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Sample records for mechanotransducer require myosin-xva

  1. Targeting of the hair cell proteins cadherin 23, harmonin, myosin XVa, espin, and prestin in an epithelial cell model.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lili; Zheng, Jing; Whitlon, Donna S; García-Añoveros, Jaime; Bartles, James R

    2010-05-26

    We have developed an advantageous epithelial cell transfection model for examining the targeting, interactions, and mutations of hair cell proteins. When expressed in LLC-PK1-CL4 epithelial cells (CL4 cells), the outer hair cell protein prestin showed faithful domain-specific targeting to the basolateral plasma membrane. We examined the consequences of mutations affecting prestin activity and assigned a targeting role to the cytoplasmic tail. The stereociliary link protein cadherin 23 (Cdh23) was targeted to the plasma membrane of CL4 cell microvilli, the topological equivalent of stereocilia. In cells coexpressing the Cdh23 cytoplasmic binding protein harmonin, a large fraction of harmonin became colocalized with Cdh23 in microvilli. Using this assay and in vitro protein binding assays, we formulated an alternative model for Cdh23-harmonin binding, in which the primary interaction is between the harmonin N-domain and a 35-residue internal peptide in the Cdh23 cytoplasmic tail. Contrary to a previous model, we found no role for the Cdh23 C-terminal PDZ (PSD-95/Dlg/ZO-1)-binding motif and observed that Cdh23 bound similar levels of harmonin with or without the exon 68 peptide. We also examined two proteins involved in stereocilium elongation. The stereociliary actin-bundling protein espin was targeted to CL4 cell microvilli and caused microvillar elongation, whereas espin with the c.2469delGTCA or c.1988delAGAG human deafness mutation showed defects in microvillar targeting and elongation. The unconventional myosin motor myosin XVa accumulated at the tips of espin-elongated microvilli, by analogy to its location in stereocilia, whereas myosin XVa with the c.4351G>A or c.4669A>G human deafness mutation did not, revealing functional deficits in motor activity.

  2. Localisation of the mechanotransducer channels in mammalian cochlear hair cells provides clues to their gating

    PubMed Central

    Furness, David N; Hackney, Carole M; Evans, Michael G

    2010-01-01

    Our sense of hearing and balance relies on the very rapid gating of mechanotransducer channels known to be located close to the tops of the hair cell stereocilia within the stereociliary bundle. The molecular identity of the channels is unknown but functional aspects such as permeation, block and sensitivity to bundle displacement are well known. The channel has high calcium permeability and this feature has been used in conjunction with fast confocal calcium imaging to unambiguously localise the channels at the top of the two shorter rows of stereocilia in mammalian cochlear hair cells. The data suggest that they are completely absent from the tallest row. It is thought that the structures connecting stereocilia in adjacent rows, the tip links, are either directly responsible for the channel's mechanical gating, or are closely associated with the gating process. The channels must therefore be associated with the bottom part of the tip links and not the top. This feature has important implications for both the channel's gating mechanism and its regulatory adaptation mechanism. The tip link remains an attractive candidate for mechanical coupling between the bundle and the channel or an accessory protein. The localisation of the mechanotransducer channels to the lower end of the tip link represents an important milestone in the journey towards eventual identification of the channel and its gating mechanism. PMID:20026619

  3. An Ultrasensitive, Visco-Poroelastic Artificial Mechanotransducer Skin Inspired by Piezo2 Protein in Mammalian Merkel Cells.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ming Liang; Park, Sangsik; Lee, Younghoon; Lee, Ji Hye; Chung, Junho; Kim, Joo Sung; Kim, Jong-Seon; Kim, So Young; Jee, Eunsong; Kim, Dae Woo; Chung, Jae Woo; Lee, Seung Geol; Choi, Dukhyun; Jung, Hee-Tae; Kim, Do Hwan

    2017-04-01

    An artificial ionic mechanotransducer skin with an unprecedented sensitivity over a wide spectrum of pressure by fabricating visco-poroelastic nanochannels and microstructured features, directly mimicking the physiological tactile sensing mechanism of Piezo2 protein is demonstrated. This capability enables voice identification, health monitoring, daily pressure measurements, and even measurements of a heavy weight beyond capabilities of human skin. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Development and localization of reverse-polarity mechanotransducer channels in cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Beurg, Maryline; Goldring, Adam C; Ricci, Anthony J; Fettiplace, Robert

    2016-06-14

    Cochlear hair cells normally detect positive deflections of their hair bundles, rotating toward their tallest edge, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels by increased tension in interciliary tip links. After tip-link destruction, the normal polarity of MT current is replaced by a mechanically sensitive current evoked by negative bundle deflections. The "reverse-polarity" current was investigated in cochlear hair cells after tip-link destruction with BAPTA, in transmembrane channel-like protein isoforms 1/2 (Tmc1:Tmc2) double mutants, and during perinatal development. This current is a natural adjunct of embryonic development, present in all wild-type hair cells but declining after birth with emergence of the normal-polarity current. Evidence indicated the reverse-polarity current seen developmentally was a manifestation of the same ion channel as that evident under abnormal conditions in Tmc mutants or after tip-link destruction. In all cases, sinusoidal fluid-jet stimuli from different orientations suggested the underlying channels were opened not directly by deflections of the hair bundle but by deformation of the apical plasma membrane. Cell-attached patch recording on the hair-cell apical membrane revealed, after BAPTA treatment or during perinatal development, 90-pS stretch-activated cation channels that could be blocked by Ca(2+) and by FM1-43. High-speed Ca(2+) imaging, using swept-field confocal microscopy, showed the Ca(2+) influx through the reverse-polarity channels was not localized to the hair bundle, but distributed across the apical plasma membrane. These reverse-polarity channels, which we propose to be renamed "unconventional" mechanically sensitive channels, have some properties similar to the normal MT channels, but the relationship between the two types is still not well defined.

  5. Development and localization of reverse-polarity mechanotransducer channels in cochlear hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Beurg, Maryline; Goldring, Adam C.; Ricci, Anthony J.; Fettiplace, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Cochlear hair cells normally detect positive deflections of their hair bundles, rotating toward their tallest edge, which opens mechanotransducer (MT) channels by increased tension in interciliary tip links. After tip-link destruction, the normal polarity of MT current is replaced by a mechanically sensitive current evoked by negative bundle deflections. The “reverse-polarity” current was investigated in cochlear hair cells after tip-link destruction with BAPTA, in transmembrane channel-like protein isoforms 1/2 (Tmc1:Tmc2) double mutants, and during perinatal development. This current is a natural adjunct of embryonic development, present in all wild-type hair cells but declining after birth with emergence of the normal-polarity current. Evidence indicated the reverse-polarity current seen developmentally was a manifestation of the same ion channel as that evident under abnormal conditions in Tmc mutants or after tip-link destruction. In all cases, sinusoidal fluid-jet stimuli from different orientations suggested the underlying channels were opened not directly by deflections of the hair bundle but by deformation of the apical plasma membrane. Cell-attached patch recording on the hair-cell apical membrane revealed, after BAPTA treatment or during perinatal development, 90-pS stretch-activated cation channels that could be blocked by Ca2+ and by FM1-43. High-speed Ca2+ imaging, using swept-field confocal microscopy, showed the Ca2+ influx through the reverse-polarity channels was not localized to the hair bundle, but distributed across the apical plasma membrane. These reverse-polarity channels, which we propose to be renamed “unconventional” mechanically sensitive channels, have some properties similar to the normal MT channels, but the relationship between the two types is still not well defined. PMID:27162344

  6. PIEZO2 as the anomalous mechanotransducer channel in auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Beurg, Maryline; Fettiplace, Robert

    2017-10-05

    Throughout post-natal maturation of the mouse inner ear, cochlear hair cells display at least two types of mechanically-gated ion channel: normal mechanotransducer (MT) channels at the tips of the stereocilia, activated by tension in inter-ciliary tip links; and anomalous mechanosensitive (MS) channels on the top surface of the cells. The anomalous MS channels are responsible for the reverse-polarity current that appears in mutants in which normal transduction is lost. They are also seen in wild-type hair cells around birth, appearing two days earlier than normal MT channels, and being down-regulated with the emergence of the normal channels. We review the evidence that the normal and anomalous channels are distinct channel types, which includes differences in localization, susceptibility to pharmacological agents, single-channel conductance and Ca(2+) permeability. The dichotomy is reinforced by the observation that the anomalous current is absent in cochlear cells of Piezo2-null mice, even though the normal MT current persists. The anomalous current is suppressed by high intracellular Ca(2+) , suggesting that influx of the divalent via more Ca(2+) -permeable normal MT channels inhibits the anomalous channels, thus explaining the temporal relationship between the two. Piezo2-null mice have largely normal hearing, exhibiting up to 20 dB elevation in threshold in the acoustic brainstem response, so raising questions about the significance of PIEZO2 in the cochlea. Since the anomalous current declines with post-natal age, PIEZO2 may contribute to hair cell development, but it does not underlie the normal MT current. Its role in the development of hearing is not understood. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. The 133-kDa N-terminal domain enables myosin 15 to maintain mechanotransducing stereocilia and is essential for hearing

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Qing; Indzhykulian, Artur A; Mustapha, Mirna; Riordan, Gavin P; Dolan, David F; Friedman, Thomas B; Belyantseva, Inna A; Frolenkov, Gregory I; Camper, Sally A; Bird, Jonathan E

    2015-01-01

    The precise assembly of inner ear hair cell stereocilia into rows of increasing height is critical for mechanotransduction and the sense of hearing. Yet, how the lengths of actin-based stereocilia are regulated remains poorly understood. Mutations of the molecular motor myosin 15 stunt stereocilia growth and cause deafness. We found that hair cells express two isoforms of myosin 15 that differ by inclusion of an 133-kDa N-terminal domain, and that these isoforms can selectively traffic to different stereocilia rows. Using an isoform-specific knockout mouse, we show that hair cells expressing only the small isoform remarkably develop normal stereocilia bundles. However, a critical subset of stereocilia with active mechanotransducer channels subsequently retracts. The larger isoform with the 133-kDa N-terminal domain traffics to these specialized stereocilia and prevents disassembly of their actin core. Our results show that myosin 15 isoforms can navigate between functionally distinct classes of stereocilia, and are independently required to assemble and then maintain the intricate hair bundle architecture. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08627.001 PMID:26302205

  8. The cell nucleus serves as a mechanotransducer of tissue damage-induced inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Enyedi, Balázs; Jelcic, Mark; Niethammer, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Tissue damage activates cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), releasing arachidonic acid (AA), which is oxidized to proinflammatory eicosanoids by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) on the nuclear envelope. How tissue damage is sensed to activate cPLA2 is unknown. We investigated this by live imaging in wounded zebrafish larvae, where damage of the fin tissue causes osmotic cell swelling at the wound margin and the generation of a chemotactic eicosanoid signal. Osmotic swelling of cells and their nuclei activates cPla2 by translocating it from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope. Elevated cytosolic Ca2+ was necessary but not sufficient for cPla2 translocation, and nuclear swelling was required in parallel. cPla2 translocation upon nuclear swelling was reconstituted in isolated nuclei, and appears to be a simple physical process mediated by tension in the nuclear envelope. Our data suggest that the nucleus plays a mechanosensory role in inflammation, by transducing cell swelling and lysis into proinflammatory eicosanoid signaling. PMID:27203112

  9. The Cell Nucleus Serves as a Mechanotransducer of Tissue Damage-Induced Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Enyedi, Balázs; Jelcic, Mark; Niethammer, Philipp

    2016-05-19

    Tissue damage activates cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), releasing arachidonic acid (AA), which is oxidized to proinflammatory eicosanoids by 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) on the nuclear envelope. How tissue damage is sensed to activate cPLA2 is unknown. We investigated this by live imaging in wounded zebrafish larvae, where damage of the fin tissue causes osmotic cell swelling at the wound margin and the generation of a chemotactic eicosanoid signal. Osmotic swelling of cells and their nuclei activates cPla2 by translocating it from the nucleoplasm to the nuclear envelope. Elevated cytosolic Ca(2+) was necessary but not sufficient for cPla2 translocation, and nuclear swelling was required in parallel. cPla2 translocation upon nuclear swelling was reconstituted in isolated nuclei and appears to be a simple physical process mediated by tension in the nuclear envelope. Our data suggest that the nucleus plays a mechanosensory role in inflammation by transducing cell swelling and lysis into proinflammatory eicosanoid signaling.

  10. tmie Is required for gentamicin uptake by the hair cells of mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Seojin; Lee, Jeong-Han; Cho, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyu-yup; Kim, Myoung Ok; Yun, Byung-Wook; Ryoo, ZaeYoung

    2013-04-01

    The circling (cir/cir) mouse is a spontaneous model of deafness due to deletion of a 40-kb genomic region that includes the transmembrane inner ear (tmie) gene. In addition to being deaf, cir/cir mice exhibit abnormal behaviors including circling and hyperactivity. Here we investigated differences between 3-d-old (that is, before hair-cell degeneration) cir/cir and phenotypically normal (+/cir) mice and the reason underlying the degeneration of the inner ear structure of cir/cir mice. To this end, we used gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, and FM1-43 to investigate mechanotransducer channel activity in the hair cells of cir/cir mice; these compounds are presumed to enter hair cells through the mechanotransducer channel. Although the structure of the inner ear of +/cir mice was equivalent to that of cir/cir mice, the hair cells of cir/cir mice (unlike +/cir) did not take up gentamicin, gentamicin-Texas red conjugate, or FM1-43. These findings suggest that hair cells in cir/cir mice demonstrate abnormal maturation and mechanotransduction. In addition, our current results indicate that tmie is required for maturation and maintenance of hair cells.

  11. Balanced levels of Espin are critical for stereociliary growth and length maintenance.

    PubMed

    Rzadzinska, Agnieszka; Schneider, Mark; Noben-Trauth, Konrad; Bartles, James R; Kachar, Bechara

    2005-11-01

    Hearing and balance depend on microvilli-like actin-based projections of sensory hair cells called stereocilia. Their sensitivity to mechanical displacements on the nanometer scale requires a highly organized hair bundle in which the physical dimension of each stereocilium is tightly controlled. The length and diameter of each stereocilium are established during hair bundle maturation and maintained by life-long continuing dynamic regulation. Here, we studied the role of the actin-bundling protein Espin in stereociliary growth by examining the hair cell stereocilia of Espin-deficient jerker mice (Espn(je)), and the effects of transiently overexpressing Espin in the neuroepithelial cells of the organ of Corti cultures. Using fluorescence scanning confocal and electron microscopy, we found that a lack of Espin results in inhibition of stereociliary growth followed by progressive degeneration of the hair bundle. In contrast, overexpression of Espin induced lengthening of stereocilia and microvilli that mirrored the elongation of the actin filament bundle at their core. Interestingly, Espin deficiency also appeared to influence the localization of Myosin XVa, an unconventional myosin that is normally present at the stereocilia tip at levels proportional to stereocilia length. These results indicate that Espin is important for the growth and maintenance of the actin-based protrusions of inner ear neuroepithelial cells.

  12. The tension mounts: Stress fibers as force-generating mechanotransducers

    PubMed Central

    Wittchen, Erika S.

    2013-01-01

    Stress fibers (SFs) are often the most prominent cytoskeletal structures in cells growing in tissue culture. Composed of actin filaments, myosin II, and many other proteins, SFs are force-generating and tension-bearing structures that respond to the surrounding physical environment. New work is shedding light on the mechanosensitive properties of SFs, including that these structures can respond to mechanical tension by rapid reinforcement and that there are mechanisms to repair strain-induced damage. Although SFs are superficially similar in organization to the sarcomeres of striated muscle, there are intriguing differences in their organization and behavior, indicating that much still needs to be learned about these structures. PMID:23295347

  13. Arteriolar vascular smooth muscle cells: mechanotransducers in a complex environment.

    PubMed

    Hill, Michael A; Meininger, Gerald A

    2012-09-01

    Contraction of small artery (diameters typically less than 250 μm) vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a critical role in local control of blood flow and arterial pressure through its affect on vascular caliber. Specifically, contraction of small arteries in response to increased intraluminal pressure is referred to as the myogenic response and represents an important role for mechanotransduction. Critical questions remain as to how changes in pressure are sensed by VSMCs and transduced across the cell membrane to tune the contractile state of the cell. Recent studies suggest a pivotal role for interactions between VSMCs and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Thus, pressure-induced deformation of ECM proteins and their cell surface receptors (for example, integrins) may initiate contraction and cytoskeletal remodeling through modulation of ion channels, membrane depolarization, increased intracellular Ca(2+) and actomyosin crossbridge cycling. Importantly, it is argued that the contractile properties of small artery VSMCs reflect an intimate and integrated interaction with their extracellular environment and the three-dimensional structure of the vessel wall. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The integrin-adhesome is required to maintain muscle structure, mitochondrial ATP production, and movement forces in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Etheridge, Timothy; Rahman, Mizanur; Gaffney, Christopher J; Shaw, Debra; Shephard, Freya; Magudia, Jignesh; Solomon, Deepak E; Milne, Thomas; Blawzdziewicz, Jerzy; Constantin-Teodosiu, Dumitru; Greenhaff, Paul L; Vanapalli, Siva A; Szewczyk, Nathaniel J

    2015-04-01

    The integrin-adhesome network, which contains >150 proteins, is mechano-transducing and located at discreet positions along the cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interface. A small subset of the integrin-adhesome is known to maintain normal muscle morphology. However, the importance of the entire adhesome for muscle structure and function is unknown. We used RNA interference to knock down 113 putative Caenorhabditis elegans homologs constituting most of the mammalian adhesome and 48 proteins known to localize to attachment sites in C. elegans muscle. In both cases, we found >90% of components were required for normal muscle mitochondrial structure and/or proteostasis vs. empty vector controls. Approximately half of these, mainly proteins that physically interact with each other, were also required for normal sarcomere and/or adhesome structure. Next we confirmed that the dystrophy observed in adhesome mutants associates with impaired maximal mitochondrial ATP production (P < 0.01), as well as reduced probability distribution of muscle movement forces compared with wild-type animals. Our results show that the integrin-adhesome network as a whole is required for maintaining both muscle structure and function and extend the current understanding of the full complexities of the functional adhesome in vivo. © The Author(s).

  15. Myosin VIIA is required for aminoglycoside accumulation in cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Richardson, G P; Forge, A; Kros, C J; Fleming, J; Brown, S D; Steel, K P

    1997-12-15

    Myosin VIIA is expressed by sensory hair cells and has a primary structure predicting a role in membrane trafficking and turnover, processes that may underlie the susceptibility of hair cells to aminoglycoside antibiotics. [3H]Gentamicin accumulation and the effects of aminoglycosides were therefore examined in cochlear cultures of mice with different missense mutations in the myosin VIIA gene, Myo7a, to see whether myosin VIIA plays a role in aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells from homozygous mutant Myo7ash1 mice, with a mutation in a nonconserved region of the myosin VIIA head, respond rapidly to aminoglycoside treatment and accumulate high levels of gentamicin. Hair cells from homozygous mutant Myo7a6J mice, with a mutation at a highly conserved residue close to the ATP binding site of the myosin VIIA head, do not accumulate [3H]gentamicin and are protected from aminoglycoside ototoxicity. Hair cells from heterozygotes of both alleles accumulate [3H]gentamicin and respond to aminoglycosides. Although aminoglycoside uptake is thought to be via apical surface-associated endocytosis, coated pit numbers on the apical membrane of heterozygous and homozygous Myo7a6J hair cells are similar. Pulse-chase experiments with cationic ferritin confirm that the apical endocytotic pathway is functional in homozygous Myo7a6J hair cells. Transduction currents can be recorded from both heterozygous and homozygous Myo7a6J hair cells, suggesting it is unlikely that the drug enters via diffusion through the mechanotransducer channel. The results show that myosin VIIA is required for aminoglycoside accumulation in hair cells. Myosin VIIA may transport a putative aminoglycoside receptor to the hair cell surface, indirectly translocate it to sites of membrane retrieval, or retain it in the endocytotic pathway.

  16. Probing the pore of the auditory hair cell mechanotransducer channel in turtle

    PubMed Central

    Farris, H E; LeBlanc, C L; Goswami, J; Ricci, A J

    2004-01-01

    Hair cell mechano-electric transducer (MET) channels play a pivotal role in auditory and vestibular signal detection, yet few data exist regarding their molecular nature. Present work characterizes the MET channel pore, a region whose properties are thought to be intrinsically determined. Two approaches were used. First, the channel was probed with antagonists of candidate channel subtypes including: cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, transient receptor potential channels and gap-junctional channels. Eight new antagonists were identified. Most of the effective antagonists had a partially charged amine group predicted to penetrate the channel pore, antagonizing current flow, while the remainder of the molecule prevented further permeation of the compound through the pore. This blocking mechanism was tested using curare to demonstrate the open channel nature of the block and by identifying methylene blue as a permeant channel blocker. The second approach estimated dimensions of the channel pore with simple amine compounds. The narrowest diameter of the pore was calculated as 12.5 ± 0.8 Å and the location of a binding site ∼45% of the way through the membrane electric field was calculated. Channel length was estimated as ∼31 Å and the width of the pore mouth at < 17 Å. Each effective antagonist had a minimal diameter, measured about the penetrating amine, of less than the pore diameter, with a direct correlation between IC50 and minimal diameter. The IC50 was also directly related to the length of the amine side chains, further validating the proposed pore blocking mechanism. Data provided by these two approaches support a hypothesis regarding channel permeation and block that incorporates molecular dimensions and ion interactions within the pore. PMID:15181168

  17. Permeation properties of the hair cell mechanotransducer channel provide insight into its molecular structure

    PubMed Central

    Pan, B.; Waguespack, J.; Schnee, M. E.; LeBlanc, C.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanoelectric transducer (MET) channels, located near stereocilia tips, are opened by deflecting the hair bundle of sensory hair cells. Defects in this process result in deafness. Despite this critical function, the molecular identity of MET channels remains a mystery. Inherent channel properties, particularly those associated with permeation, provide the backbone for the molecular identification of ion channels. Here, a novel channel rectification mechanism is identified, resulting in a reduced pore size at positive potentials. The apparent difference in pore dimensions results from Ca2+ binding within the pore, occluding permeation. Driving force for permeation at hyperpolarized potentials is increased because Ca2+ can more easily be removed from binding within the pore due to the presence of an electronegative external vestibule that dehydrates and concentrates permeating ions. Alterations in Ca2+ binding may underlie tonotopic and Ca2+-dependent variations in channel conductance. This Ca2+-dependent rectification provides targets for identifying the molecular components of the MET channel. PMID:22323630

  18. Focal adhesion kinase as a mechanotransducer during rapid brain growth of the chick embryo.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Mary E; Knepper, Janice E; DiBenedetto, Angela J; Malaugh, Elizabeth; Callejo, Sagrario; Carretero, Raquel; Alonso, Maria-Isabel; Gato, Angel

    2014-01-01

    Expansion of the hollow fluid-filled embryonic brain occurs by an increase in intraluminal pressure created by accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Experiments have shown a direct correlation between cavity pressure and cell proliferation within the neuroepithelium. These findings lead us to ask how mechanistically this might come about. Are there perhaps molecules on the luminal surface of the embryonic neuroepithelium, such as focal adhesion kinases (FAKs) known to respond to tension in other epithelial cells? Immunodetection using antibodies to total FAK and p-FAK was performed with subsequent confocal analysis of the pattern of their activation under normal intraluminal pressure and induced chronic pressure. Western analysis was also done to look at the amount of FAK expression, as well as its activation under these same conditions. Using immunolocalization, we have shown that FAK is present and activated on both apical and basolateral surfaces and within the cytoplasm of the neuroepithelial cells. This pattern changed profoundly when the neuroepithelium was under pressure. By Western blot, we have shown that FAK was upregulated and activated in the neuroepithelium of the embryos just after the neural tube becomes a closed pressurized system, with phosphorylation detected on the luminal instead of the basal surface, along with an increase in cell proliferation. Chronic hyper-pressure does not induce an increase in phosphorylation of FAK. In conclusion, here we show that neuroepithelial cells respond to intraluminal pressure via FAK phosphorylation on the luminal surface.

  19. Plectin isoform 1-dependent nuclear docking of desmin networks affects myonuclear architecture and expression of mechanotransducers

    PubMed Central

    Staszewska, Ilona; Fischer, Irmgard; Wiche, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    Plectin is a highly versatile cytoskeletal protein that acts as a mechanical linker between intermediate filament (IF) networks and various cellular structures. The protein is crucial for myofiber integrity. Its deficiency leads to severe pathological changes in skeletal muscle fibers of patients suffering from epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD). Skeletal muscle fibers express four major isoforms of plectin which are distinguished solely by alternative, relatively short, first exon-encoded N-terminal sequences. Each one of these isoforms is localized to a different subcellular compartment and plays a specific role in maintaining integrity and proper function(s) of myofibers. The unique role of individual isoforms is supported by distinct phenotypes of isoform-specific knockout mice and recently discovered mutations in first coding exons of plectin that lead to distinct, tissue-specific, pathological abnormalities in humans. In this study, we demonstrate that the lack of plectin isoform 1 (P1) in myofibers of mice leads to alterations of nuclear morphology, similar to those observed in various forms of MD. We show that P1-mediated targeting of desmin IFs to myonuclei is essential for maintenance of their typically spheroidal architecture as well as their proper positioning and movement along the myofiber. Furthermore, we show that P1 deficiency affects chromatin modifications and the expression of genes involved in various cellular functions, including signaling pathways mediating mechanotransduction. Mechanistically, P1 is shown to specifically interact with the myonuclear membrane-associated (BAR domain-containing) protein endophilin B. Our results open a new perspective on cytoskeleton-nuclear crosstalk via specific cytolinker proteins. PMID:26487297

  20. Loss of the mechanotransducer zyxin promotes a synthetic phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Subhajit; Kollar, Branislav; Nahar, Taslima; Suresh Babu, Sahana; Wojtowicz, Agnieszka; Sticht, Carsten; Gretz, Norbert; Wagner, Andreas H; Korff, Thomas; Hecker, Markus

    2015-06-12

    Exposure of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) to excessive cyclic stretch such as in hypertension causes a shift in their phenotype. The focal adhesion protein zyxin can transduce such biomechanical stimuli to the nucleus of both endothelial cells and VSMCs, albeit with different thresholds and kinetics. However, there is no distinct vascular phenotype in young zyxin-deficient mice, possibly due to functional redundancy among other gene products belonging to the zyxin family. Analyzing zyxin function in VSMCs at the cellular level might thus offer a better mechanistic insight. We aimed to characterize zyxin-dependent changes in gene expression in VSMCs exposed to biomechanical stretch and define the functional role of zyxin in controlling the resultant VSMC phenotype. DNA microarray analysis was used to identify genes and pathways that were zyxin regulated in static and stretched human umbilical artery-derived and mouse aortic VSMCs. Zyxin-null VSMCs showed a remarkable shift to a growth-promoting, less apoptotic, promigratory and poorly contractile phenotype with ≈90% of the stretch-responsive genes being zyxin dependent. Interestingly, zyxin-null cells already seemed primed for such a synthetic phenotype, with mechanical stretch further accentuating it. This could be accounted for by higher RhoA activity and myocardin-related transcription factor-A mainly localized to the nucleus of zyxin-null VSMCs, and a condensed and localized accumulation of F-actin upon stretch. At the cellular level, zyxin is a key regulator of stretch-induced gene expression. Loss of zyxin drives VSMCs toward a synthetic phenotype, a process further consolidated by exaggerated stretch. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. The effects of Tmc1 Beethoven mutation on mechanotransducer channel function in cochlear hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Beurg, Maryline; Goldring, Adam C.

