Science.gov

Sample records for medetomidine continuous rate

  1. Medetomidine-midazolam sedation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Raekallio, M; Tulamo, R M; Valtamo, T

    1998-01-01

    Seven sheep were sedated 3 times: with medetomidine (15 micrograms kg-1), with midazolam (0.1 mg kg-1) and with a combination of the drugs. All drugs were administered intravenously. Heart and respiratory rates were measured. Arterial blood samples were collected, and PaO2, PaCO2, pH, haemoglobin concentration and saturation, and base excess were determined. Systolic and mean arterial pressures were recorded before and after the treatment with medetomidine-midazolam. Midazolam increased the time of recumbency induced by medetomidine. After administration of midazolam alone, 4 of the 7 sheep were sedated and the other 3 were excited. Heart rate decreased after both medetomidine and medetomidine-midazolam. One sheep suffered a cardiac arrest after medetomidine-midazolam injection, and it required resuscitation. PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation decreased after medetomidine, and medetomidine-midazolam caused a marked hypoxaemia. PaCO2 increased after medetomidine, both alone and combined with midazolam, but arterial pH was within the reference values after all drug administrations. Systolic and mean arterial pressures decreased after medetomidine-midazolam. This study indicates that though in sheep midazolam potentiates the sedative effect of medetomidine, the combination of medetomidine and midazolam also reduces the in PaO2 and haemoglobin oxygen saturation more than medetomidine alone. The results indicate that a medetomidine-midazolam combination is unsafe for sheep at the doses studied.

  2. Continuous intravenous anaesthesia with sufentanil and midazolam in medetomidine premedicated New Zealand White rabbits.

    PubMed

    Hedenqvist, Patricia; Edner, Anna; Fahlman, Åsa; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2013-01-28

    Anaesthesia in rabbits is associated with a high mortality rate, compared to that in cats and dogs. Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with drugs that provide cardiovascular stability and are rapidly metabolised could be of benefit for use in rabbits. The aim was to evaluate cardiorespiratory effects of TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam in eight New Zealand White rabbits. Subcutaneous premedication with medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg BW) was followed by IV administration of a mixture of 2.5 μg/mL sufentanil and 0.45 mg/mL midazolam at a rate of 0.3 mL/kg BW/h for anaesthetic induction. Additionally, intravenous boluses of 0.1 mL of the mixture were administered every 20 s until the righting reflex was lost. Following endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained for 60 min with an infusion rate adjusted to supress the pedal withdrawal reflex. Air and oxygen (1:2) were delivered at 3 L/min. Physiological variables were recorded before induction and at predefined time points during and after anaesthesia. Righting and pedal withdrawal reflexes were lost within 3 and 5 min, respectively. Doses of sufentanil and midazolam were 0.48 μg/kg BW and 0.09 mg/kg BW for induction, and 0.72 μg/kg BW/h and 0.13 mg/kg BW/h for maintenance. Apnoea occurred in two rabbits. Induction of anaesthesia caused a significant increase in heart rate, cardiac output and arterial CO2 partial pressure and a decrease in mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate and pH. Mean time from stopping the infusion to endotracheal extubation was 5 min, and to return of the righting reflex 7 min. Anaesthesia was characterized by induction and recovery without excitation, with muscle relaxation, and absence of the pedal withdrawal reflex. TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam provided smooth induction and recovery of anaesthesia in rabbits but with marked hypotension and respiratory depression, requiring mechanical ventilation. Further evaluation is needed to establish if the protocol is useful for rabbits

  3. Continuous intravenous anaesthesia with sufentanil and midazolam in medetomidine premedicated New Zealand White rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaesthesia in rabbits is associated with a high mortality rate, compared to that in cats and dogs. Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with drugs that provide cardiovascular stability and are rapidly metabolised could be of benefit for use in rabbits. The aim was to evaluate cardiorespiratory effects of TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam in eight New Zealand White rabbits. Subcutaneous premedication with medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg BW) was followed by IV administration of a mixture of 2.5 μg/mL sufentanil and 0.45 mg/mL midazolam at a rate of 0.3 mL/kg BW/h for anaesthetic induction. Additionally, intravenous boluses of 0.1 mL of the mixture were administered every 20 s until the righting reflex was lost. Following endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained for 60 min with an infusion rate adjusted to supress the pedal withdrawal reflex. Air and oxygen (1:2) were delivered at 3 L/min. Physiological variables were recorded before induction and at predefined time points during and after anaesthesia. Results Righting and pedal withdrawal reflexes were lost within 3 and 5 min, respectively. Doses of sufentanil and midazolam were 0.48 μg/kg BW and 0.09 mg/kg BW for induction, and 0.72 μg/kg BW/h and 0.13 mg/kg BW/h for maintenance. Apnoea occurred in two rabbits. Induction of anaesthesia caused a significant increase in heart rate, cardiac output and arterial CO2 partial pressure and a decrease in mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate and pH. Mean time from stopping the infusion to endotracheal extubation was 5 min, and to return of the righting reflex 7 min. Anaesthesia was characterized by induction and recovery without excitation, with muscle relaxation, and absence of the pedal withdrawal reflex. Conclusions TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam provided smooth induction and recovery of anaesthesia in rabbits but with marked hypotension and respiratory depression, requiring mechanical ventilation. Further evaluation is needed to establish if the

  4. Effects of tepoxalin and medetomidine on glomerular filtration rate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kushiro-Banker, Tokiko; Keegan, Robert D; Decourcey, Michelle A; Grubb, Tamara L; Greene, Stephen A; Armstrong, Robert

    2013-01-31

    The objective of this study was to evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and the cardiovascular effects of the combination of tepoxalin (TPX) and medetomidine (MED) in dogs. Six healthy dogs of either sex (5 males and 1 female), aged 2.5 ± 2.2 years and weighing 14.7 ± 4.4 kg, were studied. Each dog received four randomized treatments with a minimum of 1 week between treatments: no medication as the control group (C); MED (750 μg/m(2), intravenously [IV]); TPX (10 mg/kg orally for 3 days); and MT (TPX 10 mg/kg orally for 3 days plus MED 750 μg/m(2), IV). Iohexol (300 mg iodine/kg, IV) was injected in all dogs in each treatment as an indicator of GFR. Blood samples for serum iohexol clearance analysis were collected before and 1, 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min after the iohexol administration. Rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and direct arterial pressure (AP) were obtained before and 5, 10, 15, 20, 60, 120, 240 and 360 min after the iohexol injection. GFR did not differ between treatments. Heart rate was significantly lower in the MED and MT groups than in C or TPX. Mean AP was significantly higher with MT than TPX, but only at 5 min after the iohexol injection. TPX, MED and the combination of these two drugs do not alter GFR. The combination has minimal effect on cardiovascular variables at these doses in healthy dogs.

  5. Comparison of the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion on cardiopulmonary function and depth of anesthesia in horses anesthetized with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Catherine M; Lemke, Kip A; Lamont, Leigh A; Horney, Barbara S; Riley, Christopher B

    2012-04-15

    To compare the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on cardiopulmonary function and depth of anesthesia in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Prospective, randomized crossover study. 10 healthy adult Standardbreds. Horses were premedicated with xylazine or medetomidine IV. Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane for 150 minutes. For the xylazine treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.7%, and xylazine (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IV) was administered as a bolus at the end of anesthesia. For the MCRI treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.4%, and medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg/h [0.0023 mg/lb/h], IV) was infused throughout anesthesia. Physiologic data (ie, heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, bispectral index, and electromyographic values) were compared between treatments with xylazine bolus versus MCRI. Heart rate was lower, but mean arterial blood pressure was higher from 20 to 40 minutes with MCRI treatment, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine. Respiratory rate and rectal temperature were greater with MCRI treatment. Bispectral index was lower with MCRI treatment from 80 to 150 minutes, and electromyographic values were lower with MCRI treatment from 30 to 150 minutes. In isoflurane-anesthetized horses, premedication with medetomidine followed by administration of medetomidine as a constant rate infusion resulted in decreased heart rate, higher arterial blood pressure from 20 through 40 minutes after induction of anesthesia, and better preserved body temperature, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine. Greater depth of anesthesia and muscle relaxation were seen with MCRI treatment, despite the lower isoflurane concentration.

  6. Combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine and sevoflurane anesthesia in horses.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Satoh, M; Umikawa, A; Tsuda, A; Yajima, Y; Tsubakishita, S; Seno, T; Katoh, S; Izumisawa, Y; Kotani, T

    2000-03-01

    The anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of a combination of continuous intravenous infusion using a mixture of 100 g/L guaifenesin-4 g/L ketamine-5 mg/L medetomidine (0.25 ml/kg/hr) and oxygen-sevoflurane (OS) anesthesia (GKM-OS anesthesia) in horses were evaluated. The right carotid artery of each of 12 horses was raised surgically into a subcutaneous position under GKM-OS anesthesia (n=6) or OS anesthesia (n=6). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (EtSEV) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was around 1.5% in GKM-OS and 3.0% in OS anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) was maintained at around 80 mmHg under GKM-OS anesthesia, while infusion of dobutamine (0.39+/-0.10 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 60 mmHg under OS anesthesia. The horses were able to stand at 36+/-26 min after cessation of GKM-OS anesthesia and at 48+/-19 minutes after OS anesthesia. The cardiovascular effects were evaluated in 12 horses anesthetized with GKM-OS anesthesia using 1.5% of EtSEV (n=6) or OS anesthesia using 3.0% of EtSEV (n=6). During GKM-OS anesthesia, cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance was maintained at about 70% of the baseline value before anesthesia, and MABP was maintained over 70 mmHg. During OS anesthesia, infusion of dobutamine (0.59+/-0.24 microg/kg/min) was necessary to maintain MABP at 70 mmHg. Infusion of dobutamine enabled to maintaine cardiac output at about 80% of the baseline value; however, it induced the development of severe tachycardia in a horse anesthetized with sevoflurane. GKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular effect and good recovery.

  7. Comparison of the effects of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion on the stress response, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in horses anesthetized with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Creighton, Catherine M; Lemke, Kip A; Lamont, Leigh A; Horney, Barbara S; Doyle, Aimie J

    2012-04-15

    To compare the effect of xylazine bolus versus medetomidine constant rate infusion (MCRI) on serum cortisol and glucose concentrations, urine production, and anesthetic recovery characteristics in dorsally recumbent, spontaneously breathing, isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Prospective, randomized crossover study. 10 healthy Standardbreds. Horses were premedicated with xylazine or medetomidine IV. Anesthesia was induced with diazepam and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane for 150 minutes. For the xylazine treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.7% and xylazine (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb]), IV) was administered as a bolus at the end of anesthesia. For the MCRI treatment, end-tidal isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1.4% and medetomidine (0.005 mg/kg/h [0.0023 mg/lb/h], IV) was infused throughout anesthesia. Serum cortisol and glucose concentrations were measured before, during, and after anesthesia. Urine specific gravity and volume were measured during anesthesia. Unassisted anesthetic recoveries were recorded by a digital video camera for later evaluation by 2 observers who were blinded to treatment. Serum cortisol concentration was lower and serum glucose concentration was higher with MCRI treatment, compared with xylazine treatment. Time to sternal recumbency was longer with MCRI treatment, but no difference was seen between treatments for times to extubation, first movement, or standing. Objective (mean attempt interval) and subjective (visual analog score) recovery scores were significantly better with MCRI treatment, compared with xylazine treatment. In isoflurane-anesthetized horses, premedication and administration of medetomidine as a constant rate infusion resulted in decreased serum cortisol concentration, increased serum glucose concentration, and superior anesthetic recovery characteristics, compared with conventional treatment with xylazine.

  8. Anesthetic management with sevoflurane combined with alfaxalone-medetomidine constant rate infusion in a Thoroughbred racehorse undergoing a long-time orthopedic surgery

    PubMed Central

    WAKUNO, Ai; MAEDA, Tatsuya; KODAIRA, Kazumichi; KIKUCHI, Takuya; OHTA, Minoru

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A three-year old Thoroughbred racehorse was anesthetized with sevoflurane and oxygen inhalation anesthesia combined with constant rate infusion (CRI) of alfaxalone-medetomidine for internal fixation of a third metacarpal bone fracture. After premedication with intravenous (IV) injections of medetomidine (6.0 µg/kg IV), butorphanol (25 µg/kg IV), and midazolam (20 µg/kg IV), anesthesia was induced with 5% guaifenesin (500 ml/head IV) followed immediately by alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg IV). Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and CRIs of alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg/hr) and medetomidine (3.0 µg/kg/hr). The total surgical time was 180 min, and the total inhalation anesthesia time was 230 min. The average end-tidal sevoflurane concentration during surgery was 1.8%. The mean arterial blood pressure was maintained above 70 mmHg throughout anesthesia, and the recovery time was 65 min. In conclusion, this anesthetic technique may be clinically applicable for Thoroughbred racehorses undergoing a long-time orthopedic surgery. PMID:28955163

  9. Intraperitoneal medetomidine: a novel analgesic strategy for postoperative pain management in pregnant sheep.

    PubMed

    Murdoch, F R; Maker, G L; Nitsos, I; Polglase, G R; Musk, G C

    2013-01-01

    The absorption of medetomidine released by continuous infusion from an osmotic pump in the abdominal cavity was studied in pregnant sheep during the 24 h postoperative period. Additionally pain and sedation was assessed. Eleven sheep were studied: six were treated with a medetomidine loaded osmotic pump delivering 10 µL/h (3 µg/kg/h medetomidine); and five with a saline loaded osmotic pump (control). Serial blood samples were taken and analysed to determine plasma medetomidine levels. Medetomidine was absorbed from the peritoneal cavity and a steady plasma concentration was achieved within 10 h, mean (SD) peak concentration was 2.87 (0.22) ng/mL. Sheep receiving medetomidine analgesia had significantly lower pain scores at 10 h than controls. Four control sheep required rescue analgesia, compared with 0 in the treatment group. Delivery of 3 µg/kg/h medetomidine by an intraperitoneal osmotic pump to pregnant sheep in the 24 h postoperative period provides adequate plasma concentrations of medetomidine for analgesia without sedation.

  10. Effect of low inspired oxygen fraction on respiratory indices in mechanically ventilated horses anaesthetised with isoflurane and medetomidine constant rate infusion.

    PubMed

    Taylor, A H; Seymour, C J

    2016-05-01

    Horses may become hypoxaemic during anaesthesia despite a high inspired oxygen fraction (FiO2). A lower FiO2 is used commonly in human beings to minimise atelectasis and to improve lung function, and previously has been shown to be of potential benefit in horses in experimental conditions. Other studies suggest no benefit to using a FiO2 of 0.5 during clinically relevant conditions; however, low FiO2 (0.65) is commonly used in practice and in a large number of studies. The present study was performed to compare the effect of a commonly used FiO2 of 0.65 versus 0.90 on calculated respiratory indices in anaesthetised mechanically ventilated horses in a clinical setting. Eighteen healthy Thoroughbred horses anaesthetised for experimental laryngeal surgery were recruited into a prospective, non-blinded, randomised clinical study. Before anaesthesia, the horses were randomly allocated into either low (0.65) or high (0.90) FiO2 groups and arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis was performed every 30 min during anaesthesia to allow for statistical analysis of respiratory indices. As expected, PaO2 was significantly lower in horses anaesthetised with a low FiO2, but was sufficient to fully saturate haemoglobin. There were no significant improvements in any of the other respiratory indices. There is no obvious benefit to be gained from the use of a FiO2 of 0.65 compared to 0.90 for mechanically ventilated Thoroughbred horses anaesthetised in lateral recumbency with isoflurane and a medetomidine constant rate infusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anesthetic and cardiovascular effects of balanced anesthesia using constant rate infusion of midazolam-ketamine-medetomidine with inhalation of oxygen-sevoflurane (MKM-OS anesthesia) in horses.

    PubMed

    Kushiro, Tokiko; Yamashita, Kazuto; Umar, Mohammed Ahmed; Maehara, Seiya; Wakaiki, Shinsuke; Abe, Reona; Seno, Takahiro; Tsuzuki, Keiko; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Muir, William W

    2005-04-01

    The anesthetic sparring and cardiovascular effects produced by midazolam 0.8 mg/ml-ketamine 40 mg/ml-medetomidine 0.05 mg/ml (0.025 ml/kg/hr) drug infusion during sevoflurane in oxygen (MKM-OS) anesthesia was determined in healthy horses. The anesthetic sparring effects of MKM-OS were assessed in 6 healthy thoroughbred horses in which the right carotid artery was surgically relocated to a subcutaneous position. All horses were intubated and ventilated with oxygen using intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). The end-tidal concentration of sevoflurane (ET(SEV)) required to maintain surgical anesthesia was approximately 1.7%. Heart rate and mean arterial blood pressure averaged 23-41 beats/min and 70-112 mmHg, respectively. All horses stood between 23-44 min after the cessation of all anesthetic drugs. The cardiovascular effects of MKM-OS anesthesia were evaluated in 5 healthy thoroughbred horses ventilated using IPPV. Anesthesia was maintained for 4 hr at an ET(SEV) of 1.7%. Each horse was studied during left lateral (LR) and dorsal recumbency (DR) with a minimum interval between evaluations of 1 month. Cardiac output and cardiac index were maintained between 70-80% of baseline values during LR and 65-70% of baseline values during DR. Stroke volume was maintained between 75-85% of baseline values during LR and 60-70% of baseline values during DR. Systemic vascular resistance was not different from baseline values regardless of position. MKM-OS anesthesia may be useful for prolonged equine surgery because of its minimal cardiovascular depression in both of lateral and dorsal recumbency.

  12. Sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride and their reversal with atipamezole hydrochloride in calves.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Kerr, Carolyn L; Enouri, Saad S; McDonell, Wayne N

    2008-03-01

    To assess the sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine and xylazine and their reversal with atipamezole in calves. 25 calves. A 2-phase (7-day interval) study was performed. Sedative characteristics (phase I) and cardiopulmonary effects (phase II) of medetomidine hydrochloride and xylazine hydrochloride administration followed by atipamezole hydrochloride administration were evaluated. In both phases, calves were randomly allocated to receive 1 of 4 treatments IV: medetomidine (0.03 mg/kg) followed by atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg; n = 6), xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) followed by atipamezole (0.04 mg/kg; 7), medetomidine (0.03 mg/kg) followed by saline (0.9% NaCl; 6) solution (10 mL), and xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) followed by saline solution (10 mL; 6). Atipamezole or saline solution was administered 20 minutes after the first injection. Cardiopulmonary variables were recorded at intervals for 35 minutes after medetomidine or xylazine administration. At the doses evaluated, xylazine and medetomidine induced a similar degree of sedation in calves; however, the duration of medetomidine-associated sedation was longer. Compared with pretreatment values, heart rate, cardiac index, and PaO(2) decreased, whereas central venous pressure, PaCO(2), and pulmonary artery pressures increased with medetomidine or xylazine. Systemic arterial blood pressures and vascular resistance increased with medetomidine and decreased with xylazine. Atipamezole reversed the sedative and most of the cardiopulmonary effects of both drugs. At these doses, xylazine and medetomidine induced similar degrees of sedation and cardiopulmonary depression in calves, although medetomidine administration resulted in increases in systemic arterial blood pressures. Atipamezole effectively reversed medetomidine- and xylazine-associated sedative and cardiopulmonary effects in calves.

  13. Medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol anesthetic combinations in binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    Moresco, Anneke; Larsen, R Scott

    2003-12-01

    The efficacy, safety, and reliability of two ketamine-medetomidine-butorphanol anesthetic combinations were evaluated in 34 adult binturongs (Arctictis binturong). The animals were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. On the basis of estimated body weights, group high ketamine (HK) received ketamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.), medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg, i.m.), and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.) combined in a single injection, and group low ketamine (LK) received ketamine (2 mg/kg, i.m.), medetomidine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m.), and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.). Cardiopulmonary parameters were measured for approximately 45 min; the animals were then administered atipamezole (5 mg/mg medetomidine, i.m.). Individual responses varied greatly to the anesthetic combinations, but similar numbers of animals in each group needed supplemental anesthetic agents (seven in group HK and six in group LK). Mean heart rates were higher in the LK group throughout anesthesia. Animals in both groups were mildly to moderately hypoxemic, but oxygenation improved in both groups following supplemental oxygen administration. Respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, body temperatures, and end-tidal CO2 values were similar in both groups. Both protocols were effective; however, the LK combination is preferable because the mean recovery time was shorter.

  14. Anesthesia with Intraperitoneal Propofol, Medetomidine, and Fentanyl in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Heber Nuno Castro; da Silva, Aura Luísa Maia; Olsson, Ingrid Anna S; Orden, José Manuel Gonzalo; Antunes, Luis Marques

    2010-01-01

    A safe and reliable method for anesthetizing rats has long been a leading concern of biomedical researchers. We recently found that the intraperitoneal administration of propofol combined with medetomidine and fentanyl is safe for mouse anesthesia. Here we studied whether the same combination could be used for general anesthesia in rats. We used male Wistar rats to test 10 combinations of propofol, medetomidine, and fentanyl administered intraperitoneally and reversed with intraperitoneal atipamezole 30 min after induction. The depth of anesthesia, induction time, loss of pedal withdrawal reflex, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated, along with the duration and quality of induction, surgical anesthesia, and recovery. The combination of propofol and medetomidine provided a predictable induction and sufficient hypnosis and muscle relaxation, but surgical anesthesia (loss of pedal withdrawal reflex) was difficult to achieve with this protocol. The addition of fentanyl increased analgesia, making it possible to achieve surgical anesthesia. In conclusion, combination of propofol (100 mg/kg), medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), and fentanyl (0.1 mg/kg) is a safe and practical technique for intraperitoneal anesthesia in rats, providing a surgical window of 25 min and restraint for 30 min, with rapid recovery after administration of atipamezole. PMID:20819392

  15. Medetomidine, ketamine, and sevoflurane for anesthesia of injured loggerhead sea turtles: 13 cases (1996-2000).

    PubMed

    Chittick, Elizabeth J; Stamper, M Andrew; Beasley, Jean F E; Lewbart, Gregory A; Horne, William A

    2002-10-01

    To determine safety and efficacy of an anesthetic protocol incorporating medetomidine, ketamine, and sevoflurane for anesthesia of injured loggerhead sea turtles. Retrospective study. 13 loggerhead sea turtles. Anesthesia was induced with medetomidine (50 microg/kg [22.7 microg/lb], IV) and ketamine (5 mg/kg (2.3 mg/lb], IV) and maintained with sevoflurane (0.5 to 2.5%) in oxygen. Sevoflurane was delivered with a pressure-limited intermittent-flow ventilator. Heart rate and rhythm, end-tidal partial pressure of CO2, and cloacal temperature were monitored continuously; venous blood gas analyses were performed intermittently. Administration of sevoflurane was discontinued 30 to 60 minutes prior to the end of the surgical procedure. Atipamezole (0.25 mg/kg [0.11 mg/lb], IV) was administered at the end of surgery. Median induction time was 11 minutes (range, 2 to 40 minutes; n = 11). Median delivered sevoflurane concentrations 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes after intubation were 2.5 (n = 12), 1.5 (12), 1.25 (12), and 0.5% (8), respectively. Heart rate decreased during surgery to a median value of 15 beats/min (n = 11). End-tidal partial pressure of CO2 ranged from 2 to 16 mm Hg (n = 8); median blood gas values were within reference limits. Median time from atipamezole administration to extubation was 14 minutes (range, 2 to 84 minutes; n = 7). Results suggest that a combination of medetomidine and ketamine for induction and sevoflurane for maintenance provides safe, effective, controllable anesthesia in injured loggerhead sea turtles.

  16. KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE AND KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE-MIDAZOLAM ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS)-COMPARISON OF BLOOD PRESSURE AND KIDNEY BLOOD FLOW.

    PubMed

    Stagegaard, Julia; Hørlyck, Arne; Hydeskov, Helle B; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2017-06-01

    Six clinically healthy captive cheetahs ( Acinonyx jubatus ) were anesthetized twice using two different drug combinations to investigate if blood pressure and kidney blood flow are affected by medetomidine dosage. Protocol KM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine and 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine) was compared with protocol KMM (2.0 mg/kg ketamine, 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.1 mg/kg midazolam). Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), body temperature, end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (ETCO2), and anesthetic depth were monitored every 10 min. Noninvasive mean (MAP), systolic (SAP), and diastolic (DAP) arterial blood pressure were measured, and Duplex Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the kidneys. The mean arterial resistive index (RI) was determined and the pulse pressure index (PPI) was calculated, as indicators for kidney blood flow. There were no significant differences in induction and recovery times. MAP was significantly higher with KM than KMM at 35 min, and in both protocols decreased significantly after atipamezole administration. DAP was significantly higher at 25 and 35 min in animals anesthetized with KM; it also decreased significantly with both protocols after atipamezole administration. The PPI was significantly lower throughout the procedure with KM, and with both protocols increased significantly after atipamezole administration. Both the higher blood pressure and the reduced PPI with KM were likely a direct effect of the higher medetomidine dosage, and these findings indicate that lower medetomidine dosages might reduce hypertension and lead to a better PPI in cheetah immobilization.

  17. Clinical evaluation of total intravenous anesthesia using a combination of propofol and medetomidine following anesthesia induction with medetomidine, guaifenesin and propofol for castration in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Oku, Kazuomi; Kakizaki, Masashi; Ono, Keiichi; Ohta, Minoru

    2011-12-01

    Seven Thoroughbred horses were castrated under total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) using propofol and medetomidine. After premedication with medetomidine (5.0 µg/kg, intravenously), anesthesia was induced with guaifenesin (100 mg/kg, intravenously) and propofol (3.0 mg/kg, intravenously) and maintained with constant rate infusions of medetomidine (0.05 µg/kg/min) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min). Quality of induction was judged excellent to good. Three horses showed insufficient anesthesia and received additional anesthetic. Arterial blood pressure changed within an acceptable range in all horses. Decreases in respiratory rate and hypercapnia were observed in all horses. Three horses showed apnea within a short period of time. Recovery from anesthesia was calm and smooth in all horses. The TIVA-regimen used in this study provides clinically effective anesthesia for castration in horses. However, assisted ventilation should be considered to minimize respiratory depression.

  18. Anaesthesia of gemsbok (Oryx gazella) with a combination of A3080, medetomidine and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Grobler, D; Bush, M; Jessup, D; Lance, W

    2001-06-01

    An effective anaesthesia protocol was developed for adult free-ranging gemsbok (Oryx gazella) using a combination of A3080, medetomidine and ketamine. A short induction time; good muscle relaxation, adequate oxygenation and stable heart rate and respiration rate characterised this anaesthetic regime. Equal doses of A3080 and medetomidine (22-45 microg/kg) plus 200 mg of ketamine were administered to each animal. The anaesthesia was rapidly and completely reversed by intramuscular naltrexone at a dose of X = 0.9 +/- 0.2 mg/kg and atipamezole at a dose X +/- 90 +/- 20 microg/kg. No mortality or morbidity occurred with this protocol.

  19. Comparison of medetomidine-morphine and medetomidine-methadone for sedation, isoflurane requirement and postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Raillard, Mathieu; Michaut-Castrillo, Julien; Spreux, Damien; Gauthier, Olivier; Touzot-Jourde, Gwenola; Holopherne-Doran, Delphine

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effects of intravenous (IV) medetomidine-morphine and medetomidine-methadone on preoperative sedation, isoflurane requirements and postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing laparoscopic surgery. Randomized, crossover trial. Twelve adult Beagle dogs weighing 15.1 ± 4.1 kg. Dogs were administered medetomidine (2.5 μg kg(-1)) IV 5 minutes before either methadone (MET) or morphine (MOR) (0.3 mg kg(-1)) IV. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol, maintained with isoflurane in oxygen, and depth was clinically assessed and adjusted by an anaesthetist blinded to the treatment. Animals underwent laparoscopic abdominal biopsies. Sedation and nausea scores, pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fR), noninvasive systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), rectal temperature (RT) and pain scores were recorded before drug administration, 5 minutes after medetomidine injection and 10 minutes after opioid administration. Propofol dose, PR, fR, SAP, oesophageal temperature (TOES), end-tidal carbon dioxide and end-tidal isoflurane concentration (Fe'Iso) were recorded intraoperatively. Pain scores, PR, fR, SAP and RT were recorded 10 minutes after extubation, every hour for 6 hours, then at 8, 18 and 24 hours. The experiment was repeated with the other drug 1 month later. Nine dogs completed the study. After opioid administration and intraoperatively, PR, but not SAP, was significantly lower in MET. Fe'Iso was significantly lower in MET. Temperature decreased in both treatments. Pain scores were significantly higher in MOR at 3 hours after extubation, but not at other time points. Two dogs required rescue analgesia; one with both treatments and one in MOR. At the dose used, sedation produced by both drugs when combined with medetomidine was equivalent, while volatile anaesthetic requirements and PR perioperatively were lower with methadone. Postoperative analgesia was deemed to be adequate for laparoscopy with either protocol, although methadone provided better analgesia 3

  20. Cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-butorphanol, medetomidine-butorphanol-diazepam, and medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine in captive red wolves (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Larsen, R Scott; Loomis, Michael R; Kelly, Brian T; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K; Horne, William A

    2002-06-01

    Safe, effective, and reversible immobilization protocols are essential for the management of free-ranging red wolves (Canis rufus). Combinations using an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist and ketamine have been shown to be effective for immobilization but are not reversible and can produce severe hypertension and prolonged or rough recoveries. To minimize hypertension and provide reversibility, 24 red wolves were immobilized using three medetomidine-butorphanol (MB) combinations without the use of ketamine in the initial injection. All wolves were administered medetomidine (0.04 mg/kg i.m.) and butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg i.m.). Seven wolves received no other immobilization agents (MB wolves), nine received diazepam (0.2 mg/kg i.v.) at the time they were instrumented (MBD wolves), and eight received ketamine (1 mg/kg i.v.) 30 min after instrumentation (MBK30 wolves). Physiologic parameters were monitored during immobilization. The heart rate was similar among the three groups for the first 30 min, and marked bradycardia was noted in one wolf from each group. Hypertension was observed initially in all three groups but was resolved within 10-30 min. The MBK30 wolves had significant elevations in heart rate and transient hypertension after intravenous ketamine administration. Most wolves had mild to moderate metabolic acidemia. Immobilizing drugs were antagonized in all wolves with atipamezole (0.2 mg/kg i.m.) and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg i.m.). The medetomidine-butorphanol-diazepam wolves were also given flumazenil (0.04 mg/kg i.v.). All wolves were standing within 12 min and were fully recovered within 17 min. Medetomamine-butorphanol and MBD combinations provided effective and reversible immobilization of red wolves without the sustained hypertension associated with the use of alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist-ketamine combinations. Delaying the administration of ketamine reduced its hypertensive effects.

  1. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane.

    PubMed

    Kruger, K; Stegmann, G F

    2009-12-01

    A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 +/- 0.2%. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 +/- 0.3 microg/kg/min. The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.

  2. Clinical use of a low-dose medetomidine infusion in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Rioja, Eva; Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander

    2013-09-01

    Eight healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were anesthetized with a standard protocol and received a low-dose medetomidine constant rate infusion during surgery. Cardiorespiratory parameters, including non-invasive cardiac output, were measured at various times. This protocol resulted in acceptable and stable cardiovascular performance, allowed low isoflurane concentrations, and provided smooth recoveries.

  3. Clinical use of a low-dose medetomidine infusion in healthy dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

    PubMed Central

    Rioja, Eva; Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Eight healthy dogs undergoing elective ovariohysterectomy were anesthetized with a standard protocol and received a low-dose medetomidine constant rate infusion during surgery. Cardiorespiratory parameters, including non-invasive cardiac output, were measured at various times. This protocol resulted in acceptable and stable cardiovascular performance, allowed low isoflurane concentrations, and provided smooth recoveries. PMID:24155491

  4. Clinical evaluation of intranasal medetomidine-ketamine and medetomidine-S(+)-ketamine for induction of anaesthesia in rabbits in two centres with two different administration techniques.

    PubMed

    Weiland, Linda C; Kluge, Katharina; Kutter, Annette P N; Kronen, Peter W

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to compare efficacy and side effects of induction with medetomidine-ketamine or medetomidine-S(+)-ketamine by intranasal (IN) instillation in rabbits and to evaluate both protocols during subsequent isoflurane anaesthesia. Prospective, blinded, randomized experimental study in two centres. Eighty-three healthy New Zealand White rabbits undergoing tibial or ulnar osteotomy. Medetomidine (0.2 mg kg(-1)) with 10 mg kg(-1) ketamine (MK) or 5 mg kg(-1) S(+)-ketamine (MS) was administered IN to each rabbit in a randomized fashion. In Centre 1 (n = 42) rabbits were held in sternal recumbency, and in Centre 2 (n = 41) in dorsal recumbency, during drug instillation. Adverse reactions were recorded. If a rabbit swallowed during endotracheal intubation, half of the initial IN dose was repeated and intubation was re-attempted after 5 minutes. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane. Heart rate, blood pressure, endtidal carbon dioxide concentration and blood gases were recorded. Data were analysed using Student's t-test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's exact test. In all, 39 animals were assigned to the MK group and 44 to the MS group. Two rabbits in the MS group held in dorsal recumbency died after instillation of the drug. Eight (MK) and 11 rabbits (MS) were insufficiently anaesthetized and received a second IN dose. One rabbit in MK and three in MS required an isoflurane mask induction after the second IN dose. There were no significant differences between treatments for induction, intraoperative data, blood gas values and recovery data. This study indicated that medetomidine-ketamine and medetomidine-S(+)-ketamine were effective shortly after IN delivery, but in dorsal recumbency IN administration of S(+)-ketamine led to two fatalities. Nasal haemorrhage was noted in both cases; however, the factors leading to death have not been fully elucidated. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and

  5. Capture and medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia of free-ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo).

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Asa; Arnemo, Jon M; Persson, Jens; Segerström, Peter; Nyman, Görel

    2008-01-01

    Capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine were evaluated in free-ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo) immobilized for marking with radiocollars or intraperitoneal radiotransmitters in Norrbotten, Sweden, during early June 2004 and 2005. Twelve juvenile wolverines were captured by hand and injected with 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) medetomidine and 7.5 +/- 2.0 mg/kg ketamine. Twelve adult wolverines were darted from a helicopter or the ground, or captured by hand. Adults received 0.37 +/- 0.06 mg/kg medetomidine and 9.4 +/- 1.4 mg/kg ketamine. Arterial blood samples were collected between 15 min and 30 min and between 45 min and 60 min after drug administration and immediately analyzed for selected hematologic and plasma variables. Hyperthermia was recorded initially in one juvenile wolverine and 11 adults. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and lactate decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas hemoglobin oxygen saturation, pH, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and base excess increased. Adult wolverines darted from a helicopter had a significantly higher rectal temperature, higher glucose and hematocrit values, and a lower heart rate than juveniles captured by hand. Impaired arterial oxygenation was evident in all wolverines. This study provides baseline data on physiologic variables in adult and juvenile wolverines captured with different methods and anesthetized with medetomidine-ketamine.

  6. Anaesthesia with midazolam/medetomidine/fentanyl in chinchillas (Chinchilla lanigera) compared to anaesthesia with xylazine/ketamine and medetomidine/ketamine.

    PubMed

    Henke, J; Baumgartner, C; Röltgen, I; Eberspächer, E; Erhardt, W

    2004-06-01

    We studied four different drug regimes for anaesthetic management in chinchillas and evaluated and compared their cardiovascular and respiratory effects. In this randomized, cross-over experimental study, seven adult chinchillas, five females, two males [515 +/- 70 (SD) g] were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: group 1 [midazolam, medetomidine and fentanyl (MMF), flumazenil, atipamezole and naloxone (FAN); MMF-FAN] received 1.0 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.02 mg/kg fentanyl i.m., and for reversal 0.1 mg/kg flumazenil, 0.5 mg/kg atipamezole and 0.05 mg/kg naloxone s.c. after 45 min; group 2 (MMF) 1.0 mg/kg midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.02 mg/kg fentanyl i.m.; group 3 [xylazine/ketamine (X/K)] 2.0 mg/kg xylazine and 40.0 mg/kg ketamine i.m.; and group 4 [medetomidine/ketamine (M/K)] 0.06 mg/kg medetomidine and 5.0 mg/kg ketamine i.m. Reflexes were judged to determine anaesthetic stages and planes. Anaesthesia with X/K and M/K was associated with a prolonged surgical tolerance and recovery period. By reversing MMF, recovery period was significantly shortened (5 +/- 1.3 min versus 40 +/- 10.3 min in MMF without FAN, 73 +/- 15.0 min in X/K, and 31 +/- 8.5 min in M/K). Without reversal, MMF produced anaesthesia lasting 109 +/- 16.3 min. All combinations decreased respiratory and heart rate but compared with X/K and M/K, respiratory and cardiovascular complications were less in the MMF groups. Focussing on the clinical relevance of the tested combinations, completely reversible anaesthesia showed two major advantages: anaesthesia can be antagonized in case of emergency and routinely shortens recovery. In small animals particularly these advantages lead to less complications and discomfort and thus often can be lifesaving. As all analgesic components (medetomidine and fentanyl) are reversed, postoperative analgesia should be provided before reversal of anaesthesia.

  7. ETORPHINE-KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA IN WILD IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS) OF 120-MINUTE DURATION.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Stegmann, George F; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Buck, Roxanne K; Kästner, Sabine B R; Kummrow, Maya; Gerlach, Christina; Meyer, Leith C R

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing necessity to perform long-term anesthesia in wildlife, especially antelope. The costs and logistics of transporting wildlife to veterinary practices make surgical intervention a high-stakes operation. Thus there is a need for a field-ready total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) infusion to maintain anesthesia in antelope. This study explored the feasibility of an etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA for field anesthesia. Ten wild-caught, adult impala ( Aepyceros melampus ) were enrolled in the study. Impala were immobilized with a standardized combination of etorphine (2 mg) and medetomidine (2.2 mg), which equated to a median (interquartile range [IQR]) etorphine and medetomidine dose of 50.1 (46.2-50.3) and 55.1 (50.8-55.4) μg/kg, respectively. Recumbency was attained in a median (IQR) time of 13.9 (12.0-16.5) min. Respiratory gas tensions, spirometry, and arterial blood gas were analyzed over a 120-min infusion. Once instrumented, the TIVA was infused as follows: etorphine at a variable rate initiated at 40 μg/kg per hour (adjusted according to intermittent deep-pain testing); ketamine and medetomidine at a fixed rate of 1.5 mg/kg per hour and 5 μg/kg per hour, respectively. The etorphine had an erratic titration to clinical effect in four impala. Arterial blood pressure and respiratory and heart rates were all within normal physiological ranges. However, arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Oxygenation and ventilation indices were calculated and highlighted possible co-etiologies to the suspected etorphine-induced respiratory depression as the cause of the blood gas derangements. Impala recovered in the boma post atipamezole (13 mg) and naltrexone (42 mg) antagonism of medetomidine and etorphine, respectively. The etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA protocol for impala may be sufficient for field procedures of up to 120-min duration. However, hypoxemia and hypercapnia are of paramount concern and

  8. Physiologic evaluation of capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Asa; Arnemo, Jon M; Swenson, Jon E; Pringle, John; Brunberg, Sven; Nyman, Görel

    2011-03-01

    Physiologic variables during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine were evaluated in 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) darted from a helicopter and in six captive brown bears darted at a zoo. During anesthesia, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and pulse oximetry derived hemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected and immediately analyzed for evaluation of pulmonary gas exchange, acid-base status, and selected hematologic and plasma variables. At the end of anesthesia, atipamezole was administered intramuscularly at five times the medetomidine dose. Capture-induced hyperthermia and lactic acidemia were documented in free-ranging bears. Hypoxemia during anesthesia was documented in both free-ranging and captive bears. In free-ranging bears, rectal temperature, heart rate, lactate, hematocrit, and hemoglobin decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, pH, potassium, and glucose increased. Yearlings had a significantly higher heart rate, pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and glucose, and had a significantly lower rectal temperature, sodium, hematocrit, and hemoglobin when compared with subadult and adult brown bears. In conclusion, alterations in pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status in brown bears during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with the doses and capture methods used in this study were identified. Oxygen supplementation is recommended to counteract hypoxemia during anesthesia.

  9. IMMOBILIZATION OF CAPTIVE NUBIAN IBEX (CAPRA NUBIANA) WITH BUTORPHANOL-MIDAZOLAM-MEDETOMIDINE OR BUTORPHANOL-AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE AND ATIPAMEZOLE REVERSAL.

    PubMed

    Lapid, Roi; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Seventeen captive Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were immobilized for transportation and/or hoof trimming, deworming, and vaccinations. Of these, 11 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), midazolam (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.13±0.03 mg/kg) (BMM), and 6 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.11±0.03 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22±0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.11±0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) by intramuscular injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured. The quality of induction, immobilization, and recovery were scored (scale 1-5; 1=poor, 5=excellent). Mean induction time was significantly shorter in the BMM group versus the BAM group (8.8±2.7 and 20.1±7.8 min, respectively). Median induction score and median immobilization score were significantly higher (i.e., better) in the BMM group than the BAM group (5 versus 2.5 and 4 versus 3, respectively). The mean and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the BMM group at the 25-min time point. Atipamezole was administered at the end of procedures, and all ibex recovered smoothly. Mean recovery time was significantly longer in the BMM group versus the BAM group (9.5±4.3 and 3.3±2.2, respectively). In conclusion, at the doses used, the combination of BMM was superior to BAM for short-term immobilization in captive Nubian ibex.

  10. Continuously-variable rate pulse combustion apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Thrasher, W.H.; Wells, G.J.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes continuously-variable rate pulse combustion apparatus. It comprises: a main burner; a primary burner; main fuel supply means; primary fuel supply means; main air supply means; primary air supply means; combustion chamber means; exhaust means; inlet air decoupling means; main inlet air means; primary inlet air means; and main valve means.

  11. A review of the physiological effects of α2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Melissa D.

    2003-01-01

    Medetomidine is a relatively new sedative analgesic drug that is approved for use in dogs in Canada. It is the most potent α2-adrenoreceptor available for clinical use in veterinary medicine and stimulates receptors centrally to produce dose-dependent sedation and analgesia. Significant dose sparing properties occur when medetomidine is combined with other anesthetic agents correlating with the high affinity of this drug to the α2-adrenoreceptor. Hypoventilation occurs with medetomidine sedation in dogs; however, respiratory depression becomes most significant when given in combination with other sedative or injectable agents. The typical negative cardiovascular effects produced with other α2-agonists (bradycardia, bradyarrhythmias, a reduction in cardiac output, hypertension ± hypotension) are also produced with medetomidine, warranting precautions when it is used and necessitating appropriate patient selection (young, middle-aged healthy animals). While hypotension may occur, sedative doses of medetomidine typically raise the blood pressure, due to the effect on peripheral α2-adrenoreceptors. Anticholinergic premedication has been recommended with α2-agonists to prevent bradyarrhythmias and, potentially, the reduction in cardiac output produced by these agents; however, current research does not demonstrate a clear improvement in cardio vascular function. Negatively, the anticholinergic induced increase in heart rate potentiates the α2-agonist mediated hypertension and may increase myocardial oxygen tension, demand, and workload. Overall, reversal with the specific antagonist atipamezole is recommended when significant cardiorespiratory complications occur. Other physiological effects of medetomidine sedation include; vomiting, increased urine volumes, changes to endocrine function and uterine activity, decreased intestinal motility, decreased intraocular pressure and potentially hypothermia, muscle twitching, and cyanosis. Decreased doses of medetomidine

  12. Use of a medetomidine-ketamine combination for anesthesia in captive common hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius).

    PubMed

    Stalder, Gabrielle L; Petit, Thierry; Horowitz, Igal; Hermes, Robert; Saragusty, Joseph; Knauer, Felix; Walzer, Chris

    2012-07-01

    To establish an anesthetic protocol suitable for surgical interventions in hippopotami (Hippopotamus amphibius). Prospective case series. 10 adult male hippopotami undergoing castration. A combination of medetomidine (60 to 80 mg/kg [27.3 to 36.4 mg/lb]) and ketamine (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]) was administered IM on the basis of mean estimated weights of 1,330 ± 333 kg (2,926 ± 733 lb; median, 1,350 kg [2,790 lb]; range, 900 to 2,000 kg [1,980 to 4,400 lb]). Monitoring included sequential blood gas analyses, pulse oximetry, and capnography. Reversal of anesthesia with atipamezole (0.34 ± 0.06 mg/kg [0.15 ± 0.027 mg/lb]; median, 0.33 mg/kg [0.15 mg/lb]; range, 300 to 500 mg total dose]) was uneventful and rapid in all cases. Complete immobilization and a surgical anesthetic plane were achieved 27 ± 11.8 minutes (median, 24.5 minutes [range, 14 to 44 minutes]) after initial injection. Anesthesia (97.3 ± 35.3 minutes; median, 95 minutes [range, 57 to 188 minutes]) was maintained with 3.4 ± 2.2 (median, 3) additional doses of ketamine (0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg [0.045 to 0.18 mg/lb]). Transitory apnea of 4.71 ± 2.87 minutes (median, 4 minutes [range, 1 to 9 minutes]) was documented in 5 animals. Apnea during anesthesia was viewed as a physiologic condition in this semiaquatic mammal because related vital parameters (heart rate, pH, peripheral hemoglobin oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry, venous partial pressure of CO(2), and lactate and HCO(3) concentrations) remained unchanged and did not differ significantly than those parameters for the 5 animals with continuous respiration. Both in captivity and in the wild, common hippopotami are difficult to anesthetize. The combination of medetomidine and ketamine provided an excellent surgical plane of anesthesia and a self-limiting dive response.

  13. Efficacy of a low-dosage combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) to immobilize Rocky Mountain elk.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Fisher, Mark C; Davis, Tracy R; Miller, Michael W

    2014-07-01

    We compared dosages of a combination of sedatives, which included butorphanol tartrate, azaperone tartrate, and medetomidine HCl (BAM) in captive adult Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni). All three BAM dosages (low, medium, and high) effectively immobilized elk and produced an adequate level of sedation in all subjects. Induction times were similar among the three groups (mean ± SD: low=6.9 ± 1.1 min; medium=6.3 ± 0.9 min; high=4.7 ± 1.3 min). Most elk became hypoxemic regardless of BAM dosage, but hypoxemia tended to be most severe in the high-BAM group; regardless of BAM dosage, oxygen supplementation improved the percentage of oxygen saturation and stabilized the vital rates. Recovery after administration of antagonists (3 mg atipamezole/mg medetomidine and 2 mg/kg tolazoline) was comparable among groups (range of means=9 ± 1.5-11.7 ± 1 min). Based on the findings from clinical trials and field data from free-ranging elk immobilizations, we recommend low-dose BAM (2 mL dose; equivalent to 46 mg butorphanol, 30 mg azaperone, and 18 mg medetomidine) and supplemental oxygen for adult elk; immobilization should be antagonized using 3-5 mg atipamezole/mg medetomidine and 2 mg/kg tolazoline, with tolazoline injected about 5-10 min before atipamezole to smooth out recovery.

  14. Hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS) of dogs anesthetized with midazolam and ketamine associated with medetomidine or dexmedetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Fernando do Carmo; Hatschbach, Eduardo; Carvalho, Yuri Karaccas de; Minto, Bruno Watanabe; Massone, Flávio; Nascimento Junior, Paulo do

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate hemodynamics and bispectral index (BIS) in bitches anesthetized with ketamine and midazolam in combination with dexmedetomidine or medetomidine and submitted to ovariohysterectomy. Twenty bitches pretreated with levomedetomidine and buprenorphine were anesthetized with 5 mg*kg(-1) ketamine and 0.2 mg*kg(-1) midazolam i.v. Continuous infusion of 0.4 mg*kg(-1)*h(-1) midazolam and 20 mg*kg(-1)*h(-1) ketamine was initiated in combination with DEX (n=10): 20 microg*kg(-1)*h(-1) dexmedetomidine or MED (n=10): 30 microg*kg(-1)*h(-1) medetomidine over 30 minutes. A pharmacokinetic study provided dexmedetomidine plasma concentration, set to be 3.0 ng*mL(-1). BIS decreased in both groups (P<0.05), but it was lower in DEX (P<0.05) as compared to MED. No differences were found in hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure) between groups (P>0.05), but heart rate decreased in both groups, as compared to control values (P<0.05). Respiratory rate decreased (P<0.05) and expired end tidal CO(2) increased progressively (P<0.05) and similarly in both groups. Anesthetic recovery period was similar between groups (P<0.05) with no adverse effects. Continuous administration of dexmedetomidine with calculated plasma concentration equal to 3 ng.mL-1 in combination with midazolam and ketamine provides suitable anesthesia for spay surgery in bitches, hemodynamic stability and calm awakening with no adverse effects.

  15. Cardiorespiratory effects of desflurane in dogs given romifidine or medetomidine before induction of anesthesia with propofol

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Villamandos, Rafael J.; Redondo, José I.; Martín, Eva M.; Domínguez, Juan M.; Granados, María M.; Ruiz, Indalecio; Santisteban, José M.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of desflurane after induction of anesthesia with propofol in dogs sedated with romifidine or medetomidine. Each of 8 healthy dogs received intravenously, in random order, 3 preanesthetic protocols: romifidine, 40 μg/kg of body weight (BW) (R40); romifidine, 80 μg/kg BW (R80); and medetomidine, 10 μg/kg BW (MED). Cardiovascular and respiratory variables were recorded during the procedure. Time to extubation, time to sternal recumbency, and time to standing were also recorded. Heart rate and respiratory rate decreased significantly during sedation from baseline values, but there were no differences between the means for the 3 preanesthetic protocols. Mean values for heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure, respiratory rate, tidal volume, arterial oxygen level, pH, and arterial blood gas values during anesthesia were similar for the 3 protocols. The mean saturation, end-tidal CO2 end-tidal desflurane concentration was significantly lower with the R80 protocol than with the R40 protocol. The mean time to extubation was significantly shorter with the R40 protocol than with the R80 and MED protocols. PMID:17042386

  16. Anaesthetic effects in the ferret of alfaxalone alone and in combination with medetomidine or tramadol: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Giral, M; García-Olmo, D C; Gómez-Juárez, M; Gómez de Segura, I A

    2014-10-01

    Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid with anaesthetic effects and it has been used successfully in several animal species. However, there are no data, to our knowledge, about its efficacy and safety in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). We evaluated a variety of anaesthetic regimens in ferrets, namely, alfaxalone at 20, 10 and 5 mg/kg (n = 1, 10 and 9, respectively; intravenously); medetomidine at 20 µg/kg (n = 3; intramuscularly); medetomidine (20 µg/kg, intramuscularly) plus alfaxalone (2.5 mg/kg, intravenously; n = 7); and tramadol (5 mg/kg, intramuscularly) plus alfaxalone (5 mg/kg, intravenously; n = 2). Two animals treated with alfaxalone at 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg, respectively, died. At 5 mg/kg alfaxalone produced anaesthesia with a similar onset but a shorter duration of anaesthesia and analgesia than alfaxalone at 10 mg/kg. The medetomidine-alfaxalone combination produced anaesthesia and analgesia of a longer duration than alfaxalone administered alone at 5 mg/kg (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Under this anaesthetic regimen, there was a progressive decrease in pulse rate during the first 30 min before the pulse rate stabilized. Respiratory parameters were maintained at acceptable levels. When tramadol was administered, all the animals exhibited a strong excitation reaction and in no case was the toe-pinch reflex clearly abolished. Thus, alfaxalone plus medetomidine provided safe and effective anaesthesia in ferrets. Alfaxalone, alone or in combination with tramadol, did not produce satisfactory results for use as an anaesthetic for this species.

  17. Effects of medetomidine on serum glucose in cattle calves.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Muhammad; Kalhoro, Amir Bukhsh; Sarwar, Mian Saeed; Khan, Hamayun; Ahmad, Shakoor; Hassan, Sayed Mubashir; Zahoor, Arshad

    2016-05-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare physiological effects (serum glucose level) of medetomidine in Red Sindhi cattle calves at three different doses i.e. 8, 10 and 12µg/kg body weight intravenously. Medetomidine produced a dose dependent significant (P<0.01) increase in serum glucose level with a maximum increase observed at 30 minutes with 8µg/kg, 10μg/kg and 12μg/kg body weight respectively. Start of sedation, degree of sedation and total duration of sedation were all dose dependent and the values obtained were significantly (P<0.01) different from each other. It was observed that the sedation was rapid, deep and longer with the higher doses of medetomidine i.e. 12μg/kg. The results of the present study shows that medetomidine is a very effective and safest drug use as sedative for calves which in lower doses (8μg/kg) can be used as a pre-anesthetic and for restraining of the animal, while higher calculated doses (10μg/kg, 12μg/kg) can be used to execute the minor surgical procedures.

  18. Field immobilization of feral 'Judas' donkeys (Equus asinus) by remote injection of medetomidine and ketamine and antagonism with atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Andrew P; Hampton, Jordan O; Campbell, Susan; Lethbridge, Mark R; Boardman, Wayne S J; Sharp, Trudy; Rose, Ken

    2012-04-01

    The Judas technique is a method used for landscape control of feral donkeys (Equus asinus) in northern Australia. Central to the success of any Judas program is the safe, efficient, and humane attachment of the telemetry device. For feral donkeys, this involves the use of field immobilization. We examine the replacement of the current chemical capture agent, succinylcholine, with contemporary immobilization agents to achieve positive animal welfare outcomes. A combination of medetomidine and ketamine delivered by remote injection from a helicopter was used to capture 14 free-ranging feral donkeys for the fitting of telemetry collars in Western Australia in November 2010. Dose rates of 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine and 4.1 mg/kg ketamine were appropriate to immobilize animals in 9 min (± SD = 3). Mean recovery time (total time in recumbency) was 21 min (± 14). All animals recovered uneventfully after being administered atipamezole, a specific antagonist of medetomidine, intramuscularly at 0.35 mg/kg. Physiologic parameters were recorded during recumbency, with environment-related hyperthermia being the only abnormality recognized. No significant complications were encountered, and this drug combination represents an efficient approach to capturing wild donkeys. This new method allows a rapid, safe, cost-effective approach to the immobilization of feral donkeys for use as Judas animals. This drug combination will replace the relatively inhumane succinylcholine for the field immobilization of feral donkeys.

  19. COMPARISON OF ETORPHINE-ACEPROMAZINE AND MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Kathryn L; Denwood, Matthew J; Grøndahl, Carsten; Nissen, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Impala (Aepyceros melampus) are a notoriously difficult species to manage in captivity, and anesthesia is associated with a high risk of complications including mortality. The aim of this study was to compare an opioid-based protocol with an α-2 agonist-based protocol. Nine female impala were studied in a random cross-over design. Subjects received either an etorphine-acepromazine (EA) protocol: 15 μg/kg etorphine and 0.15 mg/kg acepromazine, or a medetomidine-ketamine (MK) protocol: 109 μg/kg medetomidine and 4.4 mg/kg ketamine on day 1. Anaesthesia was repeated 3 days later with the alternative protocol. Subjective assessments of the quality of induction, muscle relaxation, and recovery were made by a blinded observer. Objective monitoring included blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, regional tissue oxygenation, and blood gas analysis. EA provided a significantly quicker (mean EA, 7.17 mins; MK, 17.6 mins) and more-reliable (score range EA, 3-5; MK, 1-5) induction. Respiratory rates were lower for EA with higher end-tidal CO2, but no apnoea was observed. As expected, blood pressures with EA were lower, with higher heart rates; however, arterial oxygenation and tissue oxygenation were equal or higher than with the MK protocol. In conclusion, at these doses, EA provided superior induction and equivalent muscle relaxation and recovery with apparent improved oxygen tissue delivery when compared to MK.

  20. Preliminary studies of chemical immobilization of captive juvenile estuarine (Crocodylus porosus) and Australian freshwater (C. johnstoni) crocodiles with medetomidine and reversal with atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Annabelle; Phalen, David

    2012-07-01

    To establish a safe, reliable and reversible immobilization protocol for captive juvenile crocodiles. Prospective, randomized, clinical study. Thirty male estuarine crocodiles (body mass 1-12.1 kg) and 10 male Australian freshwater crocodiles (body mass 4.1-12.8 kg). An optimized dose of medetomidine (0.5 mg kg(-1)) was administered intramuscularly (IM) into the tail (Group 1; n = 5), pelvic limb (Group 2; n = 5) and thoracic limb (Groups 3 and 4; n = 5 in each group) of estuarine crocodiles weighing 3-12.1 kg. Their heart and respiratory rates and degree of immobilization were monitored every 15 minutes until recovery and daily thereafter for 3 subsequent days. In Group 4 (n = 5), medetomidine was antagonized with an optimized dose of atipamezole (2.5 mg kg(-1)) given IM into the thoracic limb and time to recovery recorded. The effects of increasing doses of medetomidine given IM in the thoracic limb (n = 4) and intravenously (n = 6) were determined in 1-2 kg estuarine crocodiles. Australian freshwater crocodiles (4.1-12.8 kg) were administered medetomidine IM into the thoracic limb in divided doses at 0.5 mg kg(-1) (n = 5) and 0.75 mg kg(-1) (n = 5) and similarly monitored. Immobilization was achieved only in the estuarine crocodiles >3 kg and when medetomidine was administered into the thoracic limb. Immobilization was achieved within 30 minutes and the duration of immobilization lasted approximately 90 minutes. Immobilization in estuarine crocodiles was readily reversed with atipamezole. A dose of 0.75 g kg(-1) was required to immobilize Australian freshwater crocodiles and the onset of immobilization was longer and the duration shorter than seen in the estuarine crocodiles. The heart and respiratory rates of all immobilized animals decreased significantly and arterial blood pressure became undetectable in the animals in which it was measured. Medetomidine administered in the thoracic limb of captive estuarine and Australian freshwater crocodiles, ranging from

  1. Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a comparison of physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Siudak-Campfield, Joanna; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2008-10-01

    Free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni; n=26) and brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus; n=15) were manually captured and immobilized with 2.5 mg/kg ketamine + 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine administered intramuscularly. Physical examinations were conducted on each sloth 10 min after initial injection, and blood, fecal, and ectoparasite samples were collected. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, indirect systolic blood pressure, and indirect peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored every 5 min for the duration of anesthesia. After 45 min, atipamazole (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, as an antagonist to medetomidine, in order to facilitate recovery. All recoveries were smooth, rapid, and uneventful. Physiologic parameters were compared across time, gender, and species. All sloths, regardless of species and gender, demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, and an increase in respiratory rate, during the course of anesthesia. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar for all sloths over time. There were significant species differences for heart rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), respiratory rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), and systolic blood pressure (Bradypus > Choloepus), while there were significant gender differences for body temperature (males > females) and blood pressure (males > females). Results of this study suggest that the ketamine-medetomidine mixture, as described above, is a safe and effective anesthetic combination in free-ranging two- and three-toed sloths, although peripheral blood pressure should be monitored during anesthesia.

  2. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia with atipamezole reversal in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis).

    PubMed

    Heaton-Jones, Terrell G; Ko, Jeff C H; Heaton-Jones, D L

    2002-03-01

    Sixteen captive and wild-caught American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis), seven juveniles (< or = 1 m total length [TL]; 6.75 +/- 1.02 kg), and nine adults (> or = 2 m TL; 36.65 +/- 38.85 kg), were successfully anesthetized multiple times (n = 33) with an intramuscular (i.m.) medetomidine-ketamine (MK) combination administered in either the triceps or masseter muscle. The juvenile animals required significantly larger doses of medetomidine (x = 220.1 +/- 76.9 microg/kg i.m.) and atipamezole (x = 1,188.5 -/+ 328.1 microg/kg i.m.) compared with the adults (medetomidine, x = 131.1 +/- 19.5 microg/kg i.m.; atipamezole, x = 694.0 +/- 101.0 microg/kg i.m.). Juvenile alligators also required higher (statistically insignificant) doses of ketamine (x = 10.0 +/- 4.9 mg/kg i.m.) compared with the adult animals (x = 7.5 +/- 4.2 mg/kg i.m.). The differences in anesthesia induction times (juveniles, x = 19.6 +/- 8.5 min; adults, x = 26.6 +/- 17.4 min) and recovery times (juveniles, x = 35.4 +/- 22.1 min; adults, x = 37.9 +/- 20.2 min) were also not statistically significant. Anesthesia depth was judged by the loss of the righting, biting, corneal and blink, and front or rear toe-pinch withdrawal reflexes. Recovery in the animals was measured by the return of reflexes, open-mouthed hissing, and attempts to high-walk to the opposite end of the pen. Baseline heart rates (HRs) were significantly higher in the juvenile animals (x = 37 +/- 4 beats/min) compared with the adults (x = 24 +/- 5 bpm). However, RRs (juveniles, x = 8 +/- 2 breaths/min; adults, x = 8 +/- 2 breaths/min) and body temperatures (juveniles, x = 24.1 +/- 1.1 degrees C; adults, x = 25.2 +/- 1.2 degrees C) did not differ between the age groups. In both groups, significant HR decreases were recorded within 30-60 min after MK administration. Cardiac arrhythmias (second degree atrio-ventricular block and premature ventricular contractions) were seen in two animals but were not considered life-threatening. Total

  3. Intravenous sufentanil-midazolam versus sevoflurane anaesthesia in medetomidine pre-medicated Himalayan rabbits undergoing ovariohysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Hedenqvist, Patricia; Jensen-Waern, Marianne; Fahlman, Åsa; Hagman, Ragnvi; Edner, Anna

    2015-07-01

    To compare physiological effects of sufentanil-midazolam with sevoflurane for surgical anaesthesia in medetomidine premedicated rabbits. Prospective, randomized controlled experimental study. Eighteen female Himalayan rabbits, weight 2.1 ± 0.1 kg. Premedication with 0.1 mg kg(-1) medetomidine and 5 mg kg(-1) carprofen subcutaneously, was followed by intravenous anaesthetic induction with sufentanil (2.3 μg mL(-1)) and midazolam (0.45 mg mL(-1)). After endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained with sufentanil-midazolam (n = 9) or sevoflurane (n = 9). Ovariohysterectomy was performed. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation was performed as required. Physiological variables were studied perioperatively. Group means of physiologic data were generated for different anaesthetic periods. Data were compared for changes from sedation, and between groups by anova. Post-operatively, 0.05 mg kg(-1) buprenorphine was administered once and 5 mg kg(-1) carprofen once daily for 2-3 days. Rabbits were examined and weighed daily until one week after surgery. Smooth induction of anaesthesia was achieved within 5 minutes. Sufentanil and midazolam doses were 0.5 μg kg(-1) and 0.1 mg kg(-1), during induction and 3.9 μg kg(-1) hour(-1) and 0.8 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) during surgery, respectively. End-tidal sevoflurane concentration was 2.1% during surgery. Assisted ventilation was required in nine rabbits receiving sufentanil-midazolam and four receiving sevoflurane. There were no differences between groups in physiologic data other than arterial carbon dioxide. In rabbits receiving sevoflurane, mean arterial pressure decreased pre-surgical intervention, heart rate increased 25% during and after surgery and body weight decreased 4% post-operatively. Post-operative problems sometimes resulted from catheterization of the ear artery. Sevoflurane and sufentanil-midazolam provided surgical anaesthesia of similar quality. Arterial blood pressure was sustained during sufentanil

  4. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disability ratings. 3.343 Section 3.343 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.343 Continuance of total disability ratings. (a) General. Total disability... latter, reduction from total disability ratings will not be considered pending reexamination after a...

  5. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disability ratings. 3.343 Section 3.343 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.343 Continuance of total disability ratings. (a) General. Total disability... latter, reduction from total disability ratings will not be considered pending reexamination after...

  6. Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Sabrina; Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs). This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso) on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week); the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone). Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR) returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2-6), non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3-6) and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6). Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso's anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs.

