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Sample records for medetomidine continuous rate

  1. Continuous intravenous anaesthesia with sufentanil and midazolam in medetomidine premedicated New Zealand White rabbits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Anaesthesia in rabbits is associated with a high mortality rate, compared to that in cats and dogs. Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) with drugs that provide cardiovascular stability and are rapidly metabolised could be of benefit for use in rabbits. The aim was to evaluate cardiorespiratory effects of TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam in eight New Zealand White rabbits. Subcutaneous premedication with medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg BW) was followed by IV administration of a mixture of 2.5 μg/mL sufentanil and 0.45 mg/mL midazolam at a rate of 0.3 mL/kg BW/h for anaesthetic induction. Additionally, intravenous boluses of 0.1 mL of the mixture were administered every 20 s until the righting reflex was lost. Following endotracheal intubation, anaesthesia was maintained for 60 min with an infusion rate adjusted to supress the pedal withdrawal reflex. Air and oxygen (1:2) were delivered at 3 L/min. Physiological variables were recorded before induction and at predefined time points during and after anaesthesia. Results Righting and pedal withdrawal reflexes were lost within 3 and 5 min, respectively. Doses of sufentanil and midazolam were 0.48 μg/kg BW and 0.09 mg/kg BW for induction, and 0.72 μg/kg BW/h and 0.13 mg/kg BW/h for maintenance. Apnoea occurred in two rabbits. Induction of anaesthesia caused a significant increase in heart rate, cardiac output and arterial CO2 partial pressure and a decrease in mean arterial pressure, respiratory rate and pH. Mean time from stopping the infusion to endotracheal extubation was 5 min, and to return of the righting reflex 7 min. Anaesthesia was characterized by induction and recovery without excitation, with muscle relaxation, and absence of the pedal withdrawal reflex. Conclusions TIVA with sufentanil-midazolam provided smooth induction and recovery of anaesthesia in rabbits but with marked hypotension and respiratory depression, requiring mechanical ventilation. Further evaluation is needed to establish if the

  2. Effect of medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine anaesthesia and atipamezole on heart and respiratory rate and cloacal temperature of domestic pigeons.

    PubMed

    Atalan, G; Uzun, M; Demirkan, I; Yildiz, S; Cenesiz, M

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sedative-anaesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine (M, 50 microg per pigeon), butorphanol (B, 50 microg per pigeon) and ketamine (K, 25 mg per pigeon) in domestic pigeons. Eight domestic pigeons (four male and four female, 8-15 months old) were used. The combination of Medetomidine and butorphanol injectable solutions were used to produce sedation. Ten minutes after M + B administration, K was injected. The anaesthetic effects of the drugs were reversed by administration of Atipamazole (AT) at 60 min after K administration. All drugs were injected into the pectoral muscles. The sedative-anaesthetic effects of the M + B-K combination and, alterations in respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), electrocardiographic (ECG) findings and cloacal temperature (CT) were investigated before and 10 min after pre-medication with M + B, at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min during the onset of K anaesthesia and at 1, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 60 min following the administration of AT. The HR and RR of pigeons decreased within 10 min following M + B administration and remained lower until 1st and 5 min of AT injection, respectively. In ECG, no significant alterations in P, Q, R and S-values were observed, however, arhythmia was recorded for three pigeons, which returned to normal values following AT administration throughout the measurement. Cloacal temperature decreased gradually during the anaesthesia from 41.0 to 32.7 degrees C. The drug combination used in this study produced a satisfactory general anaesthesia for seven of the eight pigeons. All pigeons were unconscious within 5 min after K administration as indicated by disappearance of the palpebral and corneal reflexes and lack of reaction to the pain stimuli during the study. The effect of AT administration was observed within 10 min as all pigeons responded partly against stimuli and all reflexes. It is concluded that M + B-K anaesthesia in pigeons is a safe and reliable anaesthetic

  3. Effects of isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine and a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and fentanyl on physiological variables continuously measured by telemetry in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated effects on cardiovascular parameters during anaesthesia with isoflurane (ISO, 2–3 Vol%), ketamine-xylazine (KX, 100 mg•kg−1 + 5 mg•kg−1) or a combination of medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF, 0.15 mg•kg−1 + 2.0 mg•kg−1 + 0.005 mg•kg−1) in rats throughout induction, maintenance and recovery from anaesthesia. Rats were instrumented with a telemetric system for the measurement of systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP, MAP), pulse pressure (PP), heart rate (HR) and core body temperature (BT). The parameters were continuously measured before, during and after each type of anaesthesia. Forty minutes after induction, ISO delivery was terminated and MMF was antagonized with atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone (AFN, 0.75 mg•kg−1 + 0.2 mg•kg−1 + 0.12 mg•kg−1) whereas KX was not antagonized. Results Differences were observed between anaesthesias with KX (301 min) lasting much longer than MMF (45 min) and ISO (43 min). HR in ISO (x¯ = 404 ± 25 bpm) increased during the time of surgical tolerance whereas a HR decrease was observed in KX (x¯ = 255 ± 26 bpm) and MMF (x¯ = 209 ± 24 bpm). In ISO (MAP during time of surgical tolerance: x¯ = 89 ± 12.3 mmHg) and KX (MAP during wake-up period: x¯ = 84 ± 8.5 mmHg) mild hypotensive values were observed, whereas blood pressure (BP) in MMF (MAP during time of surgical tolerance: x¯ = 138 ± 9.9 mmHg) increased. Despite keeping animals on a warming pad, a loss of BT of about 1°C was seen in all groups. Additionally, we observed a peaked increase of HR (x¯ = 445 ± 20 bpm) during the wake-up period with ISO and an increase of PP (x¯ = 59 ± 8.5 mmHg) in MMF during the time of surgical tolerance. Conclusion The anaesthesias influenced very differently the cardiovascular parameters measured in Wistar rats. ISO caused mild hypotension and increased HR whereas MMF produced a

  4. Medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol anesthetic combinations in binturongs (Arctictis binturong).

    PubMed

    Moresco, Anneke; Larsen, R Scott

    2003-12-01

    The efficacy, safety, and reliability of two ketamine-medetomidine-butorphanol anesthetic combinations were evaluated in 34 adult binturongs (Arctictis binturong). The animals were randomly assigned to one of the two groups. On the basis of estimated body weights, group high ketamine (HK) received ketamine (8 mg/kg, i.m.), medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg, i.m.), and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.) combined in a single injection, and group low ketamine (LK) received ketamine (2 mg/kg, i.m.), medetomidine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m.), and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.). Cardiopulmonary parameters were measured for approximately 45 min; the animals were then administered atipamezole (5 mg/mg medetomidine, i.m.). Individual responses varied greatly to the anesthetic combinations, but similar numbers of animals in each group needed supplemental anesthetic agents (seven in group HK and six in group LK). Mean heart rates were higher in the LK group throughout anesthesia. Animals in both groups were mildly to moderately hypoxemic, but oxygenation improved in both groups following supplemental oxygen administration. Respiratory rates, arterial blood pressures, body temperatures, and end-tidal CO2 values were similar in both groups. Both protocols were effective; however, the LK combination is preferable because the mean recovery time was shorter. PMID:15077709

  5. Anesthesia with Intraperitoneal Propofol, Medetomidine, and Fentanyl in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Heber Nuno Castro; da Silva, Aura Luísa Maia; Olsson, Ingrid Anna S; Orden, José Manuel Gonzalo; Antunes, Luis Marques

    2010-01-01

    A safe and reliable method for anesthetizing rats has long been a leading concern of biomedical researchers. We recently found that the intraperitoneal administration of propofol combined with medetomidine and fentanyl is safe for mouse anesthesia. Here we studied whether the same combination could be used for general anesthesia in rats. We used male Wistar rats to test 10 combinations of propofol, medetomidine, and fentanyl administered intraperitoneally and reversed with intraperitoneal atipamezole 30 min after induction. The depth of anesthesia, induction time, loss of pedal withdrawal reflex, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated, along with the duration and quality of induction, surgical anesthesia, and recovery. The combination of propofol and medetomidine provided a predictable induction and sufficient hypnosis and muscle relaxation, but surgical anesthesia (loss of pedal withdrawal reflex) was difficult to achieve with this protocol. The addition of fentanyl increased analgesia, making it possible to achieve surgical anesthesia. In conclusion, combination of propofol (100 mg/kg), medetomidine (0.1 mg/kg), and fentanyl (0.1 mg/kg) is a safe and practical technique for intraperitoneal anesthesia in rats, providing a surgical window of 25 min and restraint for 30 min, with rapid recovery after administration of atipamezole. PMID:20819392

  6. Comparison of the efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-based anesthetic protocols in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta).

    PubMed

    Williams, Cathy V; Glenn, Kelly M; Levine, Jay F; Horne, William A

    2003-06-01

    The relative efficacies and cardiorespiratory effects of three injectable anesthetic combinations containing medetomidine were evaluated in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). In addition, the direct effects of medetomidine on heart rate and blood pressure were evaluated in lemurs anesthetized with isoflurane. For injectable anesthesia, captive adult ring-tailed lemurs were anesthetized with medetomidine and ketamine (0.04-0.06 mg/kg, i.m. and 3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively), medetomidine, butorphanol, and ketamine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m., 0.4 mg/kg, i.m., and 3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively), or medetomidine, butorphanol, and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg, i.m., 0.4 mg/kg, i.m., and 0.3 mg/kg, i.m., respectively). For inhalation anesthesia, lemurs were mask-induced and maintained with isoflurane for 30 min before receiving medetomidine (0.04 mg/kg, i.m.). Sedation produced by medetomidine-ketamine was unpredictable and of short duration. Both medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine (MBK) and medetomidine-butorphanol-midazolam (MBMz) provided adequate anesthesia for routine physical exams; however, the effects of MBMz lasted longer than those of MBK. Heart rates and respiratory rates were within clinically normal ranges for all groups, and lemurs remained normotensive throughout the study. Common side effects such as hypertension and bradycardia associated with the use of alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist combinations in other species were not observed. Likewise, medetomidine administration had no effect on HR in lemurs receiving isoflurane. Lemurs in all groups were well ventilated and remained well oxygenated throughout the procedures, though arterial partial pressure of O2 was lowest in the MBMz group. All three injectable medetomidine combinations were effective in ring-tailed lemurs but only MBK and MBMz provided adequate depth and duration of anesthesia for use as sole regimes. For many clinical procedures in lemurs, MBMz offers advantages over MBK because of its longer duration of

  7. Cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine-butorphanol, medetomidine-butorphanol-diazepam, and medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine in captive red wolves (Canis rufus).

    PubMed

    Larsen, R Scott; Loomis, Michael R; Kelly, Brian T; Sladky, Kurt K; Stoskopf, Michael K; Horne, William A

    2002-06-01

    Safe, effective, and reversible immobilization protocols are essential for the management of free-ranging red wolves (Canis rufus). Combinations using an alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist and ketamine have been shown to be effective for immobilization but are not reversible and can produce severe hypertension and prolonged or rough recoveries. To minimize hypertension and provide reversibility, 24 red wolves were immobilized using three medetomidine-butorphanol (MB) combinations without the use of ketamine in the initial injection. All wolves were administered medetomidine (0.04 mg/kg i.m.) and butorphanol (0.4 mg/kg i.m.). Seven wolves received no other immobilization agents (MB wolves), nine received diazepam (0.2 mg/kg i.v.) at the time they were instrumented (MBD wolves), and eight received ketamine (1 mg/kg i.v.) 30 min after instrumentation (MBK30 wolves). Physiologic parameters were monitored during immobilization. The heart rate was similar among the three groups for the first 30 min, and marked bradycardia was noted in one wolf from each group. Hypertension was observed initially in all three groups but was resolved within 10-30 min. The MBK30 wolves had significant elevations in heart rate and transient hypertension after intravenous ketamine administration. Most wolves had mild to moderate metabolic acidemia. Immobilizing drugs were antagonized in all wolves with atipamezole (0.2 mg/kg i.m.) and naloxone (0.02 mg/kg i.m.). The medetomidine-butorphanol-diazepam wolves were also given flumazenil (0.04 mg/kg i.v.). All wolves were standing within 12 min and were fully recovered within 17 min. Medetomamine-butorphanol and MBD combinations provided effective and reversible immobilization of red wolves without the sustained hypertension associated with the use of alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist-ketamine combinations. Delaying the administration of ketamine reduced its hypertensive effects.

  8. Anesthesia of captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) using a medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination.

    PubMed

    Ward, David G; Blyde, David; Lemon, John; Johnston, Steve

    2006-06-01

    Seven captive male African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) weighing 25-32 kg each, were anesthetized by i.m. injection via hand syringe with a combination of 1.5 mg/kg ketamine, 40 microg/kg medetomidine, and 0.05 mg/kg atropine. Following endotracheal intubation, each animal was connected to a bain closed-circuit system that delivered 1.5% isoflurane and 2 L/min oxygen. Atipamezole (0.1 mg/kg i.v.; 0.1 mg/kg i.m.) was given at the end of each procedure (60 min following injection of medetomidine/ketamine/atropine). Time to sternal recumbency was 5-8 min. Times to standing after atipamezole administration were 8-20 min. This anesthetic regimen was repeated on three separate occasions (September 2000, February 2002, and October 2002) on all males to perform electroejaculation procedures. Each procedure was <80 min from injection to standing. Dogs showed excellent muscle relaxation during the procedures. Arterial blood samples were collected at 10-min intervals for blood gases in one procedure (September 2000). Separate venous samples were taken from each dog during each procedure for hematology and biochemistry. These values were within the normal range for this species. Arterial hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate (HR) were monitored continuously in addition to other anesthesia monitoring procedures (body temperature, respiratory rate [RR], capillary refill time, blink response, pupil position, deep pain perception reflex). All dogs maintained relatively stable SpO2 profiles during monitoring, with a mean (+/-SD) SpO2 of 92% +/-5.4%. All other physiological variables (HR, RR, body temperature, blood pressure) were within normal limits. Following each procedure, normal behavior was noted in all dogs. All the dogs were reunited into the pack at completion of their anesthetic procedures. An injectable medetomidine-ketamine-atropine combination with maintenance by gaseous isoflurane and oxygen provides an inexpensive, reliable anesthetic for captive African

  9. Effects of atipamezole and yohimbine on medetomidine-induced central nervous system depression and cardiorespiratory changes in lambs.

    PubMed

    Ko, J C; McGrath, C J

    1995-05-01

    We compared the ability of 2 alpha 2-adrenergic receptor antagonists, atipamezole and yohimbine, to reverse medetomidine-induced CNS depression and cardiorespiratory changes in lambs. Twenty lambs (7.8 +/- 2.6 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatment groups (n = 5). Each lamb was given medetomidine (30 micrograms/kg of body weight, i.v.), followed in 15 minutes by i.v. administration of atipamezole (30 or 60 micrograms/kg), yohimbine (1 mg/kg), or 0.9% NaCl (saline) solution. Medetomidine caused lateral recumbency in 1 to 2 minutes in all treated lambs. Medetomidine significantly (P < 0.05) decreased heart rate at 5 and 10 minutes after its administration. Heart rate remained above 120 beats/min, and severe bradycardia (< or = 70 beats/min) and other arrhythmias did not occur throughout the study. Medetomidine also induced tachypnea in all treated lambs. The tachypnea was abolished by atipamezole and yohimbine, but not by saline solution administration. The medetomidine-induced tachypnea did not significantly affect arterial pH and PaCO2. Arterial oxygen tension was within acceptable range (PaO2 = 71 to 62 mm of Hg), but was lower than expected. Administration of atipamezole, yohimbine, or saline solution did not change PaO2 significantly. Lambs treated with 30 or 60 micrograms of atipamezole/kg were able to walk unassisted in 2.4 +/- 0.4 and 2.3 +/- 0.7 minutes, respectively, whereas yohimbine- and saline-treated lambs did not walk unassisted until 15.6 +/- 2.7 and 73.0 +/- 6.8 minutes later, respectively. Results of this study indicated that medetomidine is a potent CNS depressant in lambs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of combined alfaxalone, butorphanol, and medetomidine in Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Hajime; Okano, Atsushi; Mukai, Kazutaka; Fukuda, Kentaro; Takahashi, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated induction of anesthesia and cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects during maintained anesthesia with the combination of alfaxalone, medetomidine, and butorphanol. Alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia after premedication with medetomidine (7.0 µg/kg), butorphanol (25 µg/kg), and midazolam (50 µg/kg) in six Thoroughbred horses. Intravenous general anesthesia was maintained with alfaxalone (2.0 mg/(kg∙hr)), medetomidine (5.0 µg/(kg∙hr)), and butorphanol (30 µg/(kg∙hr)) for 60 min. Electrical stimulation of the upper oral mucosa was used to assess anesthetic depth at 10 min intervals during anesthesia. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. All horses became recumbent within 1 min after alfaxalone administration. Induction scores were 5 (best) in five horses and 4 in one horse. During the 60-min anesthesia, average HR, RR, and MAP were 35.8 ± 2.6 beat/min, 4.7 ± 0.6 breath/min, and 129 ± 3 mmHg, respectively. No horse moved with electrical stimulation; however, two horses experienced apnea (no respiration for 1 to 3 min). Recovery scores were 5 (best) in two horses and 3 in four horses. These results suggest that alfaxalone is effective for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and analgesia when combined with butorphanol and medetomidine for 60 min in Thoroughbreds. However, respiratory depression might require support. PMID:27073330

  11. Capture and medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia of free-ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo).

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Asa; Arnemo, Jon M; Persson, Jens; Segerström, Peter; Nyman, Görel

    2008-01-01

    Capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine were evaluated in free-ranging wolverines (Gulo gulo) immobilized for marking with radiocollars or intraperitoneal radiotransmitters in Norrbotten, Sweden, during early June 2004 and 2005. Twelve juvenile wolverines were captured by hand and injected with 0.14 +/- 0.03 mg/kg (mean +/- SD) medetomidine and 7.5 +/- 2.0 mg/kg ketamine. Twelve adult wolverines were darted from a helicopter or the ground, or captured by hand. Adults received 0.37 +/- 0.06 mg/kg medetomidine and 9.4 +/- 1.4 mg/kg ketamine. Arterial blood samples were collected between 15 min and 30 min and between 45 min and 60 min after drug administration and immediately analyzed for selected hematologic and plasma variables. Hyperthermia was recorded initially in one juvenile wolverine and 11 adults. Rectal temperature, heart rate, and lactate decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas hemoglobin oxygen saturation, pH, partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, and base excess increased. Adult wolverines darted from a helicopter had a significantly higher rectal temperature, higher glucose and hematocrit values, and a lower heart rate than juveniles captured by hand. Impaired arterial oxygenation was evident in all wolverines. This study provides baseline data on physiologic variables in adult and juvenile wolverines captured with different methods and anesthetized with medetomidine-ketamine.

  12. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of combined alfaxalone, butorphanol, and medetomidine in Thoroughbred horses

    PubMed Central

    OHMURA, Hajime; OKANO, Atsushi; MUKAI, Kazutaka; FUKUDA, Kentaro; TAKAHASHI, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study evaluated induction of anesthesia and cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects during maintained anesthesia with the combination of alfaxalone, medetomidine, and butorphanol. Alfaxalone (1.0 mg/kg) was administered to induce anesthesia after premedication with medetomidine (7.0 µg/kg), butorphanol (25 µg/kg), and midazolam (50 µg/kg) in six Thoroughbred horses. Intravenous general anesthesia was maintained with alfaxalone (2.0 mg/(kg∙hr)), medetomidine (5.0 µg/(kg∙hr)), and butorphanol (30 µg/(kg∙hr)) for 60 min. Electrical stimulation of the upper oral mucosa was used to assess anesthetic depth at 10 min intervals during anesthesia. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (RR), and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. All horses became recumbent within 1 min after alfaxalone administration. Induction scores were 5 (best) in five horses and 4 in one horse. During the 60-min anesthesia, average HR, RR, and MAP were 35.8 ± 2.6 beat/min, 4.7 ± 0.6 breath/min, and 129 ± 3 mmHg, respectively. No horse moved with electrical stimulation; however, two horses experienced apnea (no respiration for 1 to 3 min). Recovery scores were 5 (best) in two horses and 3 in four horses. These results suggest that alfaxalone is effective for induction and maintenance of anesthesia and analgesia when combined with butorphanol and medetomidine for 60 min in Thoroughbreds. However, respiratory depression might require support. PMID:27073330

  13. The bioavailability of medetomidine in eight sheep following oesophageal administration.

    PubMed

    Hyndman, Timothy H; Musk, Gabrielle C; Murdoch, Fraser R; Maker, Garth L; Whittem, Ted

    2015-12-01

    There is sound evidence that medetomidine is an effective analgesic for acute pain in sheep. In this study, 15 μg kg(-1) of medetomidine was administered intravenously, and into the oesophagus, in a cross-over study, using eight sheep. Following intravenous administration, medetomidine could be detected in the plasma of these sheep for 120-180 min but following oesophageal administration, medetomidine could not be detected in the plasma of any sheep at any of 17 time points over four days. It is suspected that this is due to high first pass metabolism in the liver. Consequently, we conclude that future studies investigating the use of analgesics in orally-administered osmotic pumps in sheep should consider higher doses of medetomidine (e.g. >100 μg kg(-1)), further investigations into the barriers of medetomidine bioavailability from the sheep gut, liver-bypass drug delivery systems, or other α2-adrenergic agonists (e.g. clonidine or xylazine).

  14. Field anesthesia of golden jackals (Canis aureus) with the use of medetomidine-ketamine or medetomidine-midazolam with atipamezole reversal.

    PubMed

    King, Roni; Lapid, Roi; Epstein, Ana; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Shilo, Yael

    2008-12-01

    Twenty-two free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus) were immobilized with a combination of 113 +/- 24 microg/kg medetomidine and 2.1 +/- 0.3 mg/kg ketamine (M-K) or 88 +/- 16 microg/kg medetomidine and 0.47 +/- 0.08 mg/ kg midazolam (M-M) by i.m. injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and oxygen saturation were measured. Anesthesia depth indicators were observed. There was no significant difference between the M-K and the M-M groups regarding induction time (6:14 +/- 1:45 and 7:16 +/- 2:09 min, respectively). Both combinations provided safe and effective immobilization for at least 20-30 min. Pulse rate was significantly higher in the M-K group. There was no significant difference in any other objective or subjective parameter. Following administration of atipamezole at five times the dose of medetomidine given, there was a significant difference between the two combinations in recovery time; M-K jackals were standing within 3:42 +/- 2:17 min and M-M jackals within 8:47 +/- 4:32 min. Neither of the combinations caused rough or prolonged recovery. Subjectively, the M-M group had smoother and less ataxic recovery. PMID:19110699

  15. Field anesthesia of golden jackals (Canis aureus) with the use of medetomidine-ketamine or medetomidine-midazolam with atipamezole reversal.

    PubMed

    King, Roni; Lapid, Roi; Epstein, Ana; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Shilo, Yael

    2008-12-01

    Twenty-two free-ranging golden jackals (Canis aureus) were immobilized with a combination of 113 +/- 24 microg/kg medetomidine and 2.1 +/- 0.3 mg/kg ketamine (M-K) or 88 +/- 16 microg/kg medetomidine and 0.47 +/- 0.08 mg/ kg midazolam (M-M) by i.m. injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Pulse rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and oxygen saturation were measured. Anesthesia depth indicators were observed. There was no significant difference between the M-K and the M-M groups regarding induction time (6:14 +/- 1:45 and 7:16 +/- 2:09 min, respectively). Both combinations provided safe and effective immobilization for at least 20-30 min. Pulse rate was significantly higher in the M-K group. There was no significant difference in any other objective or subjective parameter. Following administration of atipamezole at five times the dose of medetomidine given, there was a significant difference between the two combinations in recovery time; M-K jackals were standing within 3:42 +/- 2:17 min and M-M jackals within 8:47 +/- 4:32 min. Neither of the combinations caused rough or prolonged recovery. Subjectively, the M-M group had smoother and less ataxic recovery.

  16. ETORPHINE-KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA IN WILD IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS) OF 120-MINUTE DURATION.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Stegmann, George F; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Buck, Roxanne K; Kästner, Sabine B R; Kummrow, Maya; Gerlach, Christina; Meyer, Leith C R

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing necessity to perform long-term anesthesia in wildlife, especially antelope. The costs and logistics of transporting wildlife to veterinary practices make surgical intervention a high-stakes operation. Thus there is a need for a field-ready total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) infusion to maintain anesthesia in antelope. This study explored the feasibility of an etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA for field anesthesia. Ten wild-caught, adult impala ( Aepyceros melampus ) were enrolled in the study. Impala were immobilized with a standardized combination of etorphine (2 mg) and medetomidine (2.2 mg), which equated to a median (interquartile range [IQR]) etorphine and medetomidine dose of 50.1 (46.2-50.3) and 55.1 (50.8-55.4) μg/kg, respectively. Recumbency was attained in a median (IQR) time of 13.9 (12.0-16.5) min. Respiratory gas tensions, spirometry, and arterial blood gas were analyzed over a 120-min infusion. Once instrumented, the TIVA was infused as follows: etorphine at a variable rate initiated at 40 μg/kg per hour (adjusted according to intermittent deep-pain testing); ketamine and medetomidine at a fixed rate of 1.5 mg/kg per hour and 5 μg/kg per hour, respectively. The etorphine had an erratic titration to clinical effect in four impala. Arterial blood pressure and respiratory and heart rates were all within normal physiological ranges. However, arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Oxygenation and ventilation indices were calculated and highlighted possible co-etiologies to the suspected etorphine-induced respiratory depression as the cause of the blood gas derangements. Impala recovered in the boma post atipamezole (13 mg) and naltrexone (42 mg) antagonism of medetomidine and etorphine, respectively. The etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA protocol for impala may be sufficient for field procedures of up to 120-min duration. However, hypoxemia and hypercapnia are of paramount concern and

  17. ETORPHINE-KETAMINE-MEDETOMIDINE TOTAL INTRAVENOUS ANESTHESIA IN WILD IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS) OF 120-MINUTE DURATION.

    PubMed

    Zeiler, Gareth E; Stegmann, George F; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Buck, Roxanne K; Kästner, Sabine B R; Kummrow, Maya; Gerlach, Christina; Meyer, Leith C R

    2015-12-01

    There is a growing necessity to perform long-term anesthesia in wildlife, especially antelope. The costs and logistics of transporting wildlife to veterinary practices make surgical intervention a high-stakes operation. Thus there is a need for a field-ready total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) infusion to maintain anesthesia in antelope. This study explored the feasibility of an etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA for field anesthesia. Ten wild-caught, adult impala ( Aepyceros melampus ) were enrolled in the study. Impala were immobilized with a standardized combination of etorphine (2 mg) and medetomidine (2.2 mg), which equated to a median (interquartile range [IQR]) etorphine and medetomidine dose of 50.1 (46.2-50.3) and 55.1 (50.8-55.4) μg/kg, respectively. Recumbency was attained in a median (IQR) time of 13.9 (12.0-16.5) min. Respiratory gas tensions, spirometry, and arterial blood gas were analyzed over a 120-min infusion. Once instrumented, the TIVA was infused as follows: etorphine at a variable rate initiated at 40 μg/kg per hour (adjusted according to intermittent deep-pain testing); ketamine and medetomidine at a fixed rate of 1.5 mg/kg per hour and 5 μg/kg per hour, respectively. The etorphine had an erratic titration to clinical effect in four impala. Arterial blood pressure and respiratory and heart rates were all within normal physiological ranges. However, arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxemia, hypercapnia, and acidosis. Oxygenation and ventilation indices were calculated and highlighted possible co-etiologies to the suspected etorphine-induced respiratory depression as the cause of the blood gas derangements. Impala recovered in the boma post atipamezole (13 mg) and naltrexone (42 mg) antagonism of medetomidine and etorphine, respectively. The etorphine-ketamine-medetomidine TIVA protocol for impala may be sufficient for field procedures of up to 120-min duration. However, hypoxemia and hypercapnia are of paramount concern and

  18. Physiologic evaluation of capture and anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine in brown bears (Ursus arctos).

    PubMed

    Fahlman, Asa; Arnemo, Jon M; Swenson, Jon E; Pringle, John; Brunberg, Sven; Nyman, Görel

    2011-03-01

    Physiologic variables during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine were evaluated in 52 free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) darted from a helicopter and in six captive brown bears darted at a zoo. During anesthesia, rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, and pulse oximetry derived hemoglobin oxygen saturation were recorded. Arterial blood samples were collected and immediately analyzed for evaluation of pulmonary gas exchange, acid-base status, and selected hematologic and plasma variables. At the end of anesthesia, atipamezole was administered intramuscularly at five times the medetomidine dose. Capture-induced hyperthermia and lactic acidemia were documented in free-ranging bears. Hypoxemia during anesthesia was documented in both free-ranging and captive bears. In free-ranging bears, rectal temperature, heart rate, lactate, hematocrit, and hemoglobin decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide, pH, potassium, and glucose increased. Yearlings had a significantly higher heart rate, pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and glucose, and had a significantly lower rectal temperature, sodium, hematocrit, and hemoglobin when compared with subadult and adult brown bears. In conclusion, alterations in pulmonary gas exchange and acid-base status in brown bears during anesthesia with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine with the doses and capture methods used in this study were identified. Oxygen supplementation is recommended to counteract hypoxemia during anesthesia.

  19. A Rasch Model for Continuous Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Hans

    1987-01-01

    A unidimensional latent trait model for continuous ratings extends Andrich's rating formulation which assumes the response process at latent thresholds is based on the dichotomous Rasch model. The separability of the structural and incidental parameters is demonstrated and a procedure for estimating the parameters is outlined. (Author/GDC)

  20. IMMOBILIZATION OF CAPTIVE NUBIAN IBEX (CAPRA NUBIANA) WITH BUTORPHANOL-MIDAZOLAM-MEDETOMIDINE OR BUTORPHANOL-AZAPERONE-MEDETOMIDINE AND ATIPAMEZOLE REVERSAL.

    PubMed

    Lapid, Roi; Shilo-Benjamini, Yael

    2015-06-01

    Seventeen captive Nubian ibex (Capra nubiana) were immobilized for transportation and/or hoof trimming, deworming, and vaccinations. Of these, 11 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), midazolam (0.13±0.03 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.13±0.03 mg/kg) (BMM), and 6 were immobilized with a combination of butorphanol (0.11±0.03 mg/kg), azaperone (0.22±0.06 mg/kg), and medetomidine (0.11±0.03 mg/kg) (BAM) by intramuscular injection. Induction and recovery times were recorded. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, blood pressure, and oxygen saturation were measured. The quality of induction, immobilization, and recovery were scored (scale 1-5; 1=poor, 5=excellent). Mean induction time was significantly shorter in the BMM group versus the BAM group (8.8±2.7 and 20.1±7.8 min, respectively). Median induction score and median immobilization score were significantly higher (i.e., better) in the BMM group than the BAM group (5 versus 2.5 and 4 versus 3, respectively). The mean and diastolic blood pressures were significantly higher in the BMM group at the 25-min time point. Atipamezole was administered at the end of procedures, and all ibex recovered smoothly. Mean recovery time was significantly longer in the BMM group versus the BAM group (9.5±4.3 and 3.3±2.2, respectively). In conclusion, at the doses used, the combination of BMM was superior to BAM for short-term immobilization in captive Nubian ibex. PMID:26056882

  1. A review of the physiological effects of α2-agonists related to the clinical use of medetomidine in small animal practice

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Melissa D.

    2003-01-01

    Medetomidine is a relatively new sedative analgesic drug that is approved for use in dogs in Canada. It is the most potent α2-adrenoreceptor available for clinical use in veterinary medicine and stimulates receptors centrally to produce dose-dependent sedation and analgesia. Significant dose sparing properties occur when medetomidine is combined with other anesthetic agents correlating with the high affinity of this drug to the α2-adrenoreceptor. Hypoventilation occurs with medetomidine sedation in dogs; however, respiratory depression becomes most significant when given in combination with other sedative or injectable agents. The typical negative cardiovascular effects produced with other α2-agonists (bradycardia, bradyarrhythmias, a reduction in cardiac output, hypertension ± hypotension) are also produced with medetomidine, warranting precautions when it is used and necessitating appropriate patient selection (young, middle-aged healthy animals). While hypotension may occur, sedative doses of medetomidine typically raise the blood pressure, due to the effect on peripheral α2-adrenoreceptors. Anticholinergic premedication has been recommended with α2-agonists to prevent bradyarrhythmias and, potentially, the reduction in cardiac output produced by these agents; however, current research does not demonstrate a clear improvement in cardio vascular function. Negatively, the anticholinergic induced increase in heart rate potentiates the α2-agonist mediated hypertension and may increase myocardial oxygen tension, demand, and workload. Overall, reversal with the specific antagonist atipamezole is recommended when significant cardiorespiratory complications occur. Other physiological effects of medetomidine sedation include; vomiting, increased urine volumes, changes to endocrine function and uterine activity, decreased intestinal motility, decreased intraocular pressure and potentially hypothermia, muscle twitching, and cyanosis. Decreased doses of medetomidine

  2. Survey of utilization of medetomidine and atipamezole in private veterinary practice in Quebec in 2002.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, M Johanna; Cuvelliez, Sophie; Brouillard, Line; Rondenay, Yves; Kona-Boun, Jean Jacques; Troncy, Eric

    2007-07-01

    This survey evaluates early perceptions about the use of medetomidine and atipamezole among veterinary practitioners in Quebec in 2002. Response rate was 23.5%; 71.1% of the practitioners did not use these products because of lack of information (69.3%), unavailability of the drugs in the practice (23.3%), or other reasons (7.3%), including concerns about the safety of alpha-2 agonists. Most veterinarians who used these products (70.4%) used them only rarely. Sedation by medetomidine was qualified as good (44.2%) or excellent (36%), and analgesia as good (46.5%) or average (32.7%). Waking up after atipamezole was qualified as good (47.5%) or excellent (40.9%). These perceptions indicate an opportunity for wider use of the products in veterinary practice. With more education and experience, practitioners could find medetomidine hydrochloride alone or in combination with an opioid useful for sedation, analgesia, and premedication for healthy animals. Reversal with atipamezole hydrochloride is considered effective, when residual sedation is undesirable. PMID:17824157

  3. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... solution contains 1.0 milligram of medetomidine hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See 052483 in § 510.600(c) of... diseases, dogs in shock, dogs which are severly debilitated, or dogs which are stressed due to extreme...

  4. Reversal of medetomidine-induced sedation in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) with atipamezole increases the medetomidine concentration in plasma.

    PubMed

    Ranheim, B; Horsberg, T E; Nymoen, U; Søli, N E; Tyler, N J; Arnemo, J M

    1997-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two potent alpha 2-adrenoceptor agents that can be used for immobilization (medetomidine) and reversal (atipamezole) of the sedation in mammals, were studied in three reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) in winter and again in summer. Medetomidine (60 micrograms/kg) was injected intravenously (i.v.), followed by atipamezole (300 micrograms/kg) intravenously 60 min later. Drug concentrations in plasma were measured by HPLC. The administration of atipamezole resulted in an immediate 2.5-3.5 fold increase in the medetomidine concentration in plasma. Clearance for medetomidine (median 19.3 mL/min.kg) was lower than clearance for atipamezole (median 31.0 mL/min.kg). The median elimination half-lives of medetomidine and atipamezole in plasma were 76.1 and 59.9 min, respectively. The animals became resedated 0.5-1 h after the reversal with atipamezole. Resedation may be explained by the longer elimination half-life of medetomidine compared to atipamezole. PMID:9350254

  5. Immobilization of Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) and Svalbard Reindeer (R. t. platyrhynchus) with medetomidine and medetomidine-ketamine and reversal of immobilization with atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Tyler, N J; Hotvedt, R; Blix, A S; Sørensen, D R

    1990-01-01

    The sedative action of medetomidine (-ketamine) was studied in 12 captive Norwegian semidomesticated reindeer (NR), including 4 newborn calves, and in 7 free-living Svalbard reindeer (SR). Medetomidine, with or without ketamine, caused effective, reliable immobilization in NR. Doses of 50-200 micrograms/kg medetomidine alone or 30-125 micrograms/kg medetomidine combined with greater than or equal to 300 micrograms/kg ketamine induced complete immobilization, good muscle relaxation and persistent, deep sedation with little respiratory depression in NR; SR required higher doses. Atipamezole successfully antagonized medetomidine (-ketamine) resulting in rapid and persistent reversal of immobilization in all cases (NR and SR). Both medetomidine and atipamezole had wide safety margins and no conspicuous lasting side effects after reversal. PMID:1983084

  6. Chemical immobilization and anesthesia of free-living aardvarks (Orycteropus afer) with ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam and isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Costello, Mary-Ann; Fuller, Andrea; Haw, Anna; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We evaluated the effectiveness of a ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam drug combination administered intramuscularly by remote injection followed by isoflurane anesthesia in free-living aardvarks (Orycteropus afer). Seven aardvarks weighing 33-45 kg were immobilized to perform surgical implantation of temperature loggers using 3.8 mg/kg ketamine, 0.1 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.25 mg/kg midazolam. Immobilized aardvarks were transported to a surgical theater and received 0.5-1% isoflurane in oxygen after tracheal intubation. After surgery, medetomidine was antagonized with 0.5 mg/kg atipamezole, and aardvarks were released at the site of capture. We recorded induction and recovery times, clinical and physiologic parameters, and conducted blood gas analyses before and during isoflurane administration. Aardvarks showed initial effects within 3 min and reached lateral recumbency within 7 min after drug administration. Heart rate (50-67 beats/min), respiratory rate (10-15 breaths/min), oxygen hemoglobin saturation (SaO2; 90-97%), and rectal temperature (34.0-37.5 C) were within acceptable physiologic ranges. Mean arterial blood pressure was initially high (146 ± 12 mmHg), but the hypertension resolved over time. Rectal temperature dropped significantly during anesthesia. Four animals had to be treated to relieve apnea. Blood gas analyses revealed mild to moderate hypercapnia but no hypoxaemia. The ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam combination provided effective immobilization. Combined with a low concentration of isoflurane, it can be used for prolonged surgical procedures in wild aardvarks. However, caution is needed, and monitoring of clinical parameters is required. PMID:25014906

  7. Chemical immobilization and anesthesia of free-living aardvarks (Orycteropus afer) with ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam and isoflurane.

    PubMed

    Rey, Benjamin; Costello, Mary-Ann; Fuller, Andrea; Haw, Anna; Hetem, Robyn S; Mitchell, Duncan; Meyer, Leith C R

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We evaluated the effectiveness of a ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam drug combination administered intramuscularly by remote injection followed by isoflurane anesthesia in free-living aardvarks (Orycteropus afer). Seven aardvarks weighing 33-45 kg were immobilized to perform surgical implantation of temperature loggers using 3.8 mg/kg ketamine, 0.1 mg/kg medetomidine, and 0.25 mg/kg midazolam. Immobilized aardvarks were transported to a surgical theater and received 0.5-1% isoflurane in oxygen after tracheal intubation. After surgery, medetomidine was antagonized with 0.5 mg/kg atipamezole, and aardvarks were released at the site of capture. We recorded induction and recovery times, clinical and physiologic parameters, and conducted blood gas analyses before and during isoflurane administration. Aardvarks showed initial effects within 3 min and reached lateral recumbency within 7 min after drug administration. Heart rate (50-67 beats/min), respiratory rate (10-15 breaths/min), oxygen hemoglobin saturation (SaO2; 90-97%), and rectal temperature (34.0-37.5 C) were within acceptable physiologic ranges. Mean arterial blood pressure was initially high (146 ± 12 mmHg), but the hypertension resolved over time. Rectal temperature dropped significantly during anesthesia. Four animals had to be treated to relieve apnea. Blood gas analyses revealed mild to moderate hypercapnia but no hypoxaemia. The ketamine-medetomidine-midazolam combination provided effective immobilization. Combined with a low concentration of isoflurane, it can be used for prolonged surgical procedures in wild aardvarks. However, caution is needed, and monitoring of clinical parameters is required.

  8. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs

    PubMed Central

    TAMURA, Jun; HATAKEYAMA, Naohiro; ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; ITAMI, Takaharu; FUKUI, Sho; MIYOSHI, Kenjiro; SANO, Tadashi; PASLOSKE, Kirby; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2016-01-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  9. The pharmacological effects of intramuscular administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Jun; Hatakeyama, Naohiro; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Fukui, Sho; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Pasloske, Kirby; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2016-07-01

    The pharmacological effects of intramuscular (IM) administration of alfaxalone combined with medetomidine and butorphanol were evaluated in 6 healthy beagle dogs. Each dog received three treatments with a minimum 10-day interval between treatments. The dogs received an IM injection of alfaxalone 2.5 mg/kg (ALFX), medetomidine 2.5 µg/kg and butorphanol 0.25 mg/kg (MB), or their combination (MBA) 1 hr after the recovery from their instrumentation. Endotracheal intubation was attempted, and dogs were allowed to breath room air. Neuro-depressive effects (behavior changes and subjective scores) and cardiorespiratory parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, direct blood pressure, central venous pressure and blood gases) were evaluated before and at 2 to 120 min after IM treatment. Each dog became lateral recumbency, except for two dogs administered the MB treatment. The duration was longer in the MBA treatment compared with the ALFX treatment (100 ± 48 min vs 46 ± 13 min). Maintenance of the endotracheal tube lasted for 60 ± 24 min in five dogs administered the MBA treatment and for 20 min in one dog administered the ALFX treatment. Cardiorespiratory variables were maintained within clinically acceptable ranges, although decreases in heart and respiratory rates, and increases in central venous pressure occurred after the MBA and MB treatments. The MBA treatment provided an anesthetic effect that permitted endotracheal intubation without severe cardiorespiratory depression in healthy dogs. PMID:26875835

  10. Field immobilization of feral 'Judas' donkeys (Equus asinus) by remote injection of medetomidine and ketamine and antagonism with atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Woolnough, Andrew P; Hampton, Jordan O; Campbell, Susan; Lethbridge, Mark R; Boardman, Wayne S J; Sharp, Trudy; Rose, Ken

    2012-04-01

    The Judas technique is a method used for landscape control of feral donkeys (Equus asinus) in northern Australia. Central to the success of any Judas program is the safe, efficient, and humane attachment of the telemetry device. For feral donkeys, this involves the use of field immobilization. We examine the replacement of the current chemical capture agent, succinylcholine, with contemporary immobilization agents to achieve positive animal welfare outcomes. A combination of medetomidine and ketamine delivered by remote injection from a helicopter was used to capture 14 free-ranging feral donkeys for the fitting of telemetry collars in Western Australia in November 2010. Dose rates of 0.14 mg/kg medetomidine and 4.1 mg/kg ketamine were appropriate to immobilize animals in 9 min (± SD = 3). Mean recovery time (total time in recumbency) was 21 min (± 14). All animals recovered uneventfully after being administered atipamezole, a specific antagonist of medetomidine, intramuscularly at 0.35 mg/kg. Physiologic parameters were recorded during recumbency, with environment-related hyperthermia being the only abnormality recognized. No significant complications were encountered, and this drug combination represents an efficient approach to capturing wild donkeys. This new method allows a rapid, safe, cost-effective approach to the immobilization of feral donkeys for use as Judas animals. This drug combination will replace the relatively inhumane succinylcholine for the field immobilization of feral donkeys.

  11. COMPARISON OF ETORPHINE-ACEPROMAZINE AND MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Kathryn L; Denwood, Matthew J; Grøndahl, Carsten; Nissen, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Impala (Aepyceros melampus) are a notoriously difficult species to manage in captivity, and anesthesia is associated with a high risk of complications including mortality. The aim of this study was to compare an opioid-based protocol with an α-2 agonist-based protocol. Nine female impala were studied in a random cross-over design. Subjects received either an etorphine-acepromazine (EA) protocol: 15 μg/kg etorphine and 0.15 mg/kg acepromazine, or a medetomidine-ketamine (MK) protocol: 109 μg/kg medetomidine and 4.4 mg/kg ketamine on day 1. Anaesthesia was repeated 3 days later with the alternative protocol. Subjective assessments of the quality of induction, muscle relaxation, and recovery were made by a blinded observer. Objective monitoring included blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, regional tissue oxygenation, and blood gas analysis. EA provided a significantly quicker (mean EA, 7.17 mins; MK, 17.6 mins) and more-reliable (score range EA, 3-5; MK, 1-5) induction. Respiratory rates were lower for EA with higher end-tidal CO2, but no apnoea was observed. As expected, blood pressures with EA were lower, with higher heart rates; however, arterial oxygenation and tissue oxygenation were equal or higher than with the MK protocol. In conclusion, at these doses, EA provided superior induction and equivalent muscle relaxation and recovery with apparent improved oxygen tissue delivery when compared to MK. PMID:26667544

  12. COMPARISON OF ETORPHINE-ACEPROMAZINE AND MEDETOMIDINE-KETAMINE ANESTHESIA IN CAPTIVE IMPALA (AEPYCEROS MELAMPUS).

    PubMed

    Perrin, Kathryn L; Denwood, Matthew J; Grøndahl, Carsten; Nissen, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads F

    2015-12-01

    Impala (Aepyceros melampus) are a notoriously difficult species to manage in captivity, and anesthesia is associated with a high risk of complications including mortality. The aim of this study was to compare an opioid-based protocol with an α-2 agonist-based protocol. Nine female impala were studied in a random cross-over design. Subjects received either an etorphine-acepromazine (EA) protocol: 15 μg/kg etorphine and 0.15 mg/kg acepromazine, or a medetomidine-ketamine (MK) protocol: 109 μg/kg medetomidine and 4.4 mg/kg ketamine on day 1. Anaesthesia was repeated 3 days later with the alternative protocol. Subjective assessments of the quality of induction, muscle relaxation, and recovery were made by a blinded observer. Objective monitoring included blood pressure, end-tidal CO2, regional tissue oxygenation, and blood gas analysis. EA provided a significantly quicker (mean EA, 7.17 mins; MK, 17.6 mins) and more-reliable (score range EA, 3-5; MK, 1-5) induction. Respiratory rates were lower for EA with higher end-tidal CO2, but no apnoea was observed. As expected, blood pressures with EA were lower, with higher heart rates; however, arterial oxygenation and tissue oxygenation were equal or higher than with the MK protocol. In conclusion, at these doses, EA provided superior induction and equivalent muscle relaxation and recovery with apparent improved oxygen tissue delivery when compared to MK.

  13. Anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of propofol, medetomidine, lidocaine and butorphanol total intravenous anesthesia in horses.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Tamura, Jun; Saitoh, Yasuo; Saitoh, Motoaki; Umar, Mohammed A; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Yamashita, Kazuto; Muir, William W

    2013-02-01

    Anesthetic and cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol total intravenous anesthesia (MLBP-TIVA) were evaluated in horses undergoing an experimental surgery. Ten horses were premedicated with an intravenous injection (IV) of medetomidine (5 µg/kg) and butorphanol (20 µg/kg). Anesthesia was induced by administration of 1% propofol (3 mg/kg, IV) at a rate of 1 mg/kg/min (n=5, group-1) or 2% propofol administered at a rate of 6 mg/kg/min (n=5, group-2) following administration of lidocaine (1 mg/kg, IV) and then maintained by infusions of propofol, medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr) and butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr). The mean durations of anesthesia and propofol infusion rate required for maintaining surgical anesthesia were 130 ± 17 min and 0.10 ± 0.01 mg/kg/min in group 1 and 129 ± 14 min and 0.10 ± 0.02 mg/kg/min in group 2. Four horses in group 1 and 2 horses in group 2 paddled following recumbency during induction of anesthesia. The median quality scores for induction (0-4: poor-excellent) and recovery (0-5: unable to stand-excellent) were 3 and 4 for both groups, respectively. Transition to anesthesia (the first 20-min period after induction) was uneventful in group 2, while all horses showed a light plane of anesthesia in group 1. The quality score (0-3: poor-excellent) for the transition to anesthesia in group 2 was significantly higher than in group 1 (median 3 versus 1, P=0.009). Heart rate and arterial blood pressure were maintained within acceptable ranges, but hypercapnia occurred during anesthesia in both groups. In conclusion, MLBP-TIVA may provide clinically useful surgical anesthesia in horses. A rapid induction with propofol may improve the qualities of induction and transition to MLBP-TIVA.

  14. Novel combinations of nalbuphine and medetomidine for wildlife immobilization.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Lisa L; Lance, William R; Smith, David K; Miller, Michael W

    2014-10-01

    We formulated novel drug combinations of nalbuphine HCl and medetomidine HCl (NalMed), with or without azaperone tartrate, for use in immobilizing Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) and potentially for other wildlife species. Using the lowest tested nalbuphine dose (0.3 mg/kg) that produced sedation in elk, we initially evaluated a combination of nalbuphine, medetomidine, and azaperone (NalMed-A) for immobilizing adult elk. Based on initial success, we then conducted follow-up trials to assess alternative NalMed formulations successively modified to improve field usability, striving to shorten induction within a dose volume that accommodated practical remote delivery. All NalMed formulations immobilized adult elk; however, combinations with dose volumes that included about 80 mg nalbuphine tended to yield the shortest inductions (mean 6.8 min with, and 7.7 min without, azaperone). Our findings demonstrate that nalbuphine and medetomidine can be combined to yield effective, low-volume (≤ 2 mL), lightly regulated, reversible drug combinations. Based on results to date, we recommend NalMed-A (40 mg/mL nalbuphine, 10 mg/mL medetomidine, and 10 mg/mL azaperone) dosed at 1.8-2.0 mL for immobilizing adult elk; for recovery we recommend 50 mg naltrexone and 600 mg tolazoline administered intramuscularly (IM) about 5 min in advance of 100 mg atipamezole (divided 25 mg intravenously and 75 mg IM). Further work is under way to explore efficacy in other large mammal species. PMID:25121404

  15. A comparison of medetomidine and its active enantiomer dexmedetomidine when administered with ketamine in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medetomidine-ketamine (MK) and dexmedetomidine-ketamine (DK) are widely used to provide general anaesthesia in laboratory animals, but have not been compared directly in many of these species, including rodents. This study aimed to compare the onset and depth of anaesthesia, and changes in vital signs, after intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC) administration of ketamine (75 mg kg-1) combined with medetomidine (1 mg kg-1) or dexmedetomidine (0.5 mg kg-1) using a randomised semi-crossover design with ≥ 48 hours between treatments in 10 male and 10 female mice. Each mouse was anaesthetised twice using the same administration route (IP or SC): once with each drug-ketamine combination. Anaesthetised mice were monitored on a heating pad without supplemental oxygen for 89 minutes; atipamezole was administered for reversal. The times that the righting reflex was lost post-injection and returned post-reversal were analysed using general linear models. Tail-pinch and pedal reflexes were examined using binomial generalized linear models. Pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fr), and arterial haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) were compared using generalized additive mixed models. Results There were no significant differences among treatments for the times taken for loss and return of the righting reflex, or response of the tail-pinch reflex. The pedal withdrawal reflex was abolished more frequently with MK than DK over time (P = 0.021). The response of PR and SpO2 were similar among treatments, but fr was significantly higher with MK than DK (P ≤ 0.0005). Markedly low SpO2 concentrations occurred within 5 minutes post-injection (83.8 ± 6.7%) in all treatment groups and were most severe after 89 minutes lapsed (66.7 ± 7.5%). No statistical differences were detected in regards to administration route (P ≤ 0.94). Conclusions This study failed to demonstrate clinical advantages of the enantiomer dexmedetomidine over medetomidine when combined with ketamine to

  16. Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a comparison of physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Siudak-Campfield, Joanna; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2008-10-01

    Free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni; n=26) and brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus; n=15) were manually captured and immobilized with 2.5 mg/kg ketamine + 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine administered intramuscularly. Physical examinations were conducted on each sloth 10 min after initial injection, and blood, fecal, and ectoparasite samples were collected. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, indirect systolic blood pressure, and indirect peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored every 5 min for the duration of anesthesia. After 45 min, atipamazole (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, as an antagonist to medetomidine, in order to facilitate recovery. All recoveries were smooth, rapid, and uneventful. Physiologic parameters were compared across time, gender, and species. All sloths, regardless of species and gender, demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, and an increase in respiratory rate, during the course of anesthesia. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar for all sloths over time. There were significant species differences for heart rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), respiratory rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), and systolic blood pressure (Bradypus > Choloepus), while there were significant gender differences for body temperature (males > females) and blood pressure (males > females). Results of this study suggest that the ketamine-medetomidine mixture, as described above, is a safe and effective anesthetic combination in free-ranging two- and three-toed sloths, although peripheral blood pressure should be monitored during anesthesia.