    2015-01-01

    Sound stimuli are converted into electrical signals via gating of mechano-electrical transducer (MT) channels in the hair cell stereociliary bundle. The molecular composition of the MT channel is still not fully established, although transmembrane channel–like protein isoform 1 (TMC1) may be one component. We found that in outer hair cells of Beethoven mice containing a M412K point mutation in TMC1, MT channels had a similar unitary conductance to that of wild-type channels but a reduced selectivity for Ca2+. The Ca2+-dependent adaptation that adjusts the operating range of the channel was also impaired in Beethoven mutants, with reduced shifts in the relationship between MT current and hair bundle displacement for adapting steps or after lowering extracellular Ca2+; these effects may be attributed to the channel’s reduced Ca2+ permeability. Moreover, the density of stereociliary CaATPase pumps for Ca2+ extrusion was decreased in the mutant. The results suggest that a major component of channel adaptation is regulated by changes in intracellular Ca2+. Consistent with this idea, the adaptive shift in the current–displacement relationship when hair bundles were bathed in endolymph-like Ca2+ saline was usually abolished by raising the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. PMID:26324676

  2. The effects of Tmc1 Beethoven mutation on mechanotransducer channel function in cochlear hair cells.

    PubMed

    Beurg, Maryline; Goldring, Adam C; Fettiplace, Robert

    2015-09-01

    Sound stimuli are converted into electrical signals via gating of mechano-electrical transducer (MT) channels in the hair cell stereociliary bundle. The molecular composition of the MT channel is still not fully established, although transmembrane channel-like protein isoform 1 (TMC1) may be one component. We found that in outer hair cells of Beethoven mice containing a M412K point mutation in TMC1, MT channels had a similar unitary conductance to that of wild-type channels but a reduced selectivity for Ca(2+). The Ca(2+)-dependent adaptation that adjusts the operating range of the channel was also impaired in Beethoven mutants, with reduced shifts in the relationship between MT current and hair bundle displacement for adapting steps or after lowering extracellular Ca(2+); these effects may be attributed to the channel's reduced Ca(2+) permeability. Moreover, the density of stereociliary CaATPase pumps for Ca(2+) extrusion was decreased in the mutant. The results suggest that a major component of channel adaptation is regulated by changes in intracellular Ca(2+). Consistent with this idea, the adaptive shift in the current-displacement relationship when hair bundles were bathed in endolymph-like Ca(2+) saline was usually abolished by raising the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration.

  3. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  4. Software Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Real-Time Systems Specifications 11 Convenient Auto Rental System Marea82 12 Systems Architecture Marca , D. A., and C. L. McGowan. "Static and...Requirements Marca88 Structured Analysis. Orr’s work is worthy of study Marca , D. A., and C. L. McGowan. SADT: Struc- by the instructor, since it enjoys

  5. Climatic requirements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The article reviews the effects on several environment factors on the above-ground parts of a blackberry plant, including seasonal changes, the climatic requirements of blackberry plants, and the effects of light and temperature on plant survival and fruit quality. Weather and, to a large extent, t...

  6. Required Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janko, Edmund

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author insists that those seeking public office prove their literary mettle. As an English teacher, he does have a litmus test for all public officials, judges and senators included--a reading litmus test. He would require that all candidates and nominees have read and reflected on a nucleus of works whose ideas and insights…

  7. Manufacturing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Obara, Clifford J.; Martin, Glen L.; Domack, Christopher S.

    1986-01-01

    In recent years, natural laminar flow (NLF) has been proven to be achievable on modern smooth airframe surfaces over a range of cruise flight conditions representative of most current business and commuter aircraft. Published waviness and boundary layer transition measurements on several modern metal and composite airframes have demonstrated the fact that achievable surface waviness is readily compatible with laminar flow requirements. Currently, the principal challenge to the manufacture of NLF-compatible surfaces is two-dimensional roughness in the form of steps and gaps at structural joints. Results of recent NASA investigations on manufacturing tolerances for NLF surfaces, including results of a flight experiment are given. Based on recent research, recommendations are given for conservative manufacturing tolerances for waviness and shaped steps.

  8. Differences in mechano-transducer channel kinetics underlie tonotopic distribution of fast adaptation in auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Anthony

    2002-04-01

    The first step in audition is a deflection of the sensory hair bundle that opens mechanically gated channels, depolarizing the sensory hair cells. Two mechanism of adaptation of mechano-electric transducer (MET) channels have been identified in turtle auditory hair cells. The rate of fast adaptation varies tonotopically and is postulated to underlie a mechanical tuning mechanism in turtle auditory hair cells. Fast adaptation is driven by a calcium-dependent feedback process associated with MET channels. The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis that fast adaptation contributes to MET channel kinetics and that variations in channel kinetics underlie the tonotopic distribution of fast adaptation. To test for kinetic differences, the open channel blocker dihydrostreptomycin (DHS) was used. DHS blocked MET currents from low-frequency cells (IC(50) = 14 +/- 2 microM) more effectively than high-frequency cells (IC(50) = 75 +/- 5 microM), suggesting differences in MET channel properties. DHS block showed similar calcium sensitivities at both papilla locations. No difference in calcium permeation or block of the transducer channels was observed, indicating that the DHS effect was not due to differences in the channel pore. Slowing adaptation increased DHS efficacy, and speeding adaptation decreased DHS efficacy, suggesting that adaptation was influencing DHS block. DHS block of MET channels slowed adaptation, most likely by reducing the peak intraciliary calcium concentration achieved, supporting the hypothesis that the rate of adaptation varies with the calcium load per stereocilia. Another channel blocker, amiloride showed similar efficacy for high- and low-frequency cells with an IC(50) of 24.2 +/- 0.5 microM and a Hill coefficient of 2 but appeared to block high-frequency channels faster than low-frequency channels. To further explore MET channel differences between papilla locations, stationary noise analysis was performed. Spectral analysis of the noise gave half power frequencies of 1,185 +/- 148 Hz (n = 6) and 551 +/- 145 Hz (n = 5) for high- and low-frequency cells in 2.8 mM external calcium. The half power frequency showed similar calcium sensitivity to that of adaptation shifting to 768 +/- 205 Hz (n = 4) and 289 +/- 63 Hz (n = 4) for high- and low-frequency cells in 0.25 mM external calcium. Both the pharmacological data and the noise analysis data are consistent with the hypothesis that the tonotopic distribution of fast adaptation is in part due to differences in MET channel kinetics. An increase in the number of MET channels per stereocilia (termed summation) and or intrinsic differences in MET channel kinetics may be the underlying mechanism involved in establishing the gradient.

  9. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  10. Oil Discharge Reporting Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    If a facility or vessel discharges oil to navigable waters or adjoining shorelines, the owner/operator is required to follow certain federal reporting requirements. This fact sheet outlines those reporting requirements.

  11. The requirements discovery process

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Dean, F.F.

    1997-02-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirement process. This paper provides a high-level overview of the requirements discovery process.

  12. Feed tank transfer requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  13. Requirements and Waivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    Good requirements are the first step for good communications, and good communications are central to insure an understanding between the customer and contractor. Failure to generate good requirements is unfortunately commonplace and repeated. Waivers to requirements are discussed from a risk based point of view. The assumption that every requirement will eventually be waived is used to establish a critical review of a draft safety requirement. Validation methods of requirements are addressed. Value added that safety requirements contribute to the Project is estimated to further our critical review of draft requirements.

  14. Requirements management system browser software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, D.D.

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the essential user requirements for the Requirements Management System Browser (RMSB) application. This includes specifications for the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the supporting database structures. The RMSB application is needed to provide an easy to use PC-based interface to browse system engineering data stored and managed in a UNIX software application. The system engineering data include functions, requirements, and architectures that make up the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) technical baseline. This document also covers the requirements for a software application titled ``RMSB Data Loader (RMSB- DL)``, referred to as the ``Parser.`` The Parser is needed to read and parse a data file and load the data structure supporting the Browser.

  15. Discovering system requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bahill, A.T.; Bentz, B.; Dean, F.F.

    1996-07-01

    Cost and schedule overruns are often caused by poor requirements that are produced by people who do not understand the requirements process. This report provides a high-level overview of the system requirements process, explaining types, sources, and characteristics of good requirements. System requirements, however, are seldom stated by the customer. Therefore, this report shows ways to help you work with your customer to discover the system requirements. It also explains terminology commonly used in the requirements development field, such as verification, validation, technical performance measures, and the various design reviews.

  16. Assessing Requirements Quality through Requirements Coverage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajan, Ajitha; Heimdahl, Mats; Woodham, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    In model-based development, the development effort is centered around a formal description of the proposed software system the model. This model is derived from some high-level requirements describing the expected behavior of the software. For validation and verification purposes, this model can then be subjected to various types of analysis, for example, completeness and consistency analysis [6], model checking [3], theorem proving [1], and test-case generation [4, 7]. This development paradigm is making rapid inroads in certain industries, e.g., automotive, avionics, space applications, and medical technology. This shift towards model-based development naturally leads to changes in the verification and validation (V&V) process. The model validation problem determining that the model accurately captures the customer's high-level requirements has received little attention and the sufficiency of the validation activities has been largely determined through ad-hoc methods. Since the model serves as the central artifact, its correctness with respect to the users needs is absolutely crucial. In our investigation, we attempt to answer the following two questions with respect to validation (1) Are the requirements sufficiently defined for the system? and (2) How well does the model implement the behaviors specified by the requirements? The second question can be addressed using formal verification. Nevertheless, the size and complexity of many industrial systems make formal verification infeasible even if we have a formal model and formalized requirements. Thus, presently, there is no objective way of answering these two questions. To this end, we propose an approach based on testing that, when given a set of formal requirements, explores the relationship between requirements-based structural test-adequacy coverage and model-based structural test-adequacy coverage. The proposed technique uses requirements coverage metrics defined in [9] on formal high-level software

  17. Payload safety requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheller, J.

    1979-01-01

    Space Shuttle payload safety requirements are summarized. Consideration is given to NASA objectives on STS payloads, payload safety documents, STS payload safety management, safety implementation possibilities, the hazard control procedure, and significant technical requirements.

  18. SEI lander requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daues, Katherine R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses lander requirements for missions to the moon and to Mars. These requirements vary depending on a number of factors ranging from overall program strategy to specific mission needs. There are also differences between landers delivering people and cargo to the moon and those required to deliver people and cargo to Mars. These differences are discussed and example missions are used to illustrate the ranges in lander requirements.

  19. PIT Coating Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    MINTEER, D.J.

    2000-10-20

    This study identifies the applicable requirements for procurement and installation of a coating intended for tank farm valve and pump pit interior surfaces. These requirements are intended to be incorporated into project specification documents and design media. This study also evaluates previously recommended coatings and identifies requirement-compliant coating products.

  20. Metadata requirements for portals.

    PubMed

    Benson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Consensus around the requirements for metadata in patient and clinical portals would provide a sound basis for the adoption of standards. We propose a set of requirements for metadata in a way that is generic and platform independent. These requirements cover both Clinical Documents and Clinical Statements, addressing the what, who, when and where of each item.

  1. RMACS software requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Gneiting, B.C.

    1996-10-01

    This document defines the essential user (or functional) requirements of the Requirements Management and Assured Compliance System (RMACS), which is used by the Tank Waste Remediation System program (TWRS). RMACS provides a computer-based environment that TWRS management and systems engineers can use to identify, define, and document requirements. The intent of the system is to manage information supporting definition of the TWRS technical baseline using a structured systems engineering process. RMACS has the capability to effectively manage a complete set of complex requirements and relationships in a manner that satisfactorily assures compliance to the program requirements over the TWRS life-cycle.

  2. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  3. Requirements Engineering and Aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yijun; Niu, Nan; González-Baixauli, Bruno; Mylopoulos, John; Easterbrook, Steve; Do Prado Leite, Julio Cesar Sampaio

    A fundamental problem with requirements engineering (RE) is to validate that a design does satisfy stakeholder requirements. Some requirements can be fulfilled locally by designed modules, where others must be accommodated globally by multiple modules together. These global requirements often crosscut with other local requirements and as such lead to scattered concerns. We explore the possibility of borrowing concepts from aspect-oriented programming (AOP) to tackle these problems in early requirements. In order to validate the design against such early aspects, we propose a framework to trace them into coding and testing aspects. We demonstrate the approach using an open-source e-commerce platform. In the conclusion of this work, we reflect on the lessons learnt from the case study on how to fit RE and AOP research together.

  4. Anthropometric Requirements for Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulu, Sudhakar; Margerum, Sarah; Dory, Jonathan; Rochlis, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the requirement from an Anthropometric standpoint for the development of the Constellation's programs hardware, specifically the Orion crew exploration vehicle. The NASA JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) provides anthropometry, strength, mobility, and mass properties requirements; gathers, interprets, manages and maintains the flight crew anthropometry database; and participates and provides input during crew selection. This is used to assist in requirements for vehicle and space suit design and for crew selection.

  5. Basic Hitchhiker Payload Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horan, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    This document lists the requirements for the NMSU Hitchhiker experiment payload that were developed as part of the EE 498/499 Capstone Design class during the 1999-2000 academic year. This document is used to describe the system needs as described in the mission document. The requirements listed here are those primarily used to generate the basic electronic and data processing requirements developed in the class design document. The needs of the experiment components are more fully described in the draft NASA hitchhiker customer requirements document. Many of the details for the overall payload are given in full detail in the NASA hitchhiker documentation.

  6. Environmental Requirements Management

    SciTech Connect

    Cusack, Laura J.; Bramson, Jeffrey E.; Archuleta, Jose A.; Frey, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CH2M HILL) is the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) prime contractor responsible for the environmental cleanup of the Hanford Site Central Plateau. As part of this responsibility, the CH2M HILL is faced with the task of complying with thousands of environmental requirements which originate from over 200 federal, state, and local laws and regulations, DOE Orders, waste management and effluent discharge permits, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) response and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action documents, and official regulatory agency correspondence. The challenge is to manage this vast number of requirements to ensure they are appropriately and effectively integrated into CH2M HILL operations. Ensuring compliance with a large number of environmental requirements relies on an organization’s ability to identify, evaluate, communicate, and verify those requirements. To ensure that compliance is maintained, all changes need to be tracked. The CH2M HILL identified that the existing system used to manage environmental requirements was difficult to maintain and that improvements should be made to increase functionality. CH2M HILL established an environmental requirements management procedure and tools to assure that all environmental requirements are effectively and efficiently managed. Having a complete and accurate set of environmental requirements applicable to CH2M HILL operations will promote a more efficient approach to: • Communicating requirements • Planning work • Maintaining work controls • Maintaining compliance

  7. OCCUPATION EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GRIEST, JEANNE; MORSCH, WILLIAM C.

    THE OCCUPATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS ANALYSIS (OERA) SYSTEM IS A RESEARCH EFFORT DESIGNED TO DEVELOP A FEASIBLE METHOD OF PROJECTING VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENTS THAT WILL SATISFY LABOR MARKET NEEDS. THE OUTPUTS OF THE OERA WILL BE ANNUAL PROJECTIONS OF EMPLOYMENT DEMANDS IN OCCUPATIONS CLASSIFIED BY VOCATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THESE…

  8. EOSDIS/DADS requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berbert, John; Kobler, Ben

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Core System (ECS) Data Archive and Distribution System (DADS) requirements is given. Among the requirements are the following: the ECS relationship to EOSDIS Version-O; phased implementation of ECS; and data ingest, archive, and distribution daily data volumes anticipated at each of the 7 Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAAC's).

  9. Turning Desirements into Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    capability require- ments in the form of Key Performance Parameters (KPPs), Key System Attributes (KSAs) and Additional Performance Attributes ( APAs ...The specifics of the KPPs, KSAs and APAs can get programs into trouble when operational considerations lead to derived requirements. For example, an

  10. Writing testable software requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Knirk, D.

    1997-11-01

    This tutorial identifies common problems in analyzing requirements in the problem and constructing a written specification of what the software is to do. It deals with two main problem areas: identifying and describing problem requirements, and analyzing and describing behavior specifications.

  11. Customer requirements process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Yvonne; Falsetti, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    Customer requirements are presented through three viewgraphs. One graph presents the range of services, which include requirements management, network engineering, operations, and applications support. Another viewgraph presents the project planning process. The third viewgraph presents the programs and/or projects actively supported including life sciences, earth science and applications, solar system exploration, shuttle flight engineering, microgravity science, space physics, and astrophysics.

  12. Green Power Partnership Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. To join, organizations must meet EPA's program requirements.

  13. STEP Experiment Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brumfield, M. L. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    A plan to develop a space technology experiments platform (STEP) was examined. NASA Langley Research Center held a STEP Experiment Requirements Workshop on June 29 and 30 and July 1, 1983, at which experiment proposers were invited to present more detailed information on their experiment concept and requirements. A feasibility and preliminary definition study was conducted and the preliminary definition of STEP capabilities and experiment concepts and expected requirements for support services are presented. The preliminary definition of STEP capabilities based on detailed review of potential experiment requirements is investigated. Topics discussed include: Shuttle on-orbit dynamics; effects of the space environment on damping materials; erectable beam experiment; technology for development of very large solar array deployers; thermal energy management process experiment; photovoltaic concentrater pointing dynamics and plasma interactions; vibration isolation technology; flight tests of a synthetic aperture radar antenna with use of STEP.

  14. Presentations on Fumigant Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These provide training, outreach, and other resource materials for applicators and handlers, communities, state and local agencies, and others interested in understanding and implementing the current requirements for safe use of soil fumigant pesticides.

  15. OIeylamine; Testing Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is issuing a final rule under section 4(a) of the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) requiring manufacturers and processors of oleylamine (9-octadecenylamine or ODA, CAS Number 112-90—3) to test this chemical.

  16. TWRSview system requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  17. Requirements management and control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Red

    1993-01-01

    The systems engineering process for thermal nuclear propulsion requirements and configuration definition is described in outline and graphic form. Functional analysis and mission attributes for a Mars exploration mission are also addressed.

  18. Scientific data requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Each Scientific Data Requirement (SDR) is summarized in terms of professional discipline, research program, technical description, related parameters, geographical extent, resolution, error tolerance,space-based sensors systems, personnel, implementation expert, notes, and references.

  19. Training Requirements Determination.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    IdentificationDa a ..... ......9 APPENDIX M. NITRAS Class Schedule/Quotas by CDP . . . . . 99 APPENDIX N. PNEC /SNEC Requirements vs. Inventory Report .104...Plan manually, using the PNEC /SNEC3 Billet Requirements/Personnel Inventory Report. Appendix N is a sample of a single page from this report, which is...Program Development Review Committee PE - Program Element PEDS - Program Evaluation and Decision Summary PNEC - Primary Navy Enlisted Classification POA&M

  20. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION OFFICE HUMAN SYSTEMS INTEGRATION REQUIREMENTS POCKET GUIDE SEPTEMBER 2009 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE SEP 2009 2. REPORT TYPE Pocket Guide 3. DATES...COVERED 00-09-2009 to 00-12-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Human Systems Integration Requirements Pocket Guide 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  1. BRD usability requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, Alina

    2015-03-12

    This document describes the usability requirements for the Biosurveillance resource directory (BRD); that is, who will be using the tool and what tasks they will be using it for. It does not include information on technical implementation (e.g., whether specific information is contained in the database or pulled on demand from other sources). It also avoids specific design ideas (such as widget descriptions) unless they are necessary to illustrate a requirement.

  2. NP Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Rotman, Lauren; Tierney, Brian

    2011-08-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. To support SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In August 2011, ESnet and the Office of Nuclear Physics (NP), of the DOE SC, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by NP. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  3. PCB storage requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs, including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. The requirements specified at 40 CFR Part 761.65 require most PCB wastes to be stored in a facility that meets the specifications of that section. Additionally, the regulations include rules concerning time limits for PCBs and PCB Items in storage, rules concerning leaking electrical equipment, and rules concerning types of containers used to store PCBs and PCB Items. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning storage requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  4. Future Spacelift Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This study addresses future space applications and the derived requirements these potential applications will have on future spacelift systems. This NASA sponsored activity is a comprehensive study of potential missions including those of the military, civil, and commercial users. The study objectively evaluated the key architectural requirements for future launch systems. The results of this study are technical, economic, and policy analyses of future spacelift systems. It is intended to assist NASA and DOD decision-makers in planning technical investments and establishing policy for future U.S. spacelift systems.

  5. Science Goals to Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuter, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will be given at the 26th Annual Thermal Fluids Analysis Workshop (TFAWS 2015) hosted by the Goddard SpaceFlight Center (GSFC) Thermal Engineering Branch (Code 545): This short course will present the science goals for a variety of types of imaging and spectral measurements, the thermal requirements that these goals impose on the instruments designed to obtain the measurements, and some of the types of trades that can be made among instrument subsystems to ensure the required performance is maintained. Examples of thermal system evolution from initial concept to final implementation will be given for several actual systems.

  6. Innovations for Requirements Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    very productive discussion. Now back to work. I want you to come up with some concrete measures based on what we have been talking about. You...requirements) start with “ back of the envelope” guesses and ending up with a fully elaborated model (the system). Several requirements need to be...Informática,Universidad de Castilla La Mancha: Métricas para la evaluación de Complejidad de Bases de Datos Relacionales. Computación y SF.stemas Vol

  7. Reusable Security Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    2003 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute Reusable Security Requirements RE’2003 RHAS’03 Workshop...12 September 2003 Donald Firesmith Acquisition Improvement Team Acquisition Support Program Software Engineering Institute (SEI) Carnegie Mellon...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING

  8. Lunar base construction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  9. Lunar base construction requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  10. Required High School Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kate; Morrow, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Through a literature review, and in the words of internees, this article describes the value of required internship for career growth. It notes that an internship experience ensures that students have a mentor who can be a professional reference, having actually witnessed what Mojkowski and Washor call the students' "non-academic"…

  11. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.

    2013-09-26

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  12. Requirements for Xenon International

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, James C.; Ely, James H.; Haas, Derek A.; Harper, Warren W.; Heimbigner, Tom R.; Hubbard, Charles W.; Humble, Paul H.; Madison, Jill C.; Morris, Scott J.; Panisko, Mark E.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Stewart, Timothy L.

    2015-12-30

    This document defines the requirements for the new Xenon International radioxenon system. The output of this project will be a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed prototype and a manufacturer-developed production prototype. The two prototypes are intended to be as close to matching as possible; this will be facilitated by overlapping development cycles and open communication between PNNL and the manufacturer.

  13. Program of Requirements Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, Columbus, OH.

    These guidelines describe both the role and preparation of a Program of Requirements (POR) in the planning and design of capital improvements projects. The purpose of POR is to define very clearly facility needs and objectives to the designer. The POR consists of five parts: (l) the title page; (2) part A, a summary of the project and general…

  14. Nutrient Requirements in Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKigney, John I,; Munro, Hamish N.

    It is important to understand the nutrient requirements and the significance of nutrition both in pubescence and adolescence. The pubescent growth spurt is characterized by an increase in body size and a change in proportion of different tissues. Both of these factors are of great nutritional importance, since there is reason to believe that the…

  15. Software Requirements Engineering Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-09-01

    selection variables within a systm Is usually straightforward. These are simply the decision parameters whose value determines whether one series...practice, only the simplest will be treated in so light a manner; the majority of the ALPHAs will require modelling by a team of experts in the

  16. Data Crosscutting Requirements Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Shoshani, Arie; Plata, Charity

    2013-04-01

    In April 2013, a diverse group of researchers from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) scientific community assembled to assess data requirements associated with DOE-sponsored scientific facilities and large-scale experiments. Participants in the review included facilities staff, program managers, and scientific experts from the offices of Basic Energy Sciences, Biological and Environmental Research, High Energy Physics, and Advanced Scientific Computing Research. As part of the meeting, review participants discussed key issues associated with three distinct aspects of the data challenge: 1) processing, 2) management, and 3) analysis. These discussions identified commonalities and differences among the needs of varied scientific communities. They also helped to articulate gaps between current approaches and future needs, as well as the research advances that will be required to close these gaps. Moreover, the review provided a rare opportunity for experts from across the Office of Science to learn about their collective expertise, challenges, and opportunities. The "Data Crosscutting Requirements Review" generated specific findings and recommendations for addressing large-scale data crosscutting requirements.

  17. Required High School Internships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kate; Morrow, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Through a literature review, and in the words of internees, this article describes the value of required internship for career growth. It notes that an internship experience ensures that students have a mentor who can be a professional reference, having actually witnessed what Mojkowski and Washor call the students' "non-academic"…

  18. Requirements for color technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ronald B., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The requirements for color technology in the general office are reviewed. The two most salient factors driving the requirements for color are the information explosion and the virtually negligible growth in white collar productivity in the recent past. Accordingly, the business requirement upon color technology is that it be utilized in an effective and efficient manner to increase office productivity. Recent research on productivity and growth has moved beyond the classical two factor productivity model of labor and capital to explicitly include knowledge as a third and vital factor. Documents are agents of knowledge in the general office. Documents articulate, express, disseminate, and communicate knowledge. The central question addressed here is how can color, in conjunction with other techniques such as graphics and document design, improve the growth of knowledge? The central thesis is that the effective use of color to convert information into knowledge is one of the most powerful ways to increase office productivity. Material on the value of color is reviewed. This material is related to the role of documents. Document services are the way in which users access and utilize color technology. The requirements for color technology are then defined against the services taxonomy.

  19. Next Generation Microbiology Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. M.; Oubre, C. M.; Elliott, T. F.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.

    2012-01-01

    As humans continue to explore deep into space, microorganisms will travel with them. The primary means to mitigate the risk of infectious disease are a combination of prudent spacecraft design and rigorous operational controls. The effectiveness of these methods are evaluated by microbiological monitoring of spacecraft, food, water, and the crew that is performed preflight, in-flight, and post-flight. Current NASA requirements associated with microbiological monitoring are based on culture-based methodology where microorganisms are grown on a semi-solid growth medium and enumerated. Subsequent identification of the organisms requires specialized labor and large equipment, which historically has been performed on Earth. Requirements that rely strictly on culture-based units limit the use of non-culture based monitoring technology. Specifically, the culture-based "measurement criteria" are Colony Forming Units (CFU, representing the growth of one microorganism at a single location on the agar medium) per a given volume, area, or sample size. As the CFU unit by definition is culture-based, these requirements limit alternative technologies for spaceflight applications. As spaceflight missions such as those to Mars extend further into space, culture-based technology will become difficult to implement due to the (a) limited shelf life of the culture media, (b) mass/volume necessary to carry these consumables, and (c) problems associated with the production of biohazardous material in the habitable volume of the spacecraft. In addition, an extensive amount of new knowledge has been obtained during the Space Shuttle, NASA-Mir, and International Space Station Programs, which gave direction for new or modified microbial control requirements for vehicle design and mission operations. The goal of this task is to develop and recommend a new set of requirements for vehicle design and mission operations, including microbiological monitoring, based upon "lessons learned" and new

  20. Preanalytical requirements of urinalysis

    PubMed Central

    Delanghe, Joris; Speeckaert, Marijn

    2014-01-01

    Urine may be a waste product, but it contains an enormous amount of information. Well-standardized procedures for collection, transport, sample preparation and analysis should become the basis of an effective diagnostic strategy for urinalysis. As reproducibility of urinalysis has been greatly improved due to recent technological progress, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis have gained importance and have become stricter. Since the patients themselves often sample urine specimens, urinalysis is very susceptible to preanalytical issues. Various sampling methods and inappropriate specimen transport can cause important preanalytical errors. The use of preservatives may be helpful for particular analytes. Unfortunately, a universal preservative that allows a complete urinalysis does not (yet) exist. The preanalytical aspects are also of major importance for newer applications (e.g. metabolomics). The present review deals with the current preanalytical problems and requirements for the most common urinary analytes. PMID:24627718

  1. ESB Heavy Lift Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    capacity, cross-country travel ability, and redundancy than the three axles and twelve tires found on the M870 trailer.13,14 In fact, this...equates to an organic ability to move approximately twenty- three percent of the battalion’s heavy equipment that requires prime movers in one lift...Truck Tractor manufactured by Oshkosh Truck Corporation and the M1000 Heavy Equipment Transporter semi-trailer manufactured by Systems

  2. Issues in Requirements Elicitation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    systems approach: characterized by Checkland’s Soft Systems Methodology (SSM), which is discussed briefly in Appendix A.6; emphasizes the subjectivity of...methodology for requirements elicitation. A.6 Notes on SSM Both the definition of methodology and the philosophy behind soft systems methodology (SSM...1986. [Checkland 89a] Checkland, Peter. Soft Systems Methodology . Rational Analysis for a Problematic World. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 71-100

  3. Consortium Requirements Engineering Guidebook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    2-1. System Viewed as a Black Box ....................................... 2-6 Figure 2-2. System Viewed With Input and Output...additional constraints on the controlled variables that must be enforced by the software. Inwriting REQ, you view the software system as a black box (Figure 2...1). REQ describes properties that the software system (i.e., the black box ) is required to maintain between the monitored and controlled variables

  4. Space systems requirements definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The compilation of Scientific Data Requirements (SDRs) were based on discussions with a representative cross section of the scientific community and a selected survey of the extensive literature dealing with the measurement of CO2-induced climatic changes. This approach resulted in a baseline set of SDRs to determine what could be accomplished with space-based sensors. Twenty-three SDRs emerged as the basis for the investigation of space systems.

  5. LEGACY MANAGEMENT REQUIRES INFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    CONNELL, C.W.; HILDEBRAND, R.D.