  7. Repeated anaesthesia with isoflurane and medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl in guinea pigs and its influence on physiological parameters

    PubMed Central

    Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Repeated anaesthesia may be required in experimental protocols and in daily veterinary practice, but anaesthesia is known to alter physiological parameters in GPs (Cavia porcellus, GPs). This study investigated the effects of repeated anaesthesia with either medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso) on physiological parameters in the GP. Twelve GPs were repeatedly administered with MMF or Iso in two anaesthesia sets. One set consisted of six 40-min anaesthesias, performed over 3 weeks (2 per week); the anaesthetic used first was randomized. Prior to Iso anaesthesia, atropine was injected. MMF anaesthesia was antagonized with AFN (atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone). Abdominally implanted radio-telemetry devices recorded the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature continuously. Additionally, respiratory rate, blood glucose and body weight were assessed. An operable state could be achieved and maintained for 40 min in all GPs. During the surgical tolerance with MMF, the GPs showed a large MAP range between the individuals. In the MMF wake- up phase, the time was shortened until the righting reflex (RR) returned and that occurred at lower MAP and HR values. Repeated Iso anaesthesia led to an increasing HR during induction (anaesthesias 2–6), non-surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 3–6) and surgical tolerance (anaesthesias 4, 6). Both anaesthetics may be used repeatedly, as repeating the anaesthesias resulted in only slightly different physiological parameters, compared to those seen with single anaesthesias. The regular atropine premedication induced HR increases and repeated MMF anaesthesia resulted in a metabolism increase which led to the faster return of RR. Nevertheless, Iso’s anaesthesia effects of strong respiratory depression and severe hypotension remained. Based on this increased anaesthesia risk with Iso, MMF anaesthesia is preferable for repeated use in GPs. PMID:28328950

  8. Injection anaesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine in adult female mice: importance of antagonization and perioperative care.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Thea; Jirkof, Paulin; Henke, Julia; Arras, Margarete; Cesarovic, Nikola

    2016-08-01

    Injection anaesthesia is commonly used in laboratory mice; however, a disadvantage is that post-anaesthesia recovery phases are long. Here, we investigated the potential for shortening the recovery phase after injection anaesthesia with fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine by antagonization with naloxone-flumazenil-atipamezole. In order to monitor side-effects, the depth of anaesthesia, heart rate (HR), core body temperature (BT) and concentration of blood gases, as well as reflex responses, were assessed during a 50 min anaesthesia. Mice were allowed to recover from the anaesthesia in their home cages either with or without antagonization, while HR, core BT and spontaneous home cage behaviours were recorded for 24 h. Mice lost righting reflex at 330 ± 47 s after intraperitoneal injection of fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine. During anaesthesia, HR averaged 225 ± 23 beats/min, respiratory rate and core BT reached steady state at 131 ± 15 breaths/min and 34.3 ± 0.25℃, respectively. Positive pedal withdrawal reflex, movement triggered by tail pinch and by toe pinch, still occurred in 25%, 31.2% and 100% of animals, respectively. Arterial blood gas analysis revealed acidosis, hypoxia, hypercapnia and a marked increase in glucose concentration. After anaesthesia reversal by injection with naloxone-flumazenil-atipamezole, animals regained consciousness after 110 ± 18 s and swiftly returned to physiological baseline values, yet they displayed diminished levels of locomotion and disrupted circadian rhythm. Without antagonization, mice showed marked hypothermia (22 ± 1.9℃) and bradycardia (119 ± 69 beats/min) for several hours. Fentanyl-midazolam-medetomidine provided reliable anaesthesia in mice with reasonable intra-anaesthetic side-effects. Post-anaesthetic period and related adverse effects were both reduced substantially by antagonization with naloxone-flumazenil-atipamezole. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A MEDETOMIDINE-AZAPERONE-ALFAXALONE COMBINATION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Pon, Kylie; Caulkett, Nigel; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that interacts with gamma-aminobutyric type A receptors to produce central nervous system depression and muscle relaxation. The effects of alfaxalone vary from sedation to general anesthesia. Alfaxalone is synergistic with other tranquilizers and sedatives and therefore has the potential to improve existing alpha-2 adrenergic agonist-based combinations used for wildlife immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of a medetomidine-azaperone-alfaxalone (MAA) combination in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Eight captive white-tailed deer were restrained in a drop-floor chute; hand injected i.m. with 0.15 mg/kg medetomidine, 0.2 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.5 mg/kg alfaxalone; and released into a small enclosure for observation. The deer were maintained in lateral recumbency for a total time from postinjection (PI) of the drug of 60 min. At 60 min PI, atipamezole was administered i.m. at five times the medetomidine dose. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and direct systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures were recorded every 5 min. Arterial blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood gas analysis. Level of sedation and quality of recovery were scored. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics with a significance level of P < 0.05. Induction (time to lateral recumbency, 7.1 ± 2.4 min (mean ± SD) and recovery times (time to standing, 9.1 ± 3.1 min) were comparable to currently used medetomidine-based combinations in white-tailed deer. Major cardiopulmonary effects observed (values reported are 15 min PI of immobilizing drugs) were hypoxemia (PaO2, 54 ± 9 mm Hg), hypoventilation (PaCO2, 55 ± 3 mm Hg), and mixed acid-base disturbances (pH, 7.22 ± 0.04). No adverse effects were observed after recovery from anesthesia. MAA produced a satisfactory level of deep sedation for safe handling and

  10. Anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of total intravenous anesthesia using a midazolam, ketamine and medetomidine drug combination in horses.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuto; Wijayathilaka, Tikiri P; Kushiro, Tokiko; Umar, Mohammed A; Taguchi, Kiyoshi; Muir, William W

    2007-01-01

    The anesthetic and cardiopulmonary effects of midazolam, ketamine and medetomidine for total intravenous anesthesia (MKM-TIVA) were evaluated in 14 horses. Horses were administered medetomidine 5 microg/kg intravenously as pre-anesthetic medication and anesthetized with an intravenous injection of ketamine 2.5 mg/kg and midazolam 0.04 mg/kg followed by the infusion of MKM-drug combination (midazolam 0.8 mg/ml-ketamine 40 mg/ml-medetomidine 0.1 mg/ml). Nine stallions (3 thoroughbred and 6 draft horses) were castrated during infusion of MKM-drug combination. The average duration of anesthesia was 38 +/- 8 min and infusion rate of MKM-drug combination was 0.091 +/- 0.021 ml/kg/hr. Time to standing after discontinuing MKM-TIVA was 33 +/- 13 min. The quality of recovery from anesthesia was satisfactory in 3 horses and good in 6 horses. An additional 5 healthy thoroughbred horses were anesthetized with MKM- TIVA in order to assess cardiopulmonary effects. These 5 horses were anesthetized for 60 min and administered MKM-drug combination at 0.1 ml/kg/hr. Cardiac output and cardiac index decreased to 70-80%, stroke volume increased to 110% and systemic vascular resistance increased to 130% of baseline value. The partial pressure of arterial blood carbon dioxide was maintained at approximately 50 mmHg while the arterial partial pressure of oxygen pressure decreased to 50-60 mmHg. MKM-TIVA provides clinically acceptable general anesthesia with mild cardiopulmonary depression in horses. Inspired air should be supplemented with oxygen to prevent hypoxemia during MKM-TIVA.

  11. Anesthetic induction of captive tigers (Panthera tigris) using a medetomidine-ketamine combination.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michele; Weber, Martha; Neiffer, Donald; Mangold, Barbara; Fontenot, Deidre; Stetter, Mark

    2003-09-01

    Six adult female tigers (Panthera tigris) were anesthetized repeatedly for elective medical procedures using 3 mg medetomidine and 200 mg ketamine i.m. Inductions were rapid and smooth, although supplemental ketamine was needed for safe transport after induction in 6 of 17 procedures. Reversal of the medetomidine-induced sedation with 15 mg atipamezole i.m. 59-232 min after induction resulted in smooth, rapid recoveries.

  12. Anesthesia of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) with zolazepam-tiletamine, medetomidine-ketamine, and medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine.

    PubMed

    Cattet, M R; Caulkett, N A; Polischuk, S C; Ramsay, M A

    1999-09-01

    A 1:1 combination (by weight) of zolazepam and tiletamine is the drug of choice for anesthetizing polar bears (Ursus maritimus), but recovery time is prolonged when additional doses are administered. Recoveries may last 24 hr and may threaten the health of the bears. We compared the anesthetic effects of zolazepam-tiletamine (ZT) with those of medetomidine-ketamine (MK) and medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine (MZT) in 93 free-ranging polar bears. The MZT combination was administered in smaller dose and volume, resulted in more rapid, safer, and more predictable induction, provided more reliable anesthesia, and was safely reversed with atipamezole. Frequent occurrence of sudden recoveries during anesthesia with MK limited our use of this combination. MK and MZT sometimes caused apnea and bradycardia initially and hyperthermia at increased ambient temperatures. Hypoxemia occurred transiently with all combinations. When anesthesia with ZT and MK exceeded 1 hr, frequent necessary top-up doses caused irregular physiologic function. ZT is recommended for short duration anesthesia (< or = 1 hr), but MZT is better for anesthesia of longer duration and under circumstances where reversibility is desirable.

  13. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Murahata, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Asami; Miki, Yuya; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats. Five cats were repeatedly used in each of the 9 groups. One group was not medicated. Cats in the other groups received 40 µg/kg medetomidine intramuscularly and saline (as the control), 160 µg/kg prazosin, or 40, 160 or 480 µg/kg atipamezole or yohimbine intravenously 0.5 hr later. Volume, pH and specific gravity of urine; plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level; and creatinine, osmolality and electrolyte levels in both urine and plasma were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine, but not prazosin, antagonized medetomidine-induced diuresis. The antidiuretic effect of atipamezole was more potent than that of yohimbine, but was not dose dependent, in contrast to the effect of yohimbine at the tested doses. Both atipamezole and yohimbine reversed medetomidine-induced decreases in both urine specific gravity and osmolality and increases in plasma osmolality and free-water clearance. Antidiuresis of either atipamezole or yohimbine was not related to the area under the curve for AVP level, although the highest dose of both atipamezole and yohimbine initially and temporarily increased plasma AVP levels, suggesting that this may partly influence the antidiuretic effects of both agents. The diuretic effect of medetomidine in cats may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors, but not α1-adrenoceptors. Atipamezole and yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats.

  14. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis comparing diverse effects of detomidine, medetomidine, and dexmedetomidine in the horse: a population analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grimsrud, K. N.; Ait-Oudhia, S.; Durbin-Johnson, B. P.; Rocke, D. M.; Mama, K. R.; Rezende, M. L.; Stanley, S. D.; Jusko, W. J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study characterizes the pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) relationships of the α2-adrenergic receptor agonists detomidine (DET), medetomidine (MED) and dexmedetomidine (DEX) in parallel groups of horses from in vivo data after single bolus doses. Head height (HH), heart rate (HR), and blood glucose concentrations were measured over 6 h. Compartmental PK and minimal physiologically based PK (mPBPK) models were applied and incorporated into basic and extended indirect response models (IRM). Population PK/PD analysis was conducted using the Monolix software implementing the stochastic approximation expectation maximization algorithm. Marked reductions in HH and HR were found. The drug concentrations required to obtain inhibition at half-maximal effect (IC50) were approximately four times larger for DET than MED and DEX for both HH and HR. These effects were not gender dependent. Medetomidine had a greater influence on the increase in glucose concentration than DEX. The developed models demonstrate the use of mechanistic and mPBPK/PD models for the analysis of clinically obtainable in vivo data. PMID:25073816

  15. The effects of decreased body temperature on the onset, duration and action of medetomidine and its antagonist atipamezole in juvenile farmed estuarine crocodiles (Crocodylus porosus).

    PubMed

    Olsson, Annabelle; Phalen, David

    2013-05-01

    To determine the efficacy of medetomidine for immobilisation of captive juvenile crocodiles over a range of temperatures, and its reversibility with atipamezole. Prospective experimental study. Forty male estuarine crocodiles (body weight 2.0 to 4.8 kg). Each crocodile was randomly assigned to one of four temperature groups: Group 1:32 °C; Group 2:27 °C; Group 3:22 °C; and Group 4:17 °C (n = 10 for each group). Medetomidine (0.5 mg kg(-1) ) was administered intramuscularly (IM) into the thoracic limb of all crocodiles. After 50 minutes, all animals from each group received 2.5 mg kg(-1) atipamezole IM in the opposite thoracic limb and time to recovery was documented. Heart and respiratory rates and the degree of immobilisation were monitored every 5 minutes until recovery, and behaviour monitored for 7 subsequent days. Onset of immobilisation occurred at 15 ± 10 minutes in Group 1, and at 30 ± 10 minutes in Groups 2 and 3. In Group 4, animals were not immobilised. Recovery following atipamezole was 10 ± 5 minutes at all temperatures. One-way analysis of variance (anova) demonstrated a significant difference in induction times between groups (p < 0.01) but not in recovery times following atipamezole administration (p < 0.25). Heart and respiratory rates decreased markedly following medetomidine administration and increased markedly following atipamezole reversal. Medetomidine administered in the thoracic limb of juvenile captive estuarine crocodiles provides profound sedation or immobilisation at temperatures of 22 °C and above. Atipamezole administered in the contralateral thoracic limb results in consistent reversal of the effects of medetomidine and a return to normal behaviour within 15-20 minutes regardless of temperature. Even though immobilisation is not induced at 17 °C, profound reversible sedation does occur reliably and repeatably. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the

  16. Evaluation of medetomidine, ketamine and buprenorphine for neutering feral cats.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Kelly A; Robertson, Sheilah A; Levy, Julie K; Isaza, Natalie M

    2011-12-01

    A combination of medetomidine (M, 100 μg/kg), ketamine (K, 10 mg/kg) and buprenorphine (B, 10 μg/kg), administered by intramuscular injection, was evaluated for spaying and castration (neutering) of feral cats (n = 101). Eleven animals (11%) required supplemental anesthesia (isoflurane by mask) to maintain an adequate plane of surgical anesthesia. Atipamezole (A, 125 μg/kg) was administered subcutaneously at the completion of surgery. All cats recovered from surgery and were released the following day. A hemoglobin saturation (SpO(2)) value of < 95% was recorded at least once during anesthesia in all cats. This MKB combination can be used in a feral cat sterilization clinic, but isoflurane supplementation may be necessary. Further research is indicated to determine the clinical significance of the low SpO(2) values associated with this anesthetic regimen. Copyright © 2011 ISFM and AAFP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anaesthesia with medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine in six gorillas after premedication with oral zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Sandra; Hoby, Stefan; Wyss, Fabia; Adami, Chiara; Wenker, Christian

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine (MMK) in captive gorillas after premedication with oral zuclopenthixol. Case series. Six gorillas, two males and four females, aged 9-52 years and weighing 63-155 kg. The gorillas were given zuclopenthixol dihydrochloride 0.2 ± 0.05 mg kg(-1) per os twice daily for 3 days for premedication. On the day of anaesthesia the dose of zuclopenthixol was increased to 0.27 mg kg(-1) and given once early in the morning. Anaesthesia was induced with medetomidine 0.04 ± 0.004 mg kg(-1) , midazolam 0.048 ± 0.003 mg kg(-1) and ketamine 4.9 ± 0.4 mg kg(-1) intramuscularly (IM). Upon recumbency, the trachea was intubated and anaesthesia was maintained on 1-2% isoflurane in oxygen. Physiological parameters were monitored every 10 minutes and arterial blood gas analysis was performed once 30-50 minutes after initial darting. At the end of the procedure, 42-115 minutes after initial darting, immobilisation was antagonized with atipamezole 0.21 ± 0.03 mg kg(-1) and sarmazenil 5 ± 0.4 μg kg(-1) IM. Recumbency was reached within 10 minutes in five out of six animals. One animal required two additional darts before intubation was feasible. Heart rate ranged from 60 to 85 beats minute(-1) , respiratory rate from 17 to 46 breaths minute(-1) and temperature from 36.9 to 38.3 °C. No spontaneous recoveries were observed and anaesthetic level was stable. Blood gas analyses revealed mild respiratory acidosis, and mean PaO(2) was 24.87 ± 17.16 kPa (187 ± 129 mmHg) with all values being above 13.4 kPa (101 mmHg). Recovery was smooth and gorillas were sitting within 25 minutes. The drug combination proved to be effective in anaesthetizing captive gorillas of various ages and both sexes, with minimal cardio-respiratory changes. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  18. Evaluation of BAM (butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine) in captive African lion (Panthera leo) immobilization.

    PubMed

    Semjonov, Aleksandr; Andrianov, Vladimir; Raath, Jacobus P; Orro, Toomas; Venter, Derik; Laubscher, Liesel; Pfitzer, Silke

    2017-02-08

    The combination of butorphanol, azaperone and medetomidine (BAM) with subsequent antagonism by naltrexone-yohimbine or naltrexone-atipamezole was evaluated for reversible immobilization of captive African lions (Panthea leo). Prospective, clinical trial. Twenty lions, 11 males and nine females, weighing 38-284 kg were immobilized in South Africa. The BAM volume dose rate administered was 0.005-0.008 mL kg(-1) (0.6 mL 100 kg(-1)). Physiologic variables were recorded every 5 minutes. Four arterial blood samples were collected from all animals at 20, 30, 40 and 50 minutes after immobilization for analysis of blood-gases and acid-base status. The actual doses administered were as follows: butorphanol, 0.18±0.03 mg kg(-1); azaperone, 0.07±0.01 mg kg(-1); and medetomidine, 0.07±0.01 mg kg(-1). The inductions were calm and smooth, and induction time ranged from 4 to 10 minutes (7±2 minutes). The amount of time needed to work with each lion was 70 minutes, and no additional drug doses were needed. Heart rate (40±8 beats minute(-1)) and respiratory frequency (15±4 breaths minute(-1)) were stable throughout immobilization. The mean arterial blood pressure of all animals was stable but elevated (142±16 mmHg). The rectal temperature slightly increased over time but remained within acceptable range. The recovery time was significantly shorter when using naltrexone and atipamezole (9±1 minutes) compared to using naltrexone and yohimbine (22±7 minutes). The BAM combination proved to be reliable for general veterinary anaesthesia in lions. During anaesthesia, minor veterinary procedures such a blood collection, intubation, vaccination and collaring could safely be performed with no additional dosing required. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Reversible immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards (panthera uncia) with a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Örjan; Malmsten, Jonas; Mishra, Charudutt; Lkhagvajav, Purevjav; McCarthy, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Conservation and research of the elusive snow leopard (Panthera uncia) have been hampered by inadequate knowledge about its basic life history. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can provide useful information, but there has been limited information available on safe capture methods, drug doses, and efficacy for effective immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We describe a drug protocol using a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam for the chemical immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We also describe physiologic responses to immobilization drugs, including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and relative hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) recorded every 10 min. Our study was carried out in the Tost Mountains adjacent to the Great Gobi Desert, in southern Mongolia, between August 2008 and April 2012. Eighteen snow leopards were captured or recaptured with foot-snares on 42 occasions and anesthetized for marking with GPS collars. The snow leopards received on average (±SD) 0.020±0.04 mg/kg body mass medetomidine and 2.17±0.45 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam. The duration of ensuing anesthesia was 69±13 min, including an induction period of 10 (±4) min. Anesthesia was reversed with 4 mg (0.10±0.04 mg/kg) atipamezole administered intramuscularly. The mean value for SpO2 for the 37 captures where we could record physiologic values was 91±4. The SpO2 increased significantly during anesthesia (+0.06±0.02%/min), whereas rectal temperature (average 38.1±0.7 C/min, change -0.04±0.003 C/min), heart rate (average 97±9 beats/min, change -0.20±0.03 beats/min), and respiratory rate (average 26±6 breaths/min, change -0.11±0.03 breaths/min) decreased significantly. A dose of 80 mg tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg body weight) and 0.72 mg medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg body weight) safely immobilized all adult and subadult snow leopards (weight 25-45 kg) in our study. All measured physiologic values remained within clinically

  20. The average rate of change for continuous time models.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Ken

    2009-05-01

    The average rate of change (ARC) is a concept that has been misunderstood in the applied longitudinal data analysis literature, where the slope from the straight-line change model is often thought of as though it were the ARC. The present article clarifies the concept of ARC and shows unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of ARC when measurement is continuous across time. It is shown that the slope from the straight-line change model generally is not equal to the ARC. General equations are presented for two measures of discrepancy when the slope from the straight-line change model is used to estimate the ARC in the case of continuous time for any model linear in its parameters, and for three useful models nonlinear in their parameters.

  1. Effective Reversible Immobilization of Captive Himalayan Black Bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) with Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Arun, Attur Shanmugam; Krishna, Sanath; Antony, Linto; Pillai, Harikrishnan Chandran; Venkataramanappa, Manjunatha; Suresh, Sujay

    2016-04-28

    We used a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam to immobilize five Himalayan black bears (Selenarctos thibetanus laniger) in Bannerghatta Biological Park, Bangalore, India. Medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam were administered at 0.01 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg, respectively. We describe procedures and observations recorded during the immobilization.

  2. Xylazine-midazolam-ketamine versus medetomidine-midazolam-ketamine anesthesia in captive Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica).

    PubMed

    Curro, Thomas G; Okeson, Danelle; Zimmerman, Dawn; Armstrong, Douglas L; Simmons, Lee G

    2004-09-01

    Two alpha2-adrenoceptor agents, xylazine and medetomidine, in combination with midazolam and ketamine safely and effectively immobilized Siberian tigers (Panthera tigris altaica). The medetomidine protocol used smaller drug volumes, and induction and recovery times were shorter. Although cardiopulmonary abnormalities were noted, none were likely to be life threatening.

  3. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    LEE, Jongsung; SUH, Sangil; CHOI, Ran; HYUN, Changbaig

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  4. Intranasal naltrexone and atipamezole for reversal of white-tailed deer immobilized with carfentanil and medetomidine

    PubMed Central

    Shury, Todd K.; Caulkett, Nigel A.; Woodbury, Murray R.

    2010-01-01

    Carfentanil and medetomidine were used to immobilize 8 captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using mean dosages [± standard deviation (s)] of 14.2 ± 1.11 μg/kg carfentanil and 17.8 ± 2.03 μg/kg of medetomidine. Deer were reversed by intranasally or intramuscularly administered naltrexone and atipamezole. Dosages of carfentanil and medetomidine proved reliable for immobilization of most, but not all deer, with a mean induction time of 13.3 ± 3.13 min. Effective and reliable immobilization will require higher dosages of carfentanil and possibly medetomidine than were used in this study. No significant differences in recovery times were observed for deer given reversal agents intranasally (9.45 ± 5.37 min) versus intramuscularly (7.60 ± 4.42 min). Naltrexone and atipamezole can be administered intranasally at 1.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively to safely and quickly reverse the effects of carfentanil and medetomidine in immobilized white-tailed deer. This route could potentially be useful for other reversal agents. PMID:20676292

  5. Intranasal naltrexone and atipamezole for reversal of white-tailed deer immobilized with carfentanil and medetomidine.

    PubMed

    Shury, Todd K; Caulkett, Nigel A; Woodbury, Murray R

    2010-05-01

    Carfentanil and medetomidine were used to immobilize 8 captive female white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) using mean dosages [+/- standard deviation (s)] of 14.2 +/- 1.11 microg/kg carfentanil and 17.8 +/- 2.03 microg/kg of medetomidine. Deer were reversed by intranasally or intramuscularly administered naltrexone and atipamezole. Dosages of carfentanil and medetomidine proved reliable for immobilization of most, but not all deer, with a mean induction time of 13.3 +/- 3.13 min. Effective and reliable immobilization will require higher dosages of carfentanil and possibly medetomidine than were used in this study. No significant differences in recovery times were observed for deer given reversal agents intranasally (9.45 +/- 5.37 min) versus intramuscularly (7.60 +/- 4.42 min). Naltrexone and atipamezole can be administered intranasally at 1.5 mg/kg and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively to safely and quickly reverse the effects of carfentanil and medetomidine in immobilized white-tailed deer. This route could potentially be useful for other reversal agents.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol (KMP-TIVA) in horses undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    UMAR, Mohammed Ahmed; FUKUI, Sho; KAWASE, Kodai; ITAMI, Takaharu; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol drug combination (KMP-TIVA) were determined in 5 Thoroughbred horses undergoing surgery. The horses were anesthetized with intravenous administration (IV) of ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) following premedication with medetomidne (5 µg/kg, IV) and artificially ventilated. Surgical anesthesia was maintained by controlling propofol infusion rate (initially 0.20 mg/kg/min following an IV loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg) and constant rate infusions of ketamine (1 mg/kg/hr) and medetomidine (1.25 µg/kg/hr). The horses were anesthetized for 175 ± 14 min (range from 160 to 197 min). Propofol infusion rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 mg/kg/min, and plasma concentration (Cpl) of propofol ranged from 11.4 to 13.3 µg/ml during surgery. Cardiovascular measurements during surgery remained within clinically acceptable ranges in the horses (heart rate: 33 to 37 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure: 111 to 119 mmHg, cardiac index: 48 to 53 ml/kg/min, stroke volume: 650 to 800 ml/beat and systemic vascular resistance: 311 to 398 dynes/sec/cm5). The propofol Cpl declined rapidly after the cessation of propofol infusion and was significantly lower at 10 min (4.5 ± 1.5 µg/ml), extubation (4.0 ± 1.2 µg/ml) and standing (2.4 ± 0.9 µg/ml) compared with the Cpl at the end of propofol administration (11.4 ± 2.7 µg/ml). All the horses recovered uneventfully and stood at 74 ± 28 min after the cessation of anesthesia. KMP-TIVA provided satisfactory quality and control of anesthesia with minimum cardiovascular depression in horses undergoing surgery. PMID:25409552

  7. Continuous Rating for Diggability Assessment in Surface Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    IPHAR, Melih

    2016-10-01

    The rocks can be loosened either by drilling-blasting or direct excavation using powerful machines in opencast mining operations. The economics of rock excavation is considered for each method to be applied. If blasting operation is not preferred and also the geological structures and rock mass properties in site are convenient (favourable ground conditions) for ripping or direct excavation method by mining machines, the next step is to determine which machine or excavator should be selected for the excavation purposes. Many researchers have proposed several diggability or excavatability assessment methods for deciding on excavator type to be used in the field. Most of these systems are generally based on assigning a rating for the parameters having importance in rock excavation process. However, the sharp transitions between the two adjacent classes for a given parameter can lead to some uncertainties. In this paper, it has been proposed that varying rating should be assigned for a given parameter called as “continuous rating” instead of giving constant rating for a given class.

  8. Tracking driver's heart rate by continuous-wave Doppler radar.

    PubMed

    Kwang Jin Lee; Chanki Park; Boreom Lee

    2016-08-01

    Developing driving safety system with medical assistance devices for preventing accidents has become a major social issue in recent year. These devices have been developed using electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG) for measuring the heart rate (HR). However, driver should directly contact with the sensor for monitoring the HR. Recently, non-contact system based on continuous-wave Doppler radar has widely studied for monitoring HR. The periodogram by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) was used for estimating HR. However, if motion artifacts by movement of driver and vehicle vibration contaminate the radar signal, we cannot find spectral peak of HR using FFT. In this paper, we propose a method using multiple signal classification (MUSIC) for estimating HR. We compared MUSIC algorithms with a commonly used FFT method using real experiment data while driving. The results indicate that our proposed method can estimate HR accurately from received radar Doppler signal with motion artifacts.

  9. Comparison of Physiological Parameters and Anaesthesia Specific Observations during Isoflurane, Ketamine-Xylazine or Medetomidine-Midazolam-Fentanyl Anaesthesia in Male Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (GPs) are difficult to anaesthetize successfully, the choices for anaesthesia are limited and physiological parameters are likely to be influenced substantially under anaesthesia. We implanted blood pressure radio-telemetry devices into 16 male GPs and subjected them to anaesthesia with ketamine-xylazine (KX), medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso, plus atropine premedication) in a randomized order with a 7 day interval between anaesthesias. Each anaesthesia lasted 40min, after which Iso was discontinued, MMF was fully antagonized with atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone and KX was partially antagonized with atipamezole. Hemodynamics were recorded continuously for at least 240min after induction and the GPs were monitored for respiratory rate, reflex responses and specific observations until regaining of their righting reflex (RR). Blood for glucose testing was taken from the ear at 7.5, 20 and 40min during anaesthesia. Recovery time was short with MMF and Iso but long for KX. MMF induced only a transient blood pressure drop after antagonization, whereas Iso caused a marked hypotension during maintenance and KX led to moderate hypotension after antagonization. MMF and Iso produced tolerable heart rate changes, but KX led to long term post-anaesthetic bradycardia. Hypothermia occurred with all anaesthesias, but the GPs returned to normothermia the fastest under MMF, followed shortly by Iso. KX, however, caused a profound and prolonged hypothermia. The respiration was depressed with all anaesthesias, substantially with MMF (-41%) and KX (-52%) and severe during Iso maintenance (-71%). Blood glucose with MMF and KX increased throughout the anaesthesia, but the values remained within reference values with all anaesthetics. The reflex responses character and strength varied between the anaesthetics. In conclusion, MMF is the anaesthetic of choice and Iso may be used for short, non-painful procedures. We advise against the use of KX in GPs

  10. The effects of medetomidine on radial nerve blockade with mepivacaine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lamont, Leigh A; Lemke, Kip A

    2008-01-01

    To compare the sensory and motor effects of adding medetomidine to mepivicaine, administered either perineurally or systemically, for radial nerve block in dogs. Prospective randomized cross-over study. Six healthy Beagles, aged 18.7 +/- 6.3 months and weighing 10.4 +/- 1.3 kg. Dogs were anesthetized briefly with sevoflurane on three separate occasions and received each treatment administered in random order: mepivacaine 5 mg kg(-1) perineurally around the radial nerve with saline 0.01 mL kg(-1) intramuscularly (CONTROL); mepivacaine 5 mg kg(-1) and medetomidine 0.01 mg kg(-1) combined, perineurally with saline 0.01 mL kg(-1) intramuscularly (MEDPN); mepivacaine 5 mg kg(-1) perineurally around the radial nerve with medetomidine 0.01 mg kg(-1) intramuscularly (MEDIM). All nerve blocks were performed with the aid of a nerve locator. Motor effects were evaluated based on the ability to bear weight. Sensory effects were evaluated by the response to a graded-electrical stimulus. These were evaluated at 5-minute intervals for the first hour, and at 10-minute intervals thereafter. Mean intervals were calculated as follows: time to motor block onset, duration of motor block, time to peak sensory block, duration of peak sensory block (i.e. period of no response to maximal stimulus intensity), and duration of residual sensory block (i.e. time to return to baseline sensory function). Treatment means were compared using a one-way analysis of variance for repeated measures and, where significant differences were noted, a Student-Newman-Keuls test was applied; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Medetomidine, administered either systemically or perineurally, significantly prolonged duration of peak motor block, peak sensory block, and residual sensory block compared with CONTROL. Medetomidine prolonged sensory and motor blockade after radial nerve block with mepivacaine in dogs. Medetomidine may prove to be a useful adjunct to peripheral nerve blockade with local anesthetics.

  11. Isoflurane to prolong medetomidine/ ketamine anaesthesia in six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Adams, W A; Robinson, K J; Jones, R S; Sanderson, S

    2003-01-04

    Six adult female chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were anaesthetised for the placement of intrauterine contraceptive devices, microchips for identification, routine blood sampling, and physical measurements. Anaesthesia was induced with medetomidine in combination with ketamine administered by intramuscular injection with a projectile syringe. Induction was smooth and rapid, but five of the animals were insufficiently relaxed for orotracheal intubation. The plane of anaesthesia was deepened by administering isoflurane delivered in oxygen and nitrous oxide, and general anaesthesia was maintained for up to 74 minutes. The action of medetomidine was reversed at the end of each procedure with atipamezole, and the animals recovered smoothly and uneventfully.

  12. Cardiopulmonary effects and anaesthesia recovery quality in horses anaesthetized with isoflurane and low-dose S-ketamine or medetomidine infusions.

    PubMed

    Menzies, M Paula Larenza; Ringer, Simone K; Conrot, Aude; Theurillat, Regula; Kluge, Katharina; Kutter, Annette Pn; Jackson, Michelle; Thormann, Wolfgang; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate cardiopulmonary effects and anaesthesia recovery quality in horses anaesthetized with isoflurane receiving medetomidine or S-ketamine infusions. Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial. Fifty horses undergoing elective surgery. After acepromazine and flunixin meglumine premedication, horses received medetomidine (7 μg kg(-1) ) intravenously (IV). Anaesthesia was induced with midazolam and racemic ketamine (Med treatment group; 2.2 mg kg(-1) ; n = 25) or S-ketamine (S-ket treatment group; 1.1 mg kg(-1) ; n = 25) IV and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen/air and medetomidine (Med; 3.5 μg kg(-1) hour(-1) ) or S-ketamine (S-ket; 0.5 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) ). All horses were mechanically ventilated. Cardiopulmonary variables were evaluated. Isoflurane end-tidal concentrations (Fe'Iso), dobutamine requirements and thiopental boli were recorded. Plasma samples were collected in six horses to evaluate S-ketamine and S-norketamine concentrations. After surgery, medetomidine 2 μg kg(-1) was administered IV. Four independent observers scored recovery using a visual analogue scale and a numerical rating scale. Both groups required similar mean Fe'Iso (1%). However, S-ket horses needed more thiopental boli. Median intraoperative cardiac index values were higher with S-ket (4.5 L minute(-1)  m(-2) ) than Med (3.9 L minute(-1)  m(-2) ). Overall, there were no differences in heart rate, blood pressure or dobutamine requirements; however, horses in S-ket showed higher heart rate values at 30 minutes after anaesthesia induction. Compared with Med horses, S-ket horses showed decreased PaO2 and increased pulmonary venous admixture values estimated with the Fshunt calculation. Recoveries were shorter and of poorer quality with S-ket. During infusion, S-ketamine and S-norketamine plasma concentrations lay in the ranges of 0.209-0.917 μg mL(-1) and 0.250-0.723 μg mL(-1) , respectively. Despite the higher intraoperative cardiac index with

  13. Effects of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl IV bolus injections and its reversal by specific antagonists on cardiovascular function in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Christine; Bollerhey, Melanie; Ebner, Johanna; Schuster, Tibor; Henke, Julia; Erhardt, Wolf

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the short-term cardiovascular effects of intravenous (IV) medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) injections in the rabbit using vascular ultrasonography and echocardiography.Anesthesia with MMF was induced intramuscularly (IM) in 8 female New Zealand White rabbits before 3 defined bolus injections of MMF were given IV. Before and for 10 min after each MMF injection the following vascular variables [at the left common carotid artery (ACC) after the first injection and at the abdominal aorta (AA) after the second injection]: vessel diameter (D), peak systolic, minimum diastolic, end-diastolic and average blood flow velocities (psBFV, mdBFV, edBFV, Vave), average volumetric flow (VFave), resistance index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) and other clinical variables: mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), peripheral arterial oxygen saturation and end-tidal CO₂ were recorded. Echocardiography was used after the third injection to investigate changes in cardiac parameters. Additionally, hemodynamic effects were observed at the ACC after complete subcutaneous antagonism of anesthesia by atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone (AFN) until recovery of the animals.Medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl IV caused a significant decrease of blood flow velocity in both investigated vessels which was associated with a significant decrease of HR and cardiac performance indicated by the decrease of FS and average volumetric blood flow. Mean arterial pressure significantly increased after each MMF injection; whereas, it significantly decreased after AFN injection. Therefore, MMF and AFN should be carefully used in rabbits and may not be suitable in patients with ventricular dysfunction.

  14. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-06

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  15. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage - increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  16. Towards 24/7 continuous heart rate monitoring.

    PubMed

    Tarniceriu, Adrian; Parak, Jakub; Renevey, Philippe; Nurmi, Marko; Bertschi, Mattia; Delgado-Gonzalo, Ricard; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2016-08-01

    Heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) carry rich information about physical activity, mental and physical load, physiological status, and health of an individual. When combined with activity monitoring and personalized physiological modelling, HR/HRV monitoring may be used for monitoring of complex behaviors and impact of behaviors and external factors on the current physiological status of an individual. Optical HR monitoring (OHR) from wrist provides a comfortable and unobtrusive method for HR/HRV monitoring and is better adhered by users than traditional ECG electrodes or chest straps. However, OHR power consumption is significantly higher than that for ECG based methods due to the measurement principle based on optical illumination of the tissue. We developed an algorithmic approach to reduce power consumption of the OHR in 24/7 HR trending. We use continuous activity monitoring and a fast converging frequency domain algorithm to derive a reliable HR estimate in 7.1s (during outdoor sports, in average) to 10.0s (during daily life). The method allows >80% reduction in power consumption in 24/7 OHR monitoring when average HR monitoring is targeted, without significant reduction in tracking accuracy.

  17. Continuous assessment of schizophrenia using heart rate and accelerometer data.

    PubMed

    Reinertsen, Erik; Osipov, Maxim; Liu, Chengyu; Kane, John M; Petrides, Georgios; Clifford, Gari D

    2017-06-27

    Schizophrenia has been associated with changes in heart rate (HR) and physical activity measures. However, the relationship between analysis window length and classifier accuracy using these features has yet to be quantified. Here we used objective HR and activity data to classify contiguous days of data as belonging to a schizophrenia patient or a healthy control. HR and physical activity recordings were made on 12 medicated subjects with schizophrenia and 12 healthy controls. Features derived from these data included classical statistical characteristics, rest-activity metrics, transfer entropy, and multiscale fuzzy entropy. We varied the analysis window length from two to eight days, and selected features via minimal-redundancy-maximal-relevance. A support vector machine was trained to classify schizophrenia from control windows on a daily basis. Model performance was assessed via subject-wise leave-one-out-crossfold-validation. An analysis window length of eight days resulted in an area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.96. Reducing the analysis window length to two days only lowered the AUC to 0.91. The type of most predictive features varied with analysis window length. Our results suggest continuous tracking of subjects with schizophrenia over short time scales may be sufficient to estimate illness severity on a daily basis.

  18. Carbon nanotube wires with continuous current rating exceeding 20 Amperes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cress, Cory D.; Ganter, Matthew J.; Schauerman, Christopher M.; Soule, Karen; Rossi, Jamie E.; Lawlor, Colleen C.; Puchades, Ivan; Ubnoske, Stephen M.; Bucossi, Andrew R.; Landi, Brian J.

    2017-07-01

    A process to fabricate carbon nanotube (CNT) wires with diameters greater than 1 cm and continuous current carrying capability exceeding 20 A is demonstrated. Wires larger than 5 mm are formed using a multi-step radial densification process that begins with a densified CNT wire core followed by successive wrapping of additional CNT material to increase the wire size. This process allows for a wide range of wire diameters to be fabricated, with and without potassium tetrabromoaurate (KAuBr4) chemical doping, and the resulting electrical and thermal properties to be characterized. Electrical measurements are performed with on/off current steps to obtain the maximum current before reaching a peak CNT wire temperature of 100 °C and before failure, yielding values of instantaneous currents in excess of 45 A for KAuBr4 doped CNT wires with a diameter of 6 mm achieved prior to failure. The peak temperature of the wires at failure (˜530 °C) is correlated with the primary decomposition peak observed in thermal gravimetric analysis of a wire sample confirming that oxidation is the primary failure mode of CNT wires operated in air. The in operando stability of doped CNT wires is confirmed by monitoring the resistance and temperature, which remain largely unaltered over 40 days and 1 day for wires with 1.5 mm and 11.2 mm diameters, respectively. The 100 °C continuous current rating, or ampacity, is measured for a range of doped CNT wire diameters and corresponding linear mass densities ρL. To describe the results, a new form of the fuse-law, where the critical current is defined as I ∝ρL3 /4, is developed and shows good agreement with the experimental data. Ultimately, CNT wires are shown to be stable electrical conductors, with failure current densities in excess of 50 A in the case of a convectively cooled 11.2 mm doped CNT wire, and amenable for use in applications that have long-term, high-current demands.

  19. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol for the field anesthesia of free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Lethbridge, Mark R; Hampton, Jordan O; Smith, Ian; Woolnough, Andrew P; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Miller, Graham W J; Caraguel, Charles G B

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We report the clinical course and physiologic and anesthetic data for a case series of 76 free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) chemically restrained, by remote injection from a helicopter, in the rangelands of Western Australia and South Australia, 2008-11, to attach satellite-tracking collars. Fifty-five camels were successfully anesthetized using medetomidine-ketamine (MK, n=27) and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol (MKB, n=28); the induction of anesthesia in 21 animals was considered unsuccessful. To produce reliable anesthesia for MK, medetomidine was administered at 0.22 mg/kg (± SD=0.05) and ketamine at 2.54 mg/kg (± 0.56), and for MKB, medetomidine was administered at 0.12 mg/kg (± 0.05), ketamine at 2.3 mg/kg (± 0.39), and butorphanol at 0.05 mg/kg (± 0.02). Median time-to-recumbency for MKB (8.5 min) was 2.5 min shorter than for MK (11 min) (P=0.13). For MK, the reversal atipamezole was administered at 0.24 mg/kg (± 0.10), and for MKB, atipamezole was administered at 0.23 mg/kg (± 0.13) and naltrexone at 0.17 mg/kg (± 0.16). Median time-to-recovery was 1 min shorter for MK (5 min) than MKB (6 min; P=0.02). Physiologic parameters during recumbency were not clinically different between the two regimes. Both regimes were suitable to safely anesthetize free-ranging camels; however, further investigation is required to find the safest, most consistent, and logistically practical combination.

  20. Anesthesia of wood bison with medetomidine-zolazepam/tiletamine and xylazine-zolazepam/tiletamine combinations.

    PubMed Central

    Caulkett, N A; Cattet, M R; Cantwell, S; Cool, N; Olsen, W

    2000-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate 2 combinations for immobilization of bison. Seven wood bison received 1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) of xylazine HCl + 1.5 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 1.5 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCl on one occasion. The bison received 60 micrograms/kg BW of medetomidine HCl + 0.6 mg/kg BW of zolazepam HCl and 0.6 mg/kg BW of tiletamine HCL on another occasion. Xylazine was antagonized with 3 mg/kg BW of tolazoline HCl and medetomidine HCl was antagonized with 180 micrograms/kg (BW) of atipamezole HCl. Temporal characteristics of immobilization and physiological effects (acid-base status, thermoregulatory, cardiovascular, and respiratory effects) of the drug combinations were compared. Induction was significantly faster with xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Recovery following antagonist administration was significantly faster with medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. The average drug volumes required were 7.00 mL of xylazine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCL and 2.78 mL of medetomidine HCl-zolazepam HCl/tiletamine HCl. Hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and rumenal tympany were the major adverse effects with both drug combinations. PMID:10642872

  1. Comparison of carfentanil-xylazine and thiafentanil-medetomidine in electroejaculation of captive gaur (Bos gaurus).

    PubMed

    Napier, Julia E; Loskutoff, Naida M; Simmons, Lee G; Armstrong, Douglas L

    2011-09-01

    Carfentanil citrate and thiafentanil oxalate have been used successfully to immobilize captive and free-ranging ungulates. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and certain physiologic parameters of protocols by using the 2 opioids in gaur (Bos gaurus). Eight adult gaur bulls were immobilized for electroejaculation at Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo (Omaha, Nebraska, USA). All the animals were immobilized twice, by using each of the following protocols one time: 10 mg carfentanil combined with 100 mg xylazine (CX), reversed with 1,000 mg naltrexone and 24 mg yohimbine; and 12 mg thiafentanil combined with 20 mg medetomidine (TM), reversed with 120 mg naltrexone and 100 mg atipamezole. Immobilization drugs were delivered intramuscularly into the shoulder area via pole syringe. Electroejaculation was carried out by a standardized protocol to duplicate procedural stimulation on each animal. Induction and recovery times, initial rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, anesthetic depth, oxygen saturation, indirect blood pressure, and arterial blood gases were recorded at the time of initial handling, before ejaculation, and after ejaculation. Antagonists were administered 1/4 i.v. and 3/4 s.q. Both protocols require a small volume of drug for a large ungulate, provide smooth induction, and adequate anesthesia. Both protocols produced a significant hypoxemia, although the animals on CX showed slightly better blood gas values (based on lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide) and numerically lower blood pressure values. Animals on TM had better muscle relaxation and smoother recoveries, with no renarcotization noted. The results of the present study indicate the TM and CX protocols used for immobilizing gaur result in similar quality ejaculates that can be used for fertility examination as well as for assisted reproduction such as artificial insemination. Additional immobilizations need to take place to further compare these 2 combinations in this

  2. Cardiopulmonary effects of medetomidine or midazolam in combination with ketamine or tiletamine/zolazepam for the immobilisation of captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Stegmann, G F; Jago, M

    2006-12-01

    Captive cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) scheduled for either general health examination or dental surgery were immobilised with combinations of medetomidine-ketamine (K/DET, n = 19), midazolam-ketamine (K/MID, n = 4) or medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam (Z/DET, n = 5). Induction time and arterial blood pressure was not statistically significantly (P > 0.05) different between treatment groups. Transient seizures were observed in the K/DET treated animals during induction. Hypertension was present in all groups during anaesthesia with mean (+/- SD) systolic pressure of 30.7 +/- 5.0 kPa for the K/DET group, 27.7 +/- 2.7 kPa for the K/MID group, and 33.1 +/- 4.6 kPa for the Z/DET group. Heart rate was statistically significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the K/DET group (69 +/- 13.2 beats/min) compared to the K/MID group (97 +/- 22.6 beats/min), and ventilation rate was statistically significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the K/MID group (15 +/- 0.0 breaths/min) compared with the K/DET group (21 +/- 4.6). A metabolic acidosis and hypoxia were observed during anaesthesia when breathing air. Oxygen (O2) administration resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) increase in the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (hypercapnoea), arterial partial pressure of O2, and % oxyhaemoglobin saturation.

  3. Effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on Schirmer tear test I results of clinically normal cats.

    PubMed

    Di Pietro, Simona; Macrì, Francesco; Bonarrigo, Tiziana; Giudice, Elisabetta; Palumbo Piccionello, Angela; Pugliese, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effects of a medetomidine-ketamine combination on tear production of clinically normal cats by use of the Schirmer tear test (STT) 1 before and during anesthesia and after reversal of medetomidine with atipamezole. 40 client-owned crossbred domestic shorthair cats (23 males and 17 females; age range, 6 to 24 months). A complete physical examination, CBC, and ophthalmic examination were performed on each cat. Cats with no abnormalities on physical and ophthalmic examinations were included in the study. Cats were allocated into 2 groups: a control group (n = 10 cats) anesthetized by administration of a combination of medetomidine hydrochloride (80 μg/kg) and ketamine hydrochloride (5 mg/kg), and an experimental group (30) anesthetized with the medetomidine-ketamine combination and reversal by administration of atipamezole. Tear production of both eyes of each cat was measured by use of the STT I before anesthesia, 15 minutes after the beginning of anesthesia, and 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole. Anesthesia with a medetomidine-ketamine combination of cats with no ophthalmic disease caused a significant decrease in tear production. The STT I values returned nearly to preanesthetic values within 15 minutes after reversal with atipamezole, whereas the STT I values for the control group were still low at that point. Results indicated that a tear substitute should be administered to eyes of cats anesthetized with a medetomidine-ketamine combination from the time of anesthetic administration until at least 15 minutes after administration of atipamezole.

  4. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities (part...

  5. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities (part...

  6. President Hails Continued Decline in Default Rate on Student Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    President Bill Clinton used the declining default rate on college student loans as a basis for proposing tax breaks for college costs. Reduced defaults have saved taxpayer money and helped reduce the federal deficit. Over 150 colleges and universities, including 25 private institutions, risk losing eligibility for federal grant and loan programs…

  7. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditions of life, i.e., while working or actively seeking work or whether the symptoms have been brought... latter, reduction from total disability ratings will not be considered pending reexamination after a... process under the ordinary conditions of life, the case will be submitted under § 3.321. (c) Individual...

  8. Comparison of alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental for anaesthetic induction and recovery in Thoroughbred horses premedicated with medetomidine and midazolam.

    PubMed

    Wakuno, A; Aoki, M; Kushiro, A; Mae, N; Kodaira, K; Maeda, T; Yamazaki, Y; Ohta, M

    2017-01-01

    There is limited information on clinical use of the new injectable anaesthetic agent alfaxalone in Thoroughbred horses. To compare anaesthetic induction and recovery characteristics and cardiopulmonary responses between alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental in Thoroughbred horses premedicated with medetomidine and midazolam. Randomised blinded experimental cross-over study. Six Thoroughbred horses were anaesthetised 3 times with alfaxalone 1 mg/kg bwt, ketamine 2.5 mg/kg bwt or thiopental 4 mg/kg bwt after premedication with medetomidine 6 μg/kg bwt and midazolam 20 μg/kg bwt. Qualities of anaesthetic induction and recovery were scored on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent). Induction time and recovery time were recorded. Cardiopulmonary values (heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial blood pressures, and arterial blood gases) were recorded throughout anaesthesia. Data were analysed with nonparametric methods. The anaesthetic induction (P = 0.2) and recovery (P = 0.1) quality scores (median, range) were not different amongst protocols and were 4.0, 3-5; 5.0, 4-5; 4.5, 3-5; and 4.5, 3-5; 3.5, 2-5; 4.0, 2-5 for alfaxalone, ketamine and thiopental, respectively. Induction time for ketamine (67, 53-89 s) was significantly longer than that for alfaxalone (49, 40-51 s, P = 0.01) and thiopental (48, 43-50 s, P = 0.01). Time to standing for alfaxalone (44, 40-63 min, P = 0.01) and thiopental (39, 30-58 min, P = 0.01) was significantly longer than that for ketamine (25, 18-26 min). Cardiovascular values were maintained within the clinically acceptable level throughout anaesthesia. Respiratory rate significantly decreased during anaesthesia for all 3 drugs; however, spontaneous breathing did not disappear, and PaCO2 values were maintained at approximately 50 mmHg. All 3 drugs showed similar effects in relation to anaesthetic induction and recovery qualities and cardiopulmonary responses. However, alfaxalone and thiopental prolonged recovery time

  9. A Double-Blinded, Randomized Comparison of Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Dexmedetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam Anesthesia in Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus Arctos)

    PubMed Central

    Cattet, Marc; Zedrosser, Andreas; Stenhouse, Gordon B.; Küker, Susanne; Evans, Alina L.; Arnemo, Jon M.

    2017-01-01

    We compared anesthetic features, blood parameters, and physiological responses to either medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam using a double-blinded, randomized experimental design during 40 anesthetic events of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) either captured by helicopter in Sweden or by culvert trap in Canada. Induction was smooth and predictable with both anesthetic protocols. Induction time, the need for supplemental drugs to sustain anesthesia, and capture-related stress were analyzed using generalized linear models, but anesthetic protocol did not differentially affect these variables. Arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and physiological responses were examined using linear mixed models. We documented acidemia (pH of arterial blood < 7.35), hypoxemia (partial pressure of arterial oxygen < 80 mmHg), and hypercapnia (partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide ≥ 45 mmHg) with both protocols. Arterial pH and oxygen partial pressure were similar between groups with the latter improving markedly after oxygen supplementation (p < 0.001). We documented dose-dependent effects of both anesthetic protocols on induction time and arterial oxygen partial pressure. The partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide increased as respiratory rate increased with medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam, but not with dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam, demonstrating a differential drug effect. Differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature among bears could not be attributed to the anesthetic protocol. Heart rate increased with increasing rectal temperature (p < 0.001) and ordinal day of capture (p = 0.002). Respiratory rate was significantly higher in bears captured by helicopter in Sweden than in bears captured by culvert trap in Canada (p < 0.001). Rectal temperature significantly decreased over time (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we did not find any benefit of using dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam instead of

  10. A Double-Blinded, Randomized Comparison of Medetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam and Dexmedetomidine-Tiletamine-Zolazepam Anesthesia in Free-Ranging Brown Bears (Ursus Arctos).

    PubMed

    Fandos Esteruelas, Núria; Cattet, Marc; Zedrosser, Andreas; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Küker, Susanne; Evans, Alina L; Arnemo, Jon M

    2017-01-01

    We compared anesthetic features, blood parameters, and physiological responses to either medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam or dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam using a double-blinded, randomized experimental design during 40 anesthetic events of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) either captured by helicopter in Sweden or by culvert trap in Canada. Induction was smooth and predictable with both anesthetic protocols. Induction time, the need for supplemental drugs to sustain anesthesia, and capture-related stress were analyzed using generalized linear models, but anesthetic protocol did not differentially affect these variables. Arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and physiological responses were examined using linear mixed models. We documented acidemia (pH of arterial blood < 7.35), hypoxemia (partial pressure of arterial oxygen < 80 mmHg), and hypercapnia (partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide ≥ 45 mmHg) with both protocols. Arterial pH and oxygen partial pressure were similar between groups with the latter improving markedly after oxygen supplementation (p < 0.001). We documented dose-dependent effects of both anesthetic protocols on induction time and arterial oxygen partial pressure. The partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide increased as respiratory rate increased with medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam, but not with dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam, demonstrating a differential drug effect. Differences in heart rate, respiratory rate, and rectal temperature among bears could not be attributed to the anesthetic protocol. Heart rate increased with increasing rectal temperature (p < 0.001) and ordinal day of capture (p = 0.002). Respiratory rate was significantly higher in bears captured by helicopter in Sweden than in bears captured by culvert trap in Canada (p < 0.001). Rectal temperature significantly decreased over time (p ≤ 0.05). Overall, we did not find any benefit of using dexmedetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam instead of

  11. THE EFFICACY OF NALBUPHINE, MEDETOMIDINE, AND AZAPERONE IN IMMOBILIZING AMERICAN BISON (BISON BISON).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Wood, Mary E; Nol, Pauline; McCollum, Matthew P; Fisher, Mark C; Lance, William R

    2017-04-01

    We evaluated a combination of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMed-A) in 12 American bison ( Bison bison ) during 13 sedation handling events. The mean (SE) dosage was 0.4 (0.02) mg/kg nalbuphine, 0.08 (0.003) mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.08 (0.003) mg/kg azaperone contained in an average delivery volume of 0.8 mL/100 kg. Two animals required a supplemental dose for safe handling (additive dose used in calculating means) and a third animal was not adequately sedated despite a supplemental dose. Bison immobilized with NalMed-A showed good sedation in 12 of 13 handling attempts. Advantages of this drug combination included a relatively low delivery volume, rapid antagonism, and minimal regulatory burden for component drugs. The most consistent disadvantage was hypoxemia, and oxygen supplementation is recommended when using this sedative combination in bison.

  12. Evaluation of selected cardiopulmonary and cerebral responses during medetomidine, propofol, and halothane anesthesia for laparoscopy in dogs.

    PubMed

    Bufalari, A; Short, C E; Giannoni, C; Pedrick, T P; Hardie, R J; Flanders, J A

    1997-12-01

    To compare the dose-sparing effect of medetomidine on the propofol induction dose and concentration of halothane for maintenance of anesthesia during laparoscopy and to provide guidelines for effective and safe use of these anesthetics in dogs to ensure desirable perioperative analgesia. 14 purpose-bred dogs. Cardiopulmonary and electroencephalographic responses were determined during 2 anesthesia protocols in dogs scheduled for laparoscopy. Fifteen minutes before anesthesia induction, all dogs received atropine sulfate (0.02 mg/kg of body weight, i.m.). Seven dogs were then given propofol (6.6 mg/kg, i.v.); anesthesia was maintained with halothane in oxygen. The other dogs were given medetomidine hydrochloride (10 micrograms/kg, i.m.) 5 minutes after administration of atropine sulfate; anesthesia was then induced by administration of propofol (2.8 mg/kg, i.v.) and was maintained with halothane in oxygen. The halothane concentration required for laparoscopy was lower in dogs given medetomidine. Anesthetic requirements were significantly increased during abdominal manipulation in both groups. Total amplitude of the electroencephalograph in medetomidine-treated dogs was not significantly lower than that in dogs not given medetomidine. Pulmonary responses were stable throughout all procedures. The primary cardiovascular response was an increase in blood pressure associated with the medetomidine-atropine preanesthetic combination. Significant differences in total amplitude or frequency shifts (spectral edge) of brain wave activity were not associated with surgical stimulation. Lack of neurologic changes during laparoscopy supports the efficacy of either medetomidine-propofol-halothane or propofol-halothane combinations at higher concentrations to provide desirable analgesia and anesthesia in this group of dogs.

  13. Remote semi-continuous flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reay, William G.; Walthall, Harry G.

    1991-12-01

    The movement of groundwater and its associated solutes from upland regions was implicated in the degradation of receiving surface water bodies. Current efforts to directly measure this influx of water incorporate manually operated seepage meters which are hindered by severe limitations. A prototype seepage meter was developed by NASA Langley Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University that will allow for the semi-continuous collection and data logging of seepage flux across the sediment water interface. The meter is designed to operate at depths to 40 meters, and alleviate or minimize all disadvantages associated with traditional methods while remaining cost effective. The unit was designed to operate independently for time periods on the order of weeks with adjustable sample sequences depending upon hydrologic conditions. When used in conjunction with commercially available pressure transducers, this seepage meter allows for correlations to be made between groundwater discharge and tidal/sea state conditions in coastal areas. Field data from the Chesapeake Bay and Florida Bay systems are presented.

  14. Remote semi-continuous flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G.; Walthall, Harry G.

    1991-01-01

    The movement of groundwater and its associated solutes from upland regions was implicated in the degradation of receiving surface water bodies. Current efforts to directly measure this influx of water incorporate manually operated seepage meters which are hindered by severe limitations. A prototype seepage meter was developed by NASA Langley Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University that will allow for the semi-continuous collection and data logging of seepage flux across the sediment water interface. The meter is designed to operate at depths to 40 meters, and alleviate or minimize all disadvantages associated with traditional methods while remaining cost effective. The unit was designed to operate independently for time periods on the order of weeks with adjustable sample sequences depending upon hydrologic conditions. When used in conjunction with commercially available pressure transducers, this seepage meter allows for correlations to be made between groundwater discharge and tidal/sea state conditions in coastal areas. Field data from the Chesapeake Bay and Florida Bay systems are presented.

  15. Evaluation of butorphanol, medetomidine and midazolam as a reversible narcotic combination in free-ranging African lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Wenger, Sandra; Buss, Peter; Joubert, Jenny; Steenkamp, Johan; Shikwambana, Purvance; Hatt, Jean-Michel

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of the combination butorphanol, medetomidine and midazolam (BMM) and its reversibility in lions. Prospective clinical trial. Thirty free-ranging lions, 10 male and 20 female, weighing 81-210 kg. Lions were immobilised with butorphanol mean 0.31 ± SD 0.034 mg kg(-1), medetomidine 0.052 ± 0.006 mg kg(-1), midazolam 0.21 ± 0.024 mg kg(-1) and hyaluronidase 1250 IU administered intramuscularly with a dart gun. Upon recumbency, physiological parameters and anaesthetic depth were monitored 10-15 minutes after darting (T1) and repeated every 10 minutes for a further 30 minutes (T2, T3, T4). Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at T1 and T4. At the end of the procedure, 45-60 minutes after initial darting, immobilisation was reversed with naltrexone 0.68 ± 0.082 mg kg(-1), atipamezole 0.26 ± 0.031 mg kg(-1), and flumazenil 0.0032 ± 0.0007 mg kg(-1) administered intravenously and subcutaneously. The BMM combination rapidly induced immobilisation and lateral recumbency was reached within 7.25 ± 2.3 minutes. Median induction score [scored 1 (excellent) to 4 (poor)] was 1.4 (range 1-2). Cardio-respiratory parameters were stable. Heart rate varied from 32 to 72 beats per minute, respiratory rate from 14 to 32 breaths minute(-1) and rectal temperature from 36.6 to 40.3 °C. No sudden arousals were observed. Arterial blood gas analyses revealed a mean pH of 7.33, PaCO(2) of 33 mmHg and PaO(2) of 87 mmHg. Mild to moderate hypoxemia was seen in four lions. Recovery was smooth and lions were walking within 4.4 ± 4.25 minutes. Median recovery score [scored 1 (excellent) to 4 (poor)] was 1.3 (range 1-2). The drug combination proved to be effective in immobilising free-ranging healthy lions of both sexes with minimal cardio-respiratory changes. © 2010 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2010 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  16. [Clinical evaluation of three medetomidine--midazolam--ketamine combinations for neutering of ferrets (Mustela putorius furo)].

    PubMed

    Schernthaner, Anita; Lendl, Christine; Busch, Raymonde; Henke, Julia

    2008-01-01

    33 ferrets (Mustela putorius furo, 11 females, 22 males, ASA I-II) were neutered in a combination anaesthesia with medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine. The animals were randomized into 3 groups. All animals received 20 microg/kg BW medetomidine and 0.5 mg/kg BW midazolam. The three groups differed regarding dosis and way of application of ketamine (IM10 = 10 mg/kg BW intramuscularly; IM07 = 7 mg/kg BW intramuscularly; SC10 = 10 mg/kg BW subcutaneously). After 30 minutes anaesthesia was partially antagonised with 100 microg/kg BW atipamezole i.m.. Sedation, muscle relaxation, analgesia, and overall anaesthetic impression were compared by a scoring protocol. Reactions to painful stimuli of clamping the spermatic cord or the ovarial ligament including the A. ovarica were judged, too. All animals lost their righting reflex and could be placed in dorsal recumbency. Induction and recovery time were significantly the shortest in study group IM10 with 1.73 +/- 0.3 and 9.73 +/- 4.6 min respectively. Recovery was significantly prolonged in group SC10 with 30.27 +/- 15.6 min. The MMK-anaesthesia with 10 mg/kg ketamine i.m. is very useful for neutering ferrets. Respiratory depression and bradycardia typically for medetomidine were seen in all three combinations, but quickly reversed after partial antagonisation. Induction and intubation, followed by inhalation anaesthesia, were possible with all three regimes.

  17. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the “extended...

  18. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  19. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the “extended time rating” set forth in American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Standard No. 32. ...

  20. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the “extended time rating” set forth in American Institute of Electrical Engineers Standard No. 32. ...

  1. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  2. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the “extended...

  3. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the “extended...

  4. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  5. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  6. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the “extended...

  7. Cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) anesthetized with intramuscular medetomidine and zolazepam/tiletamine.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dong-Hyuk; Yang, Jeong-Jin; Seok, Seong-Hoon; Song, Dong-Joo; Yeon, Seong-Chan

    2017-01-20

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia, and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%). Blood was collected from the femoral artery before administration of isoflurane and after each administration for immediate blood gas analysis. Isoflurane produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate, respiratory rate, minute volume, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressure and the partial pressure of arterial CO2, and dose-dependent decreases in non-invasive blood pressure and tidal volume. Rectal temperature, oxygenation and acid-base balance were unaffected by isoflurane. All parameters in this study were in a clinically acceptable range at all times. The data show that the combination of MZT and isoflurane is suitable for general anesthesia in Asiatic black bears with spontaneous breathing during prolonged procedures. End-tidal isoflurane concentrations of 0.5 to 2.5% can be used in Asiatic black bears without adverse side effects.

  8. Cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) anesthetized with intramuscular medetomidine and zolazepam/tiletamine

    PubMed Central

    JEONG, Dong-Hyuk; YANG, Jeong-Jin; SEOK, Seong-Hoon; SONG, Dong-Joo; YEON, Seong-Chan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia, and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%). Blood was collected from the femoral artery before administration of isoflurane and after each administration for immediate blood gas analysis. Isoflurane produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate, respiratory rate, minute volume, end-tidal carbon dioxide (CO2) partial pressure and the partial pressure of arterial CO2, and dose-dependent decreases in non-invasive blood pressure and tidal volume. Rectal temperature, oxygenation and acid-base balance were unaffected by isoflurane. All parameters in this study were in a clinically acceptable range at all times. The data show that the combination of MZT and isoflurane is suitable for general anesthesia in Asiatic black bears with spontaneous breathing during prolonged procedures. End-tidal isoflurane concentrations of 0.5 to 2.5% can be used in Asiatic black bears without adverse side effects. PMID:27725350

  9. The toxicity of the three antifouling biocides DCOIT, TPBP and medetomidine to the marine pelagic copepod Acartia tonsa.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Ida; Backhaus, Thomas; Blanck, Hans; Arrhenius, Åsa

    2016-07-01

    Copepods, the largest group of pelagic grazers, are at risk from exposure to antifouling biocides. This study investigated the toxicity of the antifouling biocides 4,5-dichloro-2-octyl-1,2-thiazol-3(2H)-one (DCOIT), triphenylborane pyridine (TPBP) and 4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole (medetomidine) to the copepod Acartia tonsa, using mortality and egg production as endpoints. The toxicity ranking for mortality was as follows: DCOIT (LC50 57 nmol l(-1)) = TPBP (LC50 56 nmol l(-1)) > medetomidine (LC50 241 nmol l(-1)). Egg production was more sensitive than mortality to TPBP (EC50 3.2 nmol l(-1)), while DCOIT and medetomidine inhibited egg production at roughly the same concentrations (72 and 186 nmol l(-1) respectively). Furthermore, TPBP seems to affect egg hatching directly which was not the case for DCOIT and medetomidine. DCOIT and medetomidine might pose an environmental risk as they have been reported to occur in different exposure scenarios or analytical surveys at concentrations only 2-3 times lower than the respective EC10. Reported environmental concentrations of TPBP are few but clearly lower than the EC10 values reported here, suggesting current risk of TPBP to copepods to be moderate.