  17. Immobilization of free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed and brown-throated three-toed sloths using ketamine and medetomidine: a comparison of physiologic parameters.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Christopher S; Siudak-Campfield, Joanna; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Vaughan, Christopher; Ramirez, Oscar; Keuler, Nicholas S; Sladky, Kurt K

    2008-10-01

    Free-ranging Hoffmann's two-toed sloths (Choloepus hoffmanni; n=26) and brown-throated three-toed sloths (Bradypus variegatus; n=15) were manually captured and immobilized with 2.5 mg/kg ketamine + 0.02 mg/kg medetomidine administered intramuscularly. Physical examinations were conducted on each sloth 10 min after initial injection, and blood, fecal, and ectoparasite samples were collected. Heart rate, respiratory rate, body temperature, indirect systolic blood pressure, and indirect peripheral oxygen saturation were monitored every 5 min for the duration of anesthesia. After 45 min, atipamazole (0.1 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, as an antagonist to medetomidine, in order to facilitate recovery. All recoveries were smooth, rapid, and uneventful. Physiologic parameters were compared across time, gender, and species. All sloths, regardless of species and gender, demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, and an increase in respiratory rate, during the course of anesthesia. Peripheral oxygen saturation was similar for all sloths over time. There were significant species differences for heart rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), respiratory rate (Choloepus > Bradypus), and systolic blood pressure (Bradypus > Choloepus), while there were significant gender differences for body temperature (males > females) and blood pressure (males > females). Results of this study suggest that the ketamine-medetomidine mixture, as described above, is a safe and effective anesthetic combination in free-ranging two- and three-toed sloths, although peripheral blood pressure should be monitored during anesthesia. PMID:18957650

  18. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... disability ratings. 3.343 Section 3.343 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS... Evaluations; Service Connection § 3.343 Continuance of total disability ratings. (a) General. Total disability... latter, reduction from total disability ratings will not be considered pending reexamination after...

  19. Neurohormonal and metabolic effects of medetomidine compared with xylazine in beagle dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ambrisko, T. D.; Hikasa, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate and compare the effects of medetomidine and xylazine on the blood level of some stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic variables in clinically normal dogs, especially focusing on time and dose relations of the effects. A total of 9 beagle dogs were used for 9 groups, which were treated with physiological saline solution (control), 10, 20, 40, and 80 μg/kg medetomidine, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg/kg xylazine, intramuscularly. Blood samples were taken at 10 times during 24 h from a central venous catheter. Plasma norepinephrine, epinephrine, cortisol, glucose, insulin, glucagon, and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations were determined. Both medetomidine and xylazine similarly and dose-dependently inhibited norepinephrine release and lipolysis. Medetomidine suppressed epinephrine release dose-dependently with greater potency than xylazine. Xylazine also tended to decrease epinephrine levels dose-dependently. The cortisol and glucagon levels did not change significantly in any treatment group. Both drugs suppressed insulin secretion with similar potency. Both medetomidine and xylazine increased glucose levels. The hyperglycemic effect of medetomidine, in contrast with xylazine, was not dose-dependent at the tested dosages. The results suggested that the effect of medetomidine on glucose metabolism may not be due only to α2-adrenoceptor-mediated actions. PMID:11858648

  20. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A MEDETOMIDINE-AZAPERONE-ALFAXALONE COMBINATION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Pon, Kylie; Caulkett, Nigel; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that interacts with gamma-aminobutyric type A receptors to produce central nervous system depression and muscle relaxation. The effects of alfaxalone vary from sedation to general anesthesia. Alfaxalone is synergistic with other tranquilizers and sedatives and therefore has the potential to improve existing alpha-2 adrenergic agonist-based combinations used for wildlife immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of a medetomidine-azaperone-alfaxalone (MAA) combination in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Eight captive white-tailed deer were restrained in a drop-floor chute; hand injected i.m. with 0.15 mg/kg medetomidine, 0.2 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.5 mg/kg alfaxalone; and released into a small enclosure for observation. The deer were maintained in lateral recumbency for a total time from postinjection (PI) of the drug of 60 min. At 60 min PI, atipamezole was administered i.m. at five times the medetomidine dose. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and direct systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures were recorded every 5 min. Arterial blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood gas analysis. Level of sedation and quality of recovery were scored. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics with a significance level of P < 0.05. Induction (time to lateral recumbency, 7.1 ± 2.4 min (mean ± SD) and recovery times (time to standing, 9.1 ± 3.1 min) were comparable to currently used medetomidine-based combinations in white-tailed deer. Major cardiopulmonary effects observed (values reported are 15 min PI of immobilizing drugs) were hypoxemia (PaO2, 54 ± 9 mm Hg), hypoventilation (PaCO2, 55 ± 3 mm Hg), and mixed acid-base disturbances (pH, 7.22 ± 0.04). No adverse effects were observed after recovery from anesthesia. MAA produced a satisfactory level of deep sedation for safe handling and

  1. EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF A MEDETOMIDINE-AZAPERONE-ALFAXALONE COMBINATION IN CAPTIVE WHITE-TAILED DEER (ODOCOILEUS VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Pon, Kylie; Caulkett, Nigel; Woodbury, Murray

    2016-03-01

    Alfaxalone is a neurosteroid that interacts with gamma-aminobutyric type A receptors to produce central nervous system depression and muscle relaxation. The effects of alfaxalone vary from sedation to general anesthesia. Alfaxalone is synergistic with other tranquilizers and sedatives and therefore has the potential to improve existing alpha-2 adrenergic agonist-based combinations used for wildlife immobilization. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of a medetomidine-azaperone-alfaxalone (MAA) combination in captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Eight captive white-tailed deer were restrained in a drop-floor chute; hand injected i.m. with 0.15 mg/kg medetomidine, 0.2 mg/kg azaperone, and 0.5 mg/kg alfaxalone; and released into a small enclosure for observation. The deer were maintained in lateral recumbency for a total time from postinjection (PI) of the drug of 60 min. At 60 min PI, atipamezole was administered i.m. at five times the medetomidine dose. Heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and direct systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressures were recorded every 5 min. Arterial blood samples were taken every 15 min for blood gas analysis. Level of sedation and quality of recovery were scored. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and descriptive statistics with a significance level of P < 0.05. Induction (time to lateral recumbency, 7.1 ± 2.4 min (mean ± SD) and recovery times (time to standing, 9.1 ± 3.1 min) were comparable to currently used medetomidine-based combinations in white-tailed deer. Major cardiopulmonary effects observed (values reported are 15 min PI of immobilizing drugs) were hypoxemia (PaO2, 54 ± 9 mm Hg), hypoventilation (PaCO2, 55 ± 3 mm Hg), and mixed acid-base disturbances (pH, 7.22 ± 0.04). No adverse effects were observed after recovery from anesthesia. MAA produced a satisfactory level of deep sedation for safe handling and

  2. Evaluation of quality of anesthesia and analgesia and of vital signs after intramuscular administration of a combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone in cats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Won; Suh, Sang-Il; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the quality of anesthesia, duration of analgesia and changes in vital signs after intramuscular administration of a combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone in domestic cats. Ten healthy adult domestic cats (weighing 2.9 ± 0.5 kg) were used in this study. Rectal temperature (T), pulse rate (PR), respiratory rate (fR) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) were measured and recorded prior to intramuscular (IM) administration of butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), medetomidine (20 ug/kg) and alfaxalone (5 mg/kg) and then every 10 min until return of consciousness. Qualitative scores for induction of anesthesia and recovery were allocated, duration of anesthesia and recovery were calculated, and adverse events were recorded. A needle prick with a 22-gauge hypodermic needle was used to assess analgesia. Scores for induction and recovery quality were acceptable. No significant adverse events except nausea (7/10) and vomiting (5/10) were observed. The mean ± SD times from induction to extubation and to standing (full recovery) were 114 ± 8 and 125 ± 7 min, respectively. There were statistically significant changes in PR, fR and SAP after induction of anesthesia. The combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone provided acceptable quality of anesthesia and analgesia and exerted minimal cardiopulmonary effects in domestic cats. PMID:26549435

  3. Report to nation finds continued declines in many cancer rates

    Cancer.gov

    Rates of death in the United States from all cancers for men and women continued to decline between 2003 and 2007, the most recent reporting period available, according to the latest Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer. The report also finds that the overall rate of new cancer diagnoses for men and women combined decreased an average of slightly less than 1 percent per year for the same period.

  4. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Murahata, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Asami; Miki, Yuya; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats. Five cats were repeatedly used in each of the 9 groups. One group was not medicated. Cats in the other groups received 40 µg/kg medetomidine intramuscularly and saline (as the control), 160 µg/kg prazosin, or 40, 160 or 480 µg/kg atipamezole or yohimbine intravenously 0.5 hr later. Volume, pH and specific gravity of urine; plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level; and creatinine, osmolality and electrolyte levels in both urine and plasma were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine, but not prazosin, antagonized medetomidine-induced diuresis. The antidiuretic effect of atipamezole was more potent than that of yohimbine, but was not dose dependent, in contrast to the effect of yohimbine at the tested doses. Both atipamezole and yohimbine reversed medetomidine-induced decreases in both urine specific gravity and osmolality and increases in plasma osmolality and free-water clearance. Antidiuresis of either atipamezole or yohimbine was not related to the area under the curve for AVP level, although the highest dose of both atipamezole and yohimbine initially and temporarily increased plasma AVP levels, suggesting that this may partly influence the antidiuretic effects of both agents. The diuretic effect of medetomidine in cats may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors, but not α1-adrenoceptors. Atipamezole and yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats.

  5. Antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats.

    PubMed

    Murahata, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Asami; Miki, Yuya; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the antagonistic effects of atipamezole, yohimbine and prazosin on medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats. Five cats were repeatedly used in each of the 9 groups. One group was not medicated. Cats in the other groups received 40 µg/kg medetomidine intramuscularly and saline (as the control), 160 µg/kg prazosin, or 40, 160 or 480 µg/kg atipamezole or yohimbine intravenously 0.5 hr later. Volume, pH and specific gravity of urine; plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) level; and creatinine, osmolality and electrolyte levels in both urine and plasma were measured. Both atipamezole and yohimbine, but not prazosin, antagonized medetomidine-induced diuresis. The antidiuretic effect of atipamezole was more potent than that of yohimbine, but was not dose dependent, in contrast to the effect of yohimbine at the tested doses. Both atipamezole and yohimbine reversed medetomidine-induced decreases in both urine specific gravity and osmolality and increases in plasma osmolality and free-water clearance. Antidiuresis of either atipamezole or yohimbine was not related to the area under the curve for AVP level, although the highest dose of both atipamezole and yohimbine initially and temporarily increased plasma AVP levels, suggesting that this may partly influence the antidiuretic effects of both agents. The diuretic effect of medetomidine in cats may be mediated by α2-adrenoceptors, but not α1-adrenoceptors. Atipamezole and yohimbine can be used as antagonistic agents against medetomidine-induced diuresis in healthy cats. PMID:24107430

  6. Reversible immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards (panthera uncia) with a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Örjan; Malmsten, Jonas; Mishra, Charudutt; Lkhagvajav, Purevjav; McCarthy, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Conservation and research of the elusive snow leopard (Panthera uncia) have been hampered by inadequate knowledge about its basic life history. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can provide useful information, but there has been limited information available on safe capture methods, drug doses, and efficacy for effective immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We describe a drug protocol using a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam for the chemical immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We also describe physiologic responses to immobilization drugs, including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and relative hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) recorded every 10 min. Our study was carried out in the Tost Mountains adjacent to the Great Gobi Desert, in southern Mongolia, between August 2008 and April 2012. Eighteen snow leopards were captured or recaptured with foot-snares on 42 occasions and anesthetized for marking with GPS collars. The snow leopards received on average (±SD) 0.020±0.04 mg/kg body mass medetomidine and 2.17±0.45 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam. The duration of ensuing anesthesia was 69±13 min, including an induction period of 10 (±4) min. Anesthesia was reversed with 4 mg (0.10±0.04 mg/kg) atipamezole administered intramuscularly. The mean value for SpO2 for the 37 captures where we could record physiologic values was 91±4. The SpO2 increased significantly during anesthesia (+0.06±0.02%/min), whereas rectal temperature (average 38.1±0.7 C/min, change -0.04±0.003 C/min), heart rate (average 97±9 beats/min, change -0.20±0.03 beats/min), and respiratory rate (average 26±6 breaths/min, change -0.11±0.03 breaths/min) decreased significantly. A dose of 80 mg tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg body weight) and 0.72 mg medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg body weight) safely immobilized all adult and subadult snow leopards (weight 25-45 kg) in our study. All measured physiologic values remained within clinically

  7. Reversible immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards (panthera uncia) with a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Örjan; Malmsten, Jonas; Mishra, Charudutt; Lkhagvajav, Purevjav; McCarthy, Tom

    2013-04-01

    Conservation and research of the elusive snow leopard (Panthera uncia) have been hampered by inadequate knowledge about its basic life history. Global positioning system (GPS) collars can provide useful information, but there has been limited information available on safe capture methods, drug doses, and efficacy for effective immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We describe a drug protocol using a combination of medetomidine and tiletamine-zolazepam for the chemical immobilization of free-ranging snow leopards. We also describe physiologic responses to immobilization drugs, including rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and relative hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) recorded every 10 min. Our study was carried out in the Tost Mountains adjacent to the Great Gobi Desert, in southern Mongolia, between August 2008 and April 2012. Eighteen snow leopards were captured or recaptured with foot-snares on 42 occasions and anesthetized for marking with GPS collars. The snow leopards received on average (±SD) 0.020±0.04 mg/kg body mass medetomidine and 2.17±0.45 mg/kg tiletamine-zolazepam. The duration of ensuing anesthesia was 69±13 min, including an induction period of 10 (±4) min. Anesthesia was reversed with 4 mg (0.10±0.04 mg/kg) atipamezole administered intramuscularly. The mean value for SpO2 for the 37 captures where we could record physiologic values was 91±4. The SpO2 increased significantly during anesthesia (+0.06±0.02%/min), whereas rectal temperature (average 38.1±0.7 C/min, change -0.04±0.003 C/min), heart rate (average 97±9 beats/min, change -0.20±0.03 beats/min), and respiratory rate (average 26±6 breaths/min, change -0.11±0.03 breaths/min) decreased significantly. A dose of 80 mg tiletamine-zolazepam (2 mg/kg body weight) and 0.72 mg medetomidine (0.02 mg/kg body weight) safely immobilized all adult and subadult snow leopards (weight 25-45 kg) in our study. All measured physiologic values remained within clinically

  8. Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects produced by the combination of butorphanol, medetomidine and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly in Beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jongsung; Suh, Sangil; Choi, Ran; Hyun, Changbaig

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated anesthesia quality, degree of analgesia and cardiorespiratory parameters after intramuscular (IM) injection of a combination of butorphanol (0.1 mg/kg), medetomidine (10 µg/kg) and alfaxalone (1.5 mg/kg) in ten healthy adult Beagle dogs. Rectal temperature (T), heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (fR), arterial pressure, arterial blood gases and M-mode echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) indices were measured before drug administration and every 10 min thereafter until extubation. Mean duration of anesthesia, recovery and analgesia were 89 ± 17, 6 ± 1 and 80 ± 12 min. HR, fR, partial pressure of arterial CO2 and O2, arterial pressure, and LV contractility were significantly altered during anesthesia. IM administration of the drug combination provided acceptable anesthesia, but produced substantial cardiorespiratory suppression. PMID:26256405

  9. Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol (KMP-TIVA) in horses undergoing surgery

    PubMed Central

    UMAR, Mohammed Ahmed; FUKUI, Sho; KAWASE, Kodai; ITAMI, Takaharu; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol drug combination (KMP-TIVA) were determined in 5 Thoroughbred horses undergoing surgery. The horses were anesthetized with intravenous administration (IV) of ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) following premedication with medetomidne (5 µg/kg, IV) and artificially ventilated. Surgical anesthesia was maintained by controlling propofol infusion rate (initially 0.20 mg/kg/min following an IV loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg) and constant rate infusions of ketamine (1 mg/kg/hr) and medetomidine (1.25 µg/kg/hr). The horses were anesthetized for 175 ± 14 min (range from 160 to 197 min). Propofol infusion rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 mg/kg/min, and plasma concentration (Cpl) of propofol ranged from 11.4 to 13.3 µg/ml during surgery. Cardiovascular measurements during surgery remained within clinically acceptable ranges in the horses (heart rate: 33 to 37 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure: 111 to 119 mmHg, cardiac index: 48 to 53 ml/kg/min, stroke volume: 650 to 800 ml/beat and systemic vascular resistance: 311 to 398 dynes/sec/cm5). The propofol Cpl declined rapidly after the cessation of propofol infusion and was significantly lower at 10 min (4.5 ± 1.5 µg/ml), extubation (4.0 ± 1.2 µg/ml) and standing (2.4 ± 0.9 µg/ml) compared with the Cpl at the end of propofol administration (11.4 ± 2.7 µg/ml). All the horses recovered uneventfully and stood at 74 ± 28 min after the cessation of anesthesia. KMP-TIVA provided satisfactory quality and control of anesthesia with minimum cardiovascular depression in horses undergoing surgery. PMID:25409552

  10. Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol (KMP-TIVA) in horses undergoing surgery.

    PubMed

    Umar, Mohammed Ahmed; Fukui, Sho; Kawase, Kodai; Itami, Takaharu; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2015-03-01

    Cardiovascular effects of total intravenous anesthesia using ketamine-medetomidine-propofol drug combination (KMP-TIVA) were determined in 5 Thoroughbred horses undergoing surgery. The horses were anesthetized with intravenous administration (IV) of ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) and midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) following premedication with medetomidne (5 µg/kg, IV) and artificially ventilated. Surgical anesthesia was maintained by controlling propofol infusion rate (initially 0.20 mg/kg/min following an IV loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg) and constant rate infusions of ketamine (1 mg/kg/hr) and medetomidine (1.25 µg/kg/hr). The horses were anesthetized for 175 ± 14 min (range from 160 to 197 min). Propofol infusion rates ranged from 0.13 to 0.17 mg/kg/min, and plasma concentration (Cpl) of propofol ranged from 11.4 to 13.3 µg/ml during surgery. Cardiovascular measurements during surgery remained within clinically acceptable ranges in the horses (heart rate: 33 to 37 beats/min, mean arterial blood pressure: 111 to 119 mmHg, cardiac index: 48 to 53 ml/kg/min, stroke volume: 650 to 800 ml/beat and systemic vascular resistance: 311 to 398 dynes/sec/cm(5)). The propofol Cpl declined rapidly after the cessation of propofol infusion and was significantly lower at 10 min (4.5 ± 1.5 µg/ml), extubation (4.0 ± 1.2 µg/ml) and standing (2.4 ± 0.9 µg/ml) compared with the Cpl at the end of propofol administration (11.4 ± 2.7 µg/ml). All the horses recovered uneventfully and stood at 74 ± 28 min after the cessation of anesthesia. KMP-TIVA provided satisfactory quality and control of anesthesia with minimum cardiovascular depression in horses undergoing surgery.

  11. Comparison of Physiological Parameters and Anaesthesia Specific Observations during Isoflurane, Ketamine-Xylazine or Medetomidine-Midazolam-Fentanyl Anaesthesia in Male Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tacke, Sabine; Guth, Brian; Henke, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (GPs) are difficult to anaesthetize successfully, the choices for anaesthesia are limited and physiological parameters are likely to be influenced substantially under anaesthesia. We implanted blood pressure radio-telemetry devices into 16 male GPs and subjected them to anaesthesia with ketamine-xylazine (KX), medetomidine-midazolam-fentanyl (MMF) or isoflurane (Iso, plus atropine premedication) in a randomized order with a 7 day interval between anaesthesias. Each anaesthesia lasted 40min, after which Iso was discontinued, MMF was fully antagonized with atipamezole-flumazenil-naloxone and KX was partially antagonized with atipamezole. Hemodynamics were recorded continuously for at least 240min after induction and the GPs were monitored for respiratory rate, reflex responses and specific observations until regaining of their righting reflex (RR). Blood for glucose testing was taken from the ear at 7.5, 20 and 40min during anaesthesia. Recovery time was short with MMF and Iso but long for KX. MMF induced only a transient blood pressure drop after antagonization, whereas Iso caused a marked hypotension during maintenance and KX led to moderate hypotension after antagonization. MMF and Iso produced tolerable heart rate changes, but KX led to long term post-anaesthetic bradycardia. Hypothermia occurred with all anaesthesias, but the GPs returned to normothermia the fastest under MMF, followed shortly by Iso. KX, however, caused a profound and prolonged hypothermia. The respiration was depressed with all anaesthesias, substantially with MMF (-41%) and KX (-52%) and severe during Iso maintenance (-71%). Blood glucose with MMF and KX increased throughout the anaesthesia, but the values remained within reference values with all anaesthetics. The reflex responses character and strength varied between the anaesthetics. In conclusion, MMF is the anaesthetic of choice and Iso may be used for short, non-painful procedures. We advise against the use of KX in GPs

  12. A Theory of Continuous Rates and Applications to the Theory of Growth and Obsolescence Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses the measurement of the growth and obsolescence of literature and shows that growth and obsolescence can be studied by the same mathematical techniques. A combined growth-obsolescence theory is presented that can be measured with continuous rates, and three earlier papers are reconsidered and results are reproven. (Contains 18…

  13. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  14. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, N. L.; Das, A. J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S. E.; Baker, P. J.; Beckman, N. G.; Coomes, D. A.; Lines, E. R.; Morris, W. K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S. J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C. N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J. F.; Grau, H. R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M. E.; Hubbell, S. P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L. R.; Pabst, R. J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I.-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P. J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S. K.; Zavala, M. A.

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  15. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, N L; Das, A J; Condit, R; Russo, S E; Baker, P J; Beckman, N G; Coomes, D A; Lines, E R; Morris, W K; Rüger, N; Alvarez, E; Blundo, C; Bunyavejchewin, S; Chuyong, G; Davies, S J; Duque, A; Ewango, C N; Flores, O; Franklin, J F; Grau, H R; Hao, Z; Harmon, M E; Hubbell, S P; Kenfack, D; Lin, Y; Makana, J-R; Malizia, A; Malizia, L R; Pabst, R J; Pongpattananurak, N; Su, S-H; Sun, I-F; Tan, S; Thomas, D; van Mantgem, P J; Wang, X; Wiser, S K; Zavala, M A

    2014-03-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle--particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage--increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree's total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to undertand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence. PMID:24429523

  16. Rate of tree carbon accumulation increases continuously with tree size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stephenson, N.L.; Das, A.J.; Condit, R.; Russo, S.E.; Baker, P.J.; Beckman, N.G.; Coomes, D.A.; Lines, E.R.; Morris, W.K.; Rüger, N.; Álvarez, E.; Blundo, C.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Chuyong, G.; Davies, S.J.; Duque, Á.; Ewango, C.N.; Flores, O.; Franklin, J.F.; Grau, H.R.; Hao, Z.; Harmon, M.E.; Hubbell, S.P.; Kenfack, D.; Lin, Y.; Makana, J.-R.; Malizia, A.; Malizia, L.R.; Pabst, R.J.; Pongpattananurak, N.; Su, S.-H.; Sun, I-F.; Tan, S.; Thomas, D.; van Mantgem, P.J.; Wang, X.; Wiser, S.K.; Zavala, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Forests are major components of the global carbon cycle, providing substantial feedback to atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Our ability to understand and predict changes in the forest carbon cycle—particularly net primary productivity and carbon storage—increasingly relies on models that represent biological processes across several scales of biological organization, from tree leaves to forest stands. Yet, despite advances in our understanding of productivity at the scales of leaves and stands, no consensus exists about the nature of productivity at the scale of the individual tree, in part because we lack a broad empirical assessment of whether rates of absolute tree mass growth (and thus carbon accumulation) decrease, remain constant, or increase as trees increase in size and age. Here we present a global analysis of 403 tropical and temperate tree species, showing that for most species mass growth rate increases continuously with tree size. Thus, large, old trees do not act simply as senescent carbon reservoirs but actively fix large amounts of carbon compared to smaller trees; at the extreme, a single big tree can add the same amount of carbon to the forest within a year as is contained in an entire mid-sized tree. The apparent paradoxes of individual tree growth increasing with tree size despite declining leaf-level and stand-level productivity can be explained, respectively, by increases in a tree’s total leaf area that outpace declines in productivity per unit of leaf area and, among other factors, age-related reductions in population density. Our results resolve conflicting assumptions about the nature of tree growth, inform efforts to understand and model forest carbon dynamics, and have additional implications for theories of resource allocation and plant senescence.

  17. Evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol for the field anesthesia of free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Wayne S J; Lethbridge, Mark R; Hampton, Jordan O; Smith, Ian; Woolnough, Andrew P; McEwen, Margaret-Mary; Miller, Graham W J; Caraguel, Charles G B

    2014-10-01

    Abstract We report the clinical course and physiologic and anesthetic data for a case series of 76 free-ranging dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) chemically restrained, by remote injection from a helicopter, in the rangelands of Western Australia and South Australia, 2008-11, to attach satellite-tracking collars. Fifty-five camels were successfully anesthetized using medetomidine-ketamine (MK, n=27) and medetomidine-ketamine-butorphanol (MKB, n=28); the induction of anesthesia in 21 animals was considered unsuccessful. To produce reliable anesthesia for MK, medetomidine was administered at 0.22 mg/kg (± SD=0.05) and ketamine at 2.54 mg/kg (± 0.56), and for MKB, medetomidine was administered at 0.12 mg/kg (± 0.05), ketamine at 2.3 mg/kg (± 0.39), and butorphanol at 0.05 mg/kg (± 0.02). Median time-to-recumbency for MKB (8.5 min) was 2.5 min shorter than for MK (11 min) (P=0.13). For MK, the reversal atipamezole was administered at 0.24 mg/kg (± 0.10), and for MKB, atipamezole was administered at 0.23 mg/kg (± 0.13) and naltrexone at 0.17 mg/kg (± 0.16). Median time-to-recovery was 1 min shorter for MK (5 min) than MKB (6 min; P=0.02). Physiologic parameters during recumbency were not clinically different between the two regimes. Both regimes were suitable to safely anesthetize free-ranging camels; however, further investigation is required to find the safest, most consistent, and logistically practical combination. PMID:25105812

  18. Male Basketball Players Continue To Lag in Graduation Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, Marc

    1997-01-01

    In 1996, college athletes in "revenue-producing" sports (basketball and football) graduated at lower rates than other students, while athletes in general graduated at a higher rate than that of other undergraduates. Much of the recent improvement in athlete graduation rates is attributed to women. Data on graduation rates are tabulated by ethnic…

  19. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities...

  20. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities...

  1. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities...

  2. 38 CFR 3.343 - Continuance of total disability ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... period of employment (3 to 6 months). (b) Tuberculosis; compensation. In service-connected cases, evaluations for active or inactive tuberculosis will be governed by the Schedule for Rating Disabilities...

  3. Childhood Cancer Death Rates Continue to Fall: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... 19, for black and white children, and for boys and girls. A noteworthy point, Curtin said, is that black ... see disparities," she said. On the other hand, boys consistently had higher cancer death rates than girls -- 30 percent higher in 2014. The full explanation ...

  4. President Hails Continued Decline in Default Rate on Student Loans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    President Bill Clinton used the declining default rate on college student loans as a basis for proposing tax breaks for college costs. Reduced defaults have saved taxpayer money and helped reduce the federal deficit. Over 150 colleges and universities, including 25 private institutions, risk losing eligibility for federal grant and loan programs…

  5. Remote semi-continuous flow rate logging seepage meter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reay, William G.; Walthall, Harry G.

    1991-01-01

    The movement of groundwater and its associated solutes from upland regions was implicated in the degradation of receiving surface water bodies. Current efforts to directly measure this influx of water incorporate manually operated seepage meters which are hindered by severe limitations. A prototype seepage meter was developed by NASA Langley Research Center and Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University that will allow for the semi-continuous collection and data logging of seepage flux across the sediment water interface. The meter is designed to operate at depths to 40 meters, and alleviate or minimize all disadvantages associated with traditional methods while remaining cost effective. The unit was designed to operate independently for time periods on the order of weeks with adjustable sample sequences depending upon hydrologic conditions. When used in conjunction with commercially available pressure transducers, this seepage meter allows for correlations to be made between groundwater discharge and tidal/sea state conditions in coastal areas. Field data from the Chesapeake Bay and Florida Bay systems are presented.

  6. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  7. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  8. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  9. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  10. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  11. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  12. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  13. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  14. 30 CFR 77.801-1 - Grounding resistors; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Grounding resistors; continuous current rating. 77.801-1 Section 77.801-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet the...

  15. 30 CFR 77.901-1 - Grounding resistor; continuous current rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Grounding resistor; continuous current rating... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Low- and Medium-Voltage Alternating Current Circuits § 77.901-1 Grounding resistor; continuous current rating. The ground fault current rating of grounding resistors shall meet...

  16. Determination of an optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine for anaesthesia in the Cape ground squirrel (Xerus inauris).

    PubMed

    Jouber, K E; Serfontein, T; Scantlebury, M; Manjerovice, M B; Bateman, P W; Bennett, N C; Waterman, J M

    2011-06-01

    The optimal dose of medetomidine-ketamine-buprenorphine was determined in 25 Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) undergoing surgical implantation of a temperature logger into the abdominal cavity. At the end of anaesthesia, the squirrels were given atipamezole intramuscularly to reverse the effects of medetomidine. The mean dose of medetomidine was 67.6 +/- 9.2microg/kg, ketamine 13.6 +/- 1.9 mg/kg and buprenorphine 0.5 +/- 0.06 microg/kg. Induction time was 3.1 +/- 1.4 min. This produced surgical anaesthesia for 21 +/- 4.2 min. Atipamezole 232 +/- 92 microg/kg produced a rapid recovery. Squirrels were sternally recumbent in 3.5 +/- 2.2 min.

  17. Fertility rates and future population trends: will Europe's birth rate recover or continue to decline?

    PubMed

    Lutz, Wolfgang

    2006-02-01

    Europe has long completed its demographic transition from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates. But the demographic transition paradigm that has been very useful for explaining global demographic trends during the 20th century and that still has strong predictive power when it comes to projecting future trends in countries that still have high fertility, has nothing to say about the future of fertility in Europe. The currently popular notion of a 'second demographic transition' is a useful way to describe a bundle of behavioural and normative changes that recently happened in Europe, but it has no predictive power. The social sciences have not yet come up with a useful theory to predict the future fertility level of post-demographic transition societies. We even do not know whether the trend will be up or down. Given the lack of a predictive theory, this paper will try to do two things: (i) Summarize different substantive arguments that would either suggest the assumption of a recovery of fertility rates in Europe or alternatively, imply further declines. (ii) Convert this discussion of the uncertainty of future fertility trends into probabilistic population projections for Europe, thus highlighting the implications of alternative fertility levels over the coming years. We will also discuss trade-offs between fertility and immigration, and the phenomenon that Europe now has entered a period of negative momentum of population growth.

  18. Clinicophysiological and haemodynamic effects of fentanyl with xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine in isoflurane-anaesthetised water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Singh, Gyan D; Kinjavdekar, Prakash; Amarpal; Aithal, Hari P; Pawde, Abhijeet M; Zama, Malik M S; Singh, Jasmeet; Tiwary, Ramesh

    2013-03-18

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the sedative, analgesic and clinical effects of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine with fentanyl as pre-anaesthetics in water buffaloes and to compare the dose-sparing effect of xylazine, medetomidine and dexmedetomidine on thiopental for induction and isoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in water buffaloes. Six male water buffaloes randomly received intravenous fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and xylazine (0.05 mg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and medetomidine (2.5 µg/kg body weight), fentanyl (5.0 µg/kg body weight) and dexmedetomidine (5.0 µg/kg body weight) at weekly intervals in groups I1, I2 and I3, respectively. After 15 min, the animals were restrained in right lateral recumbency and anaesthesia was induced by 5% thiopental sodium administered intravenously. The intubated animal was connected to the large animal anaesthesia machine and isoflurane in 100% oxygen (5 L/min) was insufflated for 60 min. The treatments were compared by clinicophysiological, haematobiochemical and haemodynamic parameters. Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine produced more cardiovascular depression during the pre-anaesthetic period but less depression of cardio-respiratory dynamics in the post induction and maintenance period. Quicker recovery was recorded in I2 and I3 groups. A lower dose of thiopental was required in group I3 (4.33 mg/kg ± 0.66 mg/kg) than in groups I2 (4.41 mg/kg ± 0.98 mg/kg) and I1 (4.83 mg/kg ± 0.79 mg/kg). The dose of isoflurane was less in group I3 (45.50 mL ± 5.45 mL) than in group I1 and I2 (48.66 mL ± 5.10 mL and 48.00 mL ± 6.38 mL). Better anaesthesia was recorded with fentanyl-dexmedetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I3) than with fentanyl-medetomidine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I2) and fentanyl-xylazine-thiopental-isoflurane (group I1). Fentanyl-medetomidine and fentanyl-dexmedetomidine were better pre-anaesthetic agents in comparison to

  19. Standing sedation with medetomidine and butorphanol in captive African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    PubMed

    Lüders, I; Tindall, B; Young, D; van der Horst, G; Botha, S; Luther, I; Maree, L; Bertschinger, H J

    2016-03-01

    Doses for standing sedation allowing for various procedures in otherwise inaccessible, untrained captive African elephant bulls are presented. Thirty-three standing sedations were performed in 12 males aged 8-30 years (one to four sedations per animal). Each bull received a combination of 0.009 ± 0.002 mg/kg medetomidine and 0.03 ± 0.007 mg/kg butorphanol. Full sedation was reached on average 25.5 min after injection. The addition of hyaluronidase (1000-2000 IU) significantly reduced time to full sedation to 16.5 min (paired t test, P = 0.024). Reversal was induced with intramuscular atipamezole 0.008 (±0.002) and naltrexone 0.035 (±0.015) mg/kg. Recovery took on average 7 min (3-18 min). The medetomidine/butorphanol combination provided safe standing sedation for smaller procedures. PMID:26831175

  20. Report to the nation finds continuing declines in cancer death rates

    Cancer.gov

    Death rates from all cancers combined for men, women, and children continued to decline in the United States between 2004 and 2008, according to the Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer, 1975-2008. The overall rate of new cancer diagnoses,

  1. Field anesthesia of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) using tiletamine-zolazepam, medetomidine, and butorphanol.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R Scott; Moresco, Anneke; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2011-03-01

    Telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. Variability in induction response has been seen between individuals that have received similar dosages, with young lemurs seeming to need more anesthetic than mature lemurs. This investigation evaluated Telazol induction in young (2.0-4.9 yr) and mature (> or = 5.0 yr) ring-tailed lemurs and compared postinduction supplementation with medetomidine or medetomidine-butorphanol. Forty-eight lemurs were anesthetized with Telazol administered via blow dart; then, 20 min after darting, they were supplemented via hand injection with either medetomidine (0.04 mg/ kg) or medetomidine-butorphanol (0.04 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively). The odds ratio for young lemurs to need more than one dart for induction, relative to mature lemurs, was 3.8, even though the initial dose of Telazol received by young lemurs (19 +/- 7 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the initial dose administered to mature lemurs (12 +/- 5 mg/kg). The total Telazol dosage was also significantly different between young lemurs (33 +/- 15 mg/kg) and mature lemurs (18 +/- 9 mg/kg). Both medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol provided good muscle relaxation and sedation for all procedures. Physiologic values were similar between the two protocols. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was generally good, although there were a few SaO2 values < 90%. Recoveries were smooth, but long. Time to head up was correlated with total Telazol dosage in mature lemurs. In young lemurs, time to standing was correlated with Telazol induction dosage and time of last Telazol administration. Lemurs that received hand injections of Telazol took longer to recover than those that did not. Further refinements are

  2. Field anesthesia of wild ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) using tiletamine-zolazepam, medetomidine, and butorphanol.

    PubMed

    Larsen, R Scott; Moresco, Anneke; Sauther, Michelle L; Cuozzo, Frank P

    2011-03-01

    Telazol has been commonly used for field anesthesia of wild lemurs, including ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta). Telazol alone provides good induction, but doesn't cause adequate muscle relaxation and sedation for collecting consistent somatic measurements and high-quality dental impressions that are sometimes needed. Variability in induction response has been seen between individuals that have received similar dosages, with young lemurs seeming to need more anesthetic than mature lemurs. This investigation evaluated Telazol induction in young (2.0-4.9 yr) and mature (> or = 5.0 yr) ring-tailed lemurs and compared postinduction supplementation with medetomidine or medetomidine-butorphanol. Forty-eight lemurs were anesthetized with Telazol administered via blow dart; then, 20 min after darting, they were supplemented via hand injection with either medetomidine (0.04 mg/ kg) or medetomidine-butorphanol (0.04 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg, respectively). The odds ratio for young lemurs to need more than one dart for induction, relative to mature lemurs, was 3.8, even though the initial dose of Telazol received by young lemurs (19 +/- 7 mg/kg) was significantly higher than the initial dose administered to mature lemurs (12 +/- 5 mg/kg). The total Telazol dosage was also significantly different between young lemurs (33 +/- 15 mg/kg) and mature lemurs (18 +/- 9 mg/kg). Both medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol provided good muscle relaxation and sedation for all procedures. Physiologic values were similar between the two protocols. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry was generally good, although there were a few SaO2 values < 90%. Recoveries were smooth, but long. Time to head up was correlated with total Telazol dosage in mature lemurs. In young lemurs, time to standing was correlated with Telazol induction dosage and time of last Telazol administration. Lemurs that received hand injections of Telazol took longer to recover than those that did not. Further refinements are

  3. Experimental comparison of ketamine with a combination of ketamine, butorphanol and medetomidine for general anaesthesia of the Eurasian badger (Meles meles L.).

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, A N S; Forrester, G J; Spyvee, P D; Brash, M G I; Delahay, R J

    2004-03-01

    The refinement of anaesthetic regimes is central to improving the welfare of captured wildlife. The Eurasian badger (Meles meles) has been the subject of an intensive long-term ecological and epidemiological study at Woodchester Park, Gloucestershire, England. During routine trapping operations (June 21st, 2000-January 23rd, 2001) an experimental trial was conducted on 89 badgers to compare the physiological effects of anaesthesia using ketamine hydrochloride alone, and in conjunction with medetomidine hydrochloride and butorphanol tartrate. The mixture induced a significantly longer period of anaesthesia, and either substantially reduced or eliminated the adverse effects associated with ketamine anaesthesia (e.g., excessive salivation, bouts of sneezing, rough recoveries, and muscle rigidity). In a sub-sample of badgers given the mixture, anaesthesia was reversed using atipamezole hydrochloride. Under ketamine anaesthesia, heart rates were initially significantly higher and respiration rates were consistently higher, than in badgers given the mixture. In all badgers heart rates declined and respiration rates increased during anaesthesia, but the rate of change was greatest in animals given only ketamine. Overall, the mixture provided a more balanced anaesthesia characterised by muscle relaxation and complete unconsciousness. PMID:14975394

  4. Studies with sample conductivity, insertion rates, and particle deflection in a continuous flow electrophoresis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, G., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The continuous flow electrophoresis system makes electrophoresis possible in a free-flowing film of aqueous electrolyte medium. The sample continuously enters the electrolyte at the top of the chamber and is subjected to the action of a lateral dc field. This divides the sample into fractions since each component has a distinctive electrophoretic mobility. Tests were made using monodisperse polystyrene latex microspheres to determine optimum sample conductivity, insertion rates and optimum electric field applications as baseline data for future STS flight experiments. Optimum sample flow rates for the selected samples were determined to be approximately 26 micro-liters/min. Experiments with samples in deionized water yielded best results and voltages in the 20 V/cm to 30 V/cm range were optimum. Deflections of formaldehyde fixed turkey and bovine erythrocytes were determined using the continuous flow electrophoresis system. The effects of particle interactions on sample resolution and migration in the chamber was also evaluated.

  5. A phylogenetic model for investigating correlated evolution of substitution rates and continuous phenotypic characters.

    PubMed

    Lartillot, Nicolas; Poujol, Raphaël

    2011-01-01

    The comparative approach is routinely used to test for possible correlations between phenotypic or life-history traits. To correct for phylogenetic inertia, the method of independent contrasts assumes that continuous characters evolve along the phylogeny according to a multivariate Brownian process. Brownian diffusion processes have also been used to describe time variations of the parameters of the substitution process, such as the rate of substitution or the ratio of synonymous to nonsynonymous substitutions. Here, we develop a probabilistic framework for testing the coupling between continuous characters and parameters of the molecular substitution process. Rates of substitution and continuous characters are jointly modeled as a multivariate Brownian diffusion process of unknown covariance matrix. The covariance matrix, the divergence times and the phylogenetic variations of substitution rates and continuous characters are all jointly estimated in a Bayesian Monte Carlo framework, imposing on the covariance matrix a prior conjugate to the Brownian process so as to achieve a greater computational efficiency. The coupling between rates and phenotypes is assessed by measuring the posterior probability of positive or negative covariances, whereas divergence dates and phenotypic variations are marginally reconstructed in the context of the joint analysis. As an illustration, we apply the model to a set of 410 mammalian cytochrome b sequences. We observe a negative correlation between the rate of substitution and mass and longevity, which was previously observed. We also find a positive correlation between ω = dN/dS and mass and longevity, which we interpret as an indirect effect of variations of effective population size, thus in partial agreement with the nearly neutral theory. The method can easily be extended to any parameter of the substitution process and to any continuous phenotypic or environmental character. PMID:20926596

  6. Effects of pentobarbital, isoflurane, or medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol anesthesia on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and blood chemistry in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsubokura, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Oshima, Yutaka; Hashizume, Naoki; Nakai, Makoto; Ajimi, Shozo; Imatanaka, Nobuya

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) is commonly examined for pulmonary toxicity in animal studies. Two common means of anesthesia before euthanasia and bronchoalveolar lavage in rats are intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital and inhalation of isoflurane. Medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol is an alternative anesthesia to pentobarbital for animal welfare; however, the effect of this combination on BALF and blood chemistry is unknown. Here, we compared the effects of anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection of pentobarbital or one of two combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol (dose, 0.375-2.0-2.5 or 0.15-2.0-2.5 mg/kg) or by inhalation of isoflurane on BALF and blood chemistry in rats with or without pulmonary inflammation. In BALF, we determined total protein, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count and neutrophil count. In serum, we conducted a general chemistry screen. After anesthesia with pentobarbital or isoflurane, there were no significant differences between any of the BALF or blood chemistry parameters with or without inflammation. After anesthesia with either of the combinations of medetomidine-midazolam-butorphanol, lactate dehydrogenase, total cell count, neutrophil count, and almost all of the blood chemistry parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane; however, BALF albumin and serum glucose were significantly increased in rats without inflammation. After the combination of low-dose medetomidine in rats with inflammation, BALF parameters were comparable with those observed after pentobarbital or isoflurane. Our results show that, of the anesthetics examined, inhalation of isoflurane is the most appropriate means of anesthesia when examining BALF or serum for toxicity studies in rats. PMID:27665769

  7. Effect of Flow Rate Controller on Liquid Steel Flow in Continuous Casting Mold using Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gursoy, Kadir Ali; Yavuz, Mehmet Metin

    2014-11-01

    In continuous casting operation of steel, the flow through tundish to the mold can be controlled by different flow rate control systems including stopper rod and slide-gate. Ladle changes in continuous casting machines result in liquid steel level changes in tundishes. During this transient event of production, the flow rate controller opening is increased to reduce the pressure drop across the opening which helps to keep the mass flow rate at the desired level for the reduced liquid steel level in tundish. In the present study, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are developed to investigate the effect of flow rate controller on mold flow structure, and particularly to understand the effect of flow controller opening on meniscus flow. First, a detailed validation of the CFD models is conducted using available experimental data and the performances of different turbulence models are compared. Then, the constant throughput casting operations for different flow rate controller openings are simulated to quantify the opening effect on meniscus region. The results indicate that the meniscus velocities are significantly affected by the flow rate controller and its opening level. The steady state operations, specified as constant throughput casting, do not provide the same mold flow if the controller opening is altered. Thus, for quality and castability purposes, adjusting the flow controller opening to obtain the fixed mold flow structure is proposed. Supported by Middle East Technical University (METU) BAP (Scientific Research Projects) Coordination.

  8. Anion effect on the binary and ternary phase diagrams of chiral medetomidine salts and conglomerate crystal formation.

    PubMed

    Choobdari, Ebrahim; Fakhraian, Hossein; Peyrovi, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-03-01

    The binary phase diagrams of hydrogen halides salts of medetomidine (Med.HX, X:Br,I) and hydrogen oxalate salt of medetomidine (Med.Ox) were determined based on thermogravimetric/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) and their crystal structure behavior was confirmed by comparison of the X-ray diffractometry and FT-IR spectroscopy of the racemate and pure enantiomer. All hydrogen halide salts presented racemic compound behavior. Heat of fusion of halides salt of (rac)-medetomidine decreased with ionic radius increase. Eutectic points for Med.HCl (previously reported), Med.HBr, and Med.HI rest were unchanged approximately. The solubility of different enantiomeric mixtures of Med.HBr and Med.HI were measured at 10, 20, and 30°C in 2-propanol showing a solubility increase with ionic radius. A binary phase diagram of Med.Ox shows a racemic conglomerate behavior. The solubility of enantiomeric mixtures of Med.Ox were measured at 10, 20, 30, and 40°C. The ternary phase diagram of Med.Ox in ethanol conforms to a conglomerate crystal forming system, favoring its enantiomeric purification by preferential crystallization.

  9. Haemodynamic interactions of medetomidine and the peripheral alpha-2 antagonist MK-467 during step infusions in isoflurane-anaesthetised dogs.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, Johanna; del Castillo, Jérôme R E; Salla, Kati; Troncy, Eric; Raekallio, Marja R; Vainio, Outi M

    2014-11-01

    The haemodynamic interactions of a step infusion with medetomidine (MED) and the peripherally acting alpha-2 antagonist MK-467 (MK) were compared with MED infused alone in isoflurane-anaesthetised dogs. Eight purposely-bred Beagles were used in a randomised crossover study. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol intravenously (IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. Dogs received 1.25 µg/kg MED as a 1 min loading dose IV, along with a step-down MED infusion at rates of 8.0 µg/kg/h (step 1: 0-20 min), 5.5 µg/kg/h (step 2: 20-40 min) and 4.0 µg/kg/h (step 3: 40-95 min). Five minutes after starting the MED infusion, the dogs received MK-467 in a step-up infusion at rates of 100 µg/kg/h (step 1: 5-35 min), 200 µg/kg/h (step 2: 35-65 min) and 500 µg/kg/h (step 3: 65-95 min). Heart rate (HR), systolic (SAP) and mean arterial (MAP) blood pressures and arteriovenous oxygen content differences (a-vO2 diff) were calculated. Plasma drug concentrations were analysed. Repeated-measures general linear mixed models with Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analyses. MED infusion alone increased SAP maximally by 24.9%, MAP by 34.7% and a-vO2 diff by 222.5%, and reduced HR by 32.3%, but these changes were significantly attenuated by MK-467. Most MED effects returned to baseline during step 2 of MK-467 infusion and step 3 of MED infusion (MED/MK-467 ratio 1:18 to 1:50). Plasma concentrations of MED tended to be lower with the addition of MK-467. The use of step infusions helped to narrow down the therapeutic range for the MED/MK-467 infusion dose ratio during isoflurane anaesthesia in dogs.

  10. Continuous high-repetition-rate operation of collisional soft-x-ray lasers with solid targets.

    PubMed

    Weith, A; Larotonda, M A; Wang, Y; Luther, B M; Alessi, D; Marconi, M C; Rocca, J J; Dunn, J

    2006-07-01

    We have generated a laser average output power of 2 microW at a wavelength of 13.9 nm by operating a tabletop laser-pumped Ni-like Ag laser at a 5 Hz repetition rate, using a solid helicoidal target that is continuously rotated and advanced to renew the target surface between shots. More than 2 x 10(4) soft-x-ray laser shots were obtained by using a single target. Similar results were obtained at 13.2 nm in Ni-like Cd with a Cd-coated target. This scheme will allow uninterrupted operation of laser-pumped tabletop collisional soft-x-ray lasers at a repetition rate of 10 Hz for a period of hours, enabling the generation of continuous high average soft-x-ray powers for applications. PMID:16770410

  11. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time–frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  12. Modular continuous wavelet processing of biosignals: extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video signal.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2016-06-01

    A novel method of extracting heart rate and oxygen saturation from a video-based biosignal is described. The method comprises a novel modular continuous wavelet transform approach which includes: performing the transform, undertaking running wavelet archetyping to enhance the pulse information, extraction of the pulse ridge time-frequency information [and thus a heart rate (HRvid) signal], creation of a wavelet ratio surface, projection of the pulse ridge onto the ratio surface to determine the ratio of ratios from which a saturation trending signal is derived, and calibrating this signal to provide an absolute saturation signal (SvidO2). The method is illustrated through its application to a video photoplethysmogram acquired during a porcine model of acute desaturation. The modular continuous wavelet transform-based approach is advocated by the author as a powerful methodology to deal with noisy, non-stationary biosignals in general. PMID:27382479

  13. Swimmer detection and pose estimation for continuous stroke-rate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zecha, Dan; Greif, Thomas; Lienhart, Rainer

    2012-02-01

    In this work we propose a novel approach to automatically detect a swimmer and estimate his/her pose continuously in order to derive an estimate of his/her stroke rate given that we observe the swimmer from the side. We divide a swimming cycle of each stroke into several intervals. Each interval represents a pose of the stroke. We use specifically trained object detectors to detect each pose of a stroke within a video and count the number of occurrences per time unit of the most distinctive poses (so-called key poses) of a stroke to continuously infer the stroke rate. We extensively evaluate the overall performance and the influence of the selected poses for all swimming styles on a data set consisting of a variety of swimmers.

  14. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison study was conducted of the effects of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue (white pulp) of the mouse spleen with findings as they relate to the mouse thymus. Experimental techniques employed included autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine (TdR-(h-3)). The problem studied involved the mechanism of cell proliferation of lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen and thymus under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roentgens (R) per day for 105 days (15 weeks). The aim was to determine whether or not a steady state or near-steady state of cell population could be established for this period of time, and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population were involved.

  15. Comparison of the Effects of Ketamine, Ketamine–Medetomidine, and Ketamine–Midazolam on Physiologic Parameters and Anesthesia-Induced Stress in Rhesus (Macaca mulatta) and Cynomolgus (Macaca fascicularis) Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Vanessa K; Flynt, Kendall S; Haag, Lauren M; Taylor, Douglas K

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the cardiovascular, respiratory, anesthetic, and glucocorticoid effects of ketamine alone with ketamine–medetomidine and ketamine–midazolam in rhesus and cynomolgus macaques. Macaques were given either intramuscular ketamine (10 mg/kg), intramuscular ketamine–medetomidine (3 mg/kg; 0.15 mg/kg), or oral midazolam (1 mg/kg) followed by intramuscular ketamine (8 mg/kg). The addition of medetomidine, but not midazolam, provided muscle relaxation and abolishment of reflexes that was superior to ketamine alone. In addition, medetomidine did not cause clinically relevant effects on cardiovascular and respiratory parameters when compared with ketamine. These 3 protocols did not have significantly different effects on fecal glucocorticoid metabolites. These results suggest that medetomidine can be a valuable addition to ketamine for healthy patients, whereas oral midazolam at the tested dose does not provide additional benefits. PMID:20122318

  16. Inferring Transition Rates of Networks from Populations in Continuous-Time Markov Processes.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Purushottam D; Jain, Abhinav; Stock, Gerhard; Dill, Ken A

    2015-11-10

    We are interested inferring rate processes on networks. In particular, given a network's topology, the stationary populations on its nodes, and a few global dynamical observables, can we infer all the transition rates between nodes? We draw inferences using the principle of maximum caliber (maximum path entropy). We have previously derived results for discrete-time Markov processes. Here, we treat continuous-time processes, such as dynamics among metastable states of proteins. The present work leads to a particularly important analytical result: namely, that when the network is constrained only by a mean jump rate, the rate matrix is given by a square-root dependence of the rate, kab ∝ (πb/πa)(1/2), on πa and πb, the stationary-state populations at nodes a and b. This leads to a fast way to estimate all of the microscopic rates in the system. As an illustration, we show that the method accurately predicts the nonequilibrium transition rates in an in silico gene expression network and transition probabilities among the metastable states of a small peptide at equilibrium. We note also that the method makes sensible predictions for so-called extra-thermodynamic relationships, such as those of Bronsted, Hammond, and others. PMID:26574334

  17. A mathematical method for extracting cell secretion rate from affinity biosensors continuously monitoring cell activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yandong; Zhou, Qing; Matharu, Zimple; Liu, Ying; Kwa, Timothy; Revzin, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    Our laboratory has previously developed miniature aptasensors that may be integrated at the site of a small group of cells for continuous detection of cell secreted molecules such as inflammatory cytokine interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In a system such as this, the signal measured at the sensor surfaces is a complex function of transport, reaction, as well as of cellular activity. Herein, we report on the development of a mathematical framework for extracting cell production rates from binding curves generated with affinity biosensors. This framework consisted of a diffusion-reaction model coupled to a root finding algorithm for determining cell production rates values causing convergence of a predetermined criterion. To experimentally validate model predictions, we deployed a microfluidic device with an integrated biosensor for measuring the IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells. We found close agreement between secretion rate observed theoretically and those observed experimentally. After taking into account the differences in sensor geometry and reaction kinetics, the method for cell secretion rate determination described in this paper may be broadly applied to any biosensor continuously measuring cellular activity.