    2006-12-14

    ''Legacy Management Requires Information'' describes the goal(s) of the US Department of Energy's Office of Legacy Management (LM) relative to maintaining critical records and the way those goals are being addressed at Hanford. The paper discusses the current practices for document control, as well as the use of modern databases for both storing and accessing the data to support cleanup decisions. In addition to the information goals of LM, the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, known as the ''Tri-Party Agreement'' (TPA) is one of the main drivers in documentation and data management. The TPA, which specifies discrete milestones for cleaning up the Hanford Site, is a legally binding agreement among the US Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology), and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The TPA requires that DOE provide the lead regulatory agency with the results of analytical laboratory and non-laboratory tests/readings to help guide them in making decisions. The Agreement also calls for each signatory to preserve--for at least ten years after the Agreement has ended--all of the records in its or its contractors, possession related to sampling, analysis, investigations, and monitoring conducted. The tools used at Hanford to meet TPA requirements are also the tools that can satisfy the needs of LM.

  6. BER Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Alapaty, Kiran; Allen, Ben; Bell, Greg; Benton, David; Brettin, Tom; Canon, Shane; Dart, Eli; Cotter, Steve; Crivelli, Silvia; Carlson, Rich; Dattoria, Vince; Desai, Narayan; Egan, Richard; Tierney, Brian; Goodwin, Ken; Gregurick, Susan; Hicks, Susan; Johnston, Bill; de Jong, Bert; Kleese van Dam, Kerstin; Livny, Miron; Markowitz, Victor; McGraw, Jim; McCord, Raymond; Oehmen, Chris; Regimbal, Kevin; Shipman, Galen; Strand, Gary; Flick, Jeff; Turnbull, Susan; Williams, Dean; Zurawski, Jason

    2010-11-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2010 ESnet and the Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the science programs funded by BER. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized and described in more detail in the case studies and the Findings section. A number of common themes emerged from the case studies and workshop discussions. One is that BER science, like many other disciplines, is becoming more and more distributed and collaborative in nature. Another common theme is that data set sizes are exploding. Climate Science in particular is on the verge of needing to manage exabytes of data, and Genomics is on the verge of a huge paradigm shift in the number of sites with sequencers and the amount of sequencer data being generated.

  7. Master Software Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Chaumin

    2003-01-01

    A basic function of a computational grid such as the NASA Information Power Grid (IPG) is to allow users to execute applications on remote computer systems. The Globus Resource Allocation Manager (GRAM) provides this functionality in the IPG and many other grids at this time. While the functionality provided by GRAM clients is adequate, GRAM does not support useful features such as staging several sets of files, running more than one executable in a single job submission, and maintaining historical information about execution operations. This specification is intended to provide the environmental and software functional requirements for the IPG Job Manager V2.0 being developed by AMTI for NASA.

  8. BES Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Biocca, Alan; Carlson, Rich; Chen, Jackie; Cotter, Steve; Tierney, Brian; Dattoria, Vince; Davenport, Jim; Gaenko, Alexander; Kent, Paul; Lamm, Monica; Miller, Stephen; Mundy, Chris; Ndousse, Thomas; Pederson, Mark; Perazzo, Amedeo; Popescu, Razvan; Rouson, Damian; Sekine, Yukiko; Sumpter, Bobby; Dart, Eli; Wang, Cai-Zhuang -Z; Whitelam, Steve; Zurawski, Jason

    2011-02-01

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivityfor the US Department of Energy Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office ofScience programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years.

  9. Section 4: Requirements Intertwining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loucopoulos, Pericles

    Business analysts are being asked to develop increasingly complex and varied business systems that need to cater to the changing and dynamic market conditions of the new economy. This is particularly acute in today’s turbulent business environment where powerful forces such as deregulation, globalisation, mergers, advances in information and telecommunications technologies, and increasing education of people provide opportunities for organising work in ways that have never before been possible. Enterprises attempt to create wealth either by getting better at improving their products and services or by harnessing creativity and human-centred management to create innovative solutions. In these business settings, requirements become critical in bridging system solutions to organisational and societal problems. They intertwine organisational, social, cognitive, and implementation considerations and they can provide unique insights to change in systems and their business context. Such design situations often involve multiple stakeholders from different participating organisations, subcontractors, divisions, etc., who may have a diversity of expertise, come from different organisational cultures and often have competing goals. The success or failure of many projects depends, to a large extent, on understanding the contextual setting of requirements and their interaction amongst a diverse population of stakeholders.

  10. Beauty Requires Thought.

    PubMed

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Pelli, Denis G

    2017-05-22

    The experience of beauty is a pleasure, but common sense and philosophy suggest that feeling beauty differs from sensuous pleasures such as eating or sex. Immanuel Kant [1, 2] claimed that experiencing beauty requires thought but that sensuous pleasure can be enjoyed without thought and cannot be beautiful. These venerable hypotheses persist in models of aesthetic processing [3-7] but have never been tested. Here, participants continuously rated the pleasure felt from a nominally beautiful or non-beautiful stimulus and then judged whether they had experienced beauty. The stimuli, which engage various senses, included seeing images, tasting candy, and touching a teddy bear. The observer reported the feelings that the stimulus evoked. The time course of pleasure, across stimuli, is well-fit by a model with one free parameter: pleasure amplitude. Pleasure amplitude increases linearly with the feeling of beauty. To test Kant's claim of a need for thought, we reduce cognitive capacity by adding a "two-back" task to distract the observer's thoughts. The distraction greatly reduces the beauty and pleasure experienced from stimuli that otherwise produce strong pleasure and spares that of less-pleasant stimuli. We also find that strong pleasure is always beautiful, whether produced reliably by beautiful stimuli or just occasionally by sensuous stimuli. In sum, we confirm Kant's claim that only the pleasure associated with feeling beauty requires thought and disprove his claim that sensuous pleasures cannot be beautiful. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Repository seals requirements study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. This report presents the results of a repository sealing requirements study. Sealing is defined as the permanent closure of the shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes. Sealing includes those components that would reduce potential inflows above the repository, or that would divert flow near the repository horizon to allow vertical infiltration to below the repository. Sealing of such features as emplacement drifts was not done in this study because the current capability to calculate fracture flow into the drifts is not sufficiently mature. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  12. Display Parameters and Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadur, Birendra

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HUMAN FACTORS * Anthropometry * Sensory * Cognitive * Discussions * THE HUMAN VISUAL SYSTEM - CAPABILITIES AND LIMITATIONS * Cornea * Pupil and Iris * Lens * Vitreous Humor * Retina * RODS - NIGHT VISION * CONES - DAY VISION * RODS AND CONES - TWILIGHT VISION * VISUAL PIGMENTS * MACULA * BLOOD * CHOROID COAT * Visual Signal Processing * Pathways to the Brain * Spatial Vision * Temporal Vision * Colour Vision * Colour Blindness * DICHROMATISM * Protanopia * Deuteranopia * Tritanopia * ANOMALOUS TRICHROMATISM * Protanomaly * Deuteranomaly * Tritanomaly * CONE MONOCHROMATISM * ROD MONOCHROMATISM * Using Colour Effectively * COLOUR MIXTURES AND THE CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * Colour Matching Functions and Chromaticity Co-ordinates * CIE 1931 Colour Space * CIE PRIMARIES * CIE COLOUR MATCHING FUNCTIONS AND CHROMATICITY CO-ORDINATES * METHODS FOR DETERMINING TRISTIMULUS VALUES AND COLOUR CO-ORDINATES * Spectral Power Distribution Method * Filter Method * CIE 1931 CHROMATICITY DIAGRAM * ADDITIVE COLOUR MIXTURE * CIE 1976 Chromaticity Diagram * CIE Uniform Colour Spaces and Colour Difference Formulae * CIELUV OR L*u*v* * CIELAB OR L*a*b* * CIE COLOUR DIFFERENCE FORMULAE * Colour Temperature and CIE Standard Illuminants and source * RADIOMETRIC AND PHOTOMETRIC QUANTITIES * Photopic (Vλ and Scotopic (Vλ') Luminous Efficiency Function * Photometric and Radiometric Flux * Luminous and Radiant Intensities * Incidence: Illuminance and Irradiance * Exitance or Emittance (M) * Luminance and Radiance * ERGONOMIC REQUIREMENTS OF DISPLAYS * ELECTRO-OPTICAL PARAMETERS AND REQUIREMENTS * Contrast and Contrast Ratio * Luminance and Brightness * Colour Contrast and Chromaticity * Glare * Other Aspects of Legibility * SHAPE AND SIZE OF CHARACTERS * DEFECTS AND BLEMISHES * FLICKER AND DISTORTION * ANGLE OF VIEW * Switching Speed * Threshold and Threshold Characteristic * Measurement Techniques For Electro-optical Parameters * RADIOMETRIC

  13. Repository seals requirement study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-03

    The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, managed by the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) Management and Operating Contractor (M and O) is conducting investigations to support the Viability Assessment and the License Application for a high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The sealing subsystem is part of the Yucca Mountain Waste Isolation System. The Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project is currently evaluating the role of the sealing subsystem (shaft, ramp and exploratory borehole seals) in achieving the overall performance objectives for the Waste Isolation System. This report documents the results of those evaluations. The objective of the study is to provide water or air flow performance based requirements for shafts, ramps, and exploratory boreholes located near the repository. Recommendations, as appropriate, are provided for developing plans, seals component testing, and other studies relating to sealing.

  14. Siphon breaker design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Neill, D.T.; Stephens, A.G.

    1993-03-01

    The Siphon Breaker Design Requirements Project was intended to provide experimental data on siphon flow effects. In addition, the experimental system was to be modeled with the RELAP code and the predicted and measured performances compared. This report describes the design and operation of the siphon breaker experimental equipment from 1989 to 1991. In addition the test results for all the experimental runs made in 1990 and 1991 are presented and described. Unfortunately, we have not been able to obtain useful results from a RELAP 5 model of the siphon system; consequently, we are unable to present any predictive calculations for comparison with the data presented. We have had lots of expert advice from several sources on using the RELAP code but to date our efforts have remained unsuccessful. After an extra year of effort, admittedly part-time but a lot of that, we choose to abandon the modeling efforts and produce this report describing the experimental equipment and test results.

  15. Science requirements for LISA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin T.

    2008-01-01

    Historically, gravitational wave antennas have been characterized by their detection capability. This is measured in terms of signal-to-noise ratio, and implies a rate of false positives and false negatives. But to do useful astrophysics, one would like to measure - or more properly, estimate - astrophysical parameters of the gravitational wave sources. In the interest of strengthening the connection between science objectives and a specific instrument performance, the LISA community has reformulated the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LlSA) science requirements around the anticipated uncertainty in astrophysical parameter estimation. The rationale for this characterization of LlSA and a summary of the astrophysics and fundamental physics that LISA can do will be given. LISA will be able to make precision measurements of sources out to z approximately equal to 10.

  16. Knowing requires data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naranjo, Ramon C.

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater-flow models are often calibrated using a limited number of observations relative to the unknown inputs required for the model. This is especially true for models that simulate groundwater surface-water interactions. In this case, subsurface temperature sensors can be an efficient means for collecting long-term data that capture the transient nature of physical processes such as seepage losses. Continuous and spatially dense network of diverse observation data can be used to improve knowledge of important physical drivers, conceptualize and calibrate variably saturated groundwater flow models. An example is presented for which the results of such analysis were used to help guide irrigation districts and water management decisions on costly upgrades to conveyance systems to improve water usage, farm productivity and restoration efforts to improve downstream water quality and ecosystems.

  17. Investigating Users' Requirements

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Deborah S.; Lee, Wen-Yu; Skov, Neil M.; Berger, Carl F.; Athley, Brian D.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: User data and information about anatomy education were used to guide development of a learning environment that is efficient and effective. The research question focused on how to design instructional software suitable for the educational goals of different groups of users of the Visible Human data set. The ultimate goal of the study was to provide options for students and teachers to use different anatomy learning modules corresponding to key topics, for course work and professional training. Design: The research used both qualitative and quantitative methods. It was driven by the belief that good instructional design must address learning context information and pedagogic content information. The data collection emphasized measurement of users' perspectives, experience, and demands in anatomy learning. Measurement: Users' requirements elicited from 12 focus groups were combined and rated by 11 researchers. Collective data were sorted and analyzed by use of multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Results: A set of functions and features in high demand across all groups of users was suggested by the results. However, several subgroups of users shared distinct demands. The design of the learning modules will encompass both unified core components and user-specific applications. The design templates will allow sufficient flexibility for dynamic insertion of different learning applications for different users. Conclusion: This study describes how users' requirements, associated with users' learning experiences, were systematically collected and analyzed and then transformed into guidelines informing the iterative design of multiple learning modules. Information about learning challenges and processes was gathered to define essential anatomy teaching strategies. A prototype instrument to design and polish the Visible Human user interface system is currently being developed using ideas and feedback from users. PMID:12087112

  18. NASA gateway requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Denise R.; Doby, John S.; Shockley, Cynthia W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA devotes approximately 40 percent of its budget to R&D. Twelve NASA Research Centers and their contractors conduct this R&D, which ranges across many disciplines and is fueled by information about previous endeavors. Locating the right information is crucial. While NASA researchers use peer contacts as their primary source of scientific and technical information (STI), on-line bibliographic data bases - both Government-owned and commercial - are also frequently consulted. Once identified, the STI must be delivered in a usable format. This report assesses the appropriateness of developing an intelligent gateway interface for the NASA R&D community as a means of obtaining improved access to relevant STI resources outside of NASA's Remote Console (RECON) on-line bibliographic database. A study was conducted to determine (1) the information requirements of the R&D community, (2) the information sources to meet those requirements, and (3) ways of facilitating access to those information sources. Findings indicate that NASA researchers need more comprehensive STI coverage of disciplines not now represented in the RECON database. This augmented subject coverage should preferably be provided by both domestic and foreign STI sources. It was also found that NASA researchers frequently request rapid delivery of STI, in its original format. Finally, it was found that researchers need a better system for alerting them to recent developments in their areas of interest. A gateway that provides access to domestic and international information sources can also solve several shortcomings in the present STI delivery system. NASA should further test the practicality of a gateway as a mechanism for improved STI access.

  19. Equipment Operational Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwalt, B; Henderer, B; Hibbard, W; Mercer, M

    2009-06-11

    The Iraq Department of Border Enforcement is rich in personnel, but poor in equipment. An effective border control system must include detection, discrimination, decision, tracking and interdiction, capture, identification, and disposition. An equipment solution that addresses only a part of this will not succeed, likewise equipment by itself is not the answer without considering the personnel and how they would employ the equipment. The solution should take advantage of the existing in-place system and address all of the critical functions. The solutions are envisioned as being implemented in a phased manner, where Solution 1 is followed by Solution 2 and eventually by Solution 3. This allows adequate time for training and gaining operational experience for successively more complex equipment. Detailed descriptions of the components follow the solution descriptions. Solution 1 - This solution is based on changes to CONOPs, and does not have a technology component. It consists of observers at the forts and annexes, forward patrols along the swamp edge, in depth patrols approximately 10 kilometers inland from the swamp, and checkpoints on major roads. Solution 2 - This solution adds a ground sensor array to the Solution 1 system. Solution 3 - This solution is based around installing a radar/video camera system on each fort. It employs the CONOPS from Solution 1, but uses minimal ground sensors deployed only in areas with poor radar/video camera coverage (such as canals and streams shielded by vegetation), or by roads covered by radar but outside the range of the radar associated cameras. This document provides broad operational requirements for major equipment components along with sufficient operational details to allow the technical community to identify potential hardware candidates. Continuing analysis will develop quantities required and more detailed tactics, techniques, and procedures.

  20. Space processing payload experiment requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, K. R.

    1976-01-01

    An overview is given of the definition of research requirements and derivation of engineering design requirements for a group of 77 representative applications of space processing. Representative requirements are documented for applied research in space on biological processes, chemical/fluid phenomena, solidification processes, and glass/ceramics processes. Design requirements for payload equipment to accommodate these research requirements are presented in engineering terms, such as power requirements, schematic diagrams, etc. In addition, a summary of the 77 applied research topics is included.

  1. 40 CFR 158.110 - Required and conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required and conditionally required data. 158.110 Section 158.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.110 Required...

  2. ASCR Science Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2009-08-24

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the US Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 20 years. In April 2009 ESnet and the Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), of the DOE Office of Science, organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by ASCR. The ASCR facilities anticipate significant increases in wide area bandwidth utilization, driven largely by the increased capabilities of computational resources and the wide scope of collaboration that is a hallmark of modern science. Many scientists move data sets between facilities for analysis, and in some cases (for example the Earth System Grid and the Open Science Grid), data distribution is an essential component of the use of ASCR facilities by scientists. Due to the projected growth in wide area data transfer needs, the ASCR supercomputer centers all expect to deploy and use 100 Gigabit per second networking technology for wide area connectivity as soon as that deployment is financially feasible. In addition to the network connectivity that ESnet provides, the ESnet Collaboration Services (ECS) are critical to several science communities. ESnet identity and trust services, such as the DOEGrids certificate authority, are widely used both by the supercomputer centers and by collaborations such as Open Science Grid (OSG) and the Earth System Grid (ESG). Ease of use is a key determinant of the scientific utility of network-based services. Therefore, a key enabling aspect for scientists beneficial use of high

  3. Internationalization of regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Juillet, Y

    2003-02-01

    The aim of harmonisation of medicines regulatory requirements is to allow the patient quicker access to new drugs and to avoid animal and human duplications. Harmonisation in the European Union (EU) is now completed, and has led to the submission of one dossier in one language study leading to European marketing authorizations, thanks in particular to efficacy guidelines published at the European level. With the benefit of the European experience since 1989, more than 40 guidelines have been harmonised amongst the EU, Japan and the USA through the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH). ICH is a unique process gathering regulators and industry experts from the three regions. Its activity is built on expertise and trust. The Common Technical Document (CTD), an agreed common format for application in the three regions, is a logical follow-up to the ICH first phase harmonising the content of the dossier. The CTD final implementation in July 2003 will have considerable influence on the review process and on the exchange of information in the three regions.

  4. The Requirements Generation System: A tool for managing mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, Sylvia B.

    1994-01-01

    Historically, NASA's cost for developing mission requirements has been a significant part of a mission's budget. Large amounts of time have been allocated in mission schedules for the development and review of requirements by the many groups who are associated with a mission. Additionally, tracing requirements from a current document to a parent document has been time-consuming and costly. The Requirements Generation System (RGS) is a computer-supported cooperative-work tool that assists mission developers in the online creation, review, editing, tracing, and approval of mission requirements as well as in the production of requirements documents. This paper describes the RGS and discusses some lessons learned during its development.

  5. Requirement Assurance: A Verification Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Requirement Assurance is an act of requirement verification which assures the stakeholder or customer that a product requirement has produced its "as realized product" and has been verified with conclusive evidence. Product requirement verification answers the question, "did the product meet the stated specification, performance, or design documentation?". In order to ensure the system was built correctly, the practicing system engineer must verify each product requirement using verification methods of inspection, analysis, demonstration, or test. The products of these methods are the "verification artifacts" or "closure artifacts" which are the objective evidence needed to prove the product requirements meet the verification success criteria. Institutional direction is given to the System Engineer in NPR 7123.1A NASA Systems Engineering Processes and Requirements with regards to the requirement verification process. In response, the verification methodology offered in this report meets both the institutional process and requirement verification best practices.

  6. 40 CFR 161.101 - Required vs. conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Required vs. conditionally required data. 161.101 Section 161.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data...

  7. An Investigation of Online Homework: Required or Not Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Tommy; Dillard-Eggers, Jane

    2013-01-01

    In our research we investigate the use of online homework in principles of accounting classes where some classes required online homework while other classes did not. Users of online homework, compared to nonusers, had a higher grade point average and earned a higher grade in class. On average, both required and not-required users rated the online…

  8. 40 CFR 158.110 - Required and conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.110 Required and... use pattern in order to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern under any... with a given use pattern are required by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having...

  9. 40 CFR 158.110 - Required and conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.110 Required and... use pattern in order to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern under any... with a given use pattern are required by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having...

  10. 40 CFR 158.110 - Required and conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.110 Required and... use pattern in order to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern under any... with a given use pattern are required by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having...

  11. 40 CFR 158.110 - Required and conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.110 Required and... use pattern in order to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern under any... with a given use pattern are required by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having...

  12. Requirements based system risk modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meshkat, Leila; Cornford, Steven; Feather, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The problem that we address in this paper is assessing the expected degree of success of the system or mission based on the degree to which each requirement is satisfied and the relative weight of the requirements. We assume a complete list of the requirements, the relevant risk elements and their probability of occurrence and the quantified effect of the risk elements on the requirements. In order to assess the degree to which each requirement is satisfied, we need to determine the effect of the various risk elements on the requirement.

  13. Wake Vortex Sensors Requirements Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinton, David A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation includes discussions of primary wake vortex system requirements, evolution models, sensor evolution, site specific sensor tradeoffs, wake sensor functions, deployment considerations, the operational test bed system and additional sensor requirements.

  14. Infrastructure SIP Requirements and Guidance

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Clean Air Act requires states to submit SIPs that implement, maintain, and enforce a new or revised national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) within 3 years of EPA issuing the standard. The Infrastructure SIP is required for all states.

  15. Green Power Community Usage Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green Power Communities are a subset of the Green Power Partnership; municipalities or tribal governments where government, businesses, and residents collectively use enough green power to meet GPP requirements. Learn about GPC Usage Requirements.

  16. Requirement Development Process and Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayt, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Requirements capture the system-level capabilities in a set of complete, necessary, clear, attainable, traceable, and verifiable statements of need. Requirements should not be unduly restrictive, but should set limits that eliminate items outside the boundaries drawn, encourage competition (or alternatives), and capture source and reason of requirement. If it is not needed by the customer, it is not a requirement. They establish the verification methods that will lead to product acceptance. These must be reproducible assessment methods.

  17. NASA Human-Rating Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Frank; Stamatelatos, Michael

    2010-09-01

    NASA's Procedural Requirements 8705.2B defines the Human-Rating Certification process and related technical requirements for human spaceflight programs developed by and for NASA. The document specifies Agency-level responsibilities related to the certification, processes to be established by the program, and technical requirements.

  18. Physician Requirements-1990. For Cardiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tracy, Octavious; Birchette-Pierce, Cheryl

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in cardiology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. The determination of physician requirements was based on an adjusted needs rather than a demand or utilization model. For each illness, manpower requirements were modified by the…

  19. NASA Human-Rating Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank; Harkins, Wil; Stamatelatos, Michael

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Procedural Requirements 87052B defines the Human-Rating Certification process and related technical requirements for human spaceflight programs developed by and for NASA. The document specifies Agency-level responsibilities related to the certification, processes to be established by the program, and technical requirements.

  20. Historical and projected power requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, M. G.

    1978-01-01

    Policy planning for projected space power requirements is discussed. Topics of discussion cover: (1) historical space power trends (prime power requirements and power system costs); and (2) two approaches to future space power requirements (mission/traffic model approach and advanced system scenario approach). Graphs, tables, and flow charts are presented.

  1. Federal Environmental Reporting Requirements Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    1990-05-01

    The Environmental Reporting Requirements Handbook has been developed by DOE Headquarters' Environmental Guidance Division (EH-231) in order to assist DOE Field Organizations in the identification of the various reporting the notification requirements mandated by Federal environmental laws, regulations, and Executive Orders. The Handbook makes a distinction between ''routine'' and ''non-routine'' reporting/notification requirements. Routine reporting requirements include the submission of documents that are required either on a regular basis, such as annual or biennial reports, or periodic notifications that result from what would be considered ''normal'' operations, such as Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) updates that are required when new information not contained on previous MSDS submissions is discovered. Non-routine reporting requirements are generally associated with occurrences that represent significant deviations from regulated or planned performance; examples include the unintentional discharge of oil or hazardous substances.

  2. Flight program language requirements. Volume 2: Requirements and evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The efforts and results are summarized for a study to establish requirements for a flight programming language for future onboard computer applications. Several different languages were available as potential candidates for future NASA flight programming efforts. The study centered around an evaluation of the four most pertinent existing aerospace languages. Evaluation criteria were established, and selected kernels from the current Saturn 5 and Skylab flight programs were used as benchmark problems for sample coding. An independent review of the language specifications incorporated anticipated future programming requirements into the evaluation. A set of detailed language requirements was synthesized from these activities. The details of program language requirements and of the language evaluations are described.

  3. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline.

  4. E-ELT requirements management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneller, D.

    2014-08-01

    The E-ELT has completed its design phase and is now entering construction. ESO is acting as prime contractor and usually procures subsystems, including their design, from industry. This, in turn, leads to a large number of requirements, whose validity, consistency and conformity with user needs requires extensive management. Therefore E-ELT Systems Engineering has chosen to follow a systematic approach, based on a reasoned requirement architecture that follows the product breakdown structure of the observatory. The challenge ahead is the controlled flow-down of science user needs into engineering requirements, requirement specifications and system design documents. This paper shows how the E-ELT project manages this. The project has adopted IBM DOORTM as a supporting requirements management tool. This paper deals with emerging problems and pictures potential solutions. It shows trade-offs made to reach a proper balance between the effort put in this activity and potential overheads, and the benefit for the project.

  5. From requirements to acceptance tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baize, Lionel; Pasquier, Helene

    1993-01-01

    From user requirements definition to accepted software system, the software project management wants to be sure that the system will meet the requirements. For the development of a telecommunication satellites Control Centre, C.N.E.S. has used new rules to make the use of tracing matrix easier. From Requirements to Acceptance Tests, each item of a document must have an identifier. A unique matrix traces the system and allows the tracking of the consequences of a change in the requirements. A tool has been developed, to import documents into a relational data base. Each record of the data base corresponds to an item of a document, the access key is the item identifier. Tracing matrix is also processed, providing automatically links between the different documents. It enables the reading on the same screen of traced items. For example one can read simultaneously the User Requirements items, the corresponding Software Requirements items and the Acceptance Tests.

  6. UTM TCL2 Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Irene S.; Rios, Joseph L.; McGuirk, Patrick O.; Mulfinger, Daniel G.; Venkatesan, Priya; Smith, David R.; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Wang, Leo

    2017-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Technical Capability Level (TCL) 2 software implements the UTM TCL 2 software requirements described herein. These software requirements are linked to the higher level UTM TCL 2 System Requirements. Each successive TCL implements additional UTM functionality, enabling additional use cases. TCL 2 demonstrated how to enable expanded multiple operations by implementing automation for beyond visual line-of-sight, tracking operations, and operations flying over sparsely populated areas.

  7. Human Research Program Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define, document, and allocate the Human Research Program (HRP) requirements to the HRP Program elements. It establishes the flow-down of requirements from Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) to the various Program Elements of the HRP to ensure that human research and technology countermeasure investments are made to insure the delivery of countermeasures and technologies that satisfy ESMD s and OCHMO's exploration mission requirements.

  8. Managing Information On Technical Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauldin, Lemuel E., III; Hammond, Dana P.

    1993-01-01

    Technical Requirements Analysis and Control Systems/Initial Operating Capability (TRACS/IOC) computer program provides supplemental software tools for analysis, control, and interchange of project requirements so qualified project members have access to pertinent project information, even if in different locations. Enables users to analyze and control requirements, serves as focal point for project requirements, and integrates system supporting efficient and consistent operations. TRACS/IOC is HyperCard stack for use on Macintosh computers running HyperCard 1.2 or later and Oracle 1.2 or later.

  9. Requirements statement in product design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slătineanu, L.; Dodun, O.; Coteaţă, M.; Coman, I.; Manole, V.; Gika, C. V.

    2016-11-01

    One of the activities corresponding to the product design and development refers to clarifying the requirements necessary to be fulfilled by the final product. There are distinct opinions concerning the ways in which these requirements could be formulated and applied. The paper presents the results of a succinct analysis aiming to highlight the developing of product requirements in the case of applying the value analysis method and the axiomatic design method, respectively. The way in which the requirements are formulated in the case of a patent application is also considered. Results of the study were applied in the cases of designing some mechanical products.

  10. Requirements for soldered electrical connections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is applicable to NASA programs involving solder connections for flight hardware, mission essential support equipment, and elements thereof. This publication sets forth hand and wave soldering requirements for reliable electrical connections. The prime consideration is the physical integrity of solder connections. Special requirements may exist which are not in conformance with the requirements of this publication. Design documentation contains the detail for these requirements, and they take precedence over conflicting portions of this publication when they are approved in writing by the procuring NASA installation.