  10. Effects of a candidate antifouling compound (medetomidine) on pheromone induced mate search in the amphipod Corophium volutator.

    PubMed

    Krång, Anna-Sara; Dahlström, Mia

    2006-12-01

    Environmental hazards associated with traditional, toxic antifouling coatings based on heavy metals calls for the development of alternative, environmentally acceptable antifouling compounds. Medetomidine ((+/-)-4-[1-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)ethyl]-1H-imidazole) is a candidate antifouling biocide which impedes settlement of barnacles in the nanomolar range. Prior to introducing novel biocides it is of great importance to consider potential effects on non-target organisms. This study is the first to investigate the effects of medetomidine on the amphipod Corophium volutator, specifically effects on male mate search behaviour. In a laboratory, Y-maze bioassay, C. volutator males were allowed to follow female pheromones after 24 h exposure to 0 (control), 0.01 and 0.1 microg mL(-1) medetomidine. We found that exposure to medetomidine at both concentrations significantly reduced pheromone induced mate search (by 42-71%), with fewer males crawling towards female odour. The results obtained indicate that medetomidine may impair the reproductive fitness of non-target crustaceans, an aspect that needs to be considered before further commercialisation.

  11. Determination of an optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine for anaesthesia in the Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris).

    PubMed

    Jouber, K E; Serfontein, T; Scantlebury, M; Manjerovice, M B; Bateman, P W; Bennett, N C; Waterman, J M

    2011-06-01

    The optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine was determined in 25 Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) undergoing surgical implantation of a temperature logger into the abdominal cavity. At the end of anaesthesia, the squirrels were given atipamezole intramuscularly to reverse the effects of medetomidine. The mean dose of medetomidine was 67.6 +/- 9.2microg/kg, ketamine 13.6 +/- 1.9 mg/kg and buprenorphine 0.5 +/- 0.06 microg/kg. Induction time was 3.1 +/- 1.4 min. This produced surgical anaesthesia for 21 +/- 4.2 min. Atipamezole 232 +/- 92 microg/kg produced a rapid recovery. Squirrels were sternally recumbent in 3.5 +/- 2.2 min.

  12. Romifidine, medetomidine or xylazine before propofol-halothane-N2O anesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Redondo, J I; Gómez-Villamandos, R J; Santisteban, J M; Domínguez, J M; Ruiz, I; Avila, I

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate romifidine as a premedicant in dogs prior to propofol-halothane-N2O anesthesia, and to compare it with the other alpha2-agonists (medetomidine and xylazine). For this, ten healthy dogs were anesthetized. Each dog received 3 preanesthetic protocols: atropine (10 microg/kg BW, IM), and as a sedative, romifidine (ROM; 40 microg/kg BW, IM), xylazine (XYL; 1 microg/kg, IM), or medetomidine (MED; 20 microg/kg BW, IM). Induction of anesthesia was delivered with propofol 15 min later and maintained with halothane and N2O for one hour in all cases. The following variables were registered before preanesthesia, 10 min after the administration of preanesthesia, and at 5-minute intervals during maintenance: PR, RR, rectal temperature (RT), MAP, SAP, and DAP. During maintenance, arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2) and percentage of halothane necessary for maintaining anesthesia (%HAL) were also recorded. Induction dose of propofol (DOSE), time to extubation (TE), time to sternal recumbency (TSR) and time to standing (TS) were also registered. The statistical analysis was carried out during the anesthetic period. ANOVA for repeat measures revealed no differences between the 3 groups for PR and RR; however, MAP, SAP and DAP were higher in the MED group; SpO2 was lower in MED and EtCO2 was lower in ROM; %HAL was higher in XYL. No statistical differences were observed in DOSE, TE, TSR or TS. Percentage of halothane was lower in romifidine and medetomidine than in xylazine premedicated dogs also anesthetized with propofol. All the cardiorespiratory variables measured were within normal limits. The studied combination of romifidine, atropine, propofol, halothane and N2O appears to be a safe and effective drug combination for inducing and maintaining general anesthesia in healthy dogs. PMID:9918331

  13. Injectable anaesthesia for adult cat and kitten castration: effects of medetomidine, dexmedetomidine and atipamezole on recovery.

    PubMed

    Bruniges, Natalie; Taylor, Polly M; Yates, David

    2016-11-01

    Objectives Rapid recovery from injectable anaesthesia benefits cat shelter neutering programmes. The effects of medetomidine, dexmedetomidine and atipamezole on recovery were evaluated in adult cats and kittens (⩽6 months old). Methods One hundred healthy male cats (age range 2-66 months, weight range 0.7-5.3 kg) admitted forneutering were randomly allocated to groups of 25. Anaesthesia was induced with 60 mg/m(2) ketamine, 180 µg/m(2) buprenorphine, 3 mg/m(2) midazolam and either 600 µg/m(2) medetomidine (groups M and MA) or 300 µg/m(2) dexmedetomidine (groups D and DA) intramuscularly (IM). Groups MA and DA also received 1.5 mg/m(2) atipamezole IM after 40 mins. Preparation time, surgical time, and times to sternal recumbency and standing were recorded. Data were analysed using the Kruskall-Wallis test, unpaired t-tests and ANOVA. Statistical significance was deemed to be P ⩽0.05. Results Groups did not differ significantly in age, body weight, preparation or surgical time. The time to sternal recumbency in group MA (64 ± 34 mins) was less than in group M (129 ± 32 mins), and in group DA it was less than in group D (54 ± 6 mins vs 110 ± 27 mins) ( P <0.001). There were no differences in duration of recovery to sternal recumbency between groups M and D or MA and DA. The time to standing in group MA (79 ± 51 mins) was less than in group M (150 ± 38 mins) ( P <0.001), and in group DA it was less than in group D (70 ± 22 mins vs 126 ± 27 mins) ( P <0.01). Time to standing in group D (126 ± 27 mins) was less than in group M (150 ± 38 mins) (P <0.05). Time to standing in groups DA and MA were not different. Kittens recovered faster than adults after atipamezole. Minimal adverse effects were seen. Conclusions and relevance Atipamezole reliably reduced recovery time after anaesthesia incorporating either dexmedetomidine or medetomidine; however, the choice of dexmedetomidine or medetomidine had little effect. Recovery was faster in kittens.

  14. The use of a Corophium volutator chronic sediment study to support the risk assessment of medetomidine for marine environments.

    PubMed

    Fox, Michelle; Ohlauson, Cecilia; Sharpe, Alan D; Brown, Rebecca J

    2014-04-01

    Chronic sediment studies were conducted using the marine amphipod Corophium volutator as part of an environmental risk assessment of the novel antifouling compound medetomidine. Two studies were performed, starting with neonates of less than 7 d old. A 28-d study considered endpoints of survival and growth (length and wet wt) and a 76-d study looked at survival, growth (length and wet wt), and reproduction (number of gravid females and neonates). Medetomidine was dosed via the sediment at nominal test concentrations of 1.0 µg/kg, 3.2 µg/kg, 10 µg/kg, 32 µg/kg, and 100 µg/kg (dry wt). In the 28-d growth study, a significant increase in mortality was observed at 32 µg/kg and 100 µg/kg. In the 76-d reproduction study, there were significant adverse effects on survival (32 µg/kg and 100 µg/kg), growth (100 µg/kg), and reproduction (100 µg/kg). The overall lowest-observed-effect concentration was 32 µg/kg medetomidine. For this test substance the increased study duration did not increase the overall sensitivity of the test. The present study suggests that the predicted sediment environmental concentration (PECsediment ) of 0.003 µg/kg for medetomidine would not be expected to cause adverse effects on the life history of C. volutator.

  15. CAPTURE OF FREE-RANGING MULE DEER (ODOCOILEUS HEMIONUS) WITH A COMBINATION OF MEDETOMIDINE, AZAPERONE, AND ALFAXALONE.

    PubMed

    Mathieu, Amélie; Caulkett, Nigel; Stent, Patrick M; Schwantje, Helen M

    2017-04-01

    The combination of medetomidine, azaperone, and alfaxalone has been successfully used to anesthetize captive white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus ). This same combination was utilized to immobilize free-ranging female mule deer ( Odocoileus hemionus ; MD) in urban and nonurban environments (14 urban MD, 14 nonurban MD) in British Columbia, Canada. Physiologic data were collected to assess the safety and reliability of this drug combination under field conditions. Each deer received estimated dosages of 0.15 mg/kg medetomidine, 0.2 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.5 mg/kg alfaxalone intramuscularly via a remote darting system. Inductions were calm and rapid (mean time to sternal recumbency: urban MD, 6.4±2.2 min; nonurban MD, 8.2±4.1 min). Supplemental drugs were required to induce lateral recumbency in five deer, four of which had experienced initial dart failure (mean time to lateral recumbency: urban MD, 8.5±3.8 min; nonurban MD, 18.7±16.5 min). Recoveries were smooth and uneventful (time to standing: urban MD, 12.5±3.4 min; nonurban MD, 9.0±3.5 min) for all but one debilitated nonurban MD that died shortly after atipamezole administration (at five times the medetomidine dose). The major side effects of the combination were hypoxemia and hypercapnia. The combination of medetomidine, azaperone, and alfaxalone proved suitable for the immobilization of urban and nonurban free-ranging MD.

  16. Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyan D; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Aithal, Hari P; Pawde, Abhijeet M; Zama, Malik M S; Singh, Jasmeet; Tiwary, Ramesh

    2013-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the sedative, analgesic and clinical effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine with fentanyl as pre-anaesthetics in water buffaloes and to compare the dose-sparing effect of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on thiopental for induction and isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in water buffaloes. Six male water buffaloes randomly received intravenous fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and medetomidine (2.5 µg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and dexmedetomidine (5.0 µg/kg body weight) at weekly intervals in groups I1, I2 and I3, respectively. After 15 min, the animals were restrained in right lateral recumbency and anaesthesia was induced by 5% thiopental sodium administered intravenously. The intubated animal was connected to the large animal anaesthesia machine and isoflurane in 100% oxygen (5 L/min) was insufflated for 60 min. The treatments were compared by clinicophysiological, haematobiochemical and haemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine produced more cardiovascular depression during the pre-anaesthetic period but less depression of cardio-respiratory dynamics in the post induction and maintenance period. Quicker recovery was recorded in I2 and I3 groups. A lower dose of thiopental was required in group I3 (4.33 mg/kg ± 0.66 mg/kg) than in groups I2 (4.41 mg/kg ± 0.98 mg/kg) and I1 (4.83 mg/kg ± 0.79 mg/kg). The dose of isoflurane was less in group I3 (45.50 mL ± 5.45 mL) than in group I1 and I2 (48.66 mL ± 5.10 mL and 48.00 mL ± 6.38 mL). Better anaesthesia was recorded with fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I3) than with fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I2) and fentanyl-xylazine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I1). Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine were better pre-anaesthetic agents in comparison to

  17. Butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine for immobilization of captive white-tailed deer.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brad F; Osborn, David A; Lance, William R; Howze, M Brent; Warren, Robert J; Miller, Karl V

    2009-04-01

    Drug combinations are commonly used to immobilize white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) for capture or handling. Although efficacy of various compatible and complementary drugs has been tested in clinical trials with deer, extensive negative side effects, impractical drug volume, and slow recovery from immobilization sometimes make these combinations less than ideal for routine field use. We hypothesized that a combination of butorphanol, azaperone, and medetomidine (BAM) would provide safe and effective immobilization of captive white-tailed deer while minimizing these complicating factors. We tested two dosages of this drug combination (BAM-1 and BAM-2) and two dosages of a naltrexone, tolazoline, and atipamezole antagonist combination (NTA-1 and NTA-2) with captive white-tailed deer. We characterized efficacy of drug for immobilization, quality of drug induction, and recovery after drug reversal, and we compared our findings with those of previous drug trials. Complete immobilization and excellent induction quality was achieved with a low volume dosage of BAM-2. Time to drug induction and deer recumbency for BAM-2 compared favorably with results from previous trials involving xylaxine/ ketamine and medetomidine/ketamine but without risk of hyperthermia. We found no differences in time to deer recovery for NTA-1 and NTA-2, with deer treated with either combination standing by 30 min postinjection. Regardless of immobilizing drugs used, we suggest practitioners monitor for signs of circulatory deficiency in deer and provide supplemental oxygen when needed.

  18. Evaluation of effectiveness, safety and reliability of intramuscular medetomidine-ketamine for captive great apes.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Bergadano, A

    2012-08-25

    Twenty great apes (six orangutans, eight chimpanzees and six gorillas) were anaesthetised prior to being transported for undergoing diagnostic and interventional procedures. Anaesthesia was induced with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine administered intramuscularly through a dart syringe. The onset of anaesthesia varied among apes: the mean (±sd) time from darting to recumbency was 12.13 (±1.9), 18.5 (±8.7) and 22.2 (±9.2) minutes in chimpanzees, orangutans and gorillas, respectively. The depth of anaesthesia was sufficient to allow safe removal of the animals from the enclosure, intravenous catheter placement and manipulation; however, the anaesthetic effect was short-acting (20 (±7) minutes in orangutans, 16 (±14) in gorillas, and 10 (±4) minutes in chimpanzees, respectively) and isoflurane administration was necessary in the majority of the apes to prolong the duration of anaesthesia, especially when lengthier procedures were performed. The sedative effect of medetomidine was reversed at the end of each procedure with atipamezole, and recovery was smooth and uneventful for all animals.

  19. Standing sedation with medetomidine and butorphanol in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lüders, I; Tindall, B; Young, D; van der Horst, G; Botha, S; Luther, I; Maree, L; Bertschinger, H J

    2016-03-01

    Doses for standing sedation allowing for various procedures in otherwise inaccessible, untrained captive African elephant bulls are presented. Thirty-three standing sedations were performed in 12 males aged 8-30 years (one to four sedations per animal). Each bull received a combination of 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.03 ± 0.007 mg/kg butorphanol. Full sedation was reached on average 25.5 min after injection. The addition of hyaluronidase (1000-2000 IU) significantly reduced time to full sedation to 16.5 min (paired t test, P = 0.024). Reversal was induced with intramuscular atipamezole 0.008 (±0.002) and naltrexone 0.035 (±0.015) mg/kg. Recovery took on average 7 min (3-18 min). The medetomidine/butorphanol combination provided safe standing sedation for smaller procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of ketamine and three metabolites in Beagle dogs under sevoflurane vs. medetomidine comedication assessed by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sandbaumhüter, Friederike A; Theurillat, Regula; Bektas, Rima N; Kutter, Annette P N; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2016-10-07

    Ketamine is often used for anesthesia in veterinary medicine. One possible comedication is the sedative α2-agonist medetomidine. Advantages of that combination are the compensation of side effects of the two drugs and the anesthetic-sparing effect of medetomidine. In vitro studies showed that medetomidine has an inhibitive effect on the formation of norketamine. Norketamine is the first metabolite of ketamine and is also active. It is followed by others like 6-hydroxynorketamine and 5,6-dehydronorketamine (DHNK). In an in vivo pharmacokinetic study Beagle dogs under sevoflurane anesthesia (mean end-tidal concentration 3.0±0.2%) or following medetomidine sedation (450μg/m(2)) received 4mg/kg racemic ketamine or 2mg/kg S-ketamine. Blood samples were collected between 0 and 900min after drug injection. 50μL aliquots of plasma were pretreated by liquid-liquid extraction prior to analysis of the reconstituted extracts with a robust enantioselective capillary electrophoresis assay using highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector and electrokinetic sample injection of the analytes from the extract across a short buffer plug without chiral selector. Levels of S- and R-ketamine, S- and R-norketamine, (2S,6S)- and (2R,6R)-hydroxynorketamine and S- and R-DHNK were determined. Data were analyzed with compartmental pharmacokinetic models which included two compartments for the ketamine and norketamine enantiomers and a single compartment for the DHNK and 6-hydroxynorketamine stereoisomers. Medetomidine showed an effect on the formation and elimination of all metabolites. Stereoselectivities were detected for 6-hydroxynorketamine and DHNK, but not for ketamine and norketamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. California's Youth and Young Adult Arrest Rates Continue a Historic Decline. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Males, Mike

    2016-01-01

    This Center on Juvenile and Criminal Justice (CJCJ) fact sheet shows that, in 2015, arrests of young people under age 25 dropped below 2014 levels and continue a decades-long trend of decline. While the causes of these declines are unknown, falling youth arrests rates coupled with decreased youth incarceration suggest that high rates of…

  2. Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer death rates

    Cancer.gov

    Death rates from all cancers combined for men, women, and children continued to decline in the United States between 2004 and 2008, according to the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2008. The overall rate of new cancer diagnoses,

  3. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...) Indications for use. As a sedative and analgesic in dogs over 12 weeks of age to facilitate clinical... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...) Indications for use. As a sedative and analgesic in dogs over 12 weeks of age to facilitate clinical... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney...

  5. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...) Indications for use. As a sedative and analgesic in dogs over 12 weeks of age to facilitate clinical... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney...

  6. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS...) Indications for use. As a sedative and analgesic in dogs over 12 weeks of age to facilitate clinical... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or kidney...

  7. Continuation rate surveys in Thailand: results and policy implications 1971-1981.

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    Continuation rate (CR) surveys have been an integral part of the Thai National Family Planning Program (NFFP) since its beginning in 1970. CR data for Thailand have 4 special features: in most cases, they are derived from nationally representative samples; because of the popularity of family planning, there is a large sample universe for CR studies which currently increases by 1 million new acceptors/year; there are CR data for IUD, pills, injectables, and now subdermal implants; and the frequency of CR studies provides an excellent time series of trends. CR surveys provide information on continuing use, demographic targets, commodity requirements and logistics, the trends in use patterns, comparative length of protection between methods, areal comparisons, and effects of policy changes. Since 1977 the package computer program LIFETAB has been used in CR studies, and since 1981, multiple classification analysis has been the major means of secondary analysis of results. The rates of greatest significance to NFFP program managers are the net cumulative 1st segment continuation and termination rates, avoidance of pregnancy rates, method failure rates, and gross termination rates. The procedure for data collection has almost always been personal interview of a random sample of method acceptors. The average 1-year pill continuation rates are approximately 68%, ranging from 64-72%. The 12-month rate for the Lippes loop was 75% in both 1971 and 1977. Much greater diversity was found in CRs for the injectable contraceptives. In a pilot trial, Norplant had a 1-year CR of 79%, but acceptors were screened for motivation, possibly biasing the CR upward. Reasons for termination differed by method. 1/2 of terminations of injectables were due to side effects, compared to about 1/3 for the other 3 methods. 45% of pill terminations in the 1st year were for desire for pregnancy and no need, including marital dissolution. 44% of IUD terminations were due to expulsion. Service

  8. Field anesthesia of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) using tiletamine-zolazepam, medetomidine, and butorphanol.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R Scott; Moresco, Anneke; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2011-03-01

    Telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. Variability in induction response has been seen between individuals that have received similar dosages, with young lemurs seeming to need more anesthetic than mature lemurs. This investigation evaluated Telazol induction in young (2.0-4.9 yr) and mature (> or = 5.0 yr) ring-tailed lemurs and compared postinduction supplementation with medetomidine or medetomidine-butorphanol. Forty-eight lemurs were anesthetized with Telazol administered via blow dart; then, 20 min after darting, they were supplemented via hand injection with either medetomidine (0.04 mg/ kg) or medetomidine-butorphanol (0.04 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively). The odds ratio for young lemurs to need more than one dart for induction, relative to mature lemurs, was 3.8, even though the initial dose of Telazol received by young lemurs (19 +/- 7 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the initial dose administered to mature lemurs (12 +/- 5 mg/kg). The total Telazol dosage was also significantly different between young lemurs (33 +/- 15 mg/kg) and mature lemurs (18 +/- 9 mg/kg). Both medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol provided good muscle relaxation and sedation for all procedures. Physiologic values were similar between the two protocols. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was generally good, although there were a few SaO2 values < 90%. Recoveries were smooth, but long. Time to head up was correlated with total Telazol dosage in mature lemurs. In young lemurs, time to standing was correlated with Telazol induction dosage and time of last Telazol administration. Lemurs that received hand injections of Telazol took longer to recover than those that did not. Further refinements are

  9. Six-month and 1-year continuation rates following postpartum insertion of implants and intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Woo, Irene; Seifert, Sara; Hendricks, Dacia; Jamshidi, Roxanne M; Burke, Anne E; Fox, Michelle C

    2015-12-01

    Studies show immediate postpartum (PP) insertion increases use of contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices (IUDs). Our objective was to compare the satisfaction and continuation rates of the two types of devices at 6 months and 1 year following PP insertion. We enrolled 133 women in a prospective cohort study following immediate PP insertion of an implant or IUD at two academic hospitals during 8 months of 2011. Subjects completed an enrollment survey during hospital admission and a follow-up phone survey 6 months and 1 year PP. At 6 months PP, 72% of subjects provided follow-up information. Implant users were more likely to be using the originally-placed device (40/41, 98% vs. 45/55, 82%, p=0.02); nine women reported IUD expulsions. When accounting for replacement of expelled IUDs, IUD continuation at 6 months was 89% yielding similar continuation rates between groups (p=0.12). At 1 year PP, 51% provided follow-up. Of those, 82% still had a LARC method in place with similar continuation by device type (84% for implants, 81% for IUDs, p=0.96). Overall, satisfaction was similarly high in both groups. Due to IUD expulsion, implants had a higher continuation rate than IUDs six months following immediate PP insertion. After replacement of expelled IUDs, continuation and satisfaction were similar for both devices at 6 months and 1 year. Placement of implants and IUDs immediately PP can lead to high satisfaction. Despite early IUD expulsions, continuation rates were similar to those placed outside of the immediate PP period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dose-rate effect on proliferation suppression in human cell lines continuously exposed to γ rays.

    PubMed

    Magae, Junji; Furukawa, Chiharu; Ogata, Hiromitsu

    2011-10-01

    Irradiation time and dose rate are important factors in the evaluation of radiation risk for human health. We previously proposed a novel dose-rate effect model, the modified exponential (MOE) model, which predicts that radiation risks decline exponentially as the dose rate decreases. Here we show that, during the early phase of exposure, up to 1000 h, the proliferation of cells continuously exposed to γ rays at a constant dose rate is gradually suppressed, even as the total dose increases. This trend holds for a number of cell lines including tumor cells, nontransformed fibroblasts and leukocytes. The accumulation of total dose by longer exposure times does not increase this suppressive effect even in cells with a defective DNA repair system, suggesting that risk is determined solely by dose rate in the later phase. The dose-rate effect in the early phase follows the MOE model in DNA repair-proficient cell lines, while cells with impaired DNA-PK or ATM show no dose-rate effect. In the later phase, however, a certain dose-rate effect is observed even in mutant cell lines, and suppression of cell proliferation no longer follows the MOE model. Our results suggest that a distinct mechanism that can operate in the absence of intact DNA-PK or ATM influences the dose-rate effect in the later phase of continuous radiation exposure.

  11. Assessing Observer Accuracy in Continuous Recording of Rate and Duration: Three Algorithms Compared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudford, Oliver C.; Martin, Neil T.; Hui, Jasmine K. Y.; Taylor, Sarah Ann

    2009-01-01

    The three algorithms most frequently selected by behavior-analytic researchers to compute interobserver agreement with continuous recording were used to assess the accuracy of data recorded from video samples on handheld computers by 12 observers. Rate and duration of responding were recorded for three samples each. Data files were compared with…

  12. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  13. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  14. Chemical immobilization of raccoons (Procyon lotor) with ketamine-medetomidine mixture and reversal with atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Robert, Karine; Garant, Dany; Pelletier, Fanie

    2012-01-01

    Safe and reliable capture techniques for wild animals are important for ecologic studies and management operations. We assessed the efficiency of ketamine-medetomidine (K:M) injection and reversal with atipamezole. We anesthetized 67 raccoons (Procyon lotor; 34 males, 33 females) 103 times (individuals captured between one and five times) from April 2009-October 2010 in Mont-Orford Provincial Park, Quebec, Canada. We administered a 1:1 mixture by volume of ketamine and medetomidine by intramuscular injection. Mean (±SD) induction times for males and females were 6.1±2.8 and 6.6±3.7 min, respectively. Mean induction time was 2 min longer for juveniles than for adults (7.8±3.9 and 5.8±2.9 min, respectively) and longer in autumn than in spring for adults (7.7±3.8 and 5.4±2.9 min, respectively). Recovery time after administration of atipamezole was 9.6±3.8 and 8.4±4.4 min for males and females, respectively. Recovery time was longer in spring than in autumn (10.2±4 and 7.4±3.8 min, respectively) for adults. Induction time increased by 166% after five captures of the same individual. Immobilization did not affect body mass, adult survival, or female reproductive success. We suggest the K:M mixture used is a safe and reliable method for anesthetizing raccoons in field conditions.

  15. Automated Continuous Distraction Osteogenesis May Allow Faster Distraction Rates: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Zachary S.; Tricomi, Brad; Murphy, Brian; Magill, John; Kaban, Leonard B.; Troulis, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine if automated continuous distraction osteogenesis at rates > 1mm/day would result in clinical and radiographic bone formation in a minipig model. Materials and Methods An automated, continuous, curvilinear distraction device was placed across a mandibular osteotomy in 10 minipigs. After 12 mm of distraction and 24 days fixation, animals were sacrificed and bone healing evaluated. The continuous distraction rates were 1.5 (n=5) and 3 mm/day (n=5). A semiquantitative scale was used to assess ex-vivo clinical appearance of the distraction gap (3= osteotomy not visible; 2= <50%; 1= >50%; 0= 100% visible); stability (3 = no mobility; 2 and 1 = mobility in 2 or 1 plane respectively; 0= mobility in 3 planes); radiographic density (4 = 100% gap opaque, 3= >75%, 2 = 50% – 75%, 1= <50%, or 0 = radiolucent). Groups of 4 minipigs distracted discontinuously at 1, 2, and 4 mm/day served as controls. Results The continuous DO 1.5 mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group. The continuous DO 3mm/day group had significantly higher scores for appearance and radiographic density compared to the discontinuous 4 mm/day group, and higher stability compared to the discontinuous 2 and 4 mm/day groups. Conclusions Results of this preliminary study indicate that continuous DO at rates of 1.5 and 3.0 mm/day produces better bone formation when compared to discontinuous DO at rates faster than 1mm/day. PMID:23499159

  16. Analysis of the Continuous Stellar Tracking Attitude Reference (CSTAR) attitude rate processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde-Lacovara, J.

    1987-01-01

    The Continuous Stellar Tracking Attitude Reference (CSTAR) system is an in-house project for Space Station to provide high accuracy, drift free attitude and angular rate information for the GN&C system. The outputs of the solid state star trackers are processed to provide attitude information; rate data is then derived from the attitude. Rate derivation is based on discrete time polynomial approximation techniques. This gives simple algorithms which allow for interpolation by other users. Attitude rate is modeled as a constant with low amplitude, low frequency sinusoids superimposed. The rate processor is parameterized to account for the effects of random errors, sample rate, data processing rate and perturbation frequency. The baseline system may be characterized as follows: the three sigma attitude accuracy is 0.01 degrees, the three sigma rate accuracy is 0.0001 degrees per second, the sample rate is 100 Hertz, the sampled signal is bandlimited to 0.5 Hertz, and the data processing rate is 10 Hertz. The above system requires a differentiator of length 127. This will track rate perturbations of frequencies less than 0.01 Hertz with low systematic errors.

  17. Simultaneous fMRI and local field potential measurements during epileptic seizures in medetomidine sedated rats using RASER pulse sequence

    PubMed Central

    Airaksinen, Antti M; Niskanen, Juha-Pekka; Chamberlain, Ryan; Huttunen, Joanna K; Nissinen, Jari; Garwood, Michael; Pitkänen, Asla; Gröhn, Olli

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous electrophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of animal models of epilepsy are methodologically challenging, but essential to better understand abnormal brain activity and hemodynamics during seizures. In the present study, fMRI of medetomidine sedated rats was performed using novel Rapid Acquisition by Sequential Excitation and Refocusing (RASER) fast imaging pulse sequence and simultaneous local field potential (LFP) measurements during kainic acid (KA) induced seizures. The image distortion caused by the hippocampal measuring electrode was clearly seen in echo planar imaging (EPI) images, whereas no artifact was seen in RASER images. Robust blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) responses were observed in the hippocampus during KA induced seizures. The recurrent epileptic seizures were detected in the LFP signal after KA injection. The presented combination of deep electrode LFP measurements and fMRI under medetomidine anesthesia, that does not significantly suppress KA induced seizures, provides a unique tool for studying abnormal brain activity in rats. PMID:20725933

  18. A High-Rate Continuous GPS Network in Iceland for Crustal Deformation Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geirsson, H.; Árnadóttir, T.; Bennett, R.; Lafemina, P.; Jónsson, S.; Hreinsdóttir, S.; Holland, A.; Deutscher, J.; Ingvarsson, T.; Sturkell, E.; Villemin, T.

    2007-12-01

    A significant expansion of the current continuous GPS network in Iceland is well underway. The goal of the project is to install 30-40 new continuous GPS stations, with a sampling rate of 1 second or higher in selected areas of the country. Most of the sites are already installed and are collecting data and communications are being established. Currently we have in total about 50 continuous and 12 semi-continuous stations running. Eventually, the older continuous GPS stations (installed from 1999 onwards) will also be upgraded to allow high sampling rates. Many of the CGPS sites are co-located with stations in the national seismic network which is very beneficial for operation of the sites and enhanced monotoring capabilities. The national seismic network in Iceland contains 51 3-component digital stations that all are on-line. High-rate GPS observations have been used successfully to study dynamic earthquake rupture processes, for example the Denali earthquake in Alaska and the 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquake in Japan. New GPS stations were installed in seismically active areas in the South Iceland Seismic Zone, the Reykjanes Peninsula and in Northern Iceland. We also attempt to capture volcanic processes by installing high-rate GPS stations near the three most active volcanoes in Iceland: Hekla, Grímsvotn, and Katla. These volcanoes have been active recently or are currently showing signs of unrest. Continuous GPS and recent campaign GPS measurements indicate rapid uplift (up to 2 cm/yr) over a wide area in central Iceland due to retreat of the glaciers in a warming climate. The new network already installed in central Iceland will obtain more detailed information on the rate and extent of the uplift. Implementing the 1-Hz technology in Iceland enables studies of both the dynamic as well as slower-rate processes related to earthquake and volcanic activity. The high level of volcanic and earthquake activity in Iceland makes it an ideal site for this project. In

  19. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and atipamezole for reversible anesthesia of free-ranging gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Arnemo, Jon M; Evans, Alina L; Ahlqvist, Per; Segerström, Peter; Liberg, Olof

    2013-04-01

    Twenty-eight anesthetic events were carried out on 24 free-ranging Scandinavian gray wolves (Canis lupus) by darting from a helicopter with 5 mg medetomidine and 250 mg ketamine during winter in 2002 and 2003. Mean±SD doses were 0.162±0.008 mg medetomidine/kg and 8.1±0.4 mg ketamine/kg in juveniles (7-10 mo old) and 0.110±0.014 mg medetomidine/kg and 5.7±0.5 mg ketamine/kg in adults (>19 mo old). Mean±SD induction time was shorter (P<0.01) in juveniles (2.3±0.8 min) than in adults (4.1±0.6 min). In 26 cases, the animals were completely immobilized after one dart. Muscle relaxation was good, palpebral reflexes were present, and there were no reactions to handling or minor painful stimuli. Mild to severe hyperthermia was detected in 14/28 anesthetic events. Atipamezole (5 mg per mg medetomidine) was injected intramuscularly for reversal 98±28 and 94±40 min after darting in juveniles and adults, respectively. Mean±SD time from administration of atipamezole to coordinated walking was 38±20 min in juveniles and 41±21 min in adults. Recovery was uneventful in 25 anesthetic events, although vomiting was observed in five animals. One adult that did not respond to atipamezole was given intravenous fluids and was fully recovered 8 hr after darting. Two animals died 7-9 hr after capture, despite intensive care. Both mortalities were attributed to shock and circulatory collapse following stress-induced hyperthermia. Although effective, this combination cannot be recommended for darting free-ranging wolves from helicopter at the doses presented here because of the severe hyperthermia seen in several wolves, two deaths, and prolonged recovery in one individual.

  20. Haemodynamic interactions of medetomidine and the peripheral alpha-2 antagonist MK-467 during step infusions in isoflurane-anaesthetised dogs.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Johanna; del Castillo, Jérôme R E; Salla, Kati; Troncy, Eric; Raekallio, Marja R; Vainio, Outi M

    2014-11-01

    The haemodynamic interactions of a step infusion with medetomidine (MED) and the peripherally acting alpha-2 antagonist MK-467 (MK) were compared with MED infused alone in isoflurane-anaesthetised dogs. Eight purposely-bred Beagles were used in a randomised crossover study. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol intravenously (IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs received 1.25 µg/kg MED as a 1 min loading dose IV, along with a step-down MED infusion at rates of 8.0 µg/kg/h (step 1: 0-20 min), 5.5 µg/kg/h (step 2: 20-40 min) and 4.0 µg/kg/h (step 3: 40-95 min). Five minutes after starting the MED infusion, the dogs received MK-467 in a step-up infusion at rates of 100 µg/kg/h (step 1: 5-35 min), 200 µg/kg/h (step 2: 35-65 min) and 500 µg/kg/h (step 3: 65-95 min). Heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressures and arteriovenous oxygen content differences (a-vO2 diff) were calculated. Plasma drug concentrations were analysed. Repeated-measures general linear mixed models with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analyses. MED infusion alone increased SAP maximally by 24.9%, MAP by 34.7% and a-vO2 diff by 222.5%, and reduced HR by 32.3%, but these changes were significantly attenuated by MK-467. Most MED effects returned to baseline during step 2 of MK-467 infusion and step 3 of MED infusion (MED/MK-467 ratio 1:18 to 1:50). Plasma concentrations of MED tended to be lower with the addition of MK-467. The use of step infusions helped to narrow down the therapeutic range for the MED/MK-467 infusion dose ratio during isoflurane anaesthesia in dogs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets.

    PubMed

    Weith, A; Larotonda, M A; Wang, Y; Luther, B M; Alessi, D; Marconi, M C; Rocca, J J; Dunn, J

    2006-07-01

    We have generated a laser average output power of 2 microW at a wavelength of 13.9 nm by operating a tabletop laser-pumped Ni-like Ag laser at a 5 Hz repetition rate, using a solid helicoidal target that is continuously rotated and advanced to renew the target surface between shots. More than 2 x 10(4) soft-x-ray laser shots were obtained by using a single target. Similar results were obtained at 13.2 nm in Ni-like Cd with a Cd-coated target. This scheme will allow uninterrupted operation of laser-pumped tabletop collisional soft-x-ray lasers at a repetition rate of 10 Hz for a period of hours, enabling the generation of continuous high average soft-x-ray powers for applications.

  2. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general.

  3. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  4. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison study was conducted of the effects of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue (white pulp) of the mouse spleen with findings as they relate to the mouse thymus. Experimental techniques employed included autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine (TdR-(h-3)). The problem studied involved the mechanism of cell proliferation of lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen and thymus under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roentgens (R) per day for 105 days (15 weeks). The aim was to determine whether or not a steady state or near-steady state of cell population could be established for this period of time, and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population were involved.

  5. Conjunction error rates on a continuous recognition memory test: little evidence for recollection.

    PubMed

    Jones, Todd C; Atchley, Paul

    2002-03-01

    Two experiments examined conjunction memory errors on a continuous recognition task where the lag between parent words (e.g., blackmail, jailbird) and later conjunction lures (blackbird) was manipulated. In Experiment 1, contrary to expectations, the conjunction error rate was highest at the shortest lag (1 word) and decreased as the lag increased. In Experiment 2 the conjunction error rate increased significantly from a 0- to a 1-word lag, then decreased slightly from a 1- to a 5-word lag. The results provide mixed support for simple familiarity and dual-process accounts of recognition. Paradoxically, searching for an item in memory does not appear to be a good encoding task.

  6. Continuation rates for oral contraceptives and hormone replacement therapy. The ESHRE Capri Workshop Group.

    PubMed

    2000-08-01

    Despite the safety and effectiveness of low oestrogen-dose oral contraceptives (OC) and postmenopausal hormone replacement there is poor continuity of use of these agents by women. Patterns of use and the reasons affecting different frequencies of use in different countries are presented. Continuity and discontinuation rates are difficult to assess accurately but it is believed that the main reasons why women discontinue use of these agents are concerns about their perceived health risks and the presence of, or fear of, adverse clinical effects, particularly unscheduled uterine bleeding and weight gain. More information is needed about OC continuation rates in order to improve the acceptability of these safe, effective agents. Most women discontinue use of postmenopausal hormonal replacement within 2 years of initiating the therapy. Reasons include disappearance of symptoms of oestrogen deficiency, lack of awareness of health benefits of oestrogen, presence of side-effects (such as breast tenderness and weight gain), presence of uterine bleeding and increasing age. Suggestions to increase continuation of OC include extensive individual pretreatment counselling with a different emphasis in different age groups, education at the time of follow-up visits and telephone calls, and extensive use of educational aids such as brochures, pamphlets and audio tapes, and improvement of pharmaceutical packaging information. In conclusion there is an urgent need to assess the value of these strategies by long-term large controlled studies.

  7. Generation of picosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm with gigahertz range continuously tunable repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Aubourg, Adrien; Lhermite, Jérôme; Hocquet, Steve; Cormier, Eric; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2015-12-01

    We report on a watt range laser system generating picosecond pulses using electro-optical modulation of a 1030 nm single frequency low noise laser diode. Its repetition rate is continuously tunable between 11 and 18 GHz. Over this range, output spectra and pulse characteristics are measured and compared with a numerical simulation. Finally, amplitude and residual phase noise measurements of the source are also presented.

  8. Validation of Loss and Continuation Rate Models to Support Navy Community Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    IMPACT model.)  Per discussion with BUPERS, at the E-8 level, AM and AME personnel may be advanced to AMCS (Senior Chief Aviation Structural...Mechanic). At the E-9 level, AMCS and ADCS (Senior Chief Aviation Machinist’s Mate) personnel look towards advancement to AFCM (Master Chief Aviation...Tennessee 38055-1000  www.nprst.navy.mil NPRST-TR-14-2 February 2014 Validation of Loss and Continuation Rate Models to Support Navy Community

  9. Anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular medetomidine-ketamine combination alone or with morphine or tramadol for orchiectomy in cats.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Dzikiti, Brighton T; Fosgate, Geoffrey T; Stegmann, Frik G; Venter, Frans J; Rioja, Eva

    2014-07-01

    To compare the anaesthetic, analgesic and cardiorespiratory effects of intramuscular (IM) medetomidine and ketamine administered alone or combined with morphine or tramadol, for orchiectomy in cats. Randomised, blinded, prospective clinical study. Thirty client-owned cats. Cats (n = 10 in each group) received a combination of medetomidine (60 μgkg(-1) ) and ketamine (10 mg kg(-1) ) alone (MedK); combined with morphine (0.2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKM), or combined with tramadol (2 mg kg(-1) ) (MedKT) IM. Time of induction, surgical and recovery events were recorded, and physiological parameters measured and recorded. Analgesia was evaluated with a visual analogue scale, a composite scoring system and the von Frey mechanical threshold device, every hour from three to eight hours post-drug administration injection. Data were analyzed with a linear mixed model, Kruskal-Wallis or Chi-square tests (p < 0.05). Median (IQR) induction and recovery times (minutes) were not significantly (p = 0.125) different between groups: 5.6 (2.7-8.0), 7.4 (5.1-9.6) and 8.0 (5.8-14.9) for induction and 128.5 (95.1-142.8), 166.4 (123.1-210.0) and 142.9 (123.4-180.2) for recovery, with MedK, MedKT and MedKM, respectively. Two cats (MedKM) required alfaxalone for endotracheal intubation. In all groups, three or four cats required additional isoflurane for surgery. Arterial oxygen tension overall (mean ± SD: 66 ± 2 mmHg) was low. Surgery resulted in increased systolic arterial blood pressure (p < 0.001), haemoglobin saturation (p < 0.001), respiratory (p = 0.003) and heart rates (p = 0.002). Pain scores did not differ significantly between groups. Von Frey responses decreased over time; changes over time varied by treatment (p < 0.001), MedK returning to baseline values more rapidly than MedKM and MedKT. No cat required rescue analgesics. All three protocols can provide adequate anaesthesia and analgesia for orchiectomy in cats. However, rescue intervention to maintain surgical anaesthesia may be

  10. Short-term effects of medetomidine on photosynthesis and protein synthesis in periphyton, epipsammon and plankton communities in relation to predicted environmental concentrations.

    PubMed

    Ohlauson, Cecilia; Eriksson, Karl Martin; Blanck, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Medetomidine is a new antifouling substance, highly effective against barnacles. As part of a thorough ecotoxicological evaluation of medetomidine, its short-term effects on algal and bacterial communities were investigated and environmental concentrations were predicted with the MAMPEC model. Photosynthesis and bacterial protein synthesis for three marine communities, viz. periphyton, epipsammon and plankton were used as effect indicators, and compared with the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). The plankton community showed a significant decrease in photosynthetic activity of 16% at 2 mg l⁻¹ of medetomidine, which was the only significant effect observed. PECs were estimated for a harbor, shipping lane and marina environment using three different model scenarios (MAMPEC default, Baltic and OECD scenarios). The highest PEC of 57 ng l⁻¹, generated for a marina with the Baltic scenario, was at least 10,000-fold lower than the concentration that significantly decreased photosynthetic activity. It is concluded that medetomidine does not cause any acute toxic effects on bacterial protein synthesis and only small acute effects on photosynthesis at high concentrations in marine microbial communities. It is also concluded that the hazard from medetomidine on these processes is low since the effect levels are much lower than the highest PEC.

  11. A comparison in dogs of medetomidine, with or without MK-467, and the combination acepromazine-butorphanol as premedication prior to anaesthesia induced by propofol and maintained with isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Salla, Kati; Bennett, Rachel C; Restitutti, Flavia; Junnila, Jouni; Raekallio, Marja; Vainio, Outi

    2014-03-01

    To compare the haemodynamic effects of three premedicant regimens during propofol-induced isoflurane anaesthesia. Prospective, randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy purpose-bred beagles aged 4 years and weighing mean 13.6 ± SD 1.9 kg. The dogs were instrumented whilst under isoflurane anaesthesia prior to each experiment, then allowed to recover for 60 minutes. Each dog was treated with three different premedications given intravenously (IV): medetomidine 10 μg kg⁻¹ (MED), medetomidine 10 μg kg⁻¹ with MK-467 250 μg kg⁻¹ (MMK), or acepromazine 0.01 mg kg⁻¹ with butorphanol 0.3 mg kg⁻¹ (AB). Anaesthesia was induced 20 minutes later with propofol and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen for 60 minutes. Heart rate (HR), cardiac output, arterial blood pressures (ABP), central venous pressure (CVP), respiratory rate, inspired oxygen fraction, rectal temperature (RT) and bispectral index (BIS) were measured and arterial and venous blood gases analyzed. Cardiac index (CI), systemic vascular resistance index (SVRI), oxygen delivery index (DO₂ I), systemic oxygen consumption index (VO₂ I) and oxygen extraction (EO₂) were calculated. Times to extubation, righting, sternal recumbency and walking were recorded. The differences between treatment groups were evaluated with repeated measures analysis of covariance. HR, CI, DO₂ I and BIS were significantly lower with MED than with MMK. ABP, CVP, SVRI, EO₂, RT and arterial lactate were significantly higher with MED than with MMK and AB. HR and ABP were significantly higher with MMK than with AB. However, CVP, CI, SVRI, DO₂ I, VO₂ I, EO₂, T, BIS and blood lactate did not differ significantly between MMK and AB. The times to extubation, righting, sternal recumbency and walking were significantly shorter with MMK than with MED and AB. MK-467 attenuates certain cardiovascular effects of medetomidine in dogs anaesthetized with isoflurane. The cardiovascular effects of MMK are very similar to those

  12. A mathematical method for extracting cell secretion rate from affinity biosensors continuously monitoring cell activity

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yandong; Zhou, Qing; Matharu, Zimple; Liu, Ying; Kwa, Timothy; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed miniature aptasensors that may be integrated at the site of a small group of cells for continuous detection of cell secreted molecules such as inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In a system such as this, the signal measured at the sensor surfaces is a complex function of transport, reaction, as well as of cellular activity. Herein, we report on the development of a mathematical framework for extracting cell production rates from binding curves generated with affinity biosensors. This framework consisted of a diffusion-reaction model coupled to a root finding algorithm for determining cell production rates values causing convergence of a predetermined criterion. To experimentally validate model predictions, we deployed a microfluidic device with an integrated biosensor for measuring the IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells. We found close agreement between secretion rate observed theoretically and those observed experimentally. After taking into account the differences in sensor geometry and reaction kinetics, the method for cell secretion rate determination described in this paper may be broadly applied to any biosensor continuously measuring cellular activity. PMID:24803956

  13. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  14. Risk factors and outcomes of high peritonitis rate in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients’ technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients. This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes. During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality. We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality. These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start

  15. Maximum growth rate of Mycobacterium avium in continuous culture or chronically infected BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, C M; Taylor, M A; Dennis, M W

    1987-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium is a human pathogen which may cause either chronic or disseminated disease and the organism exhibits a slow rate of growth. This study provides information on the growth rate of the organism in chronically infected mice and its maximal growth rate in vitro. M. avium was grown in continuous culture, limited for nitrogen with 0.5 mM ammonium chloride and dilution rates that ranged from 0.054 to 0.153 h-1. The steady-state concentration of ammonia nitrogen and M. avium cells for each dilution rate were determined. The bacterial saturation constant for growth-limiting ammonia was 0.29 mM (4 micrograms nitrogen/ml) and, from this, the maximal growth rate for M. avium was estimated to be 0.206 h-1 or a doubling time of 3.4 h. BALB/c mice were infected intravenously with 3 x 10(6) colony-forming units and a chronic infection resulted, typical of virulent M. avium strains. During a period of 3 months, the number of mycobacteria remained constant in the lungs, but increased 30-fold and 8,900-fold, respectively, in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter increase appeared to be due to proliferation in situ. The generation time of M. avium in the mesenteric lymph nodes was estimated to be 7 days.

  16. Continuous- and Discrete-Time Stimulus Sequences for High Stimulus Rate Paradigm in Evoked Potential Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm. PMID:23606900

  17. Continuous- and discrete-time stimulus sequences for high stimulus rate paradigm in evoked potential studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin; Zhan, Chang'an A

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm.

  18. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.

  19. Using the continuous quality improvement process to safely lower the cesarean section rate.

    PubMed

    Gregory, K D; Hackmeyer, P; Gold, L; Johnson, A I; Platt, L D

    1999-12-01

    In 1994 a five-year prospective observational study (including 38,541 singleton live-born deliveries) based on maternal and neonatal hospital administrative discharge data for DRGs 370-375 was launched at Cedars Sinai Medical Center (CSMC) in Los Angeles. In 1993 a cesarean section (C-section) reduction task force was first convened and several interventions were conducted and monitored during a two-year period. In 1995 CSMC joined the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's (IHI's) national collaborative on lowering C-section rates. The first intervention involved physician education (grand rounds) and occurred during the preintervention baseline period. Providing physician-specific data had been implemented before participation in the IHI collaborative. Two other interventions were implemented before the collaborative versus 13 interventions after. The C-section rate decreased from 26.0% in the baseline period in 1993 to 20.5% in 1997, a 21.2% reduction. During the postintervention period, the C-section rate increased to 23.5%. There was no statistically or clinically significant increase in clavicular fractures, brachial plexus injuries, or cerebral hemorrhage in the four study years, compared to the baseline period. It is possible to safely reduce C-section delivery rates. Activities are now under way to involve additional private physician leaders in the continuous quality improvement effort. Although the small increase in the C-section rate during the postintervention period may represent statistical variation, and in itself may not be clinically significant, it supports the thesis that ongoing, continuous organizational support is required to achieve and maintain gains.

  20. Intraperitoneal Continuous-Rate Infusion for the Maintenance of Anesthesia in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus)

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Terzi, Matthew C; Jaber, Samer M; Hankenson, F Claire; McKinstry-Wu, Andrew; Kelz, Max B; Marx, James O

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injectable anesthetics are often used to achieve surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. Because bolus redosing of injectable anesthetics can cause unacceptably high mortality, we evaluated intraperitoneal continuous-rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine with or without xylazine for maintaining surgical anesthesia for an extended period of time. Anesthesia was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (8 mg/kg) without or with acepromazine at 0.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg. At 10 min after induction, CRI for 90 min was initiated and comprised 25%, 50%, or 100% of the initial ketamine dose per hour or 50% of the initial doses of both ketamine and xylazine. Anesthetic regimens were compared on the basis of animal immobility, continuous surgical depth of anesthesia as determined by the absence of a pedal withdrawal reflex, and mortality. Consistent with previous studies, the response to anesthetics was highly variable. Regimens that provided the longest continuous surgical plane of anesthesia with minimal mortality were ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) with CRI of 100% of the initial ketamine dose and ketamine–xylazine–acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg) with CRI of 50% of the initial ketamine and xylazine doses. In addition, heart rate and respiratory rate did not increase consistently in response to a noxious stimulus during CRI anesthesia, even when mice exhibited a positive pedal withdrawal reflex, suggesting that these parameters are unreliable indicators of anesthetic depth during ketamine–xylazine anesthesia in mice. We conclude that intraperitoneal CRI anesthesia in mice prolongs injectable anesthesia more consistently and with lower mortality than does bolus redosing. PMID:27657709

  1. A Continuously Running High-Rate GEM-TPC for P¯ANDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhmer, F. V.; Angerer, H.; Dørheim, S.; Höppner, C.; Ketzer, B.; Konorov, I.; Neubert, S.; Paul, S.; Vandenbroucke, M.; Zhang, X.; Berger, M.; Cusanno, F.; Fabbietti, L.; Lalik, R.; Beck, R.; Kaiser, D.; Lang, M.; Schmitz, R.; Walther, D.; Winnebeck, A.; Zenke, F.; Arora, R.; Averbeckt, R.; Hehner, J.; Herrmannt, N.; Kleipa, V.; Kunkel, J.; Leifelst, Y.; Mladen, K.; Schmidt, C.; Schwab, S.; Soyk, D.; Voss, B.; Voss, J.; Weinert, J.; Zmeskal, J.

    2011-06-01

    The P¯ANDA fixed target experiment planned at FAIR will investigate fundamental questions of non-perturbative QCD. It makes use of a cooled antiproton beam (momentum: 1.5 to 15 GeV/c) and will reach luminosities of up to 2ṡ10 cm s, yielding a p¯p-annihilation rate of 2ṡ10 s. One option for the central tracker of P¯ANDA is a cylindrical, ungated, continuously running TPC with GEM-based gas amplification stage.

  2. Sufentanil-medetomidine anaesthesia compared with fentanyl/fluanisone-midazolam is associated with fewer ventricular arrhythmias and death during experimental myocardial infarction in rats and limits infarct size following reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Ter Horst, Ellis N; Krijnen, Paul A J; Flecknell, Paul; Meyer, Klaas W; Kramer, Klaas; van der Laan, Anja M; Piek, Jan J; Niessen, Hans W M

    2017-01-01

    To improve infarct healing following myocardial infarction in humans, therapeutic interventions can be applied during the inflammatory response. Animal models are widely used to study this process. However, induction of MI in rodents is associated with high mortality due to ventricular fibrillation (VF) during coronary artery ligation. The anaesthetic agent used during the procedure appears to influence the frequency of this complication. In this retrospective study, the effect on ventricular arrhythmia incidence during ligation and infarct size following in vivo reperfusion of two anaesthetic regimens, sufentanil-medetomidine (SM) and fentanyl/fluanisone-midazolam (FFM) was evaluated in rats. Anaesthetics were administered subcutaneously using fentanyl/fluanisone (0.5 mL/kg) with midazolam (5 mg/kg) (FFM group, n = 48) or sufentanil (0.05 mg/kg) with medetomidine (0.15 mg/kg) (SM group, n = 47). The coronary artery was ligated for 40 min to induce MI. Heart rate and ventricular arrhythmias were recorded during ligation, and infarct size was measured via histochemistry after three days of reperfusion. In the SM group, heart rate and VF incidence were lower throughout the experiment compared with the FFM group (6% versus 30%) ( P < 0.01). Fatal VF did not occur in the SM group whereas this occurred in 25% of the animals in the FFM group. Additionally, after three days of reperfusion, the infarcted area following SM anaesthesia was less than half as large as that following FFM anaesthesia (8.5 ± 6.4% versus 20.7 ± 5.6%) ( P < 0.01). Therefore, to minimize the possibility of complications related to VF and acute death arising during ligation, SM anaesthesia is recommended for experimental MI in rats.

  3. Effects of immobilization with medetomidine and reversal with atipamezole on blood chemistry of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.) in autumn and late winter.

    PubMed

    Soveri, T; Sankari, S; Salonen, J S; Nieminen, M

    1999-01-01

    Blood chemistry was studied in 8 adult female reindeer, of which 5 were pregnant. Half of them received only medetomidine (150 micrograms/kg i.m.) and half of them medetomidine and atipamezole (750 micrograms/kg) in March. Three weeks later the drug regimens were reversed. The same procedure was carried out during the next September and October. Seasonal differences in pretreatment values could be seen in serum urea, phosphorous, and cholesterol, with the highest concentrations during the autumn; and creatinine, ASAT, ALAT, and CK values, which were higher in the non-pregnant reindeer in late winter. Their low-protein and low-energy diet during the winter explains most of the differences. Increased enzyme activities in serum indicate decreased membrane stability of certain organs in late winter, possibly due to nutritional deficiencies. Treatment effects could be seen in several parameters. The increase in blood glucose and decrease in serum FFA were most probably due to alpha 2-adrenoceptor activation, which inhibits insulin release and lipolysis. These effects were partly or totally inhibited after treatment with the antagonist atipamezole. The earlier increase in serum CK and ASAT activities in those receiving atipamezole can be explained by increased tissue perfusion due to atipamezole itself and the fact that these animals stood up and began to move much earlier than did those which received medetomidine only. A significant decrease in serum Na+, K+, Cl-, Pi, cholesterol, total Ca, and total protein concentration observed during the first 10 to 40 min of the medetomidine sedation could be explained by possible haemodilution and diuresis. More effective metabolism of medetomidine in autumn could explain the shorter recovery times of reindeer receiving only medetomidine and most of the differences in treatment effects between the seasons: faster increase in protein and cholesterol concentrations after the decrease, and the antagonistic effect of atipamezole on

  4. The influence of internal crystal perfection on growth rate dispersion in a continuous suspension crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacher, U.; Mersmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the work presented here is to demonstrate the influence of induced lattice strain on growth behaviour of potassium alum crystals in a continuously operated mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. Therefore crystal size distributions in the crystallizer and individual growth velocities, especially of small particles (initial size 20-60 μm) in a flow-through cell, were simultaneously determined. Moreover Laue diffraction patterns of crystals withdrawn from the MSMPR crystallizer were carried out indicating lattice deformation and strain. Most crystals exhibit constant crystal growth (CCG) behaviour with significant growth rate dispersion. The mean growth rate of small particles in the sub-sieve size range is considerably smaller than the mean rate of product sized crystals at constant supersaturation. Small potash alum crystals show a clear tendency of increased lattice strain with increasing supersaturation which can be explained by the refaceting process of attrition nuclei in the crystallizer. The average amount of induced strain in crystals having the same growth history is obviously related to crystal size. Only slightly strained particles with sufficiently high growth rates will reach the product size range in the MSMPR crystallizer.

  5. A method of measuring continuous detonation rates using off-the-shelf items

    SciTech Connect

    Santis, L.D.; Cortese, R.A.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a method of measuring continuous detonation rates using standard electronic parts, coaxial cable, and a data recorder such as an oscilloscope. Three six-volt lantern batteries or a DC supply power the electronics that cost less than $100. Included are means of showing low battery power, finding the proper voltage scale on the recorder, and test triggering of the recorder. Modifications of the circuit allow for use in the field to measure charges up to 57 meters and for use in the laboratory to measure short charges. The high resistance (8.709 Ohms/meter) coaxial cable is a mass produced, special order cable available commercially. The driver circuit delivers a constant current to the cable, and as the detonation shorts the cable, a change in circuit voltage occurs. Recording this voltage change over time allows determination of detonation rate resolute to the sampling speed of the recorder. An oscilloscope or personal computer with a data acquisition card can easily record the data for analysis. Detonation rates recorded in the laboratory using the coaxial cable and the Bureau of Mines` traditional probes are presented. The system accurately measured the detonation rates of ANFO confined in steel pipe, detonating cord, and unconfined high explosive.

  6. Continuous gamma-irradiation of rats: dose-rate effect on loss and recovery of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pinon-Lataillade, G; Maas, J

    1985-07-01

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were continuously irradiated at a dose-rate of either 5 or 7 cGy/day, up to a total dose of 900 cGy. Changes in spermatogenesis with irradiation and the recovery of the testis during 33 weeks after irradiation were studied. No clear dose-rate effect with testicular weight occurred. During the irradiation time, increased dose and dose-rate induced a decrease in A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocyte number. In our experimental conditions germ cell production did not plateau, as shown by the increasing number of tubular cross sections devoid of germ cells beyond 500 cGy. The recovery of seminiferous epithelium occurred essentially within nine weeks. It was not dose-rate dependent and was still incomplete after 33 weeks. This lack of recovery might be due to limited compensatory division ability of the stem cells. Clusters of Sertoli cells were observed in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules; impaired function of these cells could also prevent the complete recovery of the seminiferous epithelium. By 16 weeks after the end of irradiation 67% of 5 cGy/day irradiated rats and 34% of 7 cGy/day irradiated rats recovered fertility.

  7. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  8. Effects of ethanol concentration and stripping temperature on continuous fermentation rate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, F; Kurantz, M J; Goldberg, N; Craig, J C

    1997-09-01

    The operation of a pilot plant consisting of a 14-1 fermentor, 10-cm packed column and condenser for continuous fermentation and stripping of ethanol was stable for more than 100 days. The feed consisted of a non-sterile solution of 560 g/l glucose with 100 g/l corn steep water. Fouling of the packing in the column with attached growth of yeast cells was controlled by in situ washing at intervals of 3-6 days. A computer simulation of the pilot plant was developed and used to analyze the data. The productivity of the continuous fermentor varied from 14 g ethanol to 17 g ethanol l-1 h-1. The yield was equal to the maximum theoretically possible: 0.51 g ethanol/g glucose consumed. Results are fit to linear models for the effects of ethanol concentration on specific growth rate and cell yield, and for the effect of stripping temperature on specific growth rate.

  9. Comparative effects of medetomidine enantiomers on in vitro and in vivo microsomal drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Pelkonen, O; Puurunen, J; Arvela, P; Lammintausta, R

    1991-09-01

    The effects of dexmedetomidine, a selective alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist, and its levo enantiomer (MPV-1441), on in vitro microsomal P450-dependent drug-metabolizing activities as well as on in vivo aminopyrine elimination and hexobarbital sleeping time were studied. Both enantiomers inhibited the oxidative metabolism of several model substrates and testosterone in rat liver microsomal incubations. Microsomal activities derived from control animals or rats pretreated with phenobarbital were more sensitive to inhibitory effects of dexmedetomidine than those from rats treated with 3-methylcholanthrene. Enzyme activities in human liver microsomes were also inhibited by dexmedetomidine. Retardation of the elimination of aminopyrine was dose-dependent; elimination was marginally retarded with doses up to 100 micrograms/kg (from 17 to 23 min.; both enantiomers). Higher doses of the levo enantiomer prolonged aminopyrine half-life to 78 (1 mg/kg) and 162 min. (10 mg/kg). The hexobarbital sleeping time was prolonged by the dose of 1 mg/kg of the levo enantiomer (128 min. versus 20 min. in controls), while the dose of 0.1 mg/kg had no effect (23 versus 20 min.). These studies indicate that both enantiomers of medetomidine are inhibitors of microsomal drug metabolism in vitro, but significant effects on aminopyrine elimination or hexobarbital sleeping time are apparent only at doses, which do not allow the use of dexmedetomidine because of excessive sedative effect.

  10. Reversible anesthesia of captive California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with medetomidine, midazolam, butorphanol, and isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Spelman, Lucy H

    2004-03-01

    Two adult California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were effectively anesthetized 13 times with medetomidine (0.010-0.013 mg/kg), midazolam (0.2-0.26 mg/kg), and butorphanol (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) by i.m. hand or pole syringe injection. For each anesthetic event, atropine (0.02 mg/kg, i.m.) was administered 6-20 min after initial injections, and oxygen administration via face mask or nasal insufflation began at the same time. Light anesthesia was induced in 8-22 min and lasted 13-78 min. During eight of the procedures, isoflurane (0.5-2.0%) was administered via face mask or endotracheal tube for an additional 30-120 min to facilitate longer procedures or surgery. Anesthesia was antagonized with atipamezole (0.05-0.06 mg/kg) and naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg) in seven events, with the addition of flumazenil (0.0002-0.002 mg/kg) in six events. The antagonists were administered by i.m. injection 42-149 min after administration of the induction agents. All sea lions recovered to mild sedation within 4-17 min after administration of the antagonists.

  11. Evaluation of aqueous tear production in dogs after general anaesthesia with medetomidine-propofol-carprofen-halothane.

    PubMed

    Komnenou, A T H; Kazakos, G M; Savvas, I; Thomas, A L N

    2013-08-10

    The influence of an anaesthetic protocol, which included medetomidine, propofol, carprofen and halothane on tear production in the dog. There are no previous studies on the effects of this combination on tear production in dogs or in any other species. The present study included 39 dogs, which underwent non-ophthalmic surgery in our clinic. Preanaesthetically, all dogs had normal tear production (18.62±3.65 mm/minute) as this was recorded with Schirmer tear test I (STT I) and the ophthalmologic examination did not reveal anything abnormal. Tear production readings were recorded before the administration of premedication, at the end of anaesthesia, one hour and two hours postanaesthesia. No reverse agent was administrated. At the end of anaesthesia (right eye (oculus dexter, OD) P<0.0005, left eye (oculus sinister, OS) P<0.0005), as well as one hour postanaesthesia (OD P=0.020, OS P=0.001) there was a statistically significant reduction in tear production, which returned to normal values two hours postanaesthesia, regardless of the duration of the operation. This anaesthetic combination resulted in a decrease in tear production and, therefore, the use of tear substitute treatment in dogs undergoing anaesthesia with this protocol (combination) from the time the sedative is given until at least two hours after the end of anaesthesia is highly recommended.

  12. Complications and continuation rates associated with two types of long-acting contraception

    PubMed Central

    Berenson, Abbey B.; Tan, Alai; Hirth, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To compare complication and continuation rates of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) with the subdermal etonogestrel (ENG) implant across the US among women 15 – 44 years of age. Study Design A retrospective study of health insurance claims records from 2007–2011 identified a cohort of women who had LNG-IUS (n=79,920) or ENG implants (n=7,374) inserted and had insurance coverage for 12 months post-insertion. Claims for complications were examined 12 months after insertion, or until removal of either device within each of three age groups. Results After its introduction in 2007, the frequency of ENG implants increased each year and almost 1/3 of all insertions were in teenagers. However, among women ≤ 24 years old who had delivered an infant in the prior 8 weeks, a LNG-IUS was more likely to be inserted than an ENG implant (P < .05). The most frequent complications with both methods were related to abnormal menstruation, which was more likely to occur among ENG implant users. Overall, 83–88% of the entire sample used their chosen method for at least 12 months. The odds of continuation were similar for both methods among teenagers, but ENG implants were more likely to be removed prematurely among women 20 – 24 years old (OR 1.21, 95% CI: 1.06–1.39) and 25 – 44 years old (OR 1.49, 95% CI: 1.35–1.64). Conclusions Both of these long-acting contraceptive methods are well tolerated among women of all ages, and demonstrate high continuation rates. PMID:25555662

  13. Observational study of compliance and continuance rates of raloxifene in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Zanchetta, José R.; Hakim, Carina; Lombas, Carola

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background: Medical practitioners face the challenge of noncompliance with prescriptions, particularly in chronic, asymptomatic, diseases such as osteoporosis. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the raloxifene compliance and continuance rates and adverse effects over 24 months in clinical practice. Methods: Using a retrospective study of clinical histories obtained from a database at the Metabolic Research Institute, University of El Salvador School of Medicine, Buenos Aires, Argentina, as well as telephone interviews, we assessed compliance and continuance with raloxifene therapy in post-menopausal patients who had received prescriptions for raloxifene to prevent or treat osteoporosis. Patients were contacted by telephone 24 months after they had received a prescription for raloxifene. Compliance and continuance rates were calculated based on the data provided by the patients. Results: Data from 419 patients (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [7.4] years [range, 42–90 years]) were included in the study. At the time of the telephone interview, 225 (53.7%) were still receiving raloxifene, 105 (25.1%) had stopped treatment at their own discretion, 59 (14.1%) had not started treatment, and 30 (7.2%) had discontinued treatment as a result of advice from a physician. The reasons for not starting treatment were fear of thrombolytic events (21 patients [35.6%]); lack of interest in starting treatment (12 [20.3%]); other physician's advice (11 [18.6%]); family problems (3 [5.1%]); dissatisfaction with the prescribing physician, treatment cost, health problems unrelated to osteoporosis, and mistrust in the prescription (each, 2 [3.4%]); and advice from family/friends, fear of breast cancer, belief that raloxifene is hormonal, and that the patient was already polymedicated (each, 1 [1.7%]). Eleven of the 59 patients (18.6%) who had not started therapy were advised by a physician other than the prescribing physician not to start treatment and were excluded from the

  14. Exponentially enhanced quantum communication rate by multiplexing continuous-variable teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christ, Andreas; Lupo, Cosmo; Silberhorn, Christine

    2012-08-01

    A major challenge of today's quantum communication systems lies in the transmission of quantum information with high rates over long distances in the presence of unavoidable losses. Thereby the achievable quantum communication rate is fundamentally limited by the amount of energy that can be transmitted per use of the channel. It is hence vital to develop quantum communication protocols that encode quantum information as energy efficiently as possible. To this aim we investigate continuous-variable quantum teleportation as a method of distributing quantum information. We explore the possibility to encode information on multiple optical modes and derive upper and lower bounds on the achievable quantum channel capacities. This analysis enables us to benchmark single-mode versus multi-mode entanglement resources. Our research reveals that multiplexing does not only feature an enhanced energy efficiency, leading to an exponential increase in the achievable quantum communication rates in comparison to single-mode coding, but also yields an improved loss resilience. However, as reliable quantum information transfer is only achieved for entanglement values above a certain threshold a careful optimization of the number of coding modes is needed to obtain the optimal quantum channel capacity.

  15. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of cell proliferation is studied in the lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose-rate of 10 roentgens per day for 105 days. Autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine were utilized. It was found that at least four compensatory mechanisms maintained a near-steady state of cellular growth: (1) an increase in the proportion of PAS-positive cells which stimulate mitotic activity, (2) maturation arrest of proliferating and differentiating cells which tend to replenish the cells damaged or destroyed by irradiation, (3) an increase in the proportion of cells proliferating, and (4) an increase in the proportion of precursor cells. The results are compared to previous findings observed in the thymus.

  16. SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.

  17. A decrease in conjunction error rates across lags on a continuous recognition task: a robust pattern.

    PubMed

    Jones, Todd C; Atchley, Paul

    2008-11-01

    In four experiments, the lag retention interval from parent words (e.g., blackmail, jailbird) to a conjunction word (blackbird) was manipulated in a continuous recognition task. Alterations to the basic procedure of Jones and Atchley (2002) were employed in Experiments 1 and 2 to bolster recollection to reject conjunction lures, yet conjunction error rates still decreased across lags of 1 to 20 words. Experiment 3 and a multiexperiment analysis examined the increments of forgetting in familiarity across lags of 1-20 words. Finally, in Experiment 4, participants attempted to identify conjunction probes as "old", and the data were contrasted with those from a previous experiment (Jones & Atchley, 2002, Exp. 1), in which participants attempted not to identify conjunction probes as "old". In support of earlier findings, the decrease in familiarity across lags of 1-20 words appears robust, with a constant level of weak recollection occurring for parent words.

  18. Modification of the effects of continuous low dose rate irradiation by concurrent chemotherapy infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, K.K.; Rayner, P.A.; Lam, K.N.

    1984-08-01

    The combined effects of continuous low dose rate irradiation (CLDRI) and concurrent infusion of bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, cis-platinum, 5-fluorouracil, actinomycin D, and mitomycin C were studied in the SCC VII/SF tumor, a squamous cell carcinoma and the jejunal crypt cells in the mouse. For the SCC VII/SF tumor, enhanced cell killing was seen with each of the six drugs when infused concurrently with CLDRI; the greatest enhancement was seen with mitomycin C and cis-platinum. For the jejunal crypt cells, enhanced cell killing was seen primarily with bleomycin. The authors results suggest a therapeutic gain with concurrent CLDRI and chemotherapy infusion for five of the six chemotherapeutic drugs studied with the exception of bleomycin.

  19. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors.

    PubMed

    You, Yan; Niu, Can; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Yating; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jiefeng; He, Fei; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies. Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr(-1)). AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions. Field tests were conducted in classrooms, dormitories, meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers. Indoor temperature, relative humidity (RH), and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded. Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved: duplicate precision was within 10%, and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs. Average AERs were 1.22, 1.37, 1.10, 1.91 and 0.73 hr(-1) in dormitories, air-conditioned classrooms, classrooms with an air circulation cooling system, reading rooms, and meeting rooms, respectively. In an elderly particulate matter exposure study, all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr(-1) in fall, and 0.12 to 1.39 hr(-1) in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  20. Importance of age for 3-year continuous behavioral obesity treatment success and dropout rate.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Pernilla; Svensson, Viktoria; Kowalski, Jan; Nyberg, Gisela; Ekblom, Orjan; Marcus, Claude

    2012-01-01

    To assess whether first year weight loss, age, and socioeconomic background correlate with the success rate of continuous long-term behavioral obesity treatment. In a 3-year longitudinal study, obese children (n = 684) were divided into three groups based on age at the start of treatment, age 6-9 years, 10-13 years, and 14-16 years. The mean BMI standard deviation score (BMI-SDS) decline was age-dependent (p = 0.001), independently of adjustment for missing data: -1.8 BMI-SDS units in the youngest, -1.3 in the middle age group, and -0.5 in the oldest age group. SES and parental BMI status did not affect the results. 30% of the adolescents remained in treatment at year 3. There was only a weak correlation between BMI-SDS change after 1 and 3 years: r = 0.51 (p < 0.001). Among children with no BMI-SDS reduction during year 1 (n = 46), 40% had a clinically significantly reduced BMI-SDS after year 3. Behavioral treatment should be initiated at an early age to increase the chance for good results. Childhood obesity treatment should be continued for at least 3 years, regardless of the initial change in BMI-SDS. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  1. Low rate of postpolypectomy bleeding among patients who continue thienopyridine therapy during colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Feagins, Linda A; Iqbal, Ramiz; Harford, William V; Halai, Akeel; Cryer, Byron L; Dunbar, Kerry B; Davila, Raquel E; Spechler, Stuart J

    2013-10-01

    It is not clear whether the cardiovascular risk of discontinuing treatment with antiplatelet agents, specifically the thienopyridines, before elective colonoscopy outweighs the risks of postpolypectomy bleeding (PPB). We studied the rate of PPB in patients who continue thienopyridine therapy during colonoscopy. We performed a prospective study of 516 patients not taking warfarin who received polypectomies during elective colonoscopies; 219 were receiving thienopyridines, and 297 were not (controls). The occurrence of immediate PPB and delayed PPB was recorded. Delayed PPB was categorized as clinically important if it resulted in repeat colonoscopy, hospitalization, or blood transfusion. Patients receiving thienopyridines were older and had significantly more comorbid diseases than controls; the mean number of polyps removed per patient was significantly higher (3.9 vs 2.9) in the thienopyridine group. Immediate PPB developed in 16 patients in the thienopyridine group (7.3%) and in 14 in the control group (4.7%, P = .25). Among patients who completed a 30-day follow-up analysis (96% of patients enrolled), clinically important, delayed bleeding occurred in 2.4% of patients receiving thienopyridines and in none of the controls (P = .01). All PPB events in both groups were resolved without surgery, angiography, or death. Although a significantly higher percentage of patients who continue thienopyridine therapy during colonoscopy and polypectomy develop clinically important delayed PPB than patients who discontinue therapy, the rate of PPB events is low (2.4%), and all are resolved without sequelae. The risk for catastrophic cardiovascular risks among patients who discontinue thienopyridine therapy before elective colonoscopies could therefore exceed the risks of PPB. ClinicalTrials.gov, Number NCT01647568. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. India plate angular velocity and contemporary deformation rates from continuous GPS measurements from 1996 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Jade, Sridevi; Shrungeshwara, T S; Kumar, Kireet; Choudhury, Pallabee; Dumka, Rakesh K; Bhu, Harsh

    2017-09-12

    We estimate a new angular velocity for the India plate and contemporary deformation rates in the plate interior and along its seismically active margins from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from 1996 to 2015 at 70 continuous and 3 episodic stations. A new India-ITRF2008 angular velocity is estimated from 30 GPS sites, which include stations from western and eastern regions of the plate interior that were unrepresented or only sparsely sampled in previous studies. Our newly estimated India-ITRF2008 Euler pole is located significantly closer to the plate with ~3% higher angular velocity than all previous estimates and thus predicts more rapid variations in rates and directions along the plate boundaries. The 30 India plate GPS site velocities are well fit by the new angular velocity, with north and east RMS misfits of only 0.8 and 0.9 mm/yr, respectively. India fixed velocities suggest an approximate of 1-2 mm/yr intra-plate deformation that might be concentrated along regional dislocations, faults in Peninsular India, Kachchh and Indo-Gangetic plain. Relative to our newly-defined India plate frame of reference, the newly estimated velocities for 43 other GPS sites along the plate margins give insights into active deformation along India's seismically active northern and eastern boundaries.

  3. Characterization of continuously distributed cortical water diffusion rates with a stretched-exponential model.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin M; Schmainda, Kathleen M; Bennett, Raoqiong Tong; Rowe, Daniel B; Lu, Hanbing; Hyde, James S

    2003-10-01

    Experience with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) shows that signal attenuation is consistent with a multicompartmental theory of water diffusion in the brain. The source of this so-called nonexponential behavior is a topic of debate, because the cerebral cortex contains considerable microscopic heterogeneity and is therefore difficult to model. To account for this heterogeneity and understand its implications for current models of diffusion, a stretched-exponential function was developed to describe diffusion-related signal decay as a continuous distribution of sources decaying at different rates, with no assumptions made about the number of participating sources. DWI experiments were performed using a spin-echo diffusion-weighted pulse sequence with b-values of 500-6500 s/mm(2) in six rats. Signal attenuation curves were fit to a stretched-exponential function, and 20% of the voxels were better fit to the stretched-exponential model than to a biexponential model, even though the latter model had one more adjustable parameter. Based on the calculated intravoxel heterogeneity measure, the cerebral cortex contains considerable heterogeneity in diffusion. The use of a distributed diffusion coefficient (DDC) is suggested to measure mean intravoxel diffusion rates in the presence of such heterogeneity.

  4. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. H.; Slamovich, E. B.; Handwerker, C. A.

    2013-05-01

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl-) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl- ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl- to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ˜100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl-]/[Zn2+] = 1.5 and pH= 4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm2 V-1 s-1 at zero back-gate bias.

  5. Effects of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Horses Anesthetized with Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using Combination of Medetomidine, Lidocaine, Butorphanol and Propofol (MLBP-TIVA)

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; NAGARO, Tsukasa; SUDO, Kanako; ITAMI, Takaharu; UMAR, Mohammed Ahamed; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou; SANO, Tadashi; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33–35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27–30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114–123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28–29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19–21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO2 pressure [PaCO2]: 84–103 mmHg and arterial O2 pressure [PaO2]: 155–172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO2: 42–50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO2: 395–419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29–31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17–21 l /min, MABP: 111–123 mmHg, MPAP: 27–30 mmHg and MRAP: 15–16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  6. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated.

  7. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  8. Comparison of circuit patency and exchange rates between 2 different continuous renal replacement therapy machines.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Seyed Amirhossein; Still, Mary D; White, Sharon J; Buchman, Timothy G; Connor, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is an important tool in the care of critically ill patients. However, the impact of a specific CRRT machine type on the successful delivery of CRRT is unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CRRT delivery with an intensive care unit (ICU) bedside nurse delivery model for CRRT while comparing circuit patency and circuit exchange rates in 2 Food and Drug Administration-approved CRRT devices. This article presents the data comparing circuit exchange rates for 2 different CRRT machines. A group of ICU nurses were selected to undergo expanded training in CRRT operation and empowered to deliver all aspects of CRRT. The ICU nurses then provided all aspects of CRRT on 2 Food and Drug Administration-approved CRRT devices for 6 months. Each device was used exclusively in the designated ICU for a 2-week run-in period followed by 3-month data collection period. The primary end point for the study was the differences in average number of filter exchanges per day during each CRRT event. A total of 45 unique patients who underwent 64 separate CRRT treatment periods were included. Four CRRT events were excluded (see text for details). Twenty-eight CRRT events occurred in the NxStage System One arm (NxStage Medical, Lawrence, Mass) and 32 events in the Gambro Prismaflex arm (Gambro Renal Products, Boulder, Colo). Average (SD) filter exchanges per day was 0.443 (0.60) for the NxStage System One machine and 0.553 (0.65) for Gambro Prismaflex machine (P = .09). There was no demonstrable difference in circuit patency as defined by the rate of filter exchanges per day of CRRT therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of acepromazine and medetomidine in combination for sedation and handling of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus).

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Johnson, Heather E; Fisher, Mark C; Sirochman, Michael A; Kraft, Benjamin; Miller, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    We opportunistically evaluated a combination of acepromazine maleate and medetomidine HCl for use in sedating Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and black bears (Ursus americanus) as an alternative to scheduled drug combinations. This combination was safe and effective with limitations inherent in its sedative rather than anesthetic properties.

  10. Intratesticular and incisional line infiltration with ropivacaine for castration in medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam sedated dogs.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Yishai; Toledano, Noa; Cohen, Liat; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate whether intratesticular and incisional ropivacaine infiltration produces sufficient intra- and postoperative analgesia for castrating dogs under sedation. Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical study. Twenty-three healthy dogs weighing 5.8-35.6 kg admitted for castration. Dogs were sedated with medetomidine (0.01 mg kg(-1)), butorphanol (0.2 mg kg(-1)) and midazolam (0.2 mg kg(-1)) intramuscularly, and were randomly assigned to group R, 0.2-0.4 mL kg(-1) of ropivacaine 0.5%, or group S, an equivalent volume of saline injected intratesticularly and along the incision line. If persistent motion was observed during surgery, sedation was considered to be insufficient and general anaesthesia was induced. Carprofen 2.2 mg kg(-1) was administered postoperatively. Pain was evaluated in all dogs before sedation and postoperatively following atipamezole administration at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 hours using an interactive visual analogue scale (IVAS; 0-100), the Glasgow composite pain scale-short form (CMPS-SF; 0-24), and a mechanical algometer. Methadone 0.3 mg kg(-1) was administered intravenously to dogs if IVAS >30 or CMPS-SF >4. There was no significant difference between groups for the number of dogs administered general anaesthesia. The time from the beginning of surgery to induction of general anaesthesia was significantly shorter [median (range)] in group S [6 (3-25) minutes] than in group R [56 (36-76) minutes]. At 8 hours IVAS was significantly higher in group S (14 ± 10) than in group R (6 ± 4). Intratesticular and incisional ropivacaine infiltration delayed the time to anaesthesia induction, and provided analgesia after castration performed under deep sedation in dogs. Intratesticular local anaesthesia can be an important part of the anaesthetic plan for castration. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anesthetic Effects of a Mixture of Medetomidine, Midazolam and Butorphanol in Two Strains of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Kurosawa, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    The combination of ketamine and xylazine is a widely used anesthetic for laboratory animals. However, due to an abuse problem in Japan, ketamine has been specified as a narcotic since 2007. Instead of using ketamine, Kawai et al. reported an injectable formula with an equivalent effect to the mixture of ketamine and xylazine [11]. The mixture of 0.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) medetomidine (Med.), 4.0 mg/kg b.w. midazoram (Mid.), and 5.0 mg/kg b.w. butorphanol (But.) produced an anesthetic duration of around 40 min in outbred ICR mice. However, the anesthetic effect of the mixture for inbred mice strains remains unknown. Therefore, we examined anesthetic effects of the mixture of Med., Mid., and But. in the BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. After intraperitoneal injection into mice, right front paw, left hind paw, and tail pinch reflexes as well as corneal and righting reflexes were observed. Every 5 min, we scored each reflex category as 0 for reaction or 1 for no reaction. As long as the total score was at least 4 out of 5, we considered the mixture as putting a mouse in a surgical anesthetic state. The mixture produced an anesthetic duration of more than 45 min in both strains of mice. These results indicate that the mixture of Med., Mid., and But. can be a useful and effective anesthesia for the BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains of inbred mice as well as outbred ICR mice. PMID:23903051

  12. Effect of coupling medium temperature on rate of intramuscular temperature rise using continuous ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Oshikoya, C A; Shultz, S J; Mistry, D; Perrin, D H; Arnold, B L; Gansneder, B M

    2000-10-01

    We determined the effects of coupling medium temperature on the rate of intramuscular temperature rise (RTR) during continuous ultrasound. Ultrasound was applied in a continuous mode at a frequency of 1 MHz and intensity of 1.5 W/cm(2). Each subject received 3 treatments, using water-based coupling gel at temperatures of 18 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 39 degrees C. All treatments were performed in an athletic training room under controlled environmental conditions. Eighteen healthy male subjects (mean age = 23.6 +/- 3.5 years; height = 177.8 +/- 6.9 cm; weight = 76.6 +/- 8.2 kg; calf size = 37.6 +/- 2.4 cm) participated in this study. A thermistor was inserted into the left medial triceps surae at a depth of 5 cm, and baseline tissue temperatures were recorded before treatment. Intramuscular temperature was recorded every 30 seconds until the temperature rose 4 degrees C above baseline or until discomfort was felt. RTR was calculated by dividing the absolute temperature change by treatment time. A 1-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference in RTR among gel temperatures, RTR was significantly faster using the 25 degrees C gel compared with the 18 degrees C and 39 degrees C gels. There was no difference between the 18 degrees C and 39 degrees C gel treatments. These results suggest that the use of a cooled or heated gel may be counterproductive when maximal thermal effects are desired within a given time frame.

  13. Ventilation rates in large commercial layer hen houses with two-year continuous monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chai, L; Ni, J-Q; Diehl, C A; Kilic, I; Heber, A J; Chen, Y; Cortus, E L; Bogan, B W; Lim, T T; Ramirez-Dorronsoro, J-C; Chen, L

    2012-01-01

    1. Ventilation controls the indoor environment and is critical for poultry production and welfare. Ventilation is also crucial for assessing aerial pollutant emissions from the poultry industry. Published ventilation data for commercial layer houses have been limited, and are mostly based on short-term studies, mainly because monitoring airflow from large numbers of fans is technically challenging. 2. A two-year continuous ventilation monitoring trial was conducted at two commercial manure belt houses (A and B), each with 250 000 layers and 88 130-cm exhaust fans. All the fans were individually monitored with fan rotational speed sensors or vibration sensors. Differential static pressures across the house walls were also measured. Three fan performance assessment methods were applied periodically to determine fan degradations. Fan models were developed to calculate house ventilations. 3. A total of 693 and 678 complete data days, each containing >16 h of valid ventilation data, were obtained in houses A and B, respectively. The two-year mean ventilation rates of houses A and B were 2·08 and 2·10 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1), corresponding to static pressures of -36·5 and -48·9 Pa, respectively. For monthly mean ventilation, the maximum rates were 4·87 and 5·01 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in July 2008, and the minimum were 0·59 and 0·81 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) in February 2008, for houses A and B, respectively. 4. The two-year mean ventilation rates were similar to those from a survey in Germany and a 6-month study in Indiana, USA, but were much lower than the 8·4 and 6·2 m(3) h(-1) hen(-1) from a study in Italy. The minimum monthly mean ventilation rates were similar to the data obtained in winter in Canada, but were lower than the minimum ventilation suggested in the literature. The lower static pressure in house B required more ventilation energy input. The two houses, although identical, demonstrated differences in indoor environment controls

  14. Comparison of two injectable immobilization combinations in Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus): medetomidine, ketamine, and atipamezole versus carfentanil, xylazine, naltrexone, and atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Valitutto, Marc T; Kalk, Penny; Moore, Robert P; Sykes, John M

    2013-09-01

    A crossover study was performed in 12 Himalayan tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus) undergoing preshipment examinations to compare a partially reversible to a fully reversible intramuscular chemical immobilization protocol. The partially reversible protocol (MKA) consisted of induction with medetomidine (0.06 +/- 0.009 mg/kg) and ketamine (2.03 +/- 0.315 mg/kg) and antagonism by atipamezole (0.30 +/- 0.044 mg/kg). The fully reversible protocol (CXNA) consisted of induction with carfentanil (0.009 +/- 0.003 mg/kg) and xylazine (0.08 +/- 0.019 mg/kg) and antagonism by naltrexone (0.867 +/- 0.332 mg/kg) and atipamezole (0.105 +/- 0.023 mg/ kg). Animals were monitored for quality and length of induction and recovery, depth of immobilization, heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, indirect mean blood pressure (MBP), oxygen saturation, and end-tidal carbon dioxide concentration. Blood was collected for serum cortisol measurement. Significant (P < 0.05) differences included a higher MBP, higher serum cortisol, and longer recovery time with MKA compared to CXNA. In addition, the quality of induction and recovery were different. With MKA, animals ambulated less during induction, remained recumbent longer during recovery, and demonstrated more ataxia on rising. Despite differences between the protocols, both provided an acceptable level of immobilization for pre-shipment testing to be done and appeared to be safe in the study population. These differences should be taken into consideration when selecting the anesthetic protocol because either regimen may be more or less desirable for different medical or immobilization settings.

  15. Infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuto; Muir, William W; Tsubakishita, Sae; Abrahamsen, Eric; Lerch, Phillip; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Kotani, Tadao

    2002-10-15

    To evaluate effects of infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses. Randomized clinical trial. 40 horses. Horses were premedicated with xylazine and anesthetized with diazepam and ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained by infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine and inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses) or by inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses). A surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained by controlling the inhaled concentration of sevoflurane. Sodium pentothal was administered as necessary to prevent movement in response to surgical stimulation. Hypotension was treated with dobutamine; hypoxemia and hypercarbia were treated with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The quality of anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery and the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were scored. The delivered concentration of sevoflurane (ie, the vaporizer dial setting) was significantly lower and the quality of transition to inhalation anesthesia and of anesthetic maintenance were significantly better in horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion than in horses that did not. Five horses, all of which received sevoflurane alone, required administration of pentothal. Recovery time and quality of recovery were not significantly different between groups, but horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion required fewer attempts to stand. Results suggest that in horses, the combination of a guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion and inhalation of sevoflurane resulted in better transition and maintenance phases while improving cardiovascular function and reducing the number of attempts needed to stand after the completion of anesthesia, compared with inhalation of sevoflurane.

  16. Temporal effects of intramuscular administration of medetomidine hydrochloride or xylazine hydrochloride to healthy dogs on tear flow measured by use of a Schirmer tear test I.

    PubMed

    Kanda, Teppei; Ishihara, Satoko; Oka, Miina; Sako, Kaori; Sato, Yoko; Maeta, Noritaka; Tamura, Katsutoshi; Furumoto, Kayo; Furukawa, Toshinori

    2016-04-01

    To determine the temporal effects on tear flow measurements obtained by use of a Schirmer tear test (STT) I after IM administration of various doses of medetomidine or xylazine to healthy dogs. 5 healthy purpose-bred male Beagles. Each dog received IM injections of 2.0 mL of physiologic saline (0.9% NaCl) solution (control treatment); 0.1% medetomidine hydrochloride (5, 10, 20, and 40 μg/kg), and 2.0% xylazine hydrochloride (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg). Treatments were injected into the semimembranosus muscles; there was at least a 1-week interval between successive injections. Order of treatments was determined via a randomized Latin square crossover design. The STT I was performed on both eyes before (baseline) and 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 24 hours after each injection. STT I values decreased significantly within 45 minutes after injection of medetomidine or xylazine, which was followed by gradual recovery. The lowest mean STT I value was < 10 mm/min for all sedation treatments, except when dogs received 5 μg of medetomidine/kg. Linear regression of the area under the curve for the 8 hours after administration yielded significant effects for all sedation treatments. IM administration of medetomidine or xylazine to dogs reduced tear flow in a dose-related manner. Artificial tear solution or ophthalmic ointment should be used to protect the ocular surface when these drugs are administered to dogs.

  17. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R H; Slamovich, E B; Handwerker, C A

    2013-05-17

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl(-)) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl(-) ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl(-) to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ∼100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl(-)]/[Zn(2+)] = 1.5 and pH=  4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at zero back-gate bias.

  18. Continuous Low-dose-rate Irradiation of Iodine-125 Seeds Inhibiting Perineural Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Dong, Teng-Hui; Si, Pei-Ren; Shen, Wei; Bi, Yi-Liang; Min, Min; Chen, Xin; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineural invasion (PNI) is a histopathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PanCa). The aim of this study was to observe the treatment effect of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation to PNI and assess the PNI-related pain relief caused by iodine-125 (125I) seed implantation. Methods: The in vitro PNI model established by co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cancer cells was interfered under 2 and 4 Gy of 125I seeds CLDR irradiation. The orthotopic models of PNI were established, and 125I seeds were implanted in tumor. The PNI-related molecules were analyzed. In 30 patients with panCa, the pain relief was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Pain intensity was measured before and 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months after 125I seed implantation. Results: The co-culture of DRG and PanCa cells could promote the growth of PanCa cells and DRG neurites. In co-culture groups, the increased number of DRG neurites and pancreatic cells in radiation group was significantly less. In orthotopic models, the PNI-positive rate in radiation and control group was 3/11 and 7/11; meanwhile, the degrees of PNI between radiation and control groups was significant difference (P < 0.05). At week 2, the mean VAS pain score in patients decreased by 50% and significantly improved than the score at baseline (P < 0.05). The pain scores were lower in all patients, and the pain-relieving effect was retained about 3 months. Conclusions: The CLDR irradiation could inhibit PNI of PanCa with the value of further study. The CLDR irradiation could do great favor in preventing local recurrence and alleviating pain. PMID:27748339

  19. Effect of the organic loading rate on biogas composition in continuous fermentative hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Spagni, Alessandro; Casu, Stefania; Farina, Roberto

    2010-10-01

    Some systems did not select for hydrogen-producing microorganisms and an unexpected growth of hydrogenotrophic methanogens was observed, although the reactors were operated under well-defined operating conditions that could result in biohydrogen production. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on the hydrogen and methane composition of the biogas produced in dark fermentative processes. The study was carried out using an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor in order to evaluate the OLR effect in systems with sludge retention. During continuous operation, the UASB reactor showed the slow development of methanogenic activity, related to the applied OLR. The results demonstrate that operating an UASB reactor at pH 5.5 is not enough to prevent the acclimation of methanogens to the acidic pH and therefore long-term biohydrogen production cannot be achieved. Moreover, this study demonstrates that OLR also has an effect on the biogas composition, where the higher the OLR the greater the biogas H2 content.

  20. OLAM: A wearable, non-contact sensor for continuous heart-rate and activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Albright, Ryan K; Goska, Benjamin J; Hagen, Tory M; Chi, Mike Y; Cauwenberghs, G; Chiang, Patrick Y

    2011-01-01

    A wearable, multi-modal sensor is presented that can non-invasively monitor a patient's activity level and heart function concurrently for more than a week. The 4 in(2) sensor incorporates both a non-contact heartrate sensor and a 5-axis inertial measurement unit (IMU), allowing simultaneous heart, respiration, and movement monitoring without requiring physical contact with the skin [1]. Hence, this Oregon State University Life and Activity Monitor (OLAM) provides the unique opportunity to combine motion data with heart-rate information, enabling assessment of actual physical activity beyond conventional movement sensors. OLAM also provides a unique platform for non-contact sensing, enabling the filtering of movement artifacts generated by the non-contact capacitive interface, using the IMU data as a movement noise channel. Intended to be used in clinical trials for weeks at a time with no physician intervention, the OLAM allows continuous non-invasive monitoring of patients, providing the opportunity for long-term observation into a patient's physical activity and subtle longitudinal changes.

  1. Ocean-Scale Patterns in Community Respiration Rates along Continuous Transects across the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jesse M.; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m−3 d−1±8.0 mmol m−3 d−1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m−3 d−1±7.32 mmol m−3 d−1 between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m−3 d−1±45.6 mmol m−3 d−1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m−3 d−1±13.9 mmol m−3 d−1 between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements. PMID:25048960

  2. Prognostic value of continued smoking on survival and recurrence rates in patients with head and neck cancer: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Imhoff, Lieke C R; Kranenburg, Gabriëlle G J; Macco, Sven; Nijman, Nicoline L; van Overbeeke, Elisabeth J; Wegner, Inge; Grolman, Wilko; Pothen, Ajit J

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to determine the prognostic value of continued smoking after diagnosis on survival and recurrence rates in head and neck cancer. A systematic search was performed and predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were used to screen and select the articles. The remaining articles were critically appraised. Six articles were used for data extraction. The survival rate of patients who continued to smoke was 21% to 35% lower compared with patients who quit smoking. The recurrence rate for continued smoking was 23% and 30% higher. In 1 study, there was no difference between continuation and cessation of smoking, and 1 study showed a higher recurrence rate for patients who continued to smoke, which was not statistically significant. There is consistent evidence that survival rates are lower and recurrence rates are higher for patients who continue to smoke after being diagnosed with head and neck cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E2214-E2220, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Assessment of continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an addition to a pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance system.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Susan P; Pyke, Joshua; Taenzer, Andreas H

    2016-05-03

    Technology advances make it possible to consider continuous acoustic respiratory rate monitoring as an integral component of physiologic surveillance systems. This study explores technical and logistical aspects of augmenting pulse oximetry-based patient surveillance systems with continuous respiratory rate monitoring and offers some insight into the impact on patient deterioration detection that may result. Acoustic respiratory rate sensors were introduced to a general care pulse oximetry-based surveillance system with respiratory rate alarms deactivated. Simulation was used after 4324 patient days to determine appropriate alarm thresholds for respiratory rate, which were then activated. Data were collected for an additional 4382 patient days. Physiologic parameters, alarm data, sensor utilization and patient/staff feedback were collected throughout the study and analyzed. No notable technical or workflow issues were observed. Sensor utilization was 57 %, with patient refusal leading reasons for nonuse (22.7 %). With respiratory rate alarm thresholds set to 6 and 40 breaths/min., the majority of nurse pager clinical notifications were triggered by low oxygen saturation values (43 %), followed by low respiratory rate values (21 %) and low pulse rate values (13 %). Mean respiratory rate collected was 16.6 ± 3.8 breaths/min. The vast majority (82 %) of low oxygen saturation states coincided with normal respiration rates of 12-20 breaths/min. Continuous respiratory rate monitoring can be successfully added to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system without significant technical, logistical or workflow issues and is moderately well-tolerated by patients. Respiratory rate sensor alarms did not significantly impact overall system alarm burden. Respiratory rate and oxygen saturation distributions suggest adding continuous respiratory rate monitoring to a pulse oximetry-based surveillance system may not significantly improve patient deterioration detection.

  4. Assessment of butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine combination as anesthesia for semen collection and evaluation of semen quality in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Kirschner, S M; Rodenkirch, R

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this current study was to evaluate the level of anesthesia produced by a combination of butorphanol-azaperone-medetomidine (BAM) for semen collection by electroejaculation on captive white-tailed bucks (Odocoileus virginianus). Ten male white-tailed deer, weighing 68.2-115.9kg, ranging in age from one to four years were randomly selected from housing pens and anesthetized with the BAM drug combination at a dose volume of 2.0mL each. Semen was collected from each animal using a standard cervid electroejaculation protocol while under BAM anesthesia. Physiological data was recorded following induction of anesthesia and during semen collection. Collected ejaculates were prepared for analysis using a standard extender protocol for cryopreservation. Eleven sperm viability parameters were quantified for each sample using a Computerized Assisted Sperm Analysis system, including total seminal volume; sperm concentration and total sperm number. kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa were also assessed. Results demonstrated that BAM provided an effective plane of anesthesia for successful collection of viable sperm. Measured physiological variables of heart rate, respiration and body temperature all remained within safe, normal limits. Data recorded on semen characteristics from all collected ejaculates correlated well with key traits determined to be important for successful fertilization through measurement of total semen volume; sperm concentration; total sperm number; and kinematic parameters of motile spermatozoa. There were no serious adverse events. This field study indicates that BAM anesthesia is suitable for semen collection in white-tailed deer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A protocol for use of medetomidine anesthesia in rats for extended studies using task-induced BOLD contrast and resting-state functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Pawela, Christopher P.; Biswal, Bharat B.; Hudetz, Anthony G.; Schulte, Marie L.; Li, Rupeng; Jones, Seth R.; Cho, Younghoon R.; Matloub, Hani S.; Hyde, James S.

    2009-01-01

    The α2-adrenoreceptor agonist, medetomidine, which exhibits dose-dependent sedative effects and is gaining acceptance in small-animal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has been studied. Rats were examined on the bench using the classic tail-pinch method with three infusion sequences: 100 μg/kg/hr, 300 μg/kg/hr, or 100 μg/kg/hr followed by 300 μg/kg/hr. Stepping the infusion rate from 100 to 300 μg/kg/hr after 2.5 hours resulted in a prolonged period of approximately level sedation that cannot be achieved by a constant infusion of either 100 or 300 μg/kg/hr. By stepping the infusion dosage, experiments as long as six hours are possible. Functional MRI experiments were carried out on rats using a frequency dependent electrical stimulation protocol—namely, forepaw stimulation at 3, 5, 7, and 10 Hz. Each rat was studied for a four-hour period, divided into two equal portions. During the first portion, rats were started at a 100 μg/kg/hr constant infusion. During the second portion, four secondary levels of infusion were used: 100, 150, 200, and 300 μg/kg/hr. The fMRI response to stimulation frequency was used as an indirect measure of modulation of neuronal activity through pharmacological manipulation. The frequency response to stimulus was attenuated at the lower secondary infusion dosages 100 or 150 μg/kg/hr but not at the higher secondary infusion dosages 200 or 300 μg/kg/hr. Parallel experiments with the animal at rest were carried out using both electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) methods with consistent results. In the secondary infusion period using 300 μg/kg/hr, resting-state functional connectivity is enhanced. PMID:19285560

  6. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed Central

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen. PMID:10680659

  7. Anesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol on the production of offspring in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli

    PubMed Central

    KAGEYAMA, Atsuko; TOHEI, Atsushi; USHIJIMA, Hitoshi; OKADA, Konosuke

    2016-01-01

    Pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl) can induce surgical anesthesia with a strong hypnotic effect that causes loss of consciousness. Animals have been known to die during experimental surgery under anesthesia with Somnopentyl, causing it to be declared inadequate as a general anesthetic for single treatment. An anesthetic combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4.0 mg/kg midazolam and 5.0 mg/kg butorphanol (M/M/B:0.3/4/5) was reported to induce anesthesia for a duration of around 40 min in ICR mice; similar anesthetic effects were reported in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains of mice. However, the anesthetic effects of this combination in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli, remain to be evaluated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Somnopentyl and different concentrations of anesthetic combination (M/M/B:0.3/4/5, 0.23/3/3.75 or 0.15/2/2.5) in Japanese field voles, by means of anesthetic scores. We also examined effect of these anesthetics on production of offspring. Death of the animals was observed only with Somnopentyl. The anesthetic score of Somnopentyl was lower than those of the other anesthetics, although there were no significant differences in duration, body weight and frequency of respiratory among the evaluated anesthetics. Abortion rate with Somnopentyl was significantly higher than that with the M/M/B:0.23/3/3.75 combination, although there was no significant difference in the number of offspring between two. In conclusion, results of this study provide basic information for achieving appropriate anesthetic concentrations in addition to indicating a new, safe and effective surgical anesthetic for Japanese field voles. PMID:27238159

  8. Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5 ± 2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6 ± 25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8 ± 12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

  9. Bias in the Perception of Phonetic Detail in Children’s Speech: A Comparison of Categorical and Continuous Rating Scales

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Benjamin; Schellinger, Sarah K.; Edwards, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that continuous rating scales can be used to assess phonetic detail in children’s productions, and could potentially be used to detect covert contrasts. Two experiments examined whether continuous rating scales have the additional benefit of being less susceptible to task-related biasing than categorical phonetic transcriptions. In both experiments, judgments of children’s productions of /s/ and /θ/ were interleaved with two types of rating tasks designed to induce bias: continuous judgments of a parameter whose variation is itself relatively more continuous (gender typicality of their speech) in one biasing condition, and categorical judgments of a parameter that is relatively less-continuous (the vowel they produced) in the other biasing condition. One experiment elicited continuous judgments of /s/ and /θ/ productions, while the other elicited categorical judgments. The results of Experiment 1 showed that the influence of acoustic characteristics on continuous judgments of /s/ and /θ/ was stable across biasing conditions. In contrast, the results of Experiment 2 showed that the influence of acoustic characteristics on categorical judgments of /s/ and /θ/ differed systematically across biasing conditions. These results suggest that continuous judgments are psychometrically superior to categorical judgments, as they are more resistant to task-related bias. PMID:27736242

  10. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous continuous rate infusions of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium in adult horses.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Scott H; Khalfan, Shahid A; Jacobson, Glenn A; Pirie, Adam D; Raidal, Sharanne L

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine plasma drug concentrations after IV administration of a bolus followed by continuous rate infusion (CRI) of sodium benzylpenicillin and ceftiofur sodium to healthy adult horses. ANIMALS 6 Thoroughbred mares (3 to 9 years old; mean ± SD body weight, 544 ± 55 kg) with no history of recent antimicrobial treatment. PROCEDURES Horses were used in 2 experiments conducted 14 days apart. For each experiment, horses were housed individually in stables, and catheters were placed bilaterally in both jugular veins for drug administration by CRI (left catheter) and for intermittent collection of blood samples (right catheter). Synovial fluid samples were obtained from carpal joints following ceftiofur administration to evaluate drug diffusion into articular spaces. RESULTS Plasma concentrations above accepted minimum inhibitory concentrations for common pathogens of horses were achieved within 1 minute after bolus administration and remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration for 48 (ceftiofur) or 12 (benzylpenicillin) hours (ie, the duration of the CRI). Mean synovial fluid ceftiofur free acid equivalent concentrations were approximately 46% (range, 25.4% to 59.8%) of plasma concentrations at the end of infusion. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Compared with intermittent bolus administration, the loading dose and CRI used less drug but maintained high plasma concentrations for the duration of infusion. By use of pharmacological parameters derived in this study, a loading dose of 2.5 mg/kg and CRI of 200 μg/kg/h should achieve plasma ceftiofur concentrations of 4 μg/mL; a loading dose and CRI of 1.3 mg/kg and 2.5 μg/kg/h, respectively, should achieve plasma benzylpenicillin concentrations of 2 μg/mL.

  11. The effect of discrete vs. continuous-valued ratings on reputation and ranking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medo, Matúš; Rushton Wakeling, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    When users rate objects, a sophisticated algorithm that takes into account ability or reputation may produce a fairer or more accurate aggregation of ratings than the straightforward arithmetic average. Recently a number of authors have proposed different co-determination algorithms where estimates of user and object reputation are refined iteratively together, permitting accurate measures of both to be derived directly from the rating data. However, simulations demonstrating these methods' efficacy assumed a continuum of rating values, consistent with typical physical modelling practice, whereas in most actual rating systems only a limited range of discrete values (such as a 5-star system) is employed. We perform a comparative test of several co-determination algorithms with different scales of discrete ratings and show that this seemingly minor modification in fact has a significant impact on algorithms' performance. Paradoxically, where rating resolution is low, increased noise in users' ratings may even improve the overall performance of the system.

  12. Motor neuron disease mortality in Great Britain continues to rise: examination of mortality rates 1975 - 2004.

    PubMed

    Day, Thomas G; Scott, Martin; Perring, Roslyn; Doyle, Pat

    2007-12-01

    Motor neuron disease (MND) mortality rates are rising in Europe and the USA. The most comprehensive UK study was conducted more than 15 years ago. This study examines trends in mortality from MND in England & Wales, and Scotland, between 1975 and 2004. Age, gender, and cause-specific mortality rates were calculated for the period 1975-2004 using national data from England & Wales, and Scotland. Rates were directly age-standardized to the European standard population. Trends in mortality rates over time were examined for men and women separately, as well as by the age groups 0-59 years, and 60 or more years. MND mortality rates rose steadily over the 30-year period 1975-2004 in both sexes in England & Wales, and Scotland. There is a clear upward trend in all four groups (p for trend <0.001). All increases were largely restricted to the age group 60 years and above, with rates showing increases of 70-80%, and no evidence of a flattening of this trajectory. Rates for the 0-59 years age group remained stable over the period. There is evidence of a narrowing of the male-female gap in mortality rates for the age group over 60 years in England and Wales.

  13. The influence of the time course of inflammation and spinalization on the antinociceptive activity of the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine.

    PubMed

    Molina, Carlos; Herrero, Juan F

    2006-02-17

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of the time course of inflammation and the implication of spinal and supraspinal sites on the antihyperalgesic effects of the alpha(2)-adrenoceptor agonist medetomidine. Behavioral experiments showed a more intense antihyperalgesia in the phase of maintenance of inflammation than in the early or resolution stages. Maximum effect, without sedation, was observed with a dose of 40 microg/kg (66+/-12% and 76+/-15% reduction of mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia). No change was observed in the paw swelling, indicating that its effects were not secondary to a reduction of inflammation. In electrophysiological experiments, the effect was more pronounced in animals with an intact spinal cord than in spinalized animals (max. effects of 2+/-0.7% vs. 48+/-11% of control, noxious mechanical stimulation). We conclude that the antihyperalgesic effect of medetomidine depends on the time course of inflammation and that it is mainly located supraspinally.

  14. On the problem of non-zero word error rates for fixed-rate error correction codes in continuous variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Sarah J.; Lance, Andrew M.; Ong, Lawrence; Shirvanimoghaddam, Mahyar; Ralph, T. C.; Symul, Thomas

    2017-02-01

    The maximum operational range of continuous variable quantum key distribution protocols has shown to be improved by employing high-efficiency forward error correction codes. Typically, the secret key rate model for such protocols is modified to account for the non-zero word error rate of such codes. In this paper, we demonstrate that this model is incorrect: firstly, we show by example that fixed-rate error correction codes, as currently defined, can exhibit efficiencies greater than unity. Secondly, we show that using this secret key model combined with greater than unity efficiency codes, implies that it is possible to achieve a positive secret key over an entanglement breaking channel—an impossible scenario. We then consider the secret key model from a post-selection perspective, and examine the implications for key rate if we constrain the forward error correction codes to operate at low word error rates.

  15. A Latent Class Multidimensional Scaling Model for Two-Way One-Mode Continuous Rating Dissimilarity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, J. Fernando; Macias, Rodrigo; Heiser, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a cluster-MDS model for two-way one-mode continuous rating dissimilarity data. The model aims at partitioning the objects into classes and simultaneously representing the cluster centers in a low-dimensional space. Under the normal distribution assumption, a latent class model is developed in terms of the set of…

  16. Effect of organic loading rate on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor from waste pastry hydrolysate.

    PubMed

    Han, Wei; Hu, Yunyi; Li, Shiyi; Nie, Qiulin; Zhao, Hongting; Tang, Junhong

    2016-12-01

    Waste pastry (6%, w/v) was hydrolyzed by the produced glucoamylase and protease to obtain the glucose (19.8g/L) and free amino nitrogen (179mg/L) solution. Then, the effect of organic loading rate (OLR) (8-40kgCOD/(m(3)d)) on dark fermentative hydrogen production in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and continuous mixed immobilized sludge reactor (CMISR) from waste pastry hydrolysate was investigated and compared. The maximum hydrogen production rate of CSTR (277.76mL/(hL)) and CMISR (320.2mL/(hL)) were achieved at OLR of 24kgCOD/(m(3)d) and 32kgCOD/(m(3)d), respectively. Carbon recovery ranged from 75.2-84.1% in the CSTR and CMISR with the balance assumed to be converted to biomass. One gram waste pastry could produce 0.33g (1.83mmol) glucose which could be further converted to 79.24mL (3.54mmol) hydrogen in the CMISR or 91.66mL (4.09mmol) hydrogen in the CSTR. This is the first study which reports dark fermentative hydrogen production from waste pastry.

  17. Tumor cure studies on the rat sarcoma BA1112 using continuous low-dose-rate radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Peschel, R.E.; Martin, D.F.; Fischer, J.J.

    1984-09-01

    Delivery of continous low-dose-rate radiation at a constant rate using an afterloading plastic helmet system can achieve the local cure of the BA1112 rat sarcoma. Complete dose response curves for local tumor cure have been obtained at 170 rad (1.7 Gy) and 130 rad (1.3 Gy) per hour. The results are consistent with the known radiobiological properties of the BA1112 tumor.

  18. The association between continual, year-round hunting and bellowing rate of bison bulls during the rut.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Ronald J; Grigione, Melissa M; Higa, Alessandra; Childers, Eddie; Ecoffey, Trudy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of hunting (selective harvest, trophy hunting) on the demography of mammals is well documented. However, despite continual year-round hunting of bison in some populations, little is known about how the behavior of survivors may be altered. Therefore, in this initial study, we used focal-animal observations in adjacent populations of continually hunted and protected Plains bison (Bison bison bison) in western South Dakota, to examine the potential impact of hunting on bellowing rate-an important behavior that serves to intimidate rival bulls and potentially influences mate choice by females. In addition to hunting, we investigated how the number of attendant males, number of adult females, group size, and number of days from the start of rut influenced bellowing rate. Bulls bellowed an order of magnitude more often in the protected population than in the hunted populations, whereas bellowing rate was not significantly different in the hunted populations. Hunting was significantly and negatively associated with bellowing rate, while all other predictors were found to be positively associated with bellowing rate. Furthermore, the impact of hunting on bellowing rate became more pronounced (i.e., dampened bellowing rate more strongly) as the number of attendant males increased. Changes in bellowing behavior of bulls (and possibly mate choice by cows) can alter breeding opportunities. Therefore, our data suggest the need for studies with broader-scale geographical and temporal replication to determine the extent that continual year-round hunting has on bellowing rate of bison during the rut. If reduced bellowing is associated with human hunting on a larger scale, then wildlife managers may need to adjust hunting rate and duration, timing (season), and the time lag between hunting events in order to insure that bison are able to express their full repertoire of natural mating behaviors.

  19. Analgesia after feline ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia with buprenorphine or butorphanol, and carprofen or meloxicam: a prospective, randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Polson, Sally; Taylor, Polly M; Yates, David

    2012-08-01

    One hundred female cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia were included in a blinded, randomised, prospective clinical study to compare postoperative analgesia produced by four analgesic drug combinations given preoperatively (n = 25 per group). A secondary aim was to assess the effects in kittens and pregnant animals. Buprenorphine 180 µg/m(2) or butorphanol 6 mg/m(2) were given with either carprofen 4 mg/kg (groups BUPC and BUTC, respectively) or meloxicam 0.3 mg/kg (groups BUPM or BUTM, respectively). Medetomidine was not antagonised. A simple, descriptive scale (SDS; 0-4), a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS; 0-100 mm) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MT; 2.5-mm diameter probe) were used to evaluate postoperative pain. All pain scores were low (DIVAS <10 mm, SDS <2 and MT >10 N) and there were no significant differences between the groups. It was concluded that all protocols provided adequate analgesia and when used with midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine are effective for routine feline ovariohysterectomy.

  20. Effect of the α2 -receptor agonists medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine and romifidine on the ketamine metabolism in equines assessed with enantioselective capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sandbaumhüter, Friederike A; Theurillat, Regula; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-03-02

    The combination of ketamine and an α2 -receptor agonist is often used in veterinary medicine. Four different α2 -receptor agonists, medetomidine, detomidine, xylazine and romifidine, which differ in their chemical structure and thus in selectivity for the α2 -receptor and in the sedative and analgesic potency, are typically employed during surgery of equines. Recovery following anesthesia with ketamine and an α2 -receptor agonist is dependent on the α2 -receptor agonist. This prompted us to investigate i) the inhibition characteristics for the N-demethylation of ketamine to norketamine and ii) the formation of the ketamine metabolites norketamine, 6-hydroxynorketamine (6HNK) and 5,6-dehydronorketamine (DHNK) in presence of the four α2 -receptor agonists and equine liver microsomes. Samples were analyzed with enantioselective capillary electrophoresis using highly sulfated γ-cyclodextrin as chiral selector. All four α2 -receptor agonists have an impact on the ketamine metabolism. Medetomidine was found to be the strongest inhibitor, followed by detomidine, whereas xylazine and romifidine showed almost no effect on the ketamine N-demethylation in the inhibition studies with a short incubation period of the reaction mixture. After prolonged incubation, inhibition with xylazine and romifidine was also observed. The formation of 6HNK and DHNK is affected by all selected α2 -receptor agonists. With medetomidine, levels of these metabolites are reduced compared to the case without an α2 -receptor agonist. For detomidine, xylazine and romifidine, the opposite was found. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of medetomidine, thiopental and ketamine/midazolam anesthesia in chick embryos for in ovo Magnetic Resonance Imaging free of motion artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Waschkies, Conny; Nicholls, Flora; Buschmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of the perfusion capacity of tissue engineered constructs grown on the chorioallantoic membrane by MRI is often hampered by motion artifacts. Therefore, we examined the suitability of three anesthetic regimes for sufficient sedation of the chick embryo. Medetomidine at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, was compared to thiopental at 100 mg/kg and ketamine/midazolam at 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. These soluble anesthetics were applied by dropping a total volume of 0.3 mL onto the surface of the CAM. Motion was videotaped through the window of the eggshell and scored semi-quantitatively. Medetomidine performed best in terms of reduced motion; onset of anesthesia occurred within 10 minutes and for the following 30 minutes, allowing proper in vivo MRI measurements. The other regimen were not sedating deep enough (ketamine/midazolam) and not long enough (thiopental). In sum, medetomidine allows proper sedation for MRI assessment of the perfusion capacity in a tissue engineered construct placed on the CAM. PMID:26493765

  2. User characteristics, experiences and continuation rates of copper intrauterine device use in a cohort of Australian women.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Deborah; Harvey, Caroline; Trinh, Lieu; Stewart, Mary; Black, Kirsten I

    2016-12-01

    Copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD) use in Australia is low despite being a highly effective, cost effective non-hormonal contraceptive with reported 12-month continuation rates of 85% compared to 59% for oral contraception. To describe the characteristics of Cu-IUD users in the Australian context, their experiences of side effects, continuation rates and reasons for discontinuation. Between August 2009 and January 2012 we undertook a prospective cohort study of consecutive women presenting for Cu-IUD insertion to three family planning clinics in Queensland and New South Wales. We used survival analysis for continuation rates and univariate and multivariable analyses to characterise users, their experiences up to three years and reasons for discontinuation. Of the 211 enrolled women, a third (36.0%) were aged under 30 and a third were nulliparous (36.5%). Efficacy and lack of hormones were the most frequently cited reasons to choose the method. Four women were lost to follow-up. Overall continuation rates were 79.1% at one year and 61.3% at three years. Early discontinuation was reduced in those with two or more children (adjusted hazards ratio 0.22, 95% CI 0.09-0.50). Heavy menstrual bleeding was the commonest reason for removal in 28 of 59 (47.5%) discontinuations due to complications or side effects. One uterine perforation and one method failure resulting in an ectopic pregnancy occurred. Cu-IUDs were chosen for their efficacy and lack of hormones by a range of Australian women, including young and nulliparous women. While bleeding-related side effects were relatively common, overall continuation rates were high. Serious complications and failures were rare. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  3. High-Frame-Rate Deformation Imaging in Two Dimensions Using Continuous Speckle-Feature Tracking.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Martin V; Moore, Cooper; Arges, Kristine; Søgaard, Peter; Østergaard, Lasse R; Schmidt, Samuel E; Kisslo, Joseph; Von Ramm, Olaf T

    2016-11-01

    The study describes a novel algorithm for deriving myocardial strain from an entire cardiac cycle using high-frame-rate ultrasound images. Validation of the tracking algorithm was conducted in vitro prior to the application to patient images. High-frame-rate ultrasound images were acquired in vivo from 10 patients, and strain curves were derived in six myocardial regions around the left ventricle from the apical four-chamber view. Strain curves derived from high-frame-rate images had a higher frequency content than those derived using conventional methods, reflecting improved temporal sampling. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Why has the continuous decline in German suicide rates stopped in 2007?

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich; Mergl, Roland; Doganay, Gülcihan; Reschke, Konrad; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1) whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2) whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998-2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time ("joinpoint") at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides) (annual percentage change (APC) ≤ -4.33), drowning (APC ≤ -2.73), hanging (APC ≤ -2.69) and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ -1.46) in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007-2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs) and "being overrun" (APC ≥ 1.50) contributed to this trend. The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for "being overrun" and "self-poisoning". Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend.

  5. Pushing x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy beyond the continuous frame rate limit

    SciTech Connect

    Dufresne, Eric M.; Narayanan, Suresh; Sandy, Alec R.; Kline, David M.; Zhang, Qingteng; Landahl, Eric C.; Ross, Steve

    2016-01-06

    We demonstrate delayed-frame X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy with 120 microsecond time resolution, limited only by sample scattering rates, with a prototype Pixel-array detector capable of taking two image frames separated by 153 ns or less. Although the overall frame rate is currently limited to about 4 frame pairs per second, we easily measured millisecond correlation functions. In conclusion, this technology, coupled to the use of brighter synchrotrons such as Petra III or the NSLS-II should enable X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy on microsecond time scales on a wider variety of materials.

  6. Inhibition of phenol on the rates of ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea grown under batch, continuous fed, and biofilm conditions.

    PubMed

    Lauchnor, Ellen G; Semprini, Lewis

    2013-09-01

    Ammonia oxidation by Nitrosomonas europaea, an ammonia oxidizing bacterium prevalent in wastewater treatment, is inhibited in the presence of phenol, due to interaction of the phenol with the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme. Suspended cells of N. europaea were cultured in batch reactors and continuous flow reactors at dilution rates of 0.01-0.2 d(-1). The rate of ammonia oxidation in the continuous cultures correlated to the dilution rate in the reactor. The batch and continuous cultures were exposed to 20 μM phenol and ammonia oxidation activity was measured by specific oxygen uptake rates (SOURs). Inhibition of NH3 oxidation by 20 μM phenol ranged from a 77% reduction of SOUR observed with suspended cells harvested during exponential growth, to 26% in biofilms. The extent of inhibition was correlated with ammonia oxidation rates in both suspended and biofilm cells, with greater percent inhibition observed with higher initial rates of NH3 oxidation. In biofilm grown cells, an increase in activity and phenol inhibition were both observed upon dispersing the biofilm cells into fresh, liquid medium. Under higher oxygen tension, an increase in the NO2(-) production of the biofilms was observed and biofilms were more susceptible to phenol inhibition. Dissolved oxygen microsensor measurements showed oxygen limited conditions existed in the biofilms. The ammonia oxidation rate was much lower in biofilms, which were less inhibited during phenol exposure. The results clearly indicate in both suspended and attached cells of N. europaea that a higher extent of phenol inhibition is positively correlated with a higher rate of NH3 oxidation (enzyme turnover).

  7. The association between continual, year-round hunting and bellowing rate of bison bulls during the rut

    PubMed Central

    Grigione, Melissa M.; Higa, Alessandra; Childers, Eddie; Ecoffey, Trudy

    2017-01-01

    The impact of hunting (selective harvest, trophy hunting) on the demography of mammals is well documented. However, despite continual year-round hunting of bison in some populations, little is known about how the behavior of survivors may be altered. Therefore, in this initial study, we used focal-animal observations in adjacent populations of continually hunted and protected Plains bison (Bison bison bison) in western South Dakota, to examine the potential impact of hunting on bellowing rate—an important behavior that serves to intimidate rival bulls and potentially influences mate choice by females. In addition to hunting, we investigated how the number of attendant males, number of adult females, group size, and number of days from the start of rut influenced bellowing rate. Bulls bellowed an order of magnitude more often in the protected population than in the hunted populations, whereas bellowing rate was not significantly different in the hunted populations. Hunting was significantly and negatively associated with bellowing rate, while all other predictors were found to be positively associated with bellowing rate. Furthermore, the impact of hunting on bellowing rate became more pronounced (i.e., dampened bellowing rate more strongly) as the number of attendant males increased. Changes in bellowing behavior of bulls (and possibly mate choice by cows) can alter breeding opportunities. Therefore, our data suggest the need for studies with broader-scale geographical and temporal replication to determine the extent that continual year-round hunting has on bellowing rate of bison during the rut. If reduced bellowing is associated with human hunting on a larger scale, then wildlife managers may need to adjust hunting rate and duration, timing (season), and the time lag between hunting events in order to insure that bison are able to express their full repertoire of natural mating behaviors. PMID:28396826

  8. The effect of feed rate and recycle rate variable on leaching process of Na2Zro3 with HCl in continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palupi, Bekti; Supranto, Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Setyadji, Moch.

    2017-05-01

    This time, the natural resources of zircon sand is processed into several zirconium products which is utilized for various industries, such as ceramics, glass industry, metal industry and nuclear industry. The process of zircon sand into zirconium products through several stages, one of them is leaching process of Na2ZrO3 with HCl. In this research, several variations of recycle-rate/feed-rate had been done to determine the effect on leaching process. The leaching was processed at temperature of 90°C, ratio of Na2ZrO3:HCl = 1g:30mL, and 142 rotary per minute of stirring speed for 30 minutes with variation of recycle-rate/feed-rate such as 0.478, 0.299, 0.218, 0.171 and 0.141. The diameter size of Na2ZrO3 powder that used are 0.088 to 0.149 mm. This process was carried out in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) series with recycle. Based on this research, the greater of the recycle-rate/feed-rate variable, the obtained Zr recovery decreased. The correlation between recycle-rate/feed-rate and Zr recovery is shown by the equation y = -146.91x + 103.51, where y is the Zr recovery and x is the recycle-rate/feed-rate. The highest Zr recovery was 90.52% obtained at recycle-rate/feed-rate 0.141. The mathematical modeling involving the probability model P(r) = 2β2r2 exp(-βr2) can be applied to this leaching process with Sum of Squared Errors (SSE) values in the range of 6×10-7 - 7×10-6.

  9. Debate response: Which rate designs provide revenue stability and efficient price signals? Let the debate continue.

    SciTech Connect

    Boonin, David Magnus

    2009-11-15

    Let's engage in further discussion that provides solutions and details, not just criticisms and assertions. Let's engage in a meaningful dialogue about the conditions where real-time pricing or critical peak pricing with decoupling or the SFV rate design with a feebate is most effective. (author)

  10. Evaluation of the continuous rate of supply lead-210 sediment age model: Two sources of potential bias and implications for carbon burial rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonneea, M. E.; Kroeger, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    The past century has been a period of rapid environmental change and ecosystem response to this change is of great interest, particularly in coastal wetlands. Lead-210 is an important sediment chronometer that yields accurate dates over the past century in sediments typically considered too young for carbon-14 dates. Since originally proposed by Appleby and Oldfield in 1978, sediments from a wide range of environments, including salt marshes and mangroves, have been dated with the lead-210 continuous rate of supply (CRS) age model. The power of this model is that it allows ages and accretion rates to be calculated for each interval with measured 210Pb activity, as opposed to a single accretion rate using the constant initial concentration model. There are two sources of potential bias in the model as it is applied to real 210Pb sediment profiles. First, the formulation originally proposed to calculate the mass accretion rate is sensitive to the thickness of sediment sampling intervals, and results in underestimation of mass accretion rates at typical (1 to 2 cm) sampling intervals. Such underestimation is greatest for large intervals and small accretion rates. For example, 1 cm intervals would result in 15% and 2 cm intervals in 22% underestimation for a 1 mm y-1 linear sedimentation rate. Secondly, the continuous rate of supply model requires integration of the total 210Pb profile; failure to measure the entire profile results in calculated ages that are too old and accretion rates that are too low. We propose that 210Pb profiles must be counted to an age of 200 years to avoid this bias within sediments deposited over the past century; profiles integrated to 150 years underestimate accretion rates by 22% at 100 years. It is possible to estimate the sediment concentration of 210Pb at 200 years as a function of 210Pb supply from the atmosphere, sedimentation rate and dry bulk density. Using published core data, we demonstrate that it is particularly important to

  11. Why Has the Continuous Decline in German Suicide Rates Stopped in 2007?

    PubMed Central

    Doganay, Gülcihan; Reschke, Konrad; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1) whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2) whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. Methods Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998–2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time (“joinpoint”) at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. Results The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides) (annual percentage change (APC) ≤ −4.33), drowning (APC ≤ −2.73), hanging (APC ≤ −2.69) and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ −1.46) in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007–2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs) and “being overrun” (APC ≥ 1.50) contributed to this trend. Limitations The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. Conclusions Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for “being overrun” and “self-poisoning”. Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend. PMID:23967225

  12. High strain rate superplasticity in a continuously recrystallized Al-6%Mg-0.3%Sc alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, T.G.; Hsiung, L.M.; Wadsworth, J.; Kaibyshev, R.

    1998-05-01

    The superplastic properties of a cold-rolled Al-6Mg-0.3Sc alloy were studied at temperatures between 450 and 560 C and strain rates between 10{sup {minus}4} and 10{sup 0} s{sup {minus}1}. The alloy was observed to exhibit superplasticity over wide temperature (475--520 C) and strain rate ranges ({approximately} 10{sup {minus}3}--10{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). It was found that the addition of Sc to Al-Mg alloys resulted in a uniform distribution of fine coherent Al{sub 3}Sc precipitates which effectively pinned subgrain and grain boundaries during static and dynamic recrystallization. In this paper, the microstructural evolution during superplastic deformation was systematically examined using both optical and transmission electron microscopy. Based upon this microstructural examination, a mechanism is proposed to explain the observed high strain rate superplasticity in the alloy. A model is also proposed that describes grain boundary sliding accommodated by dislocations gliding across grains containing coherent precipitates.

  13. An Automatic Prolongation Detection Approach in Continuous Speech With Robustness Against Speaking Rate Variations

    PubMed Central

    Esmaili, Iman; Dabanloo, Nader Jafarnia; Vali, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many methods have been introduced for supporting the diagnosis of stuttering for automatic detection of prolongation in the speech of people who stutter. However, less attention has been paid to treatment processes in which clients learn to speak more slowly. The aim of this study was to develop a method to help speech-language pathologists (SLPs) during diagnosis and treatment sessions. To this end, speech signals were initially parameterized to perceptual linear predictive (PLP) features. To detect the prolonged segments, the similarities between successive frames of speech signals were calculated based on correlation similarity measures. The segments were labeled as prolongation when the duration of highly similar successive frames exceeded a threshold specified by the speaking rate. The proposed method was evaluated by UCLASS and self-recorded Persian speech databases. The results were also compared with three high-performance studies in automatic prolongation detection. The best accuracies of prolongation detection were 99 and 97.1% for UCLASS and Persian databases, respectively. The proposed method also indicated promising robustness against artificial variation of speaking rate from 70 to 130% of normal speaking rate. PMID:28487827

  14. A continuous entropy rate estimator for spike trains using a K-means-based context tree.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tiger W; Reeke, George N

    2010-04-01

    Entropy rate quantifies the change of information of a stochastic process (Cover & Thomas, 2006). For decades, the temporal dynamics of spike trains generated by neurons has been studied as a stochastic process (Barbieri, Quirk, Frank, Wilson, & Brown, 2001; Brown, Frank, Tang, Quirk, & Wilson, 1998; Kass & Ventura, 2001; Metzner, Koch, Wessel, & Gabbiani, 1998; Zhang, Ginzburg, McNaughton, & Sejnowski, 1998). We propose here to estimate the entropy rate of a spike train from an inhomogeneous hidden Markov model of the spike intervals. The model is constructed by building a context tree structure to lay out the conditional probabilities of various subsequences of the spike train. For each state in the Markov chain, we assume a gamma distribution over the spike intervals, although any appropriate distribution may be employed as circumstances dictate. The entropy and confidence intervals for the entropy are calculated from bootstrapping samples taken from a large raw data sequence. The estimator was first tested on synthetic data generated by multiple-order Markov chains, and it always converged to the theoretical Shannon entropy rate (except in the case of a sixth-order model, where the calculations were terminated before convergence was reached). We also applied the method to experimental data and compare its performance with that of several other methods of entropy estimation.

  15. Blastocyst utilization rates after continuous culture in two commercial single-step media: a prospective randomized study with sibling oocytes.

    PubMed

    Sfontouris, Ioannis A; Kolibianakis, Efstratios M; Lainas, George T; Venetis, Christos A; Petsas, George K; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Lainas, Tryfon G

    2017-07-17

    The aim of this study is to determine whether blastocyst utilization rates are different after continuous culture in two different commercial single-step media. This is a paired randomized controlled trial with sibling oocytes conducted in infertility patients, aged ≤40 years with ≥10 oocytes retrieved assigned to blastocyst culture and transfer. Retrieved oocytes were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (Origio) or Continuous Single Culture (CSC) medium (Irvine Scientific) without medium renewal up to day 5 post oocyte retrieval. Main outcome measure was the proportion of embryos suitable for clinical use (utilization rate). A total of 502 oocytes from 33 women were randomly allocated to continuous culture in either Sage one-step medium (n = 250) or CSC medium (n = 252). Fertilization was performed by either in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and embryo transfers were performed on day 5. Two patients had all blastocysts frozen due to the occurrence of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Fertilization and cleavage rates, as well as embryo quality on day 3, were similar in the two media. Blastocyst utilization rates (%, 95% CI) [55.4% (46.4-64.1) vs 54.7% (44.9-64.6), p = 0.717], blastocyst formation rates [53.6% (44.6-62.5) vs 51.9 (42.2-61.6), p = 0.755], and proportion of good quality blastocysts [36.8% (28.1-45.4) vs 36.1% (27.2-45.0), p = 0.850] were similar in Sage one-step and CSC media, respectively. Continuous culture of embryos in Sage one-step and CSC media is associated with similar blastocyst development and utilization rates. Both single-step media appear to provide adequate support during in vitro preimplantation embryo development. Whether these observations are also valid for other continuous single medium protocols remains to be determined. NCT02302638.

  16. Wearable wireless heart rate monitor for continuous long-term variability studies.

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Piotr

    2011-01-01

    Prototyping of a home care system for activity surveillance and sleep assessment targeted to elderly people involves the compromise of wearing comfort and measurement performance. We propose a wearable heart rate variability monitor connected via wireless digital link to a home-embedded infrastructure of multimodal health surveillance system. The coin-size wearable recorder acquires and processes the electrocardiogram and sends annotated tachogram data accordingly to the subject's status and programed schedule. Thanks to remote programmability, in case of predefined thresholds excess, the recorder response is immediate, whereas the regular reports are organized in packets and delivered in bulk in short transmission sessions. This approach significantly reduces the data rate and the energy required to supply the communication module. The prototype weighting 11.2 g is based on the ARM7 (Atmel Corporate Headquarters 2325 Orchard Parkway San Jose, CA, USA) processor running at 18 MHz and with a 300-mA h rechargeable battery allows for up to 10 days of seamless tachogram monitoring. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Surgeon performed continuous intraoperative ultrasound guidance decreases re-excisions and mastectomy rates in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz Cakmak, Guldeniz; Emre, Ali U; Tascilar, Oge; Bahadir, Burak; Ozkan, Selcuk

    2017-06-01

    Intraoperative ultrasound guided (IUG) breast conserving surgery (BCS) is being increasingly embraced by breast surgeons worldwide. We aimed to compare the efficacy of IUG-BCS for palpable and nonpalpable breast cancer with respect to margin status, re-excision rate, tissue sacrifice and cost-time analysis. Intraoperative localization protocol includes intraoperative ultrasound prior to excision to localize the lesion and guide the initial resection. The excised specimen was then examined visually and by palpation and the specimen and cavity was examined with ultrasound. Frozen sections were obtained routinely from a portion of all six faces of the resected specimen, and shaved cavity margins were sent for permanent histology. Of the 208 patients, 57.2% had nonpalpable tumors. The sensitivity of ultrasound localization was 100%. Negative margins were achieved in 92.43% of nonpalpable and 91.01% of palpable lesions at initial procedure. The involved margins were correctly identified by the surgeon via specimen sonography in 95.4% of cases. Final positive margin rate was 2.4%. Calculated resection ratio and time analysis revealed nothing significant. IUG-BCS is an invaluable and effective modality for obtaining clear surgical margins with optimum resection volumes and reducing re-operations. Furthermore, by means of this algorithm, in case of shaving cavity margins of the tumor bed for permanent analysis, frozen section evaluation might be omitted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Let's go formative: continuous student ratings with Web 2.0 application Twitter.

    PubMed

    Stieger, Stefan; Burger, Christoph

    2010-04-01

    Student ratings have been a controversial but important method for the improvement of teaching quality during the past several decades. Most universities rely on summative evaluations conducted at the end of a term or course. A formative approach in which each course unit is evaluated may be beneficial for students and teachers but has rarely been applied. This is most probably due to the time constraints associated with various procedures inherent in formative evaluation (numerous evaluations, high amounts of aggregated data, high administrative investment). In order to circumvent these disadvantages, we chose the Web 2.0 Internet application Twitter as evaluation tool and tested whether it is useful for the implementation of a formative evaluation. After a first pilot and subsequent experimental study, the following conclusions were drawn: First, the formative evaluation did not come to the same results as the summative evaluation at the end of term, suggesting that formative evaluations tap into different aspects of course evaluation than summative evaluations do. Second, the results from an offline (i.e., paper-pencil) summative evaluation were identical with those from an online summative evaluation of the same course conducted a week later. Third, the formative evaluation did not influence the ratings of the summative evaluation at the end of the term. All in all, we can conclude that Twitter is a useful tool for evaluating a course formatively (i.e., on a weekly basis). Because of Twitter's simple use and the electronic handling of data, the administrative effort remains small.

  19. Growth and Methane Oxidation Rates of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Archaea in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Girguis, Peter R.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Hallam, Steven J.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea have recently been identified in anoxic marine sediments, but have not yet been recovered in pure culture. Physiological studies on freshly collected samples containing archaea and their sulfate-reducing syntrophic partners have been conducted, but sample availability and viability can limit the scope of these experiments. To better study microbial anaerobic methane oxidation, we developed a novel continuous-flow anaerobic methane incubation system (AMIS) that simulates the majority of in situ conditions and supports the metabolism and growth of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. We incubated sediments collected from within and outside a methane cold seep in Monterey Canyon, Calif., for 24 weeks on the AMIS system. Anaerobic methane oxidation was measured in all sediments after incubation on AMIS, and quantitative molecular techniques verified the increases in methane-oxidizing archaeal populations in both seep and nonseep sediments. Our results demonstrate that the AMIS system stimulated the maintenance and growth of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea, and possibly their syntrophic, sulfate-reducing partners. Our data demonstrate the utility of combining physiological and molecular techniques to quantify the growth and metabolic activity of anaerobic microbial consortia. Further experiments with the AMIS system should provide a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of methane oxidation in anoxic marine environments. The AMIS may also enable the enrichment, purification, and isolation of methanotrophic archaea as pure cultures or defined syntrophic consortia. PMID:12957936

  20. Effect of specific light supply rate on photosynthetic efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina in a continuous flat plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Eleonora; Calvaruso, Claudio; Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Nannochloropsis salina was cultivated in a continuous-flow flat-plate photobioreactor, working at different residence times and irradiations to study the effect of the specific light supply rate on biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency. Changes in residence times lead to different steady-state cell concentrations and specific growth rates. We observed that cultures at steady concentration were exposed to different values of light intensity per cell. This specific light supply rate was shown to affect the photosynthetic status of the cells, monitored by fluorescence measurements. High specific light supply rate can lead to saturation and photoinhibition phenomena if the biomass concentration is not optimized for the selected operating conditions. Energy balances were applied to quantify the biomass growth yield and maintenance requirements in N. salina cells.

  1. Affinity states of biocides determine bioavailability and release rates in marine paints.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Mia; Sjögren, Martin; Jonsson, Per R; Göransson, Ulf; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Pinori, Emiliano; Elwing, Hans; Berglin, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the next generation marine antifouling (AF) paints is to deliver minimum amounts of biocides to the environment. The candidate AF compound medetomidine is here shown to be released at very low concentrations, ie ng ml(-1) day(-1). Moreover, the release rate of medetomidine differs substantially depending on the formulation of the paint, while inhibition of barnacle settlement is independent of release to the ambient water, ie the paint with the lowest release rate was the most effective in impeding barnacle colonisation. This highlights the critical role of chemical interactions between biocide, paint carrier and the solid/aqueous interface for release rate and AF performance. The results are discussed in the light of differential affinity states of the biocide, predicting AF activity in terms of a high surface affinity and preserved bioavailability. This may offer a general framework for the design of low-release paint systems using biocides for protection against biofouling on marine surfaces.

  2. A novel wearable apnea dive computer for continuous plethysmographic monitoring of oxygen saturation and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kuch, Benjamin; Koss, Bernhard; Dujic, Zeljko; Buttazzo, Giorgio; Sieber, Arne

    2010-03-01

    We describe the development of a novel wrist-mounted apnea dive computer. The device is able to measure and display transcutaneous oxygen saturation, heart rate, plethysmographic pulse waveform, depth, time and temperature during breath-hold dives. All measurements are stored in an external memory chip. The data-processing software reads from the chip and writes the processed data into a comma-separated values file which can be analysed by applications such as Microsoft Excel™ or Open Office™. The housing is waterproof and pressure-resistant to more than 20 bar (2.026 MPa) (breath-hold divers have already exceeded 200 metres' sea water depth). It is compact, lightweight, has low power requirements and is easy to use.

  3. Continuous enteral and parenteral feeding each reduces heart rate variability but differentially influences monocyte gene expression in humans.

    PubMed

    Gale, Stephen C; Shanker, Beth-Ann; Coyle, Susette M; Macor, Marie A; Choi, Chun W; Calvano, Steve E; Corbett, Siobhan A; Lowry, Stephen F

    2012-08-01

    Enteral (EN) or parenteral (PN) nutrition is used to support critically ill patients until oral feeding resumes. Enteral nutrition is assumed preferable to PN, but the differential influence on immune function is not well defined. Autonomic nervous activity is known to influence innate immune responses, and we hypothesized that EN and PN could influence both autonomic signaling and gene activation in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs). Ten subjects (aged 18-36 years) received continuous EN or PN for 72 h. Peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from whole blood before and after continuous feeding and were analyzed for gene expression using a microarray platform. Gene expression after feeding was compared from baseline and between groups. To measure autonomic outflow, subjects also underwent heart rate variability (HRV) monitoring during feeding. Time and frequency domain HRV data were compared between groups and five orally fed subjects for changes from baseline and changes over time. During continuous EN and PN, subjects exhibited declines in both time and frequency domain HRV parameters compared with baseline and with PO subjects, indicating a loss of vagal/parasympathetic tone. However, PN feeding had a much greater influence on PBM gene expression compared with baseline than EN, including genes important to innate immunity. Continuous EN and PN are both associated with decreasing vagal tone over time, yet contribute differently to PBM gene expression, in humans. These preliminary findings support assumptions that PN imposes a systemic inflammatory risk but also imply that continuous feeding, independent of route, may impart additional risk through different mechanisms.

  4. Anaesthesia in medetomidine premedicated New Zealand White rabbits: a comparison between intravenous sufentanil-midazolam and isoflurane anaesthesia for orthopaedic surgery.

    PubMed

    Hedenqvist, Patricia; Edner, Anna; Jensen-Waern, Marianne

    2014-04-01

    Eighteen female New Zealand White rabbits (3.9 ± 0.4 kg) were anaesthetized with sufentanil-midazolam by intravenous infusion (SUF-MID, n = 9) or isoflurane (ISO, n = 9) for bilateral creation of an osteochondral defect in the medial femur condyle. Subcutaneous premedication with 0.1 mg/kg medetomidine and anaesthesia induction by intravenous infusion of 1.1 µg/kg sufentanil and 0.2 mg/kg midazolam were identical in both groups. During surgery (60 min), the effects on respiratory and circulatory variables serum lactate, total protein and blood glucose were examined. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) was initiated if apnoea lasted>30 s or if end-tidal CO2 ≥8 kPa. The righting reflex was lost in 3 min. IPPV was necessary during most of the anaesthesia for most of the rabbits. Maintenance doses during surgery were 2.0 µg/kg/h sufentanil and 0.4 mg/kg/h midazolam, and 1.4% isoflurane, respectively. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was higher in group SUF-MID than group ISO during surgery (63 ± 12 vs 50 ± 8 mmHg). In group ISO the heart rate was higher during surgery than before anaesthesia (197 ± 26 vs 158 ± 40 bpm) as was blood glucose (9 ± 2 vs 12 ± 3 mmol/L). Serum lactate levels remained unchanged whereas total protein decreased in both groups. Time to recover from anaesthesia did not differ between groups (20 min). Intravenous sufentanil-midazolam infusion provided surgical anaesthesia with a higher MAP than isoflurane anaesthesia. The protocol can be useful in situations in which gas anaesthesia cannot be used or in animals with limited cardiovascular reserves. However, IPPV is necessary.

  5. Influence of repeated anaesthesia on physiological parameters in male Wistar rats: a telemetric study about isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine and a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and fentanyl.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Maike; Henke, Julia; Tacke, Sabine; Markert, Michael; Guth, Brian

    2014-12-31

    This study evaluated the influence of repeated anaesthesia using isoflurane (ISO, 2-3 Vol%), ketamine-xylazine (KX, 100 mg·kg(-1) + 5 mg·kg(-1), i.m.) or a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF, 0.15 mg·kg(-1) + 2.0 mg·kg(-1) + 0.005 mg·kg(-1), i.m.) on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure (BP), body temperature (BT), duration of anaesthetic intervals and body weight (BW) in Wistar rats. Rats were instrumented with a telemetric system for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP), pulse pressure (PP), HR and BT during induction, maintenance and recovery of anaesthesia. Each anaesthesia was performed six times within three weeks. KX was not antagonized, but ISO delivery was terminated 40 minutes after induction and MMF was reversed with atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone (AFN, 0.75 mg·kg(-1) + 0.2 mg·kg(-1) + 0.12 mg·kg(-1), s.c.). With repeated anaesthesia, ISO showed a decrease of HR and BP. A significant decrease of PP could be observed with repeated anaesthesia using MMF. HR and BP were not affected by repeated KX anaesthesia, but we noted a reduction of sleeping time and BW. Neither MMF nor ISO showed significant differences in the duration of anaesthetic intervals and BW. With KX we observed tissue necrosis at the injection site and surgical tolerance was not achieved in 25% of the anaesthesias performed. HR, BP values, BT, duration of anaesthetic intervals and BW were affected differently by repeated anaesthesia performed with ISO, KX or MMF. ISO produced a reproducible anaesthesia, thereby being suitable for repeated use, but with a decrease of HR and BP throughout the six anaesthesias. The use of ISO in cases where these parameters should be unaffected is therefore not advised. The inability to produce a surgical tolerance, the reduction of sleeping time and BW, as well as the tissue necrosis are significant contraindications for a repeated use of KX. Only mild changes of BP

  6. Multicenter Study Validating Accuracy of a Continuous Respiratory Rate Measurement Derived From Pulse Oximetry: A Comparison With Capnography.

    PubMed

    Bergese, Sergio D; Mestek, Michael L; Kelley, Scott D; McIntyre, Robert; Uribe, Alberto A; Sethi, Rakesh; Watson, James N; Addison, Paul S

    2017-04-01

    Intermittent measurement of respiratory rate via observation is routine in many patient care settings. This approach has several inherent limitations that diminish the clinical utility of these measurements because it is intermittent, susceptible to human error, and requires clinical resources. As an alternative, a software application that derives continuous respiratory rate measurement from a standard pulse oximeter has been developed. We sought to determine the performance characteristics of this new technology by comparison with clinician-reviewed capnography waveforms in both healthy subjects and hospitalized patients in a low-acuity care setting. Two independent observational studies were conducted to validate the performance of the Medtronic Nellcor Respiration Rate Software application. One study enrolled 26 healthy volunteer subjects in a clinical laboratory, and a second multicenter study enrolled 53 hospitalized patients. During a 30-minute study period taking place while participants were breathing spontaneously, pulse oximeter and nasal/oral capnography waveforms were collected. Pulse oximeter waveforms were processed to determine respiratory rate via the Medtronic Nellcor Respiration Rate Software. Capnography waveforms reviewed by a clinician were used to determine the reference respiratory rate. A total of 23,243 paired observations between the pulse oximeter-derived respiratory rate and the capnography reference method were collected and examined. The mean reference-based respiratory rate was 15.3 ± 4.3 breaths per minute with a range of 4 to 34 breaths per minute. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the Medtronic Nellcor Respiration Rate Software values and the capnography reference respiratory rate is reported as a linear correlation, R, as 0.92 ± 0.02 (P < .001), whereas Lin's concordance correlation coefficient indicates an overall agreement of 0.85 ± 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] +0.76; +0.93) (healthy volunteers: 0.94 ± 0

  7. Multicenter Study Validating Accuracy of a Continuous Respiratory Rate Measurement Derived From Pulse Oximetry: A Comparison With Capnography

    PubMed Central

    Bergese, Sergio D.; Kelley, Scott D.; McIntyre, Robert; Uribe, Alberto A.; Sethi, Rakesh; Watson, James N.; Addison, Paul S.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Intermittent measurement of respiratory rate via observation is routine in many patient care settings. This approach has several inherent limitations that diminish the clinical utility of these measurements because it is intermittent, susceptible to human error, and requires clinical resources. As an alternative, a software application that derives continuous respiratory rate measurement from a standard pulse oximeter has been developed. We sought to determine the performance characteristics of this new technology by comparison with clinician-reviewed capnography waveforms in both healthy subjects and hospitalized patients in a low-acuity care setting. METHODS: Two independent observational studies were conducted to validate the performance of the Medtronic NellcorTM Respiration Rate Software application. One study enrolled 26 healthy volunteer subjects in a clinical laboratory, and a second multicenter study enrolled 53 hospitalized patients. During a 30-minute study period taking place while participants were breathing spontaneously, pulse oximeter and nasal/oral capnography waveforms were collected. Pulse oximeter waveforms were processed to determine respiratory rate via the Medtronic Nellcor Respiration Rate Software. Capnography waveforms reviewed by a clinician were used to determine the reference respiratory rate. RESULTS: A total of 23,243 paired observations between the pulse oximeter-derived respiratory rate and the capnography reference method were collected and examined. The mean reference-based respiratory rate was 15.3 ± 4.3 breaths per minute with a range of 4 to 34 breaths per minute. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the Medtronic Nellcor Respiration Rate Software values and the capnography reference respiratory rate is reported as a linear correlation, R, as 0.92 ± 0.02 (P < .001), whereas Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient indicates an overall agreement of 0.85 ± 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI] +0.76; +0

  8. Faster Blood Flow Rate Does Not Improve Circuit Life in Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Fealy, Nigel; Aitken, Leanne; du Toit, Eugene; Lo, Serigne; Baldwin, Ian

    2017-10-01

    To determine whether blood flow rate influences circuit life in continuous renal replacement therapy. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Single center tertiary level ICU. Critically ill adults requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Patients were randomized to receive one of two blood flow rates: 150 or 250 mL/min. The primary outcome was circuit life measured in hours. Circuit and patient data were collected until each circuit clotted or was ceased electively for nonclotting reasons. Data for clotted circuits are presented as median (interquartile range) and compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Survival probability for clotted circuits was compared using log-rank test. Circuit clotting data were analyzed for repeated events using hazards ratio. One hundred patients were randomized with 96 completing the study (150 mL/min, n = 49; 250 mL/min, n = 47) using 462 circuits (245 run at 150 mL/min and 217 run at 250 mL/min). Median circuit life for first circuit (clotted) was similar for both groups (150 mL/min: 9.1 hr [5.5-26 hr] vs 10 hr [4.2-17 hr]; p = 0.37). Continuous renal replacement therapy using blood flow rate set at 250 mL/min was not more likely to cause clotting compared with 150 mL/min (hazards ratio, 1.00 [0.60-1.69]; p = 0.68). Gender, body mass index, weight, vascular access type, length, site, and mode of continuous renal replacement therapy or international normalized ratio had no effect on clotting risk. Continuous renal replacement therapy without anticoagulation was more likely to cause clotting compared with use of heparin strategies (hazards ratio, 1.62; p = 0.003). Longer activated partial thromboplastin time (hazards ratio, 0.98; p = 0.002) and decreased platelet count (hazards ratio, 1.19; p = 0.03) were associated with a reduced likelihood of circuit clotting. There was no difference in circuit life whether using blood flow rates of 250 or 150 mL/min during continuous renal replacement therapy.

  9. Solving the Sustainable Growth Rate formula conundrum continues steps toward cost savings and care improvements.

    PubMed

    Reschovsky, James D; Converse, Larisa; Rich, Eugene C

    2015-04-01

    Congress is again attempting to repeal the Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) formula. The formula is a failed mechanism intended to constrain Medicare Part B physician spending by adjusting annual physician fee updates. Congress has averted formula-driven physician fee cuts each year beginning in 2003 by overriding the SGR, usually accompanied with last-minute disputes about how these overrides should be paid for. Last year Congress achieved bipartisan and bicameral agreement on legislation to replace the SGR—the SGR Repeal and Medicare Provider Payment Modernization Act of 2014, which we refer to as the "2014 SGR fix"—but was unable to find a way to pay for the legislation under current budget rules. Current congressional deliberations appear focused on how to pay for the fix, with wide consensus that the 2014 legislation should remain the basic model for reform. We describe key features of the 2014 SGR fix, place it in the context of both past and ongoing Medicare health policy, assess its strengths and weaknesses as a mechanism to foster improved care and lower costs in Medicare, and suggest further actions to ensure success in meeting these goals.

  10. A low perfusion rate microreactor for continuous monitoring of enzyme characteristics: application to glucose oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Venema, K.; van Berkel, W. J. H.; Korf, J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver the reactants and the device was linked on-line to an electrochemical detector. The microreactor was used for on-line preparation of apoglucose oxidase in strong acid and its subsequent reactivation with flavin adenine dinucleotide. In addition we describe a miniaturized version of the microreactor used to assess several characteristics of femtomole to attomole amounts of glucose oxidase. A low negative potential over the electrodes was used when ferrocene was the mediator in combination with horseradish peroxidase, ensuring the absence of oxidation of electro-active compounds in biological fluids. A low backpressure at very low flow rates is an advantage, which increases the sensitivity. A variety of further applications of the microreactor are suggested. Figure Preparation of apoGOx and restoration of enzyme activity using a soluton of FAD PMID:17909761

  11. Ejection fractions and pressure-heart rate product to evaluate cardiac efficiency. Continuous, real-time diagnosis using blood pressure and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Kunig, H; Tassani-Prell, P; Engelmann, L

    2014-04-01

    Ejection fractions, derived from ventricular volumes, and double product, related to myocardial oxygen consumption, are important diagnostic parameters, as they describe the efficiency with which oxygen is consumed. Present technology often allows only intermittent determination of physiological status. This deficiency may be overcome if ejection fractions and myocardial oxygen consumption could be determined from continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements. The purpose of this study is to determine the viability of pressure-derived ejection fractions and pressure-heart rate data in a diverse patient population and the use of ejection fractions to monitor patient safety. Volume ejection fractions, derived from ventricular volumes, EF(V), are defined by the ratio of the difference of end-diastolic volume, EDV, and end-systolic volume, ESV, to EDV. In analogy, pressure ejection fraction, EF(P), may be defined by the ratio of the difference of systolic arterial pressure, SBP, and diastolic arterial pressure, DBP, to SBP. The pressure-heart rate (heart rate: HR) is given by the product of systolic pressure and heart rate, SBP × HR. EF(P) and SBP × HR data were derived for all patients (n = 824) who were admitted in 2008 to the ICU of a university hospital at the specific time 30 min prior to leaving the ICU whether as survivors or non-survivors. The results are displayed in an efficiency/pressure-heart rate diagram. The efficiency/pressure-heart rate diagram reveals one subarea populated exclusively by survivors, another subarea populated statistically significant by non-survivors, and a third area shared by survivors and non-survivors. The efficiency/pressure-heart rate product relationship may be used as an outcome criterion to assess survival and to noninvasively monitor improvement or deterioration in real time to improve safety in patients with diverse dysfunctions.

  12. Relations between response trajectories on the continuous performance test and teacher-rated problem behaviors in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Allan, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2015-06-01

    Although both the continuous performance test (CPT) and behavior rating scales are used in both practice and research to assess inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, the correlations between performance on the CPT and teachers' ratings are typically only small-to-moderate. This study examined trajectories of performance on a low target-frequency visual CPT in a sample of preschool children and how these trajectories were associated with teacher-ratings of problem behaviors (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity [H/I], and oppositional/defiant behavior). Participants included 399 preschool children (mean age = 56 months; 49.4% female; 73.7% White/Caucasian). An attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) rating scale was completed by teachers, and the CPT was completed by the preschoolers. Results showed that children's performance across 4 temporal blocks on the CPT was not stable across the duration of the task, with error rates generally increasing from initial to later blocks. The predictive relations of teacher-rated problem behaviors to performance trajectories on the CPT were examined using growth curve models. Higher rates of teacher-reported inattention and H/I were uniquely associated with higher rates of initial omission errors and initial commission errors, respectively. Higher rates of teacher-reported overall problem behaviors were associated with increasing rates of omission but not commission errors during the CPT; however, the relation was not specific to 1 type of problem behavior. The results of this study indicate that the pattern of errors on the CPT in preschool samples is complex and may be determined by multiple behavioral factors. These findings have implications for the interpretation of CPT performance in young children.

  13. Relations between Response Trajectories on the Continuous Performance Test and Teacher-Rated Problem Behaviors in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Allan, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Although both the Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and behavior rating scales are used in both practice and research to assess inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behaviors, the correlations between performance on the CPT and teachers' ratings are typically only small-to-moderate. This study examined trajectories of performance on a low target-frequency visual CPT in a sample of preschool children and how these trajectories were associated with teacher-ratings of problem behaviors (i.e., inattention, hyperactivity/impulsivity [H/I], and oppositional/defiant behavior). Participants included 399 preschool children (Mean age = 56 months; 49.4% female; 73.7% White/Caucasian). An ADHD-rating scale was completed by teachers, and the CPT was completed by the preschoolers. Results showed that children's performance across four temporal blocks on the CPT was not stable across the duration of the task, with error rates generally increasing from initial to later blocks. The predictive relations of teacher-rated problem behaviors to performance trajectories on the CPT were examined using growth curve models. Higher rates of teacher-reported inattention and H/I were uniquely associated with higher rates of initial omission errors and initial commission errors, respectively. Higher rates of teacher-reported overall problem behaviors were associated with increasing rates of omission but not commission errors during the CPT; however, the relation was not specific to one type of problem behavior. The results of this study indicate that the pattern of errors on the CPT in preschool samples is complex and may be determined by multiple behavioral factors. These findings have implications for the interpretation of CPT performance in young children. PMID:25419645

  14. Enhancement of Arterial Pressure Pulsatility by Controlling Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Flow Rate in Mock Circulatory System.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Selim; van de Vosse, Frans N; Rutten, Marcel C M

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs) generally operate at a constant speed, which reduces pulsatility in the arteries and may lead to complications such as functional changes in the vascular system, gastrointestinal bleeding, or both. The purpose of this study is to increase the arterial pulse pressure and pulsatility by controlling the CF-LVAD flow rate. A MicroMed DeBakey pump was used as the CF-LVAD. A model simulating the flow rate through the aortic valve was used as a reference model to drive the pump. A mock circulation containing two synchronized servomotor-operated piston pumps acting as left and right ventricles was used as a circulatory system. Proportional-integral control was used as the control method. First, the CF-LVAD was operated at a constant speed. With pulsatile-speed CF-LVAD assistance, the pump was driven such that the same mean pump output was generated. Continuous and pulsatile-speed CF-LVAD assistance provided the same mean arterial pressure and flow rate, while the index of pulsatility increased significantly for both arterial pressure and pump flow rate signals under pulsatile speed pump support. This study shows the possibility of improving the pulsatility of CF-LVAD support by regulating pump speed over a cardiac cycle without reducing the overall level of support.

  15. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates.

    PubMed

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH4/gVSadded/d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Application of the two-dose-rate method for general recombination correction for liquid ionization chambers in continuous beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, Jonas; Tölli, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    A method to correct for the general recombination losses for liquid ionization chambers in continuous beams has been developed. The proposed method has been derived from Greening's theory for continuous beams and is based on measuring the signal from a liquid ionization chamber and an air filled monitor ionization chamber at two different dose rates. The method has been tested with two plane parallel liquid ionization chambers in a continuous radiation x-ray beam with a tube voltage of 120 kV and with dose rates between 2 and 13 Gy min-1. The liquids used as sensitive media in the chambers were isooctane (C8H18) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH3)4). The general recombination effect was studied using chamber polarizing voltages of 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 V for both liquids. The relative standard deviation of the results for the collection efficiency with respect to general recombination was found to be a maximum of 0.7% for isooctane and 2.4% for tetramethylsilane. The results are in excellent agreement with Greening's theory for collection efficiencies over 90%. The measured and corrected signals from the liquid ionization chambers used in this work are in very good agreement with the air filled monitor chamber with respect to signal to dose linearity.

  17. Application of the two-dose-rate method for general recombination correction for liquid ionization chambers in continuous beams.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jonas; Tölli, Heikki

    2011-01-21

    A method to correct for the general recombination losses for liquid ionization chambers in continuous beams has been developed. The proposed method has been derived from Greening's theory for continuous beams and is based on measuring the signal from a liquid ionization chamber and an air filled monitor ionization chamber at two different dose rates. The method has been tested with two plane parallel liquid ionization chambers in a continuous radiation x-ray beam with a tube voltage of 120 kV and with dose rates between 2 and 13 Gy min(-1). The liquids used as sensitive media in the chambers were isooctane (C(8)H(18)) and tetramethylsilane (Si(CH(3))(4)). The general recombination effect was studied using chamber polarizing voltages of 100, 300, 500, 700 and 900 V for both liquids. The relative standard deviation of the results for the collection efficiency with respect to general recombination was found to be a maximum of 0.7% for isooctane and 2.4% for tetramethylsilane. The results are in excellent agreement with Greening's theory for collection efficiencies over 90%. The measured and corrected signals from the liquid ionization chambers used in this work are in very good agreement with the air filled monitor chamber with respect to signal to dose linearity.

  18. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1974-01-01

    Cellular response and cell population kinetics were studied during lymphopoiesis in the thymus of the mouse under continuous gamma irradiation using autoradiographic techniques and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine. On the basis of tissue weights, it is concluded that the response of both the thymus and spleen to continuous low dose-rate irradiation is multiphasic. That is, alternating periods of steady state growth, followed by collapse, which in turn is followed by another period of homeostasis. Since there are two populations of lymphocytes - short lived and long-lived, it may be that different phases of steady state growth are mediated by different lymphocytes. The spleen is affected to a greater extent with shorter periods of steady-state growth than exhibited by the thymus.

  19. Anaesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane with and without midazolam, in eight captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Morath, U; Bergadano, A

    2013-08-01

    In 8 captive adult chimpanzees of various ages premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol anaesthesia was induced intramuscularly with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine (40 or 50 µg/kg and 5 mg/kg, IM, respectively), with and without midazolam (0.05 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. At the end of the procedure, sedation was reversed with atipamezole (0.25 mg/kg, IM) and sarmazenil (0.005 mg/kg, IM) when midazolam had been administered. Oral zuclopenthixol resulted in tranquillization of the whole group and only one animal required a second dart injection to achieve adequately deep anaesthesia. Effective and reliable anaesthesia was achieved in all apes; the depth of hypnosis was stable and sudden arousal did not occur. Physiological parameters remained within normal ranges in the majority of the animals; however, manageable anaesthesia-related complications, namely apnoea after darting, hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxemia and prolonged recovery, occurred in 6 out of 8 animals. The use of monitoring devices was essential to guarantee adequate management of these complications.

  20. Killing rates for caspofungin against Candida albicans after brief and continuous caspofungin exposure in the presence and absence of serum.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Renátó; Gesztelyi, Rudolf; Perlin, David S; Kardos, Gábor; Domán, Marianna; Berényi, Réka; Majoros, László

    2014-10-01

    It was previously demonstrated that brief (≤1 h) exposures to echinocandins are as effective to kill Candida albicans cells as continuous 24-h exposure. However, killing rates after continuous and short (1 h) echinocandin exposures to C. albicans have not yet been evaluated in RPMI-1640 with and without 50 % serum. We evaluated four echinocandin susceptible C. albicans bloodstream isolates, ATCC 10231 type strain and an echinocandin-resistant isolate (DPL20, FKS F645P). Caspofungin MICs, time-kill and postantifungal effect (PAFE) tests were performed in RPMI-1640 with and without 50 % serum. Killing rates (k values) in time-kill and PAFE experiments were determined for each strain and concentration. In time-kill experiments, colony count decreases were isolate- and concentration-dependent at 0.25, 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L in RPMI-1640, but concentration-independent at 1, 4, 8, 16 and 32 mg/L in 50 % serum. One-hour caspofungin exposure at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L resulted in CFU decreases comparable with the results obtained in time-kill experiments in RPMI-1640, but 50 % serum at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L allowed growth of all isolates (k values were negative) (P < 0.05-0.001). PAFE in 50 % serum decreased markedly at 4, 16 and 32 mg/L. Killing rates remained high and concentration-independent in 50 % serum in case of continuous but not in case of brief caspofungin exposure. As only a short growth inhibition without killing was observed in 50 % serum, clinical relevance of caspofungin PAFE in vivo is questionable.

  1. Carbofuran removal in continuous-photocatalytic reactor: Reactor optimization, rate-constant determination and carbofuran degradation pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Vishnuganth, M A; Remya, Neelancherry; Kumar, Mathava; Selvaraju, N

    2017-05-04

    Carbofuran (CBF) removal in a continuous-flow photocatalytic reactor with granular activated carbon supported titanium dioxide (GAC-TiO2) catalyst was investigated. The effects of feed flow rate, TiO2 concentration and addition of supplementary oxidants on CBF removal were investigated. The central composite design (CCD) was used to design the experiments and to estimate the effects of feed flow rate and TiO2 concentration on CBF removal. The outcome of CCD experiments demonstrated that reactor performance was influenced mainly by feed flow rate compared to TiO2 concentration. A second-order polynomial model developed based on CCD experiments fitted the experimental data with good correlation (R(2) ∼ 0.964). The addition of 1 mL min(-1) hydrogen peroxide has shown complete CBF degradation and 76% chemical oxygen demand removal under the following operating conditions of CBF ∼50 mg L(-1), TiO2 ∼5 mg L(-1) and feed flow rate ∼82.5 mL min(-1). Rate constant of the photodegradation process was also calculated by applying the kinetic data in pseudo-first-order kinetics. Four major degradation intermediates of CBF were identified using GC-MS analysis. As a whole, the reactor system and GAC-TiO2 catalyst used could be constructive in cost-effective CBF removal with no impact to receiving environment through getaway of photocatalyst.

  2. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  3. Monitoring the impact of the indoor air quality on silver cultural heritage objects using passive and continuous corrosion rate assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    `t Hart, Lucy; Storme, Patrick; Anaf, Willemien; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Dorriné, Walter; Janssens, Koen; de Wael, Karolien; Schalm, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    There is a long tradition in evaluating industrial atmospheres by measuring the corrosion rate of exposed metal coupons. The heritage community also uses this method, but the interpretation of the corrosion rate often lacks clarity due to the low corrosivity in indoor museum environments. This investigation explores the possibilities and drawbacks of different silver corrosion rate assessments. The corrosion rate is determined by three approaches: (1) chemical characterization of metal coupons using analytical techniques such as electrochemical measurements, SEM-EDX, XRD, and µ-Raman spectroscopy, (2) continuous corrosion monitoring methods based on electrical resistivity loss of a corroding nm-sized metal wire and weight gain of a corroding silver coated quartz crystal, and (3) characterization of the visual degradation of the metal coupons. This study confirms that subtle differences in corrosivity between locations inside a museum can be determined on condition that the same corrosion rate assessment is used. However, the impact of the coupon orientation with respect to the prevailing direction of air circulation can be substantially larger than the impact of the coupon location.

  4. Three-year follow-up and event rates in the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Mark J; Bhatt, Deepak L; Mas, Jean-Louis; Ohman, E Magnus; Hirsch, Alan T; Röther, Joachim; Salette, Geneviève; Goto, Shinya; Smith, Sidney C; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wilson, Peter W F; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2009-10-01

    To determine 3-year event rates in outpatients with vascular disease enrolled in the REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry. REACH enrolled 67 888 outpatients with atherothrombosis [established coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral arterial disease (PAD)], or with at least three atherothrombotic risk factors, from 44 countries. Among the 55 499 patients at baseline with symptomatic disease, 39 675 were eligible for 3-year follow-up, and 32 247 had data available (81% retention rate). Among the symptomatic patients at 3 years, 92% were taking an antithrombotic agent, 91% an antihypertensive, and 76% were on lipid-lowering therapy. For myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke/vascular death, 1- and 3-year event rates for all patients were 4.2 and 11.0%, respectively. Event rates (MI/stroke/vascular death) were significantly higher for patients with symptomatic disease vs. those with risk factors only at 1 year (4.7 vs. 2.3%, P < 0.001) and at 3 years (12.0 vs. 6.0%, P < 0.001). One and 3-year rates of MI/stroke/vascular death/rehospitalization were 14.4 and 28.4%, respectively, for patients with symptomatic disease. Rehospitalization for a vascular event other than MI/stroke/vascular death was common at 3 years (19.0% overall; 33.6% for PAD; 23.0% for CAD). For patients with symptomatic vascular disease in one vascular bed vs. multiple vascular beds, 3-year event rates for MI/stroke/vascular death/rehospitalization were 25.5 vs. 40.5% (P < 0.001). Despite contemporary therapy, outpatients with symptomatic atherothrombotic vascular disease experience high rates of recurrent vascular events and rehospitalizations.

  5. Three-year follow-up and event rates in the international REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health Registry

    PubMed Central

    Alberts, Mark J.; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Mas, Jean-Louis; Ohman, E. Magnus; Hirsch, Alan T.; Röther, Joachim; Salette, Geneviève; Goto, Shinya; Smith, Sidney C.; Liau, Chiau-Suong; Wilson, Peter W.F.; Steg, Ph. Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Aims To determine 3-year event rates in outpatients with vascular disease enrolled in the REduction of Atherothrombosis for Continued Health (REACH) Registry. Methods and results REACH enrolled 67 888 outpatients with atherothrombosis [established coronary artery disease (CAD), cerebrovascular disease, or peripheral arterial disease (PAD)], or with at least three atherothrombotic risk factors, from 44 countries. Among the 55 499 patients at baseline with symptomatic disease, 39 675 were eligible for 3-year follow-up, and 32 247 had data available (81% retention rate). Among the symptomatic patients at 3 years, 92% were taking an antithrombotic agent, 91% an antihypertensive, and 76% were on lipid-lowering therapy. For myocardial infarction (MI)/stroke/vascular death, 1- and 3-year event rates for all patients were 4.2 and 11.0%, respectively. Event rates (MI/stroke/vascular death) were significantly higher for patients with symptomatic disease vs. those with risk factors only at 1 year (4.7 vs. 2.3%, P < 0.001) and at 3 years (12.0 vs. 6.0%, P < 0.001). One and 3-year rates of MI/stroke/vascular death/rehospitalization were 14.4 and 28.4%, respectively, for patients with symptomatic disease. Rehospitalization for a vascular event other than MI/stroke/vascular death was common at 3 years (19.0% overall; 33.6% for PAD; 23.0% for CAD). For patients with symptomatic vascular disease in one vascular bed vs. multiple vascular beds, 3-year event rates for MI/stroke/vascular death/rehospitalization were 25.5 vs. 40.5% (P < 0.001). Conclusion Despite contemporary therapy, outpatients with symptomatic atherothrombotic vascular disease experience high rates of recurrent vascular events and rehospitalizations. PMID:19720633

  6. Retrospective evaluation of continuous rate infusion of regular insulin intravenously for the management of feline diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Pamela N; Moore, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    The use and efficacy of continuous rate infusion (CRI) of regular insulin intravenously for the treatment of feline diabetic ketoacidosis was retrospectively evaluated. The study focused on the rate of glucose decline, time to resolution of inappetence, time to long-term injectable insulin, and length of hospital stay. Review of medical records from 2009 to 2011 identified 10 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Six cats were existing diabetics, 3 of whom had recent insulin changes. Five cats had concurrent diseases. The mean time to long-term injectable insulin was 55 hours. The mean length of hospitalization was 3.8 days. Five cats survived to discharge. In 5 patients, an insulin CRI permitted a short hospital stay and transition to long-term injectable insulin. Many cats with diabetic ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis are prior diabetics with concurrent disease and/or a history of recent insulin changes.

  7. Estimation of a Time-Dependent Strain Rate Field in Southern California Using Continuous GPS Stations in the SCIGN Network.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, D.; Holt, W. E.; Bennett, R. A.; Li, C.; Dimitrova, L. L.; Haines, A. J.

    2005-12-01

    Advancements in the recognition of fine-scale deformation fluctuations have prompted a great deal of attention to be focused on identifying and characterizing transient strain phenomena. We have developed a tool for recognizing strain rate transients as well as for quantifying the magnitude and style of their temporal and spatial variations. Using time-varying velocity estimates for continuous GPS station data from the Southern California Integrated GPS Network (SCIGN) for the time period between October 1999 and February 2004 [Li et al., 2005]. We determine time-averaged velocity values in 0.05 year epochs for each continuous velocity series. For each velocity field solution we determine a self-consistent model velocity gradient tensor field solution for the region using bi-cubic Bessel interpolation of the GPS velocity vectors. For each epoch solution we plot dilatation strain rates, shear strain rates, and the rotation rates. We also investigate the departures of the model strain rate field and velocity field from a master solution, obtained from a time-averaged solution for the period 1999-2004, as well as estimating the departures of the time variable velocity gradient tensor field from other master solutions, including models that incorporate plate motion constraints and Quaternary fault data. By combining the epoch solution plots, we create movies that allow us to view the spatial and temporal changes in the dilation and shear strain rate field in southern California. In the present solution several time-dependent changes are noteworthy. The Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ) region, immediately following the October 1999 Hector Mine earthquake, shows a significant spatial change of relatively high shear strain rate that increases from the immediate area of the earthquake to an area that almost spans the entire ECSZ from east to west. Also following the Hector Mine event, there is a strain rate corridor that extends through the Pinto Mt. fault connecting

  8. Chemical stability of morphine and methadone, and of methadone in combination with acepromazine, medetomidine or xylazine, during prolonged storage in syringes.

    PubMed

    Lee, D Y; Watson, N; Whittem, T

    2017-08-01

    To assess the chemical and physical stability of morphine and methadone stored in syringes for 12 months and of methadone when mixed with acepromazine, medetomidine or xylazine. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was developed and validated for the analysis of morphine and methadone. Morphine and methadone were dispensed into syringes and stored at 25°C/60% relative humidity (RH) and 40°C/75% RH. Solutions containing mixtures of methadone combined with acepromazine, medetomidine or xylazine were stored in syringes at 25°C/60%RH. At initiation, after 1 week and then 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, samples were analysed by HPLC for the quantification of the morphine or methadone. Measured concentrations were assessed as a function of storage time and temperature using linear regression statistics to calculate stability. When stored at 40°C/75%RH as pre-dispensed syringes, severe physical and chemical changes were observed after the third month for both morphine and methadone. In contrast, at 25°C/60%RH both drugs remained chemically stable for 12 months, with concentration variations not exceeding a 5% change from initiation as stipulated in VICH stability guidelines. When in combination with acepromazine or xylazine, methadone also remained chemically stable, but the combination with medetomidine failed stability criteria prior to 6 months. Precipitation compromised the physical stability of methadone in all unsealed syringes prior to 9 months' storage. Pre-dispensing morphine or methadone into unsealed syringes compromises the drugs' physical stability. Mixing of methadone with other drugs can degrade its chemical stability. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. [Effects of dilution rates on the oscillatory behaviors of a very high gravity continuous ethanol fermentation system].

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin-Peng; Chen, Li-Jie; Wang, Fang; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2005-07-01

    Continuous ethanol fermentation using very high gravity medium containing 280 g/L glucose, 5 g/L yeast extract and 3 g/L peptone was run at the dilute rates of 0.006 h(-1), 0.012 h(-1), 0.017 h(-1), 0.024 h(-1) and 0.032 h(-1) (based on the total working volume) in a combined bioreactor system composed of a stirred tank and three-stage tubular bioreactors in series. Oscillations marked by big fluctuations of residual glucose, ethanol and biomass were observed at the dilution rate of 0.012 h(-1). The Hopf Bifurcation theory was used to analyze and predict the occurring of these oscillations and the dilution rates that incited oscillations. Theoretical analysis revealed that oscillations can occur at designated specific growth rates and was validated by experimental results. The benefits of oscillations for the fermentation system were also discussed by comparing the fermentation results with those without oscillations.

  10. Continuous daylight in the high-Arctic summer supports high plankton respiration rates compared to those supported in the dark.

    PubMed

    Mesa, Elena; Delgado-Huertas, Antonio; Carrillo-de-Albornoz, Paloma; García-Corral, Lara S; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Wassmann, Paul; Reigstad, Marit; Sejr, Mikael; Dalsgaard, Tage; Duarte, Carlos M

    2017-04-28

    Plankton respiration rate is a major component of global CO2 production and is forecasted to increase rapidly in the Arctic with warming. Yet, existing assessments in the Arctic evaluated plankton respiration in the dark. Evidence that plankton respiration may be stimulated in the light is particularly relevant for the high Arctic where plankton communities experience continuous daylight in spring and summer. Here we demonstrate that plankton community respiration evaluated under the continuous daylight conditions present in situ, tends to be higher than that evaluated in the dark. The ratio between community respiration measured in the light (Rlight) and in the dark (Rdark) increased as the 2/3 power of Rlight so that the Rlight:Rdark ratio increased from an average value of 1.37 at the median Rlight measured here (3.62 µmol O2 L(-1) d(-1)) to an average value of 17.56 at the highest Rlight measured here (15.8 µmol O2 L(-1) d(-1)). The role of respiratory processes as a source of CO2 in the Arctic has, therefore, been underestimated and is far more important than previously believed, particularly in the late spring, with 24 h photoperiods, when community respiration rates are highest.

  11. Continuous flow micro-bioreactors for the production of biopharmaceuticals: the effect of geometry, surface texture, and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Garza-García, Lucía D; García-López, Erika; Camacho-León, Sergio; Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, María; López-Pacheco, Felipe; López-Meza, Julián; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Tapia-Mejía, Eduardo J; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rodríguez-González, Ciro A; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2014-04-07

    We used continuous flow micro-devices as bioreactors for the production of a glycosylated pharmaceutical product (a monoclonal antibody). We cultured CHO cells on the surface of PMMA/PDMS micro-channels that had been textured by micromachining and coated with fibronectin. Three different micro-channel geometries (a wavy channel, a zigzag channel, and a series of donut-shape reservoirs) were tested in a continuous flow regime in the range of 3 to 6 μL min(-1). Both the geometry of the micro-device and the flow rate had a significant effect on cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and monoclonal antibody production. The most efficient configuration was a series of donut-shaped reservoirs, which yielded mAb concentrations of 7.2 mg L(-1) at residence times lower than one minute and steady-state productivities above 9 mg mL(-1) min(-1). These rates are at about 3 orders of magnitude higher than those observed in suspended-cell stirred tank fed-batch bioreactors.

  12. Maintaining Continuity of Care for Nursing Home Residents: Effect of States’ Medicaid Bed-Hold Policies and Reimbursement Rates

    PubMed Central

    Intrator, Orna; Schleinitz, Mark; Grabowski, David C; Zinn, Jacqueline; Mor, Vincent

    2009-01-01

    Objective Recent public concern in response to states’ intended repeal of Medicaid bed-hold policies and report of their association with higher hospitalization rates prompts examination of these policies in ensuring continuity of care within the broader context of Medicaid policies. Data Sources/Study Design Minimum Data Set assessments of long-stay nursing home residents in April–June 2000 linked to Medicare claims enabled tracking residents’ hospitalizations during the ensuing 5 months and determining hospital discharge destination. Multinomial multilevel models estimated the effect of state policies on discharge destination controlling for resident, hospitalization, nursing home, and market characteristics. Results Among 77,955 hospitalizations, 5,797 (7.4 percent) were not discharged back to the baseline nursing home. Bed-hold policies were associated with lower odds of transfer to another nursing home (AOR=0.55, 95 percent CI 0.52–0.58) and higher odds of hospitalization (AOR=1.36), translating to 9.5 fewer nursing home transfers and 77.9 more hospitalizations per 1,000 residents annually, and costing Medicaid programs about $201,311. Higher Medicaid reimbursement rates were associated with lower odds of transfer. Conclusions Bed-hold policies were associated with greater continuity of NH care; however, their high cost compared with their small impact on transfer but large impact on increased hospitalizations suggests that they may not be effective. PMID:18783452

  13. Short time synthesis of high quality carbon nanotubes with high rates by CVD of methane on continuously emerged iron nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Behnam; Khodadadi, Abasali; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Esmaieli, Mohamad

    2011-09-01

    We report the variation of yield and quality of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of methane on iron oxide-MgO at 900-1000 °C for 1-60 min. The catalyst was prepared by impregnation of MgO powder with iron nitrate, dried, and calcined at 300 °C. As calcined and unreduced catalyst in quartz reactor was brought to the synthesis temperature in helium flow in a few minutes, and then the flow was switched to methane. The iron oxide was reduced to iron nanoparticles in methane, while the CNTs were growing. TEM micrographs, in accordance with Raman RBM peaks, indicate the formation of mostly single wall carbon nanotubes of about 1.0 nm size. High quality CNTs with IG/ID Raman peak ratio of 14.5 are formed in the first minute of CNTs synthesis with the highest rate. Both the rate and quality of CNTs degrades with increasing CNTs synthesis time. Also CNTs quality sharply declines with temperature in the range of 900-1000 °C, while the CNTs yield passes through a maximum at 950 °C. About the same CNTs lengths are formed for the whole range of the synthesis times. A model of continuous emergence of iron nanoparticle seeds for CNTs synthesis may explain the data. The data can also provide information for continuous production of CNTs in a fluidized bed reactor.

  14. Risk factors and outcomes of high peritonitis rate in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuanshi; Xie, Xishao; Xiang, Shilong; Yang, Xin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Shou, Zhangfei; Chen, Jianghua

    2016-12-01

    Peritonitis remains a major complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD). A high peritonitis rate (HPR) affects continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients' technique survival and mortality. Predictors and outcomes of HPR, rather than the first peritonitis episode, were rarely studied in the Chinese population. In this study, we examined the risk factors associated with HPR and its effects on clinical outcomes in CAPD patients.This is a single center, retrospective, observational cohort study. A total of 294 patients who developing at least 1 episode of peritonitis were followed up from March 1st, 2002, to July 31, 2014, in our PD center. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with HPR, and the Cox proportional hazard model was conducted to assess the effects of HPR on clinical outcomes.During the study period of 2917.5 patient-years, 489 episodes of peritonitis were recorded, and the total peritonitis rate was 0.168 episodes per patient-year. The multivariate analysis showed that factors associated with HPR include a quick occurrence of peritonitis after CAPD initiation (shorter than 12 months), and a low serum albumin level at the start of CAPD. In the Cox proportional hazard model, HPR was a significant predictor of technique failure. There were no differences between HPR and low peritonitis rate (LPR) group for all-cause mortality. However, when the peritonitis rate was considered as a continuous variable, a positive correlation was observed between the peritonitis rate and mortality.We found the quick peritonitis occurrence after CAPD and the low serum albumin level before CAPD were strongly associated with an HPR. Also, our results verified that HPR was positively correlated with technique failure. More importantly, the increase in the peritonitis rate suggested a higher risk of all-cause mortality.These results may help to identify and target patients who are at higher risk of HPR at the start of CAPD and to

  15. A randomized controlled trial of continuous labor support for middle-class couples: effect on cesarean delivery rates.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Susan K; Kennell, John H

    2008-06-01

    Previous randomized controlled studies in several different settings demonstrated the positive effects of continuous labor support by an experienced woman (doula) for low-income women laboring without the support of family members. The objective of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the perinatal effects of doula support for nulliparous middle-income women accompanied by a male partner during labor and delivery. Nulliparous women in the third trimester of an uncomplicated pregnancy were enrolled at childbirth education classes in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1988 through 1992. Of the 686 prenatal women recruited, 420 met enrollment criteria and completed the intervention. For the 224 women randomly assigned to the experimental group, a doula arrived shortly after hospital admission and remained throughout labor and delivery. Doula support included close physical proximity, touch, and eye contact with the laboring woman, and teaching, reassurance, and encouragement of the woman and her male partner. The doula group had a significantly lower cesarean delivery rate than the control group (13.4% vs 25.0%, p = 0.002), and fewer women in the doula group received epidural analgesia (64.7% vs 76.0%, p = 0.008). Among women with induced labor, those supported by a doula had a lower rate of cesarean delivery than those in the control group (12.5% vs 58.8%, p = 0.007). On questionnaires the day after delivery, 100 percent of couples with doula support rated their experience with the doula positively. For middle-class women laboring with the support of their male partner, the continuous presence of a doula during labor significantly decreased the likelihood of cesarean delivery and reduced the need for epidural analgesia. Women and their male partners were unequivocal in their positive opinions about laboring with the support of a doula.

  16. The Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and Continuous Performance Test in Preschoolers with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    PubMed

    Çak, H Tuna; Çengel Kültür, S Ebru; Gökler, Bahar; Öktem, Ferhunde; Taşkıran, Candan

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine performance-based measures and behavioral ratings of executive functions (EF) as a component of preschool attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-one 4-to-6-year-old children with ADHD and 52 children with no psychopathology, matched on age, gender, socioeconomic status, and parental education, were enrolled. Parents were interviewed with the use of The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Present and Lifetime version. The Conners' Kiddie Continuous Performance Test (K-CPT) was administered to the children, and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised/Short Form (CPRS-R/S) were filled out by the parents. All BRIEF-P and CPRS-R/S scores, the K-CPT measures of inattention and impulsivity were higher in the ADHD group. The CPRS-R/S ADHD index was strongly correlated with inhibition and related indexes in the BRIEF-P and was moderately correlated with inattention measures in the K-CPT. The current study is one of the few to investigate the features of preschool ADHD with the use of behavioral ratings of EF and a performance-based measure. Our results suggest that the BRIEF-P was able to identify behavioral difficulties in inhibition and working memory and that the K-CPT identified difficulties indicating inattention. The findings of this study support the use of a combination of methods for a complete evaluation of preschoolers with inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive behavior, the application of rating scales for screening ADHD symptoms, and the measurement of behavioral correlates of EF, along with performance-based measures.

  17. Dissolution and Precipitation Behaviour during Continuous Heating of Al–Mg–Si Alloys in a Wide Range of Heating Rates

    PubMed Central

    Osten, Julia; Milkereit, Benjamin; Schick, Christoph; Kessler, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the dissolution and precipitation behaviour of four different aluminium alloys (EN AW-6005A, EN AW-6082, EN AW-6016, and EN AW-6181) in four different initial heat treatment conditions (T4, T6, overaged, and soft annealed) was investigated during heating in a wide dynamic range. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to record heating curves between 20 and 600 °C. Heating rates were studied from 0.01 K/s to 5 K/s. We paid particular attention to control baseline stability, generating flat baselines and allowing accurate quantitative evaluation of the resulting DSC curves. As the heating rate increases, the individual dissolution and precipitation reactions shift to higher temperatures. The reactions during heating are significantly superimposed and partially run simultaneously. In addition, precipitation and dissolution reactions are increasingly suppressed as the heating rate increases, whereby exothermic precipitation reactions are suppressed earlier than endothermic dissolution reactions. Integrating the heating curves allowed the enthalpy levels of the different initial microstructural conditions to be quantified. Referring to time–temperature–austenitisation diagrams for steels, continuous heating dissolution diagrams for aluminium alloys were constructed to summarise the results in graphical form. These diagrams may support process optimisation in heat treatment shops.

  18. Influence of specific growth rate on biomass yield, productivity, and compostion of Candida utilis in batch and continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-López, O; Camargo-Rubio, E; Ornelas-Vale, A

    1976-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown in batch and continuous culture on prickly pear juice as sole carbon and energy source. In batch culture the maximum specific growth rate (mum) and the substrate yield coefficient (Yps) varied according to sugar concentration. When the fermentation was carried out with 1% sugar, mum and Ys were 0.47/h and 42.6%, respectively. The best yields occurred in a chemostat at the pH range of 3.5 to 4.5 and temperature of 30 C. A beneficial effect on Ys was observed when the dilution rate (D) was increased. At a D of 0.55/h, the productivity was 2.38 g/liter per h. The maintenance coefficient attained a value of 0.09 g of sugar/g of biomass per h. Increases of D produced higher protein contents of the biomass. The information obtained indicates that protein production with Candida utilis, using prickly pear juice, should be carried out a high dilution rates where the Ys and protein content of the cell mass are also higher. PMID:5055

  19. Influence of specific growth rate on biomass yield, productivity, and compostion of Candida utilis in batch and continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Paredes-López, O; Camargo-Rubio, E; Ornelas-Vale, A

    1976-04-01

    Candida utilis was grown in batch and continuous culture on prickly pear juice as sole carbon and energy source. In batch culture the maximum specific growth rate (mum) and the substrate yield coefficient (Yps) varied according to sugar concentration. When the fermentation was carried out with 1% sugar, mum and Ys were 0.47/h and 42.6%, respectively. The best yields occurred in a chemostat at the pH range of 3.5 to 4.5 and temperature of 30 C. A beneficial effect on Ys was observed when the dilution rate (D) was increased. At a D of 0.55/h, the productivity was 2.38 g/liter per h. The maintenance coefficient attained a value of 0.09 g of sugar/g of biomass per h. Increases of D produced higher protein contents of the biomass. The information obtained indicates that protein production with Candida utilis, using prickly pear juice, should be carried out a high dilution rates where the Ys and protein content of the cell mass are also higher.

  20. Short- and Long-Term Mortality Rates of Elderly Acute Kidney Injury Patients Who Underwent Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Harin; Jang, Keum Sook; Park, Jong Man; Kang, Jin Suk; Hwang, Na Kyoung; Kim, Il Young; Song, Sang Heon; Seong, Eun Young; Lee, Dong Won; Lee, Soo Bong; Kwak, Ihm Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background The world’s population is aging faster and the incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) needing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasing in elderly population. The outcome of AKI needing CRRT in elderly patients is known to be poor. However, the definitions of elderly used in the previous literatures were diverse and, there were few data that compared the long-term mortality rates of these patients with middle aged patients. This study was aimed to evaluate this issue. Methods This study was a single-center, retrospective cohort study of patients who underwent CRRT from January 2013 to December 2015. The patients were divided into the following four age cohorts: middle-aged (55–64), young-old (65–74), middle-old (75–84), and old-old (≥85). The short- and long-term mortality rates for each age cohort were compared. Results A total of 562 patients met the inclusion criteria. The short-term mortality rate was 57.3% in the entire cohort. Compared with the middle-aged cohort, the middle-old cohort (HR 1.48 (1.09–2.02), p = 0.012) and the old-old cohort (HR 2.33 (1.30–4.19), p = 0.005) showed an increased short-term mortality rate along with an increased SOFA score, acidemia and a prolonged prothrombin time. When we analyzed the long-term mortality rate of the 238 survived patients, the middle-old cohort (HR 3.76 (1.84–7.68), p<0.001), the old-old cohort (HR 4.40(1.20–16.10), p = 0.025), a lower BMI, the presence of liver cirrhosis, the presence of congestive heart failure and a history of sepsis were independent risk factors for the prediction of long-term mortality. Conclusion Compared with the middle-aged cohort, the middle-old and the old-old cohort showed an increased short-term and long-term mortality rate. However, in the young-old cohort, neither the short-term nor the long-term mortality rate was increased. PMID:27875571

  1. Towards development of a mobile RF Doppler sensor for continuous heart rate variability and blood pressure monitoring.

    PubMed

    Insoo Kim; Bhagat, Yusuf A

    2016-08-01

    The standard in noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement is an inflatable cuff device based on the oscillometric method, which poses several practical challenges for continuous BP monitoring. Here, we present a novel ultra-wide band RF Doppler radar sensor for next-generation mobile interface for the purpose of characterizing fluid flow speeds, and for ultimately measuring cuffless blood flow in the human wrist. The system takes advantage of the 7.1~10.5 GHz ultra-wide band signals which can reduce transceiver complexity and power consumption overhead. Moreover, results obtained from hardware development, antenna design and human wrist modeling, and subsequent phantom development are reported. Our comprehensive lab bench system setup with a peristaltic pump was capable of characterizing various speed flow components during a linear velocity sweep of 5~62 cm/s. The sensor holds potential for providing estimates of heart rate and blood pressure.

  2. CONTINUOUS MID-INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATORS: DIAGNOSTICS FOR 0 < z < 3 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, A. J.; Calzetti, D.; Johnson, B. D.; Elbaz, D.

    2015-02-20

    We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer–SDSS–GALEX Spectroscopic Survey at z < 0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40–70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum and Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since there are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Our local composite template and continuous SFR diagnostics are made available for public use through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) and have typical dispersions of 30% or less. We discuss the validity and range of applicability for our SFR indicators in the context of unveiling the formation and evolution of galaxies. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z ∼ 3.