  18. Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids.

    PubMed

    Caulkett, N A; Cribb, P H; Haigh, J C

    2000-01-01

    Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.

  19. Continuous- and Discrete-Time Stimulus Sequences for High Stimulus Rate Paradigm in Evoked Potential Studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Huang, Jiang-hua; Lin, Lin

    2013-01-01

    To obtain reliable transient auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) from EEGs recorded using high stimulus rate (HSR) paradigm, it is critical to design the stimulus sequences of appropriate frequency properties. Traditionally, the individual stimulus events in a stimulus sequence occur only at discrete time points dependent on the sampling frequency of the recording system and the duration of stimulus sequence. This dependency likely causes the implementation of suboptimal stimulus sequences, sacrificing the reliability of resulting AEPs. In this paper, we explicate the use of continuous-time stimulus sequence for HSR paradigm, which is independent of the discrete electroencephalogram (EEG) recording system. We employ simulation studies to examine the applicability of the continuous-time stimulus sequences and the impacts of sampling frequency on AEPs in traditional studies using discrete-time design. Results from these studies show that the continuous-time sequences can offer better frequency properties and improve the reliability of recovered AEPs. Furthermore, we find that the errors in the recovered AEPs depend critically on the sampling frequencies of experimental systems, and their relationship can be fitted using a reciprocal function. As such, our study contributes to the literature by demonstrating the applicability and advantages of continuous-time stimulus sequences for HSR paradigm and by revealing the relationship between the reliability of AEPs and sampling frequencies of the experimental systems when discrete-time stimulus sequences are used in traditional manner for the HSR paradigm. PMID:23606900

  20. Physiologic evaluation of medetomidine-ketamine anesthesia in free-ranging Svalbard (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) and wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus).

    PubMed

    Evans, Alina L; Lian, Marianne; das Neves, Carlos G; Øs, Oystein; Andersen, Roy; Aanes, Ronny; Strand, Olav; Tryland, Morten; Arnemo, Jon M

    2013-10-01

    Previously published studies indicated that combinations of medetomidine and ketamine were effective for both Svalbard (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus) and wild Norwegian reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus). Both previous studies indicated that reindeer were hypoxemic on the basis of pulse oximetry. We conducted a physiologic evaluation of these two protocols using arterial blood gases. Medetomidine (10 mg) and ketamine (200 mg) were administered by dart from the ground in Svalbard reindeer (October 2010) and from a helicopter for wild reindeer (March 2012). Of tested animals, all seven wild reindeer and five of seven Svalbard reindeer were hypoxemic before oxygen administration. Nasal oxygen insufflation (1 L/min for five Svalbard reindeer and one wild reindeer and 2 L/min for four wild reindeer) corrected hypoxemia in all cases evaluated. For reversal, all animals received 5 mg atipamezole per mg medetomidine intramuscularly.

  1. Continuous SO2 Emission Rate Measurements at Kilauea: Capturing Transitory Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, A. J.; Herd, R.; Elias, T.; Edmonds, M.; Horton, K.; Garbeil, H.; Teves, A.

    2005-12-01

    Kilauea is one of the better studied volcanoes on Earth, and regular SO2 flux measurements over the past 26 years have, along with concurrent geophysical measurements, improved our understanding of eruptive processes. In particular, the temporal pattern of summit SO2 release has served to test the model of Kilauea's summit reservoir as a way station for magma bound for the east rift eruption site. East rift SO2 emissions, on the other hand, are now regularly used to track the overall lava effusion rate. These gas-based eruption rate data confirm concurrent geophysical measurements made by Very Low Frequency (VLF) profiling of master lava tubes. Although data from weekly SO2 measurements clearly track eruptive changes over weeks to months, much of Kilauea's activity varies on a shorter timescale-minutes to days. In order to capture these transients, including complex deflation-inflation events, effusive bursts, and gas pistoning, high sampling rates are required, comparable to those of geophysical instruments. Preliminary results from a continuously recording, fixed-view spectrometer indicated that Kilauea was likely a good location for implementing continuous SO2 emission-rate monitoring. Accordingly, we are now field testing a telemetered scanning spectrometer system that incorporates characteristics from instruments employed at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Stromboli, and Mount Etna, as well as some novel features to improve data quality. The Kilauea SO2 monitoring system is comprised of a pair of Ocean Optics miniature-UV spectrometers interfaced with scanning assemblies, and is linked to the observatory via spread spectrum radio. The temperature-controlled spectrometers undergo in-situ calibration by periodic, automatic insertion of SO2 calibration cells. One goal of this system is to provide emission rates every few minutes throughout the day. The SO2 data are ingested directly into the observatory data stream for near real-time visualization, along with other

  2. Intraperitoneal Continuous-Rate Infusion for the Maintenance of Anesthesia in Laboratory Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Erickson, Rebecca L; Terzi, Matthew C; Jaber, Samer M; Hankenson, F Claire; McKinstry-Wu, Andrew; Kelz, Max B; Marx, James O

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal injectable anesthetics are often used to achieve surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. Because bolus redosing of injectable anesthetics can cause unacceptably high mortality, we evaluated intraperitoneal continuous-rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine with or without xylazine for maintaining surgical anesthesia for an extended period of time. Anesthesia was induced in male C57BL/6J mice by using ketamine (80 mg/kg) and xylazine (8 mg/kg) without or with acepromazine at 0.1 mg/kg or 0.5 mg/kg. At 10 min after induction, CRI for 90 min was initiated and comprised 25%, 50%, or 100% of the initial ketamine dose per hour or 50% of the initial doses of both ketamine and xylazine. Anesthetic regimens were compared on the basis of animal immobility, continuous surgical depth of anesthesia as determined by the absence of a pedal withdrawal reflex, and mortality. Consistent with previous studies, the response to anesthetics was highly variable. Regimens that provided the longest continuous surgical plane of anesthesia with minimal mortality were ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (0.1 mg/kg) with CRI of 100% of the initial ketamine dose and ketamine-xylazine-acepromazine (0.5 mg/kg) with CRI of 50% of the initial ketamine and xylazine doses. In addition, heart rate and respiratory rate did not increase consistently in response to a noxious stimulus during CRI anesthesia, even when mice exhibited a positive pedal withdrawal reflex, suggesting that these parameters are unreliable indicators of anesthetic depth during ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in mice. We conclude that intraperitoneal CRI anesthesia in mice prolongs injectable anesthesia more consistently and with lower mortality than does bolus redosing. PMID:27657709

  3. Contraception: Efficacy, Risks, Continuation Rates, and Use in High-Risk Women.

    PubMed

    Batur, Pelin; Bowersox, Natalie; McNamara, Megan

    2016-08-01

    The clinical update serves as a brief review of recently published, high-impact, and potentially practice-changing journal articles summarized for our readers. Topics include menopause, sexual dysfunction, breast health, contraception, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease. In this clinical update, we selected recent publications relevant to the use of contraceptive methods. We highlight articles on continuation rates of long-acting reversible contraception versus nonlong-acting methods, updated risks of intrauterine devices, use of estrogen-containing contraceptives during anticoagulation for venous thromboembolic events, and the efficacy of oral and emergency contraception in women with elevated body mass index. PMID:27438879

  4. Remission rates with antithyroid drug therapy: continuing influence of iodine intake?

    PubMed

    Solomon, B L; Evaul, J E; Burman, K D; Wartofsky, L

    1987-10-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the therapeutic efficacy of antithyroid drugs for Graves disease. Sixty-nine patients were divided into three categories according to their response: 28 (40.6%) were unable to achieve a remission; 6 (8.7%) achieved a remission and subsequently had a relapse; and 35 (50.7%) were able to sustain a remission. The mean duration for sustained remissions was 33 months. Our earlier review of outcome of antithyroid therapy showed markedly reduced remission rates, which appeared to be related to increases in dietary iodine intake. Although the greater percentage of patients entering remission today is in marked contrast to the 1973 report, average dietary iodine content has been decreasing. A continuing role for antithyroid drugs should be maintained as an option in the management of Graves disease. Daily dietary iodine intake may influence the anticipated remission rate after antithyroid drug therapy. PMID:2443050

  5. The influence of internal crystal perfection on growth rate dispersion in a continuous suspension crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zacher, U.; Mersmann, A.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the work presented here is to demonstrate the influence of induced lattice strain on growth behaviour of potassium alum crystals in a continuously operated mixed suspension mixed product removal (MSMPR) crystallizer. Therefore crystal size distributions in the crystallizer and individual growth velocities, especially of small particles (initial size 20-60 μm) in a flow-through cell, were simultaneously determined. Moreover Laue diffraction patterns of crystals withdrawn from the MSMPR crystallizer were carried out indicating lattice deformation and strain. Most crystals exhibit constant crystal growth (CCG) behaviour with significant growth rate dispersion. The mean growth rate of small particles in the sub-sieve size range is considerably smaller than the mean rate of product sized crystals at constant supersaturation. Small potash alum crystals show a clear tendency of increased lattice strain with increasing supersaturation which can be explained by the refaceting process of attrition nuclei in the crystallizer. The average amount of induced strain in crystals having the same growth history is obviously related to crystal size. Only slightly strained particles with sufficiently high growth rates will reach the product size range in the MSMPR crystallizer.

  6. A method of measuring continuous detonation rates using off-the-shelf items

    SciTech Connect

    Santis, L.D.; Cortese, R.A.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes a method of measuring continuous detonation rates using standard electronic parts, coaxial cable, and a data recorder such as an oscilloscope. Three six-volt lantern batteries or a DC supply power the electronics that cost less than $100. Included are means of showing low battery power, finding the proper voltage scale on the recorder, and test triggering of the recorder. Modifications of the circuit allow for use in the field to measure charges up to 57 meters and for use in the laboratory to measure short charges. The high resistance (8.709 Ohms/meter) coaxial cable is a mass produced, special order cable available commercially. The driver circuit delivers a constant current to the cable, and as the detonation shorts the cable, a change in circuit voltage occurs. Recording this voltage change over time allows determination of detonation rate resolute to the sampling speed of the recorder. An oscilloscope or personal computer with a data acquisition card can easily record the data for analysis. Detonation rates recorded in the laboratory using the coaxial cable and the Bureau of Mines` traditional probes are presented. The system accurately measured the detonation rates of ANFO confined in steel pipe, detonating cord, and unconfined high explosive.

  7. Accumulation rates in Northwest Greenland from continuous GPR profiling along the Greenland Inland Traverse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawley, R. L.; Courville, Z.; Kehrl, L. M.; Lutz, E.; Osterberg, E. C.; Overly, T. B.; Wong, G. J.

    2012-12-01

    Snow accumulation is one of the fundamental parameters governing the mass balance of the Greenland Ice Sheet. While many point measurements of accumulation exist from shallow and deep ice cores, there are few spatially extensive and continuous records of accumulation in Greenland, particularly in the northwest quadrant. In April and May 2011, the Greenland Inland Traverse traveled via tractor train from Thule Air Base in northwest Greenland to Summit Station, at the center of the ice sheet. The science team on the traverse collected both point and profile measurements along the route. Kinematic GPS and 400 MHz GPR profiles provide geolocated subsurface stratigraphy. Density measurements from snowpits and shallow cores on the profile allow us to determine the true depth of radar reflecting horizons, commonly interpreted to be isochrons. We use three ice cores collected at the beginning, the end, and roughly the middle of the route to date horizons. We traced strong reflecting horizons along the entire route. From the combination of dated, traced horizons, density measurements, and position measurements, we determine accumulation rates continuously along the traverse route. We find our traverse route begins in a high-accumulation area, and accumulation decreases as we cross to the east side of the summit ridge. Accumulation then climbs again as we approach summit (directly on the summit ridge). We compare our accumulation rates with previous studies, both measurements (traverse and point measurements) and models.

  8. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the environmental control systems, especially in terms of moisture control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air at 100% humidity) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine sweat and respiratory rates for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols using a variety of different individuals. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  9. Continuous hydroxyl radical planar laser imaging at 50 kHz repetition rate.

    PubMed

    Hammack, Stephen; Carter, Campbell; Wuensche, Clemens; Lee, Tonghun

    2014-08-10

    This study demonstrates high-repetition-rate planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging of hydroxyl radicals (OH) in flames at a continuous framing rate of 50 kHz. A frequency-doubled dye laser is pumped by the second harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser to generate laser radiation near 283 nm with a pulse width of 8 ns and rate of 50 kHz. Fluorescence is recorded by a two-stage image intensifier and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor camera. The average power of the 283 nm beam reaches 7 W, yielding a pulse energy of 140 μJ. Both a Hencken burner and a DC transient-arc plasmatron are used to produce premixed CH4/air flames to evaluate the OH PLIF system. The average signal-to-noise ratio for the Hencken burner flame is greater than 20 near the flame front and greater than 10 further downstream in a region of the flame near equilibrium. Image sequences of the DC plasmatron discharge clearly illustrate development and evolution of flow features with signal levels comparable to those in the Hencken burner. The results are a demonstration of the ability to make high-fidelity OH PLIF measurements at 50 kHz using a Nd:YAG-pumped, frequency-doubled dye laser. PMID:25320935

  10. Lymphoid cell kinetics under continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation: A comparison study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of cell proliferation is studied in the lymphoid tissue of the mouse spleen under the stress of continuous irradiation at a dose-rate of 10 roentgens per day for 105 days. Autoradiography and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine were utilized. It was found that at least four compensatory mechanisms maintained a near-steady state of cellular growth: (1) an increase in the proportion of PAS-positive cells which stimulate mitotic activity, (2) maturation arrest of proliferating and differentiating cells which tend to replenish the cells damaged or destroyed by irradiation, (3) an increase in the proportion of cells proliferating, and (4) an increase in the proportion of precursor cells. The results are compared to previous findings observed in the thymus.

  11. SITE project. Phase 1: Continuous data bit-error-rate testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujikawa, Gene; Kerczewski, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The Systems Integration, Test, and Evaluation (SITE) Project at NASA LeRC encompasses a number of research and technology areas of satellite communications systems. Phase 1 of this project established a complete satellite link simulator system. The evaluation of proof-of-concept microwave devices, radiofrequency (RF) and bit-error-rate (BER) testing of hardware, testing of remote airlinks, and other tests were performed as part of this first testing phase. This final report covers the test results produced in phase 1 of the SITE Project. The data presented include 20-GHz high-power-amplifier testing, 30-GHz low-noise-receiver testing, amplitude equalization, transponder baseline testing, switch matrix tests, and continuous-wave and modulated interference tests. The report also presents the methods used to measure the RF and BER performance of the complete system. Correlations of the RF and BER data are summarized to note the effects of the RF responses on the BER.

  12. Towards continuous monitoring of pulse rate in neonatal intensive care unit with a webcam.

    PubMed

    Mestha, Lalit K; Kyal, Survi; Xu, Beilei; Lewis, Leslie Edward; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    We describe a novel method to monitor pulse rate (PR) on a continuous basis of patients in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using videos taken from a high definition (HD) webcam. We describe algorithms that determine PR from videoplethysmographic (VPG) signals extracted from multiple regions of interest (ROI) simultaneously available within the field of view of the camera where cardiac signal is registered. We detect motion from video images and compensate for motion artifacts from each ROI. Preliminary clinical results are presented on 8 neonates each with 30 minutes of uninterrupted video. Comparisons to hospital equipment indicate that the proposed technology can meet medical industry standards and give improved patient comfort and ease of use for practitioners when instrumented with proper hardware. PMID:25570823

  13. Sweat Rates During Continuous and Interval Aerobic Exercise: Implications for NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Scott, Jessica; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic deconditioning is one of the effects spaceflight. Impaired crewmember performance due to loss of aerobic conditioning is one of the risks identified for mitigation by the NASA Human Research Program. Missions longer than 8 days will involve exercise countermeasures including those aimed at preventing the loss of aerobic capacity. The NASA Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) will be NASA's centerpiece architecture for human space exploration beyond low Earth orbit. Aerobic exercise within the small habitable volume of the MPCV is expected to challenge the ability of the Air Revitalization System, especially in terms of moisture and temperature control. Exercising humans contribute moisture to the environment by increased respiratory rate (exhaling air saturated with moisture) and sweat. Current acceptable values are based on theoretical models that rely on an "average" crew member working continuously at 75% of their aerobic capacity (Human Systems Integration Requirements Document). Evidence suggests that high intensity interval exercise for much shorter durations are equally effective or better in building and maintaining aerobic capacity. This investigation will examine metabolic moisture and heat production for operationally relevant continuous and interval aerobic exercise protocols. The results will directly inform what types of aerobic exercise countermeasures will be feasible to prescribe for crewmembers aboard the MPCV.

  14. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors.

    PubMed

    You, Yan; Niu, Can; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Yating; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jiefeng; He, Fei; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies. Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr(-1)). AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions. Field tests were conducted in classrooms, dormitories, meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers. Indoor temperature, relative humidity (RH), and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded. Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved: duplicate precision was within 10%, and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs. Average AERs were 1.22, 1.37, 1.10, 1.91 and 0.73 hr(-1) in dormitories, air-conditioned classrooms, classrooms with an air circulation cooling system, reading rooms, and meeting rooms, respectively. In an elderly particulate matter exposure study, all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr(-1) in fall, and 0.12 to 1.39 hr(-1) in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  15. Effects of Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation on Cardiopulmonary Function in Horses Anesthetized with Total Intravenous Anesthesia Using Combination of Medetomidine, Lidocaine, Butorphanol and Propofol (MLBP-TIVA)

    PubMed Central

    ISHIZUKA, Tomohito; TAMURA, Jun; NAGARO, Tsukasa; SUDO, Kanako; ITAMI, Takaharu; UMAR, Mohammed Ahamed; MIYOSHI, Kenjirou; SANO, Tadashi; YAMASHITA, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33–35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27–30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114–123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28–29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19–21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO2 pressure [PaCO2]: 84–103 mmHg and arterial O2 pressure [PaO2]: 155–172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO2: 42–50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO2: 395–419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29–31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17–21 l /min, MABP: 111–123 mmHg, MPAP: 27–30 mmHg and MRAP: 15–16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  16. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated. PMID:25649938

  17. Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation on cardiopulmonary function in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using combination of medetomidine, lidocaine, butorphanol and propofol (MLBP-TIVA).

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomohito; Tamura, Jun; Nagaro, Tsukasa; Sudo, Kanako; Itami, Takaharu; Umar, Mohammed Ahamed; Miyoshi, Kenjirou; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2014-12-01

    Effects of intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) on cardiopulmonary function were evaluated in horses anesthetized with total intravenous anesthesia using constant rate infusions of medetomidine (3.5 µg/kg/hr), lidocaine (3 mg/kg/hr), butorphanol (24 µg/kg/hr) and propofol (0.1 mg/kg/min) (MLBP-TIVA). Five horses were anesthetized twice using MLBP-TIVA with or without IPPV at 4-week interval (crossover study). In each occasion, the horses breathed 100% oxygen with spontaneous ventilation (SB-group, n=5) or with IPPV (CV-group, n=5), and changes in cardiopulmonary parameters were observed for 120 min. In the SB-group, cardiovascular parameters were maintained within acceptable ranges (heart rate: 33-35 beats/min, cardiac output: 27-30 l/min, mean arterial blood pressure [MABP]: 114-123 mmHg, mean pulmonary arterial pressure [MPAP]: 28-29 mmHg and mean right atrial pressure [MRAP]: 19-21 mmHg), but severe hypercapnea and insufficient oxygenation were observed (arterial CO(2) pressure [PaCO(2)]: 84-103 mmHg and arterial O(2) pressure [PaO(2)]: 155-172 mmHg). In the CV-group, normocapnea (PaCO(2): 42-50 mmHg) and good oxygenation (PaO(2): 395-419 mmHg) were achieved by the IPPV without apparent cardiovascular depression (heart rate: 29-31 beats/min, cardiac output: 17-21 l /min, MABP: 111-123 mmHg, MPAP: 27-30 mmHg and MRAP: 15-16 mmHg). MLBP-TIVA preserved cardiovascular function even in horses artificially ventilated.

  18. Continuous positive airway pressure increases heart rate variability in heart failure patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    PubMed

    Gilman, Matthew P; Floras, John S; Usui, Kengo; Kaneko, Yasuyuki; Leung, Richard S T; Bradley, T Douglas

    2008-02-01

    Patients with heart failure or OSA (obstructive sleep apnoea) have reduced HF-HRV (high-frequency heart rate variability), indicating reduced cardiac vagal modulation, a marker of poor prognosis. CPAP (continuous positive airway pressure) abolishes OSA in patients with heart failure, but effects on daytime HF-HRV have not been determined. We hypothesized that, in patients with heart failure, treatment of coexisting OSA by CPAP would increase morning HF-HRV. In 19 patients with heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction <45%) and OSA (>/=20 apnoeas and hypopnoeas/h of sleep), HF-HRV was quantified before and 1 month after randomization to a control or CPAP-treated group. In the control group (n=7), there were no changes in HF-HRV over the 1 month study during wakefulness in the morning. In the CPAP-treated group (n=12) HF-HRV increased significantly during wakefulness in the morning [from 2.43+/-0.55 to 2.82+/-0.50 log(ms(2)/Hz); P=0.002] due to an increase in transfer function between changes in lung volume and changes in HF-HRV (92.37+/-96.03 to 219.07+/-177.14 ms/l; P=0.01). In conclusion, treatment of coexisting OSA by nocturnal CPAP in patients with heart failure increases HF-HRV during morning wakefulness, indicating improved vagal modulation of heart rate. This may contribute to improved prognosis.

  19. Control of algal production in a high rate algal pond: investigation through batch and continuous experiments.

    PubMed

    Derabe Maobe, H; Onodera, M; Takahashi, M; Satoh, H; Fukazawa, T

    2014-01-01

    For decades, arid and semi-arid regions in Africa have faced issues related to water availability for drinking, irrigation and livestock purposes. To tackle these issues, a laboratory scale greywater treatment system based on high rate algal pond (HRAP) technology was investigated in order to guide the operation of the pilot plant implemented in the 2iE campus in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Because of the high suspended solids concentration generally found in effluents of this system, the aim of this study is to improve the performance of HRAPs in term of algal productivity and removal. To determine the selection mechanism of self-flocculated algae, three sets of sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) and three sets of continuous flow reactors (CFRs) were operated. Despite operation with the same solids retention time and the similarity of the algal growth rate found in these reactors, the algal productivity was higher in the SBRs owing to the short hydraulic retention time of 10 days in these reactors. By using a volume of CFR with twice the volume of our experimental CFRs, the algal concentration can be controlled during operation under similar physical conditions in both reactors. PMID:24960016

  20. Validation of a new control system for Elekta accelerators facilitating continuously variable dose rate

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, Anders; Lorenzen, Ebbe L.; Brink, Carsten

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Elekta accelerators controlled by the current clinically used accelerator control system, Desktop 7.01 (D7), uses binned variable dose rate (BVDR) for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The next version of the treatment control system (Integrity) supports continuously variable dose rate (CVDR) as well as BVDR. Using CVDR opposed to BVDR for VMAT has the potential of reducing the treatment time but may lead to lower dosimetric accuracy due to faster moving accelerator parts. Using D7 and a test version of Integrity, differences in ability to control the accelerator, treatment efficiency, and dosimetric accuracy between the two systems were investigated. Methods: Single parameter tests were designed to expose differences in the way the two systems control the movements of the accelerator. In these tests, either the jaws, multi leaf collimators (MLCs), or gantry moved at constant speed while the dose rate was changed in discrete steps. The positional errors of the moving component and dose rate were recorded using the control systems with a sampling frequency of 4 Hz. The clinical applicability of Integrity was tested using 15 clinically used VMAT plans (5 prostate, 5 H and N, and 5 lung) generated by the SmartArc algorithm in PINNACLE. The treatment time was measured from beam-on to beam-off and the accuracy of the dose delivery was assessed by comparing DELTA4 measurements and PINNACLE calculated doses using gamma evaluation. Results: The single parameter tests showed that Integrity had an improved feedback between gantry motion and dose rate at the slight expense of MLC control compared to D7. The single parameter test did not reveal any significant differences in the control of either jaws or backup jaws between the two systems. These differences in gantry and MLC control together with the use of CVDR gives a smoother Integrity VMAT delivery compared to D7 with less abrupt changes in accelerator motion. Gamma evaluation (2% of 2 Gy and 2 mm) of the

  1. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements.

  2. The effects of alpha-2 agonist, medetomidine and its antagonist, atipamezole on reaction and movement times in a visual choice reaction time task in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rämä, P; Linnankoski, I; Carlson, S

    1997-01-01

    Alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonists have been shown to improve the working memory task performance of aged monkeys. Suggestions offered to explain this finding include improved short-term memory processing, slight sedation, and decreased distractiveness. Although sedation is evident at high doses, it may also contribute to the working memory task performance at low doses. The aim of the present work was to find out whether the positive effects of an alpha-2 agonist, medetomidine, on working memory performance could be explained by its sedative effects. This was accomplished by measuring the reaction and movement times of monkeys performing a visual choice reaction time task under the influence of medetomidine or its antagonist atipamezole. In the task a trial began with the monkey holding a central pad. After a short period one of two lateral light emitting diodes was turned on for 300 ms and the monkeys were trained to release the central bar and touch either of the bars, situated below the diodes, depending on the location of the stimulus. The reaction and movement times were significantly longer than on saline control only at the highest dose of medetomidine (10.0 micrograms/kg). At the lowest dose of atipamezole (0.01 mg/kg), the reaction times were significantly shorter than on saline control. The results of this study demonstrate that low doses of medetomidine, which have earlier been shown to improve working memory performance, do not induce sedation as measured by reaction and movement times.

  3. Continuous Low-dose-rate Irradiation of Iodine-125 Seeds Inhibiting Perineural Invasion in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zheng; Dong, Teng-Hui; Si, Pei-Ren; Shen, Wei; Bi, Yi-Liang; Min, Min; Chen, Xin; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineural invasion (PNI) is a histopathological characteristic of pancreatic cancer (PanCa). The aim of this study was to observe the treatment effect of continuous low-dose-rate (CLDR) irradiation to PNI and assess the PNI-related pain relief caused by iodine-125 (125I) seed implantation. Methods: The in vitro PNI model established by co-culture with dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and cancer cells was interfered under 2 and 4 Gy of 125I seeds CLDR irradiation. The orthotopic models of PNI were established, and 125I seeds were implanted in tumor. The PNI-related molecules were analyzed. In 30 patients with panCa, the pain relief was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Pain intensity was measured before and 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1, 3, and 6 months after 125I seed implantation. Results: The co-culture of DRG and PanCa cells could promote the growth of PanCa cells and DRG neurites. In co-culture groups, the increased number of DRG neurites and pancreatic cells in radiation group was significantly less. In orthotopic models, the PNI-positive rate in radiation and control group was 3/11 and 7/11; meanwhile, the degrees of PNI between radiation and control groups was significant difference (P < 0.05). At week 2, the mean VAS pain score in patients decreased by 50% and significantly improved than the score at baseline (P < 0.05). The pain scores were lower in all patients, and the pain-relieving effect was retained about 3 months. Conclusions: The CLDR irradiation could inhibit PNI of PanCa with the value of further study. The CLDR irradiation could do great favor in preventing local recurrence and alleviating pain. PMID:27748339

  4. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R H; Slamovich, E B; Handwerker, C A

    2013-05-17

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl(-)) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl(-) ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl(-) to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ∼100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl(-)]/[Zn(2+)] = 1.5 and pH=  4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at zero back-gate bias. PMID:23595114

  5. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate During Continuous Experimental Sleep Fragmentation in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Carrington, Melinda J.; Trinder, John

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: This paper aims to determine whether experimental arousals from sleep delay the sleep related fall in cardiovascular activity in healthy adults. Design: We report the results of 2 studies. The first experiment manipulated arousals from sleep in young adults. The second compared the effect of frequent arousals on young and middle-aged adults. The influence of arousals were assessed in 2 ways; (1) the fall in cardiovascular activity over sleep onset and the early sleep period, and (2) the underlying sleep levels during the sleep periods in between arousals. Setting: Both experiments were conducted in the sleep laboratory of the Department of Psychology, The University of Melbourne, Australia. Participants: There were 5 male and 5 female healthy individuals in each experiment between the ages of 18–25 years (Experiment 1) and 38–55 years (Experiment 2). Interventions: Participants in Experiment 1 were aroused by auditory stimuli every (i) 2 min, (ii) 1 min, and (iii) 30 sec of sleep for 90 min after the first indication of sleep. In a control condition, participants slept undisturbed for one NREM sleep cycle. Experiment 2 compared the control with the 30-sec condition in the young adults and in an additional group of middle-aged adults. Measurements and Results: The dependent variables were blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). In Experiment 1, sleep fragmentation at higher frequencies retarded the fall in BP over sleep onset but did not affect the underlying sleep levels. Experiment 2 showed that there were no age differences on the effect of arousals on changes in BP and HR during sleep. Conclusions: This paper supports the hypothesis that repetitive arousals from sleep independently contribute to elevations in BP at night. Citation: Carrington MJ; Trinder J. Blood pressure and heart rate during continuous experimental sleep fragmentation in healthy adults. SLEEP 2008;31(12):1701–1712. PMID:19090326

  6. Controlling growth rate anisotropy for formation of continuous ZnO thin films from seeded substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, R H; Slamovich, E B; Handwerker, C A

    2013-05-17

    Solution-processed zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films are promising candidates for low-temperature-processable active layers in transparent thin film electronics. In this study, control of growth rate anisotropy using ZnO nanoparticle seeds, capping ions, and pH adjustment leads to a low-temperature (90 ° C) hydrothermal process for transparent and high-density ZnO thin films. The common 1D ZnO nanorod array was grown into a 2D continuous polycrystalline film using a short-time pure solution method. Growth rate anisotropy of ZnO crystals and the film morphology were tuned by varying the chloride (Cl(-)) ion concentration and the initial pH of solutions of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA), and the competitive adsorption effects of Cl(-) ions and HMTA ligands on the anisotropic growth behavior of ZnO crystals were proposed. The lateral growth of nanorods constituting the film was promoted by lowering the solution pH to accelerate the hydrolysis of HMTA, thereby allowing the adsorption effects from Cl(-) to dominate. By optimizing the growth conditions, a dense ∼100 nm thickness film was fabricated in 15 min from a solution of [Cl(-)]/[Zn(2+)] = 1.5 and pH=  4.8 ± 0.1. This film shows >80% optical transmittance and a field-effect mobility of 2.730 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at zero back-gate bias.

  7. Ocean-Scale Patterns in Community Respiration Rates along Continuous Transects across the Pacific Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jesse M.; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m−3 d−1±8.0 mmol m−3 d−1 standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m−3 d−1±7.32 mmol m−3 d−1 between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m−3 d−1±45.6 mmol m−3 d−1 between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m−3 d−1±13.9 mmol m−3 d−1 between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements. PMID:25048960

  8. Ocean-scale patterns in community respiration rates along continuous transects across the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jesse M; Severson, Rodney; Beman, J Michael

    2014-01-01

    Community respiration (CR) of organic material to carbon dioxide plays a fundamental role in ecosystems and ocean biogeochemical cycles, as it dictates the amount of production available to higher trophic levels and for export to the deep ocean. Yet how CR varies across large oceanographic gradients is not well-known: CR is measured infrequently and cannot be easily sensed from space. We used continuous oxygen measurements collected by autonomous gliders to quantify surface CR rates across the Pacific Ocean. CR rates were calculated from changes in apparent oxygen utilization and six different estimates of oxygen flux based on wind speed. CR showed substantial spatial variation: rates were lowest in ocean gyres (mean of 6.93 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±8.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1) standard deviation in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre) and were more rapid and more variable near the equator (8.69 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±7.32 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 10°N and 10°S) and near shore (e.g., 5.62 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±45.6 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between the coast of California and 124°W, and 17.0 mmol m(-3) d(-1)±13.9 mmol m(-3) d(-1) between 156°E and the Australian coast). We examined how CR varied with coincident measurements of temperature, turbidity, and chlorophyll concentrations (a proxy for phytoplankton biomass), and found that CR was weakly related to different explanatory variables across the Pacific, but more strongly related to particular variables in different biogeographical areas. Our results indicate that CR is not a simple linear function of chlorophyll or temperature, and that at the scale of the Pacific, the coupling between primary production, ocean warming, and CR is complex and variable. We suggest that this stems from substantial spatial variation in CR captured by high-resolution autonomous measurements. PMID:25048960

  9. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine-butorphanol and midazolam-butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis).

    PubMed

    Malik, V; Kinjavdekar, P; Amarpal; Aithal, H P; Pawde, A M; Surbhi

    2011-03-01

    Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) 2-3 years of age and weighing 290-325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 and H2). The animals of group H1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg,i.v.) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v.), while in group H2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg) were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5% thiopental sodium in H1 (3.85 +/- 0.63 mg/kg) and H2 (6.96 +/- 0.45 mg/kg) groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2, whereas no significant (P > 0.05) difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P < 0.01) after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) fallin RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05) fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05) after premedication and a significant (P < 0.05) occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P < 0.01) increase in CVP and a significant (P < 0.01) decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P < 0.01) decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groups H1 and H2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in PR interval in group H2, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in T wave amplitude

  10. Trap-effectiveness and response to tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine anaesthesia in Eurasian wild boar captured with cage and corral traps

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Capture, handling and chemical restraint are basic techniques often needed for research or management purposes. The aim of this study was testing a combination of tiletamine-zolazepam (TZ) (3 mg/kg) and medetomidine (M) (0.05 mg/kg) on Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). A total of 77 free-ranging wild boar were captured by means of portable cages and corral traps and then anaesthetized with intramuscular darts using a blowpipe. The individual response to chemical immobilization was characterized using anaesthetic, clinical, and serum biochemical variables. After the procedure, 14 of these wild boar were monitored for 20 days using GPS-GSM collars. Results Pre-release mortality during capture and handling (6.5%) was associated with severe trauma in corral traps. Capture specificity for wild boar was 96.3% and trapping effort was 16.5 days per captured wild boar. Mean induction period was 4.5 ± 2.2 min, hypnosis period enabling effective handling was 61.6 ± 25.4 min, and recovery period was 12.8 ± 12.1 min. No heart or respiratory failure due to added stress occurred and post-release monitoring by GPS-devices revealed no mortality due to anaesthesia. According to the best statistical model obtained, the main factor driving anaesthetic efficacy and stress indicators is trap type. Conclusions Both cage and corral traps are efficient methods to capture wild boar. Cage traps are safer, as demonstrated by mortality rates as well as anaesthetic, physiological, and serum biochemical responses. This anaesthetic protocol is useful for prolonged handling of wild boar and allows sampling and collecting data for ecological and epidemiological studies. PMID:23702232

  11. Anesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol on the production of offspring in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli

    PubMed Central

    KAGEYAMA, Atsuko; TOHEI, Atsushi; USHIJIMA, Hitoshi; OKADA, Konosuke

    2016-01-01

    Pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl) can induce surgical anesthesia with a strong hypnotic effect that causes loss of consciousness. Animals have been known to die during experimental surgery under anesthesia with Somnopentyl, causing it to be declared inadequate as a general anesthetic for single treatment. An anesthetic combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4.0 mg/kg midazolam and 5.0 mg/kg butorphanol (M/M/B:0.3/4/5) was reported to induce anesthesia for a duration of around 40 min in ICR mice; similar anesthetic effects were reported in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains of mice. However, the anesthetic effects of this combination in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli, remain to be evaluated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Somnopentyl and different concentrations of anesthetic combination (M/M/B:0.3/4/5, 0.23/3/3.75 or 0.15/2/2.5) in Japanese field voles, by means of anesthetic scores. We also examined effect of these anesthetics on production of offspring. Death of the animals was observed only with Somnopentyl. The anesthetic score of Somnopentyl was lower than those of the other anesthetics, although there were no significant differences in duration, body weight and frequency of respiratory among the evaluated anesthetics. Abortion rate with Somnopentyl was significantly higher than that with the M/M/B:0.23/3/3.75 combination, although there was no significant difference in the number of offspring between two. In conclusion, results of this study provide basic information for achieving appropriate anesthetic concentrations in addition to indicating a new, safe and effective surgical anesthetic for Japanese field voles. PMID:27238159

  12. Anesthetic effects of a combination of medetomidine, midazolam and butorphanol on the production of offspring in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli.

    PubMed

    Kageyama, Atsuko; Tohei, Atsushi; Ushijima, Hitoshi; Okada, Konosuke

    2016-09-01

    Pentobarbital sodium (Somnopentyl) can induce surgical anesthesia with a strong hypnotic effect that causes loss of consciousness. Animals have been known to die during experimental surgery under anesthesia with Somnopentyl, causing it to be declared inadequate as a general anesthetic for single treatment. An anesthetic combination of 0.3 mg/kg medetomidine, 4.0 mg/kg midazolam and 5.0 mg/kg butorphanol (M/M/B:0.3/4/5) was reported to induce anesthesia for a duration of around 40 min in ICR mice; similar anesthetic effects were reported in both male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains of mice. However, the anesthetic effects of this combination in Japanese field vole, Microtus montebelli, remain to be evaluated. In the present study, we assessed the effects of Somnopentyl and different concentrations of anesthetic combination (M/M/B:0.3/4/5, 0.23/3/3.75 or 0.15/2/2.5) in Japanese field voles, by means of anesthetic scores. We also examined effect of these anesthetics on production of offspring. Death of the animals was observed only with Somnopentyl. The anesthetic score of Somnopentyl was lower than those of the other anesthetics, although there were no significant differences in duration, body weight and frequency of respiratory among the evaluated anesthetics. Abortion rate with Somnopentyl was significantly higher than that with the M/M/B:0.23/3/3.75 combination, although there was no significant difference in the number of offspring between two. In conclusion, results of this study provide basic information for achieving appropriate anesthetic concentrations in addition to indicating a new, safe and effective surgical anesthetic for Japanese field voles. PMID:27238159

  13. Continuous measurements of instantaneous heart rate and its fluctuations before and after hatching in chickens.

    PubMed

    Moriya, K; Pearson, J T; Burggren, W W; Ar, A; Tazawa, H

    2000-03-01

    There has been considerable interest in heart rate (fh) fluctuations in relation to cardiovascular control systems and foetal conditions during pregnancy in mammals. Prominent fluctuations in fh also occur in avian embryos, which are an important experimental model for studying developmental physiology. The present study determined the instantaneous fh of seven chick embryos continuously from the last stage of prenatal development (day 18), throughout the pipping (perinatal) period (days 19-21) until hatching and, subsequently, of newly hatched chicks (up to day 2). The distinctive patterns of instantaneous fh fluctuations took the form of specific changes within a broad mean fh baseline. Cyclic oscillations (ultradian rhythm) occurred until an early stage of the perinatal period, when the fh baseline started rising. Subsequently, the baseline dropped and respiratory arrhythmia began to appear concomitant with external pipping. During the final stage of external pipping, when the fh baseline rose again prior to hatching, three unique patterns of instantaneous fh fluctuations were evident: relatively long-lasting cyclic small accelerations, irregular intermittent large accelerations and short-term repeated large accelerations. Furthermore, repeated alternate occurrences of the latter two types of acceleration formed an additional oscillating pattern with a period of 10-15 min. During the early period after hatching, when the fh baseline reached its maximum, instantaneous fh changed relatively slowly accompanied by transient rapid decelerations, probably due to augmented vagal tone. Subsequently, the mean fh baseline dropped to its minimum, and a circadian rhythm and three types of previously reported fh fluctuations (types I-III) appeared. Developmental patterns of mean fh and the appearance of distinctive patterns of instantaneous fluctuations in fh and circadian rhythms were not influenced by an ultimate failure of hatching after a normal development. The

  14. The effect of discrete vs. continuous-valued ratings on reputation and ranking systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medo, Matúš; Rushton Wakeling, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    When users rate objects, a sophisticated algorithm that takes into account ability or reputation may produce a fairer or more accurate aggregation of ratings than the straightforward arithmetic average. Recently a number of authors have proposed different co-determination algorithms where estimates of user and object reputation are refined iteratively together, permitting accurate measures of both to be derived directly from the rating data. However, simulations demonstrating these methods' efficacy assumed a continuum of rating values, consistent with typical physical modelling practice, whereas in most actual rating systems only a limited range of discrete values (such as a 5-star system) is employed. We perform a comparative test of several co-determination algorithms with different scales of discrete ratings and show that this seemingly minor modification in fact has a significant impact on algorithms' performance. Paradoxically, where rating resolution is low, increased noise in users' ratings may even improve the overall performance of the system.

  15. Evaluation of a combination of alfaxalone with medetomidine and butorphanol for inducing surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Shota; Yamada, Riku; Hashimoto, Asami; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Yamashita, Kazuto; Ohsugi, Takeo

    2016-05-01

    The anesthetic effects of alfaxalone were investigated in mice. Mice were administered alfaxalone (100 mg/kg) alone or the combinations of 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol with alfaxalone at doses of 20 mg/kg (M/B/A20), 40 mg/kg (M/B/A40), 60 mg/kg (M/B/A60), or 80 mg/kg (M/B/A80). Control mice received 0.3 mg/kg of medetomidine, 4 mg/kg of midazolam, and 5 mg/kg of butorphanol (M/M/B). Each drug was administrated by intraperitoneal (IP) or subcutaneous (SC) routes. M/M/B IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia but M/M/B SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 10 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 45 min. The anesthetic scores were very low after IP or SC administration of alfaxalone alone. M/B/A20 IP and SC did not achieve surgical anesthesia. M/B/A40 IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia but M/B/A40 SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 10 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 35 min. M/B/A60 SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 5 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 75 min. By contrast, M/B/A60 IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia. M/B/A80 SC achieved surgical anesthesia within 5 min after administration and maintained anesthesia for 85 min. By contrast, M/B/A80 IP did not achieve surgical anesthesia and one mouse died about 10 min after drug administration. Administration of atipamezole rapidly reversed anesthesia induced by M/B/A60 in mice. These results suggest that M/B/A60 SC, an alfaxalone-based combination, is suitable for inducing surgical anesthesia in laboratory mice. PMID:27506087

  16. A Latent Class Multidimensional Scaling Model for Two-Way One-Mode Continuous Rating Dissimilarity Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vera, J. Fernando; Macias, Rodrigo; Heiser, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a cluster-MDS model for two-way one-mode continuous rating dissimilarity data. The model aims at partitioning the objects into classes and simultaneously representing the cluster centers in a low-dimensional space. Under the normal distribution assumption, a latent class model is developed in terms of the set of…

  17. Comparison of medetomidine, thiopental and ketamine/midazolam anesthesia in chick embryos for in ovo Magnetic Resonance Imaging free of motion artifacts.

    PubMed

    Waschkies, Conny; Nicholls, Flora; Buschmann, Johanna

    2015-10-23

    Non-invasive assessment of the perfusion capacity of tissue engineered constructs grown on the chorioallantoic membrane by MRI is often hampered by motion artifacts. Therefore, we examined the suitability of three anesthetic regimes for sufficient sedation of the chick embryo. Medetomidine at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, was compared to thiopental at 100 mg/kg and ketamine/midazolam at 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. These soluble anesthetics were applied by dropping a total volume of 0.3 mL onto the surface of the CAM. Motion was videotaped through the window of the eggshell and scored semi-quantitatively. Medetomidine performed best in terms of reduced motion; onset of anesthesia occurred within 10 minutes and for the following 30 minutes, allowing proper in vivo MRI measurements. The other regimen were not sedating deep enough (ketamine/midazolam) and not long enough (thiopental). In sum, medetomidine allows proper sedation for MRI assessment of the perfusion capacity in a tissue engineered construct placed on the CAM.

  18. Comparison of medetomidine, thiopental and ketamine/midazolam anesthesia in chick embryos for in ovo Magnetic Resonance Imaging free of motion artifacts

    PubMed Central

    Waschkies, Conny; Nicholls, Flora; Buschmann, Johanna

    2015-01-01

    Non-invasive assessment of the perfusion capacity of tissue engineered constructs grown on the chorioallantoic membrane by MRI is often hampered by motion artifacts. Therefore, we examined the suitability of three anesthetic regimes for sufficient sedation of the chick embryo. Medetomidine at a dosage of 0.3 mg/kg, was compared to thiopental at 100 mg/kg and ketamine/midazolam at 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg, respectively. These soluble anesthetics were applied by dropping a total volume of 0.3 mL onto the surface of the CAM. Motion was videotaped through the window of the eggshell and scored semi-quantitatively. Medetomidine performed best in terms of reduced motion; onset of anesthesia occurred within 10 minutes and for the following 30 minutes, allowing proper in vivo MRI measurements. The other regimen were not sedating deep enough (ketamine/midazolam) and not long enough (thiopental). In sum, medetomidine allows proper sedation for MRI assessment of the perfusion capacity in a tissue engineered construct placed on the CAM. PMID:26493765

  19. Analgesia after feline ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia with buprenorphine or butorphanol, and carprofen or meloxicam: a prospective, randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Polson, Sally; Taylor, Polly M; Yates, David

    2012-08-01

    One hundred female cats undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy under midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine anaesthesia were included in a blinded, randomised, prospective clinical study to compare postoperative analgesia produced by four analgesic drug combinations given preoperatively (n = 25 per group). A secondary aim was to assess the effects in kittens and pregnant animals. Buprenorphine 180 µg/m(2) or butorphanol 6 mg/m(2) were given with either carprofen 4 mg/kg (groups BUPC and BUTC, respectively) or meloxicam 0.3 mg/kg (groups BUPM or BUTM, respectively). Medetomidine was not antagonised. A simple, descriptive scale (SDS; 0-4), a dynamic and interactive visual analogue scale (DIVAS; 0-100 mm) and mechanical nociceptive thresholds (MT; 2.5-mm diameter probe) were used to evaluate postoperative pain. All pain scores were low (DIVAS <10 mm, SDS <2 and MT >10 N) and there were no significant differences between the groups. It was concluded that all protocols provided adequate analgesia and when used with midazolam-medetomidine-ketamine are effective for routine feline ovariohysterectomy. PMID:22505603

  20. Why Has the Continuous Decline in German Suicide Rates Stopped in 2007?

    PubMed Central

    Doganay, Gülcihan; Reschke, Konrad; Rummel-Kluge, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Background Whereas German suicide rates had a clear decreasing tendency between 1991 and 2006, they increased from 2007 to 2010. Deeper analyses of suicide data might help to understand better this change. The aim of this study was to analyze 1) whether recent trends can be related to changes in specific suicide methods and diverge by gender and age; 2) whether the decrease of suicide rates before 2007 as well as the increase from 2007 to 2010 are driven by the same suicide method. Methods Analyses were based on suicide data from the Federal Statistical Office of Germany. For 1998–2010, 136.583 suicide cases of men and women with known age and suicide method could be identified. These data were analyzed by joinpoint regression analysis, allowing identification of the best fitting point in time (“joinpoint”) at which the suicide rate significantly changes in magnitude or direction. Results The national downward trend between 1998 and 2007 was mainly due to corresponding changes in self-poisoning by other means than drugs (e.g., pesticides) (annual percentage change (APC) ≤ −4.33), drowning (APC ≤ −2.73), hanging (APC ≤ −2.69) and suicides by firearms (APC ≤ −1.46) in both genders. Regarding the overall increase of age-adjusted suicide rates in Germany 2007–2010, mainly the increase of self-poisoning (e.g., by drugs) and “being overrun” (APC ≥ 1.50) contributed to this trend. Limitations The true suicide rates might have been underestimated because of errors in the official death certificates. Conclusions Increase in suicide rates in Germany since 2007 went along with corresponding changes for “being overrun” and “self-poisoning”. Copycat suicides following the railway suicide of the goalkeeper Robert Enke partly contributed to the results. Thus, prevention of Werther effects and limitation of the availability of high pack sizes for drugs are of special relevance for the reversal of this trend. PMID:23967225

  1. Effect of continuous antistaphylococcal therapy on the rate of P. aeruginosa acquisition in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Ratjen, F; Comes, G; Paul, K; Posselt, H G; Wagner, T O; Harms, K

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY. Continuous therapy with antistaphylococcal antibiotics is advocated by some cystic fibrosis (CF) centers, but it is unclear whether this strategy favors early colonization with P. aeruginosa. We used the data base for the German Centers of the European Registry for Cystic Fibrosis (ERCF) to assess the effect of continuous antistaphyloccocal therapy on the rate of P. aeruginosa acquisition in CF patients. Patients included in this analysis had to be < 18 years of age, P. aeruginosa-negative prior to entry in the ERCF, and to have had at least 2 additional P. aeruginosa-negative respiratory cultures while followed in the ERCF. Of the 639 patients fulfilling these criteria, 48.2% received continuous antistaphyloccocal therapy, 40.4% intermittent antibiotic therapy, and 11.4% no antibiotic therapy. There were no differences between the groups in body mass index, as well as forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV(1)) at baseline. The rate at which patients acquired positive respiratory cultures for Staph. aureus was significantly lower in the group receiving continuous antistaphyloccocal antibiotic therapy than in those not receiving such therapy. Patients receiving continuous antistaphyloccocal antibiotic therapy had a significantly higher rate of P. aeruginosa acquisition compared to patients receiving only intermittent or no antibiotic therapy. This difference was especially apparent for children younger than age 6 years. We conclude that continuous therapy with antistapyloccocal antibiotics directed against Staph. aureus increases the risk of colonization with P. aeruginosa. How this affects the clinical outcome of these patients remains to be determined.

  2. [Clinical experience and comparison of ketamine-medetomidine with ketamine-xylazine anesthesia in the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in captivity].

    PubMed

    Váhala, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of two mixtures, ketamine-xylazine and ketamine-medetomidine, were compared in anesthesia of African wild dog (Lycaon pictus) in the Zoo park at Dvůr Králové; the effects of these combinations were also investigated on the triad values and on the basic hematological (red blood counts, hematocrit, hemoglobin content, derived parameters MCM, MCHC, MCV, white blood counts, differential blood counting) and biochemical (total proteins, glucose, creatinine, urea, cholesterol, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, chlorides, sodium, potassium, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alanine transferase, aspartate transaminase) parameters of blood and blood serum in anesthesia. Tab. I shows the reasons for anesthesia in 68 individuals of African wild dog in the years 1980-1990. As for both mixtures, application of drugs with a blowpipe was used. In the anesthetized animals, the outset of ataxia, laying down and the outset of sleep were followed (Tab. II), as well as the time of wakening up without and with antidote administration (Tabs. IV and V). The outset of ataxia was fast 1.5 +/- 0.6 min) in the ketamine-xylazine mixture administered at doses of 5.07 +/- 1.16 mg/kg ketamine and 2.11 +/- 0.53 mg/kg xylazine, similarly like lying down (3.2 +/- 1.0 min) and loosing sensation (6.3 +/- 1.6 min). At the start of the drug action, vomiting was often observed, and sometimes in the first ten minutes after drug harpooning short clonic convulsions of the limbs or the whole body occurred. In further course, immobilization and anesthesia were complete and satisfactory in all cases. The first reactions to outer stimuli during wakening up without antidote administration were observed in 135 +/- 11.9 minutes while the animals stood up in 210 +/- 44.5 minutes after drug harpooning (Tab. IV). When the nonspecific antidote xylazine-yohimbine was used, the first reactions after i.m. instillation at a dose of 0.31 +/- 0.02 mg/kg appeared in 20.3 +/- 0.57 min, after i

  3. Affinity states of biocides determine bioavailability and release rates in marine paints.

    PubMed

    Dahlström, Mia; Sjögren, Martin; Jonsson, Per R; Göransson, Ulf; Lindh, Liselott; Arnebrant, Thomas; Pinori, Emiliano; Elwing, Hans; Berglin, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    A challenge for the next generation marine antifouling (AF) paints is to deliver minimum amounts of biocides to the environment. The candidate AF compound medetomidine is here shown to be released at very low concentrations, ie ng ml(-1) day(-1). Moreover, the release rate of medetomidine differs substantially depending on the formulation of the paint, while inhibition of barnacle settlement is independent of release to the ambient water, ie the paint with the lowest release rate was the most effective in impeding barnacle colonisation. This highlights the critical role of chemical interactions between biocide, paint carrier and the solid/aqueous interface for release rate and AF performance. The results are discussed in the light of differential affinity states of the biocide, predicting AF activity in terms of a high surface affinity and preserved bioavailability. This may offer a general framework for the design of low-release paint systems using biocides for protection against biofouling on marine surfaces. PMID:25775096

  4. Comparison of High Rate Laser Ablation and Resulting Structures Using Continuous and Pulsed Single Mode Fiber Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knebel, T.; Streek, A.; Exner, H.

    This paper compares high rate laser ablation and resulting structures of aluminum by using both a continuous wave and a ns-pulsed single mode fiber laser of high average laser power. Two different scan technologies were applied for fast deflection of the laser beams. In this work, 2.5D laser processing was studied by using a high aperture galvanometer scanner with a maximum scan speed of 18 m/s. By contrast, considerably higher scan speeds up to 1,000 m/s were achieved by using the in-house developed polygon scanner system. The ablation rates and the processing rates per unit area were analyzed by means of the depths of line-scan ablation tracks and laser processed cavities. In addition, SEM photograph of the machining samples will be presented in order to evaluate the machining quality. Finally the feasibility of this high rate technology for industrial application is demonstrated by machining examples.

  5. Continuous multigram nanoparticle synthesis by high-power, high-repetition-rate ultrafast laser ablation in liquids.

    PubMed

    Streubel, René; Barcikowski, Stephan; Gökce, Bilal

    2016-04-01

    Utilizing a novel laser system consisting of a 500 W, 10 MHz, 3 ps laser source which is fully synchronized with a polygon scanner reaching scanning speeds up to 500 m/s, we explore the possibilities to increase the productivity of nanoparticle synthesis by laser ablation in liquids. By exploiting the high scanning speed, laser-induced cavitation bubbles are spatially bypassed at high repetition rates and continuous multigram ablation rates up to 4 g/h are demonstrated for platinum, gold, silver, aluminum, copper, and titanium. Furthermore, the applicable, ablation-effective repetition rate is increased by two orders of magnitude. The ultrafast ablation mechanisms are investigated for different laser fluences, repetition rates, interpulse distances, and ablation times, while the resulting trends are successfully described by validating a model developed for ultrafast laser ablation in air to hold in liquids as well. PMID:27192268

  6. Effect of specific light supply rate on photosynthetic efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina in a continuous flat plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Eleonora; Calvaruso, Claudio; Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Nannochloropsis salina was cultivated in a continuous-flow flat-plate photobioreactor, working at different residence times and irradiations to study the effect of the specific light supply rate on biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency. Changes in residence times lead to different steady-state cell concentrations and specific growth rates. We observed that cultures at steady concentration were exposed to different values of light intensity per cell. This specific light supply rate was shown to affect the photosynthetic status of the cells, monitored by fluorescence measurements. High specific light supply rate can lead to saturation and photoinhibition phenomena if the biomass concentration is not optimized for the selected operating conditions. Energy balances were applied to quantify the biomass growth yield and maintenance requirements in N. salina cells. PMID:26257264

  7. Effect of specific light supply rate on photosynthetic efficiency of Nannochloropsis salina in a continuous flat plate photobioreactor.

    PubMed

    Sforza, Eleonora; Calvaruso, Claudio; Meneghesso, Andrea; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bertucco, Alberto

    2015-10-01

    In this work, Nannochloropsis salina was cultivated in a continuous-flow flat-plate photobioreactor, working at different residence times and irradiations to study the effect of the specific light supply rate on biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency. Changes in residence times lead to different steady-state cell concentrations and specific growth rates. We observed that cultures at steady concentration were exposed to different values of light intensity per cell. This specific light supply rate was shown to affect the photosynthetic status of the cells, monitored by fluorescence measurements. High specific light supply rate can lead to saturation and photoinhibition phenomena if the biomass concentration is not optimized for the selected operating conditions. Energy balances were applied to quantify the biomass growth yield and maintenance requirements in N. salina cells.

  8. Growth and Methane Oxidation Rates of Anaerobic Methanotrophic Archaea in a Continuous-Flow Bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    Girguis, Peter R.; Orphan, Victoria J.; Hallam, Steven J.; DeLong, Edward F.

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic methanotrophic archaea have recently been identified in anoxic marine sediments, but have not yet been recovered in pure culture. Physiological studies on freshly collected samples containing archaea and their sulfate-reducing syntrophic partners have been conducted, but sample availability and viability can limit the scope of these experiments. To better study microbial anaerobic methane oxidation, we developed a novel continuous-flow anaerobic methane incubation system (AMIS) that simulates the majority of in situ conditions and supports the metabolism and growth of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea. We incubated sediments collected from within and outside a methane cold seep in Monterey Canyon, Calif., for 24 weeks on the AMIS system. Anaerobic methane oxidation was measured in all sediments after incubation on AMIS, and quantitative molecular techniques verified the increases in methane-oxidizing archaeal populations in both seep and nonseep sediments. Our results demonstrate that the AMIS system stimulated the maintenance and growth of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea, and possibly their syntrophic, sulfate-reducing partners. Our data demonstrate the utility of combining physiological and molecular techniques to quantify the growth and metabolic activity of anaerobic microbial consortia. Further experiments with the AMIS system should provide a better understanding of the biological mechanisms of methane oxidation in anoxic marine environments. The AMIS may also enable the enrichment, purification, and isolation of methanotrophic archaea as pure cultures or defined syntrophic consortia. PMID:12957936

  9. Identifying protein aggregation mechanisms and quantifying aggregation rates from combined monomer depletion and continuous scattering.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Gregory V; Drenski, Michael; Razinkov, Vladimir; Reed, Wayne F; Roberts, Christopher J

    2016-10-15

    Parallel temperature initial rates (PTIR) from chromatographic separation of aggregating protein solutions are combined with continuous simultaneous multiple sample light scattering (SMSLS) to make quantitative deductions about protein aggregation kinetics and mechanisms. PTIR determines the rates at which initially monomeric proteins are converted to aggregates over a range of temperatures, under initial-rate conditions. Using SMSLS for the same set of conditions provides time courses of the absolute Rayleigh scattering ratio, IR(t), from which a potentially different measure of aggregation rates can be quantified. The present report compares these measures of aggregation rates across a range of solution conditions that result in different aggregation mechanisms for anti-streptavidin (AS) immunoglobulin gamma-1 (IgG1). The results illustrate how the two methods provide complementary information when deducing aggregation mechanisms, as well as cases where they provide new mechanistic details that were not possible to deduce in previous work. Criteria are presented for when the two techniques are expected to give equivalent results for quantitative rates, the potential limitations when solution non-idealities are large, as well as a comparison of the temperature dependence of AS-IgG1 aggregation rates with published data for other antibodies. PMID:27510552

  10. A low perfusion rate microreactor for continuous monitoring of enzyme characteristics: application to glucose oxidase.

    PubMed

    Posthuma-Trumpie, G A; Venema, K; van Berkel, W J H; Korf, J

    2007-11-01

    This report describes a versatile and robust microreactor for bioactive proteins physically immobilized on a polyether sulfone filter. The potential of the reactor is illustrated with glucose oxidase immobilized on a filter with a cut-off value of 30 kDa. A flow-injection system was used to deliver the reactants and the device was linked on-line to an electrochemical detector. The microreactor was used for on-line preparation of apoglucose oxidase in strong acid and its subsequent reactivation with flavin adenine dinucleotide. In addition we describe a miniaturized version of the microreactor used to assess several characteristics of femtomole to attomole amounts of glucose oxidase. A low negative potential over the electrodes was used when ferrocene was the mediator in combination with horseradish peroxidase, ensuring the absence of oxidation of electro-active compounds in biological fluids. A low backpressure at very low flow rates is an advantage, which increases the sensitivity. A variety of further applications of the microreactor are suggested.

  11. A dynamic in vitro lipolysis model. I. Controlling the rate of lipolysis by continuous addition of calcium.

    PubMed

    Zangenberg, N H; Müllertz, A; Kristensen, H G; Hovgaard, L

    2001-09-01

    Lipolysis by pancreatic lipase was investigated with the aim to establish an in vitro lipolysis model, which can be used to investigate the dissolution of poorly soluble lipophilic drug substances at controlled hydrolysis rates. The effects of three experimental parameters -- the concentrations of bile salts and Ca(2+) and the lipase activity -- were investigated. The effect on the rate of hydrolysis of emulsified soybean oil was investigated in experiments in a pH-stat at pH 6.5 and 37 degrees C. The free fatty acids produced by the hydrolysis were titrated at pH 6.5. It was shown that all three investigated parameters influence the initial rate of hydrolysis, whereas only the lipase activity and the concentration of Ca(2+) affect the subsequent stages. It was also shown that the rate of lipolysis can be controlled by the rate of adding Ca(2+). Thus, it is possible to design an in vitro model using readily available and inexpensive materials in which the hydrolysis rate can be controlled by the continuous addition of Ca(2+).

  12. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1974-01-01

    Cellular response and cell population kinetics were studied during lymphopoiesis in the thymus of the mouse under continuous gamma irradiation using autoradiographic techniques and specific labeling with tritiated thymidine. On the basis of tissue weights, it is concluded that the response of both the thymus and spleen to continuous low dose-rate irradiation is multiphasic. That is, alternating periods of steady state growth, followed by collapse, which in turn is followed by another period of homeostasis. Since there are two populations of lymphocytes - short lived and long-lived, it may be that different phases of steady state growth are mediated by different lymphocytes. The spleen is affected to a greater extent with shorter periods of steady-state growth than exhibited by the thymus.

  13. Anaesthesia with medetomidine-ketamine-isoflurane with and without midazolam, in eight captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Wenker, C; Hoby, S; Morath, U; Bergadano, A

    2013-08-01

    In 8 captive adult chimpanzees of various ages premedicated with oral zuclopenthixol anaesthesia was induced intramuscularly with a combination of medetomidine and ketamine (40 or 50 µg/kg and 5 mg/kg, IM, respectively), with and without midazolam (0.05 mg/kg), and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. At the end of the procedure, sedation was reversed with atipamezole (0.25 mg/kg, IM) and sarmazenil (0.005 mg/kg, IM) when midazolam had been administered. Oral zuclopenthixol resulted in tranquillization of the whole group and only one animal required a second dart injection to achieve adequately deep anaesthesia. Effective and reliable anaesthesia was achieved in all apes; the depth of hypnosis was stable and sudden arousal did not occur. Physiological parameters remained within normal ranges in the majority of the animals; however, manageable anaesthesia-related complications, namely apnoea after darting, hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxemia and prolonged recovery, occurred in 6 out of 8 animals. The use of monitoring devices was essential to guarantee adequate management of these complications.

  14. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  15. Monitoring the impact of the indoor air quality on silver cultural heritage objects using passive and continuous corrosion rate assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    `t Hart, Lucy; Storme, Patrick; Anaf, Willemien; Nuyts, Gert; Vanmeert, Frederik; Dorriné, Walter; Janssens, Koen; de Wael, Karolien; Schalm, Olivier

    2016-10-01

    There is a long tradition in evaluating industrial atmospheres by measuring the corrosion rate of exposed metal coupons. The heritage community also uses this method, but the interpretation of the corrosion rate often lacks clarity due to the low corrosivity in indoor museum environments. This investigation explores the possibilities and drawbacks of different silver corrosion rate assessments. The corrosion rate is determined by three approaches: (1) chemical characterization of metal coupons using analytical techniques such as electrochemical measurements, SEM-EDX, XRD, and µ-Raman spectroscopy, (2) continuous corrosion monitoring methods based on electrical resistivity loss of a corroding nm-sized metal wire and weight gain of a corroding silver coated quartz crystal, and (3) characterization of the visual degradation of the metal coupons. This study confirms that subtle differences in corrosivity between locations inside a museum can be determined on condition that the same corrosion rate assessment is used. However, the impact of the coupon orientation with respect to the prevailing direction of air circulation can be substantially larger than the impact of the coupon location.

  16. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system.

    PubMed

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-08-23

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng.

  17. Soil bacterial and fungal community dynamics in relation to Panax notoginseng death rate in a continuous cropping system

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Linlin; Xu, Jiang; Feng, Guangquan; Li, Xiwen; Chen, Shilin

    2016-01-01

    Notoginseng (Panax notoginseng), a valuable herbal medicine, has high death rates in continuous cropping systems. Variation in the soil microbial community is considered the primary cause of notoginseng mortality, although the taxa responsible for crop failure remains unidentified. This study used high-throughput sequencing methods to characterize changes in the microbial community and screen microbial taxa related to the death rate. Fungal diversity significantly decreased in soils cropped with notoginseng for three years. The death rate and the fungal diversity were significantly negatively correlated, suggesting that fungal diversity might be a potential bioindicator of soil health. Positive correlation coefficients revealed that Burkholderiales, Syntrophobacteraceae, Myrmecridium, Phaeosphaeria, Fusarium, and Phoma were better adapted to colonization of diseased plants. The relative abundance of Fusarium oxysporum (R = 0.841, P < 0.05) and Phaeosphaeria rousseliana (R = 0.830, P < 0.05) were positively associated with the death rate. F. oxysporum was a pathogen of notoginseng root-rot that caused seedling death. Negative correlation coefficients indicated that Thermogemmatisporaceae, Actinosynnemataceae, Hydnodontaceae, Herpotrichiellaceae, and Coniosporium might be antagonists of pathogens, and the relative abundance of Coniosporium perforans was negatively correlated with the death rate. Our findings provide a dynamic overview of the microbial community and present a clear scope for screening beneficial microbes and pathogens of notoginseng. PMID:27549984

  18. Retrospective evaluation of continuous rate infusion of regular insulin intravenously for the management of feline diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Bollinger, Pamela N; Moore, Lisa E

    2015-01-01

    The use and efficacy of continuous rate infusion (CRI) of regular insulin intravenously for the treatment of feline diabetic ketoacidosis was retrospectively evaluated. The study focused on the rate of glucose decline, time to resolution of inappetence, time to long-term injectable insulin, and length of hospital stay. Review of medical records from 2009 to 2011 identified 10 cases that met the inclusion criteria. Six cats were existing diabetics, 3 of whom had recent insulin changes. Five cats had concurrent diseases. The mean time to long-term injectable insulin was 55 hours. The mean length of hospitalization was 3.8 days. Five cats survived to discharge. In 5 patients, an insulin CRI permitted a short hospital stay and transition to long-term injectable insulin. Many cats with diabetic ketosis or diabetic ketoacidosis are prior diabetics with concurrent disease and/or a history of recent insulin changes.

  19. Continuous flow micro-bioreactors for the production of biopharmaceuticals: the effect of geometry, surface texture, and flow rate.

    PubMed

    Garza-García, Lucía D; García-López, Erika; Camacho-León, Sergio; Del Refugio Rocha-Pizaña, María; López-Pacheco, Felipe; López-Meza, Julián; Araiz-Hernández, Diana; Tapia-Mejía, Eduardo J; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Rodríguez-González, Ciro A; Alvarez, Mario Moisés

    2014-04-01

    We used continuous flow micro-devices as bioreactors for the production of a glycosylated pharmaceutical product (a monoclonal antibody). We cultured CHO cells on the surface of PMMA/PDMS micro-channels that had been textured by micromachining and coated with fibronectin. Three different micro-channel geometries (a wavy channel, a zigzag channel, and a series of donut-shape reservoirs) were tested in a continuous flow regime in the range of 3 to 6 μL min(-1). Both the geometry of the micro-device and the flow rate had a significant effect on cell adhesion, cell proliferation, and monoclonal antibody production. The most efficient configuration was a series of donut-shaped reservoirs, which yielded mAb concentrations of 7.2 mg L(-1) at residence times lower than one minute and steady-state productivities above 9 mg mL(-1) min(-1). These rates are at about 3 orders of magnitude higher than those observed in suspended-cell stirred tank fed-batch bioreactors.

  20. Evaluation of continuous low dose rate versus acute single high dose rate radiation combined with oncolytic viral therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    LIU, CHUNYAN; ZHANG, YONGGANG; LIU, MINZHI MAGGIE; ZHOU, HAOMING; CHOWDHURY, WASIM H.; LUPOLD, SHAWN E.; DEWEESE, TED L.; RODRIGUEZ, RONALD

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Conditionally Replicative Adenovirus (CRAd) has been previously demonstrated to augment the activity of radiation, resulting in synergy of cell kill. However, previous models combining radiation with CRAd have not focused on the methods of radiation delivery. Materials and methods We model the combination of a novel prostate-specific CRAd, Ad5 PSE/PBN E1A-AR (Ad5: adenovirus 5; PSE: prostate-specific enhancer; PBN: rat probasin promoter; E1A: early region 1A; AR: androgen receptor), with radiation delivered both acutely and continuously, in an effort to better mimic the potential clinical modes of prostate cancer radiotherapy. Results We demonstrate that pre-treatment of cells with acute single high dose rate (HDR) radiation 24 hours prior to viral infection results in significantly enhanced viral replication and virus-mediated cell death. In addition, this combination causes increased level of γ-H2AX (Phosphorylated histone protein H2AX on serine 139), a marker of double-stranded DNA damage and an indirect measure of nuclear fragmentation. In contrast, continuous low dose rate (LDR) radiation immediately following infection of the same CRAd results in no enhancement of viral replication, and only additive effects in virus-mediated cell death. Conclusions These data provide the first direct assessment of the real-time impact of radiation on viral replication and the first comparison of the effect of radiation delivery on the efficacy of CRAd virotherapy. Our data demonstrate substantial differences in CRAd efficacy based on the mode of radiation delivery. PMID:20201650

  1. Continuous measurements of flow rate in a shallow gravel-bed river by a new acoustic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawanisi, K.; Razaz, M.; Ishikawa, K.; Yano, J.; Soltaniasl, M.

    2012-05-01

    The continuous measurement of river discharge for long periods of time is crucial in water resource studies. However, the accurate estimation of river discharge is a difficult and labor-intensive procedure; thus, a robust and efficient method of measurement is required. Continuous measurements of flowrate have been carried out in a wide, shallow gravel bed river (water depth ≈ 0.6 m under low-flow conditions, width ≈ 115 m) using Fluvial Acoustic Tomography System (FATS) that has 25 kHz broadband transducers with horizontally omnidirectional and vertically hemispherical beam patterns. Reciprocal sound transmissions were performed between the two acoustic stations located diagonally on both sides of the river. The horizontal distance between the transducers was 301.96 m. FATS enabled the measurement of the depth- and range-averaged sound speed and flow velocity along the ray path. In contrast to traditional point/transect measurements of discharge, in a fraction of a second, FATS covers the entire cross section of river in a single measurement. The flow rates measured by FATS were compared to those estimated by moving boat Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) and rating curve (RC) methods. FATS estimates were in good agreement with ADCP estimates over a range of 20 to 65 m3 s-1. The RMS of residual between the two measurements was 2.41 m3 s-1. On the other hand the flowrate by RC method fairly agreed with FATS estimates for greater discharges than around 40 m3 s-1. This inconsistency arises from biased RC estimates in low flows. Thus, the flow rates derived from FATS could be considered reliable.

  2. Influence of specific growth rate on biomass yield, productivity, and compostion of Candida utilis in batch and continuous culture.

    PubMed Central

    Paredes-López, O; Camargo-Rubio, E; Ornelas-Vale, A

    1976-01-01

    Candida utilis was grown in batch and continuous culture on prickly pear juice as sole carbon and energy source. In batch culture the maximum specific growth rate (mum) and the substrate yield coefficient (Yps) varied according to sugar concentration. When the fermentation was carried out with 1% sugar, mum and Ys were 0.47/h and 42.6%, respectively. The best yields occurred in a chemostat at the pH range of 3.5 to 4.5 and temperature of 30 C. A beneficial effect on Ys was observed when the dilution rate (D) was increased. At a D of 0.55/h, the productivity was 2.38 g/liter per h. The maintenance coefficient attained a value of 0.09 g of sugar/g of biomass per h. Increases of D produced higher protein contents of the biomass. The information obtained indicates that protein production with Candida utilis, using prickly pear juice, should be carried out a high dilution rates where the Ys and protein content of the cell mass are also higher. PMID:5055

  3. Influence of specific growth rate on biomass yield, productivity, and compostion of Candida utilis in batch and continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Paredes-López, O; Camargo-Rubio, E; Ornelas-Vale, A

    1976-04-01

    Candida utilis was grown in batch and continuous culture on prickly pear juice as sole carbon and energy source. In batch culture the maximum specific growth rate (mum) and the substrate yield coefficient (Yps) varied according to sugar concentration. When the fermentation was carried out with 1% sugar, mum and Ys were 0.47/h and 42.6%, respectively. The best yields occurred in a chemostat at the pH range of 3.5 to 4.5 and temperature of 30 C. A beneficial effect on Ys was observed when the dilution rate (D) was increased. At a D of 0.55/h, the productivity was 2.38 g/liter per h. The maintenance coefficient attained a value of 0.09 g of sugar/g of biomass per h. Increases of D produced higher protein contents of the biomass. The information obtained indicates that protein production with Candida utilis, using prickly pear juice, should be carried out a high dilution rates where the Ys and protein content of the cell mass are also higher.

  4. Continuous desorption rate measurement from a shallow-bed of poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) particles with correction for experimental artifacts.

    PubMed

    Bujalski, Robert; Cantwell, Frederick F

    2004-09-10

    A 0.50 mm high bed, containing ca. 3 mg of the nominally non-porous poly(styrene-divinylbenzene) (PS-DVB) sorbent Hamilton PRP-infinity, is located in a valve. After the bed is pre-equilibrated with a (7/3) methanol/water solution of naphthalene (NA), the valve is switched and (7/3) methanol/water solvent flows continuously through the bed at a high linear velocity. This causes NA to desorb into a constantly refreshed solvent, creating a "shallow-bed" contactor with an "infinite bath" kinetic condition. The effluent from the bed passes through a UV-absorbance detector which generates the observed instantaneous desorption rate curve for NA. The same experiment is performed using the solute phloroglucinol (PG), which is not sorbed by PRP-infinity and serves as an "impulse response function marker" (IRF-Marker). The resulting peak-shaped IRF curve is used in two ways (i.e. subtraction and deconvolution) in order to correct the observed instantaneous rate curve of NA for the following experimental artifacts: hold-up volume of the bed and valve, transit-delay time between the bed and the detector and instrument bandbroadening of the NA zone. The cumulative desorption rate curve, which is a plot of moles NA desorbed versus time, is obtained by integration. It is found to be accurately described by the theoretical equation for homogeneous spherical diffusion. The diffusion coefficient of NA inside the PRP-infinity particles (5.0+/-0.6) x 10(-11) cm2/s, agrees with the literature value that was obtained from the sorption rate of NA into the same particles. This constitutes virtually conclusive evidence for diffusion control of intra-particle kinetics of NA in the PS-DVB matrix of PRP-infinity and related polymers. The influence of both sorbent and solute properties on the method is evaluated. PMID:15481254

  5. CONTINUOUS MID-INFRARED STAR FORMATION RATE INDICATORS: DIAGNOSTICS FOR 0 < z < 3 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Battisti, A. J.; Calzetti, D.; Johnson, B. D.; Elbaz, D.

    2015-02-20

    We present continuous, monochromatic star formation rate (SFR) indicators over the mid-infrared wavelength range of 6–70 μm. We use a sample of 58 star-forming galaxies (SFGs) in the Spitzer–SDSS–GALEX Spectroscopic Survey at z < 0.2, for which there is a rich suite of multi-wavelength photometry and spectroscopy from the ultraviolet through to the infrared. The data from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) of these galaxies, which spans 5–40 μm, is anchored to their photometric counterparts. The spectral region between 40–70 μm is interpolated using dust model fits to the IRS spectrum and Spitzer 70 and 160 μm photometry. Since there are no sharp spectral features in this region, we expect these interpolations to be robust. This spectral range is calibrated as a SFR diagnostic using several reference SFR indicators to mitigate potential bias. Our band-specific continuous SFR indicators are found to be consistent with monochromatic calibrations in the local universe, as derived from Spitzer, WISE, and Herschel photometry. Our local composite template and continuous SFR diagnostics are made available for public use through the NASA/IPAC Infrared Science Archive (IRSA) and have typical dispersions of 30% or less. We discuss the validity and range of applicability for our SFR indicators in the context of unveiling the formation and evolution of galaxies. Additionally, in the era of the James Webb Space Telescope this will become a flexible tool, applicable to any SFG up to z ∼ 3.

  6. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats-strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole.

    PubMed

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  7. Effects of an anesthetic mixture of medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol in rats—strain difference and antagonism by atipamezole

    PubMed Central

    Kirihara, Yumiko; Takechi, Mayumi; Kurosaki, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yuta; Saito, Yoji; Takeuchi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    An anesthetic mixture of medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID), and butorphanol (BUT) has been used in laboratory animals. We previously reported that this anesthetic mixture produced closely similar anesthetic effects in BALB/c and C57BL/6J strains. We also demonstrated the efficacy of atipamezole (ATI), an antagonist of MED that produced quick recovery from anesthesia in mice. Anesthetics have various anesthetic effects among animal strains. However, the differences in the effects of anesthetic mixtures in rats are unclear. In the present study, we first examined effects of the abovementioned anesthetic mixture using three different rat strains: Wistar (WST), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344). Second, we examined how different dosages and optimum injection timing of ATI affected recovery from anesthesia in rats. We used the anesthetic score to measure anesthetic duration and a pulse oximeter to monitor vital signs. We found no significant differences in anesthetic duration among the three different strains. However, recovery from anesthesia in the SD strain took significantly longer than in the other strains. The antagonistic effects of ATI (0.15 mg/kg and 0.75 mg/kg) were equivalent when administered at 30 min after anesthetic mixture administration. The antagonistic effects of ATI 0.75 mg/kg were stronger than those of ATI 0.15 mg/kg at 10 min after anesthetic mixture administration. This anesthetic mixture is a useful drug that can induce similar anesthetic effects in three different strains and has an antagonist, ATI, that makes rats quickly recover from anesthesia. These results may contribute to the welfare of laboratory animals. PMID:26424468

  8. Continuous Monitoring and On-line Analysis of Operational Dose Rates: Tools to Further Mitigate Radiation Risks

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Degtiarenko

    2009-07-01

    Along with passive and active engineering and administrative controls usually implemented in radiation protection programs at different facilities, continuous monitoring and on-line analysis of data measured by the radiation detectors at the workplace and in the environment can be considered as an additional tool used to further mitigate radiation risks. Many monitoring systems on the market today allow connecting radiation area monitors into a network, and reading and accumulating data continuously in a database. The point of this presentation is to bring attention to the fact that such accumulated information can be analyzed and used in many respects to improve reliability and functionality of the monitoring and control systems. A simple time history of background readings from a radiation detector can be used to evaluate the stability of the detector performance. Data recorded during normal facility operations may serve to establish a pattern of acceptable dose rates in such detector and allow to better detect off-normal and unstable modes of the facility operation before they reach hardware trip levels. Facility operators and users may utilize such monitoring systems to optimize operations and minimize their radiological impact. Implementation and examples of use of the RADMON radiation monitoring and data analysis system at Jefferson Lab is presented.

  9. Improve Synergy Between Health Information Exchange and Electronic Health Records to Increase Rates of Continuously Insured Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Rachel; Burdick, Tim; Angier, Heather; Wallace, Lorraine; Nelson, Christine; Likumahuwa-Ackman, Sonja; Sumic, Aleksandra; DeVoe, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The Affordable Care Act increases health insurance options, yet many Americans may struggle to consistently maintain coverage. While health care providers have traditionally not been involved in providing insurance enrollment support to their patients, the ability for them to do so now exists. We propose that providers could capitalize on the expansion of electronic health records (EHRs) and the advances in health information exchanges (HIEs) to improve their patients’ insurance coverage rates and continuity. Evidence for Argument: We describe a project in which we are building strategies for linking, and thus improving synergy between, payer and EHR data. Through this effort, care teams will have access to new automated tools and increased EHR functionality designed to help them assist their patients in obtaining and maintaining health insurance coverage. Suggestion for the Future: The convergence of increasing EHR adoption, improving HIE functionality, and expanding insurance coverage options, creates new opportunities for clinics to help their patients obtain public health insurance. Harnessing this nascent ability to exchange information between payers and providers may improve synergies between HIE and EHRs, and thus support clinic-based efforts to keep patients continuously insured. PMID:26355818

  10. Continuous, online measurement of the absolute plasma refill rate during hemodialysis using feedback regulated ultrafiltration: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Brummelhuis, Walter J; van Schelven, Leonard J; Boer, Walther H

    2008-01-01

    Methods to continuously measure absolute refill during dialysis are not available. It would be useful to have such a method because it would allow investigating the mechanism of refill the effect of interventions. We designed a feedback algorithm that adjusts ultrafiltration rate (QUF) according to hemoglobin (Hb) concentration changes in such a way that relative blood volume (BV) remains constant within a narrow target range. In this situation, the generated QUF quantitatively reflects refill. Refill patterns were studied in five hypotension prone patients. In addition, on separate occasions, we studied the effect of antiembolism stockings (AES) and infusion of hydroxy-ethylated starch (HAES) on refill in these patients. Refill during the first hour fell significantly from 21 +/- 3 ml/min to 9 +/- 2 ml/min (p < 0.05). In the second hour, refill decreased further and became zero in four out of five patients. Neither AES nor HAES measurably affected refill. The marked and rapid fall in refill in the early stages of dialysis suggests untimely depletion of the interstitial compartment and underestimation of dry weight. We propose that continuous, online measurement of refill patterns may be of value for accurate estimation of dry weight in dialysis patients. PMID:18204322

  11. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery. A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables. The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P

  12. Continuous modeling of metabolic networks with gene regulation in yeast and in vivo determination of rate parameters.

    PubMed

    Moisset, P; Vaisman, D; Cintolesi, A; Urrutia, J; Rapaport, I; Andrews, B A; Asenjo, J A

    2012-09-01

    A continuous model of a metabolic network including gene regulation to simulate metabolic fluxes during batch cultivation of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was developed. The metabolic network includes reactions of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycerol and ethanol synthesis and consumption, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and protein synthesis. Carbon sources considered were glucose and then ethanol synthesized during growth on glucose. The metabolic network has 39 fluxes, which represent the action of 50 enzymes and 64 genes and it is coupled with a gene regulation network which defines enzyme synthesis (activities) and incorporates regulation by glucose (enzyme induction and repression), modeled using ordinary differential equations. The model includes enzyme kinetics, equations that follow both mass-action law and transport as well as inducible, repressible, and constitutive enzymes of metabolism. The model was able to simulate a fermentation of S. cerevisiae during the exponential growth phase on glucose and the exponential growth phase on ethanol using only one set of kinetic parameters. All fluxes in the continuous model followed the behavior shown by the metabolic flux analysis (MFA) obtained from experimental results. The differences obtained between the fluxes given by the model and the fluxes determined by the MFA do not exceed 25% in 75% of the cases during exponential growth on glucose, and 20% in 90% of the cases during exponential growth on ethanol. Furthermore, the adjustment of the fermentation profiles of biomass, glucose, and ethanol were 95%, 95%, and 79%, respectively. With these results the simulation was considered successful. A comparison between the simulation of the continuous model and the experimental data of the diauxic yeast fermentation for glucose, biomass, and ethanol, shows an extremely good match using the parameters found. The small discrepancies between the fluxes obtained through MFA and those predicted by the differential

  13. [Effect of oxygen on the growth, respiratory rate and morphology of Candida utilis cells in periodic and continuous cultures].

    PubMed

    Vorob'eva, G S; Filonenko, N N

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study how the concentration of oxygen dissolved in the cultural broth influenced the respiration and morphology of the yeast Candida utilis in batch and continuous cultures. Highly effective respiration was registered in cells growing for a certain period of time at low oxygen concentrations limiting the growth; the respiration was characterized by low values of the Michaelis constant kc and the critical concentration of dissolved oxygen Ccr. When passing from the low oxygen concentration to a high one, the character of cellular respiration changed abruptly in the cells whose growth was limited with oxygen for a long time. The morphology of the culture limited with oxygen was characterized by an increase in the percentage of elongated forms in the population. The respiration of the cells cultivated at high oxygen concentrations, when their growth was either non-limited or limited by glucose, was distinguished by high Ccr values and slow respiration rates at small oxygen concentrations while the dependence of the respiration rate on the concentration of oxygen had an about S-shaped character.

  14. The effect of dwell time on dialysate cancer antigen 125 appearance rates in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.

    PubMed

    Akman, Sema; van Westrhenen, Roos; De Waart, Dirk R; Hiralall, Johan K; Zweers, Machteld M; Krediet, Raymond T

    2003-01-01

    The dialysate concentration of cancer antigen 125 (CA125) can be considered a reflection of mesothelial cell mass or turnover in stable continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. The effect of dwell times exceeding 4 hours on CA125 appearance rate (CA125AR) is not known. Therefore, our objective in the present study was to analyze the effect of dwell time on CA125AR in stable CAPD patients. In 43 stable CAPD patients, we analyzed standard peritoneal permeability analyses (SPAs) performed with a 3.86% glucose dialysate, and night-dwell effluents from the night dwell prior to the SPA. Dialysate CA125 concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA II: Fujirebio Diagnostics, Malvern, PA, U.S.A.). Night-dwell CA125 correlated with the duration of the dwell (r = 0.32, p = 0.04) and with the CA125 concentration in the 4-hour dwell (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). The mean CA125AR in the SPA effluent was 97.8 +/- 46.3 U/min; in the overnight effluent, it was 108.8 +/- 73.7 U/min (nonsignificant). A good correlation was present between the CA125AR in the 4-hour dwells and in the overnight dwells (r = 0.82, p < 0.001). We conclude that using night dwells to regularly assess dialysate CA125--for instance, at every out-patient visit--is possible in CAPD patients, provided that appearance rate is calculated.

  15. Physiology of Aspergillus niger in oxygen-limited continuous cultures: Influence of aeration, carbon source concentration and dilution rate.

    PubMed

    Diano, A; Peeters, J; Dynesen, J; Nielsen, J

    2009-08-01

    In industrial production of enzymes using the filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger supply of sufficient oxygen is often a limitation, resulting in the formation of by-products such as polyols. In order to identify the mechanisms behind formation of the different by-products we studied the effect of low oxygen availability, at different carbon source concentrations and at different specific growth rates, on the metabolism of A. niger, using continuous cultures. The results show that there is an increase in the production of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates at low oxygen concentrations. Indeed, at these conditions, a decrease in the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity leads to an accumulation of NADH and to a decreased ATP production which uncouples catabolism and anabolism, influences the intracellular pH and leads to production and excretion of organic acids. Moreover, mannitol is being produced in order to ensure reoxidation of NADH, and this is the main cellular response to balance the ratio NADH/NAD at low oxygen availability. Mannitol production is also coupled to low specific growth rate, which suggests a control of carbon catabolite repression on the mannitol pathway. The roles of two other polyols, erythritol and glycerol, were also investigated. Both compounds are known to accumulate intracellularly, at high osmotic pressure, in order to restore the osmotic balance, but we show that the efficiency of this system is affected by a leakage of polyols through the membrane.

  16. Dynamic shear-stress-enhanced rates of nutrient consumption in gas-liquid semi-continuous-flow suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belfiore, Laurence A.; Volpato, Fabio Z.; Paulino, Alexandre T.; Belfiore, Carol J.

    2011-12-01

    The primary objective of this investigation is to establish guidelines for generating significant mammalian cell density in suspension bioreactors when stress-sensitive kinetics enhance the rate of nutrient consumption. Ultra-low-frequency dynamic modulations of the impeller (i.e., 35104 Hz) introduce time-dependent oscillatory shear into this transient analysis of cell proliferation under semi-continuous creeping flow conditions. Greater nutrient consumption is predicted when the amplitude A of modulated impeller rotation increases, and stress-kinetic contributions to nutrient consumption rates increase linearly at higher modulation frequency via an application of fluctuation-dissipation response. Interphase mass transfer is required to replace dissolved oxygen as it is consumed by aerobic nutrient consumption in the liquid phase. The theory and predictions described herein could be important at small length scales in the creeping flow regime where viscous shear is significant at the interface between the nutrient medium and isolated cells in suspension. Two-dimensional flow around spherically shaped mammalian cells, suspended in a Newtonian culture medium, is analyzed to calculate the surface-averaged magnitude of the velocity gradient tensor and modify homogeneous rates of nutrient consumption that are stimulated by viscous shear, via the formalism of stress-kinetic reciprocal relations that obey Curie's theorem in non-equilibrium thermodynamics. Time constants for stress-free free and stress-sensitive stress nutrient consumption are defined and quantified to identify the threshold (i.e., stress,threshold) below which the effect of stress cannot be neglected in accurate predictions of bioreactor performance. Parametric studies reveal that the threshold time constant for stress-sensitive nutrient consumption stress,threshold decreases when the time constant for stress

  17. Continuity of slip rates over various time scales on the Puente Hills Blind-thrust Fault, Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Kristian J.; Shaw, John H.; Leon, Lorraine A.; Dolan, James F.; Pratt, Thomas L.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Barrera, Wendy; Rhodes, Edward J.; Murari, Madhav K.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2014-05-01

    Our study seeks to assess the history of slip on the Los Angeles segment of the Puente Hills blind-thrust fault system (PHT) from its inception through the Holocene by integrating a suite of geological and geophysical datasets. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. It is also well suited to slip rate studies, as fold scarps formed by slip on the PHT at depth have been continually buried by flood deposits from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers, preserving a record of uplift in the form of growth stratigraphy. We determined uplift from the growth stratigraphy by measuring the difference in sediment thickness across the folded layers. At our study site above the western segment of the PHT, the fold structure was imaged by industry seismic reflection data and a pair of high-resolution (100 to 700 m depth) seismic reflection profiles acquired by the authors for this study using weight drop and small vibrator sources. The industry and high-resolution profiles were stacked, migrated and depth converted using a velocity model based on the stacking velocities and the Southern California Earthquake Center Community Velocity Model. The shallowest layers of growth stratigraphy were geometrically constrained by lithological correlations across a series of cone penetration tests and continuously cored boreholes. Age control was provided by radiocarbon dating, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) dating, and sequence-stratigraphic boundaries. Radiocarbon dating was used to constrain individual earthquake event ages in the borehole transect. Using a novel coring procedure, light-protected samples for quartz OSL and feldspar IRSL dating were acquired from a 171-m-deep borehole that we drilled within the growth fold. These samples provided age constraints on growth strata that were tied to prominent seismic reflections and were combined with

  18. Continuous monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous biogeochemical fluxes in the sub-seafloor; the Mosquito flux meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culling, D. P.; Solomon, E. A.; Kastner, M.; Berg, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    Fluid flow through marine sediments and oceanic crust impacts seawater chemistry as well as diagenetic, thermal, seismic, and magmatic processes at plate boundaries, creates ore and gas hydrate deposits at and below seafloor, and establishes and maintains deep microbial ecosystems. However, steady-state fluid flow rates, as well as the temporal and spatial variability of fluid flow and composition are poorly constrained in many marine environments. A new, low-cost instrument deployable by ROV or submersible, named the Mosquito, was recently developed to provide continuous, long-term and campaign style monitoring of fluid flow rate and contemporaneous solute fluxes at multiple depths below the sea floor. The Mosquito consists of a frame that houses several osmotic pumps (Osmo-Samplers [OS]) connected to coils of tubing that terminate with an attachment to long thin titanium (Ti) needles, all of which are mounted to a release plate. The OS's consist of an acrylic housing which contains a brine chamber (BC) and a distilled water chamber (DWC) separated by semi permeable membranes. The osmotic gradient between the chambers drives the flow of distilled water into the BC. The DWC is connected to the Teflon tubing coil and a Ti needle, both of which are also filled with distilled water, thus the OS pulls fluid from the base of the needle through the tubing coil. One central Ti needle is attached to a custom-made tracer injection assembly, filled with a known volume of tracer, which is triggered, injecting a point source in the sediment. On a typical Mosquito, 4 needles are mounted vertically at varying depths with respect to the tracer injection needle, and 4 needles are mounted at equal depth but set at variable horizontal distances away from the tracer injection. Once the Mosquito has been placed on the seafloor, the release plate is manually triggered pushing the Ti needles into the sediment, then the tracer injection assembly is actuated. As the tracer is advected

  19. IUdR polymers for combined continuous low-dose rate and high-dose rate sensitization of experimental human malignant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, X; Dillehay, L E; Williams, J R; Shastri, V R; Williams, J A

    2001-04-20

    Local polymeric delivery enhances IUdR radiosensitization of human malignant gliomas (MG). The combined low-dose rate (LDR) (0.03 Gy/h) and fractionated high-dose rate (HDR) treatments result in cures of experimental MGs. To enhance efficacy, we combined polymeric IUdR delivery, LDR, and HDR for treatments of both subcutaneous and intracranial MGs. In vitro: Cells (U251 MG) were trypsinized and replated in triplicate 1 day prior to LDR irradiation in media either without (control) or with 10 microM IUdR. After 72 hr, LDR irradiation cells were acutely irradiated (1.1 Gy/min) with increasing (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, or 10 Gy) single doses. Implantable IUdR polymers [(poly(bis(p-carboxyphenoxy)-propane) (PCPP): sebaic acid (PCPP:SA), 20:80] (50% loading; 10 mg) were synthesized. In vivo: For flank vs. intracranial tumors, mice had 6 x 10(6) subcutaneous vs. 2 x 10(5) intracranial cells. For intracranial or subcutaneous MGs, mice had intratumoral blank (empty) vs. IUdR polymer treatments. One day after implantation, mice had immediate external LDR (3 cGy/h x 3 days total body irradiation) or HDR (2 Gy BID x 4 days to tumor site) or concurrent treatments. For the in vitro IUdR treatments, LDR resulted in a striking increase in cell-killing when combined with HDR. For the in vivo LDR treatments of flank tumors, the growth delay was greater for the IUdR vs. blank polymer treatments. For the combined LDR and HDR, the IUdR treatments resulted in a dramatic decrease in tumor volumes. On day 60 the log V/V0 were -1.7 +/- 0.22 for combined LDR + HDR + IUdR polymer (P < 0.05 vs. combined LDR + HDR + blank polymer). Survival for the intracranial controls was 22.9 +/- 1.2 days. For the blank polymer + LDR vs. blank polymer + LDR + HDR treatments, survival was 25.3 +/- 1.7 (P = NS) vs. 48.1 +/- 3.5 days (P < 0.05). For IUdR polymer + LDR treatment survival was 27.3 +/- 2.3 days (P = NS). The most striking improvement in survival followed the IUdR polymer + LDR + HDR treatment: 66

  20. Variational Continuous Assimilation of TMI and SSM/I Rain Rates: Impact on GEOS-3 Hurricane Analyses and Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Arthur Y.; Zhang, Sara Q.; Reale, Oreste

    2003-01-01

    We describe a variational continuous assimilation (VCA) algorithm for assimilating tropical rainfall data using moisture and temperature tendency corrections as the control variable to offset model deficiencies. For rainfall assimilation, model errors are of special concern since model-predicted precipitation is based on parameterized moist physics, which can have substantial systematic errors. This study examines whether a VCA scheme using the forecast model as a weak constraint offers an effective pathway to precipitation assimilation. The particular scheme we exarnine employs a '1+1' dimension precipitation observation operator based on a 6-h integration of a column model of moist physics from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) global data assimilation system DAS). In earlier studies, we tested a simplified version of this scheme and obtained improved monthly-mean analyses and better short-range forecast skills. This paper describes the full implementation ofthe 1+1D VCA scheme using background and observation error statistics, and examines how it may improve GEOS analyses and forecasts of prominent tropical weather systems such as hurricanes. Parallel assimilation experiments with and without rainfall data for Hurricanes Bonnie and Floyd show that assimilating 6-h TMI and SSM/I surfice rain rates leads to more realistic storm features in the analysis, which, in turn, provide better initial conditions for 5-day storm track prediction and precipitation forecast. These results provide evidence that addressing model deficiencies in moisture tendency may be crucial to making effective use of precipitation information in data assimilation.

  1. Heart rate variability in non-apneic snorers and controls before and after continuous positive airway pressure

    PubMed Central

    Gates, Gregory J; Mateika, Susan E; Mateika, Jason H

    2005-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that sympathetic nervous system activity (SNSA) is increased and parasympathetic nervous system activity (PNSA) is decreased during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in non-apneic, otherwise healthy, snoring individuals compared to control. Moreover, we hypothesized that these alterations in snoring individuals would be more evident during non-snoring than snoring when compared to control. Methods To test these hypotheses, heart rate variability was used to measure PNSA and SNSA in 11 normotensive non-apneic snorers and 12 control subjects before and 7-days after adapting to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). Results Our results showed that SNSA was increased and PNSA was decreased in non-apneic snorers during NREM compared to control. However, these changes were only evident during the study in which snoring was eliminated with nCPAP. Conversely, during periods of snoring SNSA and PNSA were similar to measures obtained from the control group. Additionally, within the control group, SNSA and PNSA did not vary before and after nCPAP application. Conclusion Our findings suggest that long-lasting alterations in autonomic function may exist in snoring subjects that are otherwise healthy. Moreover, we speculate that because of competing inputs (i.e. inhibitory versus excitatory inputs) to the autonomic nervous system during snoring, the full impact of snoring on autonomic function is most evident during non-snoring periods. PMID:16048652

  2. Effects of continuous rate intravenous infusion of butorphanol on physiologic and outcome variables in horses after celiotomy.

    PubMed

    Sellon, Debra C; Roberts, Malcolm C; Blikslager, Anthony T; Ulibarri, Catherine; Papich, Mark G

    2004-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial was performed to determine whether butorphanol administered by continuous rate infusion (CRI) for 24 hours after abdominal surgery would decrease pain and surgical stress responses and improve recovery in horses. Thirty-one horses undergoing exploratory celiotomy for abdominal pain were randomly assigned to receive butorphanol CRI (13 microg/kg/h for 24 hours after surgery; treatment) or isotonic saline (control). All horses received flunixin meglumine (1.1 mg/kg IV q12h). There were no significant differences between treatment and control horses in preoperative or operative variables. Treatment horses had significantly lower plasma cortisol concentration compared with control horses at 2, 8, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after surgery. Mean weight loss while hospitalized was significantly less for treatment horses than control horses, whether expressed as total decrease in body weight (13.9+/-3.4 and 27.9+/-4.5 kg, respectively) or as a percentage decrease in body weight (2.6+/-0.7 and 6.3+/-1.1%, respectively). Treatment horses were significantly delayed in time to first passage of feces (median times of 15 and 4 hours, respectively). Treatment horses had significantly improved behavior scores during the first 24 hours after surgery, consistent with the conclusion that they experienced less pain during that time. Butorphanol CRI during the immediate postoperative period significantly decreased plasma cortisol concentrations and improved recovery characteristics in horses undergoing abdominal surgery. PMID:15320598

  3. Automated Peritoneal Dialysis Is Associated with Better Survival Rates Compared to Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Beduschi, Gabriela de Carvalho; Figueiredo, Ana Elizabeth; Olandoski, Marcia; Pecoits-Filho, Roberto; Barretti, Pasqual; de Moraes, Thyago Proenca

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The impact of peritoneal dialysis modality on patient survival and peritonitis rates is not fully understood, and no large-scale randomized clinical trial (RCT) is available. In the absence of a RCT, the use of an advanced matching procedure to reduce selection bias in large cohort studies may be the best approach. The aim of this study is to compare automated peritoneal dialysis (APD) and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) according to peritonitis risk, technique failure and patient survival in a large nation-wide PD cohort Methods This is a prospective cohort study that included all incident PD patients with at least 90 days of PD recruited in the BRAZPD study. All patients who were treated exclusively with either APD or CAPD were matched for 15 different covariates using a propensity score calculated with the nearest neighbor method. Clinical outcomes analyzed were overall mortality, technique failure and time to first peritonitis. For all analysis we also adjusted the curves for the presence of competing risks with the Fine and Gray analysis. Results After the matching procedure, 2,890 patients were included in the analysis (1,445 in each group). Baseline characteristics were similar for all covariates including: age, diabetes, BMI, Center-experience, coronary artery disease, cancer, literacy, hypertension, race, previous HD, gender, pre-dialysis care, family income, peripheral artery disease and year of starting PD. Mortality rate was higher in CAPD patients (SHR1.44 CI95%1.21-1.71) compared to APD, but no difference was observed for technique failure (SHR0.83 CI95%0.69-1.02) nor for time till the first peritonitis episode (SHR0.96 CI95%0.93-1.11). Conclusion In the first large PD cohort study with groups balanced for several covariates using propensity score matching, PD modality was not associated with differences in neither time to first peritonitis nor in technique failure. Nevertheless, patient survival was significantly better

  4. Effects of atipamezole and medetomidine administration on seminal variables and functions of erection and ejaculation of the collared peccary (Tayassu tajacu) after electroejaculation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Alpha adrenergic drugs are usually used in the treatment of erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction in humans. The influence of such drugs on the seminal characteristics of wild animals has not been verified; whereas their impact on the seminal characteristics and erectile and ejaculatory functions of collared peccaries (Tayassu tajacu) has already been determined. This study aimed at investigating and comparing the effects of medetomidine and atipamezole on the seminal variables of collared peccaries undergoing electroejaculation as well as at determining whether these drugs affected the erectile and ejaculatory functions of this species. Results A statistically significant difference in sperm concentration was observed between AP (100.0 ± 26.0 × 106 sperm/ml) and MP (220.2 ± 49.8 × 106 sperm/ml); however, both these treatments did not differ from P treatment (180.0 ± 50.7 × 106 sperm/ml). No statistically significant difference was observed among all treatments with regard to erectile function. With regard to ejaculation time, no significant difference was observed between the MP and AP treatments; however, when compared with the P treatment, AP exhibited a significantly higher difference. Conclusions When collared peccaries were anesthetized with propofol, neither medetomidine nor atipamezole significantly affected the characteristics of the semen or the erectile function, despite the fact that the AP treatment increased ejaculation time. Therefore, the data indicate that using propofol alone is an effective anesthetic protocol for collecting semen in collared peccaries. Other non-injectable anesthetic drugs, such as inhaled anesthetics, may be used in future research to collect semen from peccaries. PMID:25103781

  5. Lack of effect of microinjection of noradrenaline or medetomidine on stimulus-evoked release of substance P in the spinal cord of the cat: a study with antibody microprobes.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, C. W.; Hope, P. J.; Grubb, B. D.; Duggan, A. W.

    1994-01-01

    1. Experiments were performed on barbiturate anaesthetized, spinalized cats to investigate the effect of microinjected noradrenaline or medetomidine on the release of immunoreactive substance P in the dorsal spinal cord following peripheral nerve stimulation. The presence of immunoreactive substance P was assessed with microprobes bearing C-terminus-directed antibodies to substance P. 2. Noradrenaline or medetomidine were microinjected into the grey matter of the spinal cord, near microprobe insertion sites, at depths of 2.5, 2.0, 1.5 and 1.0 mm below the spinal cord surface with volumes of approximately 0.125 microliters and a concentration of 10(-3) M. 3. In the untreated spinal cord, electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral tibial nerve (suprathreshold for C-fibres) elicited release of immunoreactive substance P which was centred in and around lamina II. Neither noradrenaline nor medetomidine administration in the manner described produced significant alterations in this pattern of nerve stimulus-evoked release. 4. In agreement with recent ultrastructural studies these results do not support a control of substance P release by catecholamines released from sites near to the central terminals of small diameter primary afferent fibres. PMID:7522862

  6. Influence of cooling rate on the precipitation behavior in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling and relationship to strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bu, F.Z.; Wang, X.M.; Chen, L.; Yang, S.W.; Shang, C.J.; Misra, R.D.K.

    2015-04-15

    In this study we elucidate carbide precipitation at varied cooling rates in Ti–Nb–Mo microalloyed steels during continuous cooling. The study suggests that increasing the cooling rate prevents precipitate formation in the ferrite phase during continuous cooling after finish rolling at 850 °C. At a lower cooling rate of 0.5 °C/s, the microhardness of ferrite grains exhibited maxima because of high volume fraction of fine carbides. A high density of nanoscale carbides with similar precipitation characteristics, including interphase precipitates, was observed at cooling rates of 0.5 and 1 °C/s, but the carbides were marginally larger and the spacing between them was increased with cooling rate. Additionally, carbide precipitation at a high cooling rate was associated with strain-induced precipitation. Through the analysis of selection area electron diffraction patterns and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, lattice imaging, the fine spherical-shaped carbides of size ~ 6–10 nm were identified as MC-type carbides of the type (Ti,Nb,Mo)C and NbC. - Highlights: • We model three cooling rates which have indicated different precipitation behaviors. • We find two types of precipitates including NbC and (Ti,Nb,Mo)C based on HRTEM study. • Increasing cooling rate will decrease volume fraction and size of the precipitates. • There is no absence of interphase precipitation when the cooling rate increases to 5 °C/s.

  7. A Continuation of the Paradigm Wars? Prevalence Rates of Methodological Approaches across the Social/Behavioral Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alise, Mark A.; Teddlie, Charles

    2010-01-01

    A new line of research has emerged that examines the prevalence rates of mixed methods within disciplines in the social/behavioral sciences. Research presented in this article is unique in that it examines prevalence rates across multiple disciplines using an established cross-disciplinary classification scheme. Results indicate that there are…

  8. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. PMID:27611026

  9. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    PubMed

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved.

  10. The reliability of lumbar motion palpation using continuous analysis and confidence ratings: choosing a relevant index of agreement

    PubMed Central

    Cooperstein, Robert; Young, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Most studies show motion palpation unreliable. This study’s primary objective was assessing its reliability using a continuous measure methods, most-fixated level paradigm, stratified by examiners’ confidence; and the secondary objective was comparing various indices of examiner agreement. Methods: Thirty-four minimally symptomatic participants were palpated in side posture by two experienced examiners. Interexaminer differences in identifying the most-fixated level and degree of examiner confidence were recorded. Indices of agreement were: Intraclass correlation coefficient, Mean and Median Examiner Absolute Examiner Differences, Root-Mean-Square Error and Bland-Altman Limits of Agreement. Results: Three of four reliability indices (excluding intraclass correlation) suggested on average examiners agreed on the most fixated motion segment, and agreement increased with confidence. Statistical measures of data dispersion were low. The analyses of subgroups were “fragile” due to small sample size. Discussion: Although subject homogeneity lowered ICC levels, the other reliability measures were not similarly impacted. Continuous measures statistical analysis demonstrates examiner agreement in situations where discrete analysis with kappa may not. Conclusion: Continuous analysis for the lumbar most-fixated level is reliable. Future studies will need a larger sample size to properly analyze subgroups based on examiner confidence. PMID:27385834

  11. [The estimation of daily physical activity with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates continuously recorded].

    PubMed

    Tono-oka, T; Kaneko, I

    1993-05-01

    The daily level of physical activity was estimated using the heart rate monitor, PE3000 (Polar Electro, Finland). The level was expressed with the coefficient of variation (CV) of heart rates recorded from waking time to dinner time. In the course of a day of intense physical activity, CV was confirmed to rise significantly. Then the CV was estimated and compared among 3 age classes, young (10-18 years), middle-aged (30-47 years), and elderly (62-76 years). The CVs of young people were significantly higher than those of middle-aged (P < 0.001) and elderly (P < 0.01), regardless of sex. However there was no significant sex difference in all age classes. These results suggest that the CV is an accurate index of daily physical activity. Thus clinicians can use the CV of heart rates to estimate the level of physical activity of individuals which closely relates to QOL.

  12. Effect of hyperbaric pressure during scuba diving on autonomic modulation of the cardiac response: application of the continuous wavelet transform to the analysis of heart rate variability.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo; García-Manso, Juan M; Martín-González, Juan M; Sarmiento, Samuel; Calderón, Francisco J; Da Silva-Grigoletto, Marzo E

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to determine the effects of hyperbaric pressure on heart rate modulation, by analyzing potential changes in heart rate variability (HRV). Ten divers were exposed to pressures of 1, 2, 3, and 4 atmospheres absolute (ATA). The test was performed in a hyperbaric chamber. Heart rate (HR) was recorded in supine subjects for 10 minutes per atmosphere. HRV was analyzed in the frequency mode (fast-Fourier transform and continuous wavelet transform). Results confirmed bradycardia as pressure increased. The drop in HR attained statistical significance after 2, 3, and 4 ATA. Signal energy (normalized TP values) rose progressively, becoming significant at 2 ATA. High frequency and low frequency displayed similar behavior in both cases. Although frequency band peaks did not yield clear results, continuous wave transform analysis showed that the frequency spectrum tended to shift into the high-frequency range as pressure increased. In summary, increased pressure prompted increased bradycardia, and HRV shifted into high-frequency range.

  13. Determinants of Calcium Infusion Rate During Continuous Veno-venous Hemofiltration with Regional Citrate Anticoagulation in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, De-Lin; Huang, Li-Feng; Ma, Wen-Liang; Ding, Qi; Han, Yue; Zheng, Yue; Li, Wen-Xiong

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unclear that how to decide the calcium infusion rate during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) with regional citrate anticoagulation (RCA). This study aimed to assess the determinants of calcium infusion rate during CVVH with RCA in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: A total of 18 patients with AKI requiring CVVH were prospectively analyzed. Postdilution CVVH was performed with a fixed blood flow rate of 150 ml/min and a replacement fluid flow rate of 2000 ml/h for each new circuit. The infusion of 4% trisodium citrate was started at a rate of 29.9 mmol/h prefilter and adjusted according to postfilter ionized calcium. The infusion of 10% calcium gluconate was initiated at a rate of 5.5 mmol/h and adjusted according to systemic ionized calcium. The infusion rate of trisodium citrate and calcium gluconate as well as ultrafiltrate flow rate were recorded at 1, 2, 4, 6, 12, and 24 h after starting CVVH, respectively. The calcium loss rate by CVVH was also calculated. Results: Fifty-seven sessions of CVVH were performed in 18 AKI patients. The citrate infusion rate, calcium loss rate by CVVH, and calcium infusion rate were 31.30 (interquartile range: 2.70), 4.60 ± 0.48, and 5.50 ± 0.35 mmol/h, respectively. The calcium infusion rate was significantly higher than that of calcium loss rate by CVVH (P < 0.01). The correlation coefficient between the calcium and citrate infusion rates, and calcium infusion and calcium loss rates by CVVH was −0.031 (P > 0.05) and 0.932 (P < 0.01), respectively. In addition, calcium infusion rate (mmol/h) = 1.77 + 0.8 × (calcium loss rate by CVVH, mmol/h). Conclusions: The calcium infusion rate correlates significantly with the calcium loss rate by CVVH but not with the citrate infusion rate in a fixed blood flow rate during CVVH with RCA. PMID:27411455

  14. The effect of continuous low dose-rate gamma irradiation on cell population kinetics of lymphoid tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, B. R.

    1973-01-01

    The problem studied involved cell proliferation in mice thymus undergoing irradiation at a dose rate of 10 roetgens/day for 105 days. Specifically, the aim was to determine wheather or not a steady state of cell population can be established for the indicated period of time and what compensatory mechanisms of cell population are involved.

  15. Polyhydroxyalkanoates production with mixed microbial cultures: from culture selection to polymer recovery in a high-rate continuous process.

    PubMed

    Villano, Marianna; Valentino, Francesco; Barbetta, Andrea; Martino, Lucrezia; Scandola, Mariastella; Majone, Mauro

    2014-06-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production with mixed microbial cultures (MMC) has been investigated by means of a sequential process involving three different stages, consisting of a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor for MMC selection, a PHA accumulation reactor and a polymer extraction reactor. All stages were performed under continuous operation for at least 4 months to check the overall process robustness as well as the related variability of polymer composition and properties. By operating both biological stages at high organic loads (8.5 and 29.1 gCOD/Ld, respectively) with a synthetic mixture of acetic and propionic acid, it was possible to continuously produce PHA at 1.43 g/Ld with stable performance (overall, the storage yield was 0.18 COD/COD). To identify the optimal operating conditions of the extraction reactor, two digestion solutions have been tested, NaOH (1m) and NaClO (5% active Cl2). The latter resulted in the best performance both in terms of yield of polymer recovery (around 100%, w/w) and purity (more than 90% of PHA content in the residual solids, on a weight basis). In spite of the stable operating conditions and performance, a large variation was observed for the HV content, ranging between 4 and 20 (%, w/w) for daily samples after accumulation and between 9 and 13 (%, w/w) for weekly average samples after extraction and lyophilization. The molecular weight of the produced polymer ranged between 3.4 × 10(5) and 5.4 × 10(5)g/mol with a large polydispersity index. By contrast, TGA and DSC analysis showed that the thermal polymer behavior did not substantially change over time, although it was strongly affected by the extraction agent used (NaClO or NaOH).

  16. Poor elimination rates in waste water treatment plants lead to continuous emission of deoxynivalenol into the aquatic environment.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Felix E; Bucheli, Thomas D

    2010-07-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most prominent mycotoxins generated by fungi of the generus Fusarium on crops. Its presence in surface waters was recently demonstrated. Here, we elucidate the occurrence and behaviour of DON in three Swiss waste water treatment plants (WWTP) as a result of human consumption and excretion. DON was shown to be omnipresent in the primary effluent samples of these WWTP in concentrations from 32 to 118 ng/L. Corresponding loads were a factor of 1.3-2.3 higher than predicted based on human excretion data from the literature. DON elimination rates in WWTP ranged from 33 to 57%. These rather low percentages were confirmed with a further, more detailled study conducted at WWTP Kloten/Opfikon (average elimination rate 32%). The relative importance of WWTP as a source of DON in surface waters was compared with agricultural emissions due to runoff from Fusarium infected crops. Both sources seem to contribute equally to the total DON exposure of surface waters of a few ng/L, however, their input dynamics vary considerably in space and time.

  17. [Effects of different application rates of calcium cyanamide on soil microbial biomass and enzyme activity in cucumber continuous cropping].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-peng; Ning, Tang-yuan; Yang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Shu-min; Wang, Bin

    2015-10-01

    A 2-year field experiment was conducted to study the effects of CaCN2 combined with cucumber straw retention on soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC) , soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN) and soil enzyme activities under cucumber continuous cropping system. Four treatments were used in this study as follows: CK (null CaCN2), CaCN2-90 (1350 kg CaCN2 . hm-2) CaCN2-60 (900 kg CaCN2 . hm-2), CaCN2-30 (450 kg CaCN2 . hm-2). The results indicated that, compared with the other treatments, CaCN2-90 treatment significantly decreased SMBC in 0-10 cm soil layer at seedling stage, but increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer after early-fruit stage. Compared with CK, CaCN2 increased SMBC in 0-20 cm soil layer at late-fruit stage, and increased SMBN in 0-10 cm soil layer at mid- and late-fruit stages, however there was no significant trend among CaCN2 treatments in the first year (2012), while in the second year (2013) SMBN increased with the increasing CaCN2 amount after mid-fruit stage. CaCN2 increased straw decaying and nutrients releasing, and also increased soil organic matter. Furthermore, the CaCN2-90 could accelerate straw decomposition. Compared with CK, CaCN2 effectively increased soil urease, catalase and polyphenol oxidase activity. The soil urease activity increased while the polyphenol oxidase activity decreased with the increase of CaCN2, and CaCN2-60 could significantly improve catalase activity. Soil organic matter, urease activity and catalase activity had significant positive correlations with SMBC and SMBN. However, polyphenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated to SMBC and SMBN. Our findings indicated that CaCN2 application at 900 kg . hm-2 combined with cucumber straw retention could effectively improve soil environment, alleviating the soil obstacles under the cucumber continuous cropping system. PMID:26995916

  18. On-line monitoring of blend uniformity in continuous drug product manufacturing process--The impact of powder flow rate and the choice of spectrometer: Dispersive vs. FT.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhenqi; McGhehey, Kathryn C; Leavesley, Ian M; Manley, Leo F

    2016-01-25

    One of the commonly acknowledged issues in continuous manufacturing of drug products is how to provide a representative sampling on flowing powder to assure its blend uniformity. An investigation was conducted to improve understanding on the impact of powder flow rate under different continuous manufacturing conditions and the impact of optical parameters (such as resolution, co-adds, and integration time) on NIR spectral quality with respect to a dispersive and a Fourier transform instrument. A partial least squares (PLS)-based spectral pretreatment was found useful to tackle the impact of different flow rates on NIR spectral signals. Multivariate figures of merit (FOM) were used to evaluate performances across different instruments and optical settings and discover the advantageous selectivity and sensitivity on the Fourier transform than the dispersive instrument regardless of the use of co-adds.

  19. Pilot-scale continuous synthesis of a vanadium-doped LiFePO4/C nanocomposite high-rate cathodes for lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Ian D.; Lübke, Mechthild; Wu, On Ying; Makwana, Neel M.; Smales, Glen J.; Islam, Husn U.; Dedigama, Rashmi Y.; Gruar, Robert I.; Tighe, Christopher J.; Scanlon, David O.; Corà, Furio; Brett, Dan J. L.; Shearing, Paul R.; Darr, Jawwad A.

    2016-01-01

    A high performance vanadium-doped LiFePO4 (LFP) electrode is synthesized using a continuous hydrothermal method at a production rate of 6 kg per day. The supercritical water reagent rapidly generates core/shell nanoparticles with a thin, continuous carbon coating on the surface of LFP, which aids electron transport dynamics across the particle surface. Vanadium dopant concentration has a profound effect on the performance of LFP, where the composition LiFe0.95V0.05PO4, achieves a specific discharge capacity which is among the highest in the comparable literature (119 mA h g-1 at a discharge rate of 1500 mA g-1). Additionally, a combination of X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and hybrid-exchange density functional theory, suggest that vanadium ions replace both phosphorous and iron in the structure, thereby facilitating Li+ diffusion due to Li+ vacancy generation and changes in the crystal structure.

  20. Simple and Fast Continuous Estimation Method of Respiratory Frequency During Sleep using the Number of Extreme Points of Heart Rate Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is reported that frequency component of approximately 0.25Hz of heart rate time series (RSA) is corresponding to the respiratory frequency. In this paper, we proposed that continuous estimation method of respiratory fequency during sleep using the number of extreme points of heart rate time series in real time. Equation for calculation of the method is very simple and the method can continuously calculate frequency by window width of about 18 beats. To evaluate accuracy of proposal method, RSA frequency was calculated using proposal method from the heart rate time series during supine rest. Result, minimum error rate was observed when RSA had time lag for about 11s and error rate was about 13.8%. Result of estimating RSA frequency time series during sleep, it varied regularly during non-REM and varied irregularly during REM. This result is similar as report of previous study about respiratory variability during sleep. Therefore, it is considered that proposal method possible to apply respiratory monitoring system during sleep.

  1. Quantifying VOC-Reaction Tracers, Ozone Production, and Continuing Aerosol Production Rates in Urban and Far-Downwind Atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert; Ren, X.; Brune, W.; Fried, A.; Schwab, J.

    2008-01-01

    We have found a surprisingly informative decomposition of the complex question of smoggy ozone production (basically, [HO2] in a more locally determined field of [NO]) in the process of linked investigations of modestly smoggy Eastern North America (by NASA aircraft, July 2004) and rather polluted Flushing, NYC (Queens College, July, 2001). In both rural and very polluted situations, we find that a simple contour graph parameterization of the local principal ozone production rate can be estimated using only the variables [NO] and j(sub rads) [HCHO]: Po(O3) = c (j(sub rads) [HCHO])(sup a) [HCHO](sup b). Here j(sub rads) is the photolysis of HCHO to radicals, presumably capturing many harder-UV photolytic processes and the principle ozone production is that due to HO2; mechanisms suggest that ozone production due to RO2 is closely correlated, often suggesting a limited range of different proportionality factors. The method immediately suggests a local interpretation for concepts of VOC limitation and NOx limitation. We believe that the product j(sub rads) [HCHO] guages the oxidation rate of observed VOC mixtures in a way that also provides [HO2] useful for the principle ozone production rate k [HO2] [NO], and indeed, all ozone chemical production. The success of the method suggests that dominant urban primary-HCHO sources may transition to secondary plume-HCHO sources in a convenient way. Are there other, simple, near-terminal oxidized VOC's which help guage ozone production and aerosol particle formation? Regarding particles, we report on, to the extent NASA Research resources allow, on appealing relationships between far-downwind (Atlantic PBL) HCHO and very fine aerosol (including sulfate. Since j(sub rads) [HCHO] provides a time-scale, we may understand distant-plume particle production in a more quantitative manner. Additionally we report on a statistical search in the nearer field for relationships between glyoxals (important near-terminal aromatic and isoprene

  2. Relational scaffolding of school motivation: developmental continuities in students' and parents' ratings of the importance of school goals.

    PubMed

    Bigelow, B J; Zhou, R M

    2001-03-01

    The authors investigated whether parents and students are consistent, over grade levels, in the importance they assign to school goals. Elementary and high school students (n = 178) and their parents (n = 130) completed a questionnaire addressing the personal importance of students' school goals, defined in terms of school success. Parent-child consistencies in the rating patterns of school goals over grade levels were more common than were inconsistencies. These developmental consistencies support the position that students' school goals are embedded within the parent-child relationship (J. Youniss, 1980; J. Youniss & J. Smollar, 1985) and are scaffolded within it (J. S. Bruner, 1975; L. S. Vygotsky, 1978). Potential sources of relational and phenotypic influences on school goals are discussed, as is the need for effective friendship management and school performance in high school. PMID:11338442

  3. High-rate reel-to-reel continuous coating of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for coated conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Chudzik, M. P.; Erck, R. A.; Balachandran, U.; Luo, Z. P.; Miller, D. J.; Kannewurf, C. R.

    2000-01-12

    Biaxially textured thin films of magnesium oxide (MgO) were deposited by electron beam evaporation at deposition rates of 0.6 {mu}m/min on moving Ni-based alloy tapes as oriented buffer layers for coated conductors. Moving substrates were inclined with respect to the atomic vapor and translated through collimated dual vapor sources. Growth anisotropy in the MgO and self-shadowing effects due to the inclined angle combine to create biaxial texture in the deposited thin films. MgO films grown to a thickness of 2.0 {mu}m with this inclined-substrate deposition technique have yielded in-plane textures of 10--12{degree} fill-width half-maximum (FWHM). Results of a parametric study on the in-plane texture in short-length static-mode samples are presented, along with preliminary results of long-length samples deposited under translating conditions.

  4. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: continued decline in HIV seroconversion rates among homosexual/bisexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Winkelstein, W; Wiley, J A; Padian, N S; Samuel, M; Shiboski, S; Ascher, M S; Levy, J A

    1988-01-01

    The incidence of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been monitored since 1984 in an area probability sample of homosexual/bisexual men drawn from a six-kilometer square area of San Francisco where the epidemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been most severe. Annualized HIV seroconversion rates in previously uninfected cohort members have declined by 88 per cent from 5.9 per cent during the first six months of 1985 to 0.7 per cent during the last six months of 1987. Concurrent declines of approximately 80 per cent in the prevalence of sexual behaviors associated with HIV transmission were also observed in the sample. PMID:3177723

  5. Continuous In-The-Field Measurement of Heart Rate: Correlates of Drug Use, Craving, Stress, and Mood in Polydrug Users

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Ashley P.; Epstein, David H.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Agage, Daniel; Tyburski, Matthew; Phillips, Karran A.; Ali, Amin Ahsan; Bari, Rummana; Hossain, Syed Monowar; Hovsepian, Karen; Rahman, Md. Mahbubur; Ertin, Emre; Kumar, Santosh; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ambulatory physiological monitoring could clarify antecedents and consequences of drug use and could contribute to a sensor-triggered mobile intervention that automatically detects behaviorally risky situations. Our goal was to show that such monitoring is feasible and can produce meaningful data. Methods We assessed heart rate (HR) with AutoSense, a suite of biosensors that wirelessly transmits data to a smartphone, for up to four weeks in 40 polydrug users in opioid-agonist maintenance as they went about their daily lives. Participants also self-reported drug use, mood, and activities on electronic diaries. We compared HR with self-report using multilevel modeling (SAS Proc Mixed). Results Compliance with AutoSense was good; the data yield from the wireless electrocardiographs was 85.7%. HR was higher when participants reported cocaine use than when they reported heroin use (F(2,9) = 250.3, p<.0001) and was also higher as a function of the dose of cocaine reported (F(1,8) = 207.7, p<.0001). HR was higher when participants reported craving heroin (F(1,16)=230.9, p<.0001) or cocaine (F(1,14)=157.2, p<.0001) than when they reported of not craving. HR was lower (p<.05) in randomly prompted entries in which participants reported feeling relaxed, feeling happy, or watching TV, and was higher when they reported feeling stressed, being hassled, or walking. Conclusions High-yield, high-quality heart-rate data can be obtained from drug users in their natural environment as they go about their daily lives, and the resultant data robustly reflect episodes of cocaine and heroin use and other mental and behavioral events of interest. PMID:25920802

  6. PS1-10jh Continues to Follow the Fallback Accretion Rate of a Tidally Disrupted Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gezari, S.; Chornock, R.; Lawrence, A.; Rest, A.; Jones, D. O.; Berger, E.; Challis, P. M.; Narayan, G.

    2015-12-01

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t‑5/3 power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  7. PS1-10jh CONTINUES TO FOLLOW THE FALLBACK ACCRETION RATE OF A TIDALLY DISRUPTED STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Gezari, S.; Chornock, R.; Lawrence, A.; Rest, A.; Jones, D. O.; Berger, E.; Challis, P. M.; Narayan, G.

    2015-12-10

    We present late-time observations of the tidal disruption event candidate PS1-10jh. UV and optical imaging with Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 localize the transient to be coincident with the host galaxy nucleus to an accuracy of 0.023 arcsec, corresponding to 66 pc. The UV flux in the F225W filter, measured 3.35 rest-frame years after the peak of the nuclear flare, is consistent with a decline that continues to follow a t{sup −5/3} power-law with no spectral evolution. Late epochs of optical spectroscopy obtained with MMT ∼ 2 and 4 years after the peak, enable a clean subtraction of the host galaxy from the early spectra, revealing broad helium emission lines on top of a hot continuum, and placing stringent upper limits on the presence of hydrogen line emission. We do not measure Balmer Hδ absorption in the host galaxy that is strong enough to be indicative of a rare, post-starburst “E+A” galaxy as reported by Arcavi et al. The light curve of PS1-10jh over a baseline of 3.5 years is best modeled by fallback accretion of a tidally disrupted star. Its strong broad helium emission relative to hydrogen (He iiλ4686/Hα > 5) could be indicative of either the hydrogen-poor chemical composition of the disrupted star, or certain conditions in the tidal debris of a solar-composition star in the presence of an optically thick, extended reprocessing envelope.

  8. Minute ventilation at different compression to ventilation ratios, different ventilation rates, and continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation in a newborn manikin

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In newborn resuscitation the recommended rate of chest compressions should be 90 per minute and 30 ventilations should be delivered each minute, aiming at achieving a total of 120 events per minute. However, this recommendation is based on physiological plausibility and consensus rather than scientific evidence. With focus on minute ventilation (Mv), we aimed to compare today’s standard to alternative chest compression to ventilation (C:V) ratios and different ventilation rates, as well as to continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation. Methods Two investigators performed cardiopulmonary resuscitation on a newborn manikin with a T-piece resuscitator and manual chest compressions. The C:V ratios 3:1, 9:3 and 15:2, as well as continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation (120 compressions and 40 ventilations per minute) were performed in a randomised fashion in series of 10 × 2 minutes. In addition, ventilation only was performed at three different rates (40, 60 and 120 ventilations per minute, respectively). A respiratory function monitor measured inspiration time, tidal volume and ventilation rate. Mv was calculated for the different interventions and the Mann–Whitney test was used for comparisons between groups. Results Median Mv per kg in ml (interquartile range) was significantly lower at the C:V ratios of 9:3 (140 (134–144)) and 15:2 (77 (74–83)) as compared to 3:1 (191(183–199)). With ventilation only, there was a correlation between ventilation rate and Mv despite a negative correlation between ventilation rate and tidal volumes. Continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation gave higher Mv as compared to coordinated compressions and ventilations at a C:V ratio of 3:1. Conclusions In this study, higher C:V ratios than 3:1 compromised ventilation dynamics in a newborn manikin. However, higher ventilation rates, as well as continuous chest compressions with asynchronous ventilation gave higher Mv

  9. A versatile telemetry system for continuous measurement of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity in free-ranging ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Signer, Claudio; Ruf, Thomas; Schober, Franz; Fluch, Gerhard; Paumann, Thomas; Arnold, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Summary 1. Measuring physiological and behavioural parameters in free-ranging animals – and therefore under fully natural conditions – is of general biological concern but difficult to perform. 2. We have developed a minimally invasive telemetry system for ruminants that is capable of measuring heart rate (HR), body temperature (Tb) and locomotor activity (LA). A ruminal transmitter unit was per os placed into the reticulum and therefore located in close proximity to the heart. The unit detected HR by the use of an acceleration sensor and also measured Tb. HR and Tb signals were transmitted via short-distance UHF link to a repeater system located in a collar unit. The collar unit decoded and processed signals received from the ruminal unit, measured LA with two different activity sensors and transmitted pulse interval-modulated VHF signals over distances of up to 10 km. 3. HR data measured with the new device contained noise caused by reticulum contractions and animal movements that triggered the acceleration sensor in the ruminal unit. We have developed a software filter to remove this noise. Hence, the system was only capable of measuring HR in animals that showed little or no activity and in the absence of rumen contractions. Reliability of this ‘stationary HR’ measurement was confirmed with a second independent measurement of HR detected by an electrocardiogram in a domestic sheep (Ovis aries). 4. In addition, we developed an algorithm to correctly classify an animal as ‘active’ or ‘at rest’ during each 3-min interval from the output of the activity sensors. Comparison with direct behavioural observations on free-ranging Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) showed that 87% of intervals were classified correctly. 5. First results from applications of this new technique in free-ranging Alpine ibex underlined its suitability for reliable and long-term monitoring of physiological and behavioural parameters in ruminants under harsh field conditions. With the

  10. The application of an innovative continuous multiple tube reactor as a strategy to control the specific organic loading rate for biohydrogen production by dark fermentation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Simone D; Fuess, Lucas T; Penteado, Eduardo D; Lucas, Shaiane D M; Gotardo, Jackeline T; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2015-12-01

    Biohydrogen production in fixed-bed reactors often leads to unstable and decreasing patterns because the excessive accumulation of biomass in the bed negatively affects the specific organic loading rate (SOLR) applied to the reactor. In this context, an innovative reactor configuration, i.e., the continuous multiple tube reactor (CMTR), was assessed in an attempt to better control the SOLR for biohydrogen production. The CMTR provides a continuous discharge of biomass, preventing the accumulation of solids in the long-term. Sucrose was used as the carbon source and mesophilic temperature conditions (25°C) were applied in three continuous assays. The reactor showed better performance when support material was placed in the outlet chamber to enhance biomass retention within the reactor. Although the SOLR could not be effectively controlled, reaching values usually higher than 10gsucroseg(-1)VSSd(-1), the volumetric hydrogen production and molar hydrogen production rates peaked, respectively, at 1470mLH2L(-1)d(-1) and 45mmolH2d(-1), indicating that the CMTR was a suitable configuration for biohydrogen production.

  11. The Effects of Continuous and Interrupted Episiotomy Repair on Pain Severity and Rate of Perineal Repair: A Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hasanpoor, Shirin; Bani, Soheila; Shahgole, Rudabe; Gojazadeh, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Perineal pain is the most common complaint after episiotomy. It imposes extra pressure on mothers who attempt to adapt to their new conditions. Therefore, the present study was performed to compare pain severity and perineal repair in two episiotomy repair methods. Methods: In this clinical trial, 100 primiparous women who referred to hospitals of Tabriz (Iran) for delivery were randomly allocated into two groups of 50 to undergo either continuous or interrupted episiotomy repair. A visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to evaluate pain severity 12-18 hours after episiotomy repair and also 10 days after delivery. Perineal repair rate was also assessed using the REEDA (redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge, and approximation) scoring scale. The obtained data was analyzed in SPSS15. Results: Statistical tests did not show significant differences between the 2 groups in pain severity variations or REEDA scores at 12-18 hours and the 10th day after delivery. However, the mean required time for repair and the number of used threads were significantly lower in the continuous repair group (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that pain severity and episiotomy repair rate were similar in the two methods. Nevertheless, shorter time of repair and fewer threads were required using the continuous repair method. Therefore, this method would provide better services for mothers and reduce the required time, energy, and costs. PMID:25276692

  12. Convergent validity of the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA+Plus): associations with working memory, processing speed, and behavioral ratings.

    PubMed

    Arble, Eamonn; Kuentzel, Jeffrey; Barnett, Douglas

    2014-05-01

    Though the Integrated Visual and Auditory Continuous Performance Test (IVA + Plus) is commonly used by researchers and clinicians, few investigations have assessed its convergent and discriminant validity, especially with regard to its use with children. The present study details correlates of the IVA + Plus using measures of cognitive ability and ratings of child behavior (parent and teacher), drawing upon a sample of 90 psychoeducational evaluations. Scores from the IVA + Plus correlated significantly with the Working Memory and Processing Speed Indexes from the Fourth Edition of the Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC-IV), though fewer and weaker significant correlations were seen with behavior ratings scales, and significant associations also occurred with WISC-IV Verbal Comprehension and Perceptual Reasoning. The overall pattern of relations is supportive of the validity of the IVA + Plus; however, general cognitive ability was associated with better performance on most of the primary scores of the IVA + Plus, suggesting that interpretation should take intelligence into account.

  13. Surface Damage Characteristics and Specific Wear Rates of a New Continuous Carbon Fiber (CF) / Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) Composite under Sliding and Rolling Contact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almajid, Abdulhakim; Friedrich, Klaus; Floeck, Joachim; Burkhart, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    The surface damage characteristics of a continuous carbon fiber reinforced composite, having a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix, were investigated under sliding and rolling contact. The corresponding mechanisms were studied by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in three different fiber orientations, namely: Paralllel direction to the fibers, AntiParallel direction to the fibers, and Normal direction to the fibers. All wear tests were conducted against smooth steel surfaces for both contact conditions. Mechanical properties under tension, compression, and shear were investigated for the material at two different temperature levels, i.e. room temperature and 150 °C. The composite material under normal fiber orientation has the lowest specific wear rate in case of rolling wear while the parallel orientation has the lowest specific wear rate under sliding wear conditions. Both results were compared to wear data of the neat PEEK matrix.

  14. Orogen-scale along-strike continuity in quartz recrystallization microstructures adjacent to the Main Central Thrust: implications for deformation temperatures, strain rates and flow stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Traced for ~ 1500 km along the foreland edge of the Himalaya from NW India to Bhutan published reports indicate a remarkable along-strike continuity of quartz recrystallization microstructures in the footwall and hanging wall to the Main Central Thrust (MCT). Recrystallization in Lesser Himalayan Series (LHS) rocks in the footwall to the MCT is dominated by grain boundary bulging (BLG) microstructures, while recrystallization in Greater Himalayan Series (GHS) rocks in the hanging wall is dominated by grain boundary migration microstructures that traced structurally upwards transition in to the anatectic core of the GHS. In foreland-positioned high-strain rocks adjacent to the MCT recrystallization is dominated by subgrain rotation (SGR) with transitional BLG-SGR and SGR-GBM microstructures being recorded at structural distances of up to a few hundred meters below and above the MCT, respectively. Correlation with available information on temperatures of metamorphism indicated by mineral phase equilibria and RSCM data suggests that recrystallization in the structural zones dominated by BLG, SGR and GBM occurred at temperatures of ~ 350-450, 450-550 and 550- > 650 °C, respectively. It should be kept in mind, however, that these temperatures are likely to be 'close-to-peak' temperatures of metamorphism, whereas penetrative shearing and recrystallization may have continued during cooling. The dominance of SGR along the more foreland-positioned exposures of the MCT intuitively suggests that shearing occurred under a relatively restricted range of deformation temperatures and strain rates. Plotting the 'close-to-peak' 450-500 °C temperatures of metamorphism indicated for SGR-dominated rocks located at up to a few hundred meters below/above the MCT on the quartz recrystallization map developed by Stipp et al. (2002) indicates 'ball-park' strain rates of ~ 10-13 to 10-10 sec-1. However, only strain rates slower than 10-12 sec-1 on the MCT are likely to be compatible with

  15. Flotation rate and residence time distribution in continuous coal froth flotation circuits and an evaluation of reagents and circuit variations for pyritic sulfur removal

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis gives the results of research conducted on several aspects of coal froth flotation. The effect of operating variables on the residence time distribution in coal froth flotation cells is discussed, and a model of the residence time distribution is presented for use with flotation rate models in scaling up from laboratory to plant scale. Flotation rate models are also investigated in detail for continuous coal froth flotation circuits. Changes in operating variables were found to affect the mean residence time in cells, but they did not have much effect on the mixing behavior. The use of a time lag was found to be an important part of rate models for continuous froth flotation cells. An important aspect of the use of such rate and residence time equations is their application to the flotation of gangue constituents, which often enter the froth by water carry-over in addition to natural flotation or flotation as slime coatings. As such, water carry-over is also investigated in this thesis for the laboratory and the plant and for both ash-forming minerals and pyrite. Maintaining a constant froth factor, the percentage of froth above the weir, in both laboratory and plant tests is believed to be a critical factor in predicting plant results using a kinetic factor ratio documented in the literature. Removing the pyrite and ash-forming minerals from coal that may be recovered by the water carry-over or other mechanisms is an important goal in coal froth flotation. This thesis also contains the results of tests with pyrite depressants and circuit variations for removal of pyritic sulfur.

  16. Toward continuous quantification of lava extrusion rate: Results from the multidisciplinary analysis of the 2 January 2010 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, Clement; Mangeney, Anne; Polacci, Margherita; Di Muro, Andrea; Vergniolle, Sylvie; Ferrazzini, Valérie; Peltier, Aline; Taisne, Benoit; Burton, Mike; Dewez, Thomas; Grandjean, Gilles; Dupont, Aurélien; Staudacher, Thomas; Brenguier, Florent; Kowalski, Philippe; Boissier, Patrice; Catherine, Philippe; Lauret, Frédéric

    2016-04-01

    The dynamics of the 2-12 January 2010 effusive eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano were examined through seismic and infrasound records, time-lapse photography, SO2 flux measurements, deformation data, and direct observations. Digital elevation models were constructed for four periods of the eruption, thus providing an assessment of the temporal evolution of the morphology, the volume and the extrusion rate of the lava flow. These data were compared to the continuous recording of the seismic and infrasonic waves, and a linear relationship was found between the seismic energy of the tremor and the lava extrusion rate. This relationship is supported by data from three other summit eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and gives total volume and average lava extrusion rate in good agreement with previous studies. We can therefore provide an estimate of the lava extrusion rate for the January 2010 eruption with a very high temporal resolution. We found an average lava extrusion rate of 2.4 m3.s-1 with a peak of 106.6 m3.s-1 during the initial lava fountaining phase. We use the inferred average lava extrusion rate during the lava fountaining phase (30.23 m3.s-1) to estimate the value of the initial overpressure in the magma reservoir, which we found to range from 3.7×106 Pa to 5.9×106 Pa. Finally, based on the estimated initial overpressure, the volume of magma expelled during the lava fountaining phase and geodetic data, we inferred the volume of the magma reservoir using a simple Mogi model, between 0.25 km3 and 0.54 km3, which is in good agreement with previous studies. The multidisciplinary analysis presented in our study sheds light on crucial qualitative and quantitative relations between eruption dynamics, seismic and infrasonic signals, and especially on the direct link between the lava extrusion rate and the seismic energy of the volcanic tremor. If this relationship is confirmed for other eruptions, generalization of its use will lead to a better

  17. Toward continuous quantification of lava extrusion rate: Results from the multidisciplinary analysis of the 2 January 2010 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Réunion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibert, C.; Mangeney, A.; Polacci, M.; Muro, A. Di; Vergniolle, S.; Ferrazzini, V.; Peltier, A.; Taisne, B.; Burton, M.; Dewez, T.; Grandjean, G.; Dupont, A.; Staudacher, T.; Brenguier, F.; Kowalski, P.; Boissier, P.; Catherine, P.; Lauret, F.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of the 2-12 January 2010 effusive eruption at Piton de la Fournaise volcano were examined through seismic and infrasound records, time-lapse photography, SO2 flux measurements, deformation data, and direct observations. Digital elevation models were constructed for four periods of the eruption, thus providing an assessment of the temporal evolution of the morphology, the volume and the extrusion rate of the lava flow. These data were compared to the continuous recording of the seismic and infrasonic waves, and a linear relationship was found between the seismic energy of the tremor and the lava extrusion rate. This relationship is supported by data from three other summit eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise and gives total volume and average lava extrusion rate in good agreement with previous studies. We can therefore provide an estimate of the lava extrusion rate for the January 2010 eruption with a very high temporal resolution. We found an average lava extrusion rate of 2.4 m3s-1 with a peak of 106.6 m3s-1 during the initial lava fountaining phase. We use the inferred average lava extrusion rate during the lava fountaining phase (30.23 m3s-1) to estimate the value of the initial overpressure in the magma reservoir, which we found to range from 3.7×106 Pa to 5.9×106 Pa. Finally, based on the estimated initial overpressure, the volume of magma expelled during the lava fountaining phase and geodetic data, we inferred the volume of the magma reservoir using a simple Mogi model, between 0.25 km3 and 0.54 km3, which is in good agreement with previous studies.

  18. Experiments on the effects of a continuous 16.7 Hz magnetic field on melatonin secretion, core body temperature, and heart rates in humans.

    PubMed

    Griefahn, B; Künemund, C; Blaszkewicz, M; Golka, K; Mehnert, P; Degen, G

    2001-12-01

    The present study investigated the hypothesis that a strong extremely low frequency magnetic field partially suppresses the synthesis of melatonin and subsequently elevates the core body temperature. Seven healthy young men (16-22 years) took part in a control and in an exposure session. Three men experienced first the control and then the exposure session, four men experienced the sessions in reverse order. Control sessions were performed as constant routines, where the participants spent 24 hour periods continuously in bed while air temperature was 18 degrees C, illumination less than 30 lux, and the sound pressure level 50 dBA. The exposure sessions differed from that protocol only between 6 pm and 2 am when a strong extremely low frequency magnetic field was continuously applied (16.7 Hz, 0.2 mT). Assuming that the participants were unable to perceive the field consciously, they were blind against the actual condition. Salivary melatonin levels were determined hourly; body core temperatures and heart rates were registered continuously throughout. Neither of these parameters revealed alterations that can be related to the influence of the magnetic field. The present results, taken together with other investigations using that particular field, lead to the hypothesis that the effects most likely, occur, only after repetitive exposures to intermittent fields.

  19. Predicting the continued use of overlays in school children--a comparison of the Developmental Eye Movement test and the Rate of Reading test.

    PubMed

    Northway, Nadia

    2003-09-01

    Coloured overlays have been advocated to enhance reading speed and ability in children with reading difficulty or dyslexia. Assessing the efficacy of overlays has to date been largely subjective. Objective assessment is presently carried out with the Rate of Reading test (RRT), where an increase in reading speed of more than 5% is considered to indicate a positive prognosis for continued use of the overlay. The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is used to assess horizontal scanning behaviour in a number naming task. In this study both tests were utilised to determine whether coloured overlays could enhance reading performance or scanning. This article shows that for some children rate of reading is not improved with coloured overlays although performance on the DEM test does improve. Improvements to the DEM scores occurred in 88% of children who continued to use overlays for more than 3 months. This compared with 60% sensitivity in the RRT. The possible reasons for this phenomenon and the clinical implications are discussed. PMID:12950892

  20. Continuous administration of low dose rates of physostigmine and hyoscine to guinea-pigs prevents the toxicity and reduces the incapacitation produced by soman poisoning.

    PubMed

    Wetherell, J R

    1994-12-01

    A regime was developed, using mini-osmotic pumps, for the continuous subcutaneous administration of low doses of physostigmine (12.1, 9.7, 4.85 and 2.43 micrograms h-1), in combination with hyoscine (1.94 or 0.39 micrograms h-1), to guinea-pigs for up to 13 days. Physostigmine, in combination with hyoscine, inhibited plasma cholinesterase, and red blood cell and brain acetylcholinesterase, in a concentration-dependent manner, did not affect the normal growth rate of guinea-pigs, and produced no obvious signs of poisoning. A dose rate of 4.85 micrograms h-1 physostigmine and 1.94 micrograms h-1 hyoscine was required to inhibit red cell acetylcholinesterase by 30% and brain acetylcholinesterase by 5-15%, with an accompanying plasma hyoscine concentration of 700-850 pg mL-1. There was an apparent decline in red cell acetylcholinesterase activity during the 13 days. Hyoscine levels were higher in the cholinergic-rich areas of the brain than in the plasma. Continuous pretreatment (1 or 6 days) with physostigmine (4.84 micrograms h-1) and hyoscine (1.94 micrograms h-1) provided complete protection against the lethal effects, and minimized the incapacitation and weight loss produced by soman at a dose equivalent to the LD99 value. Following soman challenge, guinea-pigs exhibited early signs of soman poisoning, but generally these signs of poisoning were minimal by 1-2 h. Extending the pretreatment time to 13 days protected 75% of the guinea-pigs against the lethal effects of soman poisoning. Red cell acetylcholinesterase activity, 24 h after soman poisoning, was higher following continuous pretreatment with physostigmine and hyoscine than after acute treatment with atropine. PMID:7714714

  1. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses.

  2. Effects in cats of atipamezole, flumazenil and 4-aminopyridine on stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic responses induced by medetomidine, midazolam and ketamine.

    PubMed

    Ueoka, Naotami; Hikasa, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antagonistic effects of a fixed dose of atipamezole (ATI), flumazenil (FLU) and 4-aminopyridine (4AP), both alone and in various combinations, on key stress-related neurohormonal and metabolic changes induced by medetomidine (MED), midazolam (MID) and ketamine (KET) in healthy cats. Seven cats were used consistently in eight investigation groups. Cats were administered a mixture of 0.05 mg/kg MED and 0.5 mg/kg MID followed 10 mins later by 10 mg/kg KET intramuscularly. Twenty minutes after KET injection, the cats were intravenously injected with either a physiological saline solution at 0.1 ml/kg (control) or one of the seven variations of experimental drugs, alone or in combination: ATI, FLU, 4AP, ATI + FLU, FLU + 4AP, ATI + 4AP and ATI + FLU + 4AP. Blood samples were collected 10 times during the 24 h test period. Plasma glucose, insulin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine and non-esterified fatty acid levels were measured. The administration of MED + MID + KET resulted in hyperglycaemia and decreases in epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and non-esterified fatty acid levels. FLU or 4AP alone or FLU + 4AP did not effectively antagonise the effects induced by MED + MID + KET but enhanced the hyperglycaemia. ATI alone was effective in antagonising these effects. Compared with non-ATI regimens, combinations with ATI were more effective in antagonising the effects induced by MED + MID + KET; however, ATI + FLU + 4AP caused large increases in cortisol, epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. ATI, both alone and in combination, is effective in antagonising the neurohormonal and metabolic effects of MED + MID + KET in cats. However, ATI + FLU + 4AP is not suitable because of large stress-related hormonal responses. PMID:25366173

  3. Improving the power of clinical trials of rheumatoid arthritis by using data on continuous scales when analysing response rates: an application of the augmented binary method

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. In clinical trials of RA, it is common to assess effectiveness using end points based upon dichotomized continuous measures of disease activity, which classify patients as responders or non-responders. Although dichotomization generally loses statistical power, there are good clinical reasons to use these end points; for example, to allow for patients receiving rescue therapy to be assigned as non-responders. We adopt a statistical technique called the augmented binary method to make better use of the information provided by these continuous measures and account for how close patients were to being responders. Methods. We adapted the augmented binary method for use in RA clinical trials. We used a previously published randomized controlled trial (Oral SyK Inhibition in Rheumatoid Arthritis-1) to assess its performance in comparison to a standard method treating patients purely as responders or non-responders. The power and error rate were investigated by sampling from this study. Results. The augmented binary method reached similar conclusions to standard analysis methods but was able to estimate the difference in response rates to a higher degree of precision. Results suggested that CI widths for ACR responder end points could be reduced by at least 15%, which could equate to reducing the sample size of a study by 29% to achieve the same statistical power. For other end points, the gain was even higher. Type I error rates were not inflated. Conclusion. The augmented binary method shows considerable promise for RA trials, making more efficient use of patient data whilst still reporting outcomes in terms of recognized response end points. PMID:27338084

  4. Detection of atrial high-rate events by continuous Home Monitoring: clinical significance in the heart failure–cardiac resynchronization therapy population

    PubMed Central

    Shanmugam, Nesan; Boerdlein, Annegret; Proff, Jochen; Ong, Peter; Valencia, Oswaldo; Maier, Sebastian K.G.; Bauer, Wolfgang R.; Paul, Vince; Sack, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Aims Uncertainty exists over the importance of device-detected short-duration atrial arrhythmias. Continuous atrial diagnostics, through home monitoring (HM) technology (BIOTRONIK, Berlin, Germany), provides a unique opportunity to assess frequency and quantity of atrial fibrillation (AF) episodes defined as atrial high-rate events (AHRE). Methods and results Prospective data from 560 heart failure (HF) patients (age 67 ± 10 years, median ejection fraction 27%) patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device capable of HM from two multi-centre studies were analysed. Atrial high-rate events burden was defined as the duration of mode switch in a 24-h period with atrial rates of >180 beats for at least 1% or total of 14 min per day. The primary endpoint was incidence of a thromboembolic (TE) event. Secondary endpoints were cardiovascular death, hospitalization because of AF, or worsening HF. Over a median 370-day follow-up AHRE occurred in 40% of patients with 11 (2%) patients developing TE complications and mortality rate of 4.3% (24 deaths, 16 with cardiovascular aetiology). Compared with patients without detected AHRE, patients with detected AHRE>3.8 h over a day were nine times more likely to develop TE complications (P= 0.006). The majority of patients (73%) did not show a temporal association with the detected atrial episode and their adverse event, with a mean interval of 46.7 ± 71.9 days (range 0–194) before the TE complication. Conclusion In a high-risk cohort of HF patients, device-detected atrial arrhythmias are associated with an increased incidence of TE events. A cut-off point of 3.8 h over 24 h was associated with significant increase in the event rate. Routine assessment of AHRE should be considered with other data when assessing stroke risk and considering anti-coagulation initiation and should also prompt the optimization of cardioprotective HF therapy in CRT patients. PMID:21933802

  5. Continuous positive airway pressure treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea reduces resting heart rate but does not affect dysrhythmias: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Craig, Sonya; Pepperell, Justin C T; Kohler, Malcolm; Crosthwaite, Nicky; Davies, Robert J O; Stradling, John R

    2009-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is associated with cardiovascular morbidity and may precipitate cardiac dysrhythmias. Uncontrolled reports suggest that continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) may reduce dysrhythmia frequency and resting heart rate. We undertook a randomised controlled trial of therapeutic CPAP and compared with a subtherapeutic control which included an exploration of changes in dysrhythmia frequency and heart rate. Values are expressed as mean (SD). Eighty-three men [49.5 (9.6) years] with moderate-severe OSA [Oxygen Desaturation Index, 41.2 (24.3) dips per hour] underwent 3-channel 24-h electrocardiograms during normal daily activities, before and after 1 month of therapeutic (n = 43) or subtherapeutic (n = 40) CPAP. Recordings were manually analysed for mean heart rate, pauses, bradycardias, supraventricular and ventricular dysrhythmias. The two groups were well matched for age, body mass index, OSA severity, cardiovascular risk factors and history. Supraventricular ectopics and ventricular ectopics were frequently found in 95.2% and 85.5% of patients, respectively. Less common were sinus pauses (42.2%), episodes of bradycardia (12%) and ventricular tachycardias (4.8%). Compared with subtherapeutic control, CPAP reduced mean 24-h heart rate from 83.0 (11.5) to 79.7 (9.8) (P < 0.002) in the CPAP group compared with a non-significant rise (P = 0.18) from 79.0 (10.4) to 79.9 (10.4) in the subtherapeutic group; this was also the case for the day period analysed separately. There was no significant change in the frequencies of dysrhythmias after CPAP. Four weeks of CPAP therapy reduces mean 24-h heart rate possibly due to reduced sympathetic activation but did not result in a significant decrease in dysrhythmia frequency.

  6. Usefulness of rate regulation through continuous ventricular pacing in patients with drug-controlled slower atrial fibrillation and normal or depressed left ventricular systolic function.

    PubMed

    Chiladakis, John; Koutsogiannis, Nikolaos; Kalogeropoulos, Andreas; Zagli, Fani; Arvanitis, Panagiotis; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios

    2008-11-01

    We studied 33 clinically stable patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF), implanted with a ventricular demand rate-responsive (VVIR) pacemaker or an automatic defibrillator, in order to evaluate whether continuous right ventricular apex pacing (VP) conferring rate regulation may be advantageous when compared with slower drug-controlled AF. Devices were chronically programmed at ventricular backup pacing. Patients were divided in two groups according to their normal (n = 17) or depressed (n = 16) left ventricular systolic function (LVSF). Ventricular function was studied by using tissue Doppler and color M-mode and echocardiography, as well as B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) measurements. Baseline data during AF were compared to corresponding measurements following a 1-month pacing period after the devices were programmed at a base rate of 70 beats/min. In both groups, VP worsened some indexes of left and right ventricular function (P < 0.05) without significantly affecting cardiac output, left ventricular filling pressures and BNP (P = not significant). We conclude that VP should not be considered advantageous compared to slower AF.

  7. Using nitroxide spin labels. How to obtain T1e from continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectra at all rotational rates.

    PubMed Central

    Haas, D A; Mailer, C; Robinson, B H

    1993-01-01

    Historically, the continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) progressive saturation method has been used to obtain information on the spin-lattice relaxation time (T1e) and those processes, such as motion and spin exchange, that occur on a competitive timescale. For example, qualitative information on local dynamics and solvent accessibility of proteins and nucleic acids has been obtained by this method. However, making quantitative estimates of T1e from CW-EPR spectra have been frustrated by a lack of understanding of the role of T1e (and T2e) in the slow-motion regime. Theoretical simulation of the CW-EPR lineshapes in the slow-motion region under increasing power levels has been used in this work to test whether the saturation technique can produce quantitative estimates of the spin-lattice relaxation rates. A method is presented by which the correct T1e may be extracted from an analysis of the power-saturation rollover curve, regardless of the amount of inhomogeneous broadening or the rates of molecular reorientation. The range of motional correlation times from 10 to 200 ns should be optimal for extracting quantitative estimates of T1e values in spin-labeled biomolecules. The progressive-saturation rollover curve method should find wide application in those areas of biophysics where information on molecular interactions and solvent exposure as well as molecular reorientation rates are desired. PMID:8386009

  8. Bystander Effects Induced by Continuous Low-Dose-Rate {sup 125}I Seeds Potentiate the Killing Action of Irradiation on Human Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.H. Jia, R.F.; Yu, L.; Zhao, M.J.; Shao, C.L.; Cheng, W.Y.

    2008-12-01

    Purpose: To investigate bystander effects of low-dose-rate (LDR) {sup 125}I seed irradiation on human lung cancer cells in vitro. Methods and Materials: A549 and NCI-H446 cell lines of differing radiosensitivity were directly exposed to LDR {sup 125}I seeds irradiation for 2 or 4 Gy and then cocultured with nonirradiated cells for 24 hours. Induction of micronucleus (MN), {gamma}H2AX foci, and apoptosis were assayed. Results: After 2 and 4 Gy irradiation, micronucleus formation rate (MFR) and apoptotic rate of A549 and NCI-H446 cells were increased, and the MFR and apoptotic rate of NCI-H446 cells was 2.1-2.8 times higher than that of A549 cells. After coculturing nonirradiated bystander cells with {sup 125}I seed irradiated cells for 24 hours, MFR and the mean number of {gamma}H2AX foci/cells of bystander A549 and NCI-H446 cells were similar and significantly higher than those of control (p <0.05), although they did not increase with irradiation dose. However, the proportion of bystander NCI-H446 cells with MN numbers {>=}3 and {gamma}H2AX foci numbers 15-19 and 20-24 was higher than that of bystander A549 cells. In addition, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) treatment could completely suppress the bystander MN of NCI-H446 cells, but it suppressed only partly the bystander MN of A549 cells, indicating that reactive oxygen species are involved in the bystander response to NCI-H446 cells, but other signaling factors may contribute to the bystander response of A549 cells. Conclusions: Continuous LDR irradiation of {sup 125}I seeds could induce bystander effects, which potentiate the killing action on tumor cells and compensate for the influence of nonuniform distribution of radiation dosage on therapeutic outcomes.

  9. Changes in fermentation and biohydrogenation intermediates in continuous cultures fed low and high levels of fat with increasing rates of starch degradability.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Alende, M; Koch, L E; Jenkins, T C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive levels of starch in diets for lactating dairy cattle is a known risk factor for milk fat depression, but little is known about how this risk is affected by differences in rates of starch degradability (Kd) in the rumen. The objective of this study was to compare accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates causing milk fat depression, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), when corn with low or high Kd were fed to continuous cultures. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 50% forage (alfalfa pellets and grass hay) and 50% concentrate, with either no added fat (LF) or 3.3% added soybean oil (HF). Within both the LF and HF diets, 3 starch degradability treatments were obtained by varying the ratio of processed (heat and pressure treatments) and unprocessed corn sources, giving a total of 6 dietary treatments. Each diet was fed to dual-flow continuous fermenters 3 times a day at 0800, 1600, and 2400h. Diets were fed for four 10-d periods, with 7d for adaptation and 3d for sample collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used in the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS to test the effects of fat, starch degradability, and their interaction. Acetate and acetate:propionate were lower for HF than for LF but daily production of trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA were higher for HF than for LF. Increasing starch Kd from low to high increased culture pH, acetate, and valerate but decreased butyrate and isobutyrate. Changes in biohydrogenation intermediates (expressed as % of total isomers) from low to high starch Kd included reductions in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA but increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. The results show that increasing the starch Kd in continuous cultures while holding starch level constant causes elevation of biohydrogenation intermediates linked to milk fat depression. PMID:27265165

  10. Changes in fermentation and biohydrogenation intermediates in continuous cultures fed low and high levels of fat with increasing rates of starch degradability.

    PubMed

    Lascano, G J; Alende, M; Koch, L E; Jenkins, T C

    2016-08-01

    Excessive levels of starch in diets for lactating dairy cattle is a known risk factor for milk fat depression, but little is known about how this risk is affected by differences in rates of starch degradability (Kd) in the rumen. The objective of this study was to compare accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates causing milk fat depression, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), when corn with low or high Kd were fed to continuous cultures. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 50% forage (alfalfa pellets and grass hay) and 50% concentrate, with either no added fat (LF) or 3.3% added soybean oil (HF). Within both the LF and HF diets, 3 starch degradability treatments were obtained by varying the ratio of processed (heat and pressure treatments) and unprocessed corn sources, giving a total of 6 dietary treatments. Each diet was fed to dual-flow continuous fermenters 3 times a day at 0800, 1600, and 2400h. Diets were fed for four 10-d periods, with 7d for adaptation and 3d for sample collection. Orthogonal contrasts were used in the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS to test the effects of fat, starch degradability, and their interaction. Acetate and acetate:propionate were lower for HF than for LF but daily production of trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA were higher for HF than for LF. Increasing starch Kd from low to high increased culture pH, acetate, and valerate but decreased butyrate and isobutyrate. Changes in biohydrogenation intermediates (expressed as % of total isomers) from low to high starch Kd included reductions in trans-11 18:1 and cis-9,trans-11 CLA but increases in trans-10 18:1 and trans-10,cis-12 CLA. The results show that increasing the starch Kd in continuous cultures while holding starch level constant causes elevation of biohydrogenation intermediates linked to milk fat depression.

  11. Multiple scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates: results from two years of continuous monitoring in a forested headwater stream

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, Brian J; Mulholland, Patrick J; Hill, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Headwater streams are key sites of nutrient and organic matter processing and retention, but little is known about temporal variability in gross primary production (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) rates as a result of the short duration of most ecosystem metabolism measurements in lotic ecosystems. We examined temporal variability and controls on ecosystem metabolism by measuring daily rates continuously for two years in Walker Branch, a first-order deciduous forest stream. Four important scales of temporal variability in ecosystem metabolism rates were identified: (1) seasonal, (2) day-to-day, (3) episodic (storm-related), and (4) inter-annual. Seasonal patterns were largely controlled by the leaf phenology and productivity of the deciduous riparian forest. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic throughout the year with the exception of the open-canopy spring when GPP and ER rates were similar. Day-to-day variability in weather conditions influenced light reaching the streambed, resulting in high day-to-day variability in GPP particularly during spring (daily light levels explained 84% of the variance in daily GPP in April). Episodic storms depressed GPP for several days in spring, but increased GPP in autumn by removing leaves shading the streambed. Storms depressed ER initially, but then stimulated ER to 2-3 times pre-storm levels for several days. Walker Branch was strongly net heterotrophic in both years of the study (NEP = -1156 and -773 g O2 m-2 y-1), with annual GPP being similar (488 and 519 g O2 m-2 y-1) but annual ER being higher in 2004 than 2005 (-1645 vs. -1292 g O2 m-2 y-1). Inter-annual variability in ecosystem metabolism (assessed by comparing 2004 and 2005 rates with previous measurements) was the result of the storm frequency and timing and the size of the spring macroalgal bloom. Changes in local climate can have substantial impacts on stream ecosystem metabolism rates and ultimately influence the carbon source and sink properties of

  12. Continuous monitoring of salivary flow rate and pH at the surface of the dentition following consumption of acidic beverages.

    PubMed

    Millward, A; Shaw, L; Harrington, E; Smith, A J

    1997-01-01

    Use of a splint-mounted flexible pH electrode has allowed reliable continuous monitoring of pH at the surface of the dentition whilst still enabling subjects to drink normally. pH was monitored at the palatal upper left central incisor and upper right first permanent molar sites after drinking 1% (w/v) citric acid. A maximal decrease in pH to values of 2-3 was observed after 1 min followed by a slower recovery which was above pH 5.5 within 2 min at the former site and in 4-5 min at the latter site. A sharp rise in parotid saliva flow rate was seen at 1 min after drinking the same concentration of citric acid by glass, straw or feeder cup, which returned to resting levels within 6 min although the fall-off of flow rate was slower with the feeder cup. Thus, after dietary acid intake the pH at the surface of the dentition is below the critical pH for enamel dissolution for shorter periods than previously suggested, which is probably a reflection of salivary neutralisation and washing. PMID:8955994

  13. Cellstat--A continuous culture system of a bacteriophage for the study of the mutation rate and the selection process at the DNA level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husimi, Yuzuru; Nishigaki, Koichi; Kinoshita, Yasunori; Tanaka, Toyosuke

    1982-04-01

    A bacteriophage is continuously cultured in the flow of the host bacterial cell under the control of a minicomputer. In the culture, the population of the noninfected cell is kept constant by the endogeneous regulation mechanism, so it is called the ''cellstat'' culture. Due to the high dilution rate of the host cell, the mutant cell cannot be selected in the cellstat. Therefore, the cellstat is suitable for the study of the mutation rate and the selection process of a bacteriophage under well-defined environmental conditions (including physiological condition of the host cell) without being interfered by host-cell mutations. Applications to coliphage fd, a secretion type phage, are shown as a measurement example. A chimera between fd and a plasmid pBR322 is cultured more than 100 h. The process of population changeovers by deletion mutants indicates that the deletion hot spots exist in this cloning vector and that this apparatus can be used also for testing instability of a recombinant DNA.

  14. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Julian P; Kawka, Orest E

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H) ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt) change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3), fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0), and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1)-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1) of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0) and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81) and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82) in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72). The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully explains

  15. The Influence of Growth Rate on 2H/1H Fractionation in Continuous Cultures of the Coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi and the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Julian P.; Kawka, Orest E.

    2015-01-01

    The hydrogen isotope (2H/1H) ratio of lipids from phytoplankton is a powerful new tool for reconstructing hydroclimate variations in the geologic past from marine and lacustrine sediments. Water 2H/1H changes are reflected in lipid 2H/1H changes with R2 > 0.99, and salinity variations have been shown to cause about a 1‰ change in lipid δ2H values per unit (ppt) change in salinity. Less understood are the effects of growth rate, nutrient limitation and light on 2H/1H fractionation in phytoplankton. Here we present the first published study of growth rate effects on 2H/1H fractionation in the lipids of coccolithophorids grown in continuous cultures. Emiliania huxleyi was cultivated in steady state at four growth rates and the δ2H value of individual alkenones (C37:2, C37:3, C38:2, C38:3), fatty acids (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0), and 24-methyl cholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (brassicasterol) were measured. 2H/1H fractionation increased in all lipids as growth rate increased by 24‰ to 79‰ (div d-1)-1. We attribute this response to a proportional increase in the fraction of NADPH from Photosystem I (PS1) of photosynthesis relative to NADPH from the cytosolic oxidative pentose phosphate (OPP) pathway in the synthesis of lipids as growth rate increases. A 3-endmember model is presented in which lipid hydrogen comes from NADPH produced in PS1, NADPH produced by OPP, and intracellular water. With published values or best estimates of the fractionation factors for these sources (αPS1 = 0.4, αOPP = 0.75, and αH2O = 0) and half of the hydrogen in a lipid derived from water the model indicates αlipid = 0.79. This value is within the range measured for alkenones (αalkenone = 0.77 to 0.81) and fatty acids (αFA = 0.75 to 0.82) in the chemostat cultures, but is greater than the range for brassicasterol (αbrassicasterol = 0.68 to 0.72). The latter is attributed to a greater proportion of hydrogen from NADPH relative to water in isoprenoid lipids. The model successfully explains

  16. Dechlorination of trichloroethene in a continuous-flow bioelectrochemical reactor: effect of cathode potential on rate, selectivity, and electron transfer mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Aulenta, Federico; Tocca, Lorenzo; Verdini, Roberta; Reale, Priscilla; Majone, Mauro

    2011-10-01

    The exciting discovery that dechlorinating bacteria can use polarized graphite cathodes as direct electron donors in the reductive dechlorination has prompted investigations on the development of novel bioelectrochemical remediation approaches. In this work, we investigated the performance of a bioelectrochemical reactor for the treatment of trichloroethene (TCE). The reactor was continuously operated for about 570 days, at different potentiostatically controlled cathode potentials, ranging from -250 mV to -750 mV vs standard hydrogen electrode. The rate and extent of TCE dechlorination, as well as the competition for the available electrons, were highly dependent on the set cathode potential. When the cathode was controlled at -250 mV, no abiotic hydrogen production occurred and TCE dechlorination (predominantly to cis-DCE and VC), most probably sustained via direct extracellular electron transfer, proceeded at an average rate of 15.5 ± 1.2 μmol e(-)/L d. At this cathode, potential methanogenesis was almost completely suppressed and dechlorination accounted for 94.7 ± 0.1% of the electric current (15.0 ± 0.8 μA) flowing in the system. A higher rate of TCE dechlorination (up to 64 ± 2 μmol e(-)/L d) was achieved at cathode potentials lower than -450 mV, though in the presence of a very active methanogenesis which accounted for over 60% of the electric current. Remarkably, the bioelectrochemical reactor displayed a stable and reproducible performance even without the supply of organic carbon sources with the feed, confirming long-term viability.

  17. Comparative Analysis of the Equivital EQ02 Lifemonitor with Holter Ambulatory ECG Device for Continuous Measurement of ECG, Heart Rate, and Heart Rate Variability: A Validation Study for Precision and Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Akintola, Abimbola A.; van de Pol, Vera; Bimmel, Daniel; Maan, Arie C.; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Equivital (EQ02) is a multi-parameter telemetric device offering both real-time and/or retrospective, synchronized monitoring of ECG, HR, and HRV, respiration, activity, and temperature. Unlike the Holter, which is the gold standard for continuous ECG measurement, EQO2 continuously monitors ECG via electrodes interwoven in the textile of a wearable belt. Objective: To compare EQ02 with the Holter for continuous home measurement of ECG, heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV). Methods: Eighteen healthy participants wore, simultaneously for 24 h, the Holter and EQ02 monitors. Per participant, averaged HR, and HRV per 5 min from the two devices were compared using Pearson correlation, paired T-test, and Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy and precision metrics included mean absolute relative difference (MARD). Results: Artifact content of EQ02 data varied widely between (range 1.93–56.45%) and within (range 0.75–9.61%) participants. Comparing the EQ02 to the Holter, the Pearson correlations were respectively 0.724, 0.955, and 0.997 for datasets containing all data and data with < 50 or < 20% artifacts respectively. For datasets containing respectively all data, data with < 50, or < 20% artifacts, bias estimated by Bland-Altman analysis was −2.8, −1.0, and −0.8 beats per minute and 24 h MARD was 7.08, 3.01, and 1.5. After selecting a 3-h stretch of data containing 1.15% artifacts, Pearson correlation was 0.786 for HRV measured as standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN). Conclusions: Although the EQ02 can accurately measure ECG and HRV, its accuracy and precision is highly dependent on artifact content. This is a limitation for clinical use in individual patients. However, the advantages of the EQ02 (ability to simultaneously monitor several physiologic parameters) may outweigh its disadvantages (higher artifact load) for research purposes and/ or for home monitoring in larger groups of study participants. Further studies can be aimed

  18. Determination of direct photolysis rate constants and OH radical reactivity of representative odour compounds in brewery broth using a continuous flow-stirred photoreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgens, Marion; Jacob, Fritz; Ekici, Perihan; Friess, Albrecht; Parlar, Harun

    A method based on photolysis was developed for the appropriate treatment of organic pollutants in air exhausting from breweries upon wort decoction, and thereby causing smell nuisance. A continuous flow stirred photoreactor was built-up exclusively, allowing OH radicals to react with selected odorous compounds contained in exhaust vapours, such as: 2-methylpropanal, 3-methylbutanal, 2-methylbutanal, 3-methyl-1-butanol, n-hexanal, 2-methylbutyl isobutyrate, 2-undecanone, phenyl acetaldehyde, myrcene, limonene, linalool, humulene, dimethylsulphide, and dimethyltrisulphide. These substances were quantified in brewery broth before and after UV irradiation using high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). For odour analysis, high-resolution gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (HRGC-FID) coupled with sensory methods was used. Determined quantum yields of about 10 -3 for phenyl acetaldehyde, myrcene, and humulene pointed out that direct photolysis contributed to their decay. Quantum yields of below 10 -4 for the other substances indicated that UV irradiation did not contribute significantly to their degradation processes. Hydroxyl radical reaction rate constants and Henry constants of organic compounds were also measured. Substances accompanied with low Henry constants converted rapidly, whereas those with higher ones, relatively slowly. Determined aroma values concluded that after UV-H 2O 2 treatment, only dimethylsulphide and myrcene remained as important odorous compounds, but in significantly reduced concentrations. The UV-H 2O 2 treatment of brewery broth has been proved effective to reduce smell-irritating substances formed upon wort decoction.

  19. Regularity underlying complexity: a redshift-independent description of the continuous variation of galaxy-scale molecular gas properties in the mass-star formation rate plane

    SciTech Connect

    Sargent, M. T.; Daddi, E.; Béthermin, M.; Aussel, H.; Juneau, S.; Elbaz, D.; Hwang, H. S.; Da Cunha, E.

    2014-09-20

    Star-forming galaxies (SFGs) display a continuous specific star formation rate (sSFR) distribution, which can be approximated by two log-normal functions: one encompassing the galaxy main sequence (MS), and the other a rarer, starbursting population. Starburst (SB) sSFRs can be regarded as the outcome of a physical process (plausibly merging) taking the mathematical form of a log-normal boosting kernel that enhances star formation activity. We explore the utility of splitting the star-forming population into MS and SB galaxies—an approach we term the '2-Star Formation Mode' framework—for understanding their molecular gas properties. Star formation efficiency (SFE) and gas fraction variations among SFGs take a simple redshift-independent form, once these quantities are normalized to the corresponding values for average MS galaxies. SFE enhancements during SB episodes scale supra-linearly with the SFR increase, as expected for mergers. Consequently, galaxies separate more clearly into loci for SBs and normal galaxies in the Schmidt-Kennicutt plane than in (s)SFR versus M {sub *} space. SBs with large deviations (>10 fold) from the MS, e.g., local ULIRGs, are not average SBs, but are much rarer events whose progenitors had larger gas fractions than typical MS galaxies. Statistically, gas fractions in SBs are reduced two- to threefold compared to their direct MS progenitors, as expected for short-lived SFR boosts where internal gas reservoirs are depleted more quickly than gas is re-accreted from the cosmic web. We predict variations of the conversion factor α{sub CO} in the SFR-M {sub *} plane and we show that the higher sSFR of distant galaxies is directly related to their larger gas fractions.

  20. Simultaneous determination of 222Rn and 220Rn exhalation rates from building materials used in Central Italy with accumulation chambers and a continuous solid state alpha detector: influence of particle size, humidity and precursors concentration.

    PubMed

    Tuccimei, P; Moroni, M; Norcia, D

    2006-02-01

    A method to determine simultaneously the rates of 222Rn and 220Rn released from building materials quarried in Central Italy is presented. The method makes use of a continuous monitor equipped with a solid state alpha detector, in-line connected to a small accumulation chamber. The effects of chamber leakage and back diffusion on 222Rn free exhalation rate is evaluated. The influence of available exhalation surface, humidity content and precursors concentration on radon and thoron exhalation rates is investigated.

  1. Effect of dilution rate and methanol-glycerol mixed feeding on heterologous Rhizopus oryzae lipase production with Pichia pastoris Mut(+) phenotype in continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Canales, Christian; Altamirano, Claudia; Berrios, Julio

    2015-01-01

    The induction using substrate mixtures is an operational strategy for improving the productivity of heterologous protein production with Pichia pastoris. Glycerol as a cosubstrate allows for growth at a higher specific growth rate, but also has been reported to be repressor of the expression from the AOX1 promoter. Thus, further insights about the effects of glycerol are required for designing the induction stage with mixed substrates. The production of Rhizopus oryzae lipase (ROL) was used as a model system to investigate the application of methanol-glycerol feeding mixtures in fast metabolizing methanol phenotype. Cultures were performed in a simple chemostat system and the response surface methodology was used for the evaluation of both dilution rate and methanol-glycerol feeding composition as experimental factors. Our results indicate that productivity and yield of ROL are strongly affected by dilution rate, with no interaction effect between the involved factors. Productivity showed the highest value around 0.04-0.06 h(-1) , while ROL yield decreased along the whole dilution rate range evaluated (0.03-0.1 h(-1) ). Compared to production level achieved with methanol-only feeding, the highest specific productivity was similar in mixed feeding (0.9 UA g-biomass(-1) h(-1) ), but volumetric productivity was 70% higher. Kinetic analysis showed that these results are explained by the effects of dilution rate on specific methanol uptake rate, instead of a repressor effect caused by glycerol feeding. It is concluded that despite the effect of dilution rate on ROL yield, mixed feeding strategy is a proper process option to be applied to P. pastoris Mut(+) phenotype for heterologous protein production.

  2. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-12-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris.

  3. Circadian variation of heart rate is affected by environment: a study of continuous electrocardiographic monitoring in members of a symphony orchestra.

    PubMed Central

    Mulcahy, D; Keegan, J; Fingret, A; Wright, C; Park, A; Sparrow, J; Curcher, D; Fox, K M

    1990-01-01

    Twenty four hour ambulatory ST segment monitoring was performed on 48 members (43 players and five members of the management/technical team) of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) symphony orchestra without a history of cardiac disease. This period included final rehearsals and live performances (for audience and radio) of music by Richard Strauss and Mozart at the Royal Festival Hall (n = 36) and Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky at the Barbican Arts Centre (n = 21). During the period of monitoring one person (2%) had transient ST segment changes. Mean heart rates were significantly higher during the live performances than during the rehearsals. Mean heart rates during the live performance of Rachmaninov and Tchaikovsky were significantly higher than during Strauss and Mozart in those (n = 6) who were monitored on both occasions. Mean heart rates in the management and technical team were higher than those of the players. The recognised circadian pattern of heart rate, with a peak in the morning waking hours, was altered similarly during both concert days, with a primary peak occurring in the evening hours and a lesser peak in the morning for both musicians and management/technical staff. This study showed that environmental factors are of primary importance in defining the circadian pattern of heart rate. This has important implications when identifying peak periods of cardiovascular stress and tailoring drug treatment for patients with angina pectoris. PMID:2271347

  4. Trends in the rate of emergency room admissions for preventable cardiovascular conditions among african american men and women over the past decade. Continuation of negative trends.

    PubMed

    Davis; Hughes; Lui

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this retrospective analysis was to compare secular changes in the rate of emergency room admissions (per 100,000) for selected acknowledged preventable cardiovascular conditions among African Americans (AA) men and women aged >/=21 from 1991-1998, and rate of change for Caucasian (Cau), Hispanic (Hisp), and Asian (Asi) men and women aged >/=21; conditions included angina, congestive heart failure (CHF), diabetes, and hypertension.METHODS: Results are derived from calendar-year California hospital data based on a selection of specified ICD-9 codes that correspond to the principal diagnosis for admission. The combined study sample size included a total of 21,016 individuals who were admitted to a hospital via the ER. Separate standardized and age-adjusted Poisson regression models were employed for each condition to assess race and time main effects and race x time interaction terms (P rates of ER admission due to angina were significantly lower among AA men compared to Cau men (17.8 vs 18.2); however, rates were higher among Hisp and Asi men (6.03 and 7.1, respectively). Rates for CHF were higher among AA men compared to Cau, Hisp, and Asi men (23.7 vs, 11.0, 3.7, 4.8, respectively); similar results were observed for diabetes (8.6 vs 2.7, 2.3, 1.2, respectively) and hypertension (5.1 vs, 1.6, 0.9, 1.5, respectively). Differentials in 1991 resulted in widening disparities overtime for each condition. For women, mean overall rates due to angina were significantly higher among AA women compared Cau, Hisp, and Asi women (17.0 vs 13.5, 5.7, 5.7, respectively). Similar patterns were observed for CHF (23.1 vs, 11.0, 3.7, 4.8, respectively), diabetes (6.4 vs 2.0, 1.8, 1.1, respectively) and hypertension (5.8 vs 1.9, 1.1, 1.5), respectively). As observed among AA men, differentials in 1991

  5. Comparison of fixed-fee Grateful Med database use and searching success rates given the continued availability of MEDLINE in other formats.

    PubMed Central

    Blecic, D D

    1996-01-01

    This study compared in-house Grateful Med database use and searching success rates for four-month periods at four sites of the Library of the Health Sciences of the University of Illinois at Chicago. Data were collected from Grateful Med workstation uselogs and analyzed. Database use patterns and searching success rates were fairly consistent across the four sites. Though MEDLINE was available in other formats and use in these other formats remained high, 65.48% of all Grateful Med searching was done by using MEDLINE, and an additional 21.34% was done by using the MEDLINE Backfiles. In-house use patterns were similar to the overall use pattern for the University of Illinois, with the exception of MEDLINE Backfiles. Overall, 54.30% of searches were successful. PMID:8913553

  6. Linking SO2 emission rates and seismicity by continuous wavelet transform: implications for volcanic surveillance at San Cristóbal volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Vladimir; Bredemeyer, Stefan; Saballos, J. Armando; Galle, Bo; Hansteen, Thor H.

    2016-07-01

    San Cristóbal volcano is the highest and one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua. Its persistently high activity during the past decade is characterized by strong degassing and almost annual VEI 1-2 explosions, which present a threat to the local communities. Following an eruption on 8 September 2012, the intervals between eruptions decreased significantly, which we interpret as the start of a new eruptive phase. We present here the results of semi-continuous SO2 flux measurements covering a period of 18 months, obtained by two scanning UV-DOAS instruments installed as a part of the network for observation of volcanic and atmospheric change project, and the results of real-time seismic amplitude measurements (RSAM) data. Our data comprise a series of small to moderately explosive events in December 2012, June 2013 and February 2014, which were accompanied by increased gas emissions and seismicity. In order to approach an early warning strategy, we present a statistical method for the joint analysis of gas flux and seismic data, by using continuous wavelet transform and cross-wavelet transform (XWT) methods. This analysis shows that the XWT coefficients of SO2 flux and RSAM are in good agreement with the occurrence of eruptive events and thus may be used to indicate magma ascent into the volcano edifice. Such multi-parameter surveillance efforts can be useful for the interpretation and surveillance of possible eruptive events and could thus be used by local institutions for the prediction of upcoming volcanic unrest.

  7. AVERAGE HEATING RATE OF HOT ATMOSPHERES IN DISTANT CLUSTERS BY RADIO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS: EVIDENCE FOR CONTINUOUS ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, C.-J.; McNamara, B. R.; Schaffer, R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Vikhlinin, A.

    2011-10-20

    We examine atmospheric heating by radio active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in distant X-ray clusters by cross correlating clusters selected from the 400 Square Degree (400SD) X-ray Cluster survey with radio sources in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey. Roughly 30% of the clusters show radio emission above a flux threshold of 3 mJy within a projected radius of 250 kpc. The radio emission is presumably associated with the brightest cluster galaxy. The mechanical jet power for each radio source was determined using scaling relations between radio power and cavity (mechanical) power determined for nearby clusters, groups, and galaxies with hot atmospheres containing X-ray cavities. The average jet power of central radio AGNs is approximately 2 x 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}. We find no significant correlation between radio power, and hence mechanical jet power, and the X-ray luminosities of clusters in the redshift range 0.1-0.6. This implies that the mechanical heating rate per particle is higher in lower mass, lower X-ray luminosity clusters. The jet power averaged over the sample corresponds to an atmospheric heating of approximately 0.2 keV per particle within R{sub 500}. Assuming the current AGN heating rate does not evolve but remains constant to redshifts of 2, the heating rate per particle would rise by a factor of two. We find that the energy injected from radio AGNs contribute substantially to the excess entropy in hot atmospheres needed to break self-similarity in cluster scaling relations. The detection frequency of radio AGNs is inconsistent with the presence of strong cooling flows in 400SD clusters, but does not exclude weak cooling flows. It is unclear whether central AGNs in 400SD clusters are maintained by feedback at the base of a cooling flow. Atmospheric heating by radio AGNs may retard the development of strong cooling flows at early epochs.

  8. Hemostasis during low molecular weight heparin anticoagulation for continuous venovenous hemofiltration: a randomized cross-over trial comparing two hemofiltration rates

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Renal insufficiency increases the half-life of low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). Whether continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) removes LMWHs is unsettled. We studied hemostasis during nadroparin anticoagulation for CVVH, and explored the implication of the endogenous thrombin potential (ETP). Methods This cross-over study, performed in a 20-bed teaching hospital ICU, randomized non-surgical patients with acute kidney injury requiring nadroparin for CVVH to compare hemostasis between two doses of CVVH: filtrate flow was initiated at 4 L/h and converted to 2 L/h after 60 min in group 1, and vice versa in group 2. Patients received nadroparin 2850 IU i.v., followed by 380 IU/h continuously in the extracorporeal circuit. After baseline sampling, ultrafiltrate, arterial (art) and postfilter (PF) blood was taken for hemostatic markers after 1 h, and 15 min, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after converting filtrate flow. We compared randomized groups, and 'early circuit clotting' to 'normal circuit life' groups. Results Fourteen patients were randomized, seven to each group. Despite randomization, group 1 had higher SOFA scores (median 14 (IQR 11-15) versus 9 (IQR 5-9), p = 0.004). Anti-Xa art activity peaked upon nadroparin bolus and declined thereafter (p = 0.05). Anti-Xa PF did not change in time. Anti-Xa activity was not detected in ultrafiltrate. Medians of all anti-Xa samples were lower in group 1 (anti-Xa art 0.19 (0.12-0.37) vs. 0.31 (0.23-0.52), p = 0.02; anti-Xa PF 0.34 (0.25-0.44) vs. 0.51 (0.41-0.76), p = 0.005). After a steep decline, arterial ETPAUC tended to increase (p = 0.06), opposite to anti-Xa, while postfilter ETPAUC increased (p = 0.001). Median circuit life was 24.5 h (IQR 12-37 h). Patients with 'short circuit life' had longer baseline prothrombin time (PTT), activated thromboplastin time (aPTT), lower ETP, higher thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TAT) and higher SOFA scores; during CVVH, anti-Xa, and platelets were lower; PTT, aPTT, TAT

  9. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator.

  10. Fully vectorial laser resonator modeling of continuous-wave solid-state lasers including rate equations, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence.

    PubMed

    Asoubar, Daniel; Wyrowski, Frank

    2015-07-27

    The computer-aided design of high quality mono-mode, continuous-wave solid-state lasers requires fast, flexible and accurate simulation algorithms. Therefore in this work a model for the calculation of the transversal dominant mode structure is introduced. It is based on the generalization of the scalar Fox and Li algorithm to a fully-vectorial light representation. To provide a flexible modeling concept of different resonator geometries containing various optical elements, rigorous and approximative solutions of Maxwell's equations are combined in different subdomains of the resonator. This approach allows the simulation of plenty of different passive intracavity components as well as active media. For the numerically efficient simulation of nonlinear gain, thermal lensing and stress-induced birefringence effects in solid-state active crystals a semi-analytical vectorial beam propagation method is discussed in detail. As a numerical example the beam quality and output power of a flash-lamp-pumped Nd:YAG laser are improved. To that end we compensate the influence of stress-induced birefringence and thermal lensing by an aspherical mirror and a 90° quartz polarization rotator. PMID:26367545

  11. Continuous Problem of Function Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayakody, Gaya; Zazkis, Rina

    2015-01-01

    We examine different definitions presented in textbooks and other mathematical sources for "continuity of a function at a point" and "continuous function" in the context of introductory level Calculus. We then identify problematic issues related to definitions of continuity and discontinuity: inconsistency and absence of…

  12. Continuous-wave and high repetition rate Q-switched operation of Ho:YLF laser in-band pumped by a linearly polarized Tm:fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Zendzian, Waldemar; Jabczynski, Jan Karol; Swiderski, Jacek

    2014-11-01

    A study of Ho:YLF laser in continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation, single-pass end-pumped by a Tm:fiber laser is presented. The research was made for two crystals of the same length and with different Ho dopant concentrations (0.5 at%, 3×3×30 mm3 and 1.0 at%, 5×5×30 mm3). The lasers operated on π-polarization. The lasers based on both crystals were examined under the same experimental circumstances. At room temperature, for an output coupling transmission of 40%, the maximum CW output powers of 11.5 W (0.5 at%) and 14.5 W (1.0 at%) were achieved, corresponding to slope efficiencies of 40.9% and 53.4% and optical-to-optical efficiencies of 35.4% and 44.6% with respect to the incident pump power, respectively. For a Q-switched operation, in a CW pumping regime, the pulse repetition frequency (PRF) was changed from 1 to 10 kHz. For this case, the maximum average output power of 14.2 W at the PRF of 10 kHz was obtained for a higher holmium-doping concentration crystal. For 1 kHz PRF, pulse energies of 5.7 mJ with a 11 ns FWHM pulse width corresponding to almost 520 kW peak power were recorded. The laser operated at the wavelength of 2050.08 nm with the FWHM line width of 0.86 nm delivering a near-diffraction-limited beam with M2 values of 1.05 and 1.09 in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively.

  13. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L⁻¹·day⁻¹ indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  14. Improved Monitoring of Semi-Continuous Anaerobic Digestion of Sugarcane Waste: Effects of Increasing Organic Loading Rate on Methanogenic Community Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Athaydes Francisco; Janke, Leandro; Lv, Zuopeng; Harms, Hauke; Richnow, Hans-Hermann; Nikolausz, Marcell

    2015-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion of filter cake and its co-digestion with bagasse, and the effect of gradual increase of the organic loading rate (OLR) from start-up to overload were investigated. Understanding the influence of environmental and technical parameters on the development of particular methanogenic pathway in the biogas process was an important aim for the prediction and prevention of process failure. The rapid accumulation of volatile organic acids at high OLR of 3.0 to 4.0 gvs·L−1·day−1 indicated strong process inhibition. Methanogenic community dynamics of the reactors was monitored by stable isotope composition of biogas and molecular biological analysis. A potential shift toward the aceticlastic methanogenesis was observed along with the OLR increase under stable reactor operating conditions. Reactor overloading and process failure were indicated by the tendency to return to a predominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis with rising abundances of the orders Methanobacteriales and Methanomicrobiales and drop of the genus Methanosarcina abundance. PMID:26404240

  15. A QUARTER-CENTURY OF OBSERVATIONS OF COMET 10P/TEMPEL 2 AT LOWELL OBSERVATORY: CONTINUED SPIN-DOWN, COMA MORPHOLOGY, PRODUCTION RATES, AND NUMERICAL MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, Matthew M.; Schleicher, David G.; Schwieterman, Edward W.; Christensen, Samantha R.; Farnham, Tony L.

    2012-11-01

    We report on photometry and imaging of Comet 10P/Tempel 2 obtained at Lowell Observatory from 1983 through 2011. We measured a nucleus rotation period of 8.950 {+-} 0.002 hr from 16 nights of imaging acquired between 2010 September and 2011 January. This rotation period is longer than the period we previously measured in 1999, which was itself longer than the period measured in 1988, and demonstrates that Tempel 2 is continuing to spin down, presumably due to torques caused by asymmetric outgassing. A nearly linear jet was observed which varied little during a rotation cycle in both R and CN images acquired during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions. We measured the projected direction of this jet throughout the two apparitions and, under the assumption that the source region of the jet was near the comet's pole, determined a rotational pole direction of R.A./decl. = 151 Degree-Sign /+59 Degree-Sign from CN measurements and R.A./decl. = 173 Degree-Sign /+57 Degree-Sign from dust measurements (we estimate a circular uncertainty of 3 Degree-Sign for CN and 4 Degree-Sign for dust). Different combinations of effects likely bias both gas and dust solutions and we elected to average these solutions for a final pole direction of R.A./decl. = 162 Degree-Sign {+-} 11 Degree-Sign /+58 Degree-Sign {+-} 1 Degree-Sign . Photoelectric photometry was acquired on 3 nights in 1983, 2 nights in 1988, 19 nights in 1999/2000, and 10 nights in 2010/2011. The activity exhibited a steep 'turn-on' {approx}3 months prior to perihelion (the exact timing of which varies) and a relatively smooth decline after perihelion. The activity during the 1999 and 2010 apparitions was similar; limited data in 1983 and 1988 (along with IUE data from the literature) were systematically higher and the difference cannot be explained entirely by the smaller perihelion distance. We measured a 'typical' composition, in agreement with previous investigators. Monte Carlo numerical modeling with our pole solution best

  16. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved. PMID:25911592

  17. Anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure in a single continuously stirred tank reactor process: Limits in co-substrate ratios and organic loading rate.

    PubMed

    Rico, Carlos; Muñoz, Noelia; Rico, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    Mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of cheese whey and the screened liquid fraction of dairy manure was investigated with the aim of determining the treatment limits in terms of the cheese whey fraction in feed and the organic loading rate. The results of a continuous stirred tank reactor that was operated with a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 days showed that the co-digestion process was possible with a cheese whey fraction as high as 85% in the feed. The efficiency of the process was similar within the range of the 15-85% cheese whey fraction. To study the effect of the increasing loading rate, the HRT was progressively shortened with the 65% cheese whey fraction in the feed. The reactor efficiency dropped as the HRT decreased but enabled a stable operation over 8.7 days of HRT. At these operating conditions, a volumetric methane production rate of 1.37 m(3) CH4 m(-3) d(-1) was achieved.

  18. Effect of dilution rate and nutrients addition on the fermentative capability and synthesis of aromatic compounds of two indigenous strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in continuous cultures fed with Agave tequilana juice.

    PubMed

    Morán-Marroquín, G A; Córdova, J; Valle-Rodríguez, J O; Estarrón-Espinosa, M; Díaz-Montaño, D M

    2011-11-15

    Knowledge of physiological behavior of indigenous tequila yeast used in fermentation process is still limited. Yeasts have significant impact on the productivity fermentation process as well as the sensorial characteristics of the alcoholic beverage. For these reasons a better knowledge of the physiological and metabolic features of these yeasts is required. The effects of dilution rate, nitrogen and phosphorus source addition and micro-aeration on growth, fermentation and synthesis of volatile compounds of two native Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, cultured in continuous fed with Agave tequilana juice were studied. For S1 and S2 strains, maximal concentrations of biomass, ethanol, consumed sugars, alcohols and esters were obtained at 0.04 h⁻¹. Those concentrations quickly decreased as D increased. For S. cerevisiae S1 cultures (at D=0.08 h⁻¹) supplemented with ammonium phosphate (AP) from 1 to 4 g/L, concentrations of residual sugars decreased from 29.42 to 17.60 g/L and ethanol increased from 29.63 to 40.08 g/L, respectively. The S1 culture supplemented with AP was then micro-aerated from 0 to 0.02 vvm, improving all the kinetics parameters: biomass, ethanol and glycerol concentrations increased from 5.66, 40.08 and 3.11 g/L to 8.04, 45.91 and 4.88 g/L; residual sugars decreased from 17.67 g/L to 4.48 g/L; and rates of productions of biomass and ethanol, and consumption of sugars increased from 0.45, 3.21 and 7.33 g/L·h to 0.64, 3.67 and 8.38 g/L·h, respectively. Concentrations of volatile compounds were also influenced by the micro-aeration rate. Ester and alcohol concentrations were higher, in none aerated and in aerated cultures respectively. PMID:21903290

  19. Synchronized ps fiber lasers with pulse durations (25, 50, 100-2000ps) and repetition rates (100kHz-150Mhz) continuously tunable over three orders of magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupuis, Alexandre; Burgoyne, Bryan; Pena, Guido; Archambault, André; Lemieux, Dominic; Solomonean, Vasile; Duong, Maxime; Villeneuve, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Ultrafast lasers are enabling precision machining of a wide variety of materials. However, the optimal laser parameters for proper material processing can differ greatly from one material to another. In order to cut high aspect-ratio features at high processing speeds the laser parameters such as pulse energy, repetition rate, and cutting speed need to be optimized. In particular, a shorter pulse duration plays an important role in reducing the thermal damage in the Heat-Affected Zones. In this paper we present a novel ps fiber laser whose electronically tunable parameters aim to facilitate the search for optimal processing parameters. The 20W 1064nm Yb fiber laser is based on a Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) architecture with a repetition rate that can be tuned continuously from 120kHz to 120MHz. More importantly, the integration of three different pulse generators enables the pulse duration to be switched from 25ps to 50ps, or to any value within the 55ps to 2000ps range. By reducing the pulse duration from the ns-regime down to 25ps, the laser approaches the transition from the thermal processing regime to the ablation regime of most materials. Moreover, in this paper we demonstrate the synchronization of the pulses from two such MOPA lasers. This enables more elaborate multipulse processing schemes where the pulses of each laser can be set to different parameter values, such as an initial etching pulse followed by a thermal annealing pulse. It should be noted that all the laser parameters are controlled electronically with no moving parts, including the synchronization.

  20. CONTINUOUS GAS ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Katz, S.; Weber, C.W.

    1960-02-16

    A reagent gas and a sample gas are chemically combined on a continuous basis in a reaction zone maintained at a selected temperature. The reagent gas and the sample gas are introduced to the reaction zone at preselected. constant molar rates of flow. The reagent gas and the selected gas in the sample mixture combine in the reaction zone to form a product gas having a different number of moles from the sum of the moles of the reactants. The difference in the total molar rates of flow into and out of the reaction zone is measured and indicated to determine the concentration of the selected gas.

  1. Continuous verification using multimodal biometrics.

    PubMed

    Sim, Terence; Zhang, Sheng; Janakiraman, Rajkumar; Kumar, Sandeep

    2007-04-01

    Conventional verification systems, such as those controlling access to a secure room, do not usually require the user to reauthenticate himself for continued access to the protected resource. This may not be sufficient for high-security environments in which the protected resource needs to be continuously monitored for unauthorized use. In such cases, continuous verification is needed. In this paper, we present the theory, architecture, implementation, and performance of a multimodal biometrics verification system that continuously verifies the presence of a logged-in user. Two modalities are currently used--face and fingerprint--but our theory can be readily extended to include more modalities. We show that continuous verification imposes additional requirements on multimodal fusion when compared to conventional verification systems. We also argue that the usual performance metrics of false accept and false reject rates are insufficient yardsticks for continuous verification and propose new metrics against which we benchmark our system. PMID:17299225

  2. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1997-01-01

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid.

  3. Atomizing, continuous, water monitoring module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, C.V.; Wise, M.B.

    1997-07-08

    A system for continuously analyzing volatile constituents of a liquid is described. The system contains a pump for continuously pumping the liquid to be tested at a predetermined flow rate into an extracting container through a liquid directing tube having an orifice at one end and positioned to direct the liquid into the extracting container at a flow rate sufficient to atomize the liquid within the extracting container. A continuous supply of helium carrier gas at a predetermined flow rate is directed through a tube into the extracting container and co-mingled with the atomized liquid to extract the volatile constituents contained within the atomized liquid. The helium containing the extracted volatile constituents flows out of the extracting container into a mass spectrometer for an analysis of the volatile constituents of the liquid. 3 figs.

  4. 47 CFR 64.1900 - Nondominant interexchange carrier certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... such services in compliance with its geographic rate averaging and rate integration obligations... certifications regarding geographic rate averaging and rate integration requirements. 64.1900 Section 64.1900 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED)...

  5. Continuous pressure letdown system

    DOEpatents

    Sprouse, Kenneth M.; Matthews, David R.; Langowski, Terry

    2010-06-08

    A continuous pressure letdown system connected to a hopper decreases a pressure of a 2-phase (gas and solid) dusty gas stream flowing through the system. The system includes a discharge line for receiving the dusty gas from the hopper, a valve, a cascade nozzle assembly positioned downstream of the discharge line, a purge ring, an inert gas supply connected to the purge ring, an inert gas throttle, and a filter. The valve connects the hopper to the discharge line and controls introduction of the dusty gas stream into the discharge line. The purge ring is connected between the discharge line and the cascade nozzle assembly. The inert gas throttle controls a flow rate of an inert gas into the cascade nozzle assembly. The filter is connected downstream of the cascade nozzle assembly.

  6. Photon diffusion in a homogeneous medium bounded externally or internally by an infinitely long circular cylindrical applicator. III. Synthetic study of continuous-wave photon fluence rate along unique spiral paths.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anqi; Piao, Daqing; Bunting, Charles F

    2012-04-01

    This is Part III of the work that examines photon diffusion in a scattering-dominant medium enclosed by a "concave" circular cylindrical applicator or enclosing a "convex" circular cylindrical applicator. In Part II of this work Zhang et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A, 66 (2011)] predicted that, on the tissue-applicator interface of either "concave" or "convex" geometry, there exists a unique set of spiral paths, along which the steady-state photon fluence rate decays at a rate equal to that along a straight line on a planar semi-infinite interface, for the same line-of-sight source-detector distance. This phenomenon of steady-state photon diffusion is referred to as "straight-line-resembling-spiral paths" (abbreviated as "spiral paths"). This Part III study develops analytic approaches to the spiral paths associated with geometry of a large radial dimension and presents spiral paths found numerically for geometry of a small radial dimension. This Part III study also examines whether the spiral paths associated with a homogeneous medium are a good approximation for the medium containing heterogeneity. The heterogeneity is limited to an anomaly that is aligned azimuthally with the spiral paths and has either positive or negative contrast of the absorption or scattering coefficient over the background medium. For a weak-contrast anomaly the perturbation by it to the photon fluence rate along the spiral paths is found by applying a well-established perturbation analysis in cylindrical coordinates. For a strong-contrast anomaly the change by it to the photon fluence rate along the spiral paths is computed using the finite-element method. For the investigated heterogeneous-medium cases the photon fluence rate along the homogeneous-medium associated spiral paths is macroscopically indistinguishable from, and microscopically close to, that along a straight line on a planar semi-infinite interface.

  7. Continuous Progress Program Inservice Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chicago Board of Education, IL.

    The Continuous Progress Program of the Board of Education for the City of Chicago focuses on the improvement of education for the individual child and the upgrading of educational practices and techniques. The philosophy of the program is based on the individualized rate of teaching and learning of the pupil. Its planning and organization is…

  8. Electronically Controlled Continuous Culture Device

    PubMed Central

    Eisler, William J.; Webb, Robert B.

    1968-01-01

    A photocell-controlled continuous culture device, a Nephelostat, is described that maintains a wide variety of cultures of microorganisms in balanced growth. This Nephelostat controls concentrations of bacteria within ±3% over a cell concentration range of 106 to 109 cells per ml. Growth rates are recorded so that changes in the growth rate are observed over small increments of time. Spontaneous and caffeine-induced mutation rates of two strains of Escherichia coli were compared under Nephelostat and chemostat conditions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:4877660

  9. Continuing Liberal Education. Continuing Higher Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, David B.

    This book investigates the key areas of nontraditional education program planning and development by examining the ways that liberal arts programs at various institutions have been academically and administratively established, developed, and maintained. Areas examined are the following: (1) the history of continuing liberal education and the…

  10. Continuity of Care

    PubMed Central

    Alazri, Mohammed; Heywood, Philip; Neal, Richard D; Leese, Brenda

    2007-01-01

    Continuity of care is widely regarded as a core value of primary care. The objective of this article is to explore the literature about the concept of continuity of care focusing on factors that influence continuity; advantages and disadvantages of continuity and the effect of continuity on outcomes, hence on the quality of care. Electronic databases and other websites were searched for relevant literature. The results of this review showed that continuity of care is influenced by demographic factors, factors related to patients and healthcare professionals, patient-healthcare professional relationship, inter-professional factors, role of receptionists and organisational factors. Several advantages were found to be associated with most types of continuity in various medical disciplines preventive medicine, general health, maternity and child health, mental and psychosocial health, chronic diseases and costs of care.Various factors influenced different types of continuity. Most types of continuity were associated with good outcomes, hence indirectly affecting the quality of care. Health care professionals and policy makers should be aware of the effect of continuity on quality of care and of the factors that influence continuity if they wish to preserve it as a core value of primary care. PMID:21748104

  11. Continuous and Pulsed Quantum Zeno Effect

    SciTech Connect

    Streed, Erik W.; Mun, Jongchul; Boyd, Micah; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Medley, Patrick; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Pritchard, David E.

    2006-12-31

    Continuous and pulsed quantum Zeno effects were observed using a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate. Oscillations between two ground hyperfine states of a magnetically trapped condensate, externally driven at a transition rate {omega}{sub R}, were suppressed by destructively measuring the population in one of the states with resonant light. The suppression of the transition rate in the two-level system was quantified for pulsed measurements with a time interval {delta}t between pulses and continuous measurements with a scattering rate {gamma}. We observe that the continuous measurements exhibit the same suppression in the transition rate as the pulsed measurements when {gamma}{delta}t=3.60(0.43), in agreement with the predicted value of 4. Increasing the measurement rate suppressed the transition rate down to 0.005{omega}{sub R}.

  12. Appendicitis: a continuing challenge.

    PubMed

    Pal, K M; Khan, A

    1998-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency in urban setting, of a developing country. The computerised hospital patient database at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, was utilised to obtain records of all adults with a histologically proven diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A review of patients treated over a 18 month period was undertaken. One hundred and three appendicectomies were performed for acute appendicitis during this period. The diagnosis was clinical in all cases. Investigations like leucocyte count and lower abdominal ultrasound scan were used to improve diagnostic accuracy without a clear advantage. A number of routine investigations like, haemoglobin estimation and urea, creatinine, electrolyte measurements, did not provide additional information. The duration of antibiotic treatment in acute simple appendicitis was empiric and could be reduced to a single preoperative dose. Peritoneal fluid culture studies had a poor yield (26%) and results were not found to effect management in acute simple appendicitis. The routine use of Ampicillin in all cases of bacterial peritonitis needs re-evaluation, as a high incidence (73%) of resistance was seen. Studies to define the role and duration of treatment, with a single antibiotic, in acute simple appendicitis should be undertaken. Acute appendicitis is probably the most frequently considered surgical differential diagnosis at any hospital dealing with acute surgical conditions. The established treatment continues to be surgical removal of the inflamed organ. The diagnosis and decision to operate both are accepted to be based on clinical judgement, though a number of investigative manoeuvres have been described to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. Other areas of debate are the number and length of antibiotic treatment and use of bacterial culture studies in cases of simple acute appendicitis. To analyse present practice and identify areas for study and change, a retrospective study was

  13. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  14. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  15. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  16. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  17. 47 CFR 65.800 - Rate base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rate base. 65.800 Section 65.800 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Rate Base § 65.800 Rate base. The rate base...

  18. Continuous monitoring of bacterial attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeing, D. W.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    A major concern with the Space Station Freedom (SSF) water supply system is the control of longterm microbial contamination and biofilm development in the water storage and distribution systems. These biofilms have the potential for harboring pathogens as well as microbial strains containing resistance factors that could negatively influence crew health. The proposed means for disinfecting the water system on SSF (iodine) may encourage the selection of resistant strains. In fact, biofilm bacteria were observed in water lines from the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102); therefore, an alternative remediation method is required to disinfect spacecraft water lines. A thorough understanding of colonization events and the physiological parameters that will influence bacteria adhesion is required. The limiting factor for development of this technology is the ability to continuously monitor adhesion events and the effects of biocides on sessile bacteria. Methods were developed to allow bacterial adhesion and subsequent biocidal treatment to be monitored continuously. This technique couples automated image analysis with a continuous flow of a bacterial suspension through an optical flow cell. A strain of Pseudomonas cepacia isolated from the water supply of the Space Shuttle Discovery (OV-103) during STS-39 was grown in a nitrogen-limited continuous culture. This culture was challenged continuously with iodine during growth, and the adhesion characteristics of this strain was measure with regard to flow rate. Various biocides (ozone, hypochlorite, and iodine) were added to the flow stream to evaluate how well each chemical removed the bacteria. After biocide treatment, a fresh bacterial suspension was introduced into the flow cell, and the attachment rate was evaluated on the previously treated surface. This secondary fouling was again treated with biocide to determine the efficacy of multiple batch chemical treatments in removing biofilm.

  19. Continuous magnetic separator and process

    DOEpatents

    Oder, Robin R.; Jamison, Russell E.

    2008-04-22

    A continuous magnetic separator and process for separating a slurry comprising magnetic particles into a clarified stream and a thickened stream. The separator has a container with a slurry inlet, an overflow outlet for the discharge of the clarified slurry stream, and an underflow outlet for the discharge of a thickened slurry stream. Magnetic particles in the slurry are attracted to, and slide down, magnetic rods within the container. The slurry is thus separated into magnetic concentrate and clarified slurry. Flow control means can be used to control the ratio of the rate of magnetic concentrate to the rate of clarified slurry. Feed control means can be used to control the rate of slurry feed to the slurry inlet.

  20. Planning for Project Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Grant, Jr.

    Designed to help colleges plan for the successful continuation of educational improvement projects beyond the end of their original funding period, this report presents a case study of Pennsylvania College of Technology's (PCT's) efforts to ensure the continuation of a Title III faculty development program. After describing the the Title III…

  1. Library of Continuation Algorithms

    2005-03-01

    LOCA (Library of Continuation Algorithms) is scientific software written in C++ that provides advanced analysis tools for nonlinear systems. In particular, it provides parameter continuation algorithms. bifurcation tracking algorithms, and drivers for linear stability analysis. The algorithms are aimed at large-scale applications that use Newton’s method for their nonlinear solve.

  2. Continuing Vocational Training (CVT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drogosz-Zablocka, Elzbieta; Izycka, Halina; Trzeciak, Wlodzimierz

    Polish continuing education (CE) includes education, further education, and professional development in and out of school; in day, evening, or weekend courses; and distance education. The state, workplaces, grants, and foreign assistance provide financing. A variety of organizations cooperate to provide continuing education. High-risk groups…

  3. The Tactile Continuity Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Norimichi; Igarashi, Yuka; Kashino, Makio

    2009-01-01

    We can perceive the continuity of an object or event by integrating spatially/temporally discrete sensory inputs. The mechanism underlying this perception of continuity has intrigued many researchers and has been well documented in both the visual and auditory modalities. The present study shows for the first time to our knowledge that an illusion…

  4. Residential Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  5. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Aderholt, Robert B. [R-AL-4

    2011-05-26

    09/30/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-33. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 10/4/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Graves, Sam [R-MO-6

    2011-07-21

    10/05/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-36. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 11/18/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Locating Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert C.

    1986-01-01

    Emphasizes program location as an important component of the marketing plan for continuing education. Also discusses relations among program location and quality, costs, supportive services, and economies of scale. (CH)

  8. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Lowey, Nita M. [D-NY-18

    2009-06-26

    09/30/2010 Became Public Law No: 111-242. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 12/3/2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Continual improvement plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    NASA's approach to continual improvement (CI) is a systems-oriented, agency-wide approach that builds on the past accomplishments of NASA Headquarters and its field installations and helps achieve NASA's vision, mission, and values. The NASA of the future will fully use the principles of continual improvement in every aspect of its operations. This NASA CI plan defines a systematic approach and a model for continual improvement throughout NASA, stressing systems integration and optimization. It demonstrates NASA's constancy of purpose for improvement - a consistent vision of NASA as a worldwide leader in top-quality science, technology, and management practices. The CI plan provides the rationale, structures, methods, and steps, and it defines NASA's short term (1-year) objectives for improvement. The CI plan presents the deployment strategies necessary for cascading the goals and objectives throughout the agency. It also provides guidance on implementing continual improvement with participation from top leadership and all levels of employees.

  10. Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2015

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2014-09-09

    09/19/2014 Became Public Law No: 113-164. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 12/11/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Adaptive continuous twisting algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Jaime A.; Negrete, Daniel Y.; Torres-González, Victor; Fridman, Leonid

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an adaptive continuous twisting algorithm (ACTA) is presented. For double integrator, ACTA produces a continuous control signal ensuring finite time convergence of the states to zero. Moreover, the control signal generated by ACTA compensates the Lipschitz perturbation in finite time, i.e. its value converges to the opposite value of the perturbation. ACTA also keeps its convergence properties, even in the case that the upper bound of the derivative of the perturbation exists, but it is unknown.

  12. Continuous parallel coordinates.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Julian; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Typical scientific data is represented on a grid with appropriate interpolation or approximation schemes,defined on a continuous domain. The visualization of such data in parallel coordinates may reveal patterns latently contained in the data and thus can improve the understanding of multidimensional relations. In this paper, we adopt the concept of continuous scatterplots for the visualization of spatially continuous input data to derive a density model for parallel coordinates. Based on the point-line duality between scatterplots and parallel coordinates, we propose a mathematical model that maps density from a continuous scatterplot to parallel coordinates and present different algorithms for both numerical and analytical computation of the resulting density field. In addition, we show how the 2-D model can be used to successively construct continuous parallel coordinates with an arbitrary number of dimensions. Since continuous parallel coordinates interpolate data values within grid cells, a scalable and dense visualization is achieved, which will be demonstrated for typical multi-variate scientific data.

  13. Heart Rate Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    In the mid 70's, NASA saw a need for a long term electrocardiographic electrode suitable for use on astronauts. Heart Rate Inc.'s insulated capacitive electrode is constructed of thin dielectric film applied to stainless steel surface, originally developed under a grant by Texas Technical University. HRI, Inc. was awarded NASA license and continued development of heart rate monitor for use on exercise machines for physical fitness and medical markets.

  14. Continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and satisfaction of women using an oral contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest versus a progestogen-only pill after switching from an ethinylestradiol-containing pill in a real-life setting: results of the CONTENT study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Paula; Serrani, Marco; Vogtländer, Kai; Parke, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptives are still associated with high discontinuation rates, despite their efficacy. There is a wide choice of oral contraceptives available, and the aim of this study was to assess continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and the satisfaction of women in the first year of using a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest (E2V/DNG) versus a progestogen-only pill (POP) in a real-life setting after discontinuing an ethinylestradiol-containing pill. Methods and results In this prospective, noninterventional, observational study, 3,152 patients were included for the efficacy analyses (n=2,558 women in the E2V/DNG group and n=592 in the POP group (two patients fulfilled the criteria of the efficacy population, but the used product was not known). Women had been taking an ethinylestradiol-containing pill ≥3 months before deciding to switch to the E2V/DNG pill or a POP. Overall, 19.8% (n=506) of E2V/DNG users and 25.8% (n=153) of POP users discontinued their prescribed pill. The median time to discontinuation was 157.0 days and 127.5 days, respectively. Time to discontinuation due to bleeding (P<0.0001) or other reasons (P=0.022) was significantly longer in the E2V/DNG group versus the POP group. The E2V/DNG pill was also associated with shorter (48.7% vs 44.1%), lighter (54% vs 46.1%), and less painful bleeding (91.1% vs 73.7%) and greater user satisfaction (80.7% vs 64.6%) than POP use, within 3–5 months after switch. Conclusion The E2V/DNG pill was associated with higher rates of continuation, bleeding profile acceptability, and user satisfaction than POP use and may be an alternative option for women who are dissatisfied with their current pill. PMID:27695365

  15. Continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and satisfaction of women using an oral contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest versus a progestogen-only pill after switching from an ethinylestradiol-containing pill in a real-life setting: results of the CONTENT study

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Paula; Serrani, Marco; Vogtländer, Kai; Parke, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptives are still associated with high discontinuation rates, despite their efficacy. There is a wide choice of oral contraceptives available, and the aim of this study was to assess continuation rates, bleeding profile acceptability, and the satisfaction of women in the first year of using a contraceptive pill containing estradiol valerate and dienogest (E2V/DNG) versus a progestogen-only pill (POP) in a real-life setting after discontinuing an ethinylestradiol-containing pill. Methods and results In this prospective, noninterventional, observational study, 3,152 patients were included for the efficacy analyses (n=2,558 women in the E2V/DNG group and n=592 in the POP group (two patients fulfilled the criteria of the efficacy population, but the used product was not known). Women had been taking an ethinylestradiol-containing pill ≥3 months before deciding to switch to the E2V/DNG pill or a POP. Overall, 19.8% (n=506) of E2V/DNG users and 25.8% (n=153) of POP users discontinued their prescribed pill. The median time to discontinuation was 157.0 days and 127.5 days, respectively. Time to discontinuation due to bleeding (P<0.0001) or other reasons (P=0.022) was significantly longer in the E2V/DNG group versus the POP group. The E2V/DNG pill was also associated with shorter (48.7% vs 44.1%), lighter (54% vs 46.1%), and less painful bleeding (91.1% vs 73.7%) and greater user satisfaction (80.7% vs 64.6%) than POP use, within 3–5 months after switch. Conclusion The E2V/DNG pill was associated with higher rates of continuation, bleeding profile acceptability, and user satisfaction than POP use and may be an alternative option for women who are dissatisfied with their current pill.

  16. Competence, continuing education, and computers.

    PubMed

    Hegge, Margaret; Powers, Penny; Hendrickx, Lori; Vinson, Judith

    2002-01-01

    A survey of RNs in South Dakota was performed to determine their perceived level of competence, the extent to which their continuing nursing education (CNE) needs are being met, and their use of computers for CNE. Nationally certified nurses rated themselves significantly more competent than nurses who are not nationally certified. Fewer than half of the RNs reported their CNE needs were being met despite geographic access to CNE and programs available in their specialty. Three-fourths of nurses had computers at home while 76% had computers at work, yet fewer than 20% of nurses used these computers for CNE.

  17. Noninvasive continuous blood pressure monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poghosyan, Armen; Mouradian, Vahram; Hovhannisyan, Levon

    2015-03-01

    We are presenting a novel photoplethysmographic (PPG) optical sensor and device with ambient optical, electrical and electromagnetic noises cancellation, thus allowing only the useful optical signals to be received by the health monitoring device. We are also presenting a new processing technique for canceling the ambient noises contributed by optical, electrical and electromagnetic artifacts in the measured PPG signals. Such a device and method allow the enhancement of the performance of the PPG sensors compared to conventional apparatus and methods. The presented sensor and methodology have been integrated into a prototype standalone device for noninvasive, continuous, wearable, remote and mobile monitoring of blood pressure and other human vital signs, such as heart rate, oxygen saturation, respiration rate, etc This small device allows the user to read, store, process and transmit all the measurements made using the PPG optical sensor and the electronic unit to a remote location.

  18. Reasoning about continuous processes

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmann, C.S.; Thielscher, M.

    1996-12-31

    Overcoming the disadvantages of equidistant discretization of continuous actions, we introduce an approach that separates time into slices of varying length bordered by certain events. Such events are points in time at which the equations describing the system`s behavior that is, the equations which specify the ongoing processes-change. Between two events the system`s parameters stay continuous. A high-level semantics for drawing logical conclusions about dynamic systems with continuous processes is presented, and we have developed an adequate calculus to automate this reasoning process. In doing this, we have combined deduction and numerical calculus, offering logical reasoning about precise, quantitative system information. The scenario of multiple balls moving in 1-dimensional space interacting with a pendulum serves as demonstration example of our method.

  19. Pressurized continuous chromatography

    SciTech Connect

    Canon, R.M.; Begovich, J.M.; Sisson, W.G.

    1980-04-01

    A pressurized continuous annular chromatograph has been developed for preparative separations. This device utilizes a slowly rotating annular bed of sorbent material, fixed multiple feed points, and fixed withdrawal locations. Most of our investigations have been performed with a 28-cm-diam column, but a larger model is being designed and constructed. The separation of copper, nickel, and cobalt components from a carbonate solution has been studied in detail. This solution simulates the leach liquor from the Caron process for recovering nickel and cobalt from laterite ores. Use of continuous gradient elution has been demonstrated. Recent studies have investigated several separations, including that of zirconium and hafnium (necessary for the production of zirconium for use in nuclear reactors), on a preparative scale. This system, because of its continuous feed and product withdrawal, its adaptability to large-scale operations, and its ability to separate many components, is expected to make chromatography a more competitive process in the industrial sector.

  20. AOA continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Delores J

    2009-03-01

    The current continuing medical education (CME) cycle began on January 1, 2007, and will end on December 31, 2009. The author provides an update on trends in osteopathic CME programs, details minor changes to the requirements for Category 1 CME sponsors accredited by the American Osteopathic Association, and describes new online CME opportunities. The current article also explains changes regarding the American Osteopathic Association's awarding and recording of CME credit hours for osteopathic physicians who have specialty board certification. In addition, the article includes information to assist osteopathic specialists and subspecialists in requesting American Osteopathic Association Category 1-A credit for courses accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. PMID:19336769

  1. Legitimacy and Program Continuation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Rene F.

    This paper examines the extent to which legitimacy affects program continuation, and focuses on the process by which programs attempt to maintain legitimate status through conformity with the larger environment. Legitimacy is defined as cultural support from a program's larger environment, such as the school district or community. An innovative…

  2. Continuing Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatt, Virginia; Seybert, Jeff

    An in-class survey of 683 continuing education students was conducted at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) to obtain information on: (1) student characteristics, including age, sex, family characteristics, income, educational background, occupation, area of residence, distance to class, sources of information about JCCC, and method of…

  3. Continuing Appropriations Act, 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Black, Diane [R-TN-6

    2013-07-22

    10/17/2013 Became Public Law No: 113-46. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: The final version of the bill makes continuing appropriations through January 15, 2014, thus ending the government shutdown, and increases the debt limit through February 7, 2014. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Clausal Continuations in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krekoski, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies illustrate cases of turn continuations that are not necessarily criterially dependent on clausal syntax (Couper-Kuhlen & Ono, 2007; Ford, Fox, & Thompson, 2002), advancing a more multidimensional construal of turn expansions, in general, which, as Auer (2007) put it, "is not a syntactic issue alone" (p. 651). This study further…

  5. Promoting Continuing Education Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Gayle A.

    This handbook is intended for use by institutions in marketing their continuing education programs. A section on "Devising Your Strategy" looks at identifying a target audience, determining the marketing approach, and developing a marketing plan and promotional techniques. A discussion of media options looks at the advantages and disadvantages of…

  6. Continuing Education Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, K. A.; Fenwick, P. R.

    In 1978, a national survey was conducted in New Zealand to determine the extent of participation in continuing education and the level of unmet need for these activities. A questionnaire was developed dealing with respondent characteristics, spare time and interests, agency-directed learning activities (ADLAS), and unmet needs, and administered to…

  7. To Be Continued...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poliniak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Professional growth, like personal growth, comes only through an investment of effort, but it can provide significant returns. Music educators--indeed, most serious musicians--are naturally curious and intensely interested in opportunities for continuing education. If music educators are looking for ways to increase the level of knowledge they…

  8. Claim and Continuous Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulová, Iveta; Meravá, Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    The claim will always represent the kind of information that is annoying to recipients. Systematic work with claims has a positive value for the company. Addressing the complaint has a positive effect on continuous improvement. This paper was worked out with the support of VEGA No.1/0229/08 Perspectives of quality management development in coherence with requirements of Slovak republic market.

  9. Continuous mining machine

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, H.E.

    1992-02-11

    This patent describes a continuous mining machine for excavating a longitudinal shaft or tunnel underneath the surface of the earth, the mining machine. It comprises: transport means for moving the machine over a floor of the shaft or tunnel that is being excavated; a working platform having forward and trailing ends.

  10. Continuous Personal Improvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emiliani, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that continuous improvement tools used in the workplace can be applied to self-improvement. Explains the use of such techniques as one-piece flow, kanban, visual controls, and total productive maintenance. Points out misapplications of these tools and describes the use of fishbone diagrams to diagnose problems. (SK)

  11. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration... CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Geographic Rate Averaging and Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  12. AOA continuing medical education.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Delores J

    2010-03-01

    The previous continuing medical education (CME) cycle began on January 1, 2007, and ended on December 31, 2009. All members of the American Osteopathic Association (AOA), other than those exempted, were required to participate in the CME program and to meet specified CME credit hour requirements for that CME cycle. The author provides an update on the new CME cycle, which began on January 1, 2010, and will end on December 31, 2012. The author also details minor changes to the requirements for Category 1 CME sponsors accredited by the AOA and describes new online CME opportunities. The current article also explains changes regarding the AOA's awarding and recording of specialty CME credit hours for AOA board-certified osteopathic physicians. In addition, the article includes information to assist osteopathic specialists and subspecialists in requesting AOA Category 1-A credit for courses accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. PMID:20386026

  13. High throughput continuous cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cryocondensation pump with a unique regeneration mechanism that allows continuous operation has been constructed and tested. The pump features a device referred to as the ''Snail'' which removes the cryofrost layer as it is moved over the pumping surfaces. A forepump pumps the sublimed gas generated inside the Snail. The compression ratio of the pump is the ratio of the cryopump speed to the leakage conductance of the Snail. Deuterium had been pumped continuously at 30 torr.L/s at a speed of 2000 L/s and a compression ratio of 100. The pump, being all metal sealed and free of lubricating fluids, has many potential applications where untraclean high throughput pumping is desirable. Since the pump regenerates on a time scale of 60 seconds, the inventory in the pump is minimized - an important consideration when pumping radioactive materials such as tritium. Test data and a videotape of the Snail removing the cryofrost will be shown.

  14. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  15. Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites

    SciTech Connect

    2002-09-01

    Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites demonstrate the high-temperature stability of ceramics--with an increased fracture toughness resulting from the fiber reinforcement of the composite. The material optimization performed under the continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC) included a series of systematic optimizations. The overall goals were to define the processing window, to increase the robustinous of the process, to increase process yield while reducing costs, and to define the complexity of parts that could be fabricated.

  16. Continuous in vitro evolution of catalytic function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, M. C.; Joyce, G. F.

    1997-01-01

    A population of RNA molecules that catalyze the template-directed ligation of RNA substrates was made to evolve in a continuous manner in the test tube. A simple serial transfer procedure was used to achieve approximately 300 successive rounds of catalysis and selective amplification in 52 hours. During this time, the population size was maintained against an overall dilution of 3 x 10(298). Both the catalytic rate and amplification rate of the RNAs improved substantially as a consequence of mutations that accumulated during the evolution process. Continuous in vitro evolution makes it possible to maintain laboratory "cultures" of catalytic molecules that can be perpetuated indefinitely.

  17. AOA Continuing Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Delores J

    2011-04-01

    The author provides an update on the current CME cycle, which began on January 1, 2010, and will end on December 31, 2012. The author also details minor changes to the requirements for Category 1 CME sponsors accredited by the AOA and describes new online CME opportunities. The current article also explains changes regarding the AOA's awarding and recording of specialty CME credit hours for AOA board-certified osteopathic physicians. In addition, the article includes information to assist osteopathic specialists and subspecialists in requesting AOA Category 1-A credit for courses accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education. PMID:21562297

  18. Multiclass Continuous Correspondence Learning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Brian D,; Thompson, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Structural Correspondence Learning (SCL) domain adaptation algorithm of Blitzer er al. to the realm of continuous signals. Given a set of labeled examples belonging to a 'source' domain, we select a set of unlabeled examples in a related 'target' domain that play similar roles in both domains. Using these 'pivot samples, we map both domains into a common feature space, allowing us to adapt a classifier trained on source examples to classify target examples. We show that when between-class distances are relatively preserved across domains, we can automatically select target pivots to bring the domains into correspondence.

  19. Personal continuous air monitor

    DOEpatents

    Morgan, Ronald G.; Salazar, Samuel A.

    2000-01-01

    A personal continuous air monitor capable of giving immediate warning of the presence of radioactivity has a filter/detector head to be worn in the breathing zone of a user, containing a filter mounted adjacent to radiation detectors, and a preamplifier. The filter/detector head is connected to a belt pack to be worn at the waist or on the back of a user. The belt pack contains a signal processor, batteries, a multichannel analyzer, a logic circuit, and an alarm. An air pump also is provided in the belt pack for pulling air through the filter/detector head by way of an air tube.

  20. Continuous ring furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    De Stefani, G.; Genevois, J.L.; Paolo, P.

    1981-01-06

    A smoke conducting apparatus for use particularly with continuous ring furnaces (e.g., Hoffman furnaces) wherein each furnace chamber is connected to the smoke channel, the latter being a metal pipe inclined slightly from horizontal and provided with one or more traps along the length of its bottom surface, each trap containing a removable receptacle, and heating means being disposed along the bottom of the channel to fluidize tarry deposits of combustion products so that such deposits will flow by gravity into the removable receptacle.

  1. Continuous Variable Entanglement Swapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polkinghorne, R. E. S.; Ralph, T. C.

    1999-09-01

    We investigate the efficacy with which polarization entanglement can be teleported using a continuous measurement scheme. We show that by using the correct gain for the classical channel the degree of violation of locality that can be demonstrated (using a CH-type inequality) is not a function of the level of entanglement squeezing used in the teleportation. This is possible because a gain condition can always be chosen such that passage through the teleporter is equivalent to pure attenuation of the input field.

  2. Continuous Aqueous Tritium Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstetter, K.J.

    1995-03-29

    Continuous monitoring for tritium in the aqueous effluents of selected Savannah River Site (SRS) facilities is performed using a custom designed system that includes an automated water purification system and a flow-through radiation detection system optimized for tritium. Beads of plastic scintillators coupled with coincidence electronics provide adequate sensitivity (=25kBz/L) for tritium break-through detection int he aqueous discharge stream from these facilities. The tritium effluent water monitors (TEWMs) at SRS provide early warning (within 30 minutes) of an unanticipated release of tritium, supplement the routine sampling surveillances, and mitigate the impact of aqueous plant discharges of tritium releases to the environment.

  3. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  4. Continuous Thermophilic Composting12

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, K. L.

    1962-01-01

    Under complete mixing conditions, aerobic decomposition of mixed organic waste materials has been maintained continuously in the thermophilic phase in a 55-gal rotating drum. Temperatures ranged between 53 and 70 C. Raw material was added daily or every second day in amounts up to 18 lb per 100 lb of decomposing material. The weight of material removed ranged between 42 and 60% of the raw material added. Factors influencing the operation of the composting unit were studied in detail. Images FIG. 2 PMID:13909559

  5. Continuous steel production and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Peaslee, Kent D.; Peter, Jorg J.; Robertson, David G. C.; Thomas, Brian G.; Zhang, Lifeng

    2009-11-17

    A process for continuous refining of steel via multiple distinct reaction vessels for melting, oxidation, reduction, and refining for delivery of steel continuously to, for example, a tundish of a continuous caster system, and associated apparatus.

  6. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  7. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  8. Continuing challenges in influenza

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Robert G.; Govorkova, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Influenza is an acute respiratory disease in mammals and domestic poultry that emerges from zoonotic reservoirs in aquatic birds and bats. Although influenza viruses are among the most intensively studied pathogens, existing control options require further improvement. Influenza vaccines must be regularly updated because of continuous antigenic drift and sporadic antigenic shifts in the viral surface glycoproteins. Currently, influenza therapeutics are limited to neuraminidase inhibitors; novel drugs and vaccine approaches are therefore urgently needed. Advances in vaccinology and structural analysis have revealed common antigenic epitopes on hemagglutinins across all influenza viruses and suggest that a universal influenza vaccine is possible. In addition, various immunomodulatory agents and signaling pathway inhibitors are undergoing preclinical development. Continuing challenges in influenza include the emergence of pandemic H1N1 influenza in 2009, human infections with avian H7N9 influenza in 2013, and sporadic human cases of highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza. Here, we review the challenges facing influenza scientists and veterinary and human public health officials; we also discuss the exciting possibility of achieving the ultimate goal of controlling influenza’s ability to change its antigenicity. PMID:24891213

  9. 7 CFR 1980.320 - Interest rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender...

  10. Lapse in Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Continuing Reviews.

    PubMed

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Grabenbauer, Michael; Nguyen, Yen

    2016-01-01

    The United States federal animal welfare regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals require that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) conduct continuing reviews of all animal research activities. However, little is known about the lapse rate of IACUC continuing reviews, and how frequently investigators continue research activities during the lapse. It is also not clear what factors may contribute to an institution's lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. As part of the quality assurance program, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has collected performance metric data for animal care and use programs since 2011. We analyzed IACUC continuing review performance data at 74-75 VA research facilities from 2011 through 2015. The IACUC continuing review lapse rates improved from 5.6% in 2011 to 2.7% in 2015. The rate of investigators continuing research activities during the lapse also decreased from 47.2% in 2012 to 7.4% in 2015. The type of IACUCs used and the size of animal research programs appeared to have no effect in facility's rates of lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. While approximately 80% of facilities reported no lapse in IACUC continuing reviews, approximately 14% of facilities had lapse rates of >10% each year. Some facilities appeared to be repeat offenders. Four facilities had IACUC lapse rates of >10% in at least 3 out of 5 years, suggesting a system problem in these facilities requiring remedial actions to improve their IACUC continuing review processes. PMID:27606820

  11. Quasi-continuous magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, J.R.; Naumovich, G.J.; Hoang, T.A.; Dent, P.C.

    1996-05-01

    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory is completing a quasi-continuous magnet which will sustain a constant field of 60 T for 100 ms in a 32-mm 77 K bore. This magnet consists of 9 mechanically independent, nested, liquid nitrogen-cooled coils which are individually reinforced by high-strength stainless steel outer shells. The coils were wound from rectangular large cross-section, high-strength, high-conductivity copper conductor insulated wtih polyimide and fiberglass tapes. After winding, the coils were inserted into closely fitted, stainless steel reinforcing shells and impregnated with epoxy resin. Design, analysis, material, fabrication and operational issues for this class of magnets are reviewed. Fabrication and quality assurance testing of the 60 T coil set are covered in detail. Future growth of and possible links from this technology to other magnet systems are discussed. Needed improvements in design, analysis, materials, and fabrication are outlined.

  12. Continuous steam explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, J.D.; Yu, E.K.C.

    1995-02-01

    StakeTech has focused on developing steam explosion on a commercial basis. The company essentially a biomass conversion company dealing with cellulosic biomass such as wood, crop residues and, more recently, wastepaper and municipal solid waste (MSW). They are faced with a tremendous opportunity to develop uses for the 50% of biomass that is currently wasted. The StakeTech steam explosion process is able to break the bonds using only high-pressure steam with no chemical additives. The continuous StakeTech System now has been installed in five countries and has proved effective in processing a wide variety of raw materials including wood chips, straw, sugarcane bagasse, and waste paper. End-use applications range from specialty chemicals to large-volume agricultural products. The increase of development activities in steam explosion should lead to expanded end-use applications, and acceptance of the technology by industry should accelerate in the years to come.

  13. CONTINUOUSLY SENSITIVE BUBBLE CHAMBER

    DOEpatents

    Good, R.H.

    1959-08-18

    A radiation detector of the bubble chamber class is described which is continuously sensitive and which does not require the complex pressure cycling equipment characteristic of prior forms of the chamber. The radiation sensitive element is a gas-saturated liquid and means are provided for establishing a thermal gradient across a region of the liquid. The gradient has a temperature range including both the saturation temperature of the liquid and more elevated temperatures. Thus a supersaturated zone is created in which ionizing radiations may give rise to visible gas bubbles indicative of the passage of the radiation through the liquid. Additional means are provided for replenishing the supply of gas-saturated liquid to maintaincontinuous sensitivity.

  14. [Continuous-infusion ketamine].

    PubMed

    Mancini, P G; Caggese, G; Di Fabio, A; Di Nino, G F; Cocchi, V

    1980-08-01

    An investigation was made of the employment of ketamin as the sole anaesthetic in general surgery, using continuous infusion of a 1% solution for both induction and maintenance in 118 cases. ECG was monitored and arterial pressure was measured invasively. Central venous pressure was also determined in 10 cases. Changes in serum enzyme values during and after surgery were examined in 35 patients. Blood samples were withdrawn before induction, after the return to consciousness, and 24 hr after the operation. Side-effects were common, but slight. Five patients suffered from nightmares, but these were persons with marked imaginative activity and a melancholic nature. Cardiocirculatory function was satisfactory. In particular, peripheral perfusion was excellent in all cases.

  15. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction.

  16. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  17. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  18. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  19. 47 CFR 64.1801 - Geographic rate averaging and rate integration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. 64.1801 Section 64.1801 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON... Rate Integration § 64.1801 Geographic rate averaging and rate integration. (a) The rates charged...

  20. Evolution & the Cesarean Section Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Joseph A.

    2008-01-01

    "Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." This was the title of an essay by geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky writing in 1973. Many causes have been given for the increased Cesarean section rate in developed countries, but biologic evolution has not been one of them. The C-section rate will continue to rise, because the…

  1. An Introduction to Continued Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Charles G.

    Provided is an introduction to the properties of continued fractions for the intellectually curious high school student. Among the topics included are (1) Expansion of Rational Numbers into Simple Continued Fractions, (2) Convergents, (3) Continued Fractions and Linear Diophantine Equations of the Type am + bn = c, (4) Continued Fractions and…

  2. Continuous extraction of organic materials from water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldberg, M.C.; DeLong, L.; Kahn, L.

    1971-01-01

    A continuous liquid solvent extractor, designed to utilize organic solvents that are heavier than water, is described. The extractor is capable of handling input rates up to 2 liters per hour and has a 500-ml. extractant capacity. Extraction efficiency is dependent upon the p-value, the two solvent ratios, rate of flow of the aqueous phase, and rate of reflux of the organic phase. Extractors can be serially coupled to increase extraction efficiency and, when coupled with a lighter-than-water extractor, the system will allow the use of any immiscible solvent.

  3. A ''Continuous'' Li

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2014-03-01

    A novel family of -1 orthogonal polynomials called the Chihara polynomials is characterized. The polynomials are obtained from a ''continuous'' limit of the complementary Bannai-Ito polynomials, which are the kernel partners of the Bannai-Ito polynomials. The three-term recurrence relation and the explicit expression in terms of Gauss hypergeometric functions are obtained through a limit process. A one-parameter family of second-order differential Dunkl operators having these polynomials as eigenfunctions is also exhibited. The quadratic algebra with involution encoding this bispectrality is obtained. The orthogonality measure is derived in two different ways: by using Chihara's method for kernel polynomials and, by obtaining the symmetry factor for the one-parameter family of Dunkl operators. It is shown that the polynomials are related to the big -1 Jacobi polynomials by a Christoffel transformation and that they can be obtained from the big q-Jacobi by a q→ -1 limit. The generalized Gegenbauer/Hermite polynomials are respectively seen to be special/limiting cases of the Chihara polynomials. A one-parameter extension of the generalized Hermite polynomials is proposed.

  4. Microscale continuous ion exchanger.

    PubMed

    Kuban, Petr; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Morris, Kavin A

    2002-11-01

    A microscale continuous ion exchanger based on two liquid streams flowing in parallel is presented. The ion exchange reaction occurs through diffusional transfer of molecules between the ion exchanger phase and the eluent phase and is applied for conductivity suppression. Two approaches are demonstrated. In the first approach, a liquid ion exchanger (i.e. a strongly basic compound, e.g., tetraoctylammonium hydroxide, or a secondary amine, e.g., Amberlite IA-2) is dissolved in an organic solvent immiscible with the aqueous eluent. The system allows for sensitive suppressed conductivity detection of various inorganic cations. When the weakly basic secondary amine is used, conductometric detection of heavy metals is possible. In the second approach, a suspension of finely ground ion-exchange resin is used as the ion exchanger phase. In this case, the suspension need not involve an organic solvent. Theoretical models and computations are presented along with experimental results. The potential of such a system as a chip-scale post-separation suppressor/reactor is evident.

  5. Continuous fiber thermoplastic prepreg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Maywood L. (Inventor); Johnson, Gary S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pultrusion machine employing a corrugated impregnator vessel to immerse multiple, continuous strand, fiber tow in an impregnating material, and an adjustable metered exit orifice for the impregnator vessel to control the quantity of impregnating material retained by the impregnated fibers, is provided. An adjustable height insert retains transverse rod elements within each depression of the corrugated vessel to maintain the individual fiber tows spread and in contact with the vessel bottom. A series of elongated heating dies, transversely disposed on the pultrusion machine and having flat heating surfaces with radiused edges, ensure adequate temperature exposed dwell time and exert adequate pressure on the impregnated fiber tows, to provide the desired thickness and fiber/resin ratio in the prepreg formed. The prepreg passing through the pulling mechanism is wound on a suitable take-up spool for subsequent use. A formula is derived for determining the cross sectional area opening of the metering device. A modification in the heating die system employs a heated nip roller in lieu of one of the pressure applying flat dies.

  6. Continuing Care for Adolescents in Treatment for Substance Use Disorders.

    PubMed

    Passetti, Lora L; Godley, Mark D; Kaminer, Yifrah

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents who enter treatment for substance use often do not complete the program and do not connect with continuing care services. Most return to some level of substance use. Our review found 10 outcome studies of continuing care treatment. More assertive approaches can increase continuing care initiation rates and rapid initiation of continuing care makes a difference in reducing substance use. Continuing care is appropriate for those who complete treatment and for those who do not. Adaptive treatment designs hold promise for establishing decision rules as to which adolescents need low-intensity continuing care services and which need more intensive care. PMID:27613345

  7. Continuous bacterial coal desulfurization employing Thiobacillus ferrooxidans

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, A.S.; Kline, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    The leaching of pyrite sulfur from coal employing Thiobacillus ferrooxidans was studied in a continuous stirred tank reactor at a variety of dilution rates (0.02-0.11 h/sup -1/) and coal surface areas (0.25-1.0 m/sup 2//mL). The bacterial leaching rate was found to increase with increasing dilution rate. The bacterial concentration on the coal surface was related to the bacterial concentration in solution by a irreversible second-order (of the second kind) kinetic equation. The concentration of bacteria on the coal in all experiments was the concentration at saturation. Step changes in the coal concentration were observed to result in dramatic declines in bacterial concentration in solution. A bacterial mass balance model was employed to calculate the specific growth rate on the solid which was observed to increase with increasing dilution rate.

  8. Occupancy in continuous habitat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Efford, Murray G.; Dawson, Deanna K.

    2012-01-01

    The probability that a site has at least one individual of a species ('occupancy') has come to be widely used as a state variable for animal population monitoring. The available statistical theory for estimation when detection is imperfect applies particularly to habitat patches or islands, although it is also used for arbitrary plots in continuous habitat. The probability that such a plot is occupied depends on plot size and home-range characteristics (size, shape and dispersion) as well as population density. Plot size is critical to the definition of occupancy as a state variable, but clear advice on plot size is missing from the literature on the design of occupancy studies. We describe models for the effects of varying plot size and home-range size on expected occupancy. Temporal, spatial, and species variation in average home-range size is to be expected, but information on home ranges is difficult to retrieve from species presence/absence data collected in occupancy studies. The effect of variable home-range size is negligible when plots are very large (>100 x area of home range), but large plots pose practical problems. At the other extreme, sampling of 'point' plots with cameras or other passive detectors allows the true 'proportion of area occupied' to be estimated. However, this measure equally reflects home-range size and density, and is of doubtful value for population monitoring or cross-species comparisons. Plot size is ill-defined and variable in occupancy studies that detect animals at unknown distances, the commonest example being unlimited-radius point counts of song birds. We also find that plot size is ill-defined in recent treatments of "multi-scale" occupancy; the respective scales are better interpreted as temporal (instantaneous and asymptotic) rather than spatial. Occupancy is an inadequate metric for population monitoring when it is confounded with home-range size or detection distance.

  9. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markham, Brian; Irons, James; Dabney, Philip

    2011-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is currently under development and is on schedule to launch the 8th satellite in the Landsat series in December of 2012. LDCM is a joint project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). NASA is responsible for developing and launching the flight hardware and on-orbit commissioning and USGS is responsible for developing the ground system and operating the system onorbit after commissioning. Key components of the flight hardware are the Operational Land Imager (OLI), nearing completion by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp in Boulder, CO, the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS), being built by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center and the spacecraft, undergoing integration at Orbital Sciences Corp in Gilbert, Arizona. The launch vehicle will be an Atlas-5 with launch services provided by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Key ground systems elements are the Mission Operations Element, being developed by the Hammers Corporation, and the Collection Activity Planning Element, Ground Network Element, and Data Processing and Archive System, being developed internally by the USGS Earth Resources Observations and Science (EROS) Center. The primary measurement goal of LDCM is to continue the global coverage of moderate spatial resolution imagery providing continuity with the existing Landsat record. The science goal for this imagery is to monitor land use and land cover, particularly as it relates to global climate change. Together the OLI and TIRS instruments on LDCM replace the ETM+ instrument on Landsat-7 with significant enhancements. The OLI is a pushbroom design instrument where the scanning mechanism of the ETM+ is effectively replaced by a long line of detectors. The OLI has 9 spectral bands with similar spatial resolution to ETM+: 7 of them similar to the reflective spectral bands on ETM+ and two new bands. The two new bands cover (1) the shorter wavelength blue part

  10. Abortion: the continuing controversy.

    PubMed

    Behrens, C E

    1972-08-01

    While most countries of the world practice abortion, government policy, medical opinion, private opinion and actual practice vary widely. Although mortality from legal abortions is quite low, complications rise sharply after 12 gestational weeks. No conclusive proof shows adverse postabortion psychological effects. Romania, Japan and the Soviet Union experienced declining birth rates when abortion was made available and New York City saw a decline in illegitimacy of approximately 12% from 1970 to 1971. Throughout the world abortion laws vary from restrictive to moderate to permissive. Where laws are restrictive, as in France and Latin America, illegal abortions are estimated in the millions. The controversy over abortion centers around the arguments of what constitutes a human life, and the rights of the fetus versus the right of a woman to control her reproductive life. A review of state abortion laws as of August 1972 shows pressure on state legislatures to change existing laws. The future of abortion depends upon technological advances in fertility control, development of substitutes like menstral extraction, prostaglandins and reversible sterilization. Development of these techniques will take time. At present only through education and improved delivery of contraceptives can dependence on abortion as a method of fertility control be eased. Citizen education in the United States, both sex education and education for responsbile parenthood, is in a poor state according to the Commission on Population Growth and the American Future. If recourse to abortion is to be moderated, it is the next generation of parents who will have to be educated.

  11. Keeping Communication Continuous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    General Dynamics Decision Systems employees have played a role in supplying telemetry, tracking, and control (TT&C) and other communications systems to NASA and the U.S. Department of Defense for over 40 years. Providing integrated communication systems and subsystems for nearly all manned and unmanned U.S. space flights, the heritage of this Scottsdale, Arizona-based company includes S-band transceivers that enabled millions of Americans to see Neil Armstrong and hear his prophetic words from the Moon in 1969. More recently, Decision Systems has collaborated with NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center to develop transponders, wireless communications devices that pick up and automatically respond to an incoming signal, for NASA s Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). Four generations of Decision Systems TDRSS transponders have been developed under Goddard s sponsorship. The company s Fourth Generation TDRSS User Transponder (TDRSS IV) allows low-Earth-orbiting spacecraft to communicate continuously with a single ground station at White Sands, New Mexico, through a constellation of geostationary relay satellites positioned at key locations around the Earth. In addition to the communications of forward link control commands and return link telemetry data, the TDRSS IV also supports spacecraft orbit tracking through coherent turn-around of a pseudo-noise ranging code and two-way Doppler tracking.When the NSBF adopted the use of global positioning system receivers for balloon position tracking, Decision Systems concluded that a simpler, noncoherent transceiver could provide the NSBF with the necessary TDRSS communications without the additional cost and complexity of a coherent transponder. The solution was to take the core design of the TDRSS IV Transponder, but remove the extra functionality that supported coherent turn-around. This would simplify the production effort, reduce the testing required, and result in a lower cost product with smaller size, weight

  12. Limitations of Continuous Glucose Monitor Usage.

    PubMed

    Anhalt, Henry

    2016-03-01

    Much progress has been made in diabetes treatments since the first dose of insulin was administered in 1921. However, a truly transformational moment in diabetes care occurred when urine testing gave way to capillary blood home glucose monitoring. As improvements were made to these devices, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was introduced. The advantages of experiential learnings gleaned from seeing continuous real-time data have been borne out in numerous peer-reviewed journals. Limitations to use of CGM include patient's level of numeracy and literacy, development of alarm fatigue, interfering substances leading to erroneous readings, high rates of discontinuation, and poor reimbursement. PMID:26983025

  13. Continuous organic electrochemical synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Nobe, K.; Baizer, M.; Pintauro, P.; Park, K.; Gilbert, S.

    1984-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation of glucose to gluconic acid and reduction of glucose to sorbitol has been successfully paired in an undivided packed bed electrode flow cell. The use of a Raney nickel powder catalytic cathode significantly improved the current efficiency for sorbitol production, as compared to a high hydrogen overpotential Zn(Hg) cathode. The optimum operating conditions for the paired synthesis are: activity W-2 Raney nickel powder cathode, graphite chip anode, a 1.6 M glucose and 0.4 M CaBr/sub 2/ initial solution composition, pH 6-7, 60/sup 0/C solution temperature, a current density of 250 to 500 mA and a solution volumetric flow rate of 100 ml min/sup -1/. Under these conditions the sorbitol current efficiencies are at least 80%, the glucose acid current efficiencies are 100% and the product yields are quantitative. A separation scheme for the paired synthesis has also been devised. It consists of the precipitation of the oxidation product (calcium gluconate) and the ethanol extraction of glucose and CaBr/sub 2/ from sorbitol. Based on a preliminary economic analysis of the cost of raw materials, energy and the electrochemical cell and separation equipment the cost of producing 1 lb calcium gluconate and 0.68 lb sorbitol in a paired synthesis was estimated to be $0.896. The cost of producing the same amount of sorbitol and calcium gluconate in separate electrochemical cells was calculated to be $1.20. Thus, the paired synthesis appears to be an economically viable process.

  14. Is Mandatory Continuing Education Working?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Louis E.

    1987-01-01

    Using data from various studies, the author considers the effectiveness of mandatory continuing education as a means of strengthening the relicensure process. The article focuses on the mandatory continuing education movement in the health professions. (Author/CH)

  15. 7 CFR 916.234 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 916.234 Section 916.234 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 916.234 Assessment rate. On and after March 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.0280 per...

  16. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2012, an assessment rate of $0.25 per...

  17. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.37 per...

  18. 7 CFR 915.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 915.235 Section 915.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 915.235 Assessment rate. On and after April 1, 2005, an assessment rate of $0.27 per...

  19. 19 CFR 159.33 - Proclaimed rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) LIQUIDATION OF DUTIES Conversion of Foreign Currency § 159.33 Proclaimed rate. If a rate of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Proclaimed rate. 159.33 Section 159.33 Customs... currency involved, such proclaimed rate shall be used unless it varies by 5 percent or more from...

  20. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.0175...

  1. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2013, an assessment rate of $0.0189...

  2. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2010, an assessment rate of...

  3. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2005, an assessment rate of...

  4. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.22 per...

  5. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.22 per...

  6. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2009, an assessment rate of $0.0177...

  7. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2009, an assessment rate of $0.16 per...

  8. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.27 per...

  9. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2005, an assessment rate of...

  10. 7 CFR 993.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 993.347 Section 993.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Assessment Rates § 993.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.22 per...

  11. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2011, an assessment rate of $0.0175...

  12. 7 CFR 984.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 984.347 Section 984.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Assessment Rates § 984.347 Assessment rate. On and after September 1, 2010, an assessment rate of $0.0174...

  13. 7 CFR 989.347 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 989.347 Section 989.347 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... CALIFORNIA Assessment Rates § 989.347 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2010, an assessment rate of...

  14. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  15. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  16. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  17. 7 CFR 953.253 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assessment rate. 953.253 Section 953.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... STATES Assessment Rates § 953.253 Assessment rate. On and after June 1, 1998, an assessment rate of...

  18. [Generation continuity and integration].

    PubMed

    Zakhvatkin, Iu A

    2008-01-01

    Transformation of the cyclic morphoprocesses in Protista toward the terminal-cyclic morphoprocesses in Metazoa had lead to integration of the fomer's life circles into the latter's ontogenesis and began to supply the newly emerging ecosystems with the regular income of mortomasses. According to the palintomic hypothesis of A.A. Zakhvatkin, it was the egg that became a means of the metazoan generation continuity, and not the half set of organells acquired by descendants of a divided maternal cell in Protozoa. Origin of Metazoa and of their ontogenesis was accomplished by hypetrophic distomy and subsequent palintomic division of the protist parental cell, these processes being comparable to the ovogenesis and ovocyte division in the Metazoa. Division process in the most primitive metazoans, Leptolida and Calcarea, retained certains features of its palintomic nature that are clear in the Ctenophora, the latter though specific being most similar in this respect to the spongs and not to the Coelenterata whith whom they were united in the same phylum formerly. The ovogenesis perfection controlled by the maternal organism and leading to an increment of the nuclear-plasmic tension due to enrichment of egg with the yolk, promoted the embrionization of development and formation of the egg morphogenetic environment providing for the earlier formation processes without participation of the parental recombined genotypes. With all this, far earlier appearence of symmetry elements of definitive forms is embriogenesis along the ascending trend from the lower Metazoa to the most advanced insects. The unordered correspondence of the polarity axis of egg and the oral-aboral axis of blastula-like larva (1) is replaced by protaxony (2) in which these axes coincide, all formation processes reaching their perfection in the homoquadrant spiral division of annelids, which became a means of ovoplasma segregation. Afterward, a herequadrant division and plagioxony are developed in the course

  19. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 522.1335 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) Indications for use. As a sedative and analgesic in dogs over 12 weeks of age to facilitate clinical... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or...

  20. 21 CFR 522.1335 - Medetomidine hydrochloride injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 522.1335 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) Indications for use. As a sedative and analgesic in dogs over 12 weeks of age to facilitate clinical... care. (3) Limitations. Do not use in dogs with cardiac disease, respiratory disorders, liver or...

  1. Continuous Risk Management Course. Revised

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammer, Theodore F.

    1999-01-01

    This document includes a course plan for Continuous Risk Management taught by the Software Assurance Technology Center along with the Continuous Risk Management Guidebook of the Software Engineering Institute of Carnegie Mellon University and a description of Continuous Risk Management at NASA.

  2. Calculus Student Understanding of Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangle, Jayleen Lillian

    2013-01-01

    Continuity is a central concept in calculus. Yet very few students seem to understand the nature of continuity. The research described was conducted in two stages. Students were asked questions in multiple choice and true/false format regarding function, limit and continuity. These results were used to identify participants as strong, weak or…

  3. Mandatory Continuing Medical Education Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stross, Jeoffrey K.; Harland, William R.

    1987-01-01

    A survey of 1,102 Michigan physicians and a second survey of 532 physicians attending continuing medical education classes covered the topic of whether or not continuing medical education should be made mandatory. The results do not support a return to mandatory continuing medical education. (Author/CH)

  4. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future.

  5. Continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Jungbauer, Alois

    2013-08-01

    Continuous manufacturing has been applied in many different industries but has been pursued reluctantly in biotechnology where the batchwise process is still the standard. A shift to continuous operation can improve productivity of a process and substantially reduce the footprint. Continuous operation also allows robust purification of labile biomolecules. A full set of unit operations is available to design continuous downstream processing of biopharmaceuticals. Chromatography, the central unit operation, is most advanced in respect to continuous operation. Here, the problem of 'batch' definition has been solved. This has also paved the way for implementation of continuous downstream processing from a regulatory viewpoint. Economic pressure, flexibility, and parametric release considerations will be the driving force to implement continuous manufacturing strategies in future. PMID:23849674

  6. Continuous method of producing silicon carbide fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnard, Thomas Duncan (Inventor); Nguyen, Kimmai Thi (Inventor); Rabe, James Alan (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    This invention pertains to a method for production of polycrystalline ceramic fibers from silicon oxycarbide (SiCO) ceramic fibers wherein the method comprises heating an amorphous ceramic fiber containing silicon and carbon in an inert environment comprising a boron oxide and carbon monoxide at a temperature sufficient to convert the amorphous ceramic fiber to a polycrystalline ceramic fiber. By having carbon monoxide present during the heating of the ceramic fiber, it is possible to achieve higher production rates on a continuous process.

  7. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-03-01

    During the in situ extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated as a turbidostat cell numbers of stressed cells were kept constant while attaining a continuous well-defined light-stress. In this way it was possible to study the balance between cell growth and cell death and determine whether both could be increased to reach higher volumetric productivities of carotenoids. In the two-phase system a volumetric productivity of 8.3 mg β-carotene L(RV)(-1)d(-1) was obtained. In situ extraction contributed only partly to this productivity. The major part came from net production of carotenoid-rich biomass, due to a high growth rate of the cells and subsequent dilution of the reactor. To reach equilibrium between cell growth and cell death, sparging rates of dodecane could have been increased. However, already at the applied sparging rate of 286 L(dod)L(RV)(-1)min(-1) emulsion formation of the dodecane in the aqueous phase appeared. In a turbidostat without in situ extraction a volumetric productivity of 13.5 mg β-caroteneL(RV)(-1)d(-1) was reached, solely based on the continuous production of carotenoid-rich biomass. PMID:22112908

  8. Continuous production of carotenoids from Dunaliella salina.

    PubMed

    Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Janssen, Marcel; Brandenburg, Willem A; Wijffels, René H

    2011-03-01

    During the in situ extraction of β-carotene from Dunaliella salina, the causal relationship between carotenoid extraction and cell death indicated that cell growth and cell death should be at equilibrium for a continuous in situ extraction process. In a flat-panel photobioreactor that was operated as a turbidostat cell numbers of stressed cells were kept constant while attaining a continuous well-defined light-stress. In this way it was possible to study the balance between cell growth and cell death and determine whether both could be increased to reach higher volumetric productivities of carotenoids. In the two-phase system a volumetric productivity of 8.3 mg β-carotene L(RV)(-1)d(-1) was obtained. In situ extraction contributed only partly to this productivity. The major part came from net production of carotenoid-rich biomass, due to a high growth rate of the cells and subsequent dilution of the reactor. To reach equilibrium between cell growth and cell death, sparging rates of dodecane could have been increased. However, already at the applied sparging rate of 286 L(dod)L(RV)(-1)min(-1) emulsion formation of the dodecane in the aqueous phase appeared. In a turbidostat without in situ extraction a volumetric productivity of 13.5 mg β-caroteneL(RV)(-1)d(-1) was reached, solely based on the continuous production of carotenoid-rich biomass.

  9. Continuous production of microcellular foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiangmin

    Continuous production of microcellular foams, characterized by cell size smaller than 10 mum and cell density larger than 109 cells/cm 3, was studied using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as the foaming agent. Microcellular foams of polystyrene and polystyrene nanocomposites were successfully produced on a two-stage single screw extruder. The contraction flow in the extrusion die was simulated with the FLUENT fluid dynamics computational code to predict profiles of pressure, temperature, viscosity, and velocity. The nucleation onset was determined based on the pressure profile and equilibrium solubility. It was shown that a high CO 2 concentration or a high foaming temperature induces an earlier nucleation near the die entrance. The pressure profile and the position of nucleation onset were correlated to cell nucleation and growth, which helps understand the effects of operating conditions on cell structure. To perform the simulation, viscosity and solubility of the CO2/polystyrene system were characterized. Sanchez-Lacombe equation of state was applied to represent the phase equilibrium. Effects of temperature, pressure, and CO 2 content on the shear viscosity were explained using the free volume theory. Systematic experiments were performed to verify effects of three key operating conditions: CO2 content, pressure drop or pressure drop rate, and foaming temperature, on the foam cell structure. Experimental results were compared with simulations to gain insight into the foaming process. Studies exhibit that a higher pressure drop or pressure drop rate results in smaller cells and greater cell density. Below the CO2 solubility, cell size decreases and cell density increases with an increase of CO2 concentration. A high CO2 concentration favors producing open cell foams. Die temperature affects both cell size and cell structure (open or closed). Combining nano-clay compounding with supercritical CO2 foaming provides a new technique for the design and control of

  10. Manufacturing laser glass by continuous melting

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J H; Suratwala, T; krenitsky, S; Takeuchi, K

    2000-07-01

    A novel, continuous melting process is being used to manufacture meter-sized plates of laser glass at a rate 20-times faster, 5-times cheaper, and with 2-3 times better optical quality than with previous one-at-a-time, ''discontinuous'' technology processes. This new technology for manufacturing laser glass, which is arguably the most difficult continuously-melted optical material ever produced, comes as a result of a $60 million, six-year joint R&D program between government and industry. The glasses manufactured by the new continuous melting process are Nd-doped phosphate-based glasses and are marketed under the product names LG-770 (Schott Glass Technologies) and LHG-8 (Hoya Corporation USA). With this advance in glass manufacturing technology, it is now possible to construct high-energy, high-peak-power lasers for use in fusion energy development, national defense, and basic physics research that would have been impractical to build using the old melting technology. The development of continuously melted laser glass required technological advances that have lead to improvements in the manufacture of other optical glass products as well. For example, advances in forming, annealing, and conditioning steps of the laser glass continuous melting process are now being used in manufacture of other large-size optical glasses.

  11. The Continued Assessment of Self-Continuity and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkel, Curtis S.; Minor, Leslie; Babineau, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that self-continuity is predictive of a substantial number of important outcome variables. However, a recent series of studies brings into question the traditional method of measuring self-continuity in favor of an alternative (B. M. Baird, K. Le, & R. E. Lucas, 2006). The present study represents a further comparison of…

  12. Recruiting Physicians for a Continuing Medical Education Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbert, Barbara; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the methods and results of a major effort to recruit physicians for a continuing medical education research study. Analyzes shortcomings in the recruitment process and offers suggestions for obtaining higher participation rates. (JOW)

  13. Lapse in Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee Continuing Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Tsan, Min-Fu; Grabenbauer, Michael; Nguyen, Yen

    2016-01-01

    The United States federal animal welfare regulations and the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals require that institutional animal care and use committees (IACUCs) conduct continuing reviews of all animal research activities. However, little is known about the lapse rate of IACUC continuing reviews, and how frequently investigators continue research activities during the lapse. It is also not clear what factors may contribute to an institution’s lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. As part of the quality assurance program, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has collected performance metric data for animal care and use programs since 2011. We analyzed IACUC continuing review performance data at 74–75 VA research facilities from 2011 through 2015. The IACUC continuing review lapse rates improved from 5.6% in 2011 to 2.7% in 2015. The rate of investigators continuing research activities during the lapse also decreased from 47.2% in 2012 to 7.4% in 2015. The type of IACUCs used and the size of animal research programs appeared to have no effect in facility’s rates of lapse in IACUC continuing reviews. While approximately 80% of facilities reported no lapse in IACUC continuing reviews, approximately 14% of facilities had lapse rates of >10% each year. Some facilities appeared to be repeat offenders. Four facilities had IACUC lapse rates of >10% in at least 3 out of 5 years, suggesting a system problem in these facilities requiring remedial actions to improve their IACUC continuing review processes. PMID:27606820

  14. Continuous error correction for Ising anyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Adrian; Wootton, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Quantum gates in topological quantum computation are performed by braiding non-Abelian anyons. These braiding processes can presumably be performed with very low error rates. However, to make a topological quantum computation architecture truly scalable, even rare errors need to be corrected. Error correction for non-Abelian anyons is complicated by the fact that it needs to be performed on a continuous basis, and further errors may occur while we are correcting existing ones. Here, we prove the feasibility of this task, establishing non-Abelian anyons as a viable platform for scalable quantum computation. We thereby focus on Ising anyons as the most prominent example of non-Abelian anyons and show that for these a finite error rate can indeed be corrected continuously. There is a threshold error rate pc>0 such that for all error rates p

  15. Wanted: A Continuing Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, A. Brian

    1986-01-01

    Describes the efforts of the Triton College Continuing Education Department to develop a unified curriculum and to market the program. Includes information on developing a continuing education philosophy, providing a unified curriculum, and creating a marketing bulletin. Illustrates ways to recombine courses to provide a unified approach. (CH)

  16. Rational Exponentials and Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denny, J. K.

    2012-01-01

    Using continued fraction expansions, we can approximate constants, such as pi and e, using an appropriate integer n raised to the power x[superscript 1/x], x a suitable rational. We review continued fractions and give an algorithm for producing these approximations.

  17. Perspectives: The Continuous Improvement Trap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Accrediting agencies, legislators, pundits, and even higher educational professionals have become enamored with applying the language of continuous improvement to learning outcomes. The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges specifically uses the term "continuing improvement" in Core Standard 2.5, one of its…

  18. 29 CFR 778.420 - Combined hourly rates and piece rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....420 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Exceptions From the Regular Rate Principles Computing Overtime Pay on the Rate Applicable to the Type of Work... an employee works at a combination of hourly and piece rates, the payment of a rate not less than...

  19. 7 CFR 1777.31 - Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... per annum; or (2) The Federal Financing Bank rate for loans of a similar term at the time of Agency... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rates. 1777.31 Section 1777.31 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SECTION 306C WWD LOANS AND GRANTS § 1777.31 Rates. (a) Applicant loans will bear interest at...

  20. 7 CFR 1777.31 - Rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... per annum; or (2) The Federal Financing Bank rate for loans of a similar term at the time of Agency... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rates. 1777.31 Section 1777.31 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) SECTION 306C WWD LOANS AND GRANTS § 1777.31 Rates. (a) Applicant loans will bear interest at...

  1. 7 CFR 922.235 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 922.235 Section 922.235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... IN WASHINGTON Assessment Rate § 922.235 Assessment rate. On or after April 1, 2012, an...

  2. 7 CFR 920.213 - Assessment rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assessment rate. 920.213 Section 920.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.213 Assessment rate. On and after August 1, 2008, an assessment rate of...

  3. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  4. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  5. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  6. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  7. 46 CFR 111.40-13 - Rating.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rating. 111.40-13 Section 111.40-13 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Panelboards § 111.40-13 Rating. Each panelboard must have a current rating not less than the feeder...

  8. 14 CFR 65.73 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Ratings. 65.73 Section 65.73 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.73 Ratings. (a) The following ratings...

  9. Applications of a fast, continuous wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Dress, W.B.

    1997-02-01

    A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, based on Shannon`s sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon`s sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as a continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time- domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Computational cost and nonorthogonality aside, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets has advantages. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants` heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2-D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signal. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass-spring system (e.g., a vehicle) by an occupants beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, features such as the glottal closing rate and word and phrase segmentation may be extracted from voice data.

  10. Continuing professional development for veterinarians.

    PubMed

    Caple, I W

    2005-04-01

    Continuing professional development for veterinarians is expected to commence in the year after graduation and continue until retirement. The World Organisation for Animal Health standard for veterinary services is based on principles of an ethical, organisational and technical nature, and a mix of regulation, self-regulation and quality assurance approaches are used. Few jurisdictions have made a minimum requirement of continuing professional development, measured in hours or units, mandatory in 2004, however, there is an increasing expectation of veterinarians to keep a personal record of their continuing professional development activities. Such records might assist in defending complaints about professional misconduct, and provide a basis for planning and monitoring personal professional growth. Continuing professional development can be obtained by a variety of means through structured and unstructured learning activities. The rapid advances in communication technologies and ready access to available electronic databases at the beginning of the 21st century is rapidly changing the way students learn in veterinary schools and how they will acquire continuing professional development during their careers. Universities, governments, professional associations and special interest groups all have roles to play in the delivery of continuing professional development to the veterinary profession and to ensure a structure is in place to monitor improvements in the delivery of quality veterinary services. PMID:15907035

  11. Effect of continuous ATP injection on human hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Komukai, Kimiaki; Hashimoto, Koichi; Shibata, Takahiro; Iwano, Keiji; Muto, Makoto; Mogi, Junichi; Imai, Kamon; Horie, Toshinobu; Mochizuki, Seibu

    2002-10-01

    Continuous ATP injection is used clinically for Tl imaging or coronary flow measurement and because the effect on human hemodynamics is unknown, the present study investigated it in 14 patients undergoing heart catheter examination. Continuous ATP injection induced chest symptoms in 13 of the patients and second-degree atrioventricular block in one, but these complications disappeared immediately after the end of ATP infusion. Continuous ATP injection decreased aortic pressure, but increased pulmonary artery pressure, right atrial pressure and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. ATP increased heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output, the latter the result of an increase in preload, a decrease in afterload, and the increase in heart rate. PMID:12381087

  12. Continuous propagation of microalgae. III.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, D. T.; Fredrickson, A. G.; Tsuchiya, H. M.

    1971-01-01

    Data are presented which give the specific photosynthetic rate and the specific utilization rates of urea and carbon dioxide as functions of specific growth rate for Chlorella. A mathematical model expresses a set of mass balance relations between biotic and environmental materials. Criteria of validity are used to test this model. Predictive procedures are complemented by a particular model of microbial growth. Methods are demonstrated for predicting substrate utilization rates, production rates of extracellular metabolites, growth limiting conditions, and photosynthetic quotients from propagator variables.

  13. Continuous Time Model for the Dst Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, D.; Balikhin, M. A.; Billings, S. A.; Wing, S.

    2004-12-01

    We have used the NARMAX based system identification approach to deduce, directly from measurements of upstream magnetic field and solar wind bulk velocity, a continuous time differential relationship that governs the evolution of the Dst index. This relation has been used to deduce the analytical dependence of the ring current decay rate upon values of VBs and Dst. It is shown that this depends upon a number of previous values of the solar wind parameters and Dst. Therefore the assumption often used previously in empirical models that the magnetosphere is a first order Markov's system is not valid. We show that the continuous time relation derived can be used for a reliable forecast of the Dst index.

  14. A continuous cold atomic beam interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Hongbo; Feng, Yanying Yan, Xueshu; Jiang, Zhikun; Chen, Shu; Wang, Xiaojia; Zhou, Zhaoying

    2015-03-07

    We demonstrate an atom interferometer that uses a laser-cooled continuous beam of {sup 87}Rb atoms having velocities of 10–20 m/s. With spatially separated Raman beams to coherently manipulate the atomic wave packets, Mach–Zehnder interference fringes are observed at an interference distance of 2L = 19 mm. The apparatus operates within a small enclosed area of 0.07 mm{sup 2} at a bandwidth of 190 Hz with a deduced sensitivity of 7.8×10{sup −5} rad/s/√(Hz) for rotations. Using a low-velocity continuous atomic source in an atom interferometer enables high sampling rates and bandwidths without sacrificing sensitivity and compactness, which are important for applications in real dynamic environments.

  15. Continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Fieber, C.; Colcord, A.R.; Faass, S.; Muzzy, J.D.; Roberts, R.S.

    1982-08-01

    To produce ethanol from hardwood it is desirable to fractionate the hardwood in order to produce a relatively pure cellulosic pulp for dilute acid hydrolysis. An experimental investigation of continuous steam hydrolysis of tulip poplar wood chips indicates that over 90% of the lignin present can be extracted by 0.1N sodium hydroxide, resulting in a cellulose pulp containing over 90% hexosan. The study was performed using a Stake Technology, Ltd., continuous digester rated at one oven dry ton per hour of wood chips. The yields of hexosans, hexoses, xylan, xylose, lignin, furfural, acetic acid and methanol were determined as a function of residence time and steam pressure in the digester. The information provides a basis for establishing a material and energy balance for a hardwood to ethanol plant.

  16. Asymmetric reactions in continuous flow

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Xiao Yin; Laurino, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Summary An overview of asymmetric synthesis in continuous flow and microreactors is presented in this review. Applications of homogeneous and heterogeneous asymmetric catalysis as well as biocatalysis in flow are discussed. PMID:19478913

  17. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  18. Wright State Expands Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1974

    1974-01-01

    By leasing the Eugene W. Kettering Engineering and Science Center in downtown Dayton, Ohio, Wright State University plans to enlarge significantly its activities in continuing education for engineers, scientists, and others. (JR)

  19. Additional Continuing Appropriations Amendments, 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2011-03-11

    03/18/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-6. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 4/8/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Ethics and Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felch, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of ethics and continuing medical education (CME) are discussed in terms of CME consumers (physicians), providers, and others; vacation CME and "brownie points"; marketing and cosponsorship; financial support from industry; and entrepreneurialism. (CT)

  1. Communications Technology and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Sheldon

    1984-01-01

    Focusing on three recent developments in communications technology--communications satellites, multichannel cable systems, and home videodisc players--the author discusses the current and potential applications of each to continuing education programs. (SK)

  2. The manager and continuing education.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Charles R

    2002-12-01

    Continuing education in health care organizations consists of that which is required by law or regulation and that which is optional. The required is done because it must be done; the other, including most management development and some staff education, is often ignored. Nonrequired education is one of the first items to go during budget-cutting exercises. Yet continuing education at all levels, for managers as well as nonmanagers, is essential in keeping health care workers abreast of rapid change. Much continuing education, even that for rank-and-file staff, is up to the department manager, and with few exceptions, the pursuit of continuing management development is left largely to the individual manager. The department manager is an educator of staff and is also largely responsible for self-development. PMID:14959901

  3. Continuous Laminar-Smoke Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Single smoke filament used to study flow in low-speed wind tunnels. Use of small-diameter single laminar smoke stream allows examination of flow structures at higher resolution, and continuous operation facilitates use.

  4. Further Continuing Appropriations Amendments, 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Rogers, Harold [R-KY-5

    2011-02-28

    03/02/2011 Became Public Law No: 112-4. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Continuing appropriations through 3/18/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Continuous sterilization of plumbing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, C. J.; Moyers, C. V.; Wright, E. E., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Continuous sterilization of plumbing, such as in hospitals, clinics, and biological testing laboratories is possible with ethylene oxide/Freon 12 (ETO/F-12) humidifier developed for sterilization of potable water systems.

  6. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  7. Continuity, social change and Katrina.

    PubMed

    Henry, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    For some time, disaster researchers have looked for social change and mostly found continuity. This paper argues that shifting the focus from investigating social change to documenting continuity may enhance the understanding and planning of post-disaster situations especially in industrialised societies like the United States. Drawing from qualitative data from post-Katrina New Orleans, it proposes using the concept of continuity as an analytical device both to identify the axes of continuity and evaluate the likelihood and possible dimensions of social change. The analysis of long-term recovery plans, along with field observations and interviews with evacuees, suggest that despite the well-documented emergence of conflict in post-Katrina New Orleans, the likelihood of social change appears limited.

  8. LANL continuity of operations plan

    SciTech Connect

    Senutovitch, Diane M

    2010-12-22

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is a premier national security research institution, delivering scientific and engineering solutions for the nation's most crucial and complex problems. Our primary responsibility is to ensure the safety, security, and reliability of the nation's nuclear stockpile. LANL emphasizes worker safety, effective operational safeguards and security, and environmental stewardship, outstanding science remains the foundation of work at the Laboratory. In addition to supporting the Laboratory's core national security mission, our work advances bioscience, chemistry, computer science, earth and environmental sciences, materials science, and physics disciplines. To accomplish LANL's mission, we must ensure that the Laboratory EFs continue to be performed during a continuity event, including localized acts of nature, accidents, technological or attack-related emergencies, and pandemic or epidemic events. The LANL Continuity of Operations (COOP) Plan documents the overall LANL COOP Program and provides the operational framework to implement continuity policies, requirements, and responsibilities at LANL, as required by DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, May 2008. LANL must maintain its ability to perform the nation's PMEFs, which are: (1) maintain the safety and security of nuclear materials in the DOE Complex at fixed sites and in transit; (2) respond to a nuclear incident, both domestically and internationally, caused by terrorist activity, natural disaster, or accident, including mobilizing the resources to support these efforts; and (3) support the nation's energy infrastructure. This plan supports Continuity of Operations for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This plan issues LANL policy as directed by the DOE 0 150.1, Continuity Programs, and provides direction for the orderly continuation of LANL EFs for 30 days of closure or 60 days for a pandemic/epidemic event. Initiation of COOP operations may be required to support an

  9. Community College Attrition: The Continual Rise in Community College Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinloch, Nattie Freeda

    2012-01-01

    Community college attrition continues to rise. The lowest rate during the period of 1983-2008 for public two year community college retention was 51.3%, and the lowest retention rate for private two year colleges was 55.5% (Act, 2008, pp. 4). The purpose of this study is to examine the perspective of student retention by faculty members through…

  10. Quasi-periodic continuation along a continuous symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomone, Matthew David

    Given a system of differential equations which admits a continuous group of symmetries and possesses a periodic solution, we show that under certain nondegeneracy assumptions there always exists a continuous family containing infinitely many periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories. This generalizes the continuation method of Poincaré to orbits which are not necessarily periodic. We apply these results in the setting of the Lagrangian N -body problem of homogeneous potential to characterize an infinite family of rotating nonplanar "hip-hop" orbits in the four-body problem of equal masses, and show how some other trajectories in the N -body theory may be extended to infinite families of periodic and quasi-periodic trajectories.

  11. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented.

  12. Business continuity 2014: From traditional to integrated Business Continuity Management.

    PubMed

    Ee, Henry

    As global change continues to generate new challenges and potential threats to businesses, traditional business continuity management (BCM) slowly reveals its limitations and weak points to ensuring 'business resiliency' today. Consequently, BCM professionals also face the challenge of re-evaluating traditional concepts and introducing new strategies and industry best practices. This paper points to why traditional BCM is no longer sufficient in terms of enabling businesses to survive in today's high-risk environment. It also looks into some of the misconceptions about BCM and other stumbling blocks to establishing effective BCM today. Most importantly, however, this paper provides tips based on the Business Continuity Institute's (BCI) Good Practices Guideline (GPG) and the latest international BCM standard ISO 22301 on how to overcome the issues and challenges presented. PMID:25416371

  13. Stochastic string models with continuous semimartingales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno-Guerrero, Alberto; Moreno, Manuel; Navas, Javier F.

    2015-09-01

    This paper reformulates the stochastic string model of Santa-Clara and Sornette using stochastic calculus with continuous semimartingales. We present some new results, such as: (a) the dynamics of the short-term interest rate, (b) the PDE that must be satisfied by the bond price, and (c) an analytic expression for the price of a European bond call option. Additionally, we clarify some important features of the stochastic string model and show its relevance to price derivatives and the equivalence with an infinite dimensional HJM model to price European options.

  14. Teen Birth Rate. Facts at a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzetta, Kerry; Ikramullah, Erum; Manlove, Jennifer; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Terry-Humen, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary data for 2003 from the National Center for Health Statistics show the teen birth rate continues to decline, reaching historic lows for teens in each age group. The 2003 rate of 41.7 births per 1,000 females 15-19 was 33 per cent lower than the 1991 peak rate of 61.8. The 2003 birth rate for teens aged 15-17 (22.4) was 42 per cent lower…

  15. Renal effects of continuous negative pressure breathing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, M. J.; Discala, V. A.

    1975-01-01

    Continuous negative pressure breathing (CNPB) was utilized to simulate the thoracic vascular distension of zero g or space, in 11 anesthetized rats. The animals underwent renal clearance and micropuncture renal nephron studies before, during, and after CNPB. Rats were pretreated with a high salt diet and I-M desoxycorticosterone (DOCA) in excess. None of these rats diuresed with CNPB. In contrast 5 of the 7 remaining rats increased the fraction of the filtered sodium excreted (C sub Na/GFR, p .05) and their urinary flow rate (V, p .05). Potassium excretion increased (U sub k V, p .05). End proximal tubular fluid specimen's TF/P inulin ratios were unchanged. Whole kidney and single nephron glomerular filtration rates fell 10%. CNPB, a mechanism for atrial distension, appears to cause, in rats, a decrease in distal tubular sodium, water and potassium reabsorption. Exogenous mineral-corticoid prevents the diuresis, saluresis, and kaluresis.

  16. Metabolic regulation in bacterial continuous cultures: I.

    PubMed

    Baloo, S; Ramkrishna, D

    1991-12-20

    Dilution rate steps in continuous culture experiments with Klebsiella pneumoniae growing on single substrate feeds have brought out interesting features of metabolic regulation not observed in batch cultures. In a step-up experiment, the adjustment of the culture to a new steady state is preceded by an undershoot in cell density. Results of a step-down experiment indicate a corresponding overshoot phenomenon. These observations of the transient behavior of the culture growing on glucose and xylose as well as the steady-state results are interpreted with cybernetic models. The development of the model explicitly accounts for the lumped internal resource, which is optimally allocated toward the synthesis of key enzymes catalyzing different cellular processes. The model also includes a description of the increased maintenance demand observed at low growth rates. It reduces to previous cybernetic models in situations where the cell does not experience a sudden change in its environment and, hence, retains their predictive capability. PMID:18600736

  17. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Chau, Jorge L.; Pfeffer, Nico; Clahsen, Matthias; Stober, Gunter

    2016-03-01

    The concept of a coded continuous wave specular meteor radar (SMR) is described. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudorandom phase-modulated waveform, which has several advantages compared to conventional pulsed SMRs. The coding avoids range and Doppler aliasing, which are in some cases problematic with pulsed radars. Continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation at lower peak power than a pulsed system. With continuous coding, the temporal and spectral resolution are not dependent on the transmit waveform and they can be fairly flexibly changed after performing a measurement. The low signal-to-noise ratio before pulse compression, combined with independent pseudorandom transmit waveforms, allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band simultaneously without significantly interfering with each other. Because the same frequency band can be used by multiple transmitters, the same interferometric receiver antennas can be used to receive multiple transmitters at the same time. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large-scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. Such a system would be useful for increasing the number of meteor detections to obtain improved meteor radar data products.

  18. 7 CFR 1980.423 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Interest rates. 1980.423 Section 1980.423 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE, RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, AND FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED)...

  19. Continuous analogues of matrix factorizations

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Alex; Trefethen, Lloyd N.

    2015-01-01

    Analogues of singular value decomposition (SVD), QR, LU and Cholesky factorizations are presented for problems in which the usual discrete matrix is replaced by a ‘quasimatrix’, continuous in one dimension, or a ‘cmatrix’, continuous in both dimensions. Two challenges arise: the generalization of the notions of triangular structure and row and column pivoting to continuous variables (required in all cases except the SVD, and far from obvious), and the convergence of the infinite series that define the cmatrix factorizations. Our generalizations of triangularity and pivoting are based on a new notion of a ‘triangular quasimatrix’. Concerning convergence of the series, we prove theorems asserting convergence provided the functions involved are sufficiently smooth. PMID:25568618

  20. Baseline budgeting for continuous improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilty, G L

    1999-05-01

    This article is designed to introduce the techniques used to convert traditionally maintained department budgets to baseline budgets. This entails identifying key activities, evaluating for value-added, and implementing continuous improvement opportunities. Baseline Budgeting for Continuous Improvement was created as a result of a newly named company president's request to implement zero-based budgeting. The president was frustrated with the mind-set of the organization, namely, "Next year's budget should be 10 to 15 percent more than this year's spending." Zero-based budgeting was not the answer, but combining the principles of activity-based costing and the Just-in-Time philosophy of eliminating waste and continuous improvement did provide a solution to the problem.

  1. Continuous production of polymethylpentene membranes

    DOEpatents

    Epperson, B.J.; Burnett, L.J.; Helm, V.D.

    1983-11-15

    Gas separation membranes may be prepared in a continuous manner by passing a porous support which may, if so desired, be backed by a fabric through a solution of polymethylpentene dissolved in an organic solvent such as hexane. The support member is passed through the solution while one side thereof is in contact with a roller, thereby permitting only one side of the support member to be coated with the polymer. After continuously withdrawing the support member from the bath, the solvent is allowed to evaporate and the resulting membrane is recovered.

  2. Continuous lengths of oxide superconductors

    DOEpatents

    Kroeger, Donald M.; List, III, Frederick A.

    2000-01-01

    A layered oxide superconductor prepared by depositing a superconductor precursor powder on a continuous length of a first substrate ribbon. A continuous length of a second substrate ribbon is overlaid on the first substrate ribbon. Sufficient pressure is applied to form a bound layered superconductor precursor powder between the first substrate ribbon and the second substrate ribbon. The layered superconductor precursor is then heat treated to establish the oxide superconducting phase. The layered oxide superconductor has a smooth interface between the substrate and the oxide superconductor.

  3. Continuous overnight observation of human premolar eruption.

    PubMed

    Risinger, R K; Proffit, W R

    1996-01-01

    Such observation was made possible by transmitting the image of a mobile ceramic ruling on the erupting maxillary second premolar to a video-microscope via a coaxial fibreoptic cable. The cable was inserted into a reference bar secured to the adjacent first molar and first premolar. The image of the ruling was superimposed with the image from a surveillance camera focused on the patient and continuously recorded on video-tape along with the participant's blood pressure, pulse rate, electromyographic activity and occlusal contact sounds. Overnight data from 12 individuals clearly revealed a circadian rhythm in eruption during the prefunctional spurt. On average, the maxillary second premolar erupted 41 microns during an 11-h overnight observation, with almost all the eruption occurring in the late evening from 8 p.m. to 1 a.m. After 1 a.m., eruption typically ceased, with a tendency for intrusion to occur until 7 a.m. Sleep increased the rate of eruption during the late evening, but did not influence the eruption rate during the early morning. Haemodynamic changes, including blood pressure and pulse rate, did not have a significant impact on the rhythm of eruption. The observed eruption rhythm is most probably caused by changing hormone levels and their effect on the periodontal ligament. The late-evening eruption of human premolars coincides with the late-evening secretion of growth hormone and thyroid hormone typically found in humans. PMID:9022915

  4. Fibrillogenesis in Continuously Spun Synthetic Collagen Fiber

    PubMed Central

    Caves, Jeffrey M.; Kumar, Vivek A.; Wen, Jing; Cui, Wanxing; Martinez, Adam; Apkarian, Robert; Coats, Julie E.; Berland, Keith; Chaikof, Elliot L.

    2013-01-01

    The universal structural role of collagen fiber networks has motivated the development of collagen gels, films, coatings, injectables, and other formulations. However, reported synthetic collagen fiber fabrication schemes have either culminated in short, discontinuous fiber segments at unsuitably low production rates, or have incompletely replicated the internal fibrillar structure that dictates fiber mechanical and biological properties. We report a continuous extrusion system with an off-line phosphate buffer incubation step for the manufacture of synthetic collagen fiber. Fiber with a cross-section of 53±14 by 21±3 µm and an ultimate tensile strength of 94±19 MPa was continuously produced at 60 m/hr from an ultrafiltered monomeric collagen solution. The effect of collagen solution concentration, flow rate, and spinneret size on fiber size was investigated. The fiber was further characterized by microdifferential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), second harmonic generation (SHG) analysis, and in a subcutaneous murine implant model. Calorimetry demonstrated stabilization of the collagen triple helical structure, while TEM and SHG revealed a dense, axially aligned D-periodic fibril structure throughout the fiber cross-section. Implantation of glutaraldehyde crosslinked and non-crosslinked fiber in the subcutaneous tissue of mice demonstrated limited inflammatory response and biodegradation after a 6-week implant period. PMID:20024969

  5. 38 CFR 4.128 - Convalescence ratings following extended hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... evaluation due to a continuous period of hospitalization lasting six months or more, the rating agency shall continue the total evaluation indefinitely and schedule a mandatory examination six months after...

  6. 38 CFR 4.128 - Convalescence ratings following extended hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... evaluation due to a continuous period of hospitalization lasting six months or more, the rating agency shall continue the total evaluation indefinitely and schedule a mandatory examination six months after...

  7. 38 CFR 4.128 - Convalescence ratings following extended hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... evaluation due to a continuous period of hospitalization lasting six months or more, the rating agency shall continue the total evaluation indefinitely and schedule a mandatory examination six months after...

  8. 38 CFR 4.128 - Convalescence ratings following extended hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... evaluation due to a continuous period of hospitalization lasting six months or more, the rating agency shall continue the total evaluation indefinitely and schedule a mandatory examination six months after...

  9. [Continuous monitoring systems of glucose].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Mercè; Jansà, Margarida

    2013-04-01

    The possibility of obtaining a continuous reading of glucose may represent a breakthrough and a useful tool for the management of diabetes. Technological advances can improve the quality of life and people with diabetes metabolic control, even if this means having to learn and incorporate new technical concepts, new algorithms for pattern modification and new challenges in Therapeutic Education.

  10. ISES Training Class - Continuous Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    Features of Continuous Monitoring•Provides for high definition of temporal resolution•Provides means for discerning primary exposure events•Provides means for critically examining data quality rather than just an average point•Applicable to any measure of inte...

  11. Continuing Education for Distance Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassner, Mary; Adams, Kate E.

    2012-01-01

    Distance librarians as engaged professionals work in a complex environment of changes in technologies, user expectations, and institutional goals. They strive to keep current with skills and competencies to support distance learners. This article provides a selection of continuing education opportunities for distance librarians, and is relevant…

  12. Pythagorean Approximations and Continued Fractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peralta, Javier

    2008-01-01

    In this article, we will show that the Pythagorean approximations of [the square root of] 2 coincide with those achieved in the 16th century by means of continued fractions. Assuming this fact and the known relation that connects the Fibonacci sequence with the golden section, we shall establish a procedure to obtain sequences of rational numbers…

  13. Continued Fractions and Iterative Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bevis, Jean H.; Boal, Jan L.

    1982-01-01

    Continued fractions and associated sequences are viewed to constitute a rich area of study for mathematics students, by supporting instruction on algebraic and computational skills, mathematical induction, convergence of sequences, and interpretation of function graphs. An iterative method of approximating square roots opens suggestions for…

  14. Marketing Continuing Education for Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This guide presents an overview of marketing and its potential value in continuing education programs for nurses. The first portion of the guide briefly discusses the concept of marketing. It contains definitions of key marketing concepts (product, place, price, and promotion), discussion of the basic tenets of marketing (consumer needs…

  15. Connecting the Dots: Rediscovering Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camenga, Kristin A.; Yates, Rebekah B. Johnson

    2014-01-01

    The topic of continuity is typically not introduced until calculus and then reexamined in real analysis. Recognizing the connections between secondary school mathematics and the advanced mathematics studied at the college level allows teachers to better identify mathematical concepts in student ideas, motivate students by piquing their curiosity,…

  16. Midwives' Motivation for Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laszlo, Halldora; Strettle, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 83 of 120 British midwives showed that motivation for continuing education was strongest in regard to professional competence and innate desire for knowledge, less in regard to legal requirements for practice. Strongest motivators were internal and learning related. Social integration was the least important aspect of continuing…

  17. Continuing Education for the Professional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, G. L., Jr.

    University education for the practicing or aspiring professional-practitioner should be considered the beginning or extension of lifelong learning, a continuing educational requirement. University Extension programming at the University of Wisconsin covers a wide range of professional, farming, and other areas. Efforts are underway to redesign…

  18. THE IMPLICATIONS OF CONTINUOUS LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIDD, J. ROBY

    IN THE FIRST OF TWO ADDRESSES GIVEN IN INDIA ON THE IMPLICATIONS OF CONTINUOUS LEARNING, J. ROBY KIDD DEFINES LIFELONG EDUCATION AS EMBRACING ALL PURPOSEFUL, PLANNED EDUCATION, FORMAL OR INFORMAL, FROM EARLY CHILDHOOD TO OLD AGE. SUCH EDUCATION IS DISCUSSED AS A MEANS OF EXTENDING AND IMPROVING EDUCATIONAL OPPORTUNITIES AND THE QUALITY OF SOCIETY,…

  19. Continuing Change after the Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, R. Watson

    2006-01-01

    Focusing on the implementation of a task-based curriculum at a Thai university, this paper examines the continuation stage of the innovation by looking at how and why the curriculum has changed in its first four years. Based on course documentation and teacher interviews, the major changes to the curriculum were a reduction in the number of tasks,…

  20. Competency Assessment and Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlegel, John F.

    1978-01-01

    Described is the competency project being conducted by the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy and the American Pharmaceutical Association, and its relationship to the development of continuing education programs. The project is attempting to specify standards of competency and develop self-assessment devices to be used by pharmacists.…

  1. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  2. Idiopathic necrotising enteritis cases continue.

    PubMed

    2014-09-27

    Cases of idiopathic necrotising enteritis in calves continue Polioencephalitis of unknown cause in lambs Rare types of deformities seen in piglets Colibacillosis in postweaned pigs Rotavirus in gamebirds These are among matters discussed in the Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency's (AHVLA's) disease surveillance report for June 2014. PMID:25256728

  3. Coded continuous wave meteor radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, J.; Chau, J. L.; Pfeffer, N.; Clahsen, M.; Stober, G.

    2015-07-01

    The concept of coded continuous wave meteor radar is introduced. The radar uses a continuously transmitted pseudo-random waveform, which has several advantages: coding avoids range aliased echoes, which are often seen with commonly used pulsed specular meteor radars (SMRs); continuous transmissions maximize pulse compression gain, allowing operation with significantly lower peak transmit power; the temporal resolution can be changed after performing a measurement, as it does not depend on pulse spacing; and the low signal to noise ratio allows multiple geographically separated transmitters to be used in the same frequency band without significantly interfering with each other. The latter allows the same receiver antennas to be used to receive multiple transmitters. The principles of the signal processing are discussed, in addition to discussion of several practical ways to increase computation speed, and how to optimally detect meteor echoes. Measurements from a campaign performed with a coded continuous wave SMR are shown and compared with two standard pulsed SMR measurements. The type of meteor radar described in this paper would be suited for use in a large scale multi-static network of meteor radar transmitters and receivers. This would, for example, provide higher spatio-temporal resolution for mesospheric wind field measurements.

  4. Continuous enzymatic liquefaction of starch for saccharification

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, M.E.; Black, L.T.; Bagby, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    A process was explored for continuous enzymatic liquefaction of corn starch at high concentration and subsequent saccharification to glucose. The process appears to be quite efficient for conversion of starch to glucose and enzymatic liquefaction and should be readily adaptable to industrial fermentation processes. Preliminary work indicated that milled corn or other cereal grains also can be suitably converted by such a process. Essentially, the process involved incorporation of a thermostable, bacterial alpha-amylase for liquefaction and, subsequently, of a glucoamylase into the continuous mixer under conditions conductive to rapid enzymatic hydrolyses. Also studied was the effect on substrate liquefaction of variables such as starch concentration (40-70%), level of alpha-amylase (0.14-0.4%, dry starch basis), temperature (70-100 degrees C), pH (5.8-7.1), and residence time (6 and 12 minutes). The degree of liquefaction was assessed by determining 1) the Brookfield viscosity, 2) the amount of reducing groups, and 3) the rate and extent of glucose formed after glucoamylase treatment. Best liquefaction processing conditions were achieved by using 50-60% starch concentration, at 95 degrees C, with 0.4% alpha-amylase, and a 6 minute residence period in the mixer. Under these conditions, rates and extents of glucose obtained after glucoamylase treatment approached those obtained in longer laboratory batch liquefactions. The amount of glucose formed in 24 hours with the use of 0.4% glucoamylase was 86% of theory after a 6-min continuous liquefaction, compared to 90% for a 30-min laboratory batch liquefaction (95 degrees C, 0.4% alpha-amylase). (Refs. 15).

  5. Continuous sampling of MSWI dioxins.

    PubMed

    Hung, Pao-Chen; Chang, Shu-Hao; Buekens, Alfons; Chang, Moo-Been

    2016-02-01

    Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is generally considered as a well-controlled source of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Start-up conditions continue, however, to be problematic. A self-developed continuous sampler was specially designed and built to fulfill the various sampling criteria of U.S. EPA Method 23 and monitor the trends of dioxins emissions during diverse operating conditions. In the MSWI plant investigated, a 98.1% TEQ PCDD/F removal efficiency was achieved in normal operation using activated carbon injection + bag filtration (ACI + BF) and the corresponding PCDD/F emission remains well below the standard set by Taiwan EPA (0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3) @ 11% O2). During start-up, however, continuous sampling indicates that this limit value is reached only after 12 and 9 days, respectively for the 1st (2011) and 2nd test campaign (2012). Only 15 days after start-up the PCDD/F emissions shrunk to the levels typically measured during normal operation. The PCDD/F emissions from the 1st and 2nd continuous sampling campaigns were 5.4 and 5.5 mg I-TEQ, respectively. Short-term PCDD/F sampling such as the U.S. EPA Method 23 is less adapted to monitor these transient PCDD/F emissions representatively and accurately, due to a steady decrease of PCDD/F emissions after start-up. This self-developed continuous sampler effectively enhances the ease and reliability of emission data collecting during transient conditions of MSWI.

  6. 26 CFR 1.1274-4 - Test rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Test rate. 1.1274-4 Section 1.1274-4 Internal... TAXES (CONTINUED) Special Rules for Determining Capital Gains and Losses § 1.1274-4 Test rate. (a) Determination of test rate of interest—(1) In general—(i) Test rate is the 3-month rate. Except as provided...

  7. Applications of a fast continuous wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dress, William B.

    1997-04-01

    A fast, continuous, wavelet transform, justified by appealing to Shannon's sampling theorem in frequency space, has been developed for use with continuous mother wavelets and sampled data sets. The method differs from the usual discrete-wavelet approach and from the standard treatment of the continuous-wavelet transform in that, here, the wavelet is sampled in the frequency domain. Since Shannon's sampling theorem lets us view the Fourier transform of the data set as representing the continuous function in frequency space, the continuous nature of the functions is kept up to the point of sampling the scale-translation lattice, so the scale-translation grid used to represent the wavelet transform is independent of the time-domain sampling of the signal under analysis. Although more computationally costly and not represented by an orthogonal basis, the inherent flexibility and shift invariance of the frequency-space wavelets are advantageous for certain applications. The method has been applied to forensic audio reconstruction, speaker recognition/identification, and the detection of micromotions of heavy vehicles associated with ballistocardiac impulses originating from occupants' heart beats. Audio reconstruction is aided by selection of desired regions in the 2D representation of the magnitude of the transformed signals. The inverse transform is applied to ridges and selected regions to reconstruct areas of interest, unencumbered by noise interference lying outside these regions. To separate micromotions imparted to a mass- spring system by an occupant's beating heart from gross mechanical motions due to wind and traffic vibrations, a continuous frequency-space wavelet, modeled on the frequency content of a canonical ballistocardiogram, was used to analyze time series taken from geophone measurements of vehicle micromotions. By using a family of mother wavelets, such as a set of Gaussian derivatives of various orders, different features may be extracted from voice

  8. Noneconomic and economic benefits of continuing education for dietitians.

    PubMed

    Partlow, C G; Spears, M C; Oaklief, C R

    1989-09-01

    This research evaluated the expected and actual noneconomic and economic benefits from continuing education as perceived by registered dietitian members of the Kansas Dietetic Association in 1986. A random sample of 180 dietitians was selected from the 550 members of the association; 83.9% of the sample responded to the research questionnaire. Thirteen possible noneconomic or personal benefits and six possible economic or professional benefits were rated on a scale of 1, little or no benefit, to 5, great benefit. The highest ratings on noneconomic benefits were 4.43 expected and 3.95 actual on the benefit of "becoming informed about some subject". On economic benefits, the highest ratings were 4.36 expected and 3.82 actual on "learning recent job knowledge." The overall noneconomic ratings were 2.85 expected and 2.78 actual. On economic benefits, the overall ratings were 3.46 expected and 3.07 actual. Dietitians ranked "expertise of instructors" and "instructor's ability to explain or demonstrate" as the two highest perceived strengths of the continuing education experience. Obviously, the instructor is viewed as an important factor in continuing education. Dietitians rated their degree of participation in continuing experiences in the following descending order: "contributing to the evaluation process", "sharing experiences with others," and "developing goals and ideas."

  9. Continuous Tuning and Calibration of Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayworth, Ken

    2003-01-01

    A method of control and operation of an inertial reference unit (IRU) based on vibratory gyroscopes provides for continuously repeated cycles of tuning and calibration. The method is intended especially for application to an IRU containing vibratory gyroscopes that are integral parts of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and that have cloverleaf designs, as described in several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The method provides for minimization of several measures of spurious gyroscope output, including zero-rate offset (ZRO), angle random walk (ARW), and rate drift. These benefits are afforded both at startup and thereafter during continuing operation, in the presence of unknown rotation rates and changes in temperature. A vibratory gyroscope contains a precision mechanically resonant structure containing two normal modes of vibration nominally degenerate in frequency and strongly coupled via a Coriolis term. In the case of the cloverleaf design MEMS gyro, these normal modes of vibration are plate rocking modes. The rocking motion of the plate is described by giving two angles, theta(sub 1) and theta(sub 2). A proof mass consisting of a post orthogonal to the plate ensures a high degree of Coriolis coupling of vibratory energy from one mode into the other under inertial rotation. The plate is driven and sensed capacitively across a few-microns-wide gap, and the normal mode frequencies can be tuned electrostatically by DC voltages applied across this gap. In order to sense rotation, the resonator plate is caused to rock in the theta(sub 1) direction, then any small motions in the theta(sub 2) direction are sensed, rebalanced, and interpreted as inertial rotation. In this scenario, the "drive" has been assigned to the theta(sub 1) direction, and the "sense" has been assigned to the theta(sub 2) direction.

  10. Pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, T.W.; Hamill, P.E. Jr.; Ozgu, M.R.; Padfield, R.C.; Rego, D.N.; Brita, G.P.

    1990-07-24

    A pressurized tundish for controlling a continuous flow of molten metal is characterized by having a pair of principal compartments, one being essentially unpressurized and receiving molten metal introduced thereto, and the other being adapted for maintaining a controlled gaseous pressure over the surface of the fluid metal therein, whereby, by controlling the pressure within the pressurized chamber, metal exiting from the tundish is made to flow continually and at a controlled rate. 1 fig.

  11. 14 CFR 147.11 - Ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ratings. 147.11 Section 147.11 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES AVIATION MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN SCHOOLS Certification Requirements § 147.11 Ratings....

  12. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  13. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  14. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  15. 38 CFR 36.4312 - Interest rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312 Section 36.4312 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN... rate adjustments must occur on an annual basis, except that the first adjustment may occur no...

  16. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  17. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  18. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  19. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  20. 47 CFR 76.206 - Candidate rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Candidate rates. 76.206 Section 76.206 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.206 Candidate rates. (a) Charges for use of cable...

  1. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  2. 33 CFR 159.69 - Motor ratings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motor ratings. 159.69 Section 159.69 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.69 Motor ratings. Motors must be...

  3. Monolithic Continuous-Flow Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Kornfield, Julia A.; Voecks, Gerald A.

    1993-01-01

    Monolithic ceramic matrices containing many small flow passages useful as continuous-flow bioreactors. Ceramic matrix containing passages made by extruding and firing suitable ceramic. Pores in matrix provide attachment medium for film of cells and allow free movement of solution. Material one not toxic to micro-organisms grown in reactor. In reactor, liquid nutrients flow over, and liquid reaction products flow from, cell culture immobilized in one set of channels while oxygen flows to, and gaseous reaction products flow from, culture in adjacent set of passages. Cells live on inner surfaces containing flowing nutrient and in pores of walls of passages. Ready access to nutrients and oxygen in channels. They generate continuous high yield characteristic of immobilized cells, without large expenditure of energy otherwise incurred if necessary to pump nutrient solution through dense biomass as in bioreactors of other types.

  4. Construction costs continue slow increase

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, J.M.

    1986-03-31

    Oil-pipeline construction costs for third quarter 1985, as measured by the OGJ-Morgan Pipeline Cost Index, continued the moderation evident in the year's first half. Although some cost elements showed signs of moving ahead at a faster clip during the quarter, the primary forces holding down inflation, especially moderate labor increases and competitive material prices, appeared stronger than ever. The worldwide oil glut, which had been keeping a cap on oil energy costs, was expected to continue. And some economists in the quarter were even then predicting a major crude oil price cut by the end of 1985. Furthermore, the cost of borrowing construction funds remained at its lowest level in years. The composite cost index for building oil pipelines showed a minor increase of 0.45% during third quarter 1985.

  5. Excellence in Ophthalmology: Continuous Certification.

    PubMed

    Siatkowski, R Michael

    2016-09-01

    Over the course of a century, American medical specialty boards including the American Board of Ophthalmology (ABO) have developed significant expertise in assessing physician competence on completion of postgraduate training and, more recently, in defining appropriate criteria for continuous learning and quality improvement in practicing physicians. This article explores why maintaining career-long excellence is an evolving challenge, but one that is at the heart of the ABO's mission to protect the public by improving patient care. PMID:27549998

  6. Midwives' motivation for continuing education.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, H; Strettle, R J

    1996-10-01

    This study examined midwives' motivations for continuing their education by conducting a survey amongst a sample population of midwives, employed in 4 Health Authorities in the North West of England. The survey was carried out using a questionnaire which asked midwives to indicate the 'importance' of a series of requirements of continuing education. Of 120 midwives who received the questionnaire, 83 (69%) replied. Motivational factors included: learning for professional and personal development; fulfilling legal or statutory practice requirement, or as a social activity. The results showed that motivation for continuing education was strongest in relation to professional competence and an innate desire for knowledge. Where personal development was achieved, the emphasis was to promote professional advancement rather than social interaction. Less emphasis was placed on fulfilling the legal requirements for practice. The strongest motivators were learning orientated, which suggests that the subjects were self-directed to fulfil their needs, based on a desire to learn, this being less dependent on external motivators, which may be activated by statutory or employer requirements. Social interaction was seen as the least important aspect, although subjects found it beneficial to meet colleagues from other areas and felt that they learnt from exchanging views about various clinical practices.

  7. ACCELERATOR BASED CONTINUOUS NEUTRON SOURCE.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAPIRO,S.M.; RUGGIERO,A.G.; LUDEWIG,H.

    2003-03-25

    Until the last decade, most neutron experiments have been performed at steady-state, reactor-based sources. Recently, however, pulsed spallation sources have been shown to be very useful in a wide range of neutron studies. A major review of neutron sources in the US was conducted by a committee chaired by Nobel laureate Prof. W. Kohn: ''Neutron Sources for America's Future-BESAC Panel on Neutron Sources 1/93''. This distinguished panel concluded that steady state and pulsed sources are complementary and that the nation has need for both to maintain a balanced neutron research program. The report recommended that both a new reactor and a spallation source be built. This complementarity is recognized worldwide. The conclusion of this report is that a new continuous neutron source is needed for the second decade of the 20 year plan to replace aging US research reactors and close the US neutron gap. it is based on spallation production of neutrons using a high power continuous superconducting linac to generate protons impinging on a heavy metal target. There do not appear to be any major technical challenges to the building of such a facility since a continuous spallation source has been operating in Switzerland for several years.

  8. High-throughput continuous cryopump

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A cryopump with a unique method of regeneration which allows continuous operation at high throughput has been constructed and tested. Deuterium was pumped continuously at a throughput of 30 Torr.L/s at a speed of 2000 L/s and a compression ratio of 200. Argon was pumped at a throughput of 60 Torr.L/s at a speed of 1275 L/s. To produce continuous operation of the pump, a method of regeneration that does not thermally cycle the pump is employed. A small chamber (the ''snail'') passes over the pumping surface and removes the frost from it either by mechanical action with a scraper or by local heating. The material removed is topologically in a secondary vacuum system with low conductance into the primary vacuum; thus, the exhaust can be pumped at pressures up to an effective compression ratio determined by the ratio of the pumping speed to the leakage conductance of the snail. The pump, which is all-metal-sealed and dry and which regenerates every 60 s, would be an ideal system for pumping tritium. Potential fusion applications are for mpmp limiters, for repeating pneumatic pellet injection lines, and for the centrifuge pellet injector spin tank, all of which will require pumping tritium at high throughput. Industrial applications requiring ultraclean pumping of corrosive gases at high throughput, such as the reactive ion etch semiconductor process, may also be feasible.

  9. Continuous Liquid Interface Production (CLIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumbleston, John

    Continuous liquid interface production (CLIP) can rapidly produce 3D parts using a range of polymeric materials. A DLP-based form of additive manufacturing, CLIP proceeds via projecting a sequence of UV images through an oxygen-permeable, UV-transparent window below a liquid resin bath. A thin uncured liquid layer, or dead zone, is created above the window and maintains a liquid interface below the advancing part. Above the dead zone, the curing part is drawn out of the resin bath creating suction forces that renew reactive liquid resin. The dead zone is created due to oxygen inhibition of photopolymerization, a process that is traditionally a nuisance in other photopolymerization applications. However, for CLIP oxygen inhibition and creation of the dead zone allows for a continuous mode of printing where UV exposure, resin renewal, and part elevation are conducted simultaneously. This continual process is fundamentally different from traditional bottom-up stereolithography printers where these steps must be conducted in separate and discrete steps. Furthermore, the relatively gentle nature of CLIP due to the established dead zone enables the use of unique materials with a wide range of mechanical properties. This presentation will showcase the CLIP technology and provide a detailed picture of interactions between different resin and process parameters. New applications for 3D printing that span the micro- to macro-scale enabled by CLIP's combination of unique materials and part production speed will also be presented.

  10. Continuous and shutterless hologram movie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palais, Joseph C.; Miller, Mark E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper presents a unique approach to the production and display of a hologram movie. Motion was provided by rotating a 3D object in steps between exposures. Strip holograms were made on 70 mm AGFA 8E75 Holotest roll film. Each hologram was about 11 mm high and 55 mm wide. The object was rotated two degrees, while the film was advanced, between successive exposures. A complete rotation of the object was recorded on 180 holograms using the lensless Fourier-transform construction. The ends of the developed film were spliced together to produce a continuous loop. Although the film moves continuously on playback and there is no shutter, there is no flicker or image displacement because of the Fourier-transform hologram construction. The movie can be viewed for as long a time as desired because the object motion is cyclical and the film is continuous. The film is wide enough such that comfortable viewing with both eyes is possible, enhancing the 3D experience. Viewers can stand comfortably away from the film since no viewing slit or aperture is necessary. Several people can view the movie at the same time. Speckle is reduced due to the film motion.

  11. Topological Photonics for Continuous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silveirinha, Mario

    Photonic crystals have revolutionized light-based technologies during the last three decades. Notably, it was recently discovered that the light propagation in photonic crystals may depend on some topological characteristics determined by the manner how the light states are mutually entangled. The usual topological classification of photonic crystals explores the fact that these structures are periodic. The periodicity is essential to ensure that the underlying wave vector space is a closed surface with no boundary. In this talk, we prove that it is possible calculate Chern invariants for a wide class of continuous bianisotropic electromagnetic media with no intrinsic periodicity. The nontrivial topology of the relevant continuous materials is linked with the emergence of edge states. Moreover, we will demonstrate that continuous photonic media with the time-reversal symmetry can be topologically characterized by a Z2 integer. This novel classification extends for the first time the theory of electronic topological insulators to a wide range of photonic platforms, and is expected to have an impact in the design of novel photonic systems that enable a topologically protected transport of optical energy. This work is supported in part by Fundacao para a Ciencia e a Tecnologia Grant Number PTDC/EEI-TEL/4543/2014.

  12. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  13. Continuous emission monitor for incinerators

    SciTech Connect

    Demirgian, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the development of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to continuous monitoring of incinerator emissions. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is well suited to this application because it can identify and quantify selected target analytes in a complex mixture without first separating the components in the mixture. Currently, there is no on-stream method to determine the destruction of hazardous substances, such as benzene, or to continuously monitor for hazardous products of incomplete combustion (PICs) in incinerator exhaust emissions. This capability is especially important because of Federal regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990, which requires the monitoring of air toxics (Title III), the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). An on-stream continuous emission monitor (CEM) that can differentiate species in the ppm and ppb range and can calculate the destruction and removal efficiency (DRE) could be used to determine the safety and reliability of incinerators. This information can be used to address reasonable public concern about incinerator safety and aid in the permitting process.

  14. Continuous measurement: Watchdog effect versus golden rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joos, E.

    1984-04-01

    Conditions which may lead to a freezing of the motion of a system under continuous observation (the so-called "Zeno paradox" or "watchdog effect") are examined. The measurement process is treated phenomenologically by the usual wave-packet reduction as well as in a more realistic way by including the measuring apparatus. For this purpose a model for an ideal measurement process is employed, following an example given by von Neumann. The resulting behavior varies between complete freezing and a mere suppression of interference terms and constant transition rates as represented by a master equation (rate equation). The most familiar example of the latter is Fermi's golden rule, with integration leading to exponential decay. Reviewing and extending the derivation of the Pauli master equation, the conditions leading to constant transition rates are discussed. The importance of the interaction with the natural environment for establishing a master equation is emphasized. Some consequences for the derivation of macroscopic equations of motion and for the physical foundations of superselection rules are pointed out.

  15. Complications of Continuous-Flow Mechanical Circulatory Support Devices

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Harsh; Madanieh, Raef; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vatti, Satya K; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), more importantly the continuous-flow subclass, have revolutionized the medical field by improving New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class status, quality of life, and survival rates in patients with advanced systolic heart failure. From the first pulsatile device to modern day continuous-flow devices, LVADs have continued to improve, but they are still associated with several complications. These complications include infection, bleeding, thrombosis, hemolysis, aortic valvular dysfunction, right heart failure, and ventricular arrhythmias. In this article, we aim to review these complications to understand the most appropriate approach for their prevention and to discuss the available therapeutic modalities. PMID:26052234

  16. Continuous cryopump with a device for regenerating the cryosurface

    DOEpatents

    Foster, C.A.

    1988-02-16

    A high throughput continuous cryopump is provided. The cryopump incorporates an improved method for regenerating the cryopumping surface while the pump is in continuous operation. The regeneration of the cryopumping surface does not thermally cycle the pump, and to this end a small chamber connected to a secondary pumping source serves to contain and exhaust frost removed from the cryopumping surface during such regeneration. The frost is exhausted at a rate substantially independent of the speed of the cryopump which enhances the capability of the pump to achieve a high compression ratio and allow the pump to operate continuously while the cryopumping surface is being regenerated. 8 figs.

  17. Continuous cryopump with a device for regenerating the cryosurface

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Christopher A.

    1988-01-01

    A high throughput continuous cryopump is provided. The cryopump (10) incorporates an improved method for regenerating the cryopumping surface (22) while the pump is in continuous operation. The regeneration of the cryopumping surface (22) does not thermally cycle the pump, and to this end a small chamber (91) connected to a secondary pumping source (60) serves to contain and exhaust frost removed from the cryopumping surface (22) during such regeneration. The frost is exhausted at a rate substantially independent of the speed of the cryopump which enhances the capability of the pump to achieve a high compression ratio and allow the pump to operate continuously while the cryopumping surface is being regenerated.

  18. Rates of Earth degassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Onions, R. K.

    1994-01-01

    The degassing of the Earth during accretion is constrained by Pu-U-I-Xe systematics. Degassing was much more efficient during the first 100-200 Ma than subsequently, and it was more complete for Xe than for the lighter gases. More than 90 percent of the degassed Xe escaped from the atmosphere during this period. The combination of fractional degassing of melts and rare gas escape from the atmosphere is able to explain the deficit of terrestrial Xe as a simple consequence of this early degassing history. By the time Xe was quantitatively retained in the atmosphere, the abundