent layers is evaluated in both cross-ply and angle-ply, and symmetric and asymmetric laminates. A global/local analysis procedure is used to obtain improved free-edge depictions; the results obtained indicate that the out-of-plane deflections of the unsymmetric laminates reduce interlaminar shear stresses, while reducing interlaminar normal stresses in some laminates and increasing them in others.

  11. Thermal-vacuum facility with in-situ mechanical loading. [for testing space construction materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennyson, R. C.; Hansen, J. S.; Holzer, R. P.; Uffen, B.; Mabson, G.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes a thermal-vacuum space simulator used to assess property changes of fiber-reinforced polymer composite systems. The facility can achieve a vacuum of approximately .0000001 torr with temperatures ranging from -200 to +300 F. Some preliminary experimental results are presented for materials subjected to thermal loading up to 200 F. The tests conducted include the evaluation of matrix modulus and strength, coefficients of thermal expansion, and fracture toughness. Though the experimental program is at an early stage, the data appear to indicate that these parameters are influenced by hard vacuum.

  12. Analysis of shell-type structures subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    This report deals with the development of a general mathematical model and solution methodology for analyzing the structural response of thin, metallic shell-like structures under dynamic and/or static thermomechanical loads. In the mathematical model, geometric as well as the material-type of nonlinearities are considered. Traditional as well as novel approaches are reported and detailed applications are presented in the appendices. The emphasis for the mathematical model, the related solution schemes, and the applications, is on thermal viscoelastic and viscoplastic phenomena, which can predict creep and ratchetting.

  13. Analysis of shell-type structures subjected to time-dependent mechanical and thermal loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, George J.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a general mathematical model and solution methodologies for analyzing structural response of thin, metallic shell-like structures under dynamic and/or static thermomechanical loads is examined. In the mathematical model, geometric as well as material-type of nonlinearities are considered. Traditional as well as novel approaches are reported and detailed applications are presented in the appendices. The emphasis for the mathematical model, the related solution schemes, and the applications, is on thermal viscoelastic and viscoplastic phenomena, which can predict creep and ratchetting.

  14. ANISAP: A three-dimensional finite element program for laminated composites subjected to mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, S. W.; Mathison, S.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1986-01-01

    ANISAP is a 3-D finite element FORTRAN 77 computer code for linear elastic, small strain, analysis of laminated composites with arbitrary geometry including free edges and holes. Individual layers may be isotropic or transversely isotropic in material principal coordinates; individual layers may be rotated off-axis about a global z-axis. The laminate may be a hybrid. Three different isoparametric elements, variable order of gaussian integration, calculation of stresses at element boundaries, and loading by either nodal displacement of forces are included in the program capability. Post processing capability includes failure analysis using the tensor polynominal failure criterion.

  15. The Effects of Partial Mechanical Loading and Ibandronate on Skeletal Tissues in the Adult Rat Hindquarter Suspension Model for Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultheis, Lester W.

    1999-01-01

    applied to bone is mechanical, a process based upon bone strain. Substantial evidence indicates that the specifics of dynamic loading i.e. time-varying forces are critical. Bone strain history is a predictor of the effect that mechanical conditions have on bone structure mass and strength. Using servo-controlled force plates on suspended rats with implanted strain gauges we manipulated impact forces of ambulation in the frequency (Fourier) domain. Our results indicate that high frequency components of impact forces are particularly potent in producing bone strain independent of the magnitude of the peak force or peak energy applied to the leg. Because a servo-system responds to forces produced by the rat's own muscle activity during ambulation, the direction of ground-reaction loads act on bone through the rat's own musculature. This is in distinction to passive vibration of the floor where forces reach bone through the natural filters of soft tissue and joints. Passive vibration may also be effective, but it may or may not increase bone in the appropriate architectural pattern to oppose the forces of normal ambulatory activity. Effectiveness of high frequency mechanical stimulation in producing regional (muscle directed) bone response will be limited by 1. the sensitivity of bone to a particular range of frequencies and 2. the inertia of the muscles, limiting their response to external forces by increasing tension along insertions. We have begun mathematical modeling of normal ambulatory activity. Effectiveness of high frequency mechanical stimulation in producing regional (muscle directed) bone response will be limited by 1. the sensitivity of bone to a particular range of frequencies and 2. the inertia of the muscles, limiting their response to external forces by increasing tension along insertions. We have begun mathematical modeling of the rat forelimb as a transfer function between impact force and bone strain to predict optimal dynamic loading conditions for this

  16. Vitamin K therapy for cortical bone fragility caused by reduced mechanical loading in a child with hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, T; Takaki, T; Saito, T; Taguchi, T

    2007-01-01

    Fractures frequently occur at cortical bone sites in children with cerebral palsy, but there is no established therapy. We previously found that treatment with vitamins D and K increased cortical bone mass in children with severe physical disability, and have hypothesized that vitamin K could play a significant role in pediatric cortical bones under conditions with reduced mechanical loading. In the present case report, we treated a right hemiplegic ambulant eight-year-old boy with oral vitamin K (15 mg per day) for eight months. Cortical bone geometries at mid-diaphyseal sites in bilateral tibiae were evaluated before and after the treatment. The cross-sectional total, bone and marrow areas of non-hemiplegic tibia increased by 8.8%, 7.4% and 12.0%, respectively, while those of hemiplegic tibia changed by 9.0%, 14.9% and -3.4%, respectively. As a result, the polar moment of inertia, an indicator of the resistance to torsion forces, increased by 13.0% in the non-hemiplegic tibia and by 63.7% in the hemiplegic tibia. Vitamin K may restrict cortical bone fragility, caused by reduced mechanical loading, through its actions at the endosteal bone marrow interface. Further studies are needed to confirm these findings and to clarify the mechanisms involved.

  17. Role of nitric oxide and prostaglandins in the bone formation response to mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Chow, J W

    2000-10-01

    Nitric oxide and prostaglandins are crucial early mediators in mechanically induced bone formation. They are also responsible for the associated induction of gene expression of c-fos and IGF-1 in osteocytes, key mechanosensory cells in bone. Insight into the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying bone formation has important implications for the maintenance of structural competence of bone.

  18. Effect of elastic and plastic tensile mechanical loading on the magnetic properties of NGO electrical steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuning, N.; Steentjes, S.; Schulte, M.; Bleck, W.; Hameyer, K.

    2016-11-01

    The magnetic properties of non-grain-oriented (NGO) electrical steels are highly susceptible to mechanical stresses, i.e., residual, external or thermal ones. For rotating electrical machines, mechanical stresses are inevitable and originate from different sources, e.g., material processing, machine manufacturing and operating conditions. The efficiency and specific losses are largely altered by different mechanical stress states. In this paper the effect of tensile stresses and plastic deformations on the magnetic properties of a 2.9 wt% Si electrical steel are studied. Particular attention is paid to the effect of magnetic anisotropy, i.e., the influence of the direction of applied mechanical stress with respect to the rolling direction. Due to mechanical stress, the induced anisotropy has to be evaluated as it is related to the stress-dependent magnetostriction constant and the grain alignment.

  19. Diffusion and bulk flow in phloem loading: A theoretical analysis of the polymer trap mechanism for sugar transport in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dölger, Julia; Rademaker, Hanna; Liesche, Johannes; Schulz, Alexander; Bohr, Tomas

    2014-10-01

    Plants create sugar in the mesophyll cells of their leaves by photosynthesis. This sugar, mostly sucrose, has to be loaded via the bundle sheath into the phloem vascular system (the sieve elements), where it is distributed to growing parts of the plant. We analyze the feasibility of a particular loading mechanism, active symplasmic loading, also called the polymer trap mechanism, where sucrose is transformed into heavier sugars, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the intermediary-type companion cells bordering the sieve elements in the minor veins of the phloem. Keeping the heavier sugars from diffusing back requires that the plasmodesmata connecting the bundle sheath with the intermediary cell act as extremely precise filters, which are able to distinguish between molecules that differ by less than 20% in size. In our modeling, we take into account the coupled water and sugar movement across the relevant interfaces, without explicitly considering the chemical reactions transforming the sucrose into the heavier sugars. Based on the available data for plasmodesmata geometry, sugar concentrations, and flux rates, we conclude that this mechanism can in principle function, but that it requires pores of molecular sizes. Comparing with the somewhat uncertain experimental values for sugar export rates, we expect the pores to be only 5%-10% larger than the hydraulic radius of the sucrose molecules. We find that the water flow through the plasmodesmata, which has not been quantified before, contributes only 10%-20% to the sucrose flux into the intermediary cells, while the main part is transported by diffusion. On the other hand, the subsequent sugar translocation into the sieve elements would very likely be carried predominantly by bulk water flow through the plasmodesmata. Thus, in contrast to apoplasmic loaders, all the necessary water for phloem translocation would be supplied in this way with no need for additional water uptake across the plasma membranes of the

  20. Adaptation to mechanical load determines shape and properties of heart and circulation: the CircAdapt model.

    PubMed

    Arts, Theo; Delhaas, Tammo; Bovendeerd, Peter; Verbeek, Xander; Prinzen, Frits W

    2005-04-01

    With circulatory pathology, patient-specific simulation of hemodynamics is required to minimize invasiveness for diagnosis, treatment planning, and followup. We investigated the advantages of a smart combination of often already known hemodynamic principles. The CircAdapt model was designed to simulate beat-to-beat dynamics of the four-chamber heart with systemic and pulmonary circulation while incorporating a realistic relation between pressure-volume load and tissue mechanics and adaptation of tissues to mechanical load. Adaptation was modeled by rules, where a locally sensed signal results in a local action of the tissue. The applied rules were as follows: For blood vessel walls, 1) flow shear stress dilates the wall and 2) tensile stress thickens the wall; for myocardial tissue, 3) strain dilates the wall material, 4) larger maximum sarcomere length increases contractility, and 5) contractility increases wall mass. The circulation was composed of active and passive compliances and inertias. A realistic circulation developed by self-structuring through adaptation provided mean levels of systemic pressure and flow. Ability to simulate a wide variety of patient-specific circumstances was demonstrated by application of the same adaptation rules to the conditions of fetal circulation followed by a switch to the newborn circulation around birth. It was concluded that a few adaptation rules, directed to normalize mechanical load of the tissue, were sufficient to develop and maintain a realistic circulation automatically. Adaptation rules appear to be the key to reduce dramatically the number of input parameters for simulating circulation dynamics. The model may be used to simulate circulation pathology and to predict effects of treatment.

  1. Dynamic Creep Buckling: Analysis of Shell Structures Subjected to Time-dependent Mechanical and Thermal Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simitses, G. J.; Carlson, R. L.; Riff, R.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of the present research is to develop a general mathematical model and solution methodologies for analyzing the structural response of thin, metallic shell structures under large transient, cyclic, or static thermomechanical loads. Among the system responses associated with these loads and conditions are thermal buckling, creep buckling, and ratcheting. Thus geometric and material nonlinearities (of high order) can be anticipated and must be considered in developing the mathematical model. A complete, true ab-initio rate theory of kinematics and kinetics for continuum and curved thin structures, without any restriction on the magnitude of the strains or the deformations, was formulated. The time dependence and large strain behavior are incorporated through the introduction of the time rates of metric and curvature in two coordinate systems: fixed (spatial) and convected (material). The relations between the time derivative and the covariant derivative (gradient) were developed for curved space and motion, so the velocity components supply the connection between the equations of motion and the time rates of change of the metric and curvature tensors.

  2. Compression creep rupture of an E-glass/vinyl ester composite subjected to combined mechanical and fire loading conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Steven Earl

    Polymer matrix composites are seeing increasing use in structural systems (e.g. ships, bridges) and require a quantitative basis for describing their performance under combined mechanical load and fire. Although much work has been performed to characterize the flammability, fire resistance and toxicity of these composite systems, an understanding of the structural response of sandwich type structures and laminate panels under combined mechanical and thermal loads (simulating fire conditions) is still largely unavailable. Therefore a research effort to develop a model to describe the structural response of these glass/vinyl esters systems under fire loading conditions is relevant to the continuing and future application of polymer matrix composites aboard naval ships. The main goal of the effort presented here is to develop analytical models and finite element analysis methods and tools to predict limit states such as local compression failures due to micro-buckling, residual strength and times to failure for composite laminates at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition where failure is controlled by viscoelastic effects. Given the importance of compression loading to a structure subject to fire exposure, the goals of this work are succinctly stated as the: (a) Characterization of the non-linear viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of the E-glass/vinyl ester composite above Tg. (b) Description of the laminate compression mechanics as a function of stress and temperature including viscoelasticity. (c) Viscoelastic stress analysis of a laminated panel ([0/+45/90/-45/0] S) using classical lamination theory (CLT). Three manuscripts constitute this dissertation which is representative of the three steps listed above. First, a detailed characterization of the nonlinear thermoviscoelastic response of Vetrotex 324/Derakane 510A--40 through Tg was conducted using the Time--Temperature--Stress--Superposition Principle (TTSSP) and Zapas--Crissman model. Second

  3. [Multiaxial evaluation of the pathophysiology of mood disorder and therapeutic mechanisms of clinical drugs by neuronal plasticity and neuronal load].