  11. Requirements for Medical Modeling Languages

    PubMed Central

    van der Maas, Arnoud A.F.; Ter Hofstede, Arthur H.M.; Ten Hoopen, A. Johannes

    2001-01-01

    Objective: The development of tailor-made domain-specific modeling languages is sometimes desirable in medical informatics. Naturally, the development of such languages should be guided. The purpose of this article is to introduce a set of requirements for such languages and show their application in analyzing and comparing existing modeling languages. Design: The requirements arise from the practical experience of the authors and others in the development of modeling languages in both general informatics and medical informatics. The requirements initially emerged from the analysis of information modeling techniques. The requirements are designed to be orthogonal, i.e., one requirement can be violated without violation of the others. Results: The proposed requirements for any modeling language are that it be “formal” with regard to syntax and semantics, “conceptual,” “expressive,” “comprehensible,” “suitable,” and “executable.” The requirements are illustrated using both the medical logic modules of the Arden Syntax as a running example and selected examples from other modeling languages. Conclusion: Activity diagrams of the Unified Modeling Language, task structures for work flows, and Petri nets are discussed with regard to the list of requirements, and various tradeoffs are thus made explicit. It is concluded that this set of requirements has the potential to play a vital role in both the evaluation of existing domain-specific languages and the development of new ones. PMID:11230383

  12. Consensus standard requirements and guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Putman, V.L.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents information from the ANS Criticality Alarm System Workshop relating to the consensus standard requirements and guidance. Topics presented include: definition; nomenclature; requirements and recommendations; purpose of criticality alarms; design criteria; signal characteristics; reliability, dependability and durability; tests; and emergency preparedness and planning.

  13. The Forecasting of Manpower Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugg, Matilda R.

    This handbook was designed to assist economists and statisticians in the economically developing countries in initiating and conducting studies for determining future manpower requirements in relation to anticipated development. It outlines a method of estimating future manpower requirements by occupation and industry and future training…

  14. USDA registration and rectification requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R.

    1982-01-01

    Some of the requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture for accuracy of aerospace acquired data, and specifically, requirements for registration and rectification of remotely sensed data are discussed. Particular attention is given to foreign and domestic crop estimation and forecasting, forestry information applications, and rangeland condition evaluations.

  15. Physician Requirements-1990. For Nephrology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbach, Joan K.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in nephrology were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for nephrology, a nephrology Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 34 conditions that are treated in the…

  16. Requirements: The More the Better?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Little, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Nothing ever, ever, becomes a requirement until two things happen: (1) there is a solid understanding and acceptance of the requirement's cost and schedule implications; and (2) knowledgeable technical people are so confident that the program can meet the requirement within the cost and schedule that they are willing to bet their jobs on it. Yikes!! Does this mean that we never undertake high-risk projects? No. what it does mean is that when you undertake high-risk activities, you agree on an expectation or requirement that includes failure, or falling short, as a real possibility, and your cost and schedule reflect the risk. The other thing that it means is that you may have to start a project with some requirements open until after the work progresses to a point where the requirement meets the two criteria above. The process is also flawed because there are usually too many requirements. Something about the engineering or designer mentality seems to demand hosts of requirements as an input to the technical process.

  17. Physician Requirements-1990. For Allergy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorner, Robert N.; Rudzinski, Karen

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in allergy were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for allergy, an allergy Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 21 conditions that affect the ambulatory care…

  18. Physician Requirements-1990. For Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudzinski, Karen; Thorner, Robert N.

    Professional requirements for physicians specializing in pediatrics were estimated to assist policymakers in developing guidelines for graduate medical education. In estimating service requirements for pediatrics, the pediatrics Delphi panel reviewed reference and incidence-prevalence and utilization data for 230 conditions that affect the…

  19. Science Graduation Requirements. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics (Table 153), there are almost as many states that require a minimum of 2 credits of science for graduation (22) as there are those that require 3 credits (21). According to the "2000 High School Transcript Study," between 1990 and 2000, not only did the average number of science credits…

  20. Subsurface Contamination Focus Area technical requirements. Volume 1: Requirements summary

    SciTech Connect

    Nickelson, D.; Nonte, J.; Richardson, J.

    1996-10-01

    This document summarizes functions and requirements for remediation of source term and plume sites identified by the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area. Included are detailed requirements and supporting information for source term and plume containment, stabilization, retrieval, and selective retrieval remedial activities. This information will be useful both to the decision-makers within the Subsurface Contamination Focus Area (SCFA) and to the technology providers who are developing and demonstrating technologies and systems. Requirements are often expressed as graphs or charts, which reflect the site-specific nature of the functions that must be performed. Many of the tradeoff studies associated with cost savings are identified in the text.

  1. The NLC Software Requirements Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Shoaee, Hamid

    2002-08-20

    We describe the software requirements and development methodology developed for the NLC control system. Given the longevity of that project, and the likely geographical distribution of the collaborating engineers, the planned requirements management process is somewhat more formal than the norm in high energy physics projects. The short term goals of the requirements process are to accurately estimate costs, to decompose the problem, and to determine likely technologies. The long term goal is to enable a smooth transition from high level functional requirements to specific subsystem and component requirements for individual programmers, and to support distributed development. The methodology covers both ends of that life cycle. It covers both the analytical and documentary tools for software engineering, and project management support. This paper introduces the methodology, which is fully described in [1].

  2. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  3. Nutritional requirements of Corynebacterium pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Fraga, A M; Reddy, C A

    1982-08-01

    The nutritional requirements of Corynebacterium pyogenes (strains C100, 5, and 1909), a commonly encountered animal pathogen, were determined in this study. A semidefined medium (SDM) containing glucose, HCO3-, hemin, charcoal-treated Trypticase, and a defined mixture of purines and pyrimidines, amino acids, and minerals which supported optimal growth of C. pyogenes was employed in all nutritional studies. Adenine and uracil were required for optimal growth of strains 5 and C100 but were not required for strain 1909. Riboflavin and nicotinic acid were required for good growth of all three strains; biotin and thiamin were stimulatory but did not appear to be required for growth. Hemin and NaHCO3 were stimulatory for growth, whereas lipoic acid and Tween 80 were neither stimulatory nor required for growth. The replacement of Trypticase with a specific peptide fraction (obtained by fractionation of Trypticase on Sephadex G-25) rich in dipeptides gave growth comparable to that in SDM, indicating a peptide requirement for the growth of C. pyogenes. It was of considerable interest that growth comparable to that in SDM was obtained when Trypticase was replaced by inositol (1 microgram/ml of SDM).

  4. Nutritional requirements of Corynebacterium pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Fraga, A M; Reddy, C A

    1982-01-01

    The nutritional requirements of Corynebacterium pyogenes (strains C100, 5, and 1909), a commonly encountered animal pathogen, were determined in this study. A semidefined medium (SDM) containing glucose, HCO3-, hemin, charcoal-treated Trypticase, and a defined mixture of purines and pyrimidines, amino acids, and minerals which supported optimal growth of C. pyogenes was employed in all nutritional studies. Adenine and uracil were required for optimal growth of strains 5 and C100 but were not required for strain 1909. Riboflavin and nicotinic acid were required for good growth of all three strains; biotin and thiamin were stimulatory but did not appear to be required for growth. Hemin and NaHCO3 were stimulatory for growth, whereas lipoic acid and Tween 80 were neither stimulatory nor required for growth. The replacement of Trypticase with a specific peptide fraction (obtained by fractionation of Trypticase on Sephadex G-25) rich in dipeptides gave growth comparable to that in SDM, indicating a peptide requirement for the growth of C. pyogenes. It was of considerable interest that growth comparable to that in SDM was obtained when Trypticase was replaced by inositol (1 microgram/ml of SDM). PMID:6288763

  5. Power requirements for PHERB powertrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norbakyah, J. S.; Atiq, W. H.; Salisa, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Boats are considered as favourite maritime transportation designed for recreation activities, fishing and surveillance purposes. However, in tropical developed countries, boats are employed for different applications such as passenger and goods transportation. In this paper, the power requirements for a proposed plug-in hybrid electric recreational boat (PHERB) powertrain is determined using a steady state velocity and the Kuala Terengganu river driving cycle according to the boat parameters, specifications and performance requirements. The boat power requirements can be used to size the main components for PHERB powertrain. The results obtained from this analysis are within reasonable range and satisfactory.

  6. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George; Stetson, Howard

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto- Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  7. Autonomous Real Time Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plattsmier, George I.; Stetson, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    One of the more challenging aspects of software development is the ability to verify and validate the functional software requirements dictated by the Software Requirements Specification (SRS) and the Software Detail Design (SDD). Insuring the software has achieved the intended requirements is the responsibility of the Software Quality team and the Software Test team. The utilization of Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Auto-Procedures for relocating ground operations positions to ISS automated on-board operations has begun the transition that would be required for manned deep space missions with minimal crew requirements. This transition also moves the auto-procedures from the procedure realm into the flight software arena and as such the operational requirements and testing will be more structured and rigorous. The autoprocedures would be required to meet NASA software standards as specified in the Software Safety Standard (NASASTD- 8719), the Software Engineering Requirements (NPR 7150), the Software Assurance Standard (NASA-STD-8739) and also the Human Rating Requirements (NPR-8705). The Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) test-bed utilizes the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) Language for development of autonomous command and control software. The Timeliner- TLX(sup TM) system has the unique feature of providing the current line of the statement in execution during real-time execution of the software. The feature of execution line number internal reporting unlocks the capability of monitoring the execution autonomously by use of a companion Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) sequence as the line number reporting is embedded inside the Timeliner-TLX(sup TM) execution engine. This negates I/O processing of this type data as the line number status of executing sequences is built-in as a function reference. This paper will outline the design and capabilities of the AFTS Autonomous Requirements Tracker, which traces and logs SRS requirements as they are being met during real-time execution of the

  8. SOP - Determination of Requirement Density

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, John G.; Martz, Jr., Harry E.

    2010-10-26

    The purpose of this Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) is to give guidelines on how to determine the density of a sample that will be used as the requirement density. This will be the requirement density of record for the specimens examined by Micro CT and EDS measurements. This density will then be set as the formulation requirement for radiography measurements. This SOP is referred to in TP 48— Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide/Icing Sugar Specimens for X-ray Measurements by J. G. Reynolds and H. E. Martz.

  9. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  10. Requirements for airborne vector gravimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Colombo, O.; Hein, G.; Knickmeyer, E. T.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of airborne vector gravimetry is the determination of the full gravity disturbance vector along the aircraft trajectory. The paper briefly outlines the concept of this method using a combination of inertial and GPS-satellite data. The accuracy requirements for users in geodesy and solid earth geophysics, oceanography and exploration geophysics are then specified. Using these requirements, accuracy specifications for the GPS subsystem and the INS subsystem are developed. The integration of the subsystems and the problems connected with it are briefly discussed and operational methods are indicated that might reduce some of the stringent accuracy requirements.

  11. Partnership Green Power Use Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. This pages details green power use requirements for Partnership.

  12. Concept of ASTER calibration requirement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ono, A.

    1992-01-01

    The document of ASTER Calibration Requirement specifies the following items related to spectral and radiometric characteristics of the ASTER instrument: (1) characteristics whose knowledge is specified, (2) requirement for knowledge of the characteristics, (3) methodology for characteristics evaluation, and (4) supplementary information and data related with characteristics evaluation. This document is applicable to the document of the ASTER Instrument Specification on Observational Performances, and will be a part of the ASTER Calibration Plan. ASTER Calibration Requirement is scheduled to establish the concept and framework by March 1992 when the 5th Calibration and Data Validation Panel Meeting is held, and to determine details including requirement values and evaluation methodologies by October 1992 around which the Calibration Peer Review may be held. The ASTER Calibration Plan is planned to finish by the same time.

  13. Requirements for Monitoring Pesticide Handlers

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To ensure safety, someone must monitor pesticide handlers in certain situations, including when the most toxic pesticides are used and when fumigants are used in greenhouses. Find out about these requirements.

  14. Spent-fuel storage requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-06-01

    Spent fuel storage requirements, as projected through the year 2000 for U.S. LWRs, were calculated using information supplied by the utilities reflecting plant status as of December 31, 1981. Projections through the year 2000 combined fuel discharge projections of the utilities with the assumed discharges of typical reactors required to meet the nuclear capacity of 165 GWe projected by the Energy Information Administration for the year 2000. Three cases were developed and are summarized. A reference case, or maximum at-reactor capacity case, assumes that all reactor storage pools are increased to their maximum capacities as estimated by the utilities for spent fuel storage utilizing currently licensed technologies. The reference case assumes no transshipments between pools except as current licensed by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This case identifies an initial requirement for 13 MTU of additional storage in 1984, and a cumulative requirement for 14,490 MTU additional storage in the year 2000.

  15. Efficacy Requirements for Antimicrobial Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Pesticides designed to control microbial pests such as viruses and bacteria must have data proving their ability to kill these pests (known as efficacy). The guidance documents on this page describe current efficacy-related requirements.

  16. LH2 airport requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, G. D. (Editor)

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary assessment of the facilities and equipment which will be required at a representative airport is provided so liquid hydrogen LH2 can be used as fuel in long range transport aircraft in 1995-2000. A complete facility was conceptually designed, sized to meet the projected air traffic requirement. The facility includes the liquefaction plant, LH2, storage capability, and LH2 fuel handling system. The requirements for ground support and maintenance for the LH2 fueled aircraft were analyzed. An estimate was made of capital and operating costs which might be expected for the facility. Recommendations were made for design modifications to the reference aircraft, reflecting results of the analysis of airport fuel handling requirements, and for a program of additional technology development for air terminal related items.

  17. Emergency Preparedness and Response Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To reduce exposure risks to people who may be near a buffer zone, soil fumigant pesticide applicators are required to either provide on-site monitoring of the perimeter, or provide emergency response information directly to neighbors.

  18. EPA Subaward Cross Cutter Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To assist recipients or “pass-through entities” who make subawards under the Uniform Grant Guidance to identify potential Federal requirements that may apply to to subrecipients on EPA funded projects per 2 CFR 200.331(a)(2).

  19. Requirements for Reactor Physics Design

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond,D.J.

    2008-04-11

    It has been recognized that there is a need for requirements and guidance for design and operation of nuclear power plants. This is becoming more important as more reactors are being proposed to be built. In parallel with activities in individual countries are norms established by international organizations. This paper discusses requirements/guidance for neutronic design and operation as promulgated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). As an example, details are given for one reactor physics parameter, namely, the moderator temperature reactivity coefficient. The requirements/guidance from the NRC are discussed in the context of those generated for the International Atomic Energy Agency. The requirements/guidance are not identical from the two sources although they are compatible.

  20. Quality-Planning-Requirements Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, P. A.; Flores, A.

    1983-01-01

    Report outlines planning procedures used in establishing inspection and quality assurance activities required of contractors constructing and testing Space Shuttle and ground-support equipment. Report useful to contractors establishing inspection points in commercial manufacturing operations.

  1. Signage Required Term and Condition

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The recipient is required to place a sign at construction sites supported under this award displaying the EPA logo in a manner that informs the public that the project is funded in part or wholly by the EPA.

  2. Master oscillator stability requirements considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, H.; Vancraeynest, J.

    1986-06-24

    This note attempts to point out some ideas about the required stability of the 476 MHz master oscillator, assuming that the phase noise of the oscillator is the only source of noise in the accelerator system.

  3. Requirements for Space Settlement Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gale, Anita E.; Edwards, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    When large space settlements are finally built, inevitably the customers who pay for them will start the process by specifying requirements with a Request for Proposal (RFP). Although we are decades away from seeing the first of these documents, some of their contents can be anticipated now, and provide insight into the variety of elements that must be researched and developed before space settlements can happen. Space Settlement Design Competitions for High School students present design challenges in the form of RFPs, which predict basic requirements for space settlement attributes in the future, including structural features, infrastructure, living conveniences, computers, business areas, and safety. These requirements are generically summarized, and unique requirements are noted for specific space settlement locations and applications.

  4. Data Requirements for Pesticide Registration

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In evaluating a pesticide registration application, we assess a wide variety of potential human health and environmental effects associated with use of the product. Learn about these data requirements.

  5. Deaf mobile application accessibility requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, Shelena Soosay; Hussain, Azham; Hashim, Nor Laily

    2016-08-01

    Requirement for deaf mobile applications need to be analysed to ensure the disabilities need are instilled into the mobile applications developed for them. Universal design is understandable to comply every user needs, however specific disability is argued by the authors to have different need and requirements. These differences are among the reasons for these applications being developed to target for a specific group of people, however they are less usable and later abandoned. This study focuses on deriving requirements that are needed by the deaf in their mobile applications that are meant specifically for them. Studies on previous literature was conducted it can be concluded that graphic, text, multimedia and sign language interpreter are among mostly required features to be included in their mobile application to ensure the applications are usable for this community.

  6. Telerobot operator control station requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, Edwin P.

    1988-01-01

    The operator control station of a telerobot system has unique functional and human factors requirements. It has to satisfy the needs of a truly interactive and user-friendly complex system, a telerobot system being a hybrid between a teleoperated and an autonomous system. These functional, hardware and software requirements are discussed, with explicit reference to the design objectives and constraints of the JPL/NASA Telerobot Demonstrator System.

  7. Army Digital Test Requirements Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    existing inventory of military and commercial digital equipment present so many major variations and combinations of digital test requirements [that it...obtain for its inventory digital Automatic Test Equipment and diagnostic software aids capable of handling the testing requirements of tommorrow’s...a manageable size and greatly Increase the speed of the test generation process. ! , o Improved Diagnostic The segment of computer science called

  8. Formalizing Space Shuttle Software Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, Judith; DiVito, Ben L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes two case studies in which requirements for new flight-software subsystems on NASA's Space Shuttle were analyzed, one using standard formal specification techniques, the other using state exploration. These applications serve to illustrate three main theses: (1) formal methods can complement conventional requirements analysis processes effectively, (2) formal methods confer benefits regardless of how extensively they are adopted and applied, and (3) formal methods are most effective when they are judiciously tailored to the application.

  9. Requirements Elicitation Using Paper Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayan, Jaya; Raju, G.

    Requirements engineering is both the hardest and critical part of software development since errors at this beginning stage propagate through the development process and are the hardest to repair later. This paper proposes an improved approach for requirements elicitation using paper prototype. The paper progresses through an assessment of the new approach using student projects developed for various organizations. The scope of implementation of paper prototype and its advantages are unveiled.

  10. Requirements for GNEP Transmutation Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    D. C. Crawford; M. K. Meyer; S. L. Hayes

    2007-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a baseline set of requirements to guide fuel fabrication development and irradiation testing performed as part of the AFCRD Transmutation Fuel Development Program. This document can be considered a supplement to the GNEP TRU Fuel Development and Qualification Plan, and will be revised as necessary to maintain a documented set of fuel testing objectives and requirements consistent with programmatic decisions and advances in technical knowledge.

  11. Capturing Requirements for Autonomous Spacecraft with Autonomy Requirements Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassev, Emil; Hinchey, Mike

    2014-08-01

    The Autonomy Requirements Engineering (ARE) approach has been developed by Lero - the Irish Software Engineering Research Center within the mandate of a joint project with ESA, the European Space Agency. The approach is intended to help engineers develop missions for unmanned exploration, often with limited or no human control. Such robotics space missions rely on the most recent advances in automation and robotic technologies where autonomy and autonomic computing principles drive the design and implementation of unmanned spacecraft [1]. To tackle the integration and promotion of autonomy in software-intensive systems, ARE combines generic autonomy requirements (GAR) with goal-oriented requirements engineering (GORE). Using this approach, software engineers can determine what autonomic features to develop for a particular system (e.g., a space mission) as well as what artifacts that process might generate (e.g., goals models, requirements specification, etc.). The inputs required by this approach are the mission goals and the domain-specific GAR reflecting specifics of the mission class (e.g., interplanetary missions).

  12. Energy requirements of development projects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.W.; Samuels, G. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    This report focuses on the energy requirements of pumped irrigation and cement plants as examples of the energy operating requirements of large development projects. Based on conservative assumptions about the nearness of the water table to the surface and the efficiency of operating pumping systems, using pumped irrigation to increase by 5% the arable land area of the countries studied would require energy equivalent to 4-1/2% to 8-1/2% of 1980 energy imports or commercial energy consumption of four of the countries; Somalia and Chad would require 15% and 22% of their 1980 oil import or consumption levels - partly because of relatively large, marginally arable land areas and partly because of low energy imports (commercial consumption). The introduction of one or (at most) two moderate-sized cement plants into five West African countries and Sudan requires from 12% to 40% of those countries' 1980 national commercial energy consumption for their operation. These calculations assume high levels of maintenance and developed country standards of fuel efficient operation; therefore actual fuel requirements are likely to be higher. The countries studied have few or no domestic fuel supply options other than imports. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Partial Automation of Requirements Tracing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Jane; Dekhtyar, Alex; Sundaram, Senthil; Vadlamudi, Sravanthi

    2006-01-01

    Requirements Tracing on Target (RETRO) is software for after-the-fact tracing of textual requirements to support independent verification and validation of software. RETRO applies one of three user-selectable information-retrieval techniques: (1) term frequency/inverse document frequency (TF/IDF) vector retrieval, (2) TF/IDF vector retrieval with simple thesaurus, or (3) keyword extraction. One component of RETRO is the graphical user interface (GUI) for use in initiating a requirements-tracing project (a pair of artifacts to be traced to each other, such as a requirements spec and a design spec). Once the artifacts have been specified and the IR technique chosen, another component constructs a representation of the artifact elements and stores it on disk. Next, the IR technique is used to produce a first list of candidate links (potential matches between the two artifact levels). This list, encoded in Extensible Markup Language (XML), is optionally processed by a filtering component designed to make the list somewhat smaller without sacrificing accuracy. Through the GUI, the user examines a number of links and returns decisions (yes, these are links; no, these are not links). Coded in XML, these decisions are provided to a "feedback processor" component that prepares the data for the next application of the IR technique. The feedback reduces the incidence of erroneous candidate links. Unlike related prior software, RETRO does not require the user to assign keywords, and automatically builds a document index.

  14. 40 CFR 161.101 - Required vs. conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables... with a given general use pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product... pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern if...

  15. 40 CFR 161.101 - Required vs. conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables... with a given general use pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product... pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern if...

  16. 40 CFR 161.101 - Required vs. conditionally required data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables... with a given general use pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product... pattern are needed by EPA to evaluate the risks or benefits of a product having that use pattern if...

  17. Space health requirements: the challenges.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, B S; Booher, C R

    1998-01-01

    This article explores the application of theoretical knowledge to clinical situations based on general systems theory and space health requirements to familiarize health care providers with requirements for the space environment. Preparation for extended periods of humans living in the space environment requires carefully planned delivery system that will promote and maintain health. Past, present, and future efforts for the establishment of'space health delivery systems are discussed. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Man-systems integration standards, NASA-STD-3000 Volume 1-MSIS, Revision B (1995, July), Houston, TX, National Aeronautics and Space Administration documents will be reviewed. Health care services will be supported by the available crew health care and emergency services systems. Providing health care in the extreme space environment with limited resources in which to carry out health practices offers challenges to health care providers.

  18. HEMATIN-REQUIRING PLASMODIAL MYXOMYCETE

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, John W.; Kelley, Jacqueline; Rusch, Harold P.

    1962-01-01

    Daniel, John W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison), Jacqueline Kelley, and Harold P. Rusch. Hematin-requiring plasmodial myxomycete. J. Bacteriol. 84:1104–1110. 1962.—The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum, previously shown to require chick embryo extract for growth on a partially defined, soluble medium, grows as well if hematin or certain hemoproteins are substituted for the embryo extract. Hematin is also required as a growth factor if the organism is grown on a synthetic medium. Of the variety of porphyrins tested only iron protoporphyrin IX is utilized for growth by P. polycephalum. Protoporphyrin IX is inactive. Protein-bound iron porphyrin is active at one-tenth the concentration of free hematin. Although hematin completely replaces embryo extract, the extract activity has properties not characteristic of hematin or the hemoproteins tested: ladility to light and rapid plasmodial uptake. PMID:14024912

  19. Airport surface operations requirements analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groce, John L.; Vonbokern, Greg J.; Wray, Rick L.

    1993-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Airport Surface Operations Requirements Analysis (ASORA) study. This study was conducted in response to task 24 of NASA Contract NAS1-18027. This study is part of NASA LaRC's Low Visibility Surface Operations program, which is designed to eliminate the constraints on all-weather arrival/departure operations due to the airport/aircraft ground system. The goal of this program is to provide the capability for safe and efficient aircraft operations on the airport surface during low visibility conditions down to zero. The ASORA study objectives were to (1) develop requirements for operation on the airport surface in visibilities down to zero; (2) survey and evaluate likely technologies; (3) develop candidate concepts to meet the requirements; and (4) select the most suitable concept based on cost/benefit factors.

  20. The Leader Requirements Survey Package

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    dis - cuss the various parts of the Leader Requirements Survey Package. I. THE LEADER REQUIREMENTS SURVEY The Leader Requirements Survey was designed...L 0FORSCOM FORCES CVD C, EL VC: R HA 0TRADOC JTRA N:O & DOC C%! Di c E::% hAP’D\\ C S9l ~*- C USARPEUR EUROPE) C B;:V~ C, v G. 5 - C US.AEIGHT ,E C...0000 -0 40000000©Q0 0 a950C000 O= - 041 )000000D0 o, (D-0960000’-O0O 042000000 097 0T0 0 (00 43- 0 000000D 0980C Os©o - 440000000 ossO ©©00 O " - 046

  1. Fusion Energy Sciences Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Tierney, Brian

    2012-09-26

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of the Office of Science programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements of the instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In December 2011, ESnet and the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), of the DOE Office of Science (SC), organized a workshop to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by FES. The requirements identified at the workshop are summarized in the Findings section, and are described in more detail in the body of the report.

  2. Authorization basis requirements comparison report

    SciTech Connect

    Brantley, W.M.

    1997-08-18

    The TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) consists of a set of documents identified by TWRS management with the concurrence of DOE-RL. Upon implementation of the TWRS Basis for Interim Operation (BIO) and Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs), the AB list will be revised to include the BIO and TSRs. Some documents that currently form part of the AB will be removed from the list. This SD identifies each - requirement from those documents, and recommends a disposition for each to ensure that necessary requirements are retained when the AB is revised to incorporate the BIO and TSRs. This SD also identifies documents that will remain part of the AB after the BIO and TSRs are implemented. This document does not change the AB, but provides guidance for the preparation of change documentation.

  3. Non-functional Avionics Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulitsch, Michael; Ruess, Harald; Sorea, Maria

    Embedded systems in aerospace become more and more integrated in order to reduce weight, volume/size, and power of hardware for more fuel-effi ciency. Such integration tendencies change architectural approaches of system ar chi tec tures, which subsequently change non-functional requirements for plat forms. This paper provides some insight into state-of-the-practice of non-func tional requirements for developing ultra-critical embedded systems in the aero space industry, including recent changes and trends. In particular, formal requi re ment capture and formal analysis of non-functional requirements of avionic systems - including hard-real time, fault-tolerance, reliability, and per for mance - are exemplified by means of recent developments in SAL and HiLiTE.

  4. Triggering requirements for SSC physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gilchriese, M.G.D.

    1989-04-01

    Some aspects of triggering requirements for high P{sub T} physics processes at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) are described. A very wide range of trigger types will be required to enable detection of the large number of potential physics signatures possible at the SSC. Although in many cases trigger rates are not now well understood, it is possible to conclude that the ability to trigger on transverse energy, number and energy of jets, number and energy of leptons (electrons and muons), missing energy and combinations of these will be required. An SSC trigger system must be both highly flexible and redundant to ensure reliable detection of many new physics processes at the SSC.

  5. Mask requirements for advanced lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trybula, Walter J.; Engelstad, Roxann L.

    1998-06-01

    Within the n ext 10 years, sub-100 nm features will be required for state-of-the-industry devices. The tolerances for errors at 100 nm or less are substantially smaller than can be achieved today. A critical element of the error budget is the mask. For the 100 nm generation, the 4x mask image placement requirement is 20 nm with CD requirements as low as 9 nm. The challenge would be significant if the only improvement were to develop superior optical masks. There are multiple advanced technologies that are vying to be the successor to optical lithography. Each of these has a unique mask requirement. The leading contenders for the next generation are 1x x-ray, projection e-beam, ion beam, EUV and cell projection e-beam. The x-ray design is a proximity system that employs a 1x membrane mask. Projection e-beam uses a membrane mask with stabilizing struts. Ion beam lithography employs a stencil membrane mask with a carbon coating. EUV employs a 13 nm radiation source that requires a reflective mask. Cell projection e-beam has 25x or greater image masks that are stitched on the wafer. All the technologies indicated above. Once a total error budget for the mask is known, it is necessary to divide the total into the constituent parts. The major sources of distortion can be categorized into eight areas: mask blank processing, e- beam writing, pattern transfer, pellicle effects, mounting, thermal loadings, dynamic effects during exposure and radiation damage. The distortions introduced by each of these depend upon the type of mask; so, individual mask calculations must be made. The purpose of this paper is to review the modeling requirements of each of the categories and to highlight some results from each of the mask configurations.