  3. Physiological and Proteomic Responses of Continuous Cultures of Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 to Changes in Iron Bioavailability and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Anna C. Y.; Poljak, Anne; McDonald, James; Bligh, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatotoxin microcystin (MCYST) is produced by a variety of freshwater cyanobacterial species, including Microcystis aeruginosa. Interestingly, MCYST-producing M. aeruginosa strains have been shown to outcompete their nontoxic counterparts under iron-limiting conditions. However, the reasons for this are unclear. Here we examined the proteomic response of M. aeruginosa PCC 7806 continuous cultures under different iron and growth regimes. Iron limitation was correlated with a global reduction in levels of proteins associated with energy metabolism and photosynthesis. These proteomic changes were consistent with physiological observations, including reduced chlorophyll a content and reduced cell size. While levels of MCYST biosynthesis proteins did not fluctuate during the study period, both intra- and extracellular toxin quotas were significantly higher under iron-limiting conditions. Our results support the hypothesis that intracellular MCYST plays a role in protecting the cell against oxidative stress. Further, we propose that extracellular MCYST may act as a signaling molecule, stimulating MCYST production under conditions of iron limitation and enhancing the fitness of bloom populations. IMPORTANCE Microcystin production in water supply reservoirs is a global public health problem. Understanding the ecophysiology of hepatotoxic cyanobacteria, including their responses to the presence of key micronutrient metals such as iron, is central to managing harmful blooms. To our knowledge, this was the first study to examine proteomic and physiological changes occurring in M. aeruginosa continuous cultures under conditions of iron limitation at different growth rates. PMID:27474713

  4. Improve Synergy Between Health Information Exchange and Electronic Health Records to Increase Rates of Continuously Insured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Rachel; Burdick, Tim; Angier, Heather; Wallace, Lorraine; Nelson, Christine; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Sumic, Aleksandra; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Affordable Care Act increases health insurance options, yet many Americans may struggle to consistently maintain coverage. While health care providers have traditionally not been involved in providing insurance enrollment support to their patients, the ability for them to do so now exists. We propose that providers could capitalize on the expansion of electronic health records (EHRs) and the advances in health information exchanges (HIEs) to improve their patients’ insurance coverage rates and continuity. Evidence for Argument: We describe a project in which we are building strategies for linking, and thus improving synergy between, payer and EHR data. Through this effort, care teams will have access to new automated tools and increased EHR functionality designed to help them assist their patients in obtaining and maintaining health insurance coverage. Suggestion for the Future: The convergence of increasing EHR adoption, improving HIE functionality, and expanding insurance coverage options, creates new opportunities for clinics to help their patients obtain public health insurance. Harnessing this nascent ability to exchange information between payers and providers may improve synergies between HIE and EHRs, and thus support clinic-based efforts to keep patients continuously insured. PMID:26355818

  5. Photosynthetic efficiency and rate of CO2 assimilation by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis continuously cultivated in a tubular photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Matsudo, Marcelo Chuei; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Sato, Sunao; Converti, Attilio; de Carvalho, João Carlos Monteiro

    2012-11-01

    Similar to other photosynthetic microorganisms, the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis can be used to produce pigments, single cell proteins, fatty acids (which can be used for bioenergy), food and feed supplements, and biofixation of CO(2) . Cultivation in a specifically designed tubular photobioreactor is suitable for photosynthetic biomass production, because the cultivation area can be reduced by distributing the microbial cells vertically, thus avoiding loss of ammonia and CO(2) . The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of light intensity and dilution rate on the photosynthetic efficiency and CO(2) assimilation efficiency of A. platensis cultured in a tubular photobioreactor in a continuous process. Urea was used as a nitrogen source and CO(2) as carbon source and for pH control. Steady-state conditions were achieved in most of the runs, indicating that continuous cultivation of this cyanobacterium in a tubular photobioreactor could be an interesting alternative for the large-scale fixation of CO(2) to mitigate the greenhouse effect while producing high protein content biomass.

  6. Minimum infusion rate and adrenocortical function after continuous infusion of the novel etomidate analog ET-26-HCl in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Junli; Wang, Bin; Zhu, Zhaoqiong; Yang, Jun; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Wensheng

    2017-01-01

    Because etomidate induces prolonged adrenal suppression, even following a single bolus, its use as an infused anesthetic is limited. Our previous study indicated that a single administration of the novel etomidate analog methoxyethyletomidate hydrochloride (ET-26-HCl) shows little suppression of adrenocortical function. The aims of the present study were to (1) determine the minimum infusion rate of ET-26-HCl and compare it with those for etomidate and cyclopropyl-methoxycarbonylmetomidate (CPMM), a rapidly metabolized etomidate analog that is currently in clinical trials and (2) to evaluate adrenocortical function after a continuous infusion of ET-26-HCl as part of a broader study investigating whether this etomidate analog is suitable for long infusion in the maintenance of anesthesia. The up-and-down method was used to determine the minimum infusion rates for ET-26-HCl, etomidate and CPMM. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) were then randomly divided into four groups: etomidate, ET-26-HCl, CPMM, and vehicle control. Rats in each group were infused for 60 min with one of the drugs at its predetermined minimum infusion rate. Blood samples were drawn initially and then every 30 min after drug infusion to determine the adrenocorticotropic hormone-stimulated concentration of serum corticosterone as a measure of adrenocortical function. The minimum infusion rates for etomidate, ET-26-HCl and CPMM were 0.29, 0.62, and 0.95 mg/kg/min, respectively. Compared with controls, etomidate decreased serum corticosterone, as expected, whereas serum corticosterone concentrations following infusion with the etomidate analogs ET-26-HCl or CPMM were not significantly different from those in the control group. The corticosterone concentrations tended to be reduced for the first hour following ET-26-HCl infusion (as compared to vehicle infusion); however, this reduction did not reach statistical significance. Thus, further studies are warranted examining the practicability of using ET-26

  7. Continuous desorption rate measurement from a shallow-bed of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles with correction for experimental artifacts.

    PubMed

    Bujalski, Robert; Cantwell, Frederick F

    2004-09-10

    A 0.50 mm high bed, containing ca. 3 mg of the nominally non-porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) sorbent Hamilton PRP-infinity, is located in a valve. After the bed is pre-equilibrated with a (7/3) methanol/water solution of naphthalene (NA), the valve is switched and (7/3) methanol/water solvent flows continuously through the bed at a high linear velocity. This causes NA to desorb into a constantly refreshed solvent, creating a "shallow-bed" contactor with an "infinite bath" kinetic condition. The effluent from the bed passes through a UV-absorbance detector which generates the observed instantaneous desorption rate curve for NA. The same experiment is performed using the solute phloroglucinol (PG), which is not sorbed by PRP-infinity and serves as an "impulse response function marker" (IRF-Marker). The resulting peak-shaped IRF curve is used in two ways (i.e. subtraction and deconvolution) in order to correct the observed instantaneous rate curve of NA for the following experimental artifacts: hold-up volume of the bed and valve, transit-delay time between the bed and the detector and instrument bandbroadening of the NA zone. The cumulative desorption rate curve, which is a plot of moles NA desorbed versus time, is obtained by integration. It is found to be accurately described by the theoretical equation for homogeneous spherical diffusion. The diffusion coefficient of NA inside the PRP-infinity particles (5.0+/-0.6) x 10(-11) cm2/s, agrees with the literature value that was obtained from the sorption rate of NA into the same particles. This constitutes virtually conclusive evidence for diffusion control of intra-particle kinetics of NA in the PS-DVB matrix of PRP-infinity and related polymers. The influence of both sorbent and solute properties on the method is evaluated.

  8. The Reduction Rate of Serum Sodium and Mortality in Patients Undergoing Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration for Acute Severe Hypernatremia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Feng; Liu, Yirong; Bai, Ming; Li, Yangping; Yu, Yan; Zhou, Meilan; Wang, Pengbo; He, Lijie; Huang, Chen; Wang, Hanmin; Sun, Shiren

    2016-09-01

    The excessive correction of acute hypernatremia is not known to be harmful. This study aimed to evaluate whether a reduction rate of serum sodium (RRSeNa) > 1mEq/L/hour in acute severe hypernatremia is an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients undergoing continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) treatment. For this retrospective study, we reviewed records of 75 critically ill patients undergoing CVVH treatment for acute severe hypernatremia between March 2011 and March 2015. The 28-day mortality rate of all patients was 61.3%. In multivariate Cox regression analyses, a reduction rate of serum sodium (RRSeNa) > 1mEq/L/hour (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.03-3.47; P = 0.04), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and vasopressor dependency (yes or no) had a statistically significantly effect on mortality. Once we excluded patients with an RRSeNa ≤ 0.5mEq/L/hour, only RRSeNa > 1mEq/L/hour (hazard ratio = 2.611; 95% CI: 1.228-5.550; P = 0.013) and vasopressor dependency had a statistically significant influence on mortality in multivariate regression. In addition to the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score and vasopressor dependency, the excessive correction of acute severe hypernatremia was possibly associated with mortality in critically ill patients undergoing CVVH treatment. The optimal reduction rate of acute hypernatremia should be extensively studied in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of peritonitis rates and patient survival in automated and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis: a 10-year single center experience.

    PubMed

    El-Reshaid, Wael; Al-Disawy, Hanan; Nassef, Hossameldeen; Alhelaly, Usama

    2016-09-01

    Peritonitis is a common complication in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and automated peritoneal dialysis (APD). In this retrospective study, peritonitis rates and patient survival of 180 patients on CAPD and 128 patients on APD were compared in the period from January 2005 to December 2014 at Al-Nafisi Center in Kuwait. All patients had prophylactic topical mupirocin at catheter exit site. Patients on CAPD had twin bag system with Y transfer set. The peritonitis rates were 1 in 29 months in CAPD and 1 in 38 months in APD (p < 0.05). Percentage of peritonitis free patients over 10-year period in CAPD and APD were 49 and 60%, respectively (p < 0.05). Time to develop peritonitis was 10.25 ± 3.1 months in CAPD compared to 16.1 ± 4 months in APD (p < 0.001). Relapse and recurrence rates were similar in both groups. Median patient survival in CAPD and APD groups with peritonitis was 13.1 ± 1 and 14 ± 1.4 months respectively (p = 0.3) whereas in peritonitis free patients it was 15 ± 1.4 months in CAPD and 23 ± 3.1 months in APD (p = 0.025). APD had lower incidence rate of peritonitis than CAPD. Patient survival was better in APD than CAPD in peritonitis free patients but was similar in patients who had peritonitis.

  10. Successful operation of continuous reactors at short retention times results in high-density, fast-rate Dehalococcoides dechlorinating cultures.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Anca G; Fajardo-Williams, Devyn; Popat, Sudeep C; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-03-01

    The discovery of Dehalococcoides mccartyi reducing perchloroethene and trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene was a key landmark for bioremediation applications at contaminated sites. D. mccartyi-containing cultures are typically grown in batch-fed reactors. On the other hand, continuous cultivation of these microorganisms has been described only at long hydraulic retention times (HRTs). We report the cultivation of a representative D. mccartyi-containing culture in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs) at a short, 3-d HRT, using TCE as the electron acceptor. We successfully operated 3-d HRT CSTRs for up to 120 days and observed sustained dechlorination of TCE at influent concentrations of 1 and 2 mM TCE to ≥ 97 % ethene, coupled to the production of 10(12) D. mccartyi cells Lculture (-1). These outcomes were possible in part by using a medium with low bicarbonate concentrations (5 mM) to minimize the excessive proliferation of microorganisms that use bicarbonate as an electron acceptor and compete with D. mccartyi for H2. The maximum conversion rates for the CSTR-produced culture were 0.13 ± 0.016, 0.06 ± 0.018, and 0.02 ± 0.007 mmol Cl(-) Lculture (-1) h(-1), respectively, for TCE, cis-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride. The CSTR operation described here provides the fastest laboratory cultivation rate of high-cell density Dehalococcoides cultures reported in the literature to date. This cultivation method provides a fundamental scientific platform for potential future operations of such a system at larger scales.

  11. The effect of repetitive intraperitoneal anesthesia by application of fentanyl-medetomidine and midazolam in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian-Schwarz, Afshin; Held, Manuel; Knoeller, Tabea; Amr, Amro; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Jaminet, Patrick

    2012-04-01

    Literature reviews show numerous options for anesthesia in the small laboratory animals. Many methods are associated with complications, such as high technical effort, difficult monitoring, respiratory and cardiovascular depression, and prolonged sedation. In the present study, we report first time results after repeated use of an intraperitoneal combined anesthesia with a high tolerability. Three hundred and seventy-four anesthesias were performed on 38 adult male Lewis rats (280-460 g). Each animal was anesthetized repeatedly over a period of three months, using an intraperitoneal combination of Fentanyl-Medetomidine and Midazolam (FMM). The time required for the animals to lose ear pinch response and the ability to perform a righting and pedal withdrawal reflex was measured. For evaluation of the clinical state, a four-point vitality scale was developed. The anesthesia was antagonized with Naloxone, Flumazenil, and Atipamezole (s.c.). The animals lost all three reflex responses within 5 (± 2.4) min of injection. Without antagonism of anesthesia, the ear pinch response returned on average within 125 (± 21.5) min. After antagonism of anesthesia, the rats needed 5 (± 2.9) min to regain all three reflex responses. No significant differences of vitality-index were measured after repeated use of FMM during the investigation period. A repeatable and secure anesthesia is indispensable for any experimental studies that require multiple anesthesia of a single animal. Intraperitoneal combination of FMM provides an adequate procedure to induce a well tolerable, repeatable state of anesthesia, which conforms to all the necessary requirements for laboratory rats.

  12. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery. A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables. The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P

  13. The impact of continuously-variable dose rate VMAT on beam stability, MLC positioning, and overall plan dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Christopher; McWilliam, Alan; Johnstone, Emily; Rowbottom, Carl

    2012-11-06

    A recent control system update for Elekta linear accelerators includes the ability to deliver volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with continuously variable dose rate (CVDR), rather than a number of fixed binned dose rates (BDR). The capacity to select from a larger range of dose rates allows the linac to maintain higher gantry speeds, resulting in faster, smoother deliveries. The purpose of this study is to investigate two components of CVDR delivery - the increase in average dose rate and gantry speed, and a determination of their effects on beam stability, MLC positioning, and overall plan dosimetry. Initially, ten VMAT plans (5 prostate, 5head and neck) were delivered to a Delta4 dosimetric phantom using both the BDR and CVDR systems. The plans were found to be dosimetrically robust using both delivery methods, although CVDR was observed to give higher gamma pass rates at the 2%/2 mm gamma level for prostates (p < 0.01). For the dual arc head-and-neck plans, CVDR delivery resulted in improved pass rates at all gamma levels (2%/2 mm to 4%/4 mm) for individual arc verifications (p < 0.01), but gave similar results to BDR when both arcs were combined. To investigate the impact of increased gantry speed on MLC positioning, a dynamic leaf-tracking tool was developed using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). Comparing the detected MLC positions to those expected from the plan, CVDR was observed to result in a larger mean error compared to BDR (0.13 cm and 0.06 cm, respectively, p < 0.01). The EPID images were also used to monitor beam stability during delivery. It was found that the CVDR deliveries had a lower standard deviation of the gun-target (GT) and transverse (AB) profiles (p < 0.01). This study has determined that CVDR may offer a dosimetric advantage for VMAT plans. While the higher gantry speed of CVDR appears to increase deviations in MLC positioning, the relative effect on dosimetry is lower than the positive impact of a flatter and more

  14. Continuous modeling of metabolic networks with gene regulation in yeast and in vivo determination of rate parameters.

    PubMed

    Moisset, P; Vaisman, D; Cintolesi, A; Urrutia, J; Rapaport, I; Andrews, B A; Asenjo, J A

    2012-09-01

    A continuous model of a metabolic network including gene regulation to simulate metabolic fluxes during batch cultivation of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. The metabolic network includes reactions of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycerol and ethanol synthesis and consumption, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and protein synthesis. Carbon sources considered were glucose and then ethanol synthesized during growth on glucose. The metabolic network has 39 fluxes, which represent the action of 50 enzymes and 64 genes and it is coupled with a gene regulation network which defines enzyme synthesis (activities) and incorporates regulation by glucose (enzyme induction and repression), modeled using ordinary differential equations. The model includes enzyme kinetics, equations that follow both mass-action law and transport as well as inducible, repressible, and constitutive enzymes of metabolism. The model was able to simulate a fermentation of S. cerevisiae during the exponential growth phase on glucose and the exponential growth phase on ethanol using only one set of kinetic parameters. All fluxes in the continuous model followed the behavior shown by the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) obtained from experimental results. The differences obtained between the fluxes given by the model and the fluxes determined by the MFA do not exceed 25% in 75% of the cases during exponential growth on glucose, and 20% in 90% of the cases during exponential growth on ethanol. Furthermore, the adjustment of the fermentation profiles of biomass, glucose, and ethanol were 95%, 95%, and 79%, respectively. With these results the simulation was considered successful. A comparison between the simulation of the continuous model and the experimental data of the diauxic yeast fermentation for glucose, biomass, and ethanol, shows an extremely good match using the parameters found. The small discrepancies between the fluxes obtained through MFA and those predicted by the differential

  15. Cause of death and neoplasia in mice continuously exposed to very low dose rates of gamma rays.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, I B; Tanaka, S; Ichinohe, K; Matsushita, S; Matsumoto, T; Otsu, H; Oghiso, Y; Sato, F

    2007-04-01

    Four thousand 8-week-old SPF B6C3F1 mice (2000 of each sex) were divided into four groups, one nonirradiated (control) and three irradiated. The irradiated groups were exposed to (137)Cs gamma rays at dose rates of 21, 1.1 and 0.05 mGy day(-1) for approximately 400 days with total doses equivalent to 8000, 400 and 20 mGy, respectively. All mice were kept until natural death, and pathological examination was performed to determine the cause of death. Neoplasms accounted for >86.7% of all deaths. Compared to the nonirradiated controls, the frequency of myeloid leukemia in males, soft tissue neoplasms and malignant granulosa cell tumors in females, and hemangiosarcoma in both sexes exposed to 21 mGy day(-1) were significantly increased. The number of multiple primary neoplasms per mouse was significantly increased in mice irradiated at 21 mGy day(-1). Significant increases in body weights were observed from 32 to 60 weeks of age in males and females exposed to 1.1 mGy day(-1) and 21 mGy day(-1), respectively. Our results suggest that life shortening (Tanaka et al., Radiat. Res. 160, 376-379, 2003) in mice continuously exposed to low-dose-rate gamma rays is due to early death from a variety of neoplasms and not from increased incidence of specific neoplasms.

  16. Dynamic shear-stress-enhanced rates of nutrient consumption in gas-liquid semi-continuous-flow suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Laurence A.; Volpato, Fabio Z.; Paulino, Alexandre T.; Belfiore, Carol J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to establish guidelines for generating significant mammalian cell density in suspension bioreactors when stress-sensitive kinetics enhance the rate of nutrient consumption. Ultra-low-frequency dynamic modulations of the impeller (i.e., 35104 Hz) introduce time-dependent oscillatory shear into this transient analysis of cell proliferation under semi-continuous creeping flow conditions. Greater nutrient consumption is predicted when the amplitude A of modulated impeller rotation increases, and stress-kinetic contributions to nutrient consumption rates increase linearly at higher modulation frequency via an application of fluctuation-dissipation response. Interphase mass transfer is required to replace dissolved oxygen as it is consumed by aerobic nutrient consumption in the liquid phase. The theory and predictions described herein could be important at small length scales in the creeping flow regime where viscous shear is significant at the interface between the nutrient medium and isolated cells in suspension. Two-dimensional flow around spherically shaped mammalian cells, suspended in a Newtonian culture medium, is analyzed to calculate the surface-averaged magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor and modify homogeneous rates of nutrient consumption that are stimulated by viscous shear, via the formalism of stress-kinetic reciprocal relations that obey Curie's theorem in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Time constants for stress-free free and stress-sensitive stress nutrient consumption are defined and quantified to identify the threshold (i.e., stress,threshold) below which the effect of stress cannot be neglected in accurate predictions of bioreactor performance. Parametric studies reveal that the threshold time constant for stress-sensitive nutrient consumption stress,threshold decreases when the time constant for stress

  17. Effect of continuous smoking reduction and abstinence on blood pressure and heart rate in smokers switching to electronic cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Farsalinos, Konstantinos; Cibella, Fabio; Caponnetto, Pasquale; Campagna, Davide; Morjaria, Jaymin Bhagwanji; Battaglia, Eliana; Caruso, Massimo; Russo, Cristina; Polosa, Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    We present prospective blood pressure (BP) and hear rate (HR) changes in smokers invited to switch to e-cigarettes in the ECLAT study. BP and HR changes were compared among (1) different study groups (users of high, low, and zero nicotine products) and (2) pooled continuous smoking phenotype classification (same phenotype from week 12 to -52), with participants classified as quitters (completely quit smoking), reducers (≥50% reduction in smoking consumption) and failures (<50% or no reduction in smoking consumption). Additionally, the latter comparison was repeated in a subgroup of participants with elevated BP at baseline. No significant changes were observed among study groups for systolic BP, diastolic BP, and HR. In 145 subjects with a continuous smoking phenotype, we observed lower systolic BP at week 52 compared to baseline but no effect of smoking phenotype classification. When the same analysis was repeated in 66 subjects with elevated BP at baseline, a substantial reduction in systolic BP was observed at week 52 compared to baseline (132.4 ± 12.0 vs. 141.2 ± 10.5 mmHg, p < 0.001), with a significant effect found for smoking phenotype classification. After adjusting for weight change, gender and age, reduction in systolic BP from baseline at week 52 remains associated significantly with both smoking reduction and smoking abstinence. In conclusion, smokers who reduce or quit smoking by switching to e-cigarettes may lower their systolic BP in the long term, and this reduction is apparent in smokers with elevated BP. The current study adds to the evidence that quitting smoking with the use of e-cigarettes does not lead to higher BP values, and this is independently observed whether e-cigarettes are regularly used or not.

  18. Eye of the Beholder: Stage Entrance Behavior and Facial Expression Affect Continuous Quality Ratings in Music Performance

    PubMed Central

    Waddell, George; Williamon, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Judgments of music performance quality are commonly employed in music practice, education, and research. However, previous studies have demonstrated the limited reliability of such judgments, and there is now evidence that extraneous visual, social, and other “non-musical” features can unduly influence them. The present study employed continuous measurement techniques to examine how the process of forming a music quality judgment is affected by the manipulation of temporally specific visual cues. Video footage comprising an appropriate stage entrance and error-free performance served as the standard condition (Video 1). This footage was manipulated to provide four additional conditions, each identical save for a single variation: an inappropriate stage entrance (Video 2); the presence of an aural performance error midway through the piece (Video 3); the same error accompanied by a negative facial reaction by the performer (Video 4); the facial reaction with no corresponding aural error (Video 5). The participants were 53 musicians and 52 non-musicians (N = 105) who individually assessed the performance quality of one of the five randomly assigned videos via a digital continuous measurement interface and headphones. The results showed that participants viewing the “inappropriate” stage entrance made judgments significantly more quickly than those viewing the “appropriate” entrance, and while the poor entrance caused significantly lower initial scores among those with musical training, the effect did not persist long into the performance. The aural error caused an immediate drop in quality judgments that persisted to a lower final score only when accompanied by the frustrated facial expression from the pianist; the performance error alone caused a temporary drop only in the musicians' ratings, and the negative facial reaction alone caused no reaction regardless of participants' musical experience. These findings demonstrate the importance of visual

  19. [Assessment of the usefulness to use a software supervising continuous infusion rates of drugs administered with pumps in ICU and estimation of the frequency of rate of administration errors].

    PubMed

    Cayot-Constantin, S; Constantin, J-M; Perez, J-P; Chevallier, P; Clapson, P; Bazin, J-E

    2010-03-01

    To assess the usefulness and the feasibility to use a software supervising continuous infusion rates of drugs administered with pumps in ICU. Follow-up of practices and inquiry in three intensive care units. Guardrails software(TM) of reassurance of the regulations of the rates of pumps (AsenaGH, Alaris). First, evaluation and quantification of the number of infusion-rates adjustments reaching the maximal superior limit (considered as infusion-rate-errors stopped by the software). Secondly, appreciate the acceptance by staffs to such a system by a blinded questionnaire and a quantification of the number of dataset pumps programs performed with the software. The number of administrations started with the pumps of the study in the three services (11 beds) during the period of study was 63,069 and 42,694 of them (67.7 %) used the software. The number of potential errors of continuous infusion rates was 11, corresponding to a rate of infusion-rate errors of 26/100,000. KCl and insulin were concerned in two and five cases, respectively. Eighty percent of the nurses estimated that infusion-rate-errors were rare or exceptional but potentially harmful. Indeed, they considered that software supervising the continuous infusion rates of pumps could improve safety. The risk of infusion-rate-errors of drugs administered continuously with pump in ICU is rare but potentially harmful. A software that controlled the continuous infusion rates could be useful. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2014-05-01

    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  1. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  2. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis.

    PubMed

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort. This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better in APD patients.

  3. IUdR polymers for combined continuous low-dose rate and high-dose rate sensitization of experimental human malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X; Dillehay, L E; Williams, J R; Shastri, V R; Williams, J A

    2001-04-20

    Local polymeric delivery enhances IUdR radiosensitization of human malignant gliomas (MG). The combined low-dose rate (LDR) (0.03 Gy/h) and fractionated high-dose rate (HDR) treatments result in cures of experimental MGs. To enhance efficacy, we combined polymeric IUdR delivery, LDR, and HDR for treatments of both subcutaneous and intracranial MGs. In vitro: Cells (U251 MG) were trypsinized and replated in triplicate 1 day prior to LDR irradiation in media either without (control) or with 10 microM IUdR. After 72 hr, LDR irradiation cells were acutely irradiated (1.1 Gy/min) with increasing (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, or 10 Gy) single doses. Implantable IUdR polymers [(poly(bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-propane) (PCPP): sebaic acid (PCPP:SA), 20:80] (50% loading; 10 mg) were synthesized. In vivo: For flank vs. intracranial tumors, mice had 6 x 10(6) subcutaneous vs. 2 x 10(5) intracranial cells. For intracranial or subcutaneous MGs, mice had intratumoral blank (empty) vs. IUdR polymer treatments. One day after implantation, mice had immediate external LDR (3 cGy/h x 3 days total body irradiation) or HDR (2 Gy BID x 4 days to tumor site) or concurrent treatments. For the in vitro IUdR treatments, LDR resulted in a striking increase in cell-killing when combined with HDR. For the in vivo LDR treatments of flank tumors, the growth delay was greater for the IUdR vs. blank polymer treatments. For the combined LDR and HDR, the IUdR treatments resulted in a dramatic decrease in tumor volumes. On day 60 the log V/V0 were -1.7 +/- 0.22 for combined LDR + HDR + IUdR polymer (P < 0.05 vs. combined LDR + HDR + blank polymer). Survival for the intracranial controls was 22.9 +/- 1.2 days. For the blank polymer + LDR vs. blank polymer + LDR + HDR treatments, survival was 25.3 +/- 1.7 (P = NS) vs. 48.1 +/- 3.5 days (P < 0.05). For IUdR polymer + LDR treatment survival was 27.3 +/- 2.3 days (P = NS). The most striking improvement in survival followed the IUdR polymer + LDR + HDR treatment: 66

  4. Cell yields and fermentation responses of a Salmonella Typhimurium poultry isolate at different dilution rates in an anaerobic steady state continuous culture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of these studies were to determine cell yield and fermentation responses of a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium poultry isolate using various dilution rates in steady state continuous culture incubations. S. enterica Typhimurium cells were propagated in continuous cultures with ...

  5. Effects of continuous rate intravenous infusion of butorphanol on physiologic and outcome variables in horses after celiotomy.

    PubMed

    Sellon, Debra C; Roberts, Malcolm C; Blikslager, Anthony T; Ulibarri, Catherine; Papich, Mark G

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial was performed to determine whether butorphanol administered by continuous rate infusion (CRI) for 24 hours after abdominal surgery would decrease pain and surgical stress responses and improve recovery in horses. Thirty-one horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy for abdominal pain were randomly assigned to receive butorphanol CRI (13 microg/kg/h for 24 hours after surgery; treatment) or isotonic saline (control). All horses received flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV q12h). There were no significant differences between treatment and control horses in preoperative or operative variables. Treatment horses had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentration compared with control horses at 2, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery. Mean weight loss while hospitalized was significantly less for treatment horses than control horses, whether expressed as total decrease in body weight (13.9+/-3.4 and 27.9+/-4.5 kg, respectively) or as a percentage decrease in body weight (2.6+/-0.7 and 6.3+/-1.1%, respectively). Treatment horses were significantly delayed in time to first passage of feces (median times of 15 and 4 hours, respectively). Treatment horses had significantly improved behavior scores during the first 24 hours after surgery, consistent with the conclusion that they experienced less pain during that time. Butorphanol CRI during the immediate postoperative period significantly decreased plasma cortisol concentrations and improved recovery characteristics in horses undergoing abdominal surgery.

  6. Increased biohydrogen yields, volatile fatty acid production and substrate utilisation rates via the electrodialysis of a continually fed sucrose fermenter.

    PubMed

    Jones, Rhys Jon; Massanet-Nicolau, Jaime; Mulder, Martijn J J; Premier, Giuliano; Dinsdale, Richard; Guwy, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Electrodialysis (ED) removed volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from a continually-fed, hydrogen-producing fermenter. Simultaneously, electrochemical removal and adsorption removed gaseous H2 and CO2, respectively. Removing VFAs via ED in this novel process increased H2 yields by a factor of 3.75 from 0.24molH2mol(-1)hexose to 0.90molH2mol(-1)hexose. VFA production and substrate utilisation rates were consistent with the hypothesis that end product inhibition arrests H2 production. The methodology facilitated the recovery of 37g of VFAs, and 30L H2 that was more than 99% pure, both of which are valuable, energy dense chemicals. Typically, short hydraulic and solid retention times, and depressed pH levels are used to suppress methanogenesis, but this limits H2 production. To produce H2 from real world, low grade biomass containing complex carbohydrates, longer hydraulic retention times (HRTs) are required. The proposed system increased H2 yields via increased substrate utilisation over longer HRTs.

  7. Variational Continuous Assimilation of TMI and SSM/I Rain Rates: Impact on GEOS-3 Hurricane Analyses and Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; Reale, Oreste

    2003-01-01

    We describe a variational continuous assimilation (VCA) algorithm for assimilating tropical rainfall data using moisture and temperature tendency corrections as the control variable to offset model deficiencies. For rainfall assimilation, model errors are of special concern since model-predicted precipitation is based on parameterized moist physics, which can have substantial systematic errors. This study examines whether a VCA scheme using the forecast model as a weak constraint offers an effective pathway to precipitation assimilation. The particular scheme we exarnine employs a '1+1' dimension precipitation observation operator based on a 6-h integration of a column model of moist physics from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) global data assimilation system DAS). In earlier studies, we tested a simplified version of this scheme and obtained improved monthly-mean analyses and better short-range forecast skills. This paper describes the full implementation ofthe 1+1D VCA scheme using background and observation error statistics, and examines how it may improve GEOS analyses and forecasts of prominent tropical weather systems such as hurricanes. Parallel assimilation experiments with and without rainfall data for Hurricanes Bonnie and Floyd show that assimilating 6-h TMI and SSM/I surfice rain rates leads to more realistic storm features in the analysis, which, in turn, provide better initial conditions for 5-day storm track prediction and precipitation forecast. These results provide evidence that addressing model deficiencies in moisture tendency may be crucial to making effective use of precipitation information in data assimilation.

  8. Effect of Growth Rate and Glucose Concentration on the Biochemical Properties of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, I. R.; Phipps, P. J.; Ellwood, D. C.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison was made of the properties of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt grown in continuous culture under conditions of excess glucose (nitrogen limitation) and limiting glucose at mean generation times of 1.7 to 14 h. Only low levels of glucoamylase-specific glycogen were formed in cells from either culture, and the total carbohydrate content of the cells under excess glucose was only at most 1.6-fold higher than in the glucose-limited culture. A negligible amount of cell-free polysaccharide was formed in either culture, although a significant level of glucosyltransferase activity was observed in both, with the highest activity at D = 0.2 and 0.4 h-1 with a glucose limitation. Other differences were observed. (i) Lactate was the main end product of the glucose-excess culture, whereas acetate, formate, and ethanol were the main products of the glucose-limited culture except at a mean generation time of 1.5, when lactate represented 30% of the products. (ii) The yield (in grams per mole of glucose) of the latter culture was 2.6- to 4.0- fold higher than the yield of the glucose-excess culture. (iii) Washed cells from the glucose-limited culture were much more acidogenic (1.7- to 6.2-fold) than the glucose-excess cells when incubated with glucose, sucrose, and fructose. Endogenous glycolytic activity by the latter cells was significant, being 31 to 92% of the exogenous glucose rate at the four dilution rates. (iv) Cells from the glucose-excess culture were more insensitive to fluoride than cells from the glucose-limited culture. The NaF 50% inhibition dose values for the effect of fluoride on the metabolism of glucose, sucrose, and fructose were calculated for the four dilution rates at four pH values. This analysis indicated that rapidly metabolizing cells were more sensitive to fluoride than cells that metabolized the sugars more slowly. PMID:43291

  9. Determination of the bedload transport rate in a small proglacial High Arctic stream using direct, semi-continuous measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kociuba, Waldemar

    2017-06-01

    The article presents the results of a 34-day series of direct semi-continuous measurements of the bedload transport, performed during the melt season 2013 in the Scott River catchment (NW part of the Wedel-Jarlsberg Land, Spitsbergen). The daily variability of the bedload transport rates and its relation to the dissolved and suspended load were analysed in two cross-sections located in the lower course of a proglacial gravel-bed river. The bedload flux was measured by means of two 4-module sets of River Bedload Traps (RBT). In the research period, a total of 34 day-long samples of bedload and 34 water samples for the determination of the dissolved and suspended load were collected in each of the two cross-sections, 200 m apart. The measurements showed longitudinal and temporal variability of bedload flux and the remaining components (solutions, suspensions) corresponding with changes in water discharge. The mean daily bedload flux QB in consecutive measurement cross-sections XS amounted to 124 kg d- 1XS I and 59 kg d- 1XS II, respectively, and showed high variability and an evident relationship with temperature. The unequal bedload flux of the two measuring stations XS I and XS II suggests aggradation within the alluvial fan that separates the two reaches. The volume and rate of bedload flux were determined by the frequency of the occurrence of flood flows during which approximately from 59% XS I to 77% XS II of total bedload was discharged. The highest recorded daily values constituted 12% of total bedload flux. Through the cross-section below the alluvial fan, the river discharged approximately 6 million cubic meters (M m3) of water, 3 t of bedload Lb, 2238 t of suspended load Ls, and 613 t of dissolved load Ld. The relationships between the three components of the load suggest a 500-fold excess of suspended load, and a 100-fold excess of dissolved load in relation to bedload flux. High temporal and latitudinal variability of the bedload transport rate resulted

  10. Continuous production of biohythane from hydrothermal liquefied cornstalk biomass via two-stage high-rate anaerobic reactors.

    PubMed

    Si, Bu-Chun; Li, Jia-Ming; Zhu, Zhang-Bing; Zhang, Yuan-Hui; Lu, Jian-Wen; Shen, Rui-Xia; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui; Liu, Zhidan

    2016-01-01

    Biohythane production via two-stage fermentation is a promising direction for sustainable energy recovery from lignocellulosic biomass. However, the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass suffers from specific natural recalcitrance. Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is an emerging technology for the liquefaction of biomass, but there are still several challenges for the coupling of HTL and two-stage fermentation. One particular challenge is the limited efficiency of fermentation reactors at a high solid content of the treated feedstock. Another is the conversion of potential inhibitors during fermentation. Here, we report a novel strategy for the continuous production of biohythane from cornstalk through the integration of HTL and two-stage fermentation. Cornstalk was converted to solid and liquid via HTL, and the resulting liquid could be subsequently fed into the two-stage fermentation systems. The systems consisted of two typical high-rate reactors: an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and a packed bed reactor (PBR). The liquid could be efficiently converted into biohythane via the UASB and PBR with a high density of microbes at a high organic loading rate. Biohydrogen production decreased from 2.34 L/L/day in UASB (1.01 L/L/day in PBR) to 0 L/L/day as the organic loading rate (OLR) of the HTL liquid products increased to 16 g/L/day. The methane production rate achieved a value of 2.53 (UASB) and 2.54 L/L/day (PBR), respectively. The energy and carbon recovery of the integrated HTL and biohythane fermentation system reached up to 79.0 and 67.7%, respectively. The fermentation inhibitors, i.e., 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (41.4-41.9% of the initial quantity detected) and furfural (74.7-85.0% of the initial quantity detected), were degraded during hydrogen fermentation. Compared with single-stage fermentation, the methane process during two-stage fermentation had a more efficient methane production rate, acetogenesis, and COD removal. The microbial distribution

  11. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  12. Continuous heart rate variability monitoring through complex demodulation implemented with the fast Fourier transform and its inverse.

    PubMed

    Burguera, M; Gandía, R; Chorro, F J; García-Civera, R; Ruiz, R; López-Merino, V

    1995-07-01

    A new method for the analysis of 24-hour heart rate variability (HRV) using complex demodulation (CDM) implemented with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) and its inverse is described. In a control group with palpitations and dizzy spells (n = 30, 47.2 +/- 16.7 years) the relationship between HRV parameters and subject age was investigated. CDM was used to obtain the amplitude and frequency of the low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) oscillations for 8 diurnal hours and 4 nocturnal hours. Differences between the two periods were seen in the LF/HF ratio (2.2 +/- 0.6 vs 1.5 +/- 0.6; P < 0.0001), HF amplitudes (12 +/- 6 vs 17 +/- 7 normalized units, P < 0.05), and in the mean frequency of the LF oscillations (0.078 +/- 0.008 vs 0.073 +/- 0.007 Hz, P < 0.01). During the daytime, age was inversely correlated to HF amplitude (r = -0.60), directly correlated to HF mean central frequency (r = 0.40), inversely correlated to LF amplitude (r = -0.55), and likewise inversely correlated to LF mean central frequency (r = -0.74, P < 0.001). At night, age was only inversely correlated to HF amplitude and to LF mean central frequency. Continuous HRV monitoring through CDM implemented with the FFT and its inverse differentiates the periods of diurnal activity and nocturnal rest as an expression of two different activity states of the autonomic nervous system. It allows nonstationary analysis, and separately provides mean and instantaneous oscillation amplitude and frequency. Subject age is not equally related to mean amplitude and frequency of a given oscillation.

  13. Influence of germ cells upon Sertoli cells during continuous low-dose rate gamma-irradiation of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Pinon-Lataillade, G; Vélez de la Calle, J F; Viguier-Martinez, M C; Garnier, D H; Folliot, R; Maas, J; Jégou, B

    1988-07-01

    The effects of continuous gamma-irradiation of adult rats at two low-dose rates (7 cGy and 12 cGy/day; up to a total dose of 9.1 Gy and 10.69 Gy 60Co gamma-ray, respectively) were investigated. Over a period of 3-131 days of irradiation, groups of experimental and control animals were killed. Body weight, testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle weights, the number of germ cells and Sertoli cells, tubular ultrastructure, epididymal and testicular levels of biologically active androgen-binding protein (ABP), and the plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were monitored. Irradiation had no effect on body weight, whereas testicular and epididymal weight began to decrease following 35 and 50 days of irradiation at 7 and 12 cGy, respectively. At 7 cGy the target cells of the gamma-rays were essentially A spermatogonia, whereas at 12 cGy A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes were primarily affected. This resulted in a progressive and sequential dose-related reduction in the number of pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids and late spermatids (LS). Under both irradiation procedures the Sertoli cell number remained unchanged whereas partial (7 cGy) or no change (12 cGy) was seen at the Leydig cell level. Whatever the irradiation protocol, from the time LS numbers decreased, vacuolisation of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm progressively occurred, followed by thickening and folding of the peritubular tissue. Moreover, in parallel to the drop in the number of these germ cell types, ABP production fell whereas FSH levels rose. A highly significant positive correlation was found between LS numbers and these Sertoli cell parameters. This study supports our previous concept of a control of certain important aspects of Sertoli cell function by late spermatids in the adult rat.

  14. Coping with continuous human disturbance in the wild: insights from penguin heart rate response to various stressors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A central question for ecologists is the extent to which anthropogenic disturbances (e.g. tourism) might impact wildlife and affect the systems under study. From a research perspective, identifying the effects of human disturbance caused by research-related activities is crucial in order to understand and account for potential biases and derive appropriate conclusions from the data. Results Here, we document a case of biological adjustment to chronic human disturbance in a colonial seabird, the king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus), breeding on remote and protected islands of the Southern ocean. Using heart rate (HR) as a measure of the stress response, we show that, in a colony with areas exposed to the continuous presence of humans (including scientists) for over 50 years, penguins have adjusted to human disturbance and habituated to certain, but not all, types of stressors. When compared to birds breeding in relatively undisturbed areas, birds in areas of high chronic human disturbance were found to exhibit attenuated HR responses to acute anthropogenic stressors of low-intensity (i.e. sounds or human approaches) to which they had been subjected intensely over the years. However, such attenuation was not apparent for high-intensity stressors (i.e. captures for scientific research) which only a few individuals experience each year. Conclusions Habituation to anthropogenic sounds/approaches could be an adaptation to deal with chronic innocuous stressors, and beneficial from a research perspective. Alternately, whether penguins have actually habituated to anthropogenic disturbances over time or whether human presence has driven the directional selection of human-tolerant phenotypes, remains an open question with profound ecological and conservation implications, and emphasizes the need for more knowledge on the effects of human disturbance on long-term studied populations. PMID:22784366

  15. Patterns of physical activity defined by continuous heart rate monitoring among children from Liège.

    PubMed

    Massin, M M; Bourguignont, A; Lepage, Ph; Gérard, P

    2004-01-01

    Health benefits of a physically active lifestyle are well documented. We therefore investigated the physical activity patterns of 200 children from Liège. They were monitored continuously using a 24-hour Holter monitoring system during normal weekdays and the percentage of heart rate reserve (%HRR) was used to measure the amounts of physical activity at different intensities. Preschool children attained 184.3+/-54.2, 40.7+/-16.1, 15.8+/-6.9 and 6.0+/-7.2 minutes/day (mean+/-SD) between 20% to 40%, 40% to 50%, 50% to 60%, and greater than 60% of HRR, respectively. At the same %HRR intensities, schoolchildren attained 165.6+/-74.6, 32.1+/-12.1, 15.8+/-6.7 and 7.0+/-5.9 minutes/day, and teenagers attained 159.2+/-68.3, 32.1+/-23.5, 13.1+/-6.0 and 6.1+/-6.3 minutes/day. Age was a significant predictor of the intercept and slope of the time spent in physical activity and %HRR relationship. In Liège the average youth accumulates +/-30 to 40 minutes/day of moderate-intensity physical activity and +/-20 minutes/day of high-intensity physical activity. Those children meet the classical revised guidelines for physical activity but do not compare favourably with children from elsewhere. On the other hand, they get more than 2 1/2 to 3 hours/day of low-intensity physical activity. Our findings suggest that children from Liège are not engaged in sedentary behaviour but do not experience the ideal amount and type of physical activity classically believed to benefit the cardiopulmonary system. Public health strategies should be adapted to our findings.

  16. A method to simultaneously and continuously measure the 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates of soil in an open loop.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yanliang; Xiao, Detao; Yuan, Hongzhi; Shan, Jian

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a process in which a radon monitor based on the electrostatic collection method is used to measure the (222)Rn and (220)Rn exhalation rates simultaneously and continuously employing a ventilation-type accumulation chamber. Generally, the radon exhalation rate can be measured by accumulation technique, but cannot be measured continuously. The advantage of this method using a ventilation-type accumulation chamber is that the radon exhalation rates can be measured continuously. Even though the environmental air is drawn into the chamber, the low atmospheric values of radon and thoron do not influence the measurement accuracy. The (222)Rn and (220)Rn exhalation rates error from the environmental air is less than 5% in this experiment.

  17. Effects of serial anesthesia using ketamine or ketamine/medetomidine on hematology and serum biochemistry values in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Lugo-Roman, L A; Rico, P J; Sturdivant, R; Burks, R; Settle, T L

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at determining the cumulative effect of daily anesthesia, using two drug regimens, over hematological and biochemical parameters. Blood samples were obtained from rhesus monkeys 20 minutes after intramuscular administration of ketamine or ketamine/medetomidine combination for three consecutive days and results were evaluated to determine their effect on hematological and serum biochemistry values. Statistical significance of drug, day, and interaction of these two variables were evaluated. Drug effect resulted in a dramatic increase of aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase values. Day effect resulted in decreases of RBC, HCT, Hgb, and alkaline phosphatase but an increase of other biochemical parameters evaluated. The drug/day interaction effect was found to be -significant for RBC, platelets, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and creatine kinase values. The results of our study suggest a cumulative effect of serial anesthesia and should be an important consideration when interpreting hematology and serum biochemistry in rhesus macaques.

  18. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0 ± 26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2 ± 49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0 ± 50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781

  19. Health Care Utilization Rates After Oregon's 2008 Medicaid Expansion: Within-Group and Between-Group Differences Over Time Among New, Returning, and Continuously Insured Enrollees.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Jean P; O'Keeffe-Rosetti, Maureen; Lowe, Robert A; Angier, Heather; Gold, Rachel; Marino, Miguel; Hatch, Brigit; Hoopes, Megan; Bailey, Steffani R; Heintzman, John; Gallia, Charles; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-11-01

    Although past research demonstrated that Medicaid expansions were associated with increased emergency department (ED) and primary care (PC) utilization, little is known about how long this increased utilization persists or whether postcoverage utilization is affected by prior insurance status. (1) To assess changes in ED, PC, mental and behavioral health care, and specialist care visit rates among individuals gaining Medicaid over 24 months postinsurance gain; and (2) to evaluate the association of previous insurance with utilization. Using claims data, we conducted a retrospective cohort analysis of adults insured for 24 months following Oregon's 2008 Medicaid expansion. Utilization rates among 1124 new and 1587 returning enrollees were compared with those among 5126 enrollees with continuous Medicaid coverage (≥1 y preexpansion). Visit rates were adjusted for propensity score classes and geographic region. PC visit rates in both newly and returning insured individuals significantly exceeded those in the continuously insured in months 4 through 12, but were not significantly elevated in the second year. In contrast, ED utilization rates were significantly higher in returning insured compared with newly or continuously insured individuals and remained elevated over time. New visits to PC and specialist care were higher among those who gained Medicaid compared with the continuously insured throughout the study period. Predicting the effect of insurance expansion on health care utilization should account for the prior coverage history of new enrollees. In addition, utilization of outpatient services changes with time after insurance, so expansion evaluations should allow for rate stabilization.

  20. Influence of cooling rate on the precipitation behavior in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling and relationship to strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, F.Z.; Wang, X.M.; Chen, L.; Yang, S.W.; Shang, C.J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2015-04-15

    In this study we elucidate carbide precipitation at varied cooling rates in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling. The study suggests that increasing the cooling rate prevents precipitate formation in the ferrite phase during continuous cooling after finish rolling at 850 °C. At a lower cooling rate of 0.5 °C/s, the microhardness of ferrite grains exhibited maxima because of high volume fraction of fine carbides. A high density of nanoscale carbides with similar precipitation characteristics, including interphase precipitates, was observed at cooling rates of 0.5 and 1 °C/s, but the carbides were marginally larger and the spacing between them was increased with cooling rate. Additionally, carbide precipitation at a high cooling rate was associated with strain-induced precipitation. Through the analysis of selection area electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, lattice imaging, the fine spherical-shaped carbides of size ~ 6–10 nm were identified as MC-type carbides of the type (Ti,Nb,Mo)C and NbC. - Highlights: • We model three cooling rates which have indicated different precipitation behaviors. • We find two types of precipitates including NbC and (Ti,Nb,Mo)C based on HRTEM study. • Increasing cooling rate will decrease volume fraction and size of the precipitates. • There is no absence of interphase precipitation when the cooling rate increases to 5 °C/s.

  1. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  2. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  3. The use of dexmedetomidine continuous rate infusion for horses undergoing transvenous electrical cardioversion — A case series

    PubMed Central

    Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Schwarzwald, Colin C.; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2016-01-01

    Five horses were presented for treatment of atrial fibrillation by transvenous electrical cardioversion (TVEC). A dexmedetomidine infusion was administered for sedation during positioning of the cardioversion catheters, and continued during general anesthesia. Shocks were applied until return to sinus rhythm. Dexmedetomidine infusion provided excellent conditions for TVEC catheter placement and procedure. PMID:26740702

  4. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved.

  5. The reliability of lumbar motion palpation using continuous analysis and confidence ratings: choosing a relevant index of agreement

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most studies show motion palpation unreliable. This study’s primary objective was assessing its reliability using a continuous measure methods, most-fixated level paradigm, stratified by examiners’ confidence; and the secondary objective was comparing various indices of examiner agreement. Methods: Thirty-four minimally symptomatic participants were palpated in side posture by two experienced examiners. Interexaminer differences in identifying the most-fixated level and degree of examiner confidence were recorded. Indices of agreement were: Intraclass correlation coefficient, Mean and Median Examiner Absolute Examiner Differences, Root-Mean-Square Error and Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement. Results: Three of four reliability indices (excluding intraclass correlation) suggested on average examiners agreed on the most fixated motion segment, and agreement increased with confidence. Statistical measures of data dispersion were low. The analyses of subgroups were “fragile” due to small sample size. Discussion: Although subject homogeneity lowered ICC levels, the other reliability measures were not similarly impacted. Continuous measures statistical analysis demonstrates examiner agreement in situations where discrete analysis with kappa may not. Conclusion: Continuous analysis for the lumbar most-fixated level is reliable. Future studies will need a larger sample size to properly analyze subgroups based on examiner confidence. PMID:27385834

  6. Optimized speech understanding with the continuous interleaved sampling speech coding strategy in patients with cochlear implants: effect of variations in stimulation rate and number of channels.

    PubMed

    Kiefer, J; von Ilberg, C; Rupprecht, V; Hubner-Egner, J; Knecht, R

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of systematic variations in stimulation rate and number of channels on speech understanding in 13 patients with cochlear implants who used the continuous interleaved sampling speech coding strategy. Reducing the stimulation rate from 1,515 to 1,730 pulses per second per channel to 600 pulses per second per channel resulted in decreased overall performance; the understanding of monosyllables and consonants was more affected than the understanding of vowels. Reducing the number of active channels below 7 or 8 channels decreased speech understanding; the identification of vowels and monosyllables was most affected. We conclude that vowel recognition with the continuous interleaved sampling strategy relies on spectral cues more than on temporal cues, increasing with the number of active channels, whereas consonant recognition is more dependent on temporal cues and stimulation rate.

  7. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The problem studied involved cell proliferation in mice thymus undergoing irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roetgens/day for 105 days. Specifically, the aim was to determine wheather or not a steady state of cell population can be established for the indicated period of time and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population are involved.

  8. Respiration, and growth-efficiency of coastal prokaryote communities in continuous cultures under different growth rates and temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maske, H.; Cajal-Medrano, R.; Villegas-Mendoza, J.

    2016-02-01

    Organotrophic prokaryotes in aquatic environments account for about half of community respiration in surface oceans and are key trophic links in the plankton food web connecting dissolved organics and higher trophic levels. The transfer efficiency is partially characterized by the ratio of prokaryote respiration rates (r, day-1) to growth rates (m, day-1) and the resulting growth efficiency (Y). Much literature has been published about the response of these parameters to temperature in monospecific cultures, but little is known about the response of a community of pelagic prokaryotes were the sum of the genotypes and phenotype define the physiological potential. We inoculated 10 turbidostats and 39 chemostats with coastal bacteria and measured CO2 production, carbon biomass and cell abundance, with m ranging from 0.05 to 62 day-1 between 10 and 26oC. Under substrate limited conditions, common in the ocean, r showed no significant trend with temperature and was proportional to m implying constant Y. Under temperature-limited, nutrient replete growth the m of coastal prokaryote communities increased with temperature but r decreased (Q10: 0.4), resulting in an increase of Y with temperature (Q10: 2.5). The carbon demand rate (b, fmol C (cell day)-1) of turbidostat cultures showed a very high Q10 of 8.4. Casting the data in the framework of the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE), the physiological rates normalized to cell carbon showed no significant changes with temperature using either respiration or carbon demand as a proxy for physiological rate. Our results suggest that physiological patterns related to temperature are very different under nutrient limited or replete conditions and under neither condition it followed the pattern expected by MTE.

  9. A wearable vital signs monitor at the ear for continuous heart rate and pulse transit time measurements.

    PubMed

    Winokur, Eric S; He, David Da; Sodini, Charles G

    2012-01-01

    A continuous, wearable and wireless vital signs monitor at the ear is demonstrated. The device has the form factor of a hearing aid and is wirelessly connected to a PC for data recording and analysis. The device monitors the electrocardiogram (ECG) in a single lead configuration, the ballistocardiogram (BCG) with a MEMS triaxial accelerometer, and the photoplethysmograms (PPG) with 660 nm and 940 nm LED sources and a static photocurrent subtraction analog front end. Clinical tests are conducted, including Valsalva and head-up tilt maneuvers. Peak timing intervals between the ECG, BCG and PPG are extracted and are shown to relate to pre-ejection period and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Pulse Transit Time (PTT) extracted from cross-correlation between the PPG and BCG shows improved results compared to the pulse arrival time (PAT) method for tracking changes in MAP.

  10. Rates and causes of peritonitis in a National Multicenter Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis program in Sudan: first-year experience.

    PubMed

    Abu-Aisha, Hasan; Elhassan, Elwaleed A; Khamis, Ammar H; Fedail, Haleema; Kaballo, Babikir; Abdelraheem, M Babbikir; Ali, Tigani; Medani, Safaa; Tammam, Layla; Basheir, Ihsan

    2007-11-01

    This is a cumulative report of all patients in six centers in Greater Khartoum, all three cities that comprise the capital of Sudan, covering the first year of operation of the National Program. This study evaluates the rates, mechanisms, causative agents and clinical outcomes of peritonitis. We included the data of all 60 patients who underwent CAPD from June 2005 to June 2006. There were 15 episodes of peritonitis in 323 patient-months, which equates to an overall peritonitis rate of one episode every 21.5 months (0.55 episodes per year at risk). The individual center rates varied. There was a statistically significant age difference, with peritonitis being more common in the youngsters. All patients presented with abdominal pain and had cloudy effluents but none had a significant exit site or tunnel infection. Fluid cultures were available in 11 out of the 15 episodes of peritonitis. The cultures were positive for organisms in only 3 out of 11 (27%) cases. Two patients were infected by Pseudomonas aerogenosa and one patient by Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the culture-negative peritonitis rate was 8/11 (73%). Touch contamination was the likely mechanism in 7/15 (46.7%) of the episodes. There were three cases of refractory peritonitis and only one case of relapsing peritonitis. None of the patients had a catheter removed because of peritonitis. We conclude that the first year of operation of the Sudan National Multi-centered PD program has proven that it is a promising project with multifaceted success. The cumulative peritonitis incidence is acceptable although there are several areas for improvement. Standardized laboratory techniques need to be implemented and pursued, particularly in the microbiology area.

  11. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with mixed microbial cultures: from culture selection to polymer recovery in a high-rate continuous process.

    PubMed

    Villano, Marianna; Valentino, Francesco; Barbetta, Andrea; Martino, Lucrezia; Scandola, Mariastella; Majone, Mauro

    2014-06-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production with mixed microbial cultures (MMC) has been investigated by means of a sequential process involving three different stages, consisting of a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor for MMC selection, a PHA accumulation reactor and a polymer extraction reactor. All stages were performed under continuous operation for at least 4 months to check the overall process robustness as well as the related variability of polymer composition and properties. By operating both biological stages at high organic loads (8.5 and 29.1 gCOD/Ld, respectively) with a synthetic mixture of acetic and propionic acid, it was possible to continuously produce PHA at 1.43 g/Ld with stable performance (overall, the storage yield was 0.18 COD/COD). To identify the optimal operating conditions of the extraction reactor, two digestion solutions have been tested, NaOH (1m) and NaClO (5% active Cl2). The latter resulted in the best performance both in terms of yield of polymer recovery (around 100%, w/w) and purity (more than 90% of PHA content in the residual solids, on a weight basis). In spite of the stable operating conditions and performance, a large variation was observed for the HV content, ranging between 4 and 20 (%, w/w) for daily samples after accumulation and between 9 and 13 (%, w/w) for weekly average samples after extraction and lyophilization. The molecular weight of the produced polymer ranged between 3.4 × 10(5) and 5.4 × 10(5)g/mol with a large polydispersity index. By contrast, TGA and DSC analysis showed that the thermal polymer behavior did not substantially change over time, although it was strongly affected by the extraction agent used (NaClO or NaOH). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Does an offer for a free on-line continuing medical education (CME) activity increase physician survey response rate? A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. Results As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p < 0.0001). Conclusions An offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. PMID:22397624

  13. Does an offer for a free on-line continuing medical education (CME) activity increase physician survey response rate? A randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Viera, Anthony J; Edwards, Teresa

    2012-03-07

    Achieving a high response rate in a physician survey is challenging. Monetary incentives increase response rates but obviously add cost to a survey project. We wondered whether an offer of a free continuing medical education (CME) activity would be effective in improving survey response rate. As part of a survey of a national sample of physicians, we randomized half to an offer for a free on-line CME activity upon completion of a web-based survey and the other half to no such offer. We compared response rates between the groups. A total of 1214 out of 8477 potentially eligible physicians responded to our survey, for an overall response rate of 14.3%. The response rate among the control group (no offer of CME credit) was 16.6%, while among those offered the CME opportunity, the response rate was 12.0% (p < 0.0001). An offer for a free on-line CME activity did not improve physician survey response rate. On the contrary, the offer for a free CME activity actually appeared to worsen the response rate. © 2011 Viera et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  14. Use of brachial plexus blockade and medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Kimeli, Peter; Mogoa, Eddy M; Mwangi, Willy E; Kipyegon, Ambrose N; Kirui, Gilbert; Muasya, Daniel W; Mande, John D; Kariuki, Edward; Mijele, Dominic

    2014-10-10

    Regional anaesthetic techniques have been used in combination with systemic analgesics during small animal surgery to provide multimodal analgesia. Brachial plexus nerves block using local anaesthetics provides analgesia of the thoracic limb through desensitization of the nerves that provide sensory and motor innervation. This has been shown to reduce intra-operative anesthetic requirements and provide postoperative pain relief. Decreasing the doses of general anaesthetics allows more stable cardiopulmonary function during anaesthesia and the development of less side effects. The present case reports a successful use of brachial plexus blockade to supplement medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for repair of radio-ulna fracture in an adult cheetah (acinonyx jubatus). An adult male Cheetah weighing about 65 kg was presented with a history of leg carrying lameness of the left forelimb sustained following a car accident a week earlier. Clinical examination under general anaesthesia revealed slight dehydration and a swelling with a wound on the caudo-medial aspect of the left radio-ulna region. Crepitation was present on manipulation and radiography confirmed a complete transverse radio-ulna fracture of the left forelimb, which required open reduction and internal fixation. Brachial plexus blockade using lignocaine hydrochloride was used to supplement medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane anaesthesia for the surgical procedure. Isoflurane anaesthesia was maintained at 0.5 - 2.0% throughout the surgical procedure, which was uneventful. Temperature and cardio-pulmonary parameters remained stable intra-operatively. Limb paralysis extended for 5 hours post-operatively, suggesting prolonged anaesthesia. To the researchers' knowledge, this is the first reported case of the use of brachial plexus blockade to supplement general anaesthesia to facilitate forelimb surgery in an adult cheetah. The use of brachial plexus block with a light plane of general anaesthesia proved to

  15. [Effects of different application rates of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in cucumber continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-peng; Ning, Tang-yuan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Shu-min; Wang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of CaCN2 combined with cucumber straw retention on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) , soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and soil enzyme activities under cucumber continuous cropping system. Four treatments were used in this study as follows: CK (null CaCN2), CaCN2-90 (1350 kg CaCN2 . hm-2) CaCN2-60 (900 kg CaCN2 . hm-2), CaCN2-30 (450 kg CaCN2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, compared with the other treatments, CaCN2-90 treatment significantly decreased SMBC in 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling stage, but increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer after early-fruit stage. Compared with CK, CaCN2 increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer at late-fruit stage, and increased SMBN in 0-10 cm soil layer at mid- and late-fruit stages, however there was no significant trend among CaCN2 treatments in the first year (2012), while in the second year (2013) SMBN increased with the increasing CaCN2 amount after mid-fruit stage. CaCN2 increased straw decaying and nutrients releasing, and also increased soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CaCN2-90 could accelerate straw decomposition. Compared with CK, CaCN2 effectively increased soil urease, catalase and polyphenol oxidase activity. The soil urease activity increased while the polyphenol oxidase activity decreased with the increase of CaCN2, and CaCN2-60 could significantly improve catalase activity. Soil organic matter, urease activity and catalase activity had significant positive correlations with SMBC and SMBN. However, polyphenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated to SMBC and SMBN. Our findings indicated that CaCN2 application at 900 kg . hm-2 combined with cucumber straw retention could effectively improve soil environment, alleviating the soil obstacles under the cucumber continuous cropping system.

  16. Poor elimination rates in waste water treatment plants lead to continuous emission of deoxynivalenol into the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Felix E; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2010-07-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prominent mycotoxins generated by fungi of the generus Fusarium on crops. Its presence in surface waters was recently demonstrated. Here, we elucidate the occurrence and behaviour of DON in three Swiss waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of human consumption and excretion. DON was shown to be omnipresent in the primary effluent samples of these WWTP in concentrations from 32 to 118 ng/L. Corresponding loads were a factor of 1.3-2.3 higher than predicted based on human excretion data from the literature. DON elimination rates in WWTP ranged from 33 to 57%. These rather low percentages were confirmed with a further, more detailled study conducted at WWTP Kloten/Opfikon (average elimination rate 32%). The relative importance of WWTP as a source of DON in surface waters was compared with agricultural emissions due to runoff from Fusarium infected crops. Both sources seem to contribute equally to the total DON exposure of surface waters of a few ng/L, however, their input dynamics vary considerably in space and time. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness interact to determine fruit set and abortion rates in a continuous tropical tree population.

    PubMed

    Jones, F A; Comita, L S

    2008-12-07

    Tropical trees may show positive density dependence in fruit set and maturation due to pollen limitation in low-density populations. However, pollen from closely related individuals in the local neighbourhood might reduce fruit set or increase fruit abortion in self-incompatible tree species. We investigated the role of neighbourhood density and genetic relatedness on individual fruit set and abortion in the neotropical tree Jacaranda copaia in a large forest plot in central Panama. Using nested neighbourhood models, we found a strong positive effect of increased conspecific density on fruit set and maturation. However, high neighbourhood genetic relatedness interacted with density to reduce total fruit set and increase the proportion of aborted fruit. Our results imply a fitness advantage for individuals growing in high densities as measured by fruit set, but realized fruit set is lowered by increased neighbourhood relatedness. We hypothesize that the mechanism involved is increased visitation by density-dependent invertebrate pollinators in high-density populations, which increases pollen quantity and carry-over and increases fruit set and maturation, coupled with self-incompatibility at early and late stages due to biparental inbreeding that lowers fruit set and increases fruit abortion. Implications for the reproductive ecology and conservation of tropical tree communities in continuous and fragmented habitats are discussed.

  18. The usefulness of a continuous administration of tirapazamine combined with reduced dose-rate irradiation using {gamma}-rays or reactor thermal neutrons.

    PubMed

    Masunaga, S; Sakurai, Y; Nagata, K; Suzuki, M; Maruhashi, A; Kinashi, Y; Nagasawa, H; Uto, Y; Hori, H; Ono, K

    2006-12-01

    We clarified the usefulness of the continuous administration of tirapazamine (TPZ) in combination with reduced dose-rate irradiation (RDRI) using gamma-rays or reactor thermal neutrons. Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) VII tumour-bearing mice received a continuous administration of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. Then, they received a single intraperitoneal injection or 24 h continuous subcutaneous infusion of TPZ in combination with conventional dose-rate irradiation (CDRI) or RDRI using gamma-rays or thermal neutrons. After irradiation, the tumour cells were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker, and the micronucleus (MN) frequency in cells without BrdU labelling ( = quiescent (Q) cells) was determined using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. The MN frequency in the total tumour cells was determined using tumours that were not pre-treated with BrdU. The sensitivity of both total and Q cells, especially of Q cells, was significantly reduced with RDRI compared with CDRI. Combination of TPZ increased the sensitivity of both populations, with a slightly more remarkable increase in Q cells. Furthermore, the continuous administration of TPZ raised the sensitivity of both total and Q cell populations, especially the former, more markedly than the single administration, whether combined with CDRI or RDRI using gamma-rays or thermal neutrons. From the viewpoint of solid tumour control as a whole, including intratumour Q-cell control, the use of TPZ, especially when administered continuously, combined with RDRI, is useful for suppressing the reduction in the sensitivity of tumour cells caused by the decrease in irradiation dose rate in vivo.

  19. Pilot-scale continuous synthesis of a vanadium-doped LiFePO4/C nanocomposite high-rate cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Lübke, Mechthild; Wu, On Ying; Makwana, Neel M.; Smales, Glen J.; Islam, Husn U.; Dedigama, Rashmi Y.; Gruar, Robert I.; Tighe, Christopher J.; Scanlon, David O.; Corà, Furio; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-01-01

    A high performance vanadium-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode is synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal method at a production rate of 6 kg per day. The supercritical water reagent rapidly generates core/shell nanoparticles with a thin, continuous carbon coating on the surface of LFP, which aids electron transport dynamics across the particle surface. Vanadium dopant concentration has a profound effect on the performance of LFP, where the composition LiFe0.95V0.05PO4, achieves a specific discharge capacity which is among the highest in the comparable literature (119 mA h g-1 at a discharge rate of 1500 mA g-1). Additionally, a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and hybrid-exchange density functional theory, suggest that vanadium ions replace both phosphorous and iron in the structure, thereby facilitating Li+ diffusion due to Li+ vacancy generation and changes in the crystal structure.

  20. Simple and Fast Continuous Estimation Method of Respiratory Frequency During Sleep using the Number of Extreme Points of Heart Rate Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is reported that frequency component of approximately 0.25Hz of heart rate time series (RSA) is corresponding to the respiratory frequency. In this paper, we proposed that continuous estimation method of respiratory fequency during sleep using the number of extreme points of heart rate time series in real time. Equation for calculation of the method is very simple and the method can continuously calculate frequency by window width of about 18 beats. To evaluate accuracy of proposal method, RSA frequency was calculated using proposal method from the heart rate time series during supine rest. Result, minimum error rate was observed when RSA had time lag for about 11s and error rate was about 13.8%. Result of estimating RSA frequency time series during sleep, it varied regularly during non-REM and varied irregularly during REM. This result is similar as report of previous study about respiratory variability during sleep. Therefore, it is considered that proposal method possible to apply respiratory monitoring system during sleep.

  1. Simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal from salmon industry wastewater: the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration and organic load rate on batch and continuous process.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, C; Hernández, S; Aspé, E; Roeckel, M

    2012-06-30

    Although simultaneous denitrification-anaerobic digestion has been studied extensively, the use of salmon effluents as organic matter source has received little attention. This study evaluated the effect of C/N ratio, nitrate concentration, and organic load rate (OLR) on simultaneous nitrate and organic matter removal using salmon effluents. The study was carried out in a batch reactor with suspended biomass at 37 °C and pH 7.5, and in continuous biofilm tubular reactors at 37 °C fed with a mixture of a synthetic substrate and a saline protein-rich salmon-plant effluent. The results of the batch and continuous experiments showed that nitrate abatement was greater than 95% at all the studied C/N ratios, without effect of the C/N ratio on NO(3)(-)-N transformation and ammonia production. An increase of nitrate concentration increased organic matter consumption as well as the hydrolytic rate. The organic matter reduction varied between 88% and 40% in the continuous process. For a continuous process, the increase of the OLR decreases the removal of organic matter.

  2. Quantifying VOC-Reaction Tracers, Ozone Production, and Continuing Aerosol Production Rates in Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Ren, X.; Brune, W.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have found a surprisingly informative decomposition of the complex question of smoggy ozone production (basically, [HO2] in a more locally determined field of [NO]) in the process of linked investigations of modestly smoggy Eastern North America (by NASA aircraft, July 2004) and rather polluted Flushing, NYC (Queens College, July, 2001). In both rural and very polluted situations, we find that a simple contour graph parameterization of the local principal ozone production rate can be estimated using only the variables [NO] and j(sub rads) [HCHO]: Po(O3) = c (j(sub rads) [HCHO])(sup a) [HCHO](sup b). Here j(sub rads) is the photolysis of HCHO to radicals, presumably capturing many harder-UV photolytic processes and the principle ozone production is that due to HO2; mechanisms suggest that ozone production due to RO2 is closely correlated, often suggesting a limited range of different proportionality factors. The method immediately suggests a local interpretation for concepts of VOC limitation and NOx limitation. We believe that the product j(sub rads) [HCHO] guages the oxidation rate of observed VOC mixtures in a way that also provides [HO2] useful for the principle ozone production rate k [HO2] [NO], and indeed, all ozone chemical production. The success of the method suggests that dominant urban primary-HCHO sources may transition to secondary plume-HCHO sources in a convenient way. Are there other, simple, near-terminal oxidized VOC's which help guage ozone production and aerosol particle formation? Regarding particles, we report on, to the extent NASA Research resources allow, on appealing relationships between far-downwind (Atlantic PBL) HCHO and very fine aerosol (including sulfate. Since j(sub rads) [HCHO] provides a time-scale, we may understand distant-plume particle production in a more quantitative manner. Additionally we report on a statistical search in the nearer field for relationships between glyoxals (important near-terminal aromatic and isoprene

  3. Quantifying VOC-Reaction Tracers, Ozone Production, and Continuing Aerosol Production Rates in Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Ren, X.; Brune, W.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have found a surprisingly informative decomposition of the complex question of smoggy ozone production (basically, [HO2] in a more locally determined field of [NO]) in the process of linked investigations of modestly smoggy Eastern North America (by NASA aircraft, July 2004) and rather polluted Flushing, NYC (Queens College, July, 2001). In both rural and very polluted situations, we find that a simple contour graph parameterization of the local principal ozone production rate can be estimated using only the variables [NO] and j(sub rads) [HCHO]: Po(O3) = c (j(sub rads) [HCHO])(sup a) [HCHO](sup b). Here j(sub rads) is the photolysis of HCHO to radicals, presumably capturing many harder-UV photolytic processes and the principle ozone production is that due to HO2; mechanisms suggest that ozone production due to RO2 is closely correlated, often suggesting a limited range of different proportionality factors. The method immediately suggests a local interpretation for concepts of VOC limitation and NOx limitation. We believe that the product j(sub rads) [HCHO] guages the oxidation rate of observed VOC mixtures in a way that also provides [HO2] useful for the principle ozone production rate k [HO2] [NO], and indeed, all ozone chemical production. The success of the method suggests that dominant urban primary-HCHO sources may transition to secondary plume-HCHO sources in a convenient way. Are there other, simple, near-terminal oxidized VOC's which help guage ozone production and aerosol particle formation? Regarding particles, we report on, to the extent NASA Research resources allow, on appealing relationships between far-downwind (Atlantic PBL) HCHO and very fine aerosol (including sulfate. Since j(sub rads) [HCHO] provides a time-scale, we may understand distant-plume particle production in a more quantitative manner. Additionally we report on a statistical search in the nearer field for relationships between glyoxals (important near-terminal aromatic and isoprene

  4. Poster - Thur Eve - 43: Is faster always better? An evaluation of frame rate effects on continuous acquisition mode EPID imaging for dose verification.

    PubMed

    Peca, S; Granville, D; Brown, D

    2012-07-01

    As radiotherapy moves towards intensity modulated arc therapy (arc-IMRT), there is a need for electronic portal imaging (EPID) to move towards continuous acquisition (cine) mode for dosimetric verification purposes. However, as the EPID resolution and frame rate (fps) increase, so does the computational burden of image processing. We investigated the reliability of cine mode EPID imaging in IMRT as a function of frame rate. We acquired EPID images continuously while running an IMRT plan (6MV photons, 150MU, dose rate = 300MU/min) with frame rates ranging from 1-12 fps, as well as a single integrated mode image. Each cine dataset was then averaged to form a single image, which was compared with the integrated mode image by means of a pixel-by-pixel absolute value subtraction. Although a greater frame rate gave better agreement with the integrated mode image in all cases, the relative benefit diminished with increasing frame rate. In particular, for the IMRT plan delivered, there was little benefit of imaging faster than 6 fps, and virtually no benefit in increasing from 9 to 12 fps. In contrast, 12 fps produces twice the number of images as 6 fps which significantly increases the image processing and data storage burdens. Increasing frame rate in cine mode EPID imaging may be beneficial in some cases, but there is likely a threshold level above which no relevant additional information is obtained. Further research to determine the ideal frame rate for any particular IMRT or arc-IMRT plan is warranted. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  5. Relational scaffolding of school motivation: developmental continuities in students' and parents' ratings of the importance of school goals.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, B J; Zhou, R M

    2001-03-01

    The authors investigated whether parents and students are consistent, over grade levels, in the importance they assign to school goals. Elementary and high school students (n = 178) and their parents (n = 130) completed a questionnaire addressing the personal importance of students' school goals, defined in terms of school success. Parent-child consistencies in the rating patterns of school goals over grade levels were more common than were inconsistencies. These developmental consistencies support the position that students' school goals are embedded within the parent-child relationship (J. Youniss, 1980; J. Youniss & J. Smollar, 1985) and are scaffolded within it (J. S. Bruner, 1975; L. S. Vygotsky, 1978). Potential sources of relational and phenotypic influences on school goals are discussed, as is the need for effective friendship management and school performance in high school.

  6. Hour-long continuous operation of a tabletop soft x-ray laser at 50-100 Hz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Reagan, Brendan A; Li, Wei; Urbanski, Lukasz; Wernsing, Keith A; Salsbury, Chase; Baumgarten, Cory; Marconi, Mario C; Menoni, Carmen S; Rocca, Jorge J

    2013-11-18

    We report the uninterrupted operation of an 18.9 nm wavelength tabletop soft x-ray laser at 100 Hz repetition rate for extended periods of time. An average power of about 0.1 mW was obtained by irradiating a Mo target with pulses from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Series of up to 1.8 x 10(5) consecutive laser pulses of ~1 µJ energy were generated by displacing the surface of a high shot-capacity rotating molybdenum target by ~2 µm between laser shots. As a proof-of-principle demonstration of the use of this compact ultrashort wavelength laser in applications requiring a high average power coherent beam, we lithographically printed an array of nanometer-scale features using coherent Talbot self-imaging.

  7. Continuous In-The-Field Measurement of Heart Rate: Correlates of Drug Use, Craving, Stress, and Mood in Polydrug Users

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ashley P.; Epstein, David H.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Agage, Daniel; Tyburski, Matthew; Phillips, Karran A.; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Bari, Rummana; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Hovsepian, Karen; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Ertin, Emre; Kumar, Santosh; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ambulatory physiological monitoring could clarify antecedents and consequences of drug use and could contribute to a sensor-triggered mobile intervention that automatically detects behaviorally risky situations. Our goal was to show that such monitoring is feasible and can produce meaningful data. Methods We assessed heart rate (HR) with AutoSense, a suite of biosensors that wirelessly transmits data to a smartphone, for up to four weeks in 40 polydrug users in opioid-agonist maintenance as they went about their daily lives. Participants also self-reported drug use, mood, and activities on electronic diaries. We compared HR with self-report using multilevel modeling (SAS Proc Mixed). Results Compliance with AutoSense was good; the data yield from the wireless electrocardiographs was 85.7%. HR was higher when participants reported cocaine use than when they reported heroin use (F(2,9) = 250.3, p<.0001) and was also higher as a function of the dose of cocaine reported (F(1,8) = 207.7, p<.0001). HR was higher when participants reported craving heroin (F(1,16)=230.9, p<.0001) or cocaine (F(1,14)=157.2, p<.0001) than when they reported of not craving. HR was lower (p<.05) in randomly prompted entries in which participants reported feeling relaxed, feeling happy, or watching TV, and was higher when they reported feeling stressed, being hassled, or walking. Conclusions High-yield, high-quality heart-rate data can be obtained from drug users in their natural environment as they go about their daily lives, and the resultant data robustly reflect episodes of cocaine and heroin use and other mental and behavioral events of interest. PMID:25920802

  8. Continuous in-the-field measurement of heart rate: Correlates of drug use, craving, stress, and mood in polydrug users.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Ashley P; Epstein, David H; Jobes, Michelle L; Agage, Daniel; Tyburski, Matthew; Phillips, Karran A; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Bari, Rummana; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Hovsepian, Karen; Rahman, Md Mahbubur; Ertin, Emre; Kumar, Santosh; Preston, Kenzie L

    2015-06-01

    Ambulatory physiological monitoring could clarify antecedents and consequences of drug use and could contribute to a sensor-triggered mobile intervention that automatically detects behaviorally risky situations. Our goal was to show that such monitoring is feasible and can produce meaningful data. We assessed heart rate (HR) with AutoSense, a suite of biosensors that wirelessly transmits data to a smartphone, for up to 4 weeks in 40 polydrug users in opioid-agonist maintenance as they went about their daily lives. Participants also self-reported drug use, mood, and activities on electronic diaries. We compared HR with self-report using multilevel modeling (SAS Proc Mixed). Compliance with AutoSense was good; the data yield from the wireless electrocardiographs was 85.7%. HR was higher when participants reported cocaine use than when they reported heroin use (F(2,9)=250.3, p<.0001) and was also higher as a function of the dose of cocaine reported (F(1,8)=207.7, p<.0001). HR was higher when participants reported craving heroin (F(1,16)=230.9, p<.0001) or cocaine (F(1,14)=157.2, p<.0001) than when they reported of not craving. HR was lower (p<.05) in randomly prompted entries in which participants reported feeling relaxed, feeling happy, or watching TV, and was higher when they reported feeling stressed, being hassled, or walking. High-yield, high-quality heart-rate data can be obtained from drug users in their natural environment as they go about their daily lives, and the resultant data robustly reflect episodes of cocaine and heroin use and other mental and behavioral events of interest. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. Furosemide continuous rate infusion diluted with 5% dextrose in water or hypertonic saline in normal adult dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Adin, D; Atkins, C; Papich, M; DeFrancesco, T; Griffiths, E; Penteado, M; Kurtz, K; Klein, A

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the short-term safety and diuretic efficacy of furosemide constant rate infusion (CRI) diluted with 5% dextrose in water (D5W) compared to dilution with 2.4% hypertonic saline in healthy dogs. Six healthy dogs. Dogs were studied in a randomized, blinded, crossover manner. Furosemide 3.3mg/kg was diluted to 2.2mg/mL with either 1.5mL/kg D5W for the DEX method or with 1.0mL/kg D5W and 0.5mL/kg of 7.2% hypertonic saline for the H-SAL method. After a 0.66mg/kg furosemide IV bolus, the infusion rate was 0.3 mL/kg/hr for 5 h such that both methods delivered 0.66 mg/kg/hr (total 3.3mg/kg) furosemide in equal volume for the study duration. Urine output, water intake, central venous pressure (CVP), physical parameters, furosemide concentrations, blood and urine electrolytes, and urine aldosterone to creatinine ratio (UAldo:C) were evaluated. Measured variables were not different between methods but showed changes over time consistent with diuresis. Mean CVP decreased over time similarly for both methods. Plasma furosemide and urine concentrations were stable and not different between methods. Both furosemide CRI methods showed an increase in the UAldo:C, however, the rise was greater for DEX than for H-SAL. Diuresis was similar for both furosemide CRI methods; however, the H-SAL method induced less renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation than the DEX method. The absence of intravascular volume expansion based on CVP suggests that dilution of a furosemide CRI with 2.4% hypertonic saline may be well tolerated in heart failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. PS1-10jh CONTINUES TO FOLLOW THE FALLBACK ACCRETION RATE OF A TIDALLY DISRUPTED STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gezari, S.; Chornock, R.; Lawrence, A.; Rest, A.; Jones, D. O.; Berger, E.; Challis, P. M.; Narayan, G.

    2015-12-10

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t{sup −5/3} power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  11. Continuous bedside pressure mapping and rates of hospital-associated pressure ulcers in a medical intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Behrendt, Robert; Ghaznavi, Amir M; Mahan, Meredith; Craft, Susan; Siddiqui, Aamir

    2014-03-01

    Critically ill patients are vulnerable to the development of hospital-associated pressure ulcers (HAPUs). Positioning of patients is an essential component of pressure ulcer prevention because it off-loads areas of high pressure. However, the effectiveness of such positioning is debatable. A continuous bedside pressure mapping (CBPM) device can provide real-time feedback of optimal body position though a pressure-sensing mat that displays pressure images at a patient's bedside, allowing off-loading of high-pressure areas and possibly preventing HAPU formation. A prospective controlled study was designed to determine if CBPM would reduce the number of HAPUs in patients treated in our medical intensive care unit. In 2 months, 422 patients were enrolled and assigned to beds equipped with or without a CBPM device. Patients' skin was assessed daily and weekly to determine the presence and progress of HAPUs. All patients were turned every 2 hours. CBPM patients were repositioned to off-load high-pressure points during turning, according to a graphic display. The number of newly formed HAPUs was the primary outcome measured. A χ(2) test was then used to compare the occurrence of HAPUs between groups. HAPUs developed in 2 of 213 patients in the CBPM group (0.9%; both stage II) compared with 10 of 209 in the control group (4.8%; all stage II; P = .02). Significantly fewer HAPUs occurred in the CBPM group than the control group, indicating the effectiveness of real-time visual feedback in repositioning of patients to prevent the formation of new HAPUs.

  12. Rationale and Enrollment Results for a Partially Randomized Patient Preference Trial to Compare Continuation Rates of Short-Acting and Long-Acting Reversible Contraception

    PubMed Central

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Most published contraceptive continuation rates have scientific limitations and cannot be compared; this is particularly true for dissimilar contraceptives. This study uses a new approach to determine if high continuation rates of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and protection from unintended pregnancy are observable in a population not self-selecting to use LARC. Study Design We are conducting a partially randomized patient preference trial to compare continuation rates of short-acting reversible contraception (SARC) and LARC. Only women seeking SARC were invited to participate. Participants chose to be in the preference cohort (self-selected method use) or opted to be randomized to SARC or LARC; only those in the randomized cohort received free product. We compared participant characteristics, reasons for not trying LARC previously, and the contraceptive choices that were made. Results We enrolled 917 eligible women; 57% chose to be in the preference cohort and 43% opted for the randomized trial. The preference and randomized cohorts were similar on most factors. However, the randomized cohort was more likely than the preference cohort to be uninsured (48% versus 36%, respectively) and to cite cost as a reason for not trying LARC previously (50% versus 10%) (p<0.01 for both comparisons). In the preference cohort, fear of pain/injury/side effects/health risks were the predominant reasons (cited by over 25%) for not trying LARC previously (p<0.01 in comparison to randomized cohort). Conclusions Enrollment was successful and the process created different cohorts to compare contraceptive continuation rates and unintended pregnancy in this ongoing trial. The choices participants made were associated with numerous factors; lack of insurance was associated with participation in the randomized trial. Implications This partially randomized patient preference trial will provide new estimates of contraceptive continuation rates, such that any benefits

  13. Rationale and enrollment results for a partially randomized patient preference trial to compare continuation rates of short-acting and long-acting reversible contraception.

    PubMed

    Hubacher, David; Spector, Hannah; Monteith, Charles; Chen, Pai-Lien; Hart, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    Most published contraceptive continuation rates have scientific limitations and cannot be compared; this is particularly true for dissimilar contraceptives. This study uses a new approach to determine if high continuation rates of long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) and protection from unintended pregnancy are observable in a population not self-selecting to use LARC. We are conducting a partially randomized patient preference trial (PRPPT) to compare continuation rates of short-acting reversible contraception (SARC) and LARC. Only women seeking SARC were invited to participate. Participants chose to be in the preference cohort (self-selected method use) or opted to be randomized to SARC or LARC; only those in the randomized cohort received free product. We compared participant characteristics, reasons for not trying LARC previously and the contraceptive choices that were made. We enrolled 917 eligible women; 57% chose to be in the preference cohort and 43% opted for the randomized trial. The preference and randomized cohorts were similar on most factors. However, the randomized cohort was more likely than the preference cohort to be uninsured (48% versus 36%, respectively) and to cite cost as a reason for not trying LARC previously (50% versus 10%) (p<.01 for both comparisons). In the preference cohort, fear of pain/injury/side effects/health risks were the predominant reasons (cited by over 25%) for not trying LARC previously (p<.01 in comparison to randomized cohort). Enrollment was successful and the process created different cohorts to compare contraceptive continuation rates and unintended pregnancy in this ongoing trial. The choices participants made were associated with numerous factors; lack of insurance was associated with participation in the randomized trial. This PRPPT will provide new estimates of contraceptive continuation rates, such that any benefits of LARC will be more easily attributable to the technology and not the user. Combined with

  14. Average Heating Rate of Hot Atmospheres in Distant Galaxy Clusters by Radio AGN: Evidence for Continuous AGN Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Cheng-Jiun; McNamara, B.; Nulsen, P.; Schaffer, R.

    2011-09-01

    X-ray observations of nearby clusters and galaxies have shown that energetic feedback from AGN is heating hot atmospheres and is probably the principal agent that is offsetting cooling flows. Here we examine AGN heating in distant X-ray clusters by cross correlating clusters selected from the 400 Square Degree X-ray Cluster survey with radio sources in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. The jet power for each radio source was determined using scaling relations between radio power and cavity power determined for nearby clusters, groups, and galaxies with atmospheres containing X-ray cavities. Roughly 30% of the clusters show radio emission above a flux threshold of 3 mJy within the central 250 kpc that is presumably associated with the brightest cluster galaxy. We find no significant correlation between radio power, hence jet power, and the X-ray luminosities of clusters in redshift range 0.1 -- 0.6. The detection frequency of radio AGN is inconsistent with the presence of strong cooling flows in 400SD, but cannot rule out the presence of weak cooling flows. The average jet power of central radio AGN is approximately 2 10^{44} erg/s. The jet power corresponds to an average heating of approximately 0.2 keV/particle for gas within R_500. Assuming the current AGN heating rate remained constant out to redshifts of about 2, these figures would rise by a factor of two. Our results show that the integrated energy injected from radio AGN outbursts in clusters is statistically significant compared to the excess entropy in hot atmospheres that is required for the breaking of self-similarity in cluster scaling relations. It is not clear that central AGN in 400SD clusters are maintained by a self-regulated feedback loop at the base of a cooling flow. However, they may play a significant role in preventing the development of strong cooling flows at early epochs.

  15. Continuous improvements of defectivity rates in immersion photolithography via functionalized membranes in point-of-use photochemical filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urzo, Lucia; Bayana, Hareen; Vandereyken, Jelle; Foubert, Philippe; Wu, Aiwen; Jaber, Jad; Hamzik, James

    2017-03-01

    Specific "killer-defects", such as micro-line-bridges are one of the key challenges in photolithography's advanced applications, such as multi-pattern. These defects generate from several sources and are very difficult to eliminate. Pointof-use filtration (POU) plays a crucial role on the mitigation, or elimination, of such defects. Previous studies have demonstrated how the contribution of POU filtration could not be studied independently from photoresists design and track hardware settings. Specifically, we investigated how an effective combination of optimized photoresist, filtration rate, filtration pressure, membrane and device cleaning, and single and multilayer filter membranes at optimized pore size could modulate the occurrence of such defects [1, 2, 3 and 4]. However, the ultimate desired behavior for POU filtration is the selective retention of defect precursor molecules contained in commercially available photoresist. This optimal behavior can be achieved via customized membrane functionalization. Membrane functionalization provides additional non-sieving interactions which combined with efficient size exclusion can selectively capture certain defect precursors. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive assessment of membrane functionalization applied on an asymmetric ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UPE) membrane at different pore size. Defectivity transferred in a 45 nm line 55 nm space (45L/55S) pattern, created through 193 nm immersion (193i) lithography with a positive tone chemically amplified resist (PT-CAR), has been evaluated on organic under-layer coated wafers. Lithography performance, such as critical dimensions (CD), line width roughness (LWR) and focus energy matrix (FEM) is also assessed.

  16. Immediate versus delayed initiation of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system following medical termination of pregnancy - 1 year continuation rates: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Korjamo, R; Mentula, M; Heikinheimo, O

    2017-06-26

    To assess the 1-year continuation rates and new pregnancies following immediate versus delayed insertion of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) after medical termination of pregnancy (MTOP) up to 20 weeks of gestation. A randomised controlled trial. Helsinki University Hospital, Finland, January 2013 to December 2014. A total of 267 women requesting MTOP and planning LNG-IUS for post-MTOP contraception. Insertion of LNG-IUS occurred immediately (0-3 days) or after a delay (2-4 weeks) following MTOP. Follow-up visits were at 3 months and 1 year after MTOP. LNG-IUS use at 1 year after MTOP. Women were randomised to immediate (n = 134) or delayed (n = 133) insertion of the LNG-IUS, and 133 and 131 were analysed; 127 (95.5%) women received immediate insertion and 111 (84.7%) women had delayed insertion of the LNG-IUS (risk ratio [RR] 1.13, 95% CI 1.04-1.22). The verified numbers of women continuing the LNG-IUS use at 1 year were 83 (62.4%) and 52 (39.7%) (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.23-2.02). The numbers of new pregnancies were 6 (4.5%) and 16 (12.2%) (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.15-0.91), and numbers of subsequent TOPs were 4 (3.0%) and 5 (3.8%) (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.22-2.87). Immediate insertion of the LNG-IUS following MTOP resulted in higher 1-year continuation rates compared with delayed insertion. In addition, those receiving immediate insertion demonstrated a decreased new pregnancy rate, but no difference in the numbers of another TOP. Immediate LNG-IUS insertion after MTOP results in a higher 1-year continuation compared with delayed insertion. © 2017 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. A versatile telemetry system for continuous measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in free-ranging ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Signer, Claudio; Ruf, Thomas; Schober, Franz; Fluch, Gerhard; Paumann, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Summary 1. Measuring physiological and behavioural parameters in free-ranging animals – and therefore under fully natural conditions – is of general biological concern but difficult to perform. 2. We have developed a minimally invasive telemetry system for ruminants that is capable of measuring heart rate (HR), body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity (LA). A ruminal transmitter unit was per os placed into the reticulum and therefore located in close proximity to the heart. The unit detected HR by the use of an acceleration sensor and also measured Tb. HR and Tb signals were transmitted via short-distance UHF link to a repeater system located in a collar unit. The collar unit decoded and processed signals received from the ruminal unit, measured LA with two different activity sensors and transmitted pulse interval-modulated VHF signals over distances of up to 10 km. 3. HR data measured with the new device contained noise caused by reticulum contractions and animal movements that triggered the acceleration sensor in the ruminal unit. We have developed a software filter to remove this noise. Hence, the system was only capable of measuring HR in animals that showed little or no activity and in the absence of rumen contractions. Reliability of this ‘stationary HR’ measurement was confirmed with a second independent measurement of HR detected by an electrocardiogram in a domestic sheep (Ovis aries). 4. In addition, we developed an algorithm to correctly classify an animal as ‘active’ or ‘at rest’ during each 3-min interval from the output of the activity sensors. Comparison with direct behavioural observations on free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) showed that 87% of intervals were classified correctly. 5. First results from applications of this new technique in free-ranging Alpine ibex underlined its suitability for reliable and long-term monitoring of physiological and behavioural parameters in ruminants under harsh field conditions. With the

  18. EFFECTS OF ADDITION RATE AND ACID MATRIX ON THE DESTRUCTION OF AMMONIUM BY THE SEMI-CONTINUOUS ADDITION OF SODIUM NITRITE DURING EVAPORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kyser, E

    2007-08-27

    The destruction of ammonium by the semi-continuous addition of sodium nitrite during acidic evaporation can be achieved with a wide range of waste compositions. The efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction was observed to vary from less than 20% to 60% depending on operating conditions. The effects of nitric acid concentration and nitrite addition rate are dominant factors that affect the efficiency of nitrite utilization for ammonium destruction. Reducing the acid concentration by performing acid recovery via steam stripping prior to performing nitrite destruction of ammonium will require more nitrite due to the low destruction efficiency. The scale-up of the baseline rate nitrite addition rate from the 100 mL to the 1600 gallon batch size has significant uncertainty and poses the risk of lower efficiency at the plant scale. Experience with plant scale processing will improve confidence in the application of nitrite destruction of ammonium to different waste streams.

  19. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on post-exercise heart rate recovery in coronary heart-disease patients.

    PubMed

    Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Senen, Alejandro Berenguel; Jiménez, Verónica Hernández; Garrido-Lestache, María Elvira Barrios; Chicharro, Jose López

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) has been considered a prognostic and mortality indicator in both healthy and coronary patients. Physical exercise prescription has shown improvements in VO2peak and HRR, but most of the studies have been carried out applying continuous training at a moderate intensity, being very limited the use of protocols of high intensity interval training in coronary patients. We aimed to compare the effects of a moderate continuous training (MCT) versus a high intensity interval training (HIIT) programme on VO2peak and HRR. Seventy three coronary patients were assigned to either HIIT or MCT groups for 8weeks. Incremental exercise tests in a cycloergometer were performed to obtain VO2peak data and heart rate was monitored during and after the exercise test to obtain heart rate recovery data. Both exercise programmes significantly increase VO2peak with a higher increase in the HIIT group (HIIT: 4.5±4.46ml/kg/min vs MCT: 2.46±3.57ml/kg/min; p=0.039). High intensity interval training resulted in a significantly increase in HRR at the first and second minute of the recovery phase (15,44±7,04 vs 21,22±6,62, p<0,0001 and 23,73±9,64 vs 31,52±8,02, p<0,0001, respectively). The results of our research show that the application of HIIT to patients with chronic ischemic heart disease of low risk resulted in an improvement in VO2peak, and also improvements in post-exercise heart-rate recovery, compared with continuous training. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Dynamics of a green oak moth population: application of discrete-continuous models with a nonmonotone density-dependent birth rate].

    PubMed

    Nedorezov, L V; Sadykov, A M; Sadykova, D L

    2010-01-01

    Considered is a mathematical model for dynamics of an isolated population with non-overlapping generations. The individuals' birth process (emergence of new-generation individuals) is assumed to have a discrete nature (there exist some fixed time moments at which the new generations emerge), while the death process is assumed to be continuous. In addition, the birth rate is assumed to be a function of the number of individuals survived till the moment of reproduction, the function being non-monotone: there exists an optimal value of the population size at which the birth rate reaches its maximum (Alley principle). Analysis of the discrete-continuous models has revealed that each of the new models has a rich set of dynamical regimes. New models are compared with a number of well-known discrete ones (like Skellam, Moran-Ricker, Hassell, Maynard Smith-Slatkin models, and others) when approximating an empirical time series on fluctuations of a green oak moth population (Korzukhin, Semevsky, 1992). Neither of the models can provide for a satisfactory description of the green oak moth dynamics. It is also shown that usage of the discrete-continuous models for approximation of real datasets enables one to find several important population parameters, which can hardly (or cannot) be found by means of traditional discrete models.

  1. The application of an innovative continuous multiple tube reactor as a strategy to control the specific organic loading rate for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Simone D; Fuess, Lucas T; Penteado, Eduardo D; Lucas, Shaiane D M; Gotardo, Jackeline T; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors often leads to unstable and decreasing patterns because the excessive accumulation of biomass in the bed negatively affects the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) applied to the reactor. In this context, an innovative reactor configuration, i.e., the continuous multiple tube reactor (CMTR), was assessed in an attempt to better control the SOLR for biohydrogen production. The CMTR provides a continuous discharge of biomass, preventing the accumulation of solids in the long-term. Sucrose was used as the carbon source and mesophilic temperature conditions (25°C) were applied in three continuous assays. The reactor showed better performance when support material was placed in the outlet chamber to enhance biomass retention within the reactor. Although the SOLR could not be effectively controlled, reaching values usually higher than 10gsucroseg(-1)VSSd(-1), the volumetric hydrogen production and molar hydrogen production rates peaked, respectively, at 1470mLH2L(-1)d(-1) and 45mmolH2d(-1), indicating that the CMTR was a suitable configuration for biohydrogen production.

  2. DIAZOTROPHIC GROWTH OF THE MARINE CYANOBACTERIUM TRICHODESMIUM IMS101 IN CONTINUOUS CULTURE: EFFECTS OF GROWTH RATE ON N2 -FIXATION RATE, BIOMASS, AND C:N:P STOICHIOMETRY(1).

    PubMed

    Holl, Carolyn M; Montoya, Joseph P

    2008-08-01

    Trichodesmium N2 fixation has been studied for decades in situ and, recently, in controlled laboratory conditions; yet N2 -fixation rate estimates still vary widely. This variance has made it difficult to accurately estimate the input of new nitrogen (N) by Trichodesmium to the oligotrophic gyres of the world ocean. Field and culture studies demonstrate that trace metal limitation, phosphate availability, the preferential uptake of combined N, light intensity, and temperature may all affect N2 fixation, but the interactions between growth rate and N2 fixation have not been well characterized in this marine diazotroph. To determine the effects of growth rate on N2 fixation, we established phosphorus (P)-limited continuous cultures of Trichodesmium, which we maintained at nine steady-state growth rates ranging from 0.27 to 0.67 d(-1) . As growth rate increased, biomass (measured as particulate N) decreased, and N2 -fixation rate increased linearly. The carbon to nitrogen ratio (C:N) varied from 5.5 to 6.2, with a mean of 5.8 ± 0.2 (mean ± SD, N = 9), and decreased significantly with growth rate. The N:P ratio varied from 23.4 to 45.9, with a mean of 30.5 ± 6.6 (mean ± SD, N = 9), and remained relatively constant over the range of growth rates studied. Relative constancy of C:N:P ratios suggests a tight coupling between the uptake of these three macronutrients and steady-state growth across the range of growth rates. Our work demonstrates that growth rate must be considered when planning studies of the effects of environmental factors on N2 fixation and when modeling the impact of Trichodesmium as a source of new N to oligotrophic regions of the ocean.

  3. Continuous cultivation of bakers' yeast: change in cell composition at different dilution rates and effect of heat stress on trehalose level.

    PubMed

    Ertugay, N; Hamamci, H

    1997-01-01

    The cell composition of bakers' yeast in a continuous culture was determined for different dilution rates. Also, the cellular response to heat stress in terms of trehalose, RNA, glycogen and protein was determined at a specified dilution rate of 0.1/h. The amount of storage saccharides, trehalose and glycogen, was found to decrease whereas the amount of RNA and protein increased with increasing dilution rates. As the dilution rate was increased from 0.1 to 0.4/h at 0.05 intervals the steady-state trehalose content decreased from 33 to 8.6 mg/g biomass, and glycogen content from 150 to 93 mg/g biomass. On the other hand, the protein content increased from 420 to 530 mg/g biomass and the RNA content from 93 to 113 mg/g biomass. Heat stress was applied by increasing the medium temperature from 30 to 36, 38 or 40 degrees C at constant dilution rates. The highest amount of trehalose accumulation, 108 mg/g biomass, was achieved when heat stress at 38 degrees C was applied. The protein content, on the other hand, decreased from 350 to 325 mg/g biomass at the end of the experiment.

  4. Investigating MALDI MSI parameters (Part 1) - A systematic survey of the effects of repetition rates up to 20kHz in continuous raster mode.

    PubMed

    Steven, Rory T; Dexter, Alex; Bunch, Josephine

    2016-07-15

    Recent developments in laser performance, combined with the desire for increases in detected ion intensity and throughput, have led to the adoption of high repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) lasers in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI). Previous studies have demonstrated a more complex relationship between detected ion intensity, stage raster speed and laser pulse repetition rate than the simple linear relationship between number of pulses and detected ion intensity that might be expected. Here we report, for the first time, the interrelated influence of varying laser energy, repetition rate and stage raster speed on detected ion intensity. Thin films of PC 34:1 lipid standard and murine brain tissue with CHCA are analysed by continuous stage raster MALDI MSI. Contrary to previous reports, the optimum laser repetition rate is found to be dependent on both laser energy and stage raster speed and is found to be as high as 20kHz under some conditions. The effects of different repetition rates and raster speeds are also found to vary for different ion species within MALDI MSI of tissue and so may be significant when either targeting specific molecules or seeking to minimize bias. A clear dependence on time between laser pulses is also observed indicating the underlying mechanisms may be related to on-plate hysteresis-exhibiting processes such as matrix chemical modification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Body position and activity, but not heart rate, affect pump flows in patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices.

    PubMed

    Muthiah, Kavitha; Gupta, Sunil; Otton, James; Robson, Desiree; Walker, Robyn; Tay, Andre; Macdonald, Peter; Keogh, Anne; Kotlyar, Eugene; Granger, Emily; Dhital, Kumud; Spratt, Phillip; Jansz, Paul; Hayward, Christopher S

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of pre-load and heart rate to pump flow in patients implanted with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cfLVADs). Although it is known that cfLVAD pump flow increases with exercise, it is unclear if this increment is driven by increased heart rate, augmented intrinsic ventricular contraction, or enhanced venous return. Two studies were performed in patients implanted with the HeartWare HVAD. In 11 patients, paced heart rate was increased to approximately 40 beats/min above baseline and then down to approximately 30 beats/min below baseline pacing rate (in pacemaker-dependent patients). Ten patients underwent tilt-table testing at 30°, 60°, and 80° passive head-up tilt for 3 min and then for a further 3 min after ankle flexion exercise. This regimen was repeated at 20° passive head-down tilt. Pump parameters, noninvasive hemodynamics, and 2-dimensional echocardiographic measures were recorded. Heart rate alteration by pacing did not affect LVAD flows or LV dimensions. LVAD pump flow decreased from baseline 4.9 ± 0.6 l/min to approximately 4.5 ± 0.5 l/min at each level of head-up tilt (p < 0.0001 analysis of variance). With active ankle flexion, LVAD flow returned to baseline. There was no significant change in flow with a 20° head-down tilt with or without ankle flexion exercise. There were no suction events. Centrifugal cfLVAD flows are not significantly affected by changes in heart rate, but they change significantly with body position and passive filling. Previously demonstrated exercise-induced changes in pump flows may be related to altered loading conditions, rather than changes in heart rate. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Convergent validity of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA+Plus): associations with working memory, processing speed, and behavioral ratings.

    PubMed

    Arble, Eamonn; Kuentzel, Jeffrey; Barnett, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Though the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA + Plus) is commonly used by researchers and clinicians, few investigations have assessed its convergent and discriminant validity, especially with regard to its use with children. The present study details correlates of the IVA + Plus using measures of cognitive ability and ratings of child behavior (parent and teacher), drawing upon a sample of 90 psychoeducational evaluations. Scores from the IVA + Plus correlated significantly with the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes from the Fourth Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), though fewer and weaker significant correlations were seen with behavior ratings scales, and significant associations also occurred with WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning. The overall pattern of relations is supportive of the validity of the IVA + Plus; however, general cognitive ability was associated with better performance on most of the primary scores of the IVA + Plus, suggesting that interpretation should take intelligence into account.

  7. Orogen-scale along-strike continuity in quartz recrystallization microstructures adjacent to the Main Central Thrust: implications for deformation temperatures, strain rates and flow stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Traced for ~ 1500 km along the foreland edge of the Himalaya from NW India to Bhutan published reports indicate a remarkable along-strike continuity of quartz recrystallization microstructures in the footwall and hanging wall to the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Recrystallization in Lesser Himalayan Series (LHS) rocks in the footwall to the MCT is dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) microstructures, while recrystallization in Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) rocks in the hanging wall is dominated by grain boundary migration microstructures that traced structurally upwards transition in to the anatectic core of the GHS. In foreland-positioned high-strain rocks adjacent to the MCT recrystallization is dominated by subgrain rotation (SGR) with transitional BLG-SGR and SGR-GBM microstructures being recorded at structural distances of up to a few hundred meters below and above the MCT, respectively. Correlation with available information on temperatures of metamorphism indicated by mineral phase equilibria and RSCM data suggests that recrystallization in the structural zones dominated by BLG, SGR and GBM occurred at temperatures of ~ 350-450, 450-550 and 550- > 650 °C, respectively. It should be kept in mind, however, that these temperatures are likely to be 'close-to-peak' temperatures of metamorphism, whereas penetrative shearing and recrystallization may have continued during cooling. The dominance of SGR along the more foreland-positioned exposures of the MCT intuitively suggests that shearing occurred under a relatively restricted range of deformation temperatures and strain rates. Plotting the 'close-to-peak' 450-500 °C temperatures of metamorphism indicated for SGR-dominated rocks located at up to a few hundred meters below/above the MCT on the quartz recrystallization map developed by Stipp et al. (2002) indicates 'ball-park' strain rates of ~ 10-13 to 10-10 sec-1. However, only strain rates slower than 10-12 sec-1 on the MCT are likely to be compatible with

  8. Flotation rate and residence time distribution in continuous coal froth flotation circuits and an evaluation of reagents and circuit variations for pyritic sulfur removal

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of research conducted on several aspects of coal froth flotation. The effect of operating variables on the residence time distribution in coal froth flotation cells is discussed, and a model of the residence time distribution is presented for use with flotation rate models in scaling up from laboratory to plant scale. Flotation rate models are also investigated in detail for continuous coal froth flotation circuits. Changes in operating variables were found to affect the mean residence time in cells, but they did not have much effect on the mixing behavior. The use of a time lag was found to be an important part of rate models for continuous froth flotation cells. An important aspect of the use of such rate and residence time equations is their application to the flotation of gangue constituents, which often enter the froth by water carry-over in addition to natural flotation or flotation as slime coatings. As such, water carry-over is also investigated in this thesis for the laboratory and the plant and for both ash-forming minerals and pyrite. Maintaining a constant froth factor, the percentage of froth above the weir, in both laboratory and plant tests is believed to be a critical factor in predicting plant results using a kinetic factor ratio documented in the literature. Removing the pyrite and ash-forming minerals from coal that may be recovered by the water carry-over or other mechanisms is an important goal in coal froth flotation. This thesis also contains the results of tests with pyrite depressants and circuit variations for removal of pyritic sulfur.

  9. Observing continuous change in heart rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters during the process of pain production/relief with thermal stimuli.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing-Jhao; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Lin, Jing-Siang; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Continuously monitoring and efficiently managing pain has become an important issue. However, no study has investigated a change in physiological parameters during the process of pain production/relief. This study modeled the process of pain production/relief using ramped thermal stimulation (no pain: 37°C water, process of pain production: a heating rate of 1°C/min, and subject feels pain: water kept at the painful temperature for each subject, with each segment lasting 10 min). In this duration, the variation of the heat rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters was observed. A total of 40 healthy individuals participated: 30 in the trial group (14 males and 16 females with a mean age of 22.5±1.9 years) and 10 in the control group (7 males and 3 females with a mean age of 22.5±1.3 years). The results showed that the numeric rating scale value was 5.03±1.99 when the subjects felt pain, with a temperature of 43.54±1.70°C. Heart rate, R-R interval, low frequency, high frequency, photoplethysmography amplitude, baseline, and autonomic nervous system state showed significant changes during the pain production process, but these changes differed during the period Segment D (painful temperature 10: min). In summary, the study observed that physiological parameters changed qualitatively during the process of pain production and relief and found that the high frequency, low frequency, and photoplethysmography parameters seemed to have different responses in four situations (no pain, pain production, pain experienced, and pain relief). The trends of these variations may be used as references in the clinical setting for continuously observing pain intensity.

  10. Observing continuous change in heart rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters during the process of pain production/relief with thermal stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jing-Jhao; Lee, Kuan-Ting; Lin, Jing-Siang; Chuang, Chiung-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Continuously monitoring and efficiently managing pain has become an important issue. However, no study has investigated a change in physiological parameters during the process of pain production/relief. This study modeled the process of pain production/relief using ramped thermal stimulation (no pain: 37°C water, process of pain production: a heating rate of 1°C/min, and subject feels pain: water kept at the painful temperature for each subject, with each segment lasting 10 min). In this duration, the variation of the heat rate variability and photoplethysmography-derived parameters was observed. A total of 40 healthy individuals participated: 30 in the trial group (14 males and 16 females with a mean age of 22.5±1.9 years) and 10 in the control group (7 males and 3 females with a mean age of 22.5±1.3 years). The results showed that the numeric rating scale value was 5.03±1.99 when the subjects felt pain, with a temperature of 43.54±1.70°C. Heart rate, R-R interval, low frequency, high frequency, photoplethysmography amplitude, baseline, and autonomic nervous system state showed significant changes during the pain production process, but these changes differed during the period Segment D (painful temperature 10: min). In summary, the study observed that physiological parameters changed qualitatively during the process of pain production and relief and found that the high frequency, low frequency, and photoplethysmography parameters seemed to have different responses in four situations (no pain, pain production, pain experienced, and pain relief). The trends of these variations may be used as references in the clinical setting for continuously observing pain intensity. PMID:28331355

  11. Preoperative Proteinuria and Reduced Glomerular Filtration Rate Predicts Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients Supported With Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

    PubMed

    Topkara, Veli K; Coromilas, Ellie J; Garan, Arthur Reshad; Li, Randall C; Castagna, Francesco; Jennings, Douglas L; Yuzefpolskaya, Melana; Takeda, Koji; Takayama, Hiroo; Sladen, Robert N; Mancini, Donna M; Naka, Yoshifumi; Radhakrishnan, Jai; Colombo, Paolo C

    2016-12-01

    Renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) has detrimental effects on quality of life and survival of patients with continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). Current guidelines do not offer a decision-making algorithm for CF-LVAD candidates with poor baseline renal function. Objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with RRT after CF-LVAD implantation. Three hundred and eighty-nine consecutive patients underwent contemporary CF-LVAD implantation at the Columbia University Medical Center between January 2004 and August 2015. Baseline demographics, comorbid conditions, clinical risk scores, and renal function were analyzed in patients with or without RRT after CF-LVAD implantation. Time-dependent receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to define optimal cutoffs for continuous risk factors. Forty-four patients (11.6%) required RRT during a median follow-up of 9.9 months. Patients requiring RRT had significantly worse renal function, lower hemoglobin, and increased proteinuria at baseline. Low estimated glomerular filtration rate (<40 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and proteinuria (urine protein to creatinine ratio ≥0.55 mg/mg) were significant predictors of RRT after CF-LVAD support. Dipstick proteinuria was also a significant predictor of RRT after CF-LVAD implantation. Patients with both low estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria had highest risk of RRT (63.6%) compared with those with either low estimated glomerular filtration rate or proteinuria (18.7%) and those with neither of these risk factors (2.7%) at 1-year follow-up (log-rank P<0.001). Estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria are predictors RRT after CF-LVAD implantation and should be routinely assessed in CF-LVAD candidates to guide decision making. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Toward continuous quantification of lava extrusion rate: Results from the multidisciplinary analysis of the 2 January 2010 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, Clement; Mangeney, Anne; Polacci, Margherita; Di Muro, Andrea; Vergniolle, Sylvie; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Peltier, Aline; Taisne, Benoit; Burton, Mike; Dewez, Thomas; Grandjean, Gilles; Dupont, Aurélien; Staudacher, Thomas; Brenguier, Florent; Kowalski, Philippe; Boissier, Patrice; Catherine, Philippe; Lauret, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the 2-12 January 2010 effusive eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano were examined through seismic and infrasound records, time-lapse photography, SO2 flux measurements, deformation data, and direct observations. Digital elevation models were constructed for four periods of the eruption, thus providing an assessment of the temporal evolution of the morphology, the volume and the extrusion rate of the lava flow. These data were compared to the continuous recording of the seismic and infrasonic waves, and a linear relationship was found between the seismic energy of the tremor and the lava extrusion rate. This relationship is supported by data from three other summit eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and gives total volume and average lava extrusion rate in good agreement with previous studies. We can therefore provide an estimate of the lava extrusion rate for the January 2010 eruption with a very high temporal resolution. We found an average lava extrusion rate of 2.4 m3.s-1 with a peak of 106.6 m3.s-1 during the initial lava fountaining phase. We use the inferred average lava extrusion rate during the lava fountaining phase (30.23 m3.s-1) to estimate the value of the initial overpressure in the magma reservoir, which we found to range from 3.7×106 Pa to 5.9×106 Pa. Finally, based on the estimated initial overpressure, the volume of magma expelled during the lava fountaining phase and geodetic data, we inferred the volume of the magma reservoir using a simple Mogi model, between 0.25 km3 and 0.54 km3, which is in good agreement with previous studies. The multidisciplinary analysis presented in our study sheds light on crucial qualitative and quantitative relations between eruption dynamics, seismic and infrasonic signals, and especially on the direct link between the lava extrusion rate and the seismic energy of the volcanic tremor. If this relationship is confirmed for other eruptions, generalization of its use will lead to a better

  13. Experiments on the effects of a continuous 16.7 Hz magnetic field on melatonin secretion, core body temperature, and heart rates in humans.

    PubMed

    Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Blaszkewicz, M; Golka, K; Mehnert, P; Degen, G

    2001-12-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that a strong extremely low frequency magnetic field partially suppresses the synthesis of melatonin and subsequently elevates the core body temperature. Seven healthy young men (16-22 years) took part in a control and in an exposure session. Three men experienced first the control and then the exposure session, four men experienced the sessions in reverse order. Control sessions were performed as constant routines, where the participants spent 24 hour periods continuously in bed while air temperature was 18 degrees C, illumination less than 30 lux, and the sound pressure level 50 dBA. The exposure sessions differed from that protocol only between 6 pm and 2 am when a strong extremely low frequency magnetic field was continuously applied (16.7 Hz, 0.2 mT). Assuming that the participants were unable to perceive the field consciously, they were blind against the actual condition. Salivary melatonin levels were determined hourly; body core temperatures and heart rates were registered continuously throughout. Neither of these parameters revealed alterations that can be related to the influence of the magnetic field. The present results, taken together with other investigations using that particular field, lead to the hypothesis that the effects most likely, occur, only after repetitive exposures to intermittent fields.

  14. Effects of organic loading rates on the continuous electricity generation from fermented wastewater using a single-chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joo-Youn; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Kyeong-Ho; Shin, Hang-Sik

    2010-01-01

    Novel coupling of single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with granular activated carbon anodes were constructed, and their ability to produce electricity from fermented wastewater operating in continuous mode was investigated. MFCs treating real fermented wastewater can generate a power density of approximately 1884 mW/m(3), which is equivalent to approximately 51.5% of that obtained from the MFCs (3664 mW/m(3)) using acetate at the same organic loading rate (OLR) of 1.92 g/Ld. As the OLR was increased in a stepwise fashion, power density increased to 2981 mW/m(3) at an OLR of 3.84 g/Ld. The corresponding energy production was 268 kJ/m(3)d. The decrease in the power density was mainly due to the higher internal resistance resulted from complex substrate. Based on the electrode characteristics, it was verified that colloidal particulates and complex organics in the real fermented wastewater not only lowered power density but also played a role as rate-limiting factors in the continuous generation of electricity.

  15. Application of x-ray sensors for in-line and non-invasive monitoring of mass flow rate in continuous tablet manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Ganesh, Sudarshan; Troscinski, Rachel; Schmall, Nicholas; Lim, Jongmook; Nagy, Zoltan; Reklaitis, Gintaras

    2017-08-31

    The progress in continuous downstream manufacturing of oral solid doses demands effective real-time process management, with monitoring at its core. This study evaluates the feasibility of using a commercial sensor to measure the mass flow rate of the particulates, a critical process variable in continuous manufacturing. The sensor independently measures x-ray attenuation and cross-correlation velocimetry of particulate flow in real-time. Steady-state flow rates of blends comprised primarily of acetaminophen and microcrystalline-cellulose are monitored using the sensor, with simultaneous weighing scale measurements, in order to calibrate the sensor and investigate the measurement accuracy. The free-fall flow measurement of the powder and granule blends in a conduit is linearly proportional to the x-ray attenuation. Relative standard deviations (RSD) of ∼3-7% for 1 second monitoring are observed and a measurement error of approximately 5% suggest the usability of the sensor for real-time monitoring. The sensor measurement is robust for operational variations in composition, addition of lubricant or glidant and reuse of material for PAT tool calibration. The measurement RSD depends on particulate flow dynamics at the sensor location. This requires experimental evaluation for a given material at the sensor location, in order to capture the flow dynamics of the particulate stream through the sensor. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Estimated Creatinine Clearance Rate Is Associated With the Treatment Effectiveness and Toxicity of Pemetrexed As Continuation Maintenance Therapy for Advanced Nonsquamous Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chung-Yu; Lin, Jou-Wei; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Shih, Jin-Yuan; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive factors of the effectiveness and treatment toxicity for pemetrexed as continuation maintenance therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer. Patients with an estimated creatinine clearance rate (Ccr) < 60 mL/min had a significantly longer survival. However, a decrease in estimated Ccr was associated with a increased risk of Grade 3/4 neutropenia and anemia. The purpose of this study was to explore the predictive factors of the effectiveness and treatment toxicity for pemetrexed as continuation maintenance therapy in patients with advanced nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with advanced nonsquamous NSCLC treated with pemetrexed as continuation maintenance therapy were enrolled. The medical records were reviewed and analyzed, including data on basic characteristics, estimated creatinine clearance rate (Ccr), treatment responses, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and treatment-related toxicities. A total of 124 patients were included and all had adenocarcinoma. Patients with an estimated Ccr < 60 mL/min had a significantly longer PFS and OS (P = .045, and P = .006, respectively). Each 10 mL/min increase in estimated Ccr was associated with an increase of 9.8% in the risk of disease progression, and an increase of 9.2% in the risk of death. In contrast, an increase of 10 mL/min in estimated Ccr was associated with a decreased risk of Grade 3/4 neutropenia by 50.9% and anemia by 42.2%. Estimated Ccr is helpful in predicting the effectiveness and treatment toxicities of pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pathology of Serially Sacrificed Female B6C3F1 Mice Continuously Exposed to Very Low-Dose-Rate Gamma Rays.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, I B; Komura, J; Tanaka, S

    2017-03-01

    We have previously reported on life span shortening as well as increased incidence rates in several neoplasms in B6C3F1 mice that were continuously exposed to 21 mGy/day of gamma rays for 400 days. To clarify whether the life shortening was due to early appearance of neoplasms (shortened latency) or increased promotion/progression, 8-week-old female specific-pathogen-free B6C3F1 mice were gamma-ray irradiated at a low dose rate of 20 mGy/day for 400 days. At 100 days postirradiation, 60-90 mice were sacrificed, and thereafter every 100 days alongside the age-matched nonirradiated controls, for 700 days. Additional groups were allowed to live out their natural life span. Pathological examination was performed on all mice to identify lesions, non-neoplastic and neoplastic, as well as to determine the cause of death. Body weights were significantly increased in irradiated mice from sacrifice days 200-500. Incidence rates for spontaneously occurring non-neoplastic lesions, such as adrenal subcapsular cell hyperplasia, fatty degeneration of the liver, atrophy and tubulostromal hyperplasia of the ovaries, were significantly increased in irradiated mice. Significantly increased incidence rates with no shortening of latency periods were observed in irradiated mice for malignant lymphomas, hepatocellular adenomas/carcinomas, bronchioloalveolar adenomas, harderian gland adenoma/adenocarcinoma. Shortened latencies with significantly increased incidence rates were observed for adrenal subcapsular cell adenomas and ovarian neoplasms (tubulostromal adenoma, granulosa cell tumors) in irradiated mice. Life span shortening in mice exposed to 20 mGy/day was mostly due to malignant lymphomas. Multiple primary neoplasms were significantly increased in mice exposed to 20 mGy/day from sacrifice days 400-700 and in the life span group. Our results confirm that continuous low-dose-rate gamma-ray irradiation of female B6C3F1 mice causes both cancer induction (shortened latency) and

  18. Prediction of arterial blood gas values from venous blood gas values in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus) anesthetized with intramuscular medetomidine and zolazepam-tiletamine.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Dong-Hyuk; Yang, Jeong-Jin; Lee, Lyon; Yeon, Seong-Chan

    2017-09-10

    The objective of this study was to measure differences between arterial and venous blood gas parameters and to evaluate whether arterial blood gas values can be estimated from venous blood in Asiatic black bears (ABBs). Twelve healthy captive ABBs (8 males and 4 females; 8-16 years; 76.8-220 kg) were included in this study. The bears were immobilized with medetomidine and zolazepam-tiletamine using a dart gun. Arterial and venous samples were collected simultaneously at 5 and 35 min after recumbency (5- and 35-min points). Partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), pH, bicarbonate (HCO3(-)), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), oxygen saturation of hemoglobin (SO2) and base excess (BEecf) were analyzed using a portable blood gas analyzer. There was no marked difference in measured and calculated variables over time in both venous and arterial blood except for PO2. However, arterial PO2, SO2 and pH were significantly higher and arterial PCO2, TCO2 and HCO3(-) were lower than those of venous samples at both 5- and 35-min points. In the regression analysis to estimate arterial values from venous values, PCO2, TCO2, HCO3(-), BEecf and pH significantly showed over 0.45 in coefficient of determination value (R(2)), and there were little differences between actual and predicted arterial values. Although there were limits in venous gas values replaced those of arterial blood, if we could not get the arterial samples, the regression formulas for arterial values from venous blood in this study would be useful clinically, except for PO2 and SO2.

  19. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses.

  20. Improving the power of clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis by using data on continuous scales when analysing response rates: an application of the augmented binary method

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In clinical trials of RA, it is common to assess effectiveness using end points based upon dichotomized continuous measures of disease activity, which classify patients as responders or non-responders. Although dichotomization generally loses statistical power, there are good clinical reasons to use these end points; for example, to allow for patients receiving rescue therapy to be assigned as non-responders. We adopt a statistical technique called the augmented binary method to make better use of the information provided by these continuous measures and account for how close patients were to being responders. Methods. We adapted the augmented binary method for use in RA clinical trials. We used a previously published randomized controlled trial (Oral SyK Inhibition in Rheumatoid Arthritis-1) to assess its performance in comparison to a standard method treating patients purely as responders or non-responders. The power and error rate were investigated by sampling from this study. Results. The augmented binary method reached similar conclusions to standard analysis methods but was able to estimate the difference in response rates to a higher degree of precision. Results suggested that CI widths for ACR responder end points could be reduced by at least 15%, which could equate to reducing the sample size of a study by 29% to achieve the same statistical power. For other end points, the gain was even higher. Type I error rates were not inflated. Conclusion. The augmented binary method shows considerable promise for RA trials, making more efficient use of patient data whilst still reporting outcomes in terms of recognized response end points. PMID:27338084

  1. Improving the power of clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis by using data on continuous scales when analysing response rates: an application of the augmented binary method.

    PubMed

    Wason, James M S; Jenkins, Martin

    2016-10-01

    In clinical trials of RA, it is common to assess effectiveness using end points based upon dichotomized continuous measures of disease activity, which classify patients as responders or non-responders. Although dichotomization generally loses statistical power, there are good clinical reasons to use these end points; for example, to allow for patients receiving rescue therapy to be assigned as non-responders. We adopt a statistical technique called the augmented binary method to make better use of the information provided by these continuous measures and account for how close patients were to being responders. We adapted the augmented binary method for use in RA clinical trials. We used a previously published randomized controlled trial (Oral SyK Inhibition in Rheumatoid Arthritis-1) to assess its performance in comparison to a standard method treating patients purely as responders or non-responders. The power and error rate were investigated by sampling from this study. The augmented binary method reached similar conclusions to standard analysis methods but was able to estimate the difference in response rates to a higher degree of precision. Results suggested that CI widths for ACR responder end points could be reduced by at least 15%, which could equate to reducing the sample size of a study by 29% to achieve the same statistical power. For other end points, the gain was even higher. Type I error rates were not inflated. The augmented binary method shows considerable promise for RA trials, making more efficient use of patient data whilst still reporting outcomes in terms of recognized response end points. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology.

  2. Effects of dilution rate and pH on the ruminal cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 in cellulose-fed continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Weimer, P J

    1993-01-01

    The ruminal cellulolytic bacterium Fibrobacter succinogenes S85 was grown in cellulose-fed continuous culture at 22 different combinations of dilution rate (D, 0.014-0.076 h-1) and extracellular pH (6.11-6.84). Effects of pH and D on the fermentation were determined by subjecting data on cellulose consumption, cell yield, product yield (succinate, acetate, formate), and soluble sugar concentration to response surface analysis. The extent of cellulose conversion decreased with increasing D. First-order rate constants at rapid growth rates were estimated as 0.07-0.11 h-1, and decreased with decreasing pH. Apparent decreases in the rate constant with increasing D was not due to inadequate mixing or preferential utilization of the more amorphous regions of the cellulose. Significant quantities of soluble sugars (0.04-0.18 g/l, primarily glucose) were detected in all cultures, suggesting that glucose uptake was rather inefficient. Cell yields (0.11-0.24 g cells/g cellulose consumed) increased with increasing D. Pirt plots of the predicted yield data were used to determine that maintenance coefficient (0.04-0.06 g cellulose/g cells.h) and true growth yield (0.23-0.25 g cells/g cellulose consumed) varied slightly with pH. Yields of succinate, the major fermentation endproduct, were as high as 1.15 mol/mol anhydroglucose fermented, and were slightly affected by dilution rate but were not affected by pH. Comparison of the fermentation data with that of other ruminal cellulolytic bacteria indicates that F. succinogenes S85 is capable of rapid hydrolysis of crystalline cellulose and efficient growth, despite a lower mu max on microcrystalline cellulose.

  3. Continuous Theta Burst Stimulation Over the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex and the Pre-SMA Alter Drift Rate and Response Thresholds Respectively During Perceptual Decision-Making.

    PubMed

    Georgiev, Dejan; Rocchi, Lorenzo; Tocco, Pierluigi; Speekenbrink, Maarten; Rothwell, John C; Jahanshahi, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    The speed-accuracy trade-off (SAT) refers to the balancing of speed versus accuracy during decision-making. SAT is very commonly investigated with perceptual decision-making tasks such as the moving dots task (MDT). The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) are two brain regions considered to be involved in the control of SAT. The study tested whether the DLPFC and the pre-SMA play an essential role in the control of SAT. We hypothesized that continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over the right DLPFC would primarily alter the rate of accumulation of evidence, whereas stimulation of the pre-SMA would influence the threshold for reaching a decision. Fifteen (5 females; mean age = 30, SD =5.40) healthy volunteers participated in the study. We used two versions of the MDT and cTBS over the right DLPFC, pre-SMA and sham stimulation. The drift diffusion model was fit to the behavioural data (reaction time and error rate) in order to calculate the drift rate, boundary separation (threshold) and non-decision time. cTBS over the right DLPFC decreased the rate of accumulation of evidence (i.e. the drift rate from the diffusion model) in high (0.35 and 0.5) but not in low coherence trials. cTBS over the pre-SMA changed the boundary separation/threshold required to reach a decision on accuracy, but not on speed trials. The results suggest for the first time that both the DLPFC and the pre-SMA make essential but distinct contributions to the modulation of SAT. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The effects of interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and substrate oxidation rates in subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Karstoft, Kristian; Wallis, Gareth A; Pedersen, Bente K; Solomon, Thomas P J

    2016-09-01

    For unknown reasons, interval training often reduces body weight more than energy-expenditure matched continuous training. We compared the acute effects of time-duration and oxygen-consumption matched interval- vs. continuous exercise on excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC), substrate oxidation rates and lipid metabolism in the hours following exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Following an overnight fast, ten T2D subjects (M/F: 7/3; age=60.3±2.3years; body mass index (BMI)=28.3±1.1kg/m(2)) completed three 60-min interventions in a counterbalanced, randomized order: 1) control (CON), 2) continuous walking (CW), 3) interval-walking (IW - repeated cycles of 3min of fast and 3min of slow walking). Indirect calorimetry was applied during each intervention and repeatedly for 30min per hour during the following 5h. A liquid mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT, 450kcal) was consumed by the subjects 45min after completion of the intervention with blood samples taken regularly. Exercise interventions were successfully matched for total oxygen consumption (CW=1641±133mL/min; IW=1634±126mL/min, P>0.05). EPOC was higher after IW (8.4±1.3l) compared to CW (3.7±1.4l, P<0.05). Lipid oxidation rates were increased during the MMTT in IW (1.03±0.12mg/kg per min) and CW (0.87±0.04mg/kg per min) compared with CON (0.73±0.04mg/kg per min, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively), with no difference between IW and CW. Moreover, free fatty acids and glycerol concentrations, and glycerol kinetics were increased comparably during and after IW and CW compared to CON. Interval exercise results in greater EPOC than oxygen-consumption matched continuous exercise during a post-exercise MMTT in subjects with T2D, whereas effects on substrate oxidation and lipid metabolism are comparable. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term Impact of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy on Arrhythmia and Heart Rate Variability in Patients With Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Grau, Nuria; Bazan, Victor; Kallouchi, Mohamed; Rodriguez, Diego; Estirado, Cristina; Corral, Maria Isabel; Valls, Maria Teresa; Ramos, Pablo; Sanjuas, Carles; Felez, Miquel; Valles, Ermengol; Benito, Begoña; Gea, Joaquim; Bruguera-Cortada, Jordi; Martí-Almor, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Autonomic dysfunction can alter heart rate variability and increase the incidence of arrhythmia. We analyzed the impact of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on this pathophysiological phenomenon in patients with severe sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome. Consecutive patients with recently diagnosed severe sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome were prospectively considered for inclusion. Incidence of arrhythmia and heart rate variability (recorded on a 24-hour Holter monitoring device) were analyzed before starting CPAP therapy and 1 year thereafter. A total of 26 patients were included in the study. CPAP was administered for 6.6 ± 1.8 hours during Holter monitoring. After starting CPAP, we observed a marginally significant reduction in mean HR (80 ± 9 to 77 ± 11 bpm, p=.05). CPAP was associated with partial modulation (only during waking hours) of r-MSSD (p=.047) and HF (p=.025) parasympathetic parameters and LF (p=.049) sympathetic modulation parameters. None of these parameters returned completely to normal levels (p<.001). The number of unsustained episodes of atrial tachycardia diminished (p=.024), but no clear effect on other arrhythmias was observed. CPAP therapy only partially improves heart rate variability, and exclusively during waking hours, and reduces incidence of atrial tachycardia, both of which can influence cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome patients. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Bystander Effects Induced by Continuous Low-Dose-Rate {sup 125}I Seeds Potentiate the Killing Action of Irradiation on Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.H. Jia, R.F.; Yu, L.; Zhao, M.J.; Shao, C.L.; Cheng, W.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate bystander effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) {sup 125}I seed irradiation on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: A549 and NCI-H446 cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were directly exposed to LDR {sup 125}I seeds irradiation for 2 or 4 Gy and then cocultured with nonirradiated cells for 24 hours. Induction of micronucleus (MN), {gamma}H2AX foci, and apoptosis were assayed. Results: After 2 and 4 Gy irradiation, micronucleus formation rate (MFR) and apoptotic rate of A549 and NCI-H446 cells were increased, and the MFR and apoptotic rate of NCI-H446 cells was 2.1-2.8 times higher than that of A549 cells. After coculturing nonirradiated bystander cells with {sup 125}I seed irradiated cells for 24 hours, MFR and the mean number of {gamma}H2AX foci/cells of bystander A549 and NCI-H446 cells were similar and significantly higher than those of control (p <0.05), although they did not increase with irradiation dose. However, the proportion of bystander NCI-H446 cells with MN numbers {>=}3 and {gamma}H2AX foci numbers 15-19 and 20-24 was higher than that of bystander A549 cells. In addition, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment could completely suppress the bystander MN of NCI-H446 cells, but it suppressed only partly the bystander MN of A549 cells, indicating that reactive oxygen species are involved in the bystander response to NCI-H446 cells, but other signaling factors may contribute to the bystander response of A549 cells. Conclusions: Continuous LDR irradiation of {sup 125}I seeds could induce bystander effects, which potentiate the killing action on tumor cells and compensate for the influence of nonuniform distribution of radiation dosage on therapeutic outcomes.

  7. Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from two years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brian J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Hill, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Headwater streams are key sites of nutrient and organic matter processing and retention, but little is known about temporal variability in gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates as a result of the short duration of most ecosystem metabolism measurements in lotic ecosystems. We examined temporal variability and controls on ecosystem metabolism by measuring daily rates continuously for two years in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream. Four important scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates were identified: (1) seasonal, (2) day-to-day, (3) episodic (storm-related), and (4) inter-annual. Seasonal patterns were largely controlled by the leaf phenology and productivity of the deciduous riparian forest. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic throughout the year with the exception of the open-canopy spring when GPP and ER rates were similar. Day-to-day variability in weather conditions influenced light reaching the streambed, resulting in high day-to-day variability in GPP particularly during spring (daily light levels explained 84% of the variance in daily GPP in April). Episodic storms depressed GPP for several days in spring, but increased GPP in autumn by removing leaves shading the streambed. Storms depressed ER initially, but then stimulated ER to 2-3 times pre-storm levels for several days. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic in both years of the study (NEP = -1156 and -773 g O2 m-2 y-1), with annual GPP being similar (488 and 519 g O2 m-2 y-1) but annual ER being higher in 2004 than 2005 (-1645 vs. -1292 g O2 m-2 y-1). Inter-annual variability in ecosystem metabolism (assessed by comparing 2004 and 2005 rates with previous measurements) was the result of the storm frequency and timing and the size of the spring macroalgal bloom. Changes in local climate can have substantial impacts on stream ecosystem metabolism rates and ultimately influence the carbon source and sink properties of

  8. Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of sugar beet byproduct and pig manure: Effect of the organic loading rate (OLR) on process performance.

    PubMed

    Aboudi, Kaoutar; Álvarez-Gallego, Carlos José; Romero-García, Luis Isidoro

    2015-10-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of dried pellet of exhausted sugar beet cossettes (ESBC-DP) with pig manure (PM) was investigated in a semi-continuous stirred tank reactor (SSTR) under mesophilic conditions. Seven hydraulic retention times (HRT) from 20 to 5 days were tested with the aim to evaluate the methane productivities and volatile solids (VS) removal. The corresponding organic loading rates (OLR) ranged from 4.2 to 12.8 gVS/L(reactor) d. The findings revealed that highest system efficiency was achieved at an OLR of 11.2 gVS/L(reactor) d (6 days-HRT) with a methane production rate (MPR) and volatile solids (VS) reduction of 2.91 LCH4/L(reactor) d and 57.5%, respectively. The HRT of 5 days was found critical for the studied process, which leads to volatile fatty acids (VFA) accumulation and sharp drop in pH. However, the increase of HRT permits the recovery of system.

  9. Effects of organic loading rate on hydrogen and volatile fatty acid production and microbial community during acidogenic hydrogenesis in a continuous stirred tank reactor using molasses wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yun, J; Cho, K-S

    2016-12-01

    Microbial community associated with hydrogen production and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) accumulation was characterized in acidogenic hydrogenesis using molasses wastewater as a feedstock. Hydrogen and VFAs production were measured under an organic loading rate (OLR) from 19 to 35 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . The active microbial community was analysed using RNA-based massively parallel sequencing technique, and their correlation patterns were analysed using networking analysis. The continuous stirred tank reactor achieved stable hydrogen production at different OLR conditions, and the maximum hydrogen production rate (HPR) was 1·02 L-H2  l(-1)  day(-1) at 31·0 g-COD l(-1)  day(-1) . Butyrate (50%) and acetate (38%) positively increased with increase in OLR. Total VFA production stayed around 7135 mg l(-1) during the operation period. Although Clostridiales and Lactobacillales were relatively abundant, the HPR was positively associated with Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae. Total VFA and acetate, butyrate and propionate concentrations were positively correlated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Bacillales, Sporolactobacillus and Lactobacillus. The close relationship between Pseudomonadaceae and Micrococcineae, and LAB play important roles for stable hydrogen and VFA production from molasses wastewater. Microbial information on hydrogen and VFA production can be useful to design and operate for acidogenic hydrogenesis using high strength molasses wastewater. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Julian P; Kawka, Orest E

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H) ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt) change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3), fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0), and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1)-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1) of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0) and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81) and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82) in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72). The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully explains

  11. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Julian P.; Kawka, Orest E.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H) ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt) change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3), fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0), and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1)-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1) of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0) and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81) and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82) in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72). The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully explains

  12. Effect of pH on the metabolic flux of Klebsiella oxytoca producing 2,3-butanediol in continuous cultures at different dilution rates.

    PubMed

    Park, Changhun; Lu, Mingshou; Yun, Seokhun; Park, Kyungmoon; Lee, Jinwon

    2013-06-01

    The efficiency of the bioconversion process and the achievable end-product concentration decides the economic feasibility of microbial 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BDO) production. In 2,3-BDO production, optimization of culture condition is required for cell growth and metabolism. Also, the pH is an important factor that influences microbial performance. For different microorganisms and substrates, it has been shown that the distribution of the metabolites in 2,3-BDO fermentation is greatly affected by pH, and the optimum pH for 2,3-BDO production seems dependently linked to the particular strain and the substrate employed. Quantification analysis of intracellular metabolites and metabolic flux analysis (MFA) were used to investigate the effect of pH on the Klebsiella oxytoca producing 2,3-BDO and other organic acids. The main objectives of MFA are the estimation of intracellular metabolic fluxes and the identification of rate-limiting step and the key enzymes. This study was conducted under continuous aerobic conditions at different dilution rates (0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 h(-1)) and different pH values (pH 5.5 and 7.0) for the steady-state experimental data. In order to obtain the flux distribution, the extracellular specific rates were calculated from the experimental data using the metabolic network model of K. oxytoca. Intracellular metabolite concentration profiles were generated using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

  13. Use of Glucose Rate of Change Arrows to Adjust Insulin Therapy Among Individuals with Type 1 Diabetes Who Use Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Pettus, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: This study was performed to understand and to compare differences in utilization of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) and the rate of change (ROC) arrow to adjust insulin therapy among individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D), comparing those treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) with those treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Research Design and Methods: We surveyed 222 T1D individuals who regularly used real-time CGM to obtain information about general CGM use and response to glucose ROC arrows in managing their diabetes. Results: The survey was completed by 222 T1D individuals. Respondents included CSII (n = 166) and MDI (n = 56) users. MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages (from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL) in response to increasing glucose (one ROC arrow up: rising 2–3 mg/dL/min): +120% and +108%, respectively (P = 0.13). MDI and CSII respondents reported similar substantial increases in correction dosages in response to rapidly increasing glucose (two arrows up: rising >3 mg/dL/min): +146% and +138%, respectively (P = 0.72). When correcting from 220 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL, MDI respondents reported larger correction dosage reductions than CSII respondents in response to decreasing glucose (one ROC down arrow: decreasing 2–3 mg/dL/min) and rapidly decreasing glucose (two ROC down arrows: decreasing >3 mg/dL/min): −50% versus −37%, respectively (P = 0.024) and −52% versus 38%, respectively (P = 0.034). Similar between-group differences were observed in mealtime dosage adjustments. Conclusions: CGM users often rely on ROC information when determining insulin doses and tend to make larger changes than current recommendations suggest regardless of insulin delivery method. PMID:26784128

  14. Comparative Analysis of the Equivital EQ02 Lifemonitor with Holter Ambulatory ECG Device for Continuous Measurement of ECG, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: A Validation Study for Precision and Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Akintola, Abimbola A; van de Pol, Vera; Bimmel, Daniel; Maan, Arie C; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors. Per participant, averaged HR, and HRV per 5 min from the two devices were compared using Pearson correlation, paired T-test, and Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy and precision metrics included mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Results: Artifact content of EQ02 data varied widely between (range 1.93-56.45%) and within (range 0.75-9.61%) participants. Comparing the EQ02 to the Holter, the Pearson correlations were respectively 0.724, 0.955, and 0.997 for datasets containing all data and data with < 50 or < 20% artifacts respectively. For datasets containing respectively all data, data with < 50, or < 20% artifacts, bias estimated by Bland-Altman analysis was -2.8, -1.0, and -0.8 beats per minute and 24 h MARD was 7.08, 3.01, and 1.5. After selecting a 3-h stretch of data containing 1.15% artifacts, Pearson correlation was 0.786 for HRV measured as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). Conclusions: Although the EQ02 can accurately measure ECG and HRV, its accuracy and precision is highly dependent on artifact content. This is a limitation for clinical use in individual patients. However, the advantages of the EQ02 (ability to simultaneously monitor several physiologic parameters) may outweigh its disadvantages (higher artifact load) for research purposes and/ or for home monitoring in larger groups of study participants. Further studies can be aimed at

  15. Comparative Analysis of the Equivital EQ02 Lifemonitor with Holter Ambulatory ECG Device for Continuous Measurement of ECG, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: A Validation Study for Precision and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; van de Pol, Vera; Bimmel, Daniel; Maan, Arie C.; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors. Per participant, averaged HR, and HRV per 5 min from the two devices were compared using Pearson correlation, paired T-test, and Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy and precision metrics included mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Results: Artifact content of EQ02 data varied widely between (range 1.93–56.45%) and within (range 0.75–9.61%) participants. Comparing the EQ02 to the Holter, the Pearson correlations were respectively 0.724, 0.955, and 0.997 for datasets containing all data and data with < 50 or < 20% artifacts respectively. For datasets containing respectively all data, data with < 50, or < 20% artifacts, bias estimated by Bland-Altman analysis was −2.8, −1.0, and −0.8 beats per minute and 24 h MARD was 7.08, 3.01, and 1.5. After selecting a 3-h stretch of data containing 1.15% artifacts, Pearson correlation was 0.786 for HRV measured as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). Conclusions: Although the EQ02 can accurately measure ECG and HRV, its accuracy and precision is highly dependent on artifact content. This is a limitation for clinical use in individual patients. However, the advantages of the EQ02 (ability to simultaneously monitor several physiologic parameters) may outweigh its disadvantages (higher artifact load) for research purposes and/ or for home monitoring in larger groups of study participants. Further studies can be aimed

  16. Effects of lidocaine administration via continuous rate infusion on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    PubMed

    Schnellbacher, Rodney W; Carpenter, James W; Mason, Diane E; KuKanich, Butch; Beaufrère, Hugues; Boysen, Courtney

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of lidocaine on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. Five 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane. Baseline isoflurane MAC was determined by use of the tail clamp technique. A loading dose of lidocaine (2.0 mg/kg, IV) was administered followed by a CRI of lidocaine at 50 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined. Another loading dose was administered, and the lidocaine CRI then was increased to 100 μg/kg/min. After 30 minutes, isoflurane MAC was determined again. Plasma samples were obtained for lidocaine analysis after each MAC determination. Baseline isoflurane MAC was 2.09%, which was similar to previously reported values in this species. Lidocaine CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min induced significant reductions in MAC. The 50 μg/kg/min CRI resulted in a mean plasma lidocaine concentration of 0.654 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 10.5%. The 100 μg/kg/min CRI of lidocaine resulted in a mean plasma concentration of 1.578 μg/mL and reduction of MAC by 21.7%. Lidocaine also induced significant decreases in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. All cardiopulmonary variables were within reference ranges for rabbits anesthetized with inhalation anesthetics. No adverse effects were detected; all rabbits had an uncomplicated recovery from anesthesia. Lidocaine administered as a CRI at 50 and 100 μg/kg/min decreased isoflurane MAC in rabbits. The IV administration of lidocaine may be a useful adjunct in anesthesia of rabbits.

  17. Influence of digestion temperature and organic loading rate on the continuous anaerobic treatment of process liquor from hydrothermal carbonization of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Benjamin; Reza, Toufiq; Mumme, Jan

    2015-12-01

    This experimental study investigates the use of process liquor from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of sewage sludge as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion (AD). The process performance at 37°C (mesophilic) and 55°C (thermophilic) was determined based on two identical continuously-fed anaerobic filters (26 L each) operated for 20 weeks. During operation, the organic loading rate was stepwise increased from 1 to 5 gCOD L(-1)d(-)(1). This decreased the hydraulic retention time from 34 to 5 days. Significant differences in methane production were not observed as both reactors yielded up to 0.18 LCH4 gCOD(-)(1). Increased temperature had no effect on the steady-state COD removal efficiency with both reactors stabilized at 68-75%. Macro- and micronutrients were provided by HTC liquor in sufficient concentrations throughout the experiment. Methanogenesis was identified as the speed-limiting step in anaerobic digestion of HTC liquor. Hydrolysis was of an order of magnitude faster than methanogenesis.

  18. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) decreases pulmonary shunt in anaesthetized horses.

    PubMed

    Mosing, Martina; MacFarlane, Paul; Bardell, David; Lüthi, Laura; Cripps, Peter J; Bettschart-Wolfensberger, Regula

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on intrapulmonary shunt, cardiac output and oxygen delivery in horses subjected to a 6 hour period of general anaesthesia. Randomized, experimental, crossover study. Ten healthy adult horses. Following medetomidine, diazepam and ketamine administration, orotracheal intubation was performed and horses positioned in dorsal recumbency. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane carried in an oxygen and air mix (FiO2 0.5) combined with a medetomidine infusion. Horses were anaesthetized twice and either CPAP (8 cmH2 O) or physiologic airway pressure (NO CPAP) was applied to the lungs for 6 hours; the order of treatments was randomly assigned. Following induction of anaesthesia, cardiovascular and respiratory variables (including arterial blood gas analysis) were recorded every 30 minutes, cardiac output was measured every 60 minutes using the lithium dilution technique and oxygen delivery calculated. If PaCO2 exceeded 100 mmHg (13.3 kPa), controlled ventilation was initiated and horses excluded from further data collection. Groups were compared using a general linear model. Data from eight horses were analysed. PaO2 was 15-56 mmHg (2.00-7.45 kPa) higher (p < 0.001) and shunt fraction 6-14% lower (p < 0.001) in the CPAP group. No differences were seen for cardiac output and oxygen delivery. The lack of difference in oxygen delivery was attributed to lower haemoglobin levels in the CPAP group than in the NO CPAP group. CPAP of 8 cmH2 O can be used in dorsally recumbent horses to decrease pulmonary shunt fraction without causing a decrease in cardiac output during longterm anaesthesia. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  19. Effects of Low- Versus High-Fidelity Simulations on the Cognitive Burden and Performance of Entry-Level Paramedicine Students: A Mixed-Methods Comparison Trial Using Eye-Tracking, Continuous Heart Rate, Difficulty Rating Scales, Video Observation and Interviews.

    PubMed

    Mills, Brennen W; Carter, Owen B-J; Rudd, Cobie J; Claxton, Louise A; Ross, Nathan P; Strobel, Natalie A

    2016-02-01

    High-fidelity simulation-based training is often avoided for early-stage students because of the assumption that while practicing newly learned skills, they are ill suited to processing multiple demands, which can lead to "cognitive overload" and poorer learning outcomes. We tested this assumption using a mixed-methods experimental design manipulating psychological immersion. Thirty-nine randomly assigned first-year paramedicine students completed low- or high-environmental fidelity simulations [low-environmental fidelity simulations (LF(en)S) vs. high-environmental fidelity simulation (HF(en)S)] involving a manikin with obstructed airway (SimMan3G). Psychological immersion and cognitive burden were determined via continuous heart rate, eye tracking, self-report questionnaire (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), independent observation, and postsimulation interviews. Performance was assessed by successful location of obstruction and time-to-termination. Eye tracking confirmed that students attended to multiple, concurrent stimuli in HF(en)S and interviews consistently suggested that they experienced greater psychological immersion and cognitive burden than their LF(en)S counterparts. This was confirmed by significantly higher mean heart rate (P < 0.001) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index mental demand (P < 0.05). Although group allocation did not influence the proportion of students who ultimately revived the patient (58% vs. 30%, P < 0.10), the HF(en)S students did so significantly more quickly (P < 0.01). The LF(en)S students had low immersion resulting in greater assessment anxiety. High-environmental fidelity simulation engendered immersion and a sense of urgency in students, whereas LF(en)S created assessment anxiety and slower performance. We conclude that once early-stage students have learned the basics of a clinical skill, throwing them in the "deep end" of high-fidelity simulation creates

  20. Effects of continuity of care by a primary midwife (caseload midwifery) on caesarean section rates in women of low obstetric risk: the COSMOS randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    McLachlan, H L; Forster, D A; Davey, M A; Farrell, T; Gold, L; Biro, M A; Albers, L; Flood, M; Oats, J; Waldenström, U

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether primary midwife care (caseload midwifery) decreases the caesarean section rate compared with standard maternity care. Randomised controlled trial. Tertiary-care women's hospital in Melbourne, Australia. A total of 2314 low-risk pregnant women. Women randomised to caseload received antenatal, intrapartum and postpartum care from a primary midwife with some care by 'back-up' midwives. Women randomised to standard care received either midwifery or obstetric-trainee care with varying levels of continuity, or community-based general practitioner care. caesarean birth. Secondary outcomes included instrumental vaginal births, analgesia, perineal trauma, induction of labour, infant admission to special/neonatal intensive care, gestational age, Apgar scores and birthweight. In total 2314 women were randomised-1156 to caseload and 1158 to standard care. Women allocated to caseload were less likely to have a caesarean section (19.4% versus 24.9%; risk ratio [RR] 0.78; 95% CI 0.67-0.91; P = 0.001); more likely to have a spontaneous vaginal birth (63.0% versus 55.7%; RR 1.13; 95% CI 1.06-1.21; P < 0.001); less likely to have epidural analgesia (30.5% versus 34.6%; RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.79-0.996; P = 0.04) and less likely to have an episiotomy (23.1% versus 29.4%; RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67-0.92; P = 0.003). Infants of women allocated to caseload were less likely to be admitted to special or neonatal intensive care (4.0% versus 6.4%; RR 0.63; 95% CI 0.44-0.90; P = 0.01). No infant outcomes favoured standard care. In settings with a relatively high baseline caesarean section rate, caseload midwifery for women at low obstetric risk in early pregnancy shows promise for reducing caesarean births. © 2012 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2012 RCOG.

  1. What factors contribute to the continued low rates of Indigenous status identification in urban general practice? - A mixed-methods multiple site case study.

    PubMed

    Schütze, Heike; Jackson Pulver, Lisa; Harris, Mark

    2017-01-31

    Indigenous peoples experience worse health and die at younger ages than their non-indigenous counterparts. Ethnicity data enables health services to identify inequalities experienced by minority populations and to implement and monitor services specifically targeting them. Despite significant Government intervention, Australia's Indigenous peoples, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, continue to be under identified in data sets. We explored the barriers to Indigenous status identification in urban general practice in two areas in Sydney. A mixed-methods multiple-site case study was used, set in urban general practice. Data collection included semi-structured interviews and self-complete questionnaires with 31 general practice staff and practitioners, interviews with three Medicare Local staff, and focus groups with the two local Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in the study areas. These data were combined with clinical record audit data and Aboriginal unannounced standardised patient visits to participating practices to determine the current barriers to Indigenous status identification in urban general practice. Findings can be broadly grouped into three themes: a lack of practitioner/staff understanding on the need to identify Indigenous status or that a problem with identification exists; suboptimal practice systems to identify and/or record patients' Indigenous status; and practice environments that do not promote Indigenous status identification. Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples remain under-identified in general practice. There is a need to address the lack of practitioner and staff recognition that a problem with Indigenous status identification exists, along with entrenched attitudes and beliefs and limitations to practice software capabilities. Guidelines recommending Indigenous status identification and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander-specific Practice Incentive Payments have had limited impact on

  2. Comparison of three vertical diffusion schemes in the SARMAP air quality model with integrated process rate analysis method and continuous process composition and source receptor methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zion Shay

    The purpose of this research is to explain how three different vertical diffusion schemes in the SARMAP Air Quality Model (SAQM) affect simulation results. Vertical diffusion describes turbulent mixing of species in the vertical direction. The three vertical diffusion schemes used here are the K-theory, the asymmetrical convective mixing, and the turbulent transilient theory. I have also implemented the Integrated Process Rate Analysis method (IPRAM) and the Continuous Process Composition and Source Receptor (CPCSR) methodology into SAQM to explain the origins of the differences among these three vertical diffusion schemes for the August 3-6, 1990 ozone episode in the San Joaquin Valley, CA. I show that the use of different vertical diffusion schemes has a major impact on model predictions. Vertical diffusion redistributes the species mixing ratios in the vertical and thus affects advection in the horizontal, as well as the vertical direction. Eventually, the chemistry in each grid cell was impacted by the different species mixing ratio that resulted from the differences in transport. The results also show that the two non-local methods (turbulent transilient and asymmetrical convective methods) are more vertically diffusive than the local K- theory. The asymmetrical convective model caused most vertical diffusion and the semi-implicit K-theory caused least vertical diffusion. A three-dimensional analysis is necessary to determine the area that influenced ozone mixing ratio at a particular region. Due to the nonlinear nature of ozone formation, it is insufficient to only examine species mixing ratios. All model processes need to be examined to provide a full explanation of the model's results. My IPRAM results revealed that the mass correction and ozone deposition processes were sometimes the dominate processes in the model's predictions. This had not been previously understood in the model's evaluation. My results suggest that the CPCSR methodology is very useful

  3. The influence of a continuous rate infusion of dexmedetomidine on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex and temporal summation during isoflurane anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lervik, Andreas; Haga, Henning A; Ranheim, Birgit; Spadavecchia, Claudia

    2012-07-01

    To examine the influence of a low dose dexmedetomidine infusion on the nociceptive withdrawal reflex and temporal summation in dogs during isoflurane anaesthesia. Prospective experimental blinded cross-over study. Eight healthy mixed breed dogs, body weight Mean ± SD 26.5 ± 8.4 kg and age 25 ± 16 months. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane (Fe'ISO 1.3%) delivered in oxygen and air. After stabilization, baseline recordings (time 0) were obtained, then a dexmedetomidine bolus (1 μg kg(-1) IV) followed by a continuous rate infusion (1 μg kg(-1) hour(-1)) or saline placebo were administered. At times 10, 30 and 60 minutes after the initial bolus, electrical stimulations of increasing intensity were applied over the lateral plantar digital nerve, and administered both as single and as repeated stimuli. The resulting reflex responses were recorded using electromyography. Data were analysed using a multivariable linear regression model and a Kruskal Wallis test for single stimulation data, and repeated measures anova and paired t-test for repeated stimulation data. The AUC for the stimulus-response curves after single stimulation were similar for both treatments at time 0. At times 10, 30 and 60 the AUCs for the stimulus-response curves were significantly lower with dexmedetomidine treatment than with placebo. Temporal summation was evident in both treatments at times 0, 10, 30 and 60 starting from a stimulation intensity of 10 mA. The magnitude of temporal summation was smaller in dexmedetomidine than in placebo treated dogs at time 10, 30 and 60, but not at time 0. During isoflurane anaesthesia, low dose dexmedetomidine suppresses the nociceptive reflex responses after single and repeated electrical stimulation. This experimental study confirms previous reports on its peri-operative efficacy under clinical conditions, and further indicates that dexmedetomidine might reduce the risk of post-operative chronic pain development. © 2012

  4. Spaced planar laminations formed by repetitive basal erosion and resurgence to high-sedimentation-rate regime: new insight from a bedform-like structures and laterally continuous exposures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Yoshiro; Yuri, Onishi; Tsuda, Keisuke; Yokokawa, Miwa

    2017-04-01

    Spaced planar laminations (SPL), or so-called traction carpet deposits, are frequently observed in deposits of sediment gravity flows. Several sedimentation models for a succession of inversely graded units have been suggested from field observations and flume experiments. The formation of the inversely graded unit could be summarized as follows: (1) abrupt sedimentation on freezing of an inversely graded layer, or (2) interruptions in flow causing a freezing of an inversely graded layer at the most basal part of flow. In either case, traction carpets as a bed load overlying the erosive boundary at the base of flow are required. Although some descriptions have reported SPLs forming antidune bedform-like structures and the association of SPLs with structureless massive deposits have not been clearly explained. In this study, we suggest a novel model of SPL formation by repetition of basal erosion and resurgence to high-sedimentation rates, based on detail examinations of SPLs both showing bedform-like structures and lateral extents of hundreds of meters. SPLs were investigated in the Mio-Pliocene Kiyosumi Formation in central Japan and the Miocene Aoshima Formation in southwest Japan. In a turbidite in the Kiyosumi Formation, SPLs show three mound-like structures, suggesting antidune bedforms with wavelengths of about 6 to 7 m. On the upcurrent flanks, SPLs show lenticular cross laminations or pinching out of units; those units do not show clear inverse grading. Rip-up mud clasts and relatively high-angle imbrications are also observed. On the other hand, SPLs on the downcurrent flanks show relatively clear inverse grading and transition downcurrent into a massive structureless bed. In the Aoshima Formation, SPLs with ca. 1 cm unit thickness continue approximately 50 m along a palaeocurrent direction without changes in thickness. These SPLs gradually transition upward into a massive structureless unit. From the observations described above, in addition to

  5. A 3-year continuous record on the influence of daytime, season, and fertilizer treatment on methane emission rates from an Italian rice paddy

    SciTech Connect

    Schuetz, H.; Holzapfel-Pschorn, A.; Conrad, R.; Rennenberg, H.; Seiler, W. )

    1989-11-20

    CH{sub 4} emission rates have been measured in an Italian rice paddy between 1984 and 1986, covering three vegetation periods. For these measurements a fully automated, computerized sampling and analyzing system was developed which allowed the simultaneous determination of CH{sub 4} emission rates at 16 different field plots. CH{sub 4} emission rates showed strong diurnal and seasonal variations. Diurnal changes correlated with changes in soil temperature. During the season, CH{sub 4} emission rates showed a first maximum in May--June before tillering and a second maximum in July during the reproductive stage of the rice plants. In 1985 and 1986 two maxima were observed during summer in addition to the first maximum in the rate of CH{sub 4} emission during spring. Application of mineral and/or organic fertilizer application. Thus the rates decreased by at most 40% and 60% after fertilization by deep incorporation with 200 kg N/ha urea and 200 kg N/ha ammonium sulfate, respectively. Application of 200 kg N/ha calcium cyanamide led to a reduction of the first maximum of CH{sub 4} emission but caused the second maximum to increase, the overall result being that the seasonally averaged CH{sub 4} emission rate was comparable to that observed in unfertilized fields. Application of rice straw at a rate of 12t/ha enhanced the rate of CH{sub 4} emission by a factor of 2 compared with the control. Higher application rates of rice straw did not cause a further increase in CH{sub 4} emission.

  6. Continuous measurements of air change rates in an occupied house for 1 year: the effect of temperature, wind, fans, and windows.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L A; Emmerich, S J; Howard-Reed, C

    2002-07-01

    A year-long investigation of air change rates in an occupied house was undertaken to establish the effects of temperature, wind velocity, use of exhaust fans, and window-opening behavior. Air change rates were calculated by periodically injecting a tracer gas (SF(6)) into the return air duct and measuring the concentration in 10 indoor locations sequentially every minute by a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. Temperatures were also measured outdoors and in the 10 indoor locations. Relative humidity (RH) was measured outdoors and in five indoor locations every 5 min. Wind speed and direction in the horizontal plane were measured using a portable meteorological station mounted on the rooftop. Use of the thermostat-controlled attic fan was recorded automatically. Indoor temperatures increased from 21 degrees C in winter to 27 degrees C in summer. Indoor RH increased from 20% to 70% in the same time period. Windows were open only a few percent of the time in winter but more than half the time in summer. About 4600 hour-long average air change rates were calculated from the measured tracer gas decay rates. The mean (SD) rate was 0.65 (0.56) h(-1). Tracer gas decay rates in different rooms were very similar, ranging only from 0.62 to 0.67 h(-1), suggesting that conditions were well mixed throughout the year. The strongest influence on air change rates was opening windows, which could increase the rate to as much as 2 h(-1) for extended periods, and up to 3 h(-1) for short periods of a few hours. The use of the attic fan also increased air change rates by amounts up to 1 h(-1). Use of the furnace fan had no effect on air change rates. Although a clear effect of indoor-outdoor temperature difference could be discerned, its magnitude was relatively small, with a very large temperature difference of 30 degrees C (54 degrees F) accounting for an increase in the air change rate of about 0.6 h(-1). Wind speed and direction were found to have very

  7. Comparison of real time polymerase chain reaction quantification of changes in hilA and rpoS gene expression of a Salmonella typhimurium poultry isolate grown at fast versus slow dilution rates in an anaerobic continuous

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the genetic responses of a Salmonella enterica Typhimurium poultry isolate during low and high dilution rates (D) in steady state continuous culture (CC) incubations. Samples for genetic analyses were taken from a previous study where S. typhimurium cell...

  8. Effect of dilution rate and methanol-glycerol mixed feeding on heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase production with Pichia pastoris Mut(+) phenotype in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Canales, Christian; Altamirano, Claudia; Berrios, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The induction using substrate mixtures is an operational strategy for improving the productivity of heterologous protein production with Pichia pastoris. Glycerol as a cosubstrate allows for growth at a higher specific growth rate, but also has been reported to be repressor of the expression from the AOX1 promoter. Thus, further insights about the effects of glycerol are required for designing the induction stage with mixed substrates. The production of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was used as a model system to investigate the application of methanol-glycerol feeding mixtures in fast metabolizing methanol phenotype. Cultures were performed in a simple chemostat system and the response surface methodology was used for the evaluation of both dilution rate and methanol-glycerol feeding composition as experimental factors. Our results indicate that productivity and yield of ROL are strongly affected by dilution rate, with no interaction effect between the involved factors. Productivity showed the highest value around 0.04-0.06 h(-1) , while ROL yield decreased along the whole dilution rate range evaluated (0.03-0.1 h(-1) ). Compared to production level achieved with methanol-only feeding, the highest specific productivity was similar in mixed feeding (0.9 UA g-biomass(-1) h(-1) ), but volumetric productivity was 70% higher. Kinetic analysis showed that these results are explained by the effects of dilution rate on specific methanol uptake rate, instead of a repressor effect caused by glycerol feeding. It is concluded that despite the effect of dilution rate on ROL yield, mixed feeding strategy is a proper process option to be applied to P. pastoris Mut(+) phenotype for heterologous protein production.

  9. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-12-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris.

  10. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris. PMID:2271347

  11. State-related differences in the level of psychomotor activity in patients with bipolar disorder-Continuous heart rate and movement monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Faurholt-Jepsen, Maria; Brage, Søren; Vinberg, Maj; Kessing, Lars Vedel

    2017-01-01

    Measuring changes in psychomotor activity is a potential tool in the monitoring of the course of affective states in bipolar disorder. Previous studies have been cross-sectional and only some have used objective measures. The aim was to investigate state-related differences in objectively-measured psychomotor activity in bipolar disorder. During a 12 weeks study, repeated measurements of heart rate and movement monitoring over several days were collected during different affective states from 19 bipolar disorder outpatients. Outcomes included activity energy expenditure (AEE) and trunk acceleration (ACC). Symptoms were clinically rated using Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). Compared to patients in a euthymic state, patients in a manic had significantly higher AEE. Compared to patients in a depressive state, patients in a manic state had significantly higher ACC and AEE. There was a significant diurnal variation in ACC and AEE between affective states. Finally, there was a significant correlation between the severity of manic symptoms and ACC and AEE, respectively. This first study measuring psychomotor activity during different affective states using a combined heart rate and movement sensor supports that psychomotor activity is a core symptom in bipolar disorder that is altered during affective states. PMID:26832835

  12. A Comparison of Accuracy and Rate of Transcription by Adults with Learning Disabilities Using a Continuous Speech Recognition System and a Traditional Computer Keyboard

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Diane C.; McNaughton, David B.; Light, Janice C.

    2005-01-01

    A single-subject, alternating-treatments design was implemented for three adults with learning disabilities to compare the transcription of college-level texts using a speech recognition system and a traditional keyboard. The accuracy and rate of transcribing after editing was calculated for each transcribed passage. The results provide evidence…

  13. Use of NH4Cl-H2O Analogue Castings to Model Aspects of Continuous Casting. Part 2; Columnar-Equiaxed Grain Transition and Crystal Sedimentation Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, J.; Hellawell, A.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, aspects of the columnar-equiaxed transition with particular reference to the rates of sedimentation of equiaxed crystals and analysis of measured values are considered. The attempt is made to compare data from an aqueous analogue system with those expected in a metal, specifically, from NH4CI-70 wt-%H20 and Fe-0.2 wt-%C.

  14. Can we continue to neglect genomic variation in introgression rates when inferring the history of speciation? A case study in a Mytilus hybrid zone.

    PubMed

    Roux, C; Fraïsse, C; Castric, V; Vekemans, X; Pogson, G H; Bierne, N

    2014-08-01

    The use of molecular data to reconstruct the history of divergence and gene flow between populations of closely related taxa represents a challenging problem. It has been proposed that the long-standing debate about the geography of speciation can be resolved by comparing the likelihoods of a model of isolation with migration and a model of secondary contact. However, data are commonly only fit to a model of isolation with migration and rarely tested against the secondary contact alternative. Furthermore, most demographic inference methods have neglected variation in introgression rates and assume that the gene flow parameter (Nm) is similar among loci. Here, we show that neglecting this source of variation can give misleading results. We analysed DNA sequences sampled from populations of the marine mussels, Mytilus edulis and M. galloprovincialis, across a well-studied mosaic hybrid zone in Europe and evaluated various scenarios of speciation, with or without variation in introgression rates, using an Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) approach. Models with heterogeneous gene flow across loci always outperformed models assuming equal migration rates irrespective of the history of gene flow being considered. By incorporating this heterogeneity, the best-supported scenario was a long period of allopatric isolation during the first three-quarters of the time since divergence followed by secondary contact and introgression during the last quarter. By contrast, constraining migration to be homogeneous failed to discriminate among any of the different models of gene flow tested. Our simulations thus provide statistical support for the secondary contact scenario in the European Mytilus hybrid zone that the standard coalescent approach failed to confirm. Our results demonstrate that genomic variation in introgression rates can have profound impacts on the biological conclusions drawn from inference methods and needs to be incorporated in future studies.

  15. Initial and noninitial name-letter preferences as obtained through repeated letter rating tasks continue to reflect (different aspects of) self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Hoorens, Vera; Takano, Keisuke; Franck, Erik; Roberts, John E; Raes, Filip

    2015-09-01

    We tested the usefulness of name-letter preference scores as indirect indicators of self-esteem by exploring whether multiple unsupervised self-administrations of letter rating tasks within a short period of time yield useful data. We also examined whether preferences for initials and noninitial name-letters tap different aspects of self-esteem. Participants from a community sample (N = 164; 58 men and 106 women, 17-67 years, Mage = 34.57, SD = 13.28) completed daily letter rating tasks and state self-esteem questionnaires for 7 consecutive days. They also completed a trait self-esteem questionnaire on the first measurement day as well as 6 months later. Preference scores for first-name initials were stronger but more unstable than preference scores for other name-letters. Preferences for first-name initials were primarily associated with directly measured state self-esteem whereas preferences for noninitials were primarily associated with directly measured trait self-esteem even if the latter was measured 6 months later. Thus, we showed that preferences for initials and noninitials are not simply interchangeable. Previous letter rating studies, which almost exclusively used initial preferences, should be interpreted in terms of state rather than trait self-esteem. In future studies, researchers should focus on the name-letter preference that reflects the aspect of self-esteem they wish to address.

  16. Do survival rate and serum ion concentrations 10 years after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing provide evidence for continued use?

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Lützner, Jörg; Kirschner, Stephan; Witzleb, Wolf-Christoph; Günther, Klaus-Peter

    2012-11-01

    Owing to concerns attributable to problems associated with metal-on-metal bearing surfaces, current evidence for the use of hip resurfacing is unclear. Survival rates reported from registries and individual studies are controversial and the limited long-term studies do not conclusively allow one to judge whether hip resurfacing is still a reasonable alternative to conventional THA. We asked whether the long-term survival rate of hip resurfacing is comparable to that of conventional THA and certain factors can be identified that influence serum ion concentration 10 years postoperatively. We specifically assessed (1) the 10-year survivorship in the whole cohort and in male and female patients, (2) serum concentrations of metal ions in patients with hip resurfacing who had not undergone revision surgery, and (3) potential influencing factors on the serum ion concentration. We retrospectively reviewed our first 95 patients who had 100 hip resurfacings performed from 1998 to 2001. The median age of the patients at surgery was 52 years (range, 28-69 years); 49% were men. We assessed the survival rate (revision for any reason as the end point), radiographic changes, and serum ion concentrations for cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum. The correlations between serum ion concentration and patient-related factors (age, sex, BMI, activity) and implant-related factors (implant size, cup inclination, stem-shaft angle) were investigated. The minimum followup was 9.3 years (mean, 10 years; range, 9.3-10.5 years). The 10-year survivorship was 88% for the total cohort. The overall survival rate was greater in men (93%) than in women (84%). Median serum ion levels were 1.9 μg/L for chromium, 1.3 μg/L for cobalt, and 1.6 μg/L for molybdenum. Radiolucent lines around acetabular implants were observed in 4% and femoral neck thinning in 5%. Although our overall failure rate was greater than anticipated, the relatively low serum ion levels and no revisions for pseudotumors in young male

  17. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  18. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  19. AVERAGE HEATING RATE OF HOT ATMOSPHERES IN DISTANT CLUSTERS BY RADIO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS: EVIDENCE FOR CONTINUOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.-J.; McNamara, B. R.; Schaffer, R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2011-10-20

    We examine atmospheric heating by radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in distant X-ray clusters by cross correlating clusters selected from the 400 Square Degree (400SD) X-ray Cluster survey with radio sources in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. Roughly 30% of the clusters show radio emission above a flux threshold of 3 mJy within a projected radius of 250 kpc. The radio emission is presumably associated with the brightest cluster galaxy. The mechanical jet power for each radio source was determined using scaling relations between radio power and cavity (mechanical) power determined for nearby clusters, groups, and galaxies with hot atmospheres containing X-ray cavities. The average jet power of central radio AGNs is approximately 2 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. We find no significant correlation between radio power, and hence mechanical jet power, and the X-ray luminosities of clusters in the redshift range 0.1-0.6. This implies that the mechanical heating rate per particle is higher in lower mass, lower X-ray luminosity clusters. The jet power averaged over the sample corresponds to an atmospheric heating of approximately 0.2 keV per particle within R{sub 500}. Assuming the current AGN heating rate does not evolve but remains constant to redshifts of 2, the heating rate per particle would rise by a factor of two. We find that the energy injected from radio AGNs contribute substantially to the excess entropy in hot atmospheres needed to break self-similarity in cluster scaling relations. The detection frequency of radio AGNs is inconsistent with the presence of strong cooling flows in 400SD clusters, but does not exclude weak cooling flows. It is unclear whether central AGNs in 400SD clusters are maintained by feedback at the base of a cooling flow. Atmospheric heating by radio AGNs may retard the development of strong cooling flows at early epochs.

  20. Changes in the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane and some cardiopulmonary measurements during three continuous infusion rates of dexmedetomidine in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Peter J; Raekallio, Marja; Kuusela, Erja; McKusick, Brett; Granholm, Mikael

    2006-03-01

    To measure the change in the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane associated with three constant rate infusions of dexmedetomidine. Prospective, randomized, and blinded experimental trial. Animals Six healthy 6-year-old Beagles weighing between 13.0 and 17.7 kg. The dogs received each of four treatments; saline or dexmedetomidine at 0.1, 0.5 or 3 microg kg(-1) loading dose given intravenously (IV) over 6 minutes followed by infusions at 0.1, 0.5 or 3 microg kg(-1) hour(-1), respectively. There were 2 weeks between treatments. The dogs were mask-induced with and maintained on isoflurane in oxygen. Acetated Ringer's (5 mL kg(-1) hour(-1)) and saline or dexmedetomidine (each at 0.5 mL kg(-1) hour(-1)) were given IV. Pulse rate, blood pressure, samples for the measurement of blood gases, pH, lactate, packed cell volume (PCV), total protein (TP) and dexmedetomidine concentrations were obtained from an arterial catheter. Sixty minutes after induction minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined by intermittently applying supramaximal electrical stimuli to the thoracic and pelvic limbs. Cardiopulmonary measurements and arterial blood samples were collected before each set of stimuli. Statistical analyses were conducted with analysis of variance or mixed models according to the experimental design. There was a significant decrease in the MAC of isoflurane associated with 0.5 and 3 microg kg(-1) hour(-1) but not with 0.1 mg kg(-1)hour(-1). Serum concentrations of dexmedetomidine were not measurable at the 0.1 mg kg(-1) hour(-1) and averaged 0.198 +/- 0.081 and 1.903 +/-0.621 ng mL(-1) for the 0.5 and 3 microg kg(-1) hour(-1) infusion rates, respectively. Heart rate decreased with increasing doses of dexmedetomidine while blood pressure increased. Packed cell volume increased at 3 microg kg(-1) hour(-1) but not with other doses. Dexmedetomidine infusions decrease the intra-operative requirement for isoflurane and may be useful in managing dogs undergoing

  1. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator.

  2. 12-fs pulses from a continuous-wave-pumped 200-nJ Ti:sapphire amplifier at a variable repetition rate as high as 4 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, R.; Adler, F.; Leitenstorfer, A.; Beutter, M.; Baum, P.; Riedle, E.

    2003-11-01

    We demonstrate a novel compact femtosecond Ti:sapphire laser system operating at repetition rates from 10 kHz to 4 MHz. The scheme is based on the combination of a broadband cavity-dumped oscillator and a double-pass Ti:sapphire amplifier pumped by a low-noise cw solid-state laser. Amplified pulses with an extremely smooth spectrum, a duration of only 12 fs, and less than 0.25% rms fluctuation are generated in a beam with M2 < 1.2. A maximum pulse energy of 210 nJ and an average output power of as much as 720 mW are achieved. This output energy is sufficient to generate a stable continuum in a sapphire disk.

  3. Continuation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fremont Unified School District, CA.

    The Fremont, California Unified School District organized a continuing education program through a workshop held in the summer of 1968. This paper presents the results of that workshop. Following a statement of philosophy, an outline of the characteristics of the continuation student, and an outline of the functions of the program, an overview of…

  4. A Quarter-century of Observations of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 at Lowell Observatory: Continued Spin-down, Coma Morphology, Production Rates, and Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.; Farnham, Tony L.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Christensen, Samantha R.

    2012-11-01

    We report on photometry and imaging of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory from 1983 through 2011. We measured a nucleus rotation period of 8.950 ± 0.002 hr from 16 nights of imaging acquired between 2010 September and 2011 January. This rotation period is longer than the period we previously measured in 1999, which was itself longer than the period measured in 1988, and demonstrates that Tempel 2 is continuing to spin down, presumably due to torques caused by asymmetric outgassing. A nearly linear jet was observed which varied little during a rotation cycle in both R and CN images acquired during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions. We measured the projected direction of this jet throughout the two apparitions and, under the assumption that the source region of the jet was near the comet's pole, determined a rotational pole direction of R.A./decl. = 151°/+59° from CN measurements and R.A./decl. = 173°/+57° from dust measurements (we estimate a circular uncertainty of 3° for CN and 4° for dust). Different combinations of effects likely bias both gas and dust solutions and we elected to average these solutions for a final pole direction of R.A./decl. = 162° ± 11°/+58° ± 1°. Photoelectric photometry was acquired on 3 nights in 1983, 2 nights in 1988, 19 nights in 1999/2000, and 10 nights in 2010/2011. The activity exhibited a steep "turn-on" ~3 months prior to perihelion (the exact timing of which varies) and a relatively smooth decline after perihelion. The activity during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions was similar; limited data in 1983 and 1988 (along with IUE data from the literature) were systematically higher and the difference cannot be explained entirely by the smaller perihelion distance. We measured a "typical" composition, in agreement with previous investigators. Monte Carlo numerical modeling with our pole solution best replicated the observed coma morphology for a source region located near a comet latitude of +80° and having a

  5. A QUARTER-CENTURY OF OBSERVATIONS OF COMET 10P/TEMPEL 2 AT LOWELL OBSERVATORY: CONTINUED SPIN-DOWN, COMA MORPHOLOGY, PRODUCTION RATES, AND NUMERICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Christensen, Samantha R.; Farnham, Tony L.

    2012-11-01

    We report on photometry and imaging of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory from 1983 through 2011. We measured a nucleus rotation period of 8.950 {+-} 0.002 hr from 16 nights of imaging acquired between 2010 September and 2011 January. This rotation period is longer than the period we previously measured in 1999, which was itself longer than the period measured in 1988, and demonstrates that Tempel 2 is continuing to spin down, presumably due to torques caused by asymmetric outgassing. A nearly linear jet was observed which varied little during a rotation cycle in both R and CN images acquired during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions. We measured the projected direction of this jet throughout the two apparitions and, under the assumption that the source region of the jet was near the comet's pole, determined a rotational pole direction of R.A./decl. = 151 Degree-Sign /+59 Degree-Sign from CN measurements and R.A./decl. = 173 Degree-Sign /+57 Degree-Sign from dust measurements (we estimate a circular uncertainty of 3 Degree-Sign for CN and 4 Degree-Sign for dust). Different combinations of effects likely bias both gas and dust solutions and we elected to average these solutions for a final pole direction of R.A./decl. = 162 Degree-Sign {+-} 11 Degree-Sign /+58 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign . Photoelectric photometry was acquired on 3 nights in 1983, 2 nights in 1988, 19 nights in 1999/2000, and 10 nights in 2010/2011. The activity exhibited a steep 'turn-on' {approx}3 months prior to perihelion (the exact timing of which varies) and a relatively smooth decline after perihelion. The activity during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions was similar; limited data in 1983 and 1988 (along with IUE data from the literature) were systematically higher and the difference cannot be explained entirely by the smaller perihelion distance. We measured a 'typical' composition, in agreement with previous investigators. Monte Carlo numerical modeling with our pole solution best

  6. Six Years in the Life of a Mother Bear - The Longest Continuous Heart Rate Recordings from a Free-Ranging Mammal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laske, Timothy G.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Garshelis, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20–25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors.

  7. Six Years in the Life of a Mother Bear - The Longest Continuous Heart Rate Recordings from a Free-Ranging Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Laske, Timothy G.; Iaizzo, Paul A.; Garshelis, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20–25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors. PMID:28094804

  8. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-09-25

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L⁻¹·day⁻¹ indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance.

  9. Six Years in the Life of a Mother Bear - The Longest Continuous Heart Rate Recordings from a Free-Ranging Mammal.

    PubMed

    Laske, Timothy G; Iaizzo, Paul A; Garshelis, David L

    2017-01-17

    Physiological monitoring of free-ranging wild animals is providing new insights into their adaptations to a changing environment. American black bears (Ursus americanus) are highly adaptable mammals, spending up to half the year hibernating, and the remainder of the year attempting to gain weight on a landscape with foods that vary seasonally and year to year. We recorded heart rate (HR) and corresponding activity of an adult female black bear over the course of six years, using an implanted monitor. Despite yearly differences in food, and an every-other year reproductive cycle, this bear exhibited remarkable consistency in HR and activity. HR increased for 12 weeks in spring, from minimal hibernation levels (mean 20-25 beats/minute [bpm]; min 10 bpm) to summer active levels (July daytime: mean 95 bpm). Timing was delayed following one cold winter. In August the bear switched from primarily diurnal to nocturnal, coincident with the availability of baits set by legal hunters. Activity in autumn was higher when the bear was with cubs. Birthing of cubs in January was identified by a transient increase in HR and activity. Long-term physiological and behavioral monitoring is valuable for understanding adaptations of free-ranging animals to climate change, food availability, and human-related stressors.

  10. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  11. Entanglement Rate for Gaussian Continuous Variable Beams

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-24

    entangledGaussian beamswith arbitrary correlators . This expression is especially useful for situationswhere the source emits an arbitrary frequency spectrum...However, such a naive approach fails if there are correlations between subsequent pairs, or if we consider entangled beams of radiation that cannot be...frequency integral over what we call a ‘spectral density of entanglement’.We showhow to obtain this from the two-point time correlators of the entangled

  12. Biogas production performance of mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion with fat, oil, and grease in semi-continuous flow digesters: effects of temperature, hydraulic retention time, and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Li, C; Champagne, P; Anderson, B C

    2013-01-01

    Anaerobic co-digestions with fat, oil, and grease (FOG) were investigated in semi-continuous flow digesters under various operating conditions. The effects of hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12 and 24 days, organic loading rates (OLRs) between 1.19 and 8.97 gTVS/Ld, and digestion temperatures of 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C on biogas production were evaluated. It was proposed that, compared to anaerobic digestion with wastewater treatment plant sludge (primary raw sludge), semi-continuous flow anaerobic co-digestion with FOG could effectively enhance biogas and methane production. Thermophilic (55 degrees C) co-digestions exhibited higher biogas production and degradation of organics than mesophilic co-digestions. The best biogas production rate of 17.4 +/- 0.86 L/d and methane content 67.9 +/- 1.46% was obtained with a thermophilic co-digestion at HRT = 24 days and OLR = 2.43 +/- 0.15 g TVS/Ld. These were 32.8% and 7.10% higher than the respective values from the mesophilic co-digestion under similar operating conditions.

  13. Advancements in differential VLF: A low-cost approach to determining continuous lava effusion rates through a basaltic lava tube at Kilauea volcano, Hawaii using very low frequency electromagnetic monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, R. A.; Gregg, C. E.; Patrick, M. R.; Kauahikaua, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous measurements of lava discharge, especially when output is hidden entirely within lava tubes, has proven extremely difficult. To overcome this problem, we have developed and tested a low-cost prototype instrument for continuously monitoring the cross-sectional area of lava in a master lava tube and estimating the instantaneous flux of lava flowing from a volcano, in this case, Kilauea volcano's East Rift Zone (ERZ), Hawaii. This design utilized two stationary very low frequency (VLF) radio receivers. One on the ground surface over a lava tube to measure the influence of highly conductive molten lava on a VLF signal transmitted from remote US military transmitters (ca. 400km distant). The second, some 50 m from the tube measures background VLF interference above solidified lava. The normalized difference in the VLF signals allows for the continuous monitoring of the cross-sectional area of molten lava in the lava tube and hence the name Differential VLF (DVLF) method. With velocity estimation, the instantaneous lava effusion rate can also be monitored. Data from a short, but continuous 4-hr test of the prototype DVLF instrument were compared against two discontinuous measurements taken by a hand-held Geonics EM-16, which initially measured the wet cross-sectional area of the tube as 11.7 m2 and 65 minutes later at the time of the beginning of the DVLF measurements as 11.1 m2. This 5% reduction is consistent with declining tilt observed on the ERZ at that time and demonstrates that the tube was only flowing at partial capacity. A plot of the difference in the amplitude of the DVLF signal received by our two VLF radios reveals evidence for variation in the cross-sectional area of lava flowing in the tube. A portion of this variation can be reasonably attributed to imperfect calibration, temperature drift and errors in the analog-to-digital process; however, these factors are in total very small and unlikely to produce the variations observed. Since it is

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved.

  15. Kinetic, dynamic, and pathway studies of glycerol metabolism by Klebsiella pneumoniae in anaerobic continuous culture: II. Analysis of metabolic rates and pathways under oscillation and steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Zeng, A P; Menzel, K; Deckwer, W D

    1996-12-05

    The oscillation phenomena reported in the preceding article for the anaerobic continuous fermentation of glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae are analyzed in terms of metabolic fluxes (metabolic rates and yields) and stoichiometry of pathways. Significant oscillations in the fluxes of CO(2), H(2), formic acid, ethanol, and reducing equivalents are observed which show obvious relationships to each other. Changes in the consumption or production rates of glycerol, acetic acid, 1,3-propanediol, and ATP are irregular and have relatively small amplitudes compared with their absolute values. By comparing the metabolic fluxes under oscillation and steady state that have nearly the same environmental conditions it could be shown that pyruvate metabolism is the main step affected under oscillation conditions. The specific formation rates of all the products originating from pyruvate metabolism (CO(2), H(2), formic acid, ethanol, acetic acid, lactic acid, and 2,3-butanediol) show significant differences under conditions of oscillation and steady state. In contrast, the specific rates of substrate uptake, ATP generation, and formation of products deriving either directly from glycerol (1,3-propanediol) or from the upstream of pyruvate metabolism (e.g., succinic acid) are not, or at least not significantly, affected during oscillation. Stoichiometric analysis of metabolic pathways confirms that other enzyme systems, in addition to pyruvate: formate-lyase, must be simultaneously involved in the pyruvate decarboxylation under both oscillation and steady-state conditions. The results strongly suggest oscillations of activities of these enzymes under oscillation conditions. It appears that the reason for the occurrence of oscillation and hysteresis lies in an unstable regulation of pyruvate metabolism of different enzymes triggered by substrate excess and drastic change(s) of environmental conditions.

  16. Comparative evaluation of continuous intercostal nerve block or epidural analgesia on the rate of respiratory complications, intensive care unit, and hospital stay following traumatic rib fractures: a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Todd; Sturm, Ryan; Ricardi, Rick; Labond, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Background Thoracic trauma accounts for 10%–15% of all trauma admissions. Rib fractures are the most common injury following blunt thoracic trauma. Epidural analgesia improves patient outcomes but is not without problems. The use of continuous intercostal nerve blockade (CINB) may offer superior pain control with fewer side effects. This study’s objective was to compare the rate of pulmonary complications when traumatic rib fractures were treated with CINB vs epidurals. Methods A hospital trauma registry provided retrospective data from 2008 to 2013 for patients with 2 or more traumatic rib fractures. All subjects were admitted and were treated with either an epidural or a subcutaneously placed catheter for continuous intercostal nerve blockade. Our primary outcome was a composite of either pneumonia or respiratory failure. Secondary outcomes included total hospital days, total ICU days, and days on the ventilator. Results 12.5% (N=8) of the CINB group developed pneumonia or had respiratory failure compared to 16.3% (N=7) in the epidural group. No statistical difference (P=0.58) in the incidence of pneumonia or vent dependent respiratory failure was observed. There was a significant reduction (P=0.05) in hospital days from 9.72 (SD 9.98) in the epidural compared to 6.98 (SD 4.67) in the CINB group. The rest of our secondary outcomes showed no significant difference. Conclusion This study did not show a difference in the rate of pneumonia or ventilator-dependent respiratory failure in the CINB vs epidural groups. It was not sufficiently powered. Our data supports a reduction in hospital days when CINB is used vs epidural. CINB may have advantages over epidurals such as fewer complications, fewer contraindications, and a shorter time to placement. Further studies are needed to confirm these statements. PMID:26604819

  17. Effect of dilution rate and nutrients addition on the fermentative capability and synthesis of aromatic compounds of two indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous cultures fed with Agave tequilana juice.

    PubMed

    Morán-Marroquín, G A; Córdova, J; Valle-Rodríguez, J O; Estarrón-Espinosa, M; Díaz-Montaño, D M

    2011-11-15

    Knowledge of physiological behavior of indigenous tequila yeast used in fermentation process is still limited. Yeasts have significant impact on the productivity fermentation process as well as the sensorial characteristics of the alcoholic beverage. For these reasons a better knowledge of the physiological and metabolic features of these yeasts is required. The effects of dilution rate, nitrogen and phosphorus source addition and micro-aeration on growth, fermentation and synthesis of volatile compounds of two native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, cultured in continuous fed with Agave tequilana juice were studied. For S1 and S2 strains, maximal concentrations of biomass, ethanol, consumed sugars, alcohols and esters were obtained at 0.04 h⁻¹. Those concentrations quickly decreased as D increased. For S. cerevisiae S1 cultures (at D=0.08 h⁻¹) supplemented with ammonium phosphate (AP) from 1 to 4 g/L, concentrations of residual sugars decreased from 29.42 to 17.60 g/L and ethanol increased from 29.63 to 40.08 g/L, respectively. The S1 culture supplemented with AP was then micro-aerated from 0 to 0.02 vvm, improving all the kinetics parameters: biomass, ethanol and glycerol concentrations increased from 5.66, 40.08 and 3.11 g/L to 8.04, 45.91 and 4.88 g/L; residual sugars decreased from 17.67 g/L to 4.48 g/L; and rates of productions of biomass and ethanol, and consumption of sugars increased from 0.45, 3.21 and 7.33 g/L·h to 0.64, 3.67 and 8.38 g/L·h, respectively. Concentrations of volatile compounds were also influenced by the micro-aeration rate. Ester and alcohol concentrations were higher, in none aerated and in aerated cultures respectively.

  18. Quasi-continuous parallel online scattered light, fluorescence and dissolved oxygen tension measurement combined with monitoring of the oxygen transfer rate in each well of a shaken microtiter plate.

    PubMed

    Ladner, Tobias; Held, Markus; Flitsch, David; Beckers, Mario; Büchs, Jochen

    2016-12-03

    Microtiter plates (MTP) are often applied as culture vessels in high-throughput screening programs. If online measuring techniques are available, MTPs can also be applied in the first steps of process development. For such small-scale bioreactors dipping probes are usually too large; therefore, optical measurements are often used. For example, the BioLector technology allows for the online monitoring of scattered light and fluorescence in each well of a continuously orbitally shaken MTP. Although this system provides valuable data, these measurements are mainly of a semi-quantitative nature. Therefore, signal calibration is required to obtain absolute values. With the µRAMOS technology it became possible for the first time to quantify the oxygen transfer rate (OTR) separately in each well of an MTP. In this work, a device is presented that combines both techniques, to provide a hitherto unparalleled high amount of information from each single well. Because both systems (BioLector and µRAMOS) are based on optical measurements, the measurements need to be synchronized to avoid interferences with the optical signals. The new experimental setup was applied for online monitoring in cultures of Escherichia coli and Hansenula polymorpha. It has been demonstrated that the well-to-well reproducibility is very high, and that the monitored signals provide reliable and valuable information about the process. With varying filling volumes, different maximum oxygen transfer capacities (OTRmax) were adjusted in oxygen-limited cultures. The different degrees of stress during the culture due to oxygen limitation affected microbial growth and also impacted reproducibility from culture to culture. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that this new device significantly simplifies the experimental efforts: instead of parallel cultures in a shake flask and MTP, just one single experiment in MTP needs to be conducted to measure the OTR, dissolved oxygen tension (DOT), scattered light and

  19. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  20. Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion in Neonates and Infants Below 1 Year: Analysis of Initial Bolus and Basal Rate Based on the Experiences from the German Working Group for Pediatric Pump Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kapellen, Thomas M; Heidtmann, Bettina; Lilienthal, Eggert; Rami-Merhar, Birgit; Engler-Schmidt, Charlotte; Holl, Reinhard W

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus is rare in young infants and neonates. Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is used most frequently for insulin treatment in this age group. However, the individual doctor's experience is scarce because of the low prevalence of diabetes in this age. For this study patients treated with CSII with an age below 1 year were selected from the German/Austrian DPV (Diabetes-Patienten-Verlaufsdokumentation) database, and basal rate and bolus calculation were described. For all patients less than 1 year of age, basal rate and mealtime boluses were compared among infants with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), infants with neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM), and infants with antibody status unknown diabetes mellitus (AUDM). Fifty-eight patients with T1DM, 67 neonates with NDM, and 43 infants with early diabetes development after 6 months and negative β-cell antibodies (AUDM) could be analyzed. T1DM patients at onset required a median total insulin amount of 0.83 IU/kg of body weight, whereas NDM patients required 0.74 IU/kg of body weight (P = 0.63). Basal insulin requirement however, was different between the two groups (0.56 IU/kg of body weight in NDM vs. 0.43 IU/kg in T1DM) (P = 0.036). The percentage basal profile of NDM and T1DM patients was quite similar to children at the age of 1-5 years. The proportion of prandial insulin at onset was significantly different (32% in NDM vs. 53% in T1DM) (P < 0.00001). AUDM patients showed almost similar data to T1DM patients. The pattern of mealtime bolus insulin was not different among the groups. The presented data can be used as an initial guide value to start CSII treatment in neonates and infants. To be on the safe side we recommend the lower quartile for the dosage as the starting value in nonketotic patients.

  1. Agreement between paper and pen visual analogue scales and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system (PRO-Diary©), for continuous monitoring of free-living subjective appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children.

    PubMed

    Rumbold, P L S; Dodd-Reynolds, C J; Stevenson, E

    2013-10-01

    Electronic capture of free-living subjective appetite data can provide a more reliable alternative to traditional pen and paper visual analogue scales (P&P VAS), whilst reducing researcher workload. Consequently, the aim of this study was to explore the agreement between P&P VAS and a wristwatch-based electronic appetite rating system known as the PRO-Diary© technique, for monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children. On one occasion, using a within-subject design, the 12 children (n=6 boys; n=6 girls) recorded their subjective appetite (hunger, prospective food consumption, and fullness), at two time points before lunch (11:30 and 12:00) and every 60 min thereafter until 21:00. The agreement between the P&P VAS and PRO-Diary© technique was explored using 95% limits of agreement and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) calculated using the Bland and Altman (1986) technique. For hunger, prospective food consumption and fullness, the 95% limits of agreement were -1±25 mm (95% CI: lower limit -8mm; upper limit +6mm), 0±21 mm (95% CI: lower limit -6mm; upper limit +6mm) and -6±24 mm (95% CI: lower limit -14 mm; upper limit +1mm), respectively. Given the advantages associated with electronic data capture (inexpensive; integrated alarm; data easily downloaded), we conclude that the PRO-Diary© technique is an equivalent method to employ when continuously monitoring free-living appetite sensations in 7-10 year old children, but should not be used interchangeably with P&P VAS.

  2. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid.

  3. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1997-07-08

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid. 3 figs.

  4. Method of continuously producing coke

    SciTech Connect

    Pietzka, G.; Romey, I.; Tillmanns, H.

    1980-08-26

    Continuous production of coke by pyrolysis of a hydrocarbon mixture containing petroleum tar, coal tar pitch or pyrolysis tars in which the hyrocarbon mixture and recycled condensate is heated in a preheater at a rate to increase the mesophase content of the mixture up to 30 to 60%; the preheated mixture is then heated in a coking zone at a rate to form a raw coke having a mesophase content of 70 to 100%; continuously removing the raw coke from the coking zone and heating it in a calciner. The coke produced is more uniform and the process more efficient.

  5. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  6. Continuously broken ergodicity.

    PubMed

    Mauro, J