    PubMed

    Omata, Naoto; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Mitsuya, Hironori; Wada, Yuji

    2013-11-01

    Impairment of neuronal plasticity is important in the pathophysiology of mood disorder. Both zinc deficiency and social isolation impair neuronal plasticity. Both cause a depressive state. However, in experiments using animals, their combined loading induced manic-like behavior. Therefore, it was inferred that moderate impairment of neuronal plasticity induces a depressive state, and that further impairment of neuronal plasticity induces a manic state. However, some kind of load toward neuronal function through neural transmission can influence mood disorder symptoms without direct effects on neuronal plasticity. Our hypothesis is that mania is an aggravation of depression from the perspective of neuronal plasticity, and that multiaxial evaluation by neuronal plasticity and neuronal load through neural transmission is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of mood disorder. There are many clinical aspects that have been difficult to interpret in mood disorder: Why is a mood stabilizer or electric convulsive therapy useful for both mania and depression? What is the pathophysiology of the mixed state? Why does manic switching by an antidepressant occur or not? Our hypothesis is useful to understand these aspects, and using this hypothesis, it is expected that the pathophysiology of mood disorder and clinical mechanism of mood stabilizers and antidepressants can now be understood as an integrated story.

  4. Development and Validation of a Bioreactor System for Dynamic Loading and Mechanical Characterization of Whole Human Intervertebral Discs in Organ Culture

    PubMed Central

    Walter, BA; Illien-Junger, S; Nasser, P; Hecht, AC; Iatridis, JC

    2014-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of back pain, and attempts to develop therapies are frustrated by lack of model systems that mimic the human condition. Human IVD organ culture models can address this gap, yet current models are limited since vertebral endplates are removed to maintain cell viability, physiological loading is not applied, and mechanical behaviors are not measured. This study aimed to (i) establish a method for isolating human IVDs from autopsy with intact vertebral endplates, and (ii) develop and validate an organ culture loading system for human or bovine IVDs. Human IVDs with intact endplates were isolated from cadavers within 48 hours of death and cultured for up to 21 days. IVDs remained viable with ~80% cell viability in nucleus and annulus regions. A dynamic loading system was designed and built with the capacity to culture 9 bovine or 6 human IVDs simultaneously while applying simulated physiologic loads (maximum force: 4kN) and measuring IVD mechanical behaviors. The loading system accurately applied dynamic loading regimes (RMS error <2.5N and total harmonic distortion <2.45%), and precisely evaluated mechanical behavior of rubber and bovine IVDs. Bovine IVDs maintained their mechanical behavior and retained >85% viable cells throughout the 3 week culture period. This organ culture loading system can closely mimic physiological conditions and be used to investigate response of living human and bovine IVDs to mechanical and chemical challenges and to screen therapeutic repair techniques. PMID:24725441

  5. Development and validation of a bioreactor system for dynamic loading and mechanical characterization of whole human intervertebral discs in organ culture.

    PubMed

    Walter, B A; Illien-Jünger, S; Nasser, P R; Hecht, A C; Iatridis, J C

    2014-06-27

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a common cause of back pain, and attempts to develop therapies are frustrated by lack of model systems that mimic the human condition. Human IVD organ culture models can address this gap, yet current models are limited since vertebral endplates are removed to maintain cell viability, physiological loading is not applied, and mechanical behaviors are not measured. This study aimed to (i) establish a method for isolating human IVDs from autopsy with intact vertebral endplates, and (ii) develop and validate an organ culture loading system for human or bovine IVDs. Human IVDs with intact endplates were isolated from cadavers within 48h of death and cultured for up to 21 days. IVDs remained viable with ~80% cell viability in nucleus and annulus regions. A dynamic loading system was designed and built with the capacity to culture 9 bovine or 6 human IVDs simultaneously while applying simulated physiologic loads (maximum force: 4kN) and measuring IVD mechanical behaviors. The loading system accurately applied dynamic loading regimes (RMS error <2.5N and total harmonic distortion <2.45%), and precisely evaluated mechanical behavior of rubber and bovine IVDs. Bovine IVDs maintained their mechanical behavior and retained >85% viable cells throughout the 3 week culture period. This organ culture loading system can closely mimic physiological conditions and be used to investigate response of living human and bovine IVDs to mechanical and chemical challenges and to screen therapeutic repair techniques.

  6. Mechanics of the knee. A study of joint and muscle load with clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Nisell, R

    1985-01-01

    The load moment of force about the knee joint during machine milking and when lifting a 12.8 kg box was quantified using a computerized static sagittal plane body model. Surface electromyography of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was normalized and expressed as a percentage of an isometric maximum voluntary test contraction. Working with straight knees and the trunk flexed forwards induced extending knee load moments of maximum 55 Nm. Lifting the box with flexed knees gave flexing moments of 50 Nm at the beginning of the lift, irrespective of whether the burden was between or in front of the feet. During machine milking, a level difference between operator and cow of 0.70 m - 1.0 m significantly lowered the knee extending moments. To quantify the force magnitudes acting in the tibio-femoral and patello-femoral joints, a local biomechanical model of the knee was developed using a combination of cadaver knee dissections and lateral knee radiographs of healthy subjects. The moment arm of the knee extensor was significantly shorter for women than for men, which resulted in higher knee joint forces in women if the same moment was produced. A diagram for quantifying patellar forces was worked out. The force magnitudes given by the knee joint biomechanical model correlated well with experimentally forces measured by others. During the parallel squat in powerlifting, the maximum flexing knee load moment was estimated to 335-550 Nm when carrying a 382.5 kg burden and the in vivo force of a complete quadriceps tendon-muscle rupture to between 10,900 and 18,300 N. During isokinetic knee extension, the tibio-femoral compressive force reached peak magnitudes of 9 times body weight and the anteroposterior shear force was close to 1 body weight at knee angles straighter than 60 degrees, indicating that high forces stress the anterior cruciate ligament. A proximal resistance pad position decreased the shear force considerably, and this position is recommended in early

  7. Fracture Mechanics of Thin, Cracked Plates Under Tension, Bending and Out-of-Plane Shear Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehnder, Alan T.; Hui, C. Y.; Potdar, Yogesh; Zucchini, Alberto

    1999-01-01

    Cracks in the skin of aircraft fuselages or other shell structures can be subjected to very complex stress states, resulting in mixed-mode fracture conditions. For example, a crack running along a stringer in a pressurized fuselage will be subject to the usual in-plane tension stresses (Mode-I) along with out-of-plane tearing stresses (Mode-III like). Crack growth and initiation in this case is correlated not only with the tensile or Mode-I stress intensity factor, K(sub I), but depends on a combination of parameters and on the history of crack growth. The stresses at the tip of a crack in a plate or shell are typically described in terms of either the small deflection Kirchhoff plate theory. However, real applications involve large deflections. We show, using the von-Karman theory, that the crack tip stress field derived on the basis of the small deflection theory is still valid for large deflections. We then give examples demonstrating the exact calculation of energy release rates and stress intensity factors for cracked plates loaded to large deflections. The crack tip fields calculated using the plate theories are an approximation to the actual three dimensional fields. Using three dimensional finite element analyses we have explored the relationship between the three dimensional elasticity theory and two dimensional plate theory results. The results show that for out-of-plane shear loading the three dimensional and Kirchhoff theory results coincide at distance greater than h/2 from the crack tip, where h/2 is the plate thickness. Inside this region, the distribution of stresses through the thickness can be very different from the plate theory predictions. We have also explored how the energy release rate varies as a function of crack length to plate thickness using the different theories. This is important in the implementation of fracture prediction methods using finite element analysis. Our experiments show that under certain conditions, during fatigue crack

  8. Achieving reversibility of ultra-high mechanical stress by hydrogen loading of thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, M.; Burlaka, V.; Wagner, S.; Pundt, A.

    2015-06-15

    Nano-materials are commonly stabilized by supports to maintain their desired shape and size. When these nano-materials take up interstitial atoms, this attachment to the support induces mechanical stresses. These stresses can be high when the support is rigid. High stress in the nano-material is typically released by delamination from the support or by the generation of defects, e.g., dislocations. As high mechanical stress can be beneficial for tuning the nano-materials properties, it is of general interest to deduce how real high mechanical stress can be gained. Here, we show that below a threshold nano-material size, dislocation formation can be completely suppressed and, when delamination is inhibited, even the ultrahigh stress values of the linear elastic limit can be reached. Specifically, for hydrogen solved in epitaxial niobium films on sapphire substrate supports a threshold film thickness of 6 nm was found and mechanical stress of up to (−10 ± 1) GPa was reached. This finding is of basic interest for hydrogen energy applications, as the hydride stability in metals itself is affected by mechanical stress. Thus, tuning of the mechanical stress-state in nano-materials may lead to improved storage properties of nano-sized materials.

  9. Achieving reversibility of ultra-high mechanical stress by hydrogen loading of thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, M.; Burlaka, V.; Wagner, S.; Pundt, A.

    2015-06-01

    Nano-materials are commonly stabilized by supports to maintain their desired shape and size. When these nano-materials take up interstitial atoms, this attachment to the support induces mechanical stresses. These stresses can be high when the support is rigid. High stress in the nano-material is typically released by delamination from the support or by the generation of defects, e.g., dislocations. As high mechanical stress can be beneficial for tuning the nano-materials properties, it is of general interest to deduce how real high mechanical stress can be gained. Here, we show that below a threshold nano-material size, dislocation formation can be completely suppressed and, when delamination is inhibited, even the ultrahigh stress values of the linear elastic limit can be reached. Specifically, for hydrogen solved in epitaxial niobium films on sapphire substrate supports a threshold film thickness of 6 nm was found and mechanical stress of up to (-10 ± 1) GPa was reached. This finding is of basic interest for hydrogen energy applications, as the hydride stability in metals itself is affected by mechanical stress. Thus, tuning of the mechanical stress-state in nano-materials may lead to improved storage properties of nano-sized materials.

  10. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Rossana C.; Weeks, Benjamin K.; Beck, Belinda R.

    2015-01-01

    Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was ‘vigorous’ to ‘very vigorous’ for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key points Energy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity. Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second. CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children. PMID:26336343

  11. Characterisation of the Mechanical Loads and Metabolic Intensity of the CAPO Kids Exercise Intervention for Healthy Primary School Children.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Rossana C; Weeks, Benjamin K; Beck, Belinda R

    2015-09-01

    Sedentarism is associated with obesity and other chronic diseases at all ages. Increasing physical activity with in-school interventions, focusing on energy expenditure and bone loading reduces risk of a number of costly chronic diseases. The aim of the current study was to characterise the metabolic and musculoskeletal load intensity of the recent successful CAPO Kids exercise intervention. Pre and early pubertal children (10.4 ± 0.5 years old) from the CAPO Kids trial wore an armband sensor to estimate energy expenditure during a 10-minute CAPO Kids session. Eleven participants performed manoeuvres from the session on a force platform to determine vertical ground reaction forces. In total, 28 boys and 20 girls had armband measures and 11 boys and girls undertook GRF testing. The energy expenditure associated with the 10-minute session was 39.7 ± 9.3 kcal, with an average of 4 kcal·min-1. The intensity of physical activity was 'vigorous' to 'very vigorous' for 34% of the session. Vertical ground reaction forces of the CAPO Kids manoeuvres ranged from 1.3 ± 0.2 BW (cartwheels) to 5.4 ± 2.3 BW (360° jump). CAPO Kids generates adequate load intensity to stimulate positive health adaptations in both metabolic and musculoskeletal systems of pre and early pubertal children. Key pointsEnergy expenditure of a single bout of CAPO Kids yields 39.7±9.3 kcal and includes activities performed at a vigorous and very vigorous intensity.Mechanical loads associated with CAPO Kids surpass five times bodyweight and more than 140 bodyweights per second.CAPO Kids intervention represents a viable approach to stimulate musculoskeletal and metabolic adaptation in children.

  12. High-Tip-Speed, Low-Loading Transonic Fan Stage. Part 1: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, L. C.; Vitale, N. G.; Ware, T. C.; Erwin, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    A high-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 1.5 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86 percent. The design flow per unit annulus area is 42.0 pounds per square foot. The fan features a hub/tip ratio of 0.46, a tip diameter of 28.74 in. and operates at a design tip speed of 1600 fps. For these design conditions, the rotor blade tip region operates with supersonic inlet and supersonic discharge relative velocities. A sophisticated quasi-three-dimensional characteristic section design procedure was used for the all-supersonic sections and the inlet of the midspan transonic sections. For regions where the relative outlet velocities are supersonic, the blade operates with weak oblique shocks only.

  13. Microwave emission from lead zirconate titanate induced by impulsive mechanical load

    SciTech Connect

    Aman, A.; Majcherek, S.; Hirsch, S.; Schmidt, B.

    2015-10-28

    This paper focuses on microwave emission from Lead zirconate titanate Pb [Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1−x}] O{sub 3} (PZT) induced by mechanical stressing. The mechanical stress was initiated by impact of a sharp tungsten indenter on the upper surface of PZT ceramic. The sequences of microwave and current impulses, which flew from indenter to electric ground, were detected simultaneously. The voltage between the upper and lower surface of ceramic was measured to obtain the behavior of mechanical force acting on ceramic during the impact. It was found that the amplitude, form, and frequency of measured microwave impulses were different by compression and restitution phase of impact. Two different mechanisms of electron emission, responsible for microwave impulse generation, were proposed based on the dissimilar impulse behavior. The field emission from tungsten indenter is dominant during compression, whereas ferroemission dominates during restitution phase. Indeed, it was observed that the direction of the current flow, i.e., sign of current impulses is changed by transitions from compression to restitution phase of impact. The observed dissimilar behavior of microwave impulses, caused by increasing and decreasing applied force, can be used to calculate the contact time and behavior of mechanical force during mechanical impact on ceramic surface. It is shown that the generation of microwave impulses exhibits high reproducibility, impulse intensity, a low damping factor, and high mechanical failure resistance. Based on these microwave emission properties of PZT, the development of new type of stress sensor with spatial resolution of few microns becomes possible.