  6. Disposal requirements for PCB waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a class of organic chemicals that had become widely used in industrial applications due to their practical physical and chemical properties. Historical uses of PCBs include dielectric fluids (used in utility transformers, capacitors, etc.), hydraulic fluids, and other applications requiring stable, fire-retardant materials. Due to findings that PCBs may cause adverse health effects and due to their persistence and accumulation in the environment, the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), enacted on october 11, 1976, banned the manufacture of PCBs after 1978 [Section 6(e)]. The first PCB regulations, promulgated at 40 CFR Part 761, were finalized on February 17, 1978. These PCB regulations include requirements specifying disposal methods and marking (labeling) procedures, and controlling PCB use. To assist the Department of Energy (DOE) in its efforts to comply with the TSCA statute and implementing regulations, the Office of Environmental Guidance has prepared the document ``Guidance on the Management of Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs).`` That document explains the requirements specified in the statute and regulations for managing PCBs including PCB use, storage, transport, and disposal. PCB materials that are no longer in use and have been declared a waste must be disposed of according to the requirements found at 40 CFR 761.60. These requirements establish disposal options for a multitude of PCB materials including soil and debris, liquid PCBs, sludges and slurries, containers, transformers, capacitors, hydraulic machines, and other electrical equipment. This Information Brief supplements the PCB guidance document by responding to common questions concerning disposal requirements for PCBs. It is one of a series of Information Briefs pertinent to PCB management issues.

  7. 49 CFR 585.86 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PHASE-IN REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Electronic Stability Control System Phase-In Reporting Requirements § 585.86 Reporting requirements. (a) General...

  8. 49 CFR 585.86 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PHASE-IN REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Electronic Stability Control System Phase-In Reporting Requirements § 585.86 Reporting requirements. (a) General...

  9. 49 CFR 585.86 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PHASE-IN REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Electronic Stability Control System Phase-In Reporting Requirements § 585.86 Reporting requirements. (a) General...

  10. 49 CFR 585.86 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PHASE-IN REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Electronic Stability Control System Phase-In Reporting Requirements § 585.86 Reporting requirements. (a) General...

  11. 24 CFR 200.10 - Lender requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgagee § 200.10 Lender requirements....

  12. 24 CFR 200.10 - Lender requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Requirements for Application, Commitment, and Endorsement... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Eligible Mortgagee § 200.10 Lender requirements....

  13. Johnson Noise Thermometry System Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Britton Jr, Charles L; Roberts, Michael; Ezell, N Dianne Bull; Qualls, A L; Holcomb, David Eugene

    2013-01-01

    This document is intended to capture the requirements for the architecture of the developmental electronics for the ORNL-lead drift-free Johnson Noise Thermometry (JNT) project conducted under the Instrumentation, Controls, and Human-Machine Interface (ICHMI) research pathway of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Small Modular Reactor (SMR) Research and Development (R&D) program. The requirements include not only the performance of the system but also the allowable measurement environment of the probe and the allowable physical environment of the associated electronics. A more extensive project background including the project rationale is available in the initial project report [1].

  14. Ada 9X Requirements Rationale

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-01

    that would have to be addressed otherwise. RR-0300 Use an LR grammar to define the syntax of the language Requirement R2. l-B(l) discourages such changes...legality and suggests that an attribute grammar should be used. This kind of stylistic change has been ruled out of scope by Requirement R2.1-B(l). RR-0372...0300: Use an LR grammar to define the syntax than the designated object. This causes unnec- of the language. Rejected: a contradictory re- essary

  15. Protein requirement in critical illness.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, Leonard John

    2016-05-01

    How much protein do critically ill patients require? For the many decades that nutritional support has been used there was a broad consensus that critically ill patients need much more protein than required for normal health. Now, however, some clinical investigators recommend limiting all macronutrient provision during the early phase of critical illness. How did these conflicting recommendations emerge? Which of them is correct? This review explains the longstanding recommendation for generous protein provision in critical illness, analyzes the clinical trials now being claimed to refute it, and concludes with suggestions for clinical investigation and practice.

  16. EVA Requirements for Exploration EVAs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webbon, Bruce; Luna, Bernadette

    2005-01-01

    The exploration program proposed by the President will require extensive extravehicular operations in a wide range of environments. These include Og EVAs in planetary orbits as well as potential contingency EVAs during inter-planetary flight and surface operations on the moon and Mars. The EVA environments and mission requirements are very different for each of these. Commonality among such systems is highly desirable from the programmatic standpoint but the dramatic differences in EVA environments will have a profound impact on EVA system design. This paper will examine the relevant environmental parameters and discuss their impacts on EVA system design. An EVA design philosophy that maximizes EVA system commonality will be discussed.

  17. Requirements Modeling with Agent Programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Aniruddha; Krishna, Aneesh; Ghose, Aditya K.

    Agent-oriented conceptual modeling notations are highly effective in representing requirements from an intentional stance and answering questions such as what goals exist, how key actors depend on each other, and what alternatives must be considered. In this chapter, we review an approach to executing i* models by translating these into set of interacting agents implemented in the CASO language and suggest how we can perform reasoning with requirements modeled (both functional and non-functional) using i* models. In this chapter we particularly incorporate deliberation into the agent design. This allows us to benefit from the complementary representational capabilities of the two frameworks.

  18. CE Marking - the Essential Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playle, Mervyn

    The European Union (EU) harmonisation project introduced the CE marking of products to enable the free, unhindered movement of goods throughout the European market. The CE mark replaced the EC mark in the mid 1990s and is fundamental to the New Approach Directives. When a product falls within the scope of a New Approach Directive the manufacturer must comply with the 'goal setting' essential requirements of the directive, to follow one of the conformity assessment procedures provided for, and to draw up the technical documentation specified. Although not mandatory, a manufacturer can choose to satisfy the essential requirements through the application of European harmonised standards.

  19. Requirements for Printed Wiring Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In order to maintain the high standards of the NASA printed wiring programs, this publication: prescribes NASA's requirements for assuring reliable rigid printed wiring boards; describes and incorporates basic considerations necessary to assure reliable rigid printed wiring boards; establishes the supplier's responsibility to train and certify personnel; provides for supplier documentation of the fabrication and inspection procedures to be used for NASA work, including supplier innovations and changes in technology; and provides visual workmanship standards to aid those responsible for determining quality conformance to the established requirements.

  20. Project X functional requirements specification

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, S.D.; Henderson, S.D.; Kephart, R.; Kerby, J.; Kourbanis, I.; Lebedev, V.; Mishra, S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Solyak, N.; Tschirhart, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Project X is a multi-megawatt proton facility being developed to support a world-leading program in Intensity Frontier physics at Fermilab. The facility is designed to support programs in elementary particle and nuclear physics, with possible applications to nuclear energy research. A Functional Requirements Specification has been developed in order to establish performance criteria for the Project X complex in support of these multiple missions, and to assure that the facility is designed with sufficient upgrade capability to provide U.S. leadership for many decades to come. This paper will briefly review the previously described Functional Requirements, and then discuss their recent evolution.

  1. Buddy Tag CONOPS and Requirements.

    SciTech Connect

    Brotz, Jay Kristoffer; Deland, Sharon M.

    2015-12-01

    This document defines the concept of operations (CONOPS) and the requirements for the Buddy Tag, which is conceived and designed in collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories and Princeton University under the Department of State Key VerificationAssets Fund. The CONOPS describe how the tags are used to support verification of treaty limitations and is only defined to the extent necessary to support a tag design. The requirements define the necessary functions and desired non-functional features of the Buddy Tag at a high level

  2. 76 FR 39259 - Manual Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... final rule established new requirements for the certification, operation, and maintenance of light-sport...) 385-6474; e-mail Kim.A.Barnette@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The FAA published a final rule entitled ``Certification of Aircraft and Airmen for the Operation of Light-Sport Aircraft,'' in the Federal...

  3. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  4. Tilapia: environmental and nutritional requirements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tilapia are an important species to global aquaculture production. Their adaptability to a wide range of environmental and nutritional conditions and their ability to grow and reproduce make them a prime species for aquaculture. Nonetheless, to achieve maximum performance in culture, tilapia requir...

  5. Methionine requirements in healthy adolescents

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate methionine requirements in healthy adolescents, we conducted an experiment in 28 children age 15.6+2.1 years, wt. 57.8+9.7 kg, using the intravenous indicator amino acid oxidation and balance (IV-IAAOB) technique. Children were randomly assigned to 7 different levels of methionine int...

  6. Risk based ASME Code requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, B.F.; Vo, T.V.; Balkey, K.R.

    1992-09-01

    The objective of this ASME Research Task Force is to develop and to apply a methodology for incorporating quantitative risk analysis techniques into the definition of in-service inspection (ISI) programs for a wide range of industrial applications. An additional objective, directed towards the field of nuclear power generation, is ultimately to develop a recommendation for comprehensive revisions to the ISI requirements of Section XI of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. This will require development of a firm technical basis for such requirements, which does not presently exist. Several years of additional research will be required before this can be accomplished. A general methodology suitable for application to any industry has been defined and published. It has recently been refined and further developed during application to the field of nuclear power generation. In the nuclear application probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) techniques and information have been incorporated. With additional analysis, PRA information is used to determine the consequence of a component rupture (increased reactor core damage probability). A procedure has also been recommended for using the resulting quantified risk estimates to determine target component rupture probability values to be maintained by inspection activities. Structural risk and reliability analysis (SRRA) calculations are then used to determine characteristics which an inspection strategy must posess in order to maintain component rupture probabilities below target values. The methodology, results of example applications, and plans for future work are discussed.

  7. Permit-Required Confined Spaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Permit-Required Confined Spaces U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration OSHA 3138 1998 (Revised) Report Documentation...Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration 200 Constitution Avenue Washington, DC 20210 Performing Organization Report Number OSHA 3138...determine compliance responsibili- ties, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because

  8. WATER REQUIREMENT OF IRRIGATED GARLIC

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  9. Water Requirements Of Irrigated Garlic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A replicated field trial was conducted on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley to determine the crop coefficient and water requirements of irrigated garlic. Irrigation systems used included flood irrigation, subsurface drip irrigation, and surface drip irrigation. Irrigation levels were set at 5...

  10. Requirements management: A CSR's perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Joanie

    1991-01-01

    The following subject areas are covered: customer service overview of network service request processing; Customer Service Representative (CSR) responsibility matrix; extract from a sample Memorandum of Understanding; Network Service Request Form and its instructions sample notification of receipt; and requirements management in the NASA Science Internet.

  11. Birch soil-site requirements

    Treesearch

    Boyd W. Post; Willard H. Carmean; Robert O. Curtis

    1969-01-01

    Yellow birch is among our more valued hardwood species. Yet only meager information about site requirements is available for this tree and for paper birch. Site studies for yellow birch and paper birch and for other northern hardwood species have been completed for the Green Mountains of Vermont by Curtis and Post (1962a, 1962b). A similar study for northern hardwoods...

  12. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  13. Utilizing inheritance in requirements engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaindl, Hermann

    1994-01-01

    The scope of this paper is the utilization of inheritance for requirements specification, i.e., the tasks of analyzing and modeling the domain, as well as forming and defining requirements. Our approach and the tool supporting it are named RETH (Requirements Engineering Through Hypertext). Actually, RETH uses a combination of various technologies, including object-oriented approaches and artificial intelligence (in particular frames). We do not attempt to exclude or replace formal representations, but try to complement and provide means for gradually developing them. Among others, RETH has been applied in the CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Rechereche Nucleaire) Cortex project. While it would be impossible to explain this project in detail here, it should be sufficient to know that it deals with a generic distributed control system. Since this project is not finished yet, it is difficult to state its size precisely. In order to give an idea, its final goal is to substitute the many existing similar control systems at CERN by this generic approach. Currently, RETH is also tested using real-world requirements for the Pastel Mission Planning System at ESOC in Darmstadt. First, we outline how hypertext is integrated into a frame system in our approach. Moreover, the usefulness of inheritance is demonstrated as performed by the tool RETH. We then summarize our experiences of utilizing inheritance in the Cortex project. Lastly, RETH will be related to existing work.

  14. SRS control system upgrade requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.F.

    1998-08-04

    This document defines requirements for an upgrade of the Sodium Removal System (SRS) control system. The upgrade is being performed to solve a number of maintainability and operability issues. The upgraded system will provide the same functions, controls and interlocks as the present system, and in addition provide enhanced functionality in areas discussed in this document.

  15. Quality Requirements for Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, B.; Brekelmans, M.; Korthagen, F.; Wubbels, T.

    2005-01-01

    This study deals with the quality requirements that are needed for teacher educators. The tasks teacher educators have to do and the competencies they should possess (a professional profile), according to their fellow teacher educators, were identified. On the basis of a literature search on tasks and competencies of teacher educators, we made a…

  16. The Rhetoric of Skill Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darrah, Charles N.

    The "rhetoric of skill requirements" is a way of describing work by decomposing the human contribution into distinct components. Three important characteristics of this rhetoric are especially germane to an understanding of work. The first characteristic is that jobs and their incumbents can be fully analyzed by breaking them down into skills.…

  17. Effective Schools Require Effective Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Davis, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    At long last, scholars and policy makers have come to realize what most school administrators have known for years--that effective schools require both outstanding teachers and strong leaders. Although there is considerable research about the characteristics of effective school leaders and the strategies principals can use to help manage…

  18. General Requirements and Minimum Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This publication provides the General Requirements and Minimum Standards developed by the National Court Reporters Association's Council on Approved Student Education (CASE). They are the same for all court reporter education programs, whether an institution is applying for approval for the first time or for a new grant of approval. The first…

  19. All Abroad! Overseas Study Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    Goucher College's picturesque campus, on 290 leafy acres just north of Baltimore, plays well in college-admissions materials. Officials at this private liberal-arts institution, however, hope students will also be attracted by the opportunity to get away. Two years ago, Goucher began requiring all students to earn some academic credit abroad, one…

  20. 48 CFR 3030.201 - Contract requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Contract requirements. 3030... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS COST ACCOUNTING STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION CAS Program Requirements 3030.201 Contract requirements. ...

  1. The method to divide a sentence of requirement into individual requirements and the development of requirement specification editor which can describe individual requirements.

    PubMed

    Sato, Kuniya; Ooba, Masahiro; Takagi, Tomohiko; Furukawa, Zengo; Komiya, Seiichi; Yaegashi, Rihito

    2013-12-01

    Agile software development gains requirements from the direct discussion with customers and the development staff each time, and the customers evaluate the appropriateness of the requirement. If the customers divide the complicated requirement into individual requirements, the engineer who is in charge of software development can understand it easily. This is called division of requirement. However, the customers do not understand how much and how to divide the requirements. This paper proposes the method to divide a complicated requirement into individual requirements. Also, it shows the development of requirement specification editor which can describe individual requirements. The engineer who is in charge of software development can understand requirements easily.

  2. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 614.4935 Section 614.4935... Insurance Requirements § 614.4935 Escrow requirement. If a System institution requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930...

  3. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 614.4935 Section 614.4935... Insurance Requirements § 614.4935 Escrow requirement. If a System institution requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930...

  4. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 614.4935 Section 614.4935... Insurance Requirements § 614.4935 Escrow requirement. If a System institution requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930...

  5. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 614.4935 Section 614.4935... Insurance Requirements § 614.4935 Escrow requirement. If a System institution requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930...

  6. 12 CFR 614.4935 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 614.4935 Section 614.4935... Insurance Requirements § 614.4935 Escrow requirement. If a System institution requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 614.4930...

  7. Vitamin D safety and requirements.

    PubMed

    de Paula, Francisco J A; Rosen, Clifford J

    2012-07-01

    Vitamin D an ancient secosteroid is essential for mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling, immune modulation, and energy metabolism. Recently, debates have emerged about the daily vitamin D requirements for healthy and elderly adults, the safety and efficacy of long term supplementation and the role of vitamin D deficiency in several chronic disease states. Since this molecule acts as both a vitamin and a hormone, it should not be surprising that the effects of supplementation are multi-faceted and complex. Yet despite significant progress in the last decade, our understanding of vitamin D physiology and the clinical relevance of low circulating levels of this vitamin remains incomplete. The present review provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of vitamin D requirements and safety. It also raises some provocative research questions.

  8. Medical conditions requiring intensive care.

    PubMed

    Porter, D; Johnston, A McD; Henning, J

    2009-06-01

    Patients who require critical care for internal medical conditions make up a small but significant proportion of those requiring evacuation to the Royal Centre for Defence Medicine in Birmingham, UK. Infectious, autoimmune, neurologic, cardiac and respiratory conditions are all represented. Conditions which preclude military service and which one would not necessarily expect to see in a military hospital are still prevalent in civilian contractors and host nation personnel. With some 250,000 British military personnel based in the UK and overseas individual presentations of rare conditions occur regularly. This article discusses the ITU management of some key conditions. Whilst trauma makes up the majority of the workload in a field Intensive Care Unit, medical admissions happen not infrequently. This article describes some of the most common medical causes for admission and treatment is considered.

  9. Vitamin D Safety and Requirements

    PubMed Central

    de Paula, Francisco J.A.; Rosen, Clifford J.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D an ancient secosteroid is essential for mineral homeostasis, bone remodeling, immune modulation, and energy metabolism. Recently, debates have emerged about the daily vitamin D requirements for healthy and elderly adults, the safety and efficacy of long term supplementation and the role of vitamin D deficiency in several chronic disease states. Since this molecule acts as both a vitamin and a hormone, it should not be surprising that the effects of supplementation are multi-faceted and complex. Yet despite significant progress in the last decade, our understanding of vitamin D physiology and the clinical relevance of low circulating levels of this vitamin remains incomplete. The present review provides the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of vitamin D requirements and safety. It also raises some provocative research questions. PMID:22179017

  10. Shallow waters require platform innovation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    Conventional platform designs generally apply to production facilities for relatively shallow-water oil and gas fields and consequently do not attract much attention in the offshore industry. But although new designs relate largely to deeper waters, specific requirements of a particular field in shallow water may well force designers to search for unconventional designs to meet a need for lower costs and rapid development. A central production facility is planned offshore at the drilling location AWG-1, approximately 3 km offshore and in a water depth of about six meters. The choice is governed by the optimum interfield pipeline configuration available at the AWG-1 location, taking into account the other locations required for adequate subsea well coverage. The platform is described.

  11. Performance requirements for countermeasures lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elder, Ian

    2010-10-01

    Performance requirements for laser sources, operating in the mid-IR, providing protection of airborne platforms from heat-seeking missiles are reviewed. The critical performance characteristic for a countermeasures laser is 'useful energy on target', which requires the laser to generate high brightness output in the appropriate spectral bands with rapid turn-on time. Integration with a compact beam director places an upper limit on the beam quality of the laser output. The key driver for the detailed laser design is to maximise the overall wallplug efficiency in order to minimise the complexity and volume, in turn maximising the reliability and reducing the cost. In particular routes to reduce the thermal management system for the laser produce the single largest improvement in overall wallplug efficiency, with the ultimate goal of realising a truly athermal laser. Candidate technologies for IR countermeasures lasers are briefly reviewed.

  12. Wartime Information Requirements for Transportation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    821785 clearly demonstrated the shortfalls of foreign power supplies . One captain, who had been at several Team Spirit exercises, stated that their...those in the U.S. and require special equipment for data transmission. With this portion of the study, we generally learned the power supply would be... uniterruptable power systems (UPSs) to ensure we have continuous, reliable electrical power . Provisions to purchase this type of equipment do not exist on the

  13. ESCRT requirements for EIAV budding.

    PubMed

    Sandrin, Virginie; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2013-10-09

    Retroviruses and many other enveloped viruses usurp the cellular ESCRT pathway to bud from cells. However, the stepwise process of ESCRT-mediated virus budding can be challenging to analyze in retroviruses like HIV-1 that recruit multiple different ESCRT factors to initiate budding. In this study, we characterized the ESCRT factor requirements for budding of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV), whose only known direct ESCRT protein interaction is with ALIX. siRNA depletion of endogenous ESCRT proteins and "rescue" experiments with exogenous siRNA-resistant wild type and mutant constructs revealed budding requirements for the following ESCRT proteins: ALIX, CHMP4B, CHMP2A and VPS4A or VPS4B. EIAV budding was inhibited by point mutations that abrogate the direct interactions between ALIX:CHMP4B, CHMP4B:CHMP2A, and CHMP2A:VPS4A/B, indicating that each of these interactions is required for EIAV budding. Unexpectedly, CHMP4B depletion led to formation of multi-lobed and long tubular EIAV virions. We conclude that EIAV budding requires an ESCRT protein network that comprises EIAV Gag-ALIX-CHMP4B-CHMP2A-VPS4 interactions. Our experiments also suggest that CHMP4B recruitment/polymerization helps control Gag polymerization and/or processing to ensure that ESCRT factor assembly and membrane fission occur at the proper stage of virion assembly. These studies help establish EIAV as a streamlined model system for dissecting the stepwise processes of lentivirus assembly and ESCRT-mediated budding.

  14. Water requirements of selected industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; Mussey, Orville D.; Conklin, Howard L.; Durfor, Charles N.; Otts, Louis Ethelbert; Walling, Faulkner B.

    1955-01-01

    The early industries in America generally were established when and where demands for the products of industry arose. Most of the early industries were so located that their increasing requirements for transportation, raw materials, market, labor, and water supply could be satisfied economically. Many of these original plant locations have continued as modern industrial centers and their output has increased manyfold in meeting the demands of our growing Nation. The recent and current industrial expansion and the trend toward the growth of chemical industries, many Of which are heavy users of water, has resulted in a tremendous increase in the total withdrawal of water for industrial use as well as a large increase in the per capita use of water. This increase in industrial water requirement has strained the capacity of the developed water supplies in many areas, and in some instances the adequacy of the potential water supplies is questionable. The Geological Survey is engaged in preparing and publishing a series of reports describing the developed and undeveloped water resources of many important industrial areas. This work was started initially at the request of the National Securities Resources Board as a means to insure that water supplies are adequate for our rapidly expanding industrial development. Although many factors contribute to establishing the feasibility or even the limits of future industrial development, the one relating to available water supply is extremely important. A knowledge of the water requirements of various industries is valuable therefore in planning the logical development in any area where water supply is a critical factor. Thus far very little suitable information on the water requirements of our major industries is available for general planning. An inventory of unit water-use values in industry therefore would be generally helpful and also might tend to stimulate water-conservation methods. To obtain such information

  15. Future payload technology requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Technology advances needed for an overall mission model standpoint as well as those for individual shuttle payloads are defined. The technology advances relate to the mission scientific equipment, spacecraft subsystems that functionally support this equipment, and other payload-related equipment, software, and environment necessary to meet broad program objectives. In the interest of obtaining commonality of requirements, the study was structured according to technology categories rather than in terms of individual payloads.

  16. Information Requirements Analysis: An Application.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    Requirements Analysis: An Application by Richard Bray Renner Commander, Supply Corps, United States Navy B.S., United States Naval Academy, 1957 M.S., Naval...Stanford Research Institute study reported that during the 1960’s, industrial productivity in the United States increased by 83%, while "knowl -e workers...flow emanating from various sources within the department . Usually the request will be from faculty and can be handled with departmental funds (0 MN

  17. TARA: Tool Assisted Requirements Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-05-01

    techniques examined in detail was the use of direct ’animation’ of data flow specifications in Prolog [Bartlett, Cherrie, Lehman, MacLean and Potts, 1984...it is our objective to provide tools and techniques that are tightly coupled to CORE and the Analyst, as it is only by making such a commitment that...provides techniques and notations for all phases of elicitation, specification and analysis of requirements and results in a structured, action

  18. New Italian device registration requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2008-01-01

    A medical device manufacturer located outside Europe was informed by an Italian distributor that the European Authorised Representative must designate the distributor as the authorised entity when registering the manufacturer's devices in Italy in a new online data bank. This is incorrect. This article discusses the new requirements for registering medical devices in Italy, together with the steps in the registration process and common problems encountered.

  19. Extrusion energy and pressure requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, M.; Hanna, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    Corn gluten meal samples at moisture contents of 14, 20 and 26% dry basis were extruded at barrel temperatures of 120, 145 and 170/sup 0/C with screw speeds of 100, 150 and 200 rpm. The specific energy requirements and specific operating pressure decreases as the moisture content and temperature were increased. The effect of screw speed on specific energy and pressure was inconclusive.

  20. Faulty assumptions for repository requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Sutcliffe, W G

    1999-06-03

    Long term performance requirements for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste are based on assumptions concerning water use and subsequent deaths from cancer due to ingesting water contaminated with radio isotopes ten thousand years in the future. This paper argues that the assumptions underlying these requirements are faulty for a number of reasons. First, in light of the inevitable technological progress, including efficient desalination of water, over the next ten thousand years, it is inconceivable that a future society would drill for water near a repository. Second, even today we would not use water without testing its purity. Third, today many types of cancer are curable, and with the rapid progress in medical technology in general, and the prevention and treatment of cancer in particular, it is improbable that cancer caused by ingesting contaminated water will be a sign&ant killer in the far future. This paper reviews the performance requirements for geological repositories and comments on the difficulties in proving compliance in the face of inherent uncertainties. The already tiny long-term risk posed by a geologic repository is presented and contrasted with contemporary every day risks. A number of examples of technological progress, including cancer treatments, are advanced. The real and significant costs resulting from the overly conservative requirements are then assessed. Examples are given of how money (and political capital) could be put to much better use to save lives today and in the future. It is concluded that although a repository represents essentially no long-term risk, monitored retrievable dry storage (above or below ground) is the current best alternative for spent fuel and high-level nuclear waste.

  1. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2010-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10 years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  2. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2011-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10 years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  3. Testing Requirements for Refractory Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Kolody, Mark R.; Sampson, Jeffrey W,; Montgomery, Eliza M.

    2012-01-01

    Launch Pads 39A and 39B currently use refractory material (Fondu Fyre) in the flame trenches. This material was initially approved for the Saturn program. This material had a lifetime of 10years according to the manufacturer, and it has been used for over 40 years. As a consequence, the Fondu Fyre at Launch Complex 39 requires repair subsequent to almost every launch. A review of the literature indicates that the gunned Fondu Fyre refractory product (WA-1 G) was never tested prior to use. With the recent severe damage to the flame trenches, a new refractory material is sought to replace Fondu Fyre. In order to replace Fondu Fyre, a methodology to test and evaluate refractory products was developed. This paper outlines this methodology and discusses current testing requirements, as well as the laboratory testing that might be required. Furthermore, this report points out the necessity for subscale testing, the locations where this testing can be performed, and the parameters that will be necessary to qualify a product. The goal is to identify a more durable refractory material that has physical, chemical, and thermal properties suitable to withstand the harsh environment of the launch pads at KSC.

  4. Requirements for an Operational Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, R.; Vourlidas, A.; Harrison, R. A.; Bisi, M. M.; Plunkett, S. P.; Socker, D. G.; Eyles, C. J.; Webb, D. F.; DeForest, C. E.; Davies, J. A.; Howard, T. A.; de Koning, C. A.; Gopalswamy, N.; Davila, J. M.; Tappin, J.; Jackson, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have been shown to be the major driver of the non-recurrent space weather events and geomagnetic storms. The utility of continuously monitoring such events has been very effectively demonstrated by the LASCO experiment on the SOHO mission. However SOHO is aging, having been launched 20 years ago on Dec 2, 1995. The STEREO mission, in which two spacecraft in orbits about the sun are drifting away from earth, has shown the utility of multiple viewpoints off the sun-earth line. Up to now the monitoring of CMES has been performed by scientific instruments such as LASCO and SECCHI with capabilities beyond those required to record the parameters that are needed to forecast the impact at earth. However, there is great interest within the US NOAA and the UK Met Office to launch operational coronagraphs to L1 and L5. An ad-hoc group was formed to define the requirements of the L5 coronagraph. In this paper we present some requirements that must be met by operational coronagraphs. The Office of Naval Research is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Lunar Human Research Requirements (LHRR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denkins, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    Biomedical research will be conducted during transit and on the surface of the Moon to prepare for extended stays on the Moon and to prepare for the exploration of Mars. The objective of the Human Research Program (HRP) is to preserve the health and enhance performance of astronaut explorers. Specific objectives of the HRP include developing the knowledge, capabilities, and necessary countermeasures and technologies in support of human space exploration; focusing on mitigating the highest risks to crew health and performance; and defining and improving human spaceflight medical, environmental, behavioral, and human factors standards. This document contains a detailed description of the resource accommodations, interfaces, and environments to be provided by the Constellation Program (CxP) to support the HRP research in transit and on the lunar surface. Covered, specifically, are the requirements for mass and volume transport; crew availability; ground operations, baseline data collection, and payload processing; power, and data. Volumes and mass are given for transport of conditioned samples only. They do not account for the engineering solution that the Constellation Program will implement (refrigerator/freezer volume/mass). This document does not account for requirements on the Orion vehicle for transportation to and from the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS Program has supplied requirements for this mission.

  6. Optimizing Requirements Decisions with KEYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalali, Omid; Menzies, Tim; Feather, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Recent work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has allowed for external access to five of JPL's real-world requirements models, anonymized to conceal proprietary information, but retaining their computational nature. Experimentation with these models, reported herein, demonstrates a dramatic speedup in the computations performed on them. These models have a well defined goal: select mitigations that retire risks which, in turn, increases the number of attainable requirements. Such a non-linear optimization is a well-studied problem. However identification of not only (a) the optimal solution(s) but also (b) the key factors leading to them is less well studied. Our technique, called KEYS, shows a rapid way of simultaneously identifying the solutions and their key factors. KEYS improves on prior work by several orders of magnitude. Prior experiments with simulated annealing or treatment learning took tens of minutes to hours to terminate. KEYS runs much faster than that; e.g for one model, KEYS ran 13,000 times faster than treatment learning (40 minutes versus 0.18 seconds). Processing these JPL models is a non-linear optimization problem: the fewest mitigations must be selected while achieving the most requirements. Non-linear optimization is a well studied problem. With this paper, we challenge other members of the PROMISE community to improve on our results with other techniques.

  7. Optimizing Requirements Decisions with KEYS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalali, Omid; Menzies, Tim; Feather, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Recent work with NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has allowed for external access to five of JPL's real-world requirements models, anonymized to conceal proprietary information, but retaining their computational nature. Experimentation with these models, reported herein, demonstrates a dramatic speedup in the computations performed on them. These models have a well defined goal: select mitigations that retire risks which, in turn, increases the number of attainable requirements. Such a non-linear optimization is a well-studied problem. However identification of not only (a) the optimal solution(s) but also (b) the key factors leading to them is less well studied. Our technique, called KEYS, shows a rapid way of simultaneously identifying the solutions and their key factors. KEYS improves on prior work by several orders of magnitude. Prior experiments with simulated annealing or treatment learning took tens of minutes to hours to terminate. KEYS runs much faster than that; e.g for one model, KEYS ran 13,000 times faster than treatment learning (40 minutes versus 0.18 seconds). Processing these JPL models is a non-linear optimization problem: the fewest mitigations must be selected while achieving the most requirements. Non-linear optimization is a well studied problem. With this paper, we challenge other members of the PROMISE community to improve on our results with other techniques.

  8. Storage requirements for Georgia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Robert F.

    1983-01-01

    The suitability of a stream as a source of water supply or for waste disposal may be severely limited by low flow during certain periods. A water user may be forced to provide storage facilities to supplement the natural flow if the low flow is insufficient for his needs. This report provides data for evaluating the feasibility of augmenting low streamflow by means of storage facilities. It contains tabular data on storage requirements for draft rates that are as much as 60 percent of the mean annual flow at 99 continuous-record gaging stations, and draft-storage diagrams for estimating storage requirements at many additional sites. Through analyses of streamflow data, the State was divided into four regions. Draft-storage diagrams for each region provide a means of estimating storage requirements for sites on streams where data are scant, provided the drainage area, mean annual flow, and the 7-day, 10-year low flow are known or can be estimated. These data are tabulated for the 99 gaging stations used in the analyses and for 102 partial-record sites where only base-flow measurements have been made. The draft-storage diagrams are useful not only for estimating in-channel storage required for low-flow augmentation, but also can be used for estimating the volume of off-channel storage required to retain wastewater during low-flow periods for later release. In addition, these relationships can be helpful in estimating the volume of wastewater to be disposed of by spraying on land, provided that the water disposed of in this manner is only that for which streamflow dilution water is not currently available. Mean annual flow can be determined for any stream within the State by using the runoff map in this report. Low-flow indices can be estimated by several methods, including correlation of base-flow measurements with concurrent flow at nearby continuous-record gaging stations where low-flow indices have been determined.

  9. Catalog of Approved Requirements Documents (CARDS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    available (e.g. 1 limitations or special markings in all capitals (e.g. Jan 88). Must cite at least the year. NOFORN, REL, ITAR ). Block 3. Tyoe of Reoort and...Materiel Requirements (QMR), Small Development Requirements ( SDR ), Training Device Requirements (TDR), Commercial Training Device Requirements (CTDR...documents, Qualitative Materiel Requirements (QMR), Small Development Requirements ( SDR ), Training Device Requirements (TDR), Commercial Training

  10. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Jeremy C.; Smith, Zachary A.; Hsu, Wellington K.; Fehlings, Michael G.; Hart, Robert A.; Hilibrand, Alan S.; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra’Kerry K.; Tannoury, Chadi A.; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E.; Currier, Bradford L.; De Giacomo, Anthony F.; Fogelson, Jeremy L.; Jobse, Bruce C.; Massicotte, Eric M.; Riew, K. Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Study Design: A multicenter, retrospective case series. Objective: In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. Methods: A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. Results: A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). Conclusions: This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication. PMID:28451491

  11. Requirements on high resolution detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, A.

    1997-02-01

    For a number of microtomography applications X-ray detectors with a spatial resolution of 1 {mu}m are required. This high spatial resolution will influence and degrade other parameters of secondary importance like detective quantum efficiency (DQE), dynamic range, linearity and frame rate. This note summarizes the most important arguments, for and against those detector systems which could be considered. This article discusses the mutual dependencies between the various figures which characterize a detector, and tries to give some ideas on how to proceed in order to improve present technology.

  12. EXPRESS Pallet Payload Interface Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the EXPRESS Pallet Space Station payload interface requirements is shown. The topics include: 1) External Payload Sites; 2) EXPRESS Pallet with Six Payload Envelopes; 3) EXPRESS Pallet in Payload Bay Representative Layout; 4) EXPRESS Pallet Installation SSRMS positions pallet for PAS mating on S3 truss; 5) EXPRESS Pallet Major Components; 6) EXPRESS Pallet Adapter; 7) EXPRESS Pallet Center Location Payload Envelope; 8) Envelope Restriction for EXPRESS Pallet Corner Payload Locations; 9) EXPRESS Pallet-PAS Truss Configuration; and 10) EXPRESS Pallet Payload Services and Specifications.

  13. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiger, Donald R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents data that suggests some criteria for evaluating growth chamber and greenhouse lighting. A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing, and duration. Effective lighting should produce plants that perform according to the goals of the project. For example, for physiological studies the plants probably should exhibit morphology and physiology similar to that found in field-grown plants. For other projects the criteria will obviously be set according to the reason for raising the plants.

  14. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  15. USMC Ground Ammunition Requirements Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-18

    of documents that met one or more of the following criteria:  shape , influence or define the munitions requirements process both as conducted at...Base 100% Repair (Δ%) 0% Repair (Δ%) 5.56mm Ball M855 A059 11,121,543 44,254,244 (298%) 9,586,589 (-14%) 60mm HE M734 B64 2 33,938 72,724 (114...Expenditures (based on Friendly : Enemy loss ratio) Munition DODIC 1:1 1:2 1:3 1:4 No Friendly Losses 5.56mm Ball M855 A059 11,599,696 11,050,895

  16. Scintillator requirements for medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Moses, William W.

    1999-09-01

    Scintillating materials are used in a variety of medical imaging devices. This paper presents a description of four medical imaging modalities that make extensive use of scintillators: planar x-ray imaging, x-ray computed tomography (x-ray CT), SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) and PET (positron emission tomography). The discussion concentrates on a description of the underlying physical principles by which the four modalities operate. The scintillator requirements for these systems are enumerated and the compromises that are made in order to maximize imaging performance utilizing existing scintillating materials are discussed, as is the potential for improving imaging performance by improving scintillator properties.

  17. Toughness requirements for pipeline integrity

    SciTech Connect

    Denys, R.M.

    1995-12-31

    Experimental results of large scale (curved wide plate) tests on thin wall pipelines (thickness < 12.7 mm) have been compared with small scale (Charpy V notch impact and CTOD) test results. The result of the comparisons show that (a) the Charpy V notch impact test can be used to predict plastic collapse by pipe metal yielding of pipelines containing surface breaking root cracks and (b) the CTOD test should not be used as a basis for designing thin wall pipelines against brittle fracture. The assessment has further demonstrated that the effect of weld metal yield strength on the required minimum CVN or CTOD is an important factor.

  18. Technology Requirements for Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Sara; Knoblock, Craig A.; Lannom, Larry

    2002-01-01

    This report provides the results of a panel study conducted into the technology requirements for information management in support of application domains of particular government interest, including digital libraries, mission operations, and scientific research. The panel concluded that it was desirable to have a coordinated program of R&D that pursues a science of information management focused on an environment typified by applications of government interest - highly distributed with very large amounts of data and a high degree of heterogeneity of sources, data, and users.

  19. Profitable capitation requires accurate costing.

    PubMed

    West, D A; Hicks, L L; Balas, E A; West, T D

    1996-01-01

    In the name of costing accuracy, nurses are asked to track inventory use on per treatment basis when more significant costs, such as general overhead and nursing salaries, are usually allocated to patients or treatments on an average cost basis. Accurate treatment costing and financial viability require analysis of all resources actually consumed in treatment delivery, including nursing services and inventory. More precise costing information enables more profitable decisions as is demonstrated by comparing the ratio-of-cost-to-treatment method (aggregate costing) with alternative activity-based costing methods (ABC). Nurses must participate in this costing process to assure that capitation bids are based upon accurate costs rather than simple averages.

  20. PSD Requirements for Reactivated Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Metabolic requirements for fetal growth.

    PubMed

    Milley, J R; Simmons, M A

    1979-09-01

    Table 1 outlines a metabolic balance sheet for the sheep fetus. It is clear that maternal substrate concentrations as well as placental function are important in assuring the provision of adequate substrate to meet fetal metabolic and growth requirements. It is intriguing that the fetus appears to use substrates not usually regarded as important in extrauterine diets (lactate) and to use substrates for catabolic purposes normally thought to be primarily anabolic substrates (amino acids). This information emphasizes the hazards of extrapolating metabolic and nutritional patterns seen in extrauterine life in reaching conclusions concerning the fetus. It likewise emphasizes the importance of ongoing studies in maternal and fetal nutrition and metabolism.

  2. Technology Requirements for Information Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Sara; Knoblock, Craig A.; Lannom, Larry

    2002-01-01

    This report provides the results of a panel study conducted into the technology requirements for information management in support of application domains of particular government interest, including digital libraries, mission operations, and scientific research. The panel concluded that it was desirable to have a coordinated program of R&D that pursues a science of information management focused on an environment typified by applications of government interest - highly distributed with very large amounts of data and a high degree of heterogeneity of sources, data, and users.

  3. Technological requirements for terraforming Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrin, Robert M.; McKay, Christopher P.

    1993-06-01

    A mathematical model of the Martian CO2 environment is presently used to generate an analysis exploring and clarifying the prospects for the use of positive feedbacks to accelerate planetary engineering efforts. The model assumes that enough CO2 is present in the Martian regolith and south pole to generate a 300-600 mb atmosphere; when released by heating via orbiting mirrors, the CO2's greenhouse effect will function as a positive feedback supporting further warming. The requirements for Mars terraforming will in this way be reduced by a factor of 2 relative to previous estimates. The nuclear power-based production of the Al for the mirrors is discussed.

  4. Shielding requirements in helical tomotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baechler, S.; Bochud, F. O.; Verellen, D.; Moeckli, R.

    2007-08-01

    Helical tomotherapy is a relatively new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for which room shielding has to be reassessed for the following reasons. The beam-on-time needed to deliver a given target dose is increased and leads to a weekly workload of typically one order of magnitude higher than that for conventional radiation therapy. The special configuration of tomotherapy units does not allow the use of standard shielding calculation methods. A conventional linear accelerator must be shielded for primary, leakage and scatter photon radiations. For tomotherapy, primary radiation is no longer the main shielding issue since a beam stop is mounted on the gantry directly opposite the source. On the other hand, due to the longer irradiation time, the accelerator head leakage becomes a major concern. An analytical model based on geometric considerations has been developed to determine leakage radiation levels throughout the room for continuous gantry rotation. Compared to leakage radiation, scatter radiation is a minor contribution. Since tomotherapy units operate at a nominal energy of 6 MV, neutron production is negligible. This work proposes a synthetic and conservative model for calculating shielding requirements for the Hi-Art II TomoTherapy unit. Finally, the required concrete shielding thickness is given for different positions of interest.

  5. Shielding requirements in helical tomotherapy.

    PubMed

    Baechler, S; Bochud, F O; Verellen, D; Moeckli, R

    2007-08-21

    Helical tomotherapy is a relatively new intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for which room shielding has to be reassessed for the following reasons. The beam-on-time needed to deliver a given target dose is increased and leads to a weekly workload of typically one order of magnitude higher than that for conventional radiation therapy. The special configuration of tomotherapy units does not allow the use of standard shielding calculation methods. A conventional linear accelerator must be shielded for primary, leakage and scatter photon radiations. For tomotherapy, primary radiation is no longer the main shielding issue since a beam stop is mounted on the gantry directly opposite the source. On the other hand, due to the longer irradiation time, the accelerator head leakage becomes a major concern. An analytical model based on geometric considerations has been developed to determine leakage radiation levels throughout the room for continuous gantry rotation. Compared to leakage radiation, scatter radiation is a minor contribution. Since tomotherapy units operate at a nominal energy of 6 MV, neutron production is negligible. This work proposes a synthetic and conservative model for calculating shielding requirements for the Hi-Art II TomoTherapy unit. Finally, the required concrete shielding thickness is given for different positions of interest.

  6. Transgender Sterilisation Requirements in Europe.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The possibility of individuals procreating post-transition has long stalked debates on transgender rights. In 1972, Sweden became the first European jurisdiction to formally acknowledge preferred gender. Under the original Swedish law, applicants for gender recognition were explicitly required to prove an incapacity to reproduce-either through natural infertility or through a positive act of sterilisation. Across the Council of Europe, 20 countries continue to enforce a sterilisation requirement. When considering reforms to their current gender recognition rules as recently as 2015, the Polish executive and the Finnish legislature both rejected proposals to remove mandatory infertility provisions. This article critiques the rationales for transgender sterilisation in Europe. It places transgender reproduction, and non-traditional procreation, in the wider context of European equality and family law. Adopting a highly inter-disciplinary framework, the article explores legal, social, medical, and moral arguments in favour of sterilisation, and exposes the weak intellectual and evidential basis for the current national laws. The article ultimately proposes a new departure for Europe's attitude towards transgender parenting, and argues that sterilisation should not be a pre-condition for legal recognition. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press; all rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Summary of AXAF calibration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellogg, E.

    1993-01-01

    The following summarizes requirements on the High Resolution Mirror Assembly (HRMA) and HRMA/SI calibration. The lists of calibration measurements assume that the HRMA meets the CTT requirement that the XRCF test environment shall have not more than a 10 percent effect on the encircled energy in 1 arcsec and that it can be calibrated to 1 percent. This implies that the offloading scheme has been implemented in the HRMA. It should be remembered that there are additional calibrations needed for: aspect system; tracking; gyros; other parts of the PCAS; spacecraft timing and checks on timing accuracy for all SIs after integration in the spacecraft; ficucial lights and periscope; alignments; optical metrology data: lengths and diameters with errors on mirror elements and optical interferometer data on surface figure; and throughput and imaging stability test: an end-to-end test that can be used after the XRCF to verify that the x-ray throughput and imaging quality have not been degraded. The tables presented give a summary of the integration times for HRMA and HRMA/SI calibration.

  8. Flight Guidance System Requirements Specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven P.; Tribble, Alan C.; Carlson, Timothy M.; Danielson, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes a requirements specification written in the RSML-e language for the mode logic of a Flight Guidance System of a typical regional jet aircraft. This model was created as one of the first steps in a five-year project sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center, Rockwell Collins Inc., and the Critical Systems Research Group of the University of Minnesota to develop new methods and tools to improve the safety of avionics designs. This model will be used to demonstrate the application of a variety of methods and techniques, including safety analysis of system and subsystem requirements, verification of key properties using theorem provers and model checkers, identification of potential sources mode confusion in system designs, partitioning of applications based on the criticality of system hazards, and autogeneration of avionics quality code. While this model is representative of the mode logic of a typical regional jet aircraft, it does not describe an actual or planned product. Several aspects of a full Flight Guidance System, such as recovery from failed sensors, have been omitted, and no claims are made regarding the accuracy or completeness of this specification.

  9. Integrated care requires integrated supervision

    PubMed Central

    Ketelaars, Corry A.J

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Given recent developments in integrated care, it is becoming increasingly important for the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate to direct its supervision in a way that may help speed up the implementation of integrated care. Description of care practice Since the implementation of integrated care for chronic patients is facing obstacles, alternative methods are required to ensure that the implementation process does not run into any delays. By applying a risk-based approach to integrated care providers, the Inspectorate can analyse the care providers' performance by means of quality indicators and rank them. In order to be effective, appropriated supervision arrangements will be applied to the care providers of integrated care. Discussion With a ranking model transparency will be improved and this may encourage integrated care providers to strive for greater quality due to the competition inherent in the system. Supervision based on advice and encouragement might be helpful in the implementation of integrated care. Conclusion Integrated care also requires integrated supervision, which means the Inspectorate may have to reconsider its working methods and the composition of its inspection teams. PMID:21637707

  10. Tokamak and RFP ignition requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    A plasma model is applied to calculate numerically transport- confinement (n{tau}{sub E}) requirements and steady-state operation tokamak. The CIT tokamak and RFP ignition conditions are examined. Physics differences between RFP and tokamaks, and their consequences for a DT ignition machine, are discussed. The ignition RFP, compared to a tokamak, has many physics advantages, including ohmic heating to ignition (no need for auxiliary heating systems), higher beta, low ignition current, less sensitivity of ignition requirements to impurity effects, no hard disruptions (associated with beta or density limits), and successful operation with high radiation fractions (f{sub RAD} {approximately} 0.95). These physics advantages, coupled with important engineering advantages associated with lower external magnetic fields, larger aspect ratios, and smaller plasma cross sections translate into significant cost reductions for both ignition and power reactor. The primary drawback of the RFP is the uncertainty that the present confinement scaling will extrapolate to reactor regimes. The 4-MA ZTH was expected to extend the n{tau}{sub E} transport scaling data three order of magnitude above ZT-40M results, and if the present scaling held, to achieve a DT-equivalent scientific energy breakeven, Q=1. A basecase RFP ignition point is identified with a plasma current of 8.1 MA and no auxiliary heating. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Quality requirements for EHR archetypes.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Dipak; Tapuria, Archana; Austin, Tony; De Moor, Georges

    2012-01-01

    The realisation of semantic interoperability, in which any EHR data may be communicated between heterogeneous systems and fully understood by computers as well as people on receipt, is a challenging goal. Despite the use of standardised generic models for the EHR and standard terminology systems, too much optionality and variability exists in how particular clinical entries may be represented. Clinical archetypes provide a means of defining how generic models should be shaped and bound to terminology for specific kinds of clinical data. However, these will only contribute to semantic interoperability if libraries of archetypes can be built up consistently. This requires the establishment of design principles, editorial and governance policies, and further research to develop ways for archetype authors to structure clinical data and to use terminology consistently. Drawing on several years of work within communities of practice developing archetypes and implementing systems from them, this paper presents quality requirements for the development of archetypes. Clinical engagement on a wide scale is also needed to help grow libraries of good quality archetypes that can be certified. Vendor and eHealth programme engagement is needed to validate such archetypes and achieve safe, meaningful exchange of EHR data between systems.

  12. 12 CFR 760.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 760.5 Section 760.5 Banks... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.5 Escrow requirement. If a credit union requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 760.3...

  13. 12 CFR 172.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 172.5 Section 172.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.5 Escrow requirement. If a Federal savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  14. 12 CFR 760.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 760.5 Section 760.5 Banks... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.5 Escrow requirement. If a credit union requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 760.3...

  15. 12 CFR 572.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 572.5 Section 572.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.5 Escrow requirement. If a savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  16. 12 CFR 172.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 172.5 Section 172.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.5 Escrow requirement. If a Federal savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  17. 12 CFR 572.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Escrow requirement. 572.5 Section 572.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.5 Escrow requirement. If a savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  18. 12 CFR 760.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 760.5 Section 760.5 Banks... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.5 Escrow requirement. If a credit union requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 760.3...

  19. 12 CFR 760.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 760.5 Section 760.5 Banks... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.5 Escrow requirement. If a credit union requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 760.3...

  20. 12 CFR 172.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 172.5 Section 172.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 172.5 Escrow requirement. If a Federal savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  1. 12 CFR 572.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 572.5 Section 572.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.5 Escrow requirement. If a savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  2. 12 CFR 760.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 760.5 Section 760.5 Banks... HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 760.5 Escrow requirement. If a credit union requires the escrow of taxes... shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under § 760.3...

  3. 12 CFR 572.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Escrow requirement. 572.5 Section 572.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.5 Escrow requirement. If a savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  4. 12 CFR 339.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 339.5 Section 339.5 Banks... IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of... bank shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  5. 12 CFR 572.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 572.5 Section 572.5 Banks... FLOOD HAZARDS § 572.5 Escrow requirement. If a savings association requires the escrow of taxes... association shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  6. 12 CFR 339.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 339.5 Section 339.5 Banks... IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of... bank shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  7. 12 CFR 339.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 339.5 Section 339.5 Banks... IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of... bank shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  8. 12 CFR 339.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 339.5 Section 339.5 Banks... IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of... bank shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  9. 12 CFR 339.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 339.5 Section 339.5 Banks... IN AREAS HAVING SPECIAL FLOOD HAZARDS § 339.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of... bank shall also require the escrow of all premiums and fees for any flood insurance required under...

  10. 32 CFR 636.9 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Registration requirement. 636.9 Section 636.9... § 636.9 Registration requirement. In addition to the requirements of § 634.20 of this subchapter: (a... insurance will be required at the time of registration. (e) Vehicle safety inspections are not required...

  11. 32 CFR 636.9 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Registration requirement. 636.9 Section 636.9... § 636.9 Registration requirement. In addition to the requirements of § 634.20 of this subchapter: (a... insurance will be required at the time of registration. (e) Vehicle safety inspections are not required...

  12. 32 CFR 636.9 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Registration requirement. 636.9 Section 636.9... § 636.9 Registration requirement. In addition to the requirements of § 634.20 of this subchapter: (a... insurance will be required at the time of registration. (e) Vehicle safety inspections are not required...

  13. 32 CFR 636.9 - Registration requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Registration requirement. 636.9 Section 636.9... § 636.9 Registration requirement. In addition to the requirements of § 634.20 of this subchapter: (a... insurance will be required at the time of registration. (e) Vehicle safety inspections are not required...

  14. 32 CFR 34.31 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Requirements. 34.31 Section 34.31 National... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 34.31 Requirements. The following requirements pertain to recipients' procurements...

  15. 48 CFR 6.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements. 6.303-1... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.303-1 Requirements. (a) A contracting officer... required by 6.304. (b) Technical and requirements personnel are responsible for providing and certifying as...

  16. 32 CFR 34.31 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Requirements. 34.31 Section 34.31 National... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 34.31 Requirements. The following requirements pertain to recipients' procurements...

  17. 32 CFR 34.31 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements. 34.31 Section 34.31 National... ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH FOR-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-award Requirements Procurement Standards § 34.31 Requirements. The following requirements pertain to recipients' procurements...

  18. Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Requirements Specialty Engineering Subsystem Requirements Stakeholder ( Business ) Requirements Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive...Requirements Software Requirements Hardware Requirements Stakeholder ( Business ) Requirements Engineering Safety-Related Requirements for Software-Intensive

  19. Requirements and Markets for Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    The semiconductor market grew 2010 by 70Bio. against 2009, more than in the previous 9 years taken together, and the semiconductor industry launched the biggest investment program in its history with 100Bio. over a 2-year period. This was the overture to a decade with great potential and great challenges. We look at the market segments and the required electronic functions, and we highlight four product and service areas: Approaching 6 Billion mobile-phone subscribers Access to education for any child One Carebot (personal robot) per family Efficient and safe personal mobility. At the level of over four billion active mobile phones 2010, it is clear that mobile electronic companions have become the drivers of nanoelectronic innovations with growth only limited by the creation and support of new, attractive features and services. Energy, bandwidth, size and weight requirements of these consumer products provide the largest pressure for System-on-Chip (SoC) architectures. Other exemplary new products are selected for their significance, some for their lengthy path into the market. Health care is such an example: The non-invasive glucose sensor and the portable ECG recorder" with automatic, neuroprocessor-driven event detection in the size of a quarter would serve hundreds of millions of people. Nanoelectronics for self-guided health is an area of public policy in view of the cost of "a posteriori" medical care. Access to information and education for any child/student will be provided by 1 tablets where service contracts and the spin-offs from surfing and cloud-computing will generate the revenue. Personal robots, coined by the ageing Japanese nation as the key product after the PC and ridiculed by others, will arrive as carebots for education, entertainment, rehabilitation, and home-service, accepted as a large-scale need by 2020 in most developed countries including China. Accident prevention systems on rail and road already would make millions of units per year

  20. 15 CFR 801.9 - Reports required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., portfolio management, investment advice, and all other financial investment activities); insurance carriers... requirements and efficient administration of the survey by eliminating unnecessary followup contact. (C... requirement is necessary to ensure compliance with the reporting requirements and efficient administration of...

  1. 32 CFR 56.6 - Information requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... requirement has been assigned Report Control Symbol DD-M(SA)1596. (b) Each DoD Component shall submit a... requirement has been assigned Report Control Symbol DD-M(AR)1597. (c) The recordkeeping requirements...

  2. Converging on the optimal attainment of requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.

    2002-01-01

    Planning for the optimal attainment of requirements is an important early lifecycle activity. However, such planning is difficult when dealing with competing requirements, limited resources, and the incompleteness of information available at requirements time.

  3. 14 CFR 135.435 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.435 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and required inspections performed by a certificated repair station that..., preventive maintenance, or alterations, and each person performing required inspections must hold...

  4. 14 CFR 135.435 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.435 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and required inspections performed by a certificated repair station that..., preventive maintenance, or alterations, and each person performing required inspections must hold...

  5. 14 CFR 135.435 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 135.435 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and required inspections performed by a certificated repair station that..., preventive maintenance, or alterations, and each person performing required inspections must hold...

  6. 40 CFR 57.701 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the requirements within the NSO as expeditiously as practicable but in no case later than the... extent to which any required reports or studies have already been completed. Requirements for smelters...

  7. 40 CFR 57.701 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the requirements within the NSO as expeditiously as practicable but in no case later than the... extent to which any required reports or studies have already been completed. Requirements for smelters...

  8. NASA Orbital Debris Requirements and Best Practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Limitation of orbital debris accumulation is an international and national concern, reflectedin NASA debris limitation requirements. These requirements will be reviewed, along with some practices that can be employed to achieve the requirements.

  9. Meeting US and European supplier control requirements.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Medical device manufacturers operating under European quality system requirements are sometimes surprised to learn that their supplier control procedures do not fully meet United States (US) requirements. This article discusses important differences between US and European requirements for controlling suppliers.

  10. 7 CFR 4284.18 - Audit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Grant Programs § 4284.18 Audit requirements. Grantees must comply with the audit requirements of 7 CFR part 3052. The audit requirements apply to the years in which grant funds are received and years in...

  11. 46 CFR 170.170 - Calculations required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR ALL INSPECTED VESSELS Weather Criteria § 170.170 Calculations required. (a) Each vessel must... weather deck or abnormal sheer. (c) When doing the calculations required by paragraph (a) of this section...