  14. Modeling of Nonlinear Mechanical Behavior for 3D Needled C/C-SiC Composites Under Tensile Load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Junbo; Fang, Guodong; Chen, Zhen; Liang, Jun

    2016-08-01

    This paper established a macroscopic constitutive model to describe the nonlinear stress-strain behavior of 3D needled C/C-SiC composites under tensile load. Extensive on- and off-axis tensile tests were performed to investigate the macroscopic mechanical behavior and damage characteristics of the composites. The nonlinear mechanical behavior of the material was mainly induced by matrix tensile cracking and fiber/matrix debonding. Permanent deformations and secant modulus degradation were observed in cyclic loading-unloading tests. The nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the material could be described macroscopically by plasticity deformation and stiffness degradation. In the proposed model, we employed a plasticity theory with associated plastic flow rule to describe the evolution of plastic strains. A novel damage variable was also introduced to characterize the stiffness degradation of the material. The damage evolution law was derived from the statistical distribution of material strength. Parameters of the proposed model can be determined from off-axis tensile tests. Stress-strain curves predicted by this model showed reasonable agreement with experimental results.

  15. Stress Analysis and Structural Optimization of a Three-Layer Composite Cladding Tube Under Thermo-Mechanical Loads

    SciTech Connect

    S.-S. Zhou; X.-L. Gao; G. W. Griffith

    2012-07-01

    A general solution for the stress and strain fields in a three-layer composite tube subjected to internal and external pressures and temperature changes is first derived using thermo-elasticity. The material in each layer is treated as orthotropic, and the composite tube is regarded to be in a generalized plane strain state. A three-layer ZRY4-SiCf/SiCSiC composite cladding tube under a combined pressure and thermal loading is then analyzed and optimized by applying the general solution. The effects of temperature changes, applied pressures, and layer thickness on the mechanical behavior of the tube are quantitatively studied. The von Mises failure criterion for isotropic materials and the Tsai-Wu's failure theory for composites are used, respectively, to predict the failure behavior of the monolithic ZRY4 (i.e., Zircaloy-4) inner layer and SiC outer layer and the composite SiCf/SiC core layer of the three-layer tube. The numerical results reveal that the maximum radial and circumferential stresses in each layer always occur on the bonding surfaces. By adjusting the thickness of each layer, the effective stress in the three-layer cladding tube under the prescribed thermal-mechanical loading can be changed, thereby making it possible to optimally design the cladding tube.

  16. Recovery of the Frank-Starling mechanism by coenzyme Q10 in patients with load-induced contractility depression.

    PubMed

    Oda, T

    1993-01-01

    Load-induced contractility depression, in which supernormal left ventricular ejection fraction and contractility at rest decrease by added afterload, is most often found in children with mitral valve prolapse who have symptoms. Patients have high ventricular end-diastolic pressure at rest, which is further increased by afterload challenge. The Frank-Starling mechanism may be maximally mobilized with high preload even at rest to compensate for the intrinsically depressed inotropic state. Therefore, preload reserve may be easily exhausted due to afterload addition. We aimed to determine left ventricular end-diastolic fiber length, stroke work, and contractility before and during handgrip by echocardiograms to obtain evidence for the Frank-Starling mechanism in patients and controls, including patients treated with coenzyme Q10. The subjects were divided into four groups, each consisting of 30 children aged 6-16 years: group 1, normals; group 2, patients; group 3, the same patients as in group 2 after coenzyme Q10 therapy; and group 4, patients with asymptomatic mitral valve prolapse. Baseline values and percentage increases in systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and left ventricular wall stress showed no differences among the groups. Only in group 2 were the percentage increase in ejection fraction, fiber shortening velocity, contractility, and end-diastolic dimension strongly negative, despite supernormal baseline levels. In other groups, these were significantly positive, without intergroup differences. We conclude that in the heart with load-induced contractility depression, the Frank-Starling mechanism deviates from normal. The normal Frank-Starling mechanism was recovered due to coenzyme Q10, which may improve disturbed bioenergetic function at the molecular level.

  17. Mechanical loading by fluid shear stress of myotube glycocalyx stimulates growth factor expression and nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Juffer, Petra; Bakker, Astrid D; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-07-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers have the ability to increase their size in response to a mechanical overload. Finite element modeling data suggest that mechanically loaded muscles in vivo may experience not only tensile strain but also shear stress. However, whether shear stress affects biological pathways involved in muscle fiber size adaptation in response to mechanical loading is unknown. Therefore, our aim was twofold: (1) to determine whether shear stress affects growth factor expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by myotubes, and (2) to explore the mechanism by which shear stress may affect myotubes in vitro. C2C12 myotubes were subjected to a laminar pulsating fluid flow (PFF; mean shear stress 0.4, 0.7 or 1.4 Pa, 1 Hz) or subjected to uni-axial cyclic strain (CS; 15 % strain, 1 Hz) for 1 h. NO production during 1-h PFF or CS treatment was quantified using Griess reagent. The glycocalyx was degraded using hyaluronidase, and stretch-activated ion channels (SACs) were blocked using GdCl3. Gene expression was analyzed immediately after 1-h PFF (1.4 Pa, 1 Hz) and at 6 h post-PFF treatment. PFF increased IGF-I Ea, MGF, VEGF, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA, but decreased myostatin mRNA expression. Shear stress enhanced NO production in a dose-dependent manner, while CS induced no quantifiable increase in NO production. Glycocalyx degradation and blocking of SACs ablated the shear stress-stimulated NO production. In conclusion, shear stress activates signaling pathways involved in muscle fiber size adaptation in myotubes, likely via membrane-bound mechanoreceptors. These results suggest that shear stress exerted on myofiber extracellular matrix plays an important role in mechanotransduction in muscle.

  18. Effects of load-bearing exercise on skeletal structure and mechanics differ between outbred populations of mice.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ian J; Judex, Stefan; Demes, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Effects of load-bearing exercise on skeletal structure and mechanical properties can vary between inbred strains of mice. Here, we examine whether such variation also exists at the population level. An experiment was performed with two outbred mouse stocks that have been reproductively isolated for >120 generations (Hsd:ICR, Crl:CD1). Growing females from each stock were either treated with a treadmill-running regimen for 1 month or served as controls. Limb forces were recorded with a force plate and cage activity monitored to verify that they were similar between stocks. After the experiment, femoral cortical and trabecular bone structure were quantified with micro-CT in the mid-diaphysis and distal metaphysis, respectively, and diaphyseal structural strength was determined with mechanical testing. Among Hsd:ICR mice, running led to significant improvements in diaphyseal bone quantity, structural geometry, and mechanical properties, as well as enhanced trabecular morphology. In contrast, among Crl:CD1 mice, the same running regimen had little effect on cortical and trabecular structure and significantly reduced diaphyseal resistance to fracture. In neither stock was body mass, muscle mass, or cage activity level different between runners and controls. Given that most environmental variables were controlled in this study, the differential effects of exercise on Hsd:ICR and Crl:CD1 bones were likely due to genetic differences between stocks. These results suggest that the benefits of loading for bone may vary between human populations (e.g., ethnic groups), in which case exercise programs and technologies designed to promote bone health with mechanical signals may be more advantageous to certain populations than others.

  19. On the mechanical modeling of the extreme softening/stiffening response of axially loaded tensegrity prisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraternali, Fernando; Carpentieri, Gerardo; Amendola, Ada

    2015-01-01

    We study the geometrically nonlinear behavior of uniformly compressed tensegrity prisms through fully elastic and rigid-elastic models. The given models predict a variety of mechanical behaviors in the regime of large displacements, including an extreme stiffening-type response, already known in the literature, and a newly discovered, extreme softening behavior. The latter may lead to a snap buckling event producing an axial collapse of the structure. The switching from one mechanical regime to another depends on the aspect ratio of the structure, the magnitude of the applied prestress, and the material properties of the constituent elements. We discuss potential mechanical and acoustic applications of such behaviors, which are related to the design and manufacture of tensegrity lattices and innovative metamaterials.

  20. Crack growth of 10M Ni-Mn-Ga material in cyclic mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltio, I.; Ge, Y.; Pulkkinen, H.; Sjöberg, A.; Söderberg, O.; Liu, X. W.; Hannula, S.-P.

    The 10M martensitic Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal materials are usually applied in the magneto-mechanical actuators. Therefore, it is important to know the possible effect of the long-term cyclic shape changes on their structure and behavior. This can be evaluated with the mechanical fatigue testing. In the present study, the single crystal 10M Ni-Mn-Ga samples of different compositions were applied to strain-controlled uniaxial mechanical cycling in the multivariant state at ambient temperature. The experiments revealed distinctive changes of the twin variant structure, especially in the mobile twin area, density of twin boundaries, and in the tendency for fatigue crack growth. Characterization of the crack surface showed that the cracks in the microscale grow in a step-wise manner on specific crystallographic planes, i.e, twin boundary planes, but that the macroscopic crack does not occur only along crystallographic directions.

  1. [Modelling of the knee joint loading conditions in the view of mechanics].

    PubMed

    Pustovoĭt, K B; Karpins'kyĭ, M Iu

    2013-02-01

    The results of mathematic modelling of work of femoropatellar joint in normal conditions and in the presence of dysplastic deformity were adduced. There was established, that a knee joint (KJ) by its external appearance and function constitutes a classic cam mechanism. Biomechanical scheme of interaction between the femoral bone processus and patella was elaborated. In accordance to scheme of cam mechanism its experimental roentgenometric investigations were performed. According to statistical analysis performed, in conditions of dysplasia in femoropatellar joint the changes in the KJ occur, which may cause its blockade; the patella position in the KJ depends on peculiarities of anatomical structure of the femoral bone processuses.

  2. Mode interaction in stiffened composite shells under combined mechanical and thermal loadings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Srinivasan

    1992-01-01

    Stiffened shells of various configurations fabricated out of composite materials find extensive applications in aircraft structures. Two distinctive modes of buckling dominate structural response of stiffened panels, viz. the short-wave local mode in which the shell skin buckles essentially between the stiffeners and the long-wave overall mode in which the shell skin buckles carrying the stiffeners with it. In optimized designs, the critical stresses corresponding to these modes of buckling would be close to each other. This leads to a nonlinear mode interaction which is recognized to be the principal cause of the failure of stiffened structures. If the structure is subjected to through-the-thickness thermal gradients, then large-wave bending effects would begin to occur well below the overall critical load and these would play the role of overall imperfections. The load carrying capacity would be significantly diminished as a result of interaction of local buckling with overall thermal distortions. The analysis of this problem using standard finite element techniques can be shown to be prohibitively expensive for design iterations. A concept which would greatly facilitate the analysis of mode interaction is advanced. We note that the local buckling occurs in a more or less periodic pattern in a structure having regular spacings of stiffeners. Thus it is a relatively simple matter to analyze the local buckling and the second order effects (which are essential for modeling postbuckling phenomena) using a unit cell of the structure. Once analyzed, these dormations are embedded in a shell element. Thus, a shell element could span several half-waves of local buckling and still be able to depict local buckling effects with requisite accuracy. A major consequence of the interaction of overall buckling/bending is the slow variation of the local buckling amplitude across the structure - the phenomenon of 'amplitude modulation' - and this is accounted for in the present

  3. The response of pediatric ribs to quasi-static loading: mechanical properties and microstructure.

    PubMed

    Agnew, Amanda M; Moorhouse, Kevin; Kang, Yun-Seok; Donnelly, Bruce R; Pfefferle, Kiel; Manning, Angela X; Litsky, Alan S; Herriott, Rod; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bolte, John H

    2013-12-01

    Traumatic injury is a major cause of death in the child population. Motor vehicle crashes account for a large portion of these deaths, and a considerable effort is put forth by the safety community to identify injury mechanisms and methods of injury prevention. However, construction of biofidelic anthropomorphic test devices and computational models for this purpose requires knowledge of bone properties that is difficult to obtain. The objective of this study is to characterize the relationship between mechanical properties and measures of skeletal development in the growing rib. Anterolateral segments of 44 ribs from 12 pediatric individuals (age range: 5 months to 9 years) were experimentally tested in three-point bending. Univariate mixed models were used to assess the predictive abilities of development-related variables (e.g., age, stature, histomorphometry, cross-sectional geometry) on mechanical variables (material and structural properties). Results show that stature, in addition to age, may be a reliable predictor of bone strength, and that histomorphometry has potential to explain bone properties and to further our understanding of fracture mechanisms. For example, percent secondary lamellar bone (%Sd.Ar) successfully predicts peak force (F P) and Young's modulus (E). Application of these findings is not restricted to injury biomechanics, but can also be referenced in forensic and anthropological contexts.

  4. Viscoelastic behaviour of hydrogel-based composites for tissue engineering under mechanical load.

    PubMed

    Kocen, Rok; Gasik, Michael; Gantar, Ana; Novak, Saša

    2017-03-06

    Along with biocompatibility, bioinductivity and appropriate biodegradation, mechanical properties are also of crucial importance for tissue engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels, such as gellan gum (GG), are usually soft materials, which may benefit from the incorporation of inorganic particles, e.g. bioactive glass, not only due to the acquired bioactivity, but also due to improved mechanical properties. They exhibit complex viscoelastic properties, which can be evaluated in various ways. In this work, to reliably evaluate the effect of the bioactive glass (BAG) addition on viscoelastic properties of the composite hydrogel, we employed and compared the three most commonly used techniques, analyzing their advantages and limitations: monotonic uniaxial unconfined compression, small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Creep and small amplitude dynamic strain-controlled tests in DMA are suggested as the best ways for the characterization of mechanical properties of hydrogel composites, whereas the SAOS rheology is more useful for studying the hydrogel's processing kinetics, as it does not induce volumetric changes even at very high strains. Overall, the results confirmed a beneficial effect of BAG (nano)particles on the elastic modulus of the GG-BAG composite hydrogel. The Young's modulus of 6.6 ± 0.8 kPa for the GG hydrogel increased by two orders of magnitude after the addition of 2 wt.% BAG particles (500-800 kPa).

  5. Modeling and Analysis Tools for Linear and Nonlinear Mechanical Systems Subjected to Extreme Impulsive Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-23

    response with good temporal resolution. The data is down-sampled by a factor of four in order to accommodate memory limitations when applying the force...laminate by signal deconvolution. Experimental Mechanics, 29(4):414–419, 1989. [34] V Calhoun, X Golay, and G Pearlson. Improved fMRI slice timing

  6. Deformation Microstructures and Creep Mechanisms in Advanced ZR-Based Cladding Under Biazal Loading

    SciTech Connect

    K. Linga Murty

    2008-08-11

    Investigate creep behavior of Zr-based cladding tubes with attention to basic creep mechanisms and transitions in them at low stresses and/or temperatures and study the dislocation microstructures of deformed samples for correlation with the underlying micromechanism of creep

  7. A comparative study on the mechanical properties of the healthy and varicose human saphenous vein under uniaxial loading.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Alireza; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi; Kudo, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous Vein (SV) due to fatness, age, inactiveness, etc. can be afflicted with varicose. The main reason of the varicose vein is believed to be related to the leg muscle pump which is unable to return the blood to the heart in contradiction of the effect of gravity. As a result of the varicose vein, both the structure and mechanical properties of the vein wall would alter. However, so far there is a lack of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the varicose vein. In this study, a comparative study was carried out to measure the elastic and hyperelastic mechanical properties of the healthy and varicose SVs. Healthy and varicose SVs were removed at autopsy and surgery from seven individuals and then axial tensile load was applied to them up to the failure point. In order to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the vein, this study was benefitted from three different stress definitions, such as 2nd Piola-Kichhoff, engineering and true stresses and four different strain definitions, i.e. Almansi-Hamel, Green-St. Venant, engineering and true strains, to determine the linear mechanical properties of the SVs. A Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique was used to measure the true strain of the vein walls during load bearing. The non-linear mechanical behaviour of the SVs was also computationally evaluated via the Mooney-Rivlin material model. The true/Cauchy stress-strain diagram exhibited the elastic modulus of the varicose SVs as 45.11% lower than that of the healthy ones. Furthermore, by variation of the stress a significant alteration on the maximum stress of the healthy SVs was observed, but then not for the varicose veins. Additionally, the highest stresses of 4.99 and 0.65 MPa were observed for the healthy and varicose SVs, respectively. These results indicate a weakness in the mechanical strength of the SV when it becomes varicose, owing to the degradation of the elastin and collagen content of the SV. The Mooney-Rivlin hyperelastic and the Finite

  8. Experimental study of the mechanical behaviour of pin reinforced foam core sandwich materials under shear load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimassi, M. A.; Brauner, C.; Herrmann, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Sandwich structures with a lightweight closed cell hard foam core have the potential to be used in primary structures of commercial aircrafts. Compared to honeycomb core sandwich, the closed cell foam core sandwich overcomes the issue of moisture take up and makes the manufacturing of low priced and highly integrated structures possible. However, lightweight foam core sandwich materials are prone to failure by localised external loads like low velocity impacts. Invisible cracks could grow in the foam core and threaten the integrity of the structure. In order to enhance the out-of-plane properties of foam core sandwich structures and to improve the damage tolerance (DT) dry fibre bundles are inserted in the foam core. The pins are infused with resin and co-cured with the dry fabric face sheets in an out-of-autoclave process. This study presents the results obtained from shear tests following DIN 53294-standard, on flat sandwich panels. All panels were manufactured with pin-reinforcement manufactured with the Tied Foam Core Technology (TFC) developed by Airbus. The effects of pin material (CFRP and GFRP) and pin volume fraction on the shear properties of the sandwich structure and the crack propagation were investigated and compared to a not pinned reference. It has been concluded that the pin volume fraction has a remarkable effect on the shear properties and damage tolerance of the observed structure. Increasing the pin volume fraction makes the effect of crack redirection more obvious and conserves the integrity of the structure after crack occurrence.

  9. Transverse crack initiation under combined thermal and mechanical loading of Fibre Metal Laminates and Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Camp, W.; Dhallé, M. M. J.; Warnet, L.; Wessel, W. A. J.; Vos, G. S.; Akkerman, R.; ter Brake, H. J. M.

    2017-02-01

    The paper describes a temperature-dependent extension of the classical laminate theory (CLT) that may be used to predict the mechanical behaviour of Fibre Metal Laminates (FML) at cryogenic conditions, including crack initiation. FML are considered as a possible alternative class of structural materials for the transport and storage of liquified gasses such as LNG. Combining different constituents in a laminate opens up the possibility to enhance its functionality, e.g. offering lower specific weight and increased damage tolerance. To explore this possibility, a test programme is underway at the University of Twente to study transverse crack initiation in different material combinations under combined thermal and mechanical loading. Specifically, the samples are tested in a three-point bending experiment at temperatures ranging from 77 to 293 K. These tests will serve as a validation of the model presented in this paper which, by incorporating temperature-dependent mechanical properties and differential thermal expansion, will allow to select optimal material combinations and laminate layouts. By combining the temperature-dependent mechanical properties and the differential thermal contraction explicitly, the model allows for a more accurate estimate of the resulting thermal stresses which can then be compared to the strength of the constituent materials.

  10. Thermo-mechanical Response and Onset of Instability of Thin Film Layer Due to Thermal Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imatani, Shoji; Thammakornbunjut, Ek-u.

    2010-09-01

    A new simulation technique is proposed in order to evaluate the thermo-mechanical response of thin film layer attached or jointed to substrate. A thermo-elasto-plastic finite element analysis is carried out on a jointed system while only the film layer is picked up and a deformation analysis is in parallel implemented with reference to the data obtained in the analysis on the jointed body. This approach enables us to capture the mechanical stiffness of the thin film layer considered as an independent body. The effects of crystal morphology of substrate and the surface roughness of interface are discussed on the inhomogeneity force evolution, the out-of-plane deformation and the buckling of thin film layer.

  11. Research Study to Define the Critical Failure Mechanisms in Notched Composites under Compression Fatigue Loading.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    A0-13 654 MATERIALS SCIENCES CORP SPRING HOUSE PA FGS 11/ " RESEARCH STUDY TO DEFINE THE CRITICAL FAILURE MECHANISMS IN NOT--ETC(U) MAR 81 B W ROSEN... House , PA 19477 11. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE Naval Air Systems Command March, 1981 Washington, DC 20361 13. NUMBER OF PAGES...fatigue of a laminate containing a hole. The emphasis is upon understanding the governing physical phe- nomnena. Accordingly, the experimental tasks

  12. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures.

    PubMed

    Juhász, Tamás; Szentléleky, Eszter; Somogyi, Csilla Szűcs; Takács, Roland; Dobrosi, Nóra; Engler, Máté; Tamás, Andrea; Reglődi, Dóra; Zákány, Róza

    2015-07-29

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load.

  13. Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Pathway Is Induced by Mechanical Load and Reduces the Activity of Hedgehog Signaling in Chondrogenic Micromass Cell Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Juhász, Tamás; Szentléleky, Eszter; Szűcs Somogyi, Csilla; Takács, Roland; Dobrosi, Nóra; Engler, Máté; Tamás, Andrea; Reglődi, Dóra; Zákány, Róza

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neurohormone exerting protective function during various stress conditions either in mature or developing tissues. Previously we proved the presence of PACAP signaling elements in chicken limb bud-derived chondrogenic cells in micromass cell cultures. Since no data can be found if PACAP signaling is playing any role during mechanical stress in any tissues, we aimed to investigate its contribution in mechanotransduction during chondrogenesis. Expressions of the mRNAs of PACAP and its major receptor, PAC1 increased, while that of other receptors, VPAC1, VPAC2 decreased upon mechanical stimulus. Mechanical load enhanced the expression of collagen type X, a marker of hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and PACAP addition attenuated this elevation. Moreover, exogenous PACAP also prevented the mechanical load evoked activation of hedgehog signaling: protein levels of Sonic and Indian Hedgehogs and Gli1 transcription factor were lowered while expressions of Gli2 and Gli3 were elevated by PACAP application during mechanical load. Our results suggest that mechanical load activates PACAP signaling and exogenous PACAP acts against the hypertrophy inducing effect of mechanical load. PMID:26230691

  14. Analysis of composite repair methods for pipeline mechanical damages subjected to cyclic loading

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.R.; Fowler, J.R.; Leewis, K.

    1997-05-01

    In service mechanical damage occurring on operating transmission pipelines can induce leakage and eventual failure. Considering that there are approximately 250,000 miles of domestic gas pipelines, repair of these anomalies results in significant costs to the industry. This paper describes a research project sponsored by the Gas Research Institute to determine the capabilities of a composite based assembly designed as an alternative to steel sleeves. This system was evaluated as a repair for mechanical dents and gouges on line pipe with D/t ratios of 51, 68 and 96. The composite wraps were placed over mechanical defects consisting of dents 15% of the diameter and gouge depths of 15, 30, and 50% of the wall thickness. Internal pressures were cycled from 0--50% MAOP and 50--100% MAOP. Results indicate that sharp axial defects in the pipe can be successfully reinforced if they are first blunted by grinding to remove the stress concentrators. The repair system increases fatigue life by 2 to 5 times over those dents with gouges that were not ground.

  15. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  16. Prediction of plastic instabilities under thermo-mechanical loadings in tension and simple shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manach, P. Y.; Mansouri, L. F.; Thuillier, S.

    2016-08-01

    Plastic instabilities like Portevin-Le Châtelier were quite thoroughly investigated experimentally in tension, under a large range of strain rates and temperatures. Such instabilities are characterized both by a jerky flow and a localization of the strain in bands. Similar phenomena were also recorded for example in simple shear [1]. Modelling of this phenomenon is mainly performed at room temperature, taking into account the strain rate sensitivity, though an extension of the classical Estrin-Kubin-McCormick was proposed in the literature, by making some of the material parameters dependent on temperature. A similar approach is considered in this study, furthermore extended for anisotropic plasticity with Hill's 1948 yield criterion. Material parameters are identified at 4 different temperatures, ranging from room temperature up to 250°C. The identification procedure is split in 3 steps, related to the elasticity, the average stress level and the magnitude of the stress drops. The anisotropy is considered constant in this temperature range, as evidenced by experimental results [2]. The model is then used to investigate the temperature dependence of the critical strain, as well as its capability to represent the propagation of the bands. Numerical predictions of the instabilities in tension and simple shear at room temperature and up to 250°C are compared with experimental results [3]. In the case of simple shear, a monotonic loading followed by unloading and reloading in the reverse direction (“Bauschinger-type” test) is also considered, showing that (i) kinematic hardening should be taken into account to fully describe the transition at re-yielding (ii) the modelling of the critical strain has to be improved.

  17. Some growth factors stimulate cultured adult rabbit ventricular myocyte hypertrophy in the absence of mechanical loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, R. S.; Cook, M. G.; Behnke-Barclay, M.; Decker, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    Cultured adult rabbit cardiac myocytes treated with recombinant growth factors display enhanced rates of protein accumulation (ie, growth) in response to insulin and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), but epidermal growth factor, acidic or basic fibroblast growth factor, and platelet-derived growth factor failed to increase contractile protein synthesis or growth of the heart cells. Insulin and IGF-1 increased growth rates by stimulating anabolic while simultaneously inhibiting catabolic pathways, whereas IGF-2 elevated growth modestly by apparently inhibiting lysosomal proteolysis. Neutralizing antibodies directed against either IGF-1 or IGF-2 or IGF binding protein 3 blocked protein accumulation. A monoclonal antibody directed against the IGF-1 receptor also inhibited changes in protein turnover provoked by recombinant human IGF-1 but not IGF-2. Of the other growth factors tested, only transforming growth factor-beta 1 increased the fractional rate of myosin heavy chain (MHC) synthesis, with beta-MHC synthesis being elevated and alpha-MHC synthesis being suppressed. However, the other growth factors were able to modestly stimulate the rate of DNA synthesis in this preparation. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling revealed that these growth factors increased DNA synthesis in myocytes and nonmyocytes alike, but the heart cells displayed neither karyokinesis or cytokinesis. In contrast, cocultures of cardiac myocytes and nonmyocytes and nonmyocyte-conditioned culture medium failed to enhance the rate of cardiac MHC synthesis or its accumulation, implying that quiescent heart cells do not respond to "conditioning" by cardiac nonmyocytes. These findings demonstrated that insulin and the IGFs promote passively loaded cultured adult rabbit heart cells to hypertrophy but suggest that other growth factors tested may be limited in this regard.

  18. Abnormal Mechanical Loading Induces Cartilage Degeneration by Accelerating Meniscus Hypertrophy and Mineralization After ACL Injuries In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Du, Guoqing; Zhan, Hongsheng; Ding, Daofang; Wang, Shaowei; Wei, Xiaochun; Wei, Fangyuan; Zhang, Jianzhong; Bilgen, Bahar; Reginato, Anthony M.; Fleming, Braden C.; Deng, Jin; Wei, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background Although patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have a high risk of developing posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), the role of meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization in PTOA after an ACL injury remains unknown. Purpose/Hypothesis The purpose of this study was to determine if menisci respond to abnormal loading and if an ACL injury results in meniscus hypertrophy and calcification. The hypotheses were that (1) abnormal mechanical loading after an ACL injury induces meniscus hypertrophy and mineralization, which correlates to articular cartilage damage in vivo, and (2) abnormal mechanical loading on bovine meniscus explants induces the overexpression of hypertrophic and mineralization markers in vitro. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods In vivo guinea pig study (hypothesis 1): Three-month-old male Hartley guinea pigs (n = 9) underwent ACL transection (ACLT) on the right knee; the left knee served as the control. Calcification in the menisci was evaluated by calcein labeling 1 and 5 days before knee harvesting at 5.5 months. Cartilage and meniscus damage and mineralization were quantified by the Osteoarthritis Research Society International score and meniscus grade, respectively. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), matrix metalloproteinase–13 (MMP-13), collagen type X (Col X), progressive ankylosis homolog (ANKH), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase–1 (ENPP1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), and inorganic phosphate (Pi) concentrations were evaluated by immunohistochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In vitro bovine meniscus explant study (hypothesis 2): Bovine meniscus explants were subjected to 25% strain at 0.3 Hz for 1, 2, and 3 hours. Cell viability was determined using live/dead staining. The levels of mRNA expression and protein levels were measured using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot after 24, 48, and 72 hours in

  19. Fracture mechanics analyses of ceramic/veneer interface under mixed-mode loading.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gaoqi; Zhang, Song; Bian, Cuirong; Kong, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Few studies have focused on the interface fracture performance of zirconia/veneer bilayered structure, which plays an important role in dental all-ceramic restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture mechanics performance of zirconia/veneer interface in a wide range of mode-mixities (at phase angles ranging from 0° to 90°), and to examine the effect of mechanical properties of the materials and the interface on the fracture initiation and crack path of an interfacial crack. A modified sandwich test configuration with an oblique interfacial crack was proposed and calibrated to choose the appropriate geometry dimensions by means of finite element analysis. The specimens with different interface inclination angles were tested to failure under three-point bending configuration. Interface fracture parameters were obtained with finite element analyses. Based on the interfacial fracture mechanics, three fracture criteria for crack kinking were used to predict crack initiation and propagation. In addition, the effects of residual stresses due to coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between zirconia and veneer on the crack behavior were evaluated. The crack initiation and propagation were well predicted by the three fracture criteria. For specimens at phase angle of 0, the cracks propagated in the interface; whereas for all the other specimens the cracks kinked into the veneer. Compressive residual stresses in the veneer can improve the toughness of the interface structure. The results suggest that, in zirconia/veneer bilayered structure the veneer is weaker than the interface, which can be used to explain the clinical phenomenon that veneer chipping rate is larger than interface delamination rate. Consequently, a veneer material with larger fracture toughness is needed to decrease the failure rate of all-ceramic restorations. And the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch of the substrates can be larger to produce larger compressive

  20. The Response and Failure Mechanisms of Circular Metal and Composite Plates Subjected to Underwater Shock Loading

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-01

    thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government. 17 COSATI CODES I 1...composite materials. This thesis , hopefully, will provide some information pertaining to the dynamic response and failure mechanisms of composite plates or...82170 0 - OL Z > QDO (A o (9 0 ai y 11 u mnE o E E >’ crw~~ ~ a’ &a" & a fulu- Q1 -0 0 t) -(ii* ’. I) ( S m I-(r Cr Yn wm \\f I y0 u m \\ 136 to LO (J Ul

  1. Bisphosphonates do not inhibit periosteal bone formation in estrogen deficient animals and allow enhanced bone modeling in response to mechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Feher, Anthony; Koivunemi, Andrew; Koivunemi, Mark; Fuchs, Robyn K; Burr, David B; Phipps, Roger J; Reinwald, Susan; Allen, Matthew R

    2010-01-01

    The suppressive effects of bisphosphonates (BPs) on bone remodeling are clear yet there is conflicting data concerning the effects of BPs on modeling (specifically formation modeling on the periosteal surface). The normal periosteal expansion that occurs during aging has significant benefits to maintaining/improving the bones' mechanical properties and thus it is important to understand whether BPs affect this bone surface. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of BPs on periosteal bone formation modeling induced by ovariectomy (OVX) and mechanical loading. Six-month-old Sprague-Dawley OVX rats (n=60; 12/group) were administered vehicle, risedronate, alendronate, or zoledronate at doses used clinically for treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Three weeks after initiating BP treatment, all animals underwent in vivo ulnar loading of the right limb every other day for 1 week (3 total sessions). Periosteal surface mineral apposition rate, mineralizing surface, and bone formation rate were determined at the mid-diaphysis of both loaded (right) and non-loaded (left) ulnae. There was no significant effect of any of the BPs on periosteal bone formation parameters compared to VEH-treated animals in the non-loaded limb, suggesting that BP treatment does not compromise the normal periosteal expansion associated with estrogen loss. Mechanical loading significantly increased BFR in the loaded limb compared to the non-loaded limb in all BP-treated groups, with no difference in the magnitude of this effect among the various BPs. Collectively, these data show that BP treatment, at doses comparable to those used for treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis, (1) does not alter the periosteal formation activity that occurs in the absence of estrogen and (2) allows normal stimulation of periosteal bone formation in response to the anabolic stimulation of mechanical loading.

  2. Mechanisms of basin-scale nitrogen load reductions under intensified irrigated agriculture.

    PubMed

    Törnqvist, Rebecka; Jarsjö, Jerker; Thorslund, Josefin; Rao, P Suresh C; Basu, Nandita B; Destouni, Georgia

    2015-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture can modify the cycling and transport of nitrogen (N), due to associated water diversions, water losses, and changes in transport flow-paths. We investigate dominant processes behind observed long-term changes in dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations and loads of the extensive (465,000 km2) semi-arid Amu Darya River basin (ADRB) in Central Asia. We specifically considered a 40-year period (1960-2000) of large irrigation expansion, reduced river water flows, increased fertilizer application and net increase of N input into the soil-water system. Results showed that observed decreases in riverine DIN concentration near the Aral Sea outlet of ADRB primarily were due to increased recirculation of irrigation water, which extends the flow-path lengths and enhances N attenuation. The observed DIN concentrations matched a developed analytical relation between concentration attenuation and recirculation ratio, showing that a fourfold increase in basin-scale recirculation can increase DIN attenuation from 85 to 99%. Such effects have previously only been observed at small scales, in laboratory experiments and at individual agricultural plots. These results imply that increased recirculation can have contributed to observed increases in N attenuation in agriculturally dominated drainage basins in different parts of the world. Additionally, it can be important for basin scale attenuation of other pollutants, including phosphorous, metals and organic matter. A six-fold lower DIN export from ADRB during the period 1981-2000, compared to the period 1960-1980, was due to the combined result of drastic river flow reduction of almost 70%, and decreased DIN concentrations at the basin outlet. Several arid and semi-arid regions around the world are projected to undergo similar reductions in discharge as the ADRB due to climate change and agricultural intensification, and may therefore undergo comparable shifts in DIN export as shown here for the ADRB

  3. Common variants of the resistance mechanism in the Smith machine: analysis of mechanical loading characteristics and application to strength-oriented and hypertrophy-oriented training.

    PubMed

    Arandjelović, Ognjen

    2012-02-01

    The Smith machine is a pervasive weight-training apparatus, used extensively by a wide population of weight trainers, from novices to high-level athletes. The advantages of using a Smith machine over free-weight resistance are disputed, with conflicting findings reported in the literature. In this study, we are interested in practical differences between 3 types of loading mechanisms found in modern Smith machines. In addition to the basic design comprising a constrained weighted barbell, alterations with a counterweight and a viscous resistance component are examined. The approach taken is that of employing a recently proposed representation of force characteristics that may be exhibited by a trainee and a predictive model of thus effected adaptation. A computer simulation is used to predict the effects of the 3 linear Smith machine designs in the framework of different exercise protocols. Our results demonstrate that each resistance component, vertically constrained load, counterweight, and viscous, can be matched with a particular training context, in which it should be preferred. Thus, a number of practical guidelines for weight-training practitioners are recommended. In summary, (a) at low intensities (55-75% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) used in strength-endurance training, a viscous resistance containing the Smith machine was found to offer advantages over both a constrained load only and counterweighted designs; (b) at medium intensities (75-85% of 1RM) typically employed in hypertrophy-specific training, the counterweighted Smith machine design was found to offer the best choice in terms of high-force development and total external work performed; finally, (c) at high training intensity (90-100% of 1RM), the optimal prescription was found to be more dependent on the specific athlete's weaknesses, highlighting the need for continual monitoring of the athlete's force production capabilities. To ensure that appropriate adjustments are made to the athlete

  4. Thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosives using a mesoscopic reactive model under impact loading.

    PubMed

    Wang, XinJie; Wu, YanQing; Huang, FengLei

    2017-01-05

    A mesoscopic framework is developed to quantify the thermal-mechanical-chemical responses of polymer-bonded explosive (PBX) samples under impact loading. A mesoscopic reactive model is developed for the cyclotetramethylenetetranitramine (HMX) crystal, which incorporates nonlinear elasticity, crystal plasticity, and temperature-dependent chemical reaction. The proposed model was implemented in the finite element code ABAQUS by the user subroutine VUMAT. A series of three-dimensional mesoscale models were constructed and calculated under low-strength impact loading scenarios from 100m/s to 600m/s where only the first wave transit is studied. Crystal anisotropy and microstructural heterogeneity are responsible for the nonuniform stress field and fluctuations of the stress wave front. At a critical impact velocity (≥300m/s), a chemical reaction is triggered because the temperature contributed by the volumetric and plastic works is sufficiently high. Physical quantities, including stress, temperature, and extent of reaction, are homogenized from those across the microstructure at the mesoscale to compare with macroscale measurements, which will advance the continuum-level models. The framework presented in this study has important implications in understanding hot spot ignition processes and improving predictive capabilities in energetic materials.

  5. Prediction of fracture healing under axial loading, shear loading and bending is possible using distortional and dilatational strains as determining mechanical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Malte; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita; Niemeyer, Frank; Simon, Ulrich; Wehner, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Numerical models of secondary fracture healing are based on mechanoregulatory algorithms that use distortional strain alone or in combination with either dilatational strain or fluid velocity as determining stimuli for tissue differentiation and development. Comparison of these algorithms has previously suggested that healing processes under torsional rotational loading can only be properly simulated by considering fluid velocity and deviatoric strain as the regulatory stimuli. We hypothesize that sufficient calibration on uncertain input parameters will enhance our existing model, which uses distortional and dilatational strains as determining stimuli, to properly simulate fracture healing under various loading conditions including also torsional rotation. Therefore, we minimized the difference between numerically simulated and experimentally measured courses of interfragmentary movements of two axial compressive cases and two shear load cases (torsional and translational) by varying several input parameter values within their predefined bounds. The calibrated model was then qualitatively evaluated on the ability to predict physiological changes of spatial and temporal tissue distributions, based on respective in vivo data. Finally, we corroborated the model on five additional axial compressive and one asymmetrical bending load case. We conclude that our model, using distortional and dilatational strains as determining stimuli, is able to simulate fracture-healing processes not only under axial compression and torsional rotation but also under translational shear and asymmetrical bending loading conditions. PMID:23825112

  6. Bacterial cellulose composites loaded with SiO2 nanoparticles: Dynamic-mechanical and thermal properties.

    PubMed

    Sheykhnazari, Somayeh; Tabarsa, Taghi; Ashori, Alireza; Ghanbari, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to prepare composites of bacterial cellulose (BC) filled with silica (SiO2) nanoparticles to evaluate the influence of the SiO2 contents (3, 5 and 7wt%) on the thermo-mechanical properties of the composites. BC hydro-gel was immersed in an aqueous solution of silanol derived from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS), the silanol was then converted into SiO2 in the BC matrix by pressing at 120°C and 2MPa. The BC/SiO2 translucent sheets were examined by dynamic-mechanical analysis (DMA), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The temperature dependence of the storage modulus, loss modulus and tan delta was determined by DMA. In general, the results revealed that the increment of storage modulus and thermal stability increased concomitantly with the augmentation of SiO2 content. Therefore, it could be concluded that the mechanical properties of the composites were improved by using high amounts of nano silica. This would be a high aspect ratio of BC capable of connecting the BC matrix and SiO2, thereby enhancing a large contact surface and resulting in excellent coherence. A decrease of the storage modulus was consistent with increasing temperature, resulting from softening of the composites. The storage modulus of the composites increased in the order: BC/S7>BC/S5>BC/S3, while the loss modulus and tan delta decreased. On the other hand, the thermal stabilities of all BC/SiO2 composites were remarkably enhanced as compared to the pristine BC. TGA curves showed that the temperature of decomposition of the pure BC gradually shifted from about 260°C to about 370°C as silica content increased. SEM observations illustrated that the nano-scale SiO2 was embedded between the voids and nano-fibrils of the BC matrix. Overall, the results indicated that the successful synthesis and superior properties of BC/SiO2 advocate its effectiveness for various applications.