  12. NUTRITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR HYDROGENOMONAS EUTROPHA

    PubMed Central

    Repaske, Roy

    1962-01-01

    Repaske, Roy (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, Md.). Nutritional requirements for Hydrogenomonas eutropha. J. Bacteriol. 83: 418–422. 1962.—A simple apparatus for the autotrophic cultivation of Hydrogenomonas eutropha in 100-ml shake cultures is described. Nitrogen, in the form of ammonium, nitrate, or urea, was used for growth; nitrite could not be utilized. Optimal growth occurred at pH 6.4 to 6.8 at 30 C. H. eutropha grew best in an atmosphere containing 15 to 25% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide. Below these concentrations each of the gases was limiting. Growth was shown to be dependent on iron, and the rate of growth was a function of iron concentration and its state of oxidation. PMID:14491520

  13. Moral enhancement requires multiple virtues.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the debates around the concept of moral enhancement have focused on whether the improvement of a single trait, such as empathy or intelligence, would be a good in general, or in all circumstances. All virtue theories, however, both secular and religious, have articulated multiple virtues that temper and inform one another in the development of a mature moral character. The project of moral enhancement requires a reengagement with virtue ethics and contemporary moral psychology to develop an empirically grounded model of the virtues and a fuller model of character development. Each of these virtues may be manipulable with electronic, psychopharmaceutical, and genetic interventions. A set of interdependent virtues is proposed, along with some of the research pointing to ways such virtues could be enhanced.

  14. Supersymmetric unification requires extra dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Mu-Chun; Fallbacher, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael

    2013-05-23

    We discuss settings that predict precision gauge unification in the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We show that, if one requires anomaly freedom and fermion masses while demanding that unification is not an accident, only R symmetries can forbid the supersymmetric Higgs mass term {mu}. We then review the proof that R symmetries are not available in conventional grand unified theories (GUTs) and argue that this prevents natural solutions to the doublet-triplet splitting problem in four dimensions. On the other hand, higher-dimensional GUTs do not suffer from this problem. We briefly comment on an explicit string-derived model in which the {mu} and dimension five proton decay problems are solved by an order four discrete R symmetry, and comment on the higher-dimensional origin of this symmetry.

  15. Chloride Requirement for Monoamine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, Louis J

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the Cl− requirement for dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine (DA, 5-HT, and NE) transport and induced current via the transporters for these transmitters, DAT, SERT, and NET. Indirect evidence exists for the passage of Cl− ions through monoamine transporters; however, direct evidence is sparse. An unanswered question is why in some preparations, notably native neurons, it appears that Cl− ions carry the current through DAT, whereas in heterologous expression systems Na+ ions carry the current often referred to as the uncoupled current. It is suggested that different functional states in monoamine transporters represent conformational states that carry dominantly Cl− or Na+. Structures of monoamine transporters contribute enormously to structure-function relationships; however, thus far no structural features support the functionally relevant ionic currents that are known to exist in monoamine transporters. PMID:26794730

  16. The social value requirement reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Wertheimer, Alan

    2015-06-01

    It is widely assumed that it is ethical to conduct research with human subjects only if the research has social value. There are two standard arguments for this view. The allocation argument claims that public funds should not be devoted to research that lacks social value. The exploitation avoidance argument claims that subjects are exploited if research has no social value. The primary purpose of this article is to argue that these arguments do not succeed. The allocation argument has little relevance to commercial research. Social value is not necessary to avoid exploitation if subjects benefit from participation. Although the standard arguments for a social value requirement do not succeed, that view might be justified in a different way. It might be justified by appeal to the importance of social trust or the integrity of physician investigators. It is possible but doubtful that these arguments succeed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Power requirements for current drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boozer, Allen H.

    1988-03-01

    General formulas for the efficiency of current drive in toroidal plasmas are derived using entropy arguments. The highest possible efficiency for current drive in which a high-energy electron tail is formed is shown to be p=Erj, with p and j the power and current densities and Er≊0.09n14 V/m with n14 the electron density in units of 1014/cm.3 The electric field required to maintain the current in a runaway discharge is also shown to equal Er. If the plasma current is carried by near-Maxwellian electrons, waves that have a low phase velocity, compared to the energy of the electrons with which they interact, can drive a current with Ohmic efficiency, p=ηj2. Such waves were first discussed in the context of current drive by Fisch [Rev. Mod. Phys. 59, 175 (1987)].

  18. Symmetric States Requiring System Asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Takashi; Motter, Adilson E.

    2016-09-01

    Spontaneous synchronization has long served as a paradigm for behavioral uniformity that can emerge from interactions in complex systems. When the interacting entities are identical and their coupling patterns are also identical, the complete synchronization of the entire network is the state inheriting the system symmetry. As in other systems subject to symmetry breaking, such symmetric states are not always stable. Here, we report on the discovery of the converse of symmetry breaking—the scenario in which complete synchronization is not stable for identically coupled identical oscillators but becomes stable when, and only when, the oscillator parameters are judiciously tuned to nonidentical values, thereby breaking the system symmetry to preserve the state symmetry. Aside from demonstrating that diversity can facilitate and even be required for uniformity and consensus, this suggests a mechanism for convergent forms of pattern formation in which initially asymmetric patterns evolve into symmetric ones.

  19. Programmable data communications controller requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design requirements for a Programmable Data Communications Controller (PDCC) that reduces the difficulties in attaching data terminal equipment to a computer are presented. The PDCC is an interface between the computer I/O channel and the bit serial communication lines. Each communication line is supported by a communication port that handles all line control functions and performs most terminal control functions. The port is fabricated on a printed circuit board that plugs into a card chassis, mating with a connector that is joined to all other card stations by a data bus. Ports are individually programmable; each includes a microprocessor, a programmable read-only memory for instruction storage, and a random access memory for data storage.

  20. Nutrition Requirements of Pleurotus flabellatus

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, H. C.; Bano, Zakia

    1970-01-01

    The mycelium of Pleurotus flabellatus was grown in a synthetic medium to obtain accurate information on its nutritional requirements. Among various carbon sources tried, the organism was found to utilize hexose sugars more readily than other sugars. Ammonium citrate was found to be the best source of nitrogen. The yield of dry matter increased as the concentration of nitrogen was increased up to a certain stage beyond which there was no increase in the yield, but the crude protein content of the mycelium increased. Detailed studies on the effect of varying the concentrations of other major nutrients, i.e., potassium, phosphorus, calcium, and magnesium, on the growth and crude protein content of the mycelium were also carried out. Optimal pH range was fairly broad, lying between 4.5 to 7.5. PMID:16349874

  1. SLI Thermal Imaging Requirements Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, E. H.; Woody, L. M.; Wirth, S. M.; Smith, D. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Landsat program has provided a continuous record of global terrestrial imagery since 1972. This data record is an invaluable resource for determining long term trends and monitoring rates of change in land usage, forest health, water quality, and glacier retreat. In 2014, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), supported by the United States Geological Survey (USGS), initiated the sustainable land imaging (SLI) architecture study to develop an affordable system design for acquiring future terrestrial imagery compatible with the existing Landsat data record. The principal objective has been to leverage recent advances in focal plane technologies to enable smaller, lower-cost instruments and launch options. We present an evaluation of the trade space implied by the SLI thermal imaging requirements as well as the performance potential of enabling technologies. Multiple approaches, each incorporating measured performance data for state-of-the-art detectors, are investigated to simultaneously optimize instrument mass and volume, spatial response, radiometric sensitivity, and radiometric uncertainty.

  2. Germanium requirements for national defense

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Donald A.; Culver-Hopper, Julia

    1991-07-01

    Germanium, one of the most important of the advanced electronic materials, is used in semiconductor devices, fiber optic systems, and infrared sensors for ships, aircraft, missiles, tanks and anti-tank units. Because of its importance in these applications, germanium was added to the National Defense Stockpile in the early 1980s. This study estimates the appropriate amount of germanium to be held in the stockpile, given DoD's current assumptions for stockpile planning. Because of the dearth of publicly available data on germanium supplies and demands, the analysts based these estimates on data gathered from Service Program Offices and industry and company officials throughout North America. The study was conducted in support of DoD's ongoing effort to review and update the requirements for strategic and critical materials.

  3. Generic linear microcircuit test requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanemura, Steve K.; Mitchell, Ronald R.

    1991-04-01

    The Generic Linear Microcircuit Test Requirements Program is outlined. The objective was to develop new series-4000 test specifications to standardize testing of linear devices. The drafts developed will replace the existing series-4000 methods in MIL-STD-883C. New series-4000 drafts for 11 device families were developed, which will cover the majority of the linear microcircuits used in military systems. The test methods specified in each draft referenced a variety of sources including M38510 slash sheets, industry standard procedures, literature, existing test methods in MIL-STD-883C, and newly developed methods. Completion of these drafts will provide more consistent testing of linear devices. All aspects of the program are reviewed.

  4. [Educational requirements of younger psychiatrists].

    PubMed

    Rask, P H; Nielsen, B; Lolk, A; Brødsgaard, M A; Hansen, P E; Knudsen, L; Krarup, G; Lien, K; Refshammer, C M

    1993-05-24

    In order to define the requirements junior medical staff in postgraduate psychiatric training would wish to make for future postgraduate training in adult psychiatry, a questionnaire with 66 questions was sent in June 1990 to postgraduate trainees at all departments of child psychiatry and adult psychiatry in the country. Response was anonymous. The article deals with the responses from 264 persons either intending to undergo specialist training in adult psychiatry or having already completed it. Sixty-four percent stated a need for better individual clinical guidance. The majority stated that eight hours every week should be earmarked for formal tuition and research (two hrs clinical tuition, two hrs theory, two hrs supervision in psychotherapy, and two hrs for research). On average, the trainees had used 4200 DKK of their own income and four free days on courses over the previous year. Twenty-four months was proposed as adequate for an introductory appointment. The majority held that appointments should be made on the basis of the traditional curriculum vitae (82%) and a personal interview (86%), while about 20% believed that written or oral references should also be a requirement. Sixty-nine percent believed that selection of applicants for teaching appointments should be made locally with central supervision. Twenty-six percent felt they had been passed over in appointment situations, and 68% claimed it was due to nepotism. Recommendations for modifications of the future postgraduate training according to the responses are proposed, and it is concluded that earmarked resources are necessary, if the intention in the educational reform now in progress is to be realized.

  5. 48 CFR 3003.1003 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3003.1003 Requirements. (a) Contractor requirements...

  6. 48 CFR 3003.1003 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3003.1003 Requirements. (a) Contractor requirements...

  7. 48 CFR 3003.1003 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) GENERAL IMPROPER BUSINESS PRACTICES AND PERSONAL CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Contractor Code of Business Ethics and Conduct 3003.1003 Requirements. (a) Contractor requirements...

  8. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  9. General lighting requirements for photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    A review of the general lighting requirements for photosynthesis reveals that four aspects of light are important: irradiance, quality, timing and duration. These properties of light affect photosynthesis by providing the energy that drives carbon assimilation as well as by exerting control over physiology, structure and morphology of plants. Irradiance, expressed as energy flux, W m{sup -2}, or photon irradiance, {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, determines the rate at which energy is being delivered to the photosynthetic reaction centers. Spectral quality, the wavelength composition of light, is important because photons differ in their probability of being absorbed by the light harvesting complex and hence their ability to drive carbon assimilation. Also the various light receptors for light-mediated regulation of plant form and physiology have characteristic absorption spectra and hence photons differ in their effectiveness for eliciting responses. Duration is important because both carbon assimilation and regulation are affected by the total energy or integrated irradiance delivered during a given period. Many processes associated with photosynthesis are time-dependent, increasing or decreasing with duration. Timing is important because the effectiveness of light in the regulation of plant processes varies with the phase of the diumal cycle as determined by the plant`s time-measuring mechanisms.

  10. Propulsion requirements for communications satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isley, W. C.; Duck, K. I.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of characteristics thrust is introduced herein as a means of classifying propulsion system tasks related particularly to geosynchronous communications spacecraft. Approximate analytical models are developed to permit estimation of characteristic thrust for injection error corrections, orbit angle re-location, north-south station keeping, east-west station keeping, spin axis precession control, attitude rate damping, and orbit raising applications. Performance assessment factors are then outlined in terms of characteristic power, characteristic weight, and characteristic volume envelope, which are related to the characteristic thrust. Finally, selected performance curves are shown for power as a function of spacecraft weight, including the influence of duty cycle on north-south station keeping, a 90 degree orbit angle re-location in 14 days, and finally comparison of orbit raising tasks from low and intermediate orbits to a final geosynchronous station. Power requirements range from less than 75 watts for north-south station keeping on small payloads up to greater than 15 KW for a 180 day orbit raising mission including a 28.5 degree plane change.

  11. Aviation Weather Information Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in aviation safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on aviation safety and is associated with 30% of all aviation accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current aviation weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for aviation weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of aviation weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.

  12. Requirements definition by numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickman, James J.; Kostas, Chris; Tsang, Kang T.

    1994-10-01

    We are investigating the issues involved in requirements definition for narcotics interdiction: how much of a particular signature is possible, how does this amount change for different conditions, and what is the temporal relationship in various scenarios. Our approach has been to simulate numerically the conditions that arise during vapor or particulate transport. The advantages of this approach are that (1) a broad range of scenarios can be rapidly and inexpensively analyzed by simulation, and (2) simulations can display quantities that are difficult or impossible to measure. The drawback of this approach is that simulations cannot include all of the phenomena present in a real measurement, and therefore the fidelity of the simulation results is always an issue. To address this limitation, we will ultimately combine the results of numerical simulations with measurements of physical parameters for inclusion in the simulation. In this paper, we discuss these issues and how they apply to the current problems in narcotics interdictions, especially cargo containers. We also show the results of 1D and 3D numerical simulations, and compare these results with analytical solutions. The results indicate that this approach is viable. We also present data from 3D simulations of vapor transport in a loaded cargo container and some of the issues present in this ongoing work.

  13. Defining reclaimed water potability requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janik, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Water used during previous space missions has been either carried or made aloft. Future human space endeavors will probably have to utilize some form of water reclamation and recycling. There is little applied experience in either the US or foreign space programs with this technology. Water reclamation and recycling constitutes an engineering challenge of the broadest nature and will require an intensive research and development effort if this technology is to mature in time for practical use on the proposed US spacestation. In order for this to happen, reclaimed/recycled water specification will need to be devised to guide engineering development. Perhaps the most strigent specifications will involve water to be consumed. NASA's present Potable Water Specifications are not applicable to reclaimed or recycled potable water. No specifications for reclaimed or recycled potable water presently exist either inside or outside NASA. NASA's past experience with potable water systems is reviewed, limitations of the present Potable Water Specifications are examined, present world expertise with potable water reclamation/recycling systems and system analogs is reviewed, and an approach to developing pertinent Reclaimed/Recycled Potable Water Specifications for spacecraft is presented.

  14. Propulsion requirements for communications satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isley, W. C.; Duck, K. I.

    1972-01-01

    The concept of characteristics thrust is introduced herein as a means of classifying propulsion system tasks related particularly to geosynchronous communications spacecraft. Approximate analytical models are developed to permit estimation of characteristic thrust for injection error corrections, orbit angle re-location, north-south station keeping, east-west station keeping, spin axis precession control, attitude rate damping, and orbit raising applications. Performance assessment factors are then outlined in terms of characteristic power, characteristic weight, and characteristic volume envelope, which are related to the characteristic thrust. Finally, selected performance curves are shown for power as a function of spacecraft weight, including the influence of duty cycle on north-south station keeping, a 90 degree orbit angle re-location in 14 days, and finally comparison of orbit raising tasks from low and intermediate orbits to a final geosynchronous station. Power requirements range from less than 75 watts for north-south station keeping on small payloads up to greater than 15 KW for a 180 day orbit raising mission including a 28.5 degree plane change.

  15. Kill operation requires thorough analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abel, L.W.

    1995-05-15

    Full control of a blowout well requires a properly designed post-capping kill operation because failures in regaining well control usually occur during the kill operation, not during capping. Capping (the installation of pressure control or diverter equipment on the wellhead) is generally very reliable in gaining control of a blowout well. The following techniques are some of the viable means of killing blowout wells once the capping assemblies are in place: direct shut in of the flow; bullheading; momentum kill; volumetric control for migration of fluids or lubrication after migration ceases; and dynamic kills (friction-based dynamic kills or mass flow rate kills) The objective of most post-capping operations is to stop the flow and put the well under hydrostatic control. The means of killing a blowout once capping assemblies are in place should be chosen with care to avoid problems such as cratering, equipment failure, and underground blowouts. The particular circumstances and well integrity will dictate which kill method will be the most viable. Each of these five methods are explained.

  16. Informational Requirements for Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, Patrick K.; Forder, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Transcription factors (TFs) regulate transcription by binding to specific sites in promoter regions. Information theory provides a useful mathematical framework to analyze the binding motifs associated with TFs but imposes several assumptions that limit their applicability to specific regulatory scenarios. Explicit simulations of the co-evolution of TFs and their binding motifs allow the study of the evolution of regulatory networks with a high degree of realism. In this work we analyze the impact of differential regulatory demands on the information content of TF-binding motifs by means of evolutionary simulations. We generalize a predictive index based on information theory, and we validate its applicability to regulatory scenarios in which the TF binds significantly to the genomic background. Our results show a logarithmic dependence of the evolved information content on the occupancy of target sites and indicate that TFs may actively exploit pseudo-sites to modulate their occupancy of target sites. In regulatory networks with differentially regulated targets, we observe that information content in TF-binding motifs is dictated primarily by the fraction of total probability mass that the TF assigns to its target sites, and we provide a predictive index to estimate the amount of information associated with arbitrarily complex regulatory systems. We observe that complex regulatory patterns can exert additional demands on evolved information content, but, given a total occupancy for target sites, we do not find conclusive evidence that this effect is because of the range of required binding affinities. PMID:24689750

  17. Space station propulsion requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  18. 7 CFR 4284.18 - Audit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Audit requirements. 4284.18 Section 4284.18... Grant Programs § 4284.18 Audit requirements. Grantees must comply with the audit requirements of 7 CFR part 3052. The audit requirements apply to the years in which grant funds are received and years in...

  19. 12 CFR 22.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 22.5 Section 22.5 Banks and... HAZARDS § 22.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of taxes, insurance premiums, fees, or..., increased, extended, or renewed on or after October 1, 1996, the bank shall also require the escrow of all...

  20. 12 CFR 22.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 22.5 Section 22.5 Banks and... HAZARDS § 22.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of taxes, insurance premiums, fees, or..., increased, extended, or renewed on or after October 1, 1996, the bank shall also require the escrow of all...

  1. 12 CFR 22.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 22.5 Section 22.5 Banks and... HAZARDS § 22.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of taxes, insurance premiums, fees, or..., increased, extended, or renewed on or after October 1, 1996, the bank shall also require the escrow of all...

  2. 12 CFR 22.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 22.5 Section 22.5 Banks and... HAZARDS § 22.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of taxes, insurance premiums, fees, or..., increased, extended, or renewed on or after October 1, 1996, the bank shall also require the escrow of all...

  3. 12 CFR 22.5 - Escrow requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Escrow requirement. 22.5 Section 22.5 Banks and... HAZARDS § 22.5 Escrow requirement. If a bank requires the escrow of taxes, insurance premiums, fees, or..., increased, extended, or renewed on or after October 1, 1996, the bank shall also require the escrow of all...

  4. 40 CFR 96.306 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.306 Standard requirements. (a) Permit requirements. (1) The CAIR designated representative of each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit and each CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit required to have a title V operating...

  5. 40 CFR 96.306 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.306 Standard requirements. (a) Permit requirements. (1) The CAIR designated representative of each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit and each CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit required to have a title V operating...

  6. 40 CFR 96.306 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.306 Standard requirements. (a) Permit requirements. (1) The CAIR designated representative of each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit and each CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit required to have a title V operating...

  7. 40 CFR 96.306 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.306 Standard requirements. (a) Permit requirements. (1) The CAIR designated representative of each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit and each CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit required to have a title V operating...

  8. 40 CFR 96.306 - Standard requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NOX Ozone Season Trading Program General Provisions § 96.306 Standard requirements. (a) Permit requirements. (1) The CAIR designated representative of each CAIR NOX Ozone Season source required to have a title V operating permit and each CAIR NOX Ozone Season unit required to have a title V operating...

  9. 46 CFR 11.711 - Tonnage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tonnage requirements. 11.711 Section 11.711 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.711 Tonnage requirements. (a) In order to...

  10. 46 CFR 11.711 - Tonnage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tonnage requirements. 11.711 Section 11.711 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.711 Tonnage requirements. (a) In order to...

  11. 46 CFR 11.711 - Tonnage requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tonnage requirements. 11.711 Section 11.711 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN REQUIREMENTS FOR OFFICER ENDORSEMENTS Professional Requirements for Pilots § 11.711 Tonnage requirements. (a) In order to...

  12. 45 CFR 162.1000 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General requirements. 162.1000 Section 162.1000 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Code Sets § 162.1000 General requirements. When conducting...

  13. 45 CFR 162.1000 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General requirements. 162.1000 Section 162.1000 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Code Sets § 162.1000 General requirements. When conducting...

  14. 45 CFR 162.1000 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General requirements. 162.1000 Section 162.1000 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Code Sets § 162.1000 General requirements. When conducting...

  15. 45 CFR 162.1000 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General requirements. 162.1000 Section 162.1000 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES ADMINISTRATIVE DATA STANDARDS AND RELATED REQUIREMENTS ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Code Sets § 162.1000 General requirements. When conducting...

  16. 48 CFR 806.570 - Planning requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Planning requirements. 806... AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 806.570 Planning requirements... planning that is required. (3) A description of how to integrate the Competition Plan into...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section 1710.121... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788....

  18. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.118. The coverage required by...

  19. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.118. The coverage required by...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section 1710.121... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788....

  1. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150... General Renewable Energy System and Energy Efficiency Improvement Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.118. The coverage required by...

  2. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section 1710.121... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788....

  3. 32 CFR 169a.12 - New requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false New requirements. 169a.12 Section 169a.12... ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.12 New requirements. (a) In cases where a new requirement for... not justified under these criteria, then the new requirement normally shall be performed by contract...

  4. 32 CFR 169a.12 - New requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New requirements. 169a.12 Section 169a.12... ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.12 New requirements. (a) In cases where a new requirement for... not justified under these criteria, then the new requirement normally shall be performed by contract...

  5. 32 CFR 169a.12 - New requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false New requirements. 169a.12 Section 169a.12... ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.12 New requirements. (a) In cases where a new requirement for... not justified under these criteria, then the new requirement normally shall be performed by contract...

  6. 32 CFR 169a.12 - New requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false New requirements. 169a.12 Section 169a.12... ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.12 New requirements. (a) In cases where a new requirement for... not justified under these criteria, then the new requirement normally shall be performed by contract...

  7. 32 CFR 169a.12 - New requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New requirements. 169a.12 Section 169a.12... ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Procedures § 169a.12 New requirements. (a) In cases where a new requirement for... not justified under these criteria, then the new requirement normally shall be performed by contract...

  8. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151...

  9. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project requirements. 511.11... Requirements § 511.11 Project requirements. (a) Rehabilitation. To receive assistance under this part, a project must require rehabilitation, measured by whether the project before the assisted rehabilitation...

  10. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project requirements. 511.11... Requirements § 511.11 Project requirements. (a) Rehabilitation. To receive assistance under this part, a project must require rehabilitation, measured by whether the project before the assisted rehabilitation...

  11. 7 CFR 4284.18 - Audit requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Audit requirements. 4284.18 Section 4284.18... Grant Programs § 4284.18 Audit requirements. Grantees must comply with the audit requirements of 7 CFR part 3052. The audit requirements apply to the years in which grant funds are received and years...

  12. 47 CFR 101.1325 - Construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction requirements. 101.1325 Section 101... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System Requirements § 101.1325 Construction requirements. (a) Incumbent and site-based licenses are subject to the construction requirements set forth in...

  13. 47 CFR 101.1325 - Construction requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction requirements. 101.1325 Section 101... FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System Requirements § 101.1325 Construction requirements. (a) Incumbent and site-based licenses are subject to the construction requirements set forth in...

  14. 24 CFR 1006.315 - Lease requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lease requirements. 1006.315... DEVELOPMENT NATIVE HAWAIIAN HOUSING BLOCK GRANT PROGRAM Program Requirements § 1006.315 Lease requirements... use leases that: (a) Do not contain unreasonable terms and conditions; (b) Require the DHHL, owner,...

  15. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151...

  16. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151...

  17. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151...

  18. 20 CFR 655.152 - Advertising requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Advertising requirements. 655.152 Section 655... Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.152 Advertising requirements. All advertising conducted to satisfy the required recruitment activities under § 655.151...

  19. 7 CFR 3565.255 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3565.255 Section 3565.255... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.255 Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the potential...

  20. 7 CFR 3565.255 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3565.255 Section 3565.255... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.255 Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the potential...

  1. 46 CFR 153.190 - Stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Stability requirements. 153.190 Section 153.190 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements § 153.190 Stability requirements. Each vessel must meet the applicable requirements in Subchapter...

  2. 46 CFR 153.190 - Stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Stability requirements. 153.190 Section 153.190 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements § 153.190 Stability requirements. Each vessel must meet the applicable requirements in Subchapter...

  3. 46 CFR 153.190 - Stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Stability requirements. 153.190 Section 153.190 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements § 153.190 Stability requirements. Each vessel must meet the applicable requirements in Subchapter...

  4. 46 CFR 153.190 - Stability requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Stability requirements. 153.190 Section 153.190 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING... Requirements § 153.190 Stability requirements. Each vessel must meet the applicable requirements in Subchapter...

  5. 7 CFR 3565.255 - Environmental requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental requirements. 3565.255 Section 3565.255... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Property Requirements § 3565.255 Environmental requirements. Under the National Environmental Policy Act, the Agency is required to assess the...

  6. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.113. The coverage required by this section must be... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150...

  7. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section 1710.121... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788....

  8. 7 CFR 4280.150 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 4280.150 Section 4280.150... Efficiency Improvements Program Section B. Guaranteed Loans § 4280.150 Insurance requirements. Each borrower must obtain the insurance required in § 4280.113. The coverage required by this section must...

  9. 7 CFR 1710.121 - Insurance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insurance requirements. 1710.121 Section 1710.121... and Basic Policies § 1710.121 Insurance requirements. Borrowers are required to comply with certain requirements with respect to insurance and fidelity coverage as set forth in 7 CFR part 1788....

  10. 45 CFR 144.206 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Source: § 144.206 Reporting requirements. (a) General requirement. Any insurer that sells a qualified long-term care insurance policy under a qualified State...

  11. 48 CFR 252.237-7003 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 252.237-7003... Clauses 252.237-7003 Requirements. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Requirements... from the Contractor all of its requirements in the area of performance for the supplies and services...

  12. 48 CFR 252.237-7003 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 252.237-7003... Clauses 252.237-7003 Requirements. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Requirements... from the Contractor all of its requirements in the area of performance for the supplies and services...

  13. 48 CFR 306.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 306.303-1... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 306.303-1 Requirements. (b... written in a manner to permit an individual without technical knowledge of the requirement to understand...

  14. 48 CFR 6.501 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirement. 6.501 Section 6.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocates 6.501 Requirement. As required by section 20 of the Office of...

  15. 76 FR 17032 - Forbearance Petition Filing Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Forbearance Petition Filing Requirements AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... requirements. OMB approved those information collection requirements on April 5, 2010, under OMB Control Number... years, the information collection requirements contained in the Commission's ``complete as filed rule...

  16. 48 CFR 6.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 6.303-1... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.303-1 Requirements. (a) A contracting officer... are made public after award in accordance with 6.305. (c) Technical and requirements personnel are...

  17. 24 CFR 966.52 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements. 966.52 Section 966.52... HOUSING LEASE AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Grievance Procedures and Requirements § 966.52 Requirements. (a... grievance as defined in § 966.53 in accordance with the requirements, standards, and criteria contained in...

  18. 48 CFR 52.216-21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 52.216-21... Requirements. As prescribed in 16.506(d), insert the following clause: Requirements (OCT 1995) (a) This is a requirements contract for the supplies or services specified, and effective for the period stated, in the...

  19. 16 CFR 1204.3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements. 1204.3 Section 1204.3... STANDARD FOR OMNIDIRECTIONAL CITIZENS BAND BASE STATION ANTENNAS The Standard § 1204.3 Requirements. All omnidirectional CB base station antennas are required to comply with the following requirements. (a) Field joints...

  20. 48 CFR 6.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 6.303-1... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.303-1 Requirements. (a) A contracting officer... are made public after award in accordance with 6.305. (c) Technical and requirements personnel are...

  1. 48 CFR 2906.501 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement. 2906.501... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocate 2906.501 Requirement. The Assistant Secretary for Administration... be predicated on an understanding of the competition requirements in the FAR, and particularly small...

  2. 48 CFR 2906.501 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirement. 2906.501... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Competition Advocate 2906.501 Requirement. The Assistant Secretary for Administration... be predicated on an understanding of the competition requirements in the FAR, and particularly small...

  3. 48 CFR 6.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 6.303-1... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 6.303-1 Requirements. (a) A contracting officer... are made public after award in accordance with 6.305. (c) Technical and requirements personnel are...

  4. 48 CFR 252.237-7003 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements. 252.237-7003... Clauses 252.237-7003 Requirements. As prescribed in 237.7003(b), use the following clause: Requirements... from the Contractor all of its requirements in the area of performance for the supplies and services...

  5. 40 CFR 240.210-1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Requirement. 240.210-1 Section 240.210... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.210-1 Requirement... the design requirements. An operations manual describing the various tasks to be performed, operating...

  6. 48 CFR 23.1004 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 23.1004... DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE Federal Compliance With Right-To-Know Laws and Pollution Prevention Requirements 23.1004 Requirements. (a) Federal facilities are required to comply with— (1) The emergency planning and...

  7. 18 CFR 807.1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirement. 807.1... WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.1 Requirement. In addition to any other requirements of Commission regulations, and subject to the consent of the affected member state to this requirement, any person withdrawing or...

  8. 16 CFR 1513.3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 1513.3 Section 1513.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.3 Requirements. (a) Guardrails. (1) Any bunk bed shall provide at least two... bed. This requirement does not prohibit a wall-side guardrail that terminates in a quarter-circle bend...

  9. 48 CFR 52.216-21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 52.216-21... Requirements. As prescribed in 16.506(d), insert the following clause: Requirements (OCT 1995) (a) This is a requirements contract for the supplies or services specified, and effective for the period stated, in the...

  10. 48 CFR 306.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Requirements. 306.303-1... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 306.303-1 Requirements. (b... written in a manner to permit an individual without technical knowledge of the requirement to understand...

  11. 18 CFR 807.1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirement. 807.1... WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.1 Requirement. In addition to any other requirements of Commission regulations, and subject to the consent of the affected member state to this requirement, any person withdrawing or...

  12. 48 CFR 306.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirements. 306.303-1... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 306.303-1 Requirements. (b... written in a manner to permit an individual without technical knowledge of the requirement to understand...

  13. 16 CFR 1510.3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements. 1510.3 Section 1510.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR RATTLES § 1510.3 Requirements. No portion of a rattle, when tested in accordance with the... shall meet this requirement both before and after performing the use and abuse tests of § 1500.51 of...

  14. 18 CFR 807.1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirement. 807.1... WITHDRAWAL REGISTRATION § 807.1 Requirement. In addition to any other requirements of Commission regulations, and subject to the consent of the affected member state to this requirement, any person withdrawing or...

  15. 24 CFR 966.52 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements. 966.52 Section 966.52... HOUSING LEASE AND GRIEVANCE PROCEDURE Grievance Procedures and Requirements § 966.52 Requirements. (a... grievance as defined in § 966.53 in accordance with the requirements, standards, and criteria contained in...

  16. 16 CFR 1510.3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements. 1510.3 Section 1510.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR RATTLES § 1510.3 Requirements. No portion of a rattle, when tested in accordance with the... shall meet this requirement both before and after performing the use and abuse tests of § 1500.51 of...

  17. 48 CFR 6.501 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Requirement. 6.501 Section 6.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Advocates for Competition 6.501 Requirement. As required by 41 U.S.C. 1705, the head...

  18. 48 CFR 52.216-21 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 52.216-21... Requirements. As prescribed in 16.506(d), insert the following clause: Requirements (OCT 1995) (a) This is a requirements contract for the supplies or services specified, and effective for the period stated, in the...

  19. 16 CFR 1513.3 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements. 1513.3 Section 1513.3... REQUIREMENTS FOR BUNK BEDS § 1513.3 Requirements. (a) Guardrails. (1) Any bunk bed shall provide at least two... bed. This requirement does not prohibit a wall-side guardrail that terminates in a quarter-circle bend...

  20. 40 CFR 63.982 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Requirements. 63.982 Section 63.982... Process § 63.982 Requirements. (a) General compliance requirements for storage vessels, process vents... routing to a fuel gas system or process shall comply with the applicable requirements of paragraphs (a)(1...

  1. 48 CFR 306.303-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Requirements. 306.303-1... ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Other Than Full and Open Competition 306.303-1 Requirements. (b... written in a manner to permit an individual without technical knowledge of the requirement to understand...

  2. Does aging change nutrition requirements?

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, A; Warren-Mears, V A

    2001-01-01

    The current adult guidelines for a healthy diet make no distinctions between adults aged 25-50 y and those aged 51 y and over. The question is whether dietary guidelines ought to be stratified by age, in recognition of the dietary and nutrient needs of the growing population of elderly adults. There are limited data on nutrient requirements of older adults. Aging is accompanied by a variety of physiological, psychological, economic and social changes that may adversely affect nutritional status. Older people have a higher prevalence of chronic disease, take multiple medications and supplements, and tend to be sedentary. Higher prevalence of obesity is difficult to reconcile with sharply lowered energy intakes. While basal metabolic rate does decline with age, lack of physical activity among the elderly is the more likely answer. The USDA Food Guide Pyramid is the key tool for communicating dietary advice to consumers. Researchers at Tufts University have produced a 70+ pyramid to reflect the nutrient needs of elderly adults. An additional focus has been on quality of life issues. Increased longevity is not always associated with continued good health. The Healthy People 2010 Objectives now use quality of life as a national health standard. Whereas health related quality of life (HRQOL) measures assess physical and mental health and their determinants, global quality of life measures focus on life satisfaction. Optimal nutrition promotes both functional health status and mental well-being. Dietary diversity and variety promotes enjoyment and satisfaction with the diet. Regular physical activity promotes strength and endurance, helps to maintain appropriate body weight, and contributes to independent physical functioning. Improving health-related quality of life is a key element in promoting the health and well-being of older adults.

  3. Requirements for Hirano Body Formation

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Paul; Piggott, Cleveland; Maselli, Andrew; Fechheimer, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Hirano bodies are paracrystalline F-actin-rich structures associated with diverse conditions, including neurodegeneration and aging. Generation of model Hirano bodies using altered forms of Dictyostelium 34-kDa actin-bundling protein allows studies of their physiological function and mechanism of formation. We describe a novel 34-kDa protein mutant, E60K, with a point mutation within the inhibitory domain of the 34-kDa protein. Expression of E60K in Dictyostelium induces the formation of model Hirano bodies. The E60K protein has activated actin binding and is calcium regulated, unlike other forms of the 34-kDa protein that induce Hirano bodies and that have activated actin binding but lack calcium regulation. Actin filaments in the presence of E60K in vitro show enhanced resistance to disassembly induced by latrunculin B. Actin filaments in model Hirano bodies are also protected from latrunculin-induced depolymerization. We used nocodazole and blebbistatin to probe the role of the microtubules and myosin II, respectively, in the formation of model Hirano bodies. In the presence of these inhibitors, model Hirano bodies can form but are smaller than controls at early times of formation. The ultrastructure of model Hirano bodies did not reveal any major difference in structure and organization in the presence of inhibitors. In summary, these results support the conclusion that formation of model Hirano bodies is promoted by gain-of-function actin filament bundling, which enhances actin filament stabilization. Microtubules and myosin II contribute to but are not required for formation of model Hirano bodies. PMID:24632241

  4. Apparent lisinopril overdose requiring hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Belay, Tilahun W; Nusair, Ahmad R

    2013-07-15

    A case of apparent overdose of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors requiring hemodialysis is reported. A 51-year-old white man (weight, 85 kg; height, 178 cm; body mass index, 28) with a history of hypertension, low back pain, and anxiety apparently took 27 lisinopril 10-mg tablets (3.18 mg/kg body weight) over a period of 3 or fewer days. The friend who brought him to the emergency department reported that the patient was hard to rouse and was speaking incoherently on the day of admission. Over the previous few days, the patient reportedly had visual hallucinations, incoherence, and inarticulate speech. Laboratory tests, electrocardiography, and computed tomography were performed. The patient was judged to have high-anion-gap metabolic acidosis, acute kidney injury, severe hyperkalemia, and rhabdomyolysis. He was given three doses of albuterol via a nebulizer, three doses of calcium gluconate 1 g i.v., two doses of sodium bicarbonate 100 meq i.v., two doses of sodium polystyrene sulfonate 30 g orally, three doses of insulin 10 units i.v., and three doses of dextrose 25 g (as 50% dextrose injection) i.v. He then underwent emergent hemodialysis and was admitted to the intensive care unit. The patient's confusion abated, kidney function improved, and acid-base and electrolyte imbalances resolved. The patient was discharged after 15 days. A man who had evidently taken an overdose of lisinopril had multiorgan dysfunction in the absence of hypotension. The abnormalities resolved after he was treated for acidosis and hyperkalemia and received hemodialysis to remove the lisinopril.

  5. S&MA Requirements Tool (SMART)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulpa, Vyga

    2004-01-01

    In FY03 QS10 began building an S&MA web based data management tool,"Safety & Mission Assurance Requirements Tool" (SMART) that identifies S&MA requirements, tailors requirements to IAW project/program categories, tracks implementation, and provides a template for developing requirements and tracking waivers. This report provides a SMART process flow, typical application, typical data requirement deliverables, progress in 03, and FY04 activities.

  6. NASA GPM GV Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E.

    2003-01-01

    An important scientific objective of the NASA portion of the GPM Mission is to generate quantitatively-based error characterization information along with the rainrate retrievals emanating from the GPM constellation of satellites. These data must serve four main purposes: (1) they must be of sufficient quality, uniformity, and timeliness to govern the observation weighting schemes used in the data assimilation modules of numerical weather prediction models; (2) they must extend over that portion of the globe accessible by the GPM core satellite to which the NASA GV program is focused - (approx.65 degree inclination); (3) they must have sufficient specificity to enable detection of physically-formulated microphysical and meteorological weaknesses in the standard physical level 2 rainrate algorithms to be used in the GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS), i.e., algorithms which will have evolved from the TRMM standard physical level 2 algorithms; and (4) they must support the use of physical error modeling as a primary validation tool and as the eventual replacement of the conventional GV approach of statistically intercomparing surface rainrates fiom ground and satellite measurements. This approach to ground validation research represents a paradigm shift vis-&-vis the program developed for the TRMM mission, which conducted ground validation largely as a statistical intercomparison process between raingauge-derived or radar-derived rainrates and the TRMM satellite rainrate retrievals -- long after the original satellite retrievals were archived. This approach has been able to quantify averaged rainrate differences between the satellite algorithms and the ground instruments, but has not been able to explain causes of algorithm failures or produce error information directly compatible with the cost functions of data assimilation schemes. These schemes require periodic and near-realtime bias uncertainty (i.e., global space-time distributed conditional accuracy of

  7. NASA GPM GV Science Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, E.

    2003-01-01

    An important scientific objective of the NASA portion of the GPM Mission is to generate quantitatively-based error characterization information along with the rainrate retrievals emanating from the GPM constellation of satellites. These data must serve four main purposes: (1) they must be of sufficient quality, uniformity, and timeliness to govern the observation weighting schemes used in the data assimilation modules of numerical weather prediction models; (2) they must extend over that portion of the globe accessible by the GPM core satellite to which the NASA GV program is focused - (approx.65 degree inclination); (3) they must have sufficient specificity to enable detection of physically-formulated microphysical and meteorological weaknesses in the standard physical level 2 rainrate algorithms to be used in the GPM Precipitation Processing System (PPS), i.e., algorithms which will have evolved from the TRMM standard physical level 2 algorithms; and (4) they must support the use of physical error modeling as a primary validation tool and as the eventual replacement of the conventional GV approach of statistically intercomparing surface rainrates fiom ground and satellite measurements. This approach to ground validation research represents a paradigm shift vis-&-vis the program developed for the TRMM mission, which conducted ground validation largely as a statistical intercomparison process between raingauge-derived or radar-derived rainrates and the TRMM satellite rainrate retrievals -- long after the original satellite retrievals were archived. This approach has been able to quantify averaged rainrate differences between the satellite algorithms and the ground instruments, but has not been able to explain causes of algorithm failures or produce error information directly compatible with the cost functions of data assimilation schemes. These schemes require periodic and near-realtime bias uncertainty (i.e., global space-time distributed conditional accuracy of

  8. Food-related energy requirements.

    PubMed

    Hirst, E

    1974-04-12

    I have used data from input-output studies to determine the quantities of primary and electric energy consumed in the agricultural, processing, transportation, wholesale and retail trade, and household sectors for personal consumption of food. Before one draws conclusions from these results, it is important to note the assumptions and approximations used in this analysis. First, the economic input-output data published by the Department of Commerce are subject to a number of inaccuracies, including lack of complete coverage for an industry, restriction of data for proprietary reasons, and use of different time periods for different data. Second, aggregation can combine within the same sector industries whose energy intensities differ widely. For example, eating and drinking establishments probably consume more energy per dollar of sales (because of refrigerators, stoves, and freezers) than do department stores. However, both types of establishment are included in retail trade. Thus energy use for food-related retail trade may be underestimated because of aggregation. Third, the energy coefficients are subject to error. In particular, the coefficients for the agricultural and trade sectors are vulnerable because energy use within these sectors is not well documented. Finally, the scaling factor used to estimate food-related energy use for the 1960's is approximate, in that it neglects the possibility that these energy coefficients changed differently with time. Because of these limitations, which are described more fully by Herendeen (6), a number of important issues were not addressed here. such as relative energy requirements for fresh, frozen, and canned vegetables; and for soybeans as compared to beef. This analysis shows that the U.S. food cycle consumes a considerable amount of energy, about 12 percent of the total national energy budget. The residential sector, which accounts for 30 percent of the total, is the most energy-intensive sector in terms of energy

  9. Closed Loop Requirements and Analysis Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamoreaux, Michael; Verhoef, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Effective systems engineering involves the use of analysis in the derivation of requirements and verification of designs against those requirements. The initial development of requirements often depends on analysis for the technical definition of specific aspects of a product. Following the allocation of system-level requirements to a product's components, the closure of those requirements often involves analytical approaches to verify that the requirement criteria have been satisfied. Meanwhile, changes that occur in between these two processes need to be managed in order to achieve a closed-loop requirement derivation/verification process. Herein are presented concepts for employing emerging Team center capabilities to jointly manage requirements and analysis data such that analytical techniques are utilized to effectively derive and allocate requirements, analyses are consulted and updated during the change evaluation processes, and analyses are leveraged during the design verification process. Recommendations on concept validation case studies are also discussed.

  10. E-ELT requirements flow down

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J. C.; Kurlandczyk, H.; Schmid, C.; Schneller, D.

    2016-08-01

    One of the critical activities in the systems engineering scope of work is managing requirements. In line with this, E-ELT devotes a significant effort to this activity, which follows a well-established process. This involves optimally deriving requirements from the user (Top-Level Requirements) through the system Level 1 Requirements and from here down to subsystems procurement specifications. This paper describes the process, which is illustrated with some practical examples, including in particular the role of technical budgets to derive requirements on subsystems. Also, the provisions taken for the requirements verification are discussed.

  11. Universal Documentation System Handbook. Volume 2. Requirement Formats and Instructions; Program Introduction, Program Requirements Document/Operations Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    toxic, poisonous, flammable, explosive, or which otherwise presents a hazard to humans, animals, fish , vegetation, and soil. Include specific...IN=CFIONS FODAT 2710 - GIUND CMNCATIONS DEAIL NCJPE: This format is used to state requirements for all ground ccurimications except longline , telephone...NETWORK TRANSMISSION - VOICE NOTES: (1) This format is used to outline longline communications requirements for voice transmission requirements which have

  12. 40 CFR 271.25 - HSWA requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....25 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) REQUIREMENTS FOR AUTHORIZATION OF STATE HAZARDOUS WASTE PROGRAMS Requirements for Final Authorization § 271.25... Solid Waste Amendments of 1984 (HSWA). ...

  13. Measles and Rubella Immunity: A New Requirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorman, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Stanford University (California) has developed a list of medical immunization requirements for incoming students to help stop incidence of rubella and measles. A discussion of these requirements is offered. (DF)

  14. 46 CFR 169.305 - Plans required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... integration into the ship's structure. (14) Rigging plan showing sail areas and centers of effort as well as... descriptions in lieu of any of the required drawings provided the required information is adequately...

  15. 46 CFR 169.305 - Plans required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... integration into the ship's structure. (14) Rigging plan showing sail areas and centers of effort as well as... descriptions in lieu of any of the required drawings provided the required information is adequately...

  16. Green Power Partnership Renewable Generation Vintage Requirements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA's Green Power Partnership is a voluntary partnership program designed to reduce the environmental impact of electricity generation by promoting renewable energy. EPA requires that Partners meet GPP's vintage requirement.

  17. 32 CFR 575.5 - Entrance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES MILITARY ACADEMY § 575.5 Entrance requirements. This section describes the specific requirements.... On 1 July of the year admitted to the Military Academy a candidate must be at least 17 years of age...

  18. Requirements Engineering for Software Integrity and Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leveson, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Requirements flaws are the most common cause of errors and software-related accidents in operational software. Most aerospace firms list requirements as one of their most important outstanding software development problems and all of the recent, NASA spacecraft losses related to software (including the highly publicized Mars Program failures) can be traced to requirements flaws. In light of these facts, it is surprising that relatively little research is devoted to requirements in contrast with other software engineering topics. The research proposed built on our previous work. including both criteria for determining whether a requirements specification is acceptably complete and a new approach to structuring system specifications called Intent Specifications. This grant was to fund basic research on how these ideas could be extended to leverage innovative approaches to the problems of (1) reducing the impact of changing requirements, (2) finding requirements specification flaws early through formal and informal analysis, and (3) avoiding common flaws entirely through appropriate requirements specification language design.

  19. Where are Educational Requirements for Employment Highest?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Randall

    1974-01-01

    The author examines varying levels and types of educational requirements for employment. The results show that educational requirements are highest in large, nationally-oriented, internally bureaucratic, service oriented organizations with a high rate of technological change. (DE)

  20. 34 CFR 361.88 - Reporting requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Standards and Performance Indicators § 361.88 Reporting requirements. (a) The Secretary requires that each... compliance with the evaluation standards and performance indicators and include in this report the...

  1. 29 CFR 4065.3 - Filing requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REPORT § 4065.3 Filing requirement. (a) The requirement to report the occurrence of a reportable event... instructions therein. (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 1212-0026) ...

  2. 49 CFR 380.201 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS LCV Driver-Training Program § 380.201 General requirements. (a) The LCV Driver-Training...

  3. 49 CFR 380.107 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SPECIAL TRAINING REQUIREMENTS Longer Combination Vehicle (LCV) Driver-Training and Driver-Instructor Requirements-General §...

  4. 48 CFR 509.306 - Solicitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.306... requirements described in FAR 9.306. If a solicitation contains a testing and approval requirement,...

  5. 48 CFR 509.306 - Solicitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.306... requirements described in FAR 9.306. If a solicitation contains a testing and approval requirement,...

  6. 48 CFR 509.306 - Solicitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.306... requirements described in FAR 9.306. If a solicitation contains a testing and approval requirement,...

  7. 48 CFR 509.306 - Solicitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.306... requirements described in FAR 9.306. If a solicitation contains a testing and approval requirement,...

  8. 48 CFR 509.306 - Solicitation requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS First Article Testing and Approval 509.306... requirements described in FAR 9.306. If a solicitation contains a testing and approval requirement,...

  9. Business System Planning Project System Requirements Specification

    SciTech Connect

    NELSON, R.E.

    2000-09-08

    The purpose of the Business Systems Planning Project System Requirements Specification (SRS) is to provide the outline and contents of the requirements for the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) integrated business and technical information systems. The SRS will translate proposed objectives into the statement of the functions that are to be performed and data and information flows that they require. The requirements gathering methodology will use (1) facilitated group requirement sessions; (2) individual interviews; (3) surveys; and (4) document reviews. The requirements will be verified and validated through coordination of the technical requirement team and CHG Managers. The SRS document used the content and format specified in Lockheed Martin Services, Inc. Organization Standard Software Practices in conjunction with the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Standard 8340-1984 for Systems Requirements Documents.

  10. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... requirements and with the affirmative marketing requirements and procedures adopted under § 511.13, for the... Percentage for Base Cities for the area to the applicable per unit dollar limits; (B) HUD may, on a project...

  11. 24 CFR 511.11 - Project requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... requirements and with the affirmative marketing requirements and procedures adopted under § 511.13, for the... Percentage for Base Cities for the area to the applicable per unit dollar limits; (B) HUD may, on a project...

  12. Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On-site remedial actions must attain or waive the Applicable or Relevant and Appropriate Requirements (ARARs) upon completion. The following links provide information about identifying, attaining and waiving these requirements.

  13. 12 CFR 23.3 - Lease requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirements. (a) General requirements. A national bank may acquire personal property for the purpose of, or in..., including the actions specified in § 23.2(f), to salvage or protect the value of the leased property or its...

  14. 40 CFR 240.208-1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-1 Requirement. Residue and other solid waste products resulting from a thermal process shall be disposed of in an...

  15. 40 CFR 240.208-1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-1 Requirement. Residue and other solid waste products resulting from a thermal process shall be disposed of in an...

  16. 40 CFR 240.208-1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.208-1 Requirement. Residue and other solid waste products resulting from a thermal process shall be disposed of in an...

  17. 40 CFR 240.211-1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.211-1 Requirement. The owner/operator of the thermal processing facility shall provide records and monitoring data as...

  18. 40 CFR 240.210-1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.210-1 Requirement. The thermal processing facility shall be operated and maintained in a manner that assures it will meet...

  19. 40 CFR 240.210-1 - Requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.210-1 Requirement. The thermal processing facility shall be operated and maintained in a manner that assures it will meet...

  20. 8 CFR 216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file a petition to remove the... petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file a petition to remove conditions within...

  1. 8 CFR 216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file a petition to remove the... petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file a petition to remove conditions within...

  2. 8 CFR 1216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... second time of the requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file... does not relieve the alien and the petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file...

  3. 8 CFR 1216.2 - Notification requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... second time of the requirement that the alien and the petitioning spouse or alien entrepreneur must file... does not relieve the alien and the petitioning spouse, or alien entrepreneur of the requirement to file...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2725 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Puerto Rico § 52.2725 General requirements. (a) The requirements of § 51.116(c) of this chapter are not met, since section 2.4 of the Puerto Rico...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2725 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Puerto Rico § 52.2725 General requirements. (a) The requirements of § 51.116(c) of this chapter are not met, since section 2.4 of the Puerto Rico...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2725 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Puerto Rico § 52.2725 General requirements. (a) The requirements of § 51.116(c) of this chapter are not met, since section 2.4 of the Puerto Rico...

  7. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-01-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  8. 9 CFR 381.36 - Facilities required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... surfaces. 1 This requirement may be met by deluxe cool white type of fluorescent lighting. (ix) “One-line... apply. 1 This requirement may be met by deluxe cool white fluorescent lighting. (vii) On-line...

  9. 9 CFR 381.36 - Facilities required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... surfaces. 1 This requirement may be met by deluxe cool white type of fluorescent lighting. (ix) “One-line... apply. 1 This requirement may be met by deluxe cool white fluorescent lighting. (vii) On-line...

  10. 9 CFR 381.36 - Facilities required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... surfaces. 1 This requirement may be met by deluxe cool white type of fluorescent lighting. (ix) “One-line... apply. 1 This requirement may be met by deluxe cool white fluorescent lighting. (vii) On-line...

  11. 14 CFR 121.378 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.378 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and..., each person who is directly in charge of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, and...

  12. 14 CFR 121.378 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.378 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and..., each person who is directly in charge of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, and...

  13. 14 CFR 121.369 - Manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations... arranged for the performance of any of its required inspections, other maintenance, preventive maintenance..., preventive maintenance, and alterations of that certificate holder's airplanes, including airframes,...

  14. 14 CFR 121.369 - Manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations... arranged for the performance of any of its required inspections, other maintenance, preventive maintenance..., preventive maintenance, and alterations of that certificate holder's airplanes, including airframes,...

  15. 14 CFR 121.369 - Manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations... arranged for the performance of any of its required inspections, other maintenance, preventive maintenance..., preventive maintenance, and alterations of that certificate holder's airplanes, including airframes,...

  16. 14 CFR 121.378 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.378 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and..., each person who is directly in charge of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, and...

  17. 14 CFR 121.369 - Manual requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations... arranged for the performance of any of its required inspections, other maintenance, preventive maintenance..., preventive maintenance, and alterations of that certificate holder's airplanes, including airframes,...

  18. 14 CFR 121.378 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.378 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and..., each person who is directly in charge of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, and...

  19. 14 CFR 121.378 - Certificate requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and Alterations § 121.378 Certificate requirements. (a) Except for maintenance, preventive maintenance, alterations, and..., each person who is directly in charge of maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations, and...

  20. Functions and Requirements for the Transition Project

    SciTech Connect

    YANOCHKO, R.M.

    2000-04-24

    This document describes the functional requirement baseline for the Transition of 100 K Area Facilities Project (Transition Project). This baseline information consists of top-level functions, requirements, concept description, interface description, issues, and enabling assumptions.

  1. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements of...

  2. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements of...

  3. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements of...

  4. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements of...

  5. 14 CFR 65.75 - Knowledge requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.75 Knowledge requirements. (a) Each applicant for a mechanic certificate or rating must, after meeting the applicable experience requirements of...

  6. 9 CFR 93.209 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.209 Quarantine requirements. (a)...

  7. 9 CFR 93.209 - Quarantine requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CERTAIN ANIMALS, BIRDS, FISH, AND POULTRY, AND CERTAIN ANIMAL, BIRD, AND POULTRY PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Poultry § 93.209 Quarantine requirements. (a)...

  8. 7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching...

  9. 40 CFR 246.200-1 - Requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SEPARATION FOR MATERIALS RECOVERY GUIDELINES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 246.200-1 Requirements. High-grade paper generated by office facilities of over 100 office workers shall be separated at...

  10. General Education Requirements and Chemical Engineering Curricula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laukhuf, Walden L. S.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is the idea of increasing the humanities requirements for chemical engineers. Reported are the results of a survey to determine what other universities are doing about increased general education requirements. A copy of the survey is included. (MVL)

  11. 7 CFR 3560.156 - Lease requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... requirement that tenants make restitution when unauthorized assistance is received due to applicant or tenant... requirements established under § 3560.152. (14) Leases for tenants living in Plan II interest credit rental...

  12. 7 CFR 1788.47 - Policy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Insurance for Contractors, Engineers, and Architects, Telecommunications Borrowers § 1788.47 Policy requirements. (a) Contractors, engineers, and architects performing work for borrowers under construction...

  13. 7 CFR 1788.47 - Policy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Insurance for Contractors, Engineers, and Architects, Telecommunications Borrowers § 1788.47 Policy requirements. (a) Contractors, engineers, and architects performing work for borrowers under construction...

  14. 7 CFR 1788.47 - Policy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Insurance for Contractors, Engineers, and Architects, Telecommunications Borrowers § 1788.47 Policy requirements. (a) Contractors, engineers, and architects performing work for borrowers under construction...

  15. 7 CFR 1788.47 - Policy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Insurance for Contractors, Engineers, and Architects, Telecommunications Borrowers § 1788.47 Policy requirements. (a) Contractors, engineers, and architects performing work for borrowers under construction...

  16. 7 CFR 1788.47 - Policy requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) RUS FIDELITY AND INSURANCE REQUIREMENTS FOR ELECTRIC AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS BORROWERS Insurance for Contractors, Engineers, and Architects, Telecommunications Borrowers § 1788.47 Policy requirements. (a) Contractors, engineers, and architects performing work for borrowers under construction...

  17. 7 CFR 2903.5 - Matching requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BIODIESEL FUEL EDUCATION PROGRAM General Information § 2903.5 Matching requirements. There are no matching funds requirements for the Biodiesel Fuel Education Program and matching resources...

  18. Orbiter Kapton wire operational requirements and experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. V.

    1994-09-01

    The agenda of this presentation includes the Orbiter wire selection requirements, the Orbiter wire usage, fabrication and test requirements, typical wiring installations, Kapton wire experience, NASA Kapton wire testing, summary, and backup data.

  19. 40 CFR 141.110 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 141.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Treatment Techniques § 141.110 General requirements. The requirements of subpart K of this part constitute national primary drinking water regulations...

  20. 40 CFR 141.110 - General requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 141.110 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Treatment Techniques § 141.110 General requirements. The requirements of subpart K of this part constitute national primary drinking water regulations...