  7. Spider silk as a load bearing biomaterial: tailoring mechanical properties via structural modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Cameron P.; Rosei, Federico; Traversa, Enrico; Licoccia, Silvia

    2011-03-01

    Spider silk shows great potential as a biomaterial: in addition to biocompatibility and biodegradability, its strength and toughness are greater than native biological fibres (e.g. collagen), with toughness exceeding that of synthetic fibres (e.g. nylon). Although the ultimate tensile strength and toughness at failure are unlikely to be limiting factors, its yield strain of 2% is insufficient, particularly for biomedical application because of the inability to mimic the complex ultrastructure of natural tissues with current tissue engineering approaches. To harness the full potential of spider silk as a biomaterial, it is therefore necessary to increase its yield strain. In this paper, we discuss the means by which the mechanical properties of spider silk, particularly the yield strain, can be optimized through structural modifications.

  8. Mechanical properties of a structural polyurethane foam and the effect of particulate loading

    SciTech Connect

    Goods, S.H.; Neuschwanger, C.L.; Whinnery, L.L.

    1998-04-01

    The room temperature mechanical properties of a closed-cell, polyurethane encapsulant foam have been measured as a function of foam density. Tests were performed on both unfilled and filler reinforced specimens. Over the range of densities examined, the modulus of the unloaded foam could be described by a power-law relationship with respect to density. This power-law relationship could be explained in terms of the elastic compliance of the cellular structure of the foam using a simple geometric model found in the literature. The collapse stress of the foam was also found to exhibit a power-law relationship with respect to density. Additions of an aluminum powder filler increased the modulus relative to the unfilled foam.

  9. How Osteoblasts Sense their Environment: Integrin-Extracellular Matrix Interactions and Mechanical Loading of Bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth K.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Osteoblasts are the cells responsible for forming and replacing bone throughout life. We know that mechanical stimulation through weight-bearing at I gravity on Earth is needed to maintain healthy bone, and that osteoblasts play a critical role in that process. Over the last 9 years in my laboratory at NASA ARC, we have studied the regulation of osteoblast function by interactions between the extracellular matrix and die cell. Using a cell culture approach, we defined the repertoire of adhesion receptors, called integrins, which are expressed on the osteoblast surface, as well as specific extracellular matrix proteins, which are needed for cellular differentiation and survival. We are now extending these observations to determine if integrin signaling is involved in the skeletal responses to disuse and recovery from disuse using the rodent model of hindlimb unloading by tail suspension. Together, our cell culture and animal studies are providing new insight into the regulation of osteoblast function in bone.

  10. Methods of Assessing Human Tendon Metabolism and Tissue Properties in Response to Changes in Mechanical Loading.

    PubMed

    Heinemeier, Katja M; Kjaer, Michael; Magnusson, S Peter

    2016-01-01

    In recent years a number of methodological developments have improved the opportunities to study human tendon. Microdialysis enables sampling of interstitial fluid in the peritendon tissue, while sampling of human tendon biopsies allows direct analysis of tendon tissue for gene- and protein expression as well as protein synthesis rate. Further the (14)C bomb-pulse method has provided data on long-term tissue turnover in human tendon. Non-invasive techniques allow measurement of tendon metabolism (positron emission tomography (PET)), tendon morphology (magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)), and tendon mechanical properties (ultrasonography combined with force measurement during movement). Finally, 3D cell cultures of human tendon cells provide the opportunity to investigate cell-matrix interactions in response to various interventions.

  11. Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solution with magnetite loaded multi-wall carbon nanotube: kinetic, isotherm and mechanism analysis.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lunhong; Zhang, Chunying; Liao, Fang; Wang, Yao; Li, Ming; Meng, Lanying; Jiang, Jing

    2011-12-30

    In this study, we have demonstrated the efficient removal of cationic dye, methylene blue (MB), from aqueous solution with the one-pot solvothermal synthesized magnetite-loaded multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M-MWCNTs). The as-prepared M-MWCNTs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The effects of contact time, initial dye concentration, and solution pH on the adsorption of MB onto M-MWCNTs were systematically studied. It was shown that the MB adsorption was pH-dependent. Adsorption kinetics was best described by the pseudo-second-order model. Equilibrium data were well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model, yielding maximum monolayer adsorption capacity of 48.06 mg g(-1). FTIR analysis suggested that the adsorption mechanism was possibly attributed to the electrostatic attraction and π-π stacking interactions between MWCNTs and MB.

  12. Thermal-Conductivity Characterization of Gas Diffusion Layer in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells and Electrolyzers Under Mechanical Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamour, M.; Garnier, J. P.; Grandidier, J. C.; Ouibrahim, A.; Martemianov, S.

    2011-05-01

    Accurate information on the temperature field and associated heat transfer rates is particularly important for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and PEM electrolyzers. An important parameter in fuel cell and electrolyzer performance analysis is the effective thermal conductivity of the gas diffusion layer (GDL) which is a solid porous medium. Usually, this parameter is introduced in modeling and performance analysis without taking into account the dependence of the GDL thermal conductivity λ (in W · m-1 · K-1) on mechanical compression. Nevertheless, mechanical stresses arising in an operating system can change significantly the thermal conductivity and heat exchange. Metrology allowing the characterization of the GDL thermal conductivity as a function of the applied mechanical compression has been developed in this study using the transient hot-wire technique (THW). This method is the best for obtaining standard reference data in fluids, but it is rarely used for thermal-conductivity measurements in solids. The experiments provided with Quintech carbon cloth indicate a strong dependence (up to 300%) of the thermal conductivity λ on the applied mechanical load. The experiments have been provided in the pressure range 0 < p < 8 MPa which corresponds to stresses arising in fuel cells. All obtained experimental results have been fitted by the equation λ = 0.9log(12 p + 17)(1 - 0.4e-50 p ) with 9% uncertainty. The obtained experimental dependence can be used for correct modeling of coupled thermo/electro-mechanical phenomena in fuel cells and electrolyzers. Special attention has been devoted to justification of the main hypotheses of the THW method and for estimation of the possible influence of the contact resistances. For this purpose, measurements with a different number of carbon cloth layers have been provided. The conducted experiments indicate the independence of the measured thermal conductivity on the number of GDL layers and, thus, justify the

  13. A Novel High Mechanical Property PLGA Composite Matrix Loaded with Nanodiamond-Phospholipid Compound for Bone Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Qingxin; Huang, Xuan; Li, Fengning; Wang, Kun; Tang, Yixing; Hou, Canglong; Shen, Hongxing

    2016-01-20

    A potential bone tissue engineering material was produced from a biodegradable polymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), loaded with nanodiamond phospholipid compound (NDPC) via physical mixing. On the basis of hydrophobic effects and physical absorption, we modified the original hydrophilic surface of the nanodiamond (NDs) with phospholipids to be amphipathic, forming a typical core-shell structure. The ND-phospholipid weight ratio was optimized to generate sample NDPC50 (i.e., ND-phospholipid weight ratio of 100:50), and NDPC50 was able to be dispersed in a PLGA matrix at up to 20 wt %. Compared to a pure PLGA matrix, the introduction of 10 wt % of NDPC (i.e., sample NDPC50-PF10) resulted in a significant improvement in the material's mechanical and surface properties, including a decrease in the water contact angle from 80 to 55°, an approximately 100% increase in the Young's modulus, and an approximate 550% increase in hardness, thus closely resembling that of human cortical bone. As a novel matrix supporting human osteoblast (hFOB1.19) growth, NDPC50-PFs with different amounts of NDPC50 demonstrated no negative effects on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Furthermore, we focused on the behaviors of NDPC-PFs implanted into mice for 8 weeks and found that NDPC-PFs induced acceptable immune response and can reduce the rapid biodegradation of PLGA matrix. Our results represent the first in vivo research on ND (or NDPC) as nanofillers in a polymer matrix for bone tissue engineering. The high mechanical properties, good in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, and increased mineralization capability suggest that biodegradable PLGA composite matrices loaded with NDPC may potentially be useful for a variety of biomedical applications, especially bone tissue engineering.

  14. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during exercise is linked to exercise-induced changes in arterial load

    PubMed Central

    Chantler, Paul D.; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Schulman, Steven P.; Gerstenblith, Gary; Becker, Lewis C.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L.; Najjar, Samer S.

    2012-01-01

    Effective arterial elastance(EA) is a measure of the net arterial load imposed on the heart that integrates the effects of heart rate(HR), peripheral vascular resistance(PVR), and total arterial compliance(TAC) and is a modulator of cardiac performance. To what extent the change in EA during exercise impacts on cardiac performance and aerobic capacity is unknown. We examined EA and its relationship with cardiovascular performance in 352 healthy subjects. Subjects underwent rest and exercise gated scans to measure cardiac volumes and to derive EA[end-systolic pressure/stroke volume index(SV)], PVR[MAP/(SV*HR)], and TAC(SV/pulse pressure). EA varied with exercise intensity: the ΔEA between rest and peak exercise along with its determinants, differed among individuals and ranged from −44% to +149%, and was independent of age and sex. Individuals were separated into 3 groups based on their ΔEAI. Individuals with the largest increase in ΔEA(group 3;ΔEA≥0.98 mmHg.m2/ml) had the smallest reduction in PVR, the greatest reduction in TAC and a similar increase in HR vs. group 1(ΔEA<0.22 mmHg.m2/ml). Furthermore, group 3 had a reduction in end-diastolic volume, and a blunted increase in SV(80%), and cardiac output(27%), during exercise vs. group 1. Despite limitations in the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac function, peak aerobic capacity did not differ by group because arterial-venous oxygen difference was greater in group 3 vs. 1. Thus the change in arterial load during exercise has important effects on the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac performance but not on exercise capacity. These findings provide interesting insights into the dynamic cardiovascular alterations during exercise. PMID:22003052

  15. Use of the Frank-Starling mechanism during exercise is linked to exercise-induced changes in arterial load.

    PubMed

    Chantler, Paul D; Melenovsky, Vojtech; Schulman, Steven P; Gerstenblith, Gary; Becker, Lewis C; Ferrucci, Luigi; Fleg, Jerome L; Lakatta, Edward G; Najjar, Samer S

    2012-01-01

    Effective arterial elastance(E(A)) is a measure of the net arterial load imposed on the heart that integrates the effects of heart rate(HR), peripheral vascular resistance(PVR), and total arterial compliance(TAC) and is a modulator of cardiac performance. To what extent the change in E(A) during exercise impacts on cardiac performance and aerobic capacity is unknown. We examined E(A) and its relationship with cardiovascular performance in 352 healthy subjects. Subjects underwent rest and exercise gated scans to measure cardiac volumes and to derive E(A)[end-systolic pressure/stroke volume index(SV)], PVR[MAP/(SV*HR)], and TAC(SV/pulse pressure). E(A) varied with exercise intensity: the ΔE(A) between rest and peak exercise along with its determinants, differed among individuals and ranged from -44% to +149%, and was independent of age and sex. Individuals were separated into 3 groups based on their ΔE(A)I. Individuals with the largest increase in ΔE(A)(group 3;ΔE(A)≥0.98 mmHg.m(2)/ml) had the smallest reduction in PVR, the greatest reduction in TAC and a similar increase in HR vs. group 1(ΔE(A)<0.22 mmHg.m(2)/ml). Furthermore, group 3 had a reduction in end-diastolic volume, and a blunted increase in SV(80%), and cardiac output(27%), during exercise vs. group 1. Despite limitations in the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac function, peak aerobic capacity did not differ by group because arterial-venous oxygen difference was greater in group 3 vs. 1. Thus the change in arterial load during exercise has important effects on the Frank-Starling mechanism and cardiac performance but not on exercise capacity. These findings provide interesting insights into the dynamic cardiovascular alterations during exercise.

  16. Analysis of Load Transfer Mechanism in Cu Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by Powder Metallurgy Route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbarpour, Mohammad Reza

    2016-05-01

    In this research, ductile and high-strength Cu-carbon nanotube (Cu-CNT) composites with different volume fractions of CNTs were fabricated using powder metallurgy route including mechanical milling and hot pressing and microstructure and tensile properties of the resulting materials were studied. Microstructural characterization through scanning electron microscope and quantifying the CNT agglomeration revealed that uniform dispersion of CNTs in Cu matrix decreases with increasing CNT volume fraction. In case of the higher volume fraction of CNTs (i.e., 8 vol.%), ~ 40% of CNTs were observed as agglomerates in the microstructure. Compared to unreinforced Cu, the yield and ultimate tensile strengths increased considerably (about 33% and 12%, respectively) with incorporation of CNTs up to 4 vol.%, but remained constant afterward. Meanwhile, the elongation decreased from 15.6% for Cu to 6.9% for Cu with 8 vol.% CNT. The relationship between the change in yield strength of the composite and the microstructure was investigated using analytical models. The results showed good consistency between calculated and measured data when the negative effect of CNT agglomerates in the models were taken into account.

  17. Computational Simulation of the Mechanical Response of Brain Tissue under Blast Loading

    PubMed Central

    Laksari, Kaveh; Assari, Soroush; Seibold, Benjamin; Sadeghipour, Keya; Darvish, Kurosh

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, numerical simulations of nonlinear wave propagation and shock formation in brain tissue have been presented and a new mechanism of injury for Blast-Induced Neurotrauma (BINT) is proposed. A quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) constitutive material model was used that encompasses the nonlinearity as well as the rate dependence of the tissue relevant to BINT modeling. A one-dimensional model was implemented using the discontinuous Galerkin -finite element method and studied with displacement-input and pressure-input boundary conditions. The model was validated against LS-DYNA finite element code and theoretical results for speci c conditions that resulted in shock wave formation. It was shown that a continuous wave can become a shock wave as it propagates in the QLV brain tissue when the initial changes in acceleration are beyond a certain limit. The high spatial gradient of stress and strain at the shock front cause large relative motions at the cellular scale at high temporal rates even when the maximum stresses and strains are relatively low. This gradient-induced local deformation may occur away from the boundary and is proposed as a contributing factor to the diffuse nature of BINT. PMID:25205088

  18. Computational simulation of the mechanical response of brain tissue under blast loading.

    PubMed

    Laksari, Kaveh; Assari, Soroush; Seibold, Benjamin; Sadeghipour, Keya; Darvish, Kurosh

    2015-06-01

    In the present study, numerical simulations of nonlinear wave propagation and shock formation in brain tissue have been presented and a new mechanism of injury for blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) is proposed. A quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) constitutive material model was used that encompasses the nonlinearity as well as the rate dependence of the tissue relevant to BINT modeling. A one-dimensional model was implemented using the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method and studied with displacement- and pressure-input boundary conditions. The model was validated against LS-DYNA finite element code and theoretical results for specific conditions that resulted in shock wave formation. It was shown that a continuous wave can become a shock wave as it propagates in the QLV brain tissue when the initial changes in acceleration are beyond a certain limit. The high spatial gradient of stress and strain at the shock front cause large relative motions at the cellular scale at high temporal rates even when the maximum stresses and strains are relatively low. This gradient-induced local deformation may occur away from the boundary and is proposed as a contributing factor to the diffuse nature of BINT.

  19. Vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composites under thermo-electro-mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Sik

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composite beams are presented. An asymptotic method based on virtual work principle is introduced first. The primary variables in thermo-electro-mechanical problems are asymptotically expanded in terms of the small parameter, which is done by taking the geometric slenderness of the beams. This subsequently renders a set of recursive virtual works at each order, in which the virtual works are separated into two parts: 2D microscopic problems and 1D macroscopic problems. These microscopic and macroscopic problems are systematically associated with each other, and thus the boundary conditions are affected by both of them. Cantilever beams under multiphysics environment are taken as a test-bed in order to illustrate the significance of edge effects and asymptotical correctness to the vibration characteristics of the beams. For the displacement prescribed boundary such as the clamped boundary, the stress weighted average conditions are applied to obtain the accurate prediction, which are known to be a good approximation (possibly the best candidate up to date).

  20. Vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composites under thermo-electro-mechanical loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jun-Sik

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, vibration characteristics of piezoelectric fiber composite beams are presented. An asymptotic method based on virtual work principle is introduced first. The primary variables in thermo-electro-mechanical problems are asymptotically expanded in terms of the small parameter, which is done by taking the geometric slenderness of the beams. This subsequently renders a set of recursive virtual works at each order, in which the virtual works are separated into two parts: 2D microscopic problems and 1D macroscopic problems. These microscopic and macroscopic problems are systematically associated with each other, and thus the boundary conditions are affected by both of them. Cantilever beams under multiphysics environment are taken as a test-bed in order to illustrate the significance of edge effects and asymptotical correctness to the vibration characteristics of the beams. For the displacement prescribed boundary such as the clamped boundary, the stress weighted average conditions are applied to obtain the accurate prediction, which are known to be a good approximation (possibly the best candidate up to date).

  1. Effect of exposing two commercial manufacturers' second surface silver/glass mirrors to elevated temperature, mechanical loading, and high-humidity environments

    SciTech Connect

    Dake, L.S.; Lind, M.A.

    1982-04-01

    A preliminary examination of the effect of three accelerated exposure parameters on second surface silver/glass mirrors was performed. The variables studied were temperature (elevated and sub-zero), humidity and mechanical loading. One test consisted of exposing mirror coupons to dry heat (80/sup 0/C) and heat plus water vapor (80/sup 0/C, approx. 100% RH) environments. Another test consisted of subjecting mechanically loaded mirror strips to sub-zero temperature (-20/sup 0/C), dry heat (80/sup 0/C), and heat plus water vapor. Samples were evaluated qualitatively using dark field microscopy (1X and 100X). Quantitative determination of the effects of exposure testing on the mirrors was done with spectrophotometer spectral hemispherical and diffuse reflectance measurements. Degradation that was progressive with time was observed for mirrors exposed to dry heat and heat plus water vapor. The degradation did not have the same visual appearance for the two environments. Mechanical loading at -20/sup 0/C produced no degradation after three months' exposure time. Mechanical loading in dry heat and heat plus water vapor environments resulted in mirror degradation that was the same as that found in unloaded mirrors exposed to the same temperature and humidity. These preliminary tests indicate that the dry heat and heat plus water vapor accelerated tests may provide useful information about mirror degradation, while the mechanical load tests do not. The microscopy and spectrophotometer reflectance measurements were both useful techniques for determining the extent of degradation.

  2. Design and validation of a novel bioreactor principle to combine online micro-computed tomography monitoring and mechanical loading in bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Hagenmüller, Henri; Hitz, Marco; Merkle, Hans P; Meinel, Lorenz; Müller, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loading plays an important role in bone remodeling in vivo and, therefore, has been suggested as a key parameter in stem cell-based engineering of bone-like tissue in vitro. However, the optimization of loading protocols during stem cell differentiation and subsequent bone-like tissue formation is challenged by multiple input factors, which are difficult to control and validate. These include the variable cellular performance of cells harvested from different patients, nonstandardized culture media components, the choice of the biomaterial forming the scaffold, and its morphology, impacting a broader validity of mechanical stimulation regimens. To standardize the cell culture of bone-like tissue constructs, we suggest the involvement of time-lapsed feedback loops. For this purpose we present a prototype bioreactor that combines online, nondestructive monitoring using micro-computed tomography and direct mechanical loading of three-dimensional tissue engineering constructs. Validation of this system showed displacement steps down to 1 microm and cyclic sinusoidal loadings of up to 10 Hz. Load detection resolution was 0.01 N, and micro-computed tomography data were of high quality. For the first time, the developed bioreactor links time-lapsed, nondestructive, and dynamic imaging with mechanical stimulation, designed for cell culture under sterile conditions. This system is believed to substantially improve today's experimental options to study and optimize osteogenic stem cell culture and differentiation at the interface with mechanical stimulation.

  3. Hydroxy double salts loaded with bioactive ions: Synthesis, intercalation mechanisms, and functional performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kaassis, Abdessamad Y.A.; Xu, Si-Min; Guan, Shanyue; Evans, David G.; Wei, Min; Williams, Gareth R.

    2016-06-15

    The intercalation of the anions of diclofenac (Dic), naproxen (Nap), and valproic acid (Val) into three hydroxy double salts (HDSs) has been explored in this work. Experiments were performed with [Co{sub 1.2}Zn{sub 3.8}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (CoZn-NO{sub 3}), [Ni{sub 2}Zn{sub 3}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (NiZn-NO{sub 3}) and [Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}](NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O (Zn-NO{sub 3}). It proved possible to intercalate diclofenac and naproxen into all three HDSs. In contrast, Val could be intercalated into CoZn-NO{sub 3} but when it was reacted with Zn-NO{sub 3} the HDS structure was destroyed, and the product comprised ZnO. Successful intercalation was verified by X-ray diffraction, IR spectroscopy, and elemental microanalysis. Molecular dynamics simulations showed the Dic and Nap ions to arrange themselves in an “X” shape in the interlayer space, forming a bilayer. Val was found to adopt a position with its aliphatic groups parallel to the HDS layer, again in a bilayer. In situ time resolved X-ray diffraction experiments revealed that intercalation of Dic and Nap into CoZn-NO{sub 3} and Zn-NO{sub 3} is mechanistically complex, with a number of intermediate phases observed. In contrast, the intercalation of all three guests into NiZn-NO{sub 3} and of Val into CoZn-NO{sub 3} are simple one step reactions proceeding directly from the starting material to the product. The HDS-drug composites were found to have sustained release profiles. - Graphical abstract: Seven new drug intercalates of hydroxy double salts (HDSs) have been prepared and characterised. The intercalation mechanisms have been explored, and the drug release properties of the HDS/drug composites quantified. Display Omitted.

  4. Application of iron and zinc isotopes to track the sources and mechanisms of metal loading in a mountain watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borrok, D.M.; Wanty, R.B.; Ian, Ridley W.; Lamothe, P.J.; Kimball, B.A.; Verplanck, P.L.; Runkel, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Here the hydrogeochemical constraints of a tracer dilution study are combined with Fe and Zn isotopic measurements to pinpoint metal loading sources and attenuation mechanisms in an alpine watershed impacted by acid mine drainage. In the tested mountain catchment, ??56Fe and ??66Zn isotopic signatures of filtered stream water samples varied by ???3.5??? and 0.4???, respectively. The inherent differences in the aqueous geochemistry of Fe and Zn provided complimentary isotopic information. For example, variations in ??56Fe were linked to redox and precipitation reactions occurring in the stream, while changes in ??66Zn were indicative of conservative mixing of different Zn sources. Fen environments contributed distinctively light dissolved Fe (<-2.0???) and isotopically heavy suspended Fe precipitates to the watershed, while Zn from the fen was isotopically heavy (>+0.4???). Acidic drainage from mine wastes contributed heavier dissolved Fe (???+0.5???) and lighter Zn (???+0.2???) isotopes relative to the fen. Upwelling of Fe-rich groundwater near the mouth of the catchment was the major source of Fe (??56Fe ??? 0???) leaving the watershed in surface flow, while runoff from mining wastes was the major source of Zn. The results suggest that given a strong framework for interpretation, Fe and Zn isotopes are useful tools for identifying and tracking metal sources and attenuation mechanisms in mountain watersheds. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Protective Mechanism of Articular Cartilage to Severe Loading: Roles of Lubricants, Cartilage Surface Layer, Extracellular Matrix and Chondrocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Teruo; Sawae, Yoshinori; Ihara, Maki

    The natural synovial joints have excellent tribological performance known as very low friction and very low wear for various daily activities in human life. These functions are likely to be supported by the adaptive multimode lubrication mechanism, in which the various lubrication modes such as elastohydrodynamic lubrication, weeping, boundary and gel film lubrication appear to operate to protect articular cartilage, depending on the severity of the rubbing conditions. In this paper, various protective roles of synovial fluid, cartilage surface layer, extracellular matrix and chondrocyte to severe loading are described. In the first part, the protective mechanism by adsorbed films and underlying gel films was described on the basis of the frictional behaviors of articular cartilage against articular cartilage or glass. It was discussed that the replenishment of gel film removed during severe rubbing is likely to be controlled by supply of proteoglycan from the extracellular matrix, where the chondrocyte plays the main role in the metabolism. In the second part, the time-dependent local deformation of biphasic articular cartilage under constant total compressive strain condition was evaluated in the finite element analyses. The importance of clarification of actual stress-strain in chondrocyte was indicated in relation to the tribological property of articular cartilage.

  6. The MD simulation on the micro-mechanism of micro-spallation of metal Pb under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jun; Xiang, Meizhen; Hu, Haibo

    2013-06-01

    We study the micro-mechanism of crystal and nano-crystal metal Pb under shock loading by using the molecular dynamics method. A wide range of shock intensity is conducted with the lowest one just above the threshold of solid spallation, while the highest one higher than the threshold of shock melting. The spallation mechanism is dominated by cavitation, i.e., nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids, as well as the interplay of cavitation and melting. Our results discovered that the grain boundary plays an important effect in the case of releasing melting, while it is smaller effect on the cases of conventional spallation and shock melting. The cavitation and melting firstly form in the grain boundary, and they display mutual promotion: melting makes the void nucleation at smaller tensile stress; void growth speeds the melting. The spall strength dependence on the grain boundary, void and melting temperature is qualitatively discussed. Due to grain boundary effects, the spall strength of nano-crystalline Pb is less sensitive to shock intensity than single-crystalline Pb if cavitation occurs in solid state materials. If melting starts before cavitation, the spall strength of both nano-crystalline and single-crystalline Pb decreases dramatically as shock intensity increases.

  7. Mechanisms of high temperature deformation and rupture under multiaxial loading conditions. Final progress report, July 1, 1996--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Earthman, J.C.; Mohamed, F.A.

    1997-10-01

    This research program is concerned with the mechanisms that control high temperature fracture processes in specimens subjected to multiaxial loading conditions. The experimental program has consisted of detailed studies of the influence of multiaxial stress states on high temperature damage development which determine the life of the specimens. The objective of the work is to achieve new insight into the predominant failure mechanisms and to develop novel methods for predicting the failure of high temperature components. The principal developments for this reporting period were from investigations of the multiaxial high temperature fracture behavior of two materials: 7075 Al, in which grain boundary sliding is known to occur, and fully-lamellar titanium aluminide, in which grain boundary sliding is inhibited. A detailed description of the research on 7075 Al is presented in Section II.A of the present report. A detailed description of the study of fully lamellar titanium aluminide is presented in Section II.B of the present report. This section is followed by a listing of the publications, presentations and dissertations resulting from the program; a listing of the graduate research assistants; and a listing of other research support.

  8. Numerical modeling of inelastic structures at loading of steady state rolling. Thermo-mechanical asphalt pavement computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollny, Ines; Hartung, Felix; Kaliske, Michael

    2016-05-01

    In order to gain a deeper knowledge of the interactions in the coupled tire-pavement-system, e.g. for the future design of durable pavement structures, the paper presents recent results of research in the field of theoretical-numerical asphalt pavement modeling at material and structural level, whereby the focus is on a realistic and numerically efficient computation of pavements under rolling tire load by using the finite element method based on an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulation. Inelastic material descriptions are included into the ALE frame efficiently by a recently developed unsplit history update procedure. New is also the implementation of a viscoelastic cohesive zone model into the ALE pavement formulation to describe the interaction of the single pavement layers. The viscoelastic cohesive zone model is further extended to account for the normal pressure dependent shear behavior of the bonding layer. Another novelty is that thermo-mechanical effects are taken into account by a coupling of the mechanical ALE pavement computation to a transient thermal computation of the pavement cross-section to obtain the varying temperature distributions of the pavement due to climatic impact. Then, each ALE pavement simulation considers the temperature dependent asphalt material model that includes elastic, viscous and plastic behavior at finite strains and the temperature dependent viscoelastic cohesive zone formulation. The temperature dependent material parameters of the asphalt layers and the interfacial layers are fitted to experimental data. Results of coupled tire-pavement computations are presented to demonstrate potential fields of application.

  9. Expanded graphite loaded with lanthanum oxide used as a novel adsorbent for phosphate removal from water: performance and mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Gao, Yan; Li, Mengxue; Liu, Jianyong

    2015-01-01

    A novel adsorbent of expanded graphite (EG) loaded with lanthanum oxide (EG-LaO) was prepared for phosphate removal from water and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The effects of impregnation time, La3+ concentration, activation time, and activation temperature on the phosphate removal performance of the adsorbent were studied for optimization of preparation conditions. Isothermal adsorption studies suggested that the Langmuir model fits the experimental data well. Adsorption kinetics investigation showed that the pseudo-second-order model fits the experimental data quite well, indicating that the adsorption process is mainly a process of chemical adsorption, and chloride ions compete to react with the active sites of the adsorbent but do not prevent phosphate from adsorbing onto EG-LaO. The adsorption mechanism studies were performed by a pH dependence study of the adsorption amount. The results demonstrated that the probable mechanisms of phosphate adsorption on EG-LaO were electrostatic and Lewis acid-base interactions in addition to ion exchange.

  10. High-cycle fatigue of 10M Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloy in reversed mechanical loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaltio, I.; Soroka, A.; Ge, Y.; Söderberg, O.; Hannula, S.-P.

    2010-07-01

    Application of Ni-Mn-Ga magnetic shape memory alloys in magnetic-field-induced actuation relies on their performance in long-term high-cycle fatigue. In this paper the performance and changes in the microstructure of a Ni-Mn-Ga 10M martensite single crystal material are reported in a long-term mechanically induced shape change cycling. The longest test was run for 2 × 109 cycles at a frequency of 250 Hz and a strain amplitude of ± 1%. After the test a clear increase of the dynamic stiffness of the material was detected. Three specimens out of ten were cycled until fracture occurred and their fracture mechanism was studied. It was observed that the macroscopic crack growth took place roughly at a 45° angle with respect to the loading direction that was along the lang100rang crystallographic direction of the sample. The macroscopic fracture plane seemed to correspond roughly to the {111} crystal planes. On a microscopic scale the fracture propagated in a step-like manner at least partly along crystallographic planes. The steps at the fracture plane correspond to the {101} twin planes, with the height of steps along the lang101rang direction. The final fracture of the samples occurred in a brittle manner after the critical stress was exceeded.

  11. Effects of Thermal and Mechanical Load Cycling on the Dentin Microtensile Bond Strength of Single Bond-2

    PubMed Central

    Daneshkazemi, Alireza; Davari, Abdolrahim; Akbari, Mohammad Javad; Davoudi, Amin; Badrian, Hamid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Different studies have shown the uncertain effects of thermal cycling (TC) and mechanical load cycling (MC) on the dentin microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of composites. This study designed to investigate the effects of TC and MC on the dentin µTBS of single bond-2. Materials and Methods: Flat dentinal surface was prepared on 48 sound extracted human third molar teeth, and were bonded by single bond-2 adhesive and Z250 resin composite. The teeth were randomly divided into eight equal groups, according to the thermal/mechanical protocol. TC and MC were proceeded at 5-55°C and 90 N with 0.5 Hz. Then restorations were sectioned to shape the hour-glass form and subjected to µTBS testing at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. To evaluate the bonding failure, the specimens were observed under the scanning electron microscope. The results were statistically analyzed with analysis of variance, t-test, Tukey HSD and post-hoc by using SPSS software version 17 at a significant level of 0.05. Results: µTBS of all groups were significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.001). Adhesive failure was predominant in all groups and increased with TC and MC. Conclusions: TC and MC had an adverse effect on µTBS of the tested adhesive resin to dentin. PMID:26464532

  12. The Effect of Altering the Mechanical Loading Environment on the Expression of Bone Regenerating Molecules in Cases of Distraction Osteogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Alzahrani, Mohammad M.; Anam, Emad A.; Makhdom, Asim M.; Villemure, Isabelle; Hamdy, Reggie Charles

    2014-01-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical technique where gradual and controlled separation of two bony fragments following an osteotomy leads to the induction of new bone formation in the distracted gap. DO is used for limb lengthening, correction of bony deformities, and the replacement of bone loss secondary to infection, trauma, and tumors. Although DO gives satisfactory results in most cases, one major drawback of this technique is the prolonged period of time the external fixator has to be kept on until the newly formed bone consolidates thus leading to numerous complications. Numerous attempts at accelerating bone formation during DO have been reported. One specific approach is manipulation of the mechanical environment during DO by applying changes in the standard protocol of distraction. Attempts at changing this mechanical environment led to mixed results. Increasing the rate or applying acute distraction, led to poor bone formation in the distracted zone. On the other hand, the addition of compressive forces (such as weight bearing, alternating distraction with compression or by over-lengthening, and then shortening) has been reported to increase bone formation. It still remains unclear why these alterations may lead to changes in bone formation. While the cellular and molecular changes occurring during the standard DO protocol, specifically increased expression of transforming growth factor-β1, platelet-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and bone morphogenic proteins have been extensively investigated, the literature is sparse on the changes occurring when this protocol is altered. It is the purpose of this article to review the pertinent literature on the changes in the expression of various proteins and molecules as a result of changes in the mechanical loading technique in DO and try to define potential future research directions. PMID:25540639

  13. Elution and Mechanical Strength of Vancomycin-Loaded Bone Cement: In Vitro Study of the Influence of Brand Combination

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ching-Lung; Chen, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic-loaded bone cement (ALBC) is widely used in orthopaedic surgery for both prevention and treatment of infection. Little is known about the effect of different brand combinations of antibiotic and bone cement on the elution profile and mechanical strength of ALBC. Standardized specimens that consisted of one of the 4 brands of bone cement and one of the 3 brands of vancomycin were fashioned, producing 12 combinations of ALBC. Two dosages of vancomycin in 40g bone cement were used to represent the high (4g vancomycin) and low (1g vancomycin) dose groups. Concentrations of vancomycin elution from ALBC was measured for up to 336 hours. The ultimate compression strength was tested at axial compression using a material testing machine before and after elution. In both high-dose and low-dose groups, Lyo-Vancin in PALACOS bone cement resulted in the highest cumulative elution and Vanco in Simplex P bone cement resulted in the lowest elution (458% and 65% higher in high- and low-dose groups, respectively). The mechanical strength was not significantly compromised in all groups with low dose vancomycin (range: 70.31 ± 2.74 MPa to 87.28 ± 8.26MPa after elution). However, with the addition of high dose vancomycin, there was a mixed amount of reduction in the ultimate compression strength after cement aging, ranging from 5% (Vanco in Simplex P, 81.10 ± 0.48 MPa after elution) to 38% (Sterile vancomycin in CMW, 60.94 ± 5.74 MPa after elution). We concluded that the selection of brands of vancomycin and bone cement has a great impact on the release efficacy and mechanical strength of ALBC. PMID:27855203

  14. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    used for climbing stairs with three leg design and anlaysis were also done on the mechanism integrated to the system. Kinematics of the legs are analysed separately and the legs are designed to carry a maximum of 175kgs, which is sustained by the center leg and shared by the dual wing legs equally during the walking phase. In the proposed design, screwjack mechanism is used as the central leg to share the load and thus the analysis on the load sharing capability of the whole system is analysed and concluded in terms of failure modes.

  15. In vitro drug release behavior, mechanism and antimicrobial activity of rifampicin loaded low molecular weight PLGA-PEG-PLGA triblock copolymeric nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Gajendiran, M; Divakar, S; Raaman, N; Balasubramanian, S

    2013-12-01

    Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA (92:8)) and a series of PLGA-PEG-PLGA tri block copolymers were synthesized by direct melt polycondensation. The copolymers were characterized by FTIR, and 1HNMR spectroscopic techniques, viscosity, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The rifampicin (RIF) loaded polymeric nanospheres (NPs) were prepared by ultrasonication-W/O emulsification technique. The NPs have been characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), TEM, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), UVvisible spectroscopy and DLS measurements. The drug loaded triblock copolymeric NPs have five folds higher drug content and drug loading efficiency than that of PLGA microspheres (MPs). The in vitro drug release study shows that the drug loaded NPs showed an initial burst release after that sustained release up to 72 h. All the triblock copolymeric NPs follow anomalous drug diffusion mechanism while the PLGA MPs follow non-Fickian super case-II mechanism up to 12 h. The overall in-vitro release follows second order polynomial kinetics up to 72 h. The antimicrobial activity of the RIF loaded polymer NPs was compared with that of pure RIF and tetracycline (TA). The RIF loaded triblock copolymeric NPs inhibited the bacterial growth more effectively than the pure RIF and TA.

  16. Effect of fiber distribution and realignment on the nonlinear and inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human supraspinatus tendon under longitudinal tensile loading

    PubMed Central

    Lake, Spencer P.; Miller, Kristin S.; Elliott, Dawn M.; Soslowsky, Louis J.

    2010-01-01

    Tendon exhibits nonlinear stress-strain behavior that may be due, in part, to movement of collagen fibers through the extracellular matrix. While a few techniques have been developed to evaluate the fiber architecture of other soft tissues, the organizational behavior of tendon under load has not been determined. The supraspinatus tendon (SST) of the rotator cuff is of particular interest for investigation due to its complex mechanical environment and corresponding inhomogeneity. In addition, SST injury occurs frequently with limited success in treatment strategies, illustrating the need for a better understanding of SST properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the inhomogeneous tensile mechanical properties, fiber organization and fiber realignment under load of human SST utilizing a novel polarized light technique. Fiber distributions were found to become more aligned under load, particularly during the low stiffness toe-region, suggesting that fiber realignment may be partly responsible for observed nonlinear behavior. Fiber alignment was found to correlate significantly with mechanical parameters, providing evidence for strong structure-function relationships in tendon. Human SST exhibits complex, inhomogeneous mechanical properties and fiber distributions, perhaps due to its complex loading environment. Surprisingly, histological grade of degeneration did not correlate with mechanical properties. PMID:19544524

  17. Optimizing the performance of Ice-storage Systems in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; Fan, Fei

    2015-01-12

    Ice-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses ice for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning systems with ice storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of ice-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces ice-storage systems from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of ice-storage systems on load-shifting under a new credit-based incentive scheme and the existing incentive arrangement in Jiangsu, China. The study indicates that by changing how ice-storage systems are incentivized in Jiangsu, load-shifting results can be improved.

  18. Optimizing the performance of Ice-storage Systems in Electricity Load Management through a credit mechanism. An analytical work for Jiangsu, China

    DOE PAGES

    Han, Yafeng; Shen, Bo; Hu, Huajin; ...

    2015-01-12

    Ice-storage air-conditioning is a technique that uses ice for thermal energy storage. Replacing existing air conditioning systems with ice storage has the advantage of shifting the load from on-peak times to off-peak times that often have excess generation. However, increasing the use of ice-storage faces significant challenges in China. One major barrier is the inefficiency in the current electricity tariff structure. There is a lack of effective incentive mechanism that induces ice-storage systems from achieving optimal load-shifting results. This study presents an analysis that compares the potential impacts of ice-storage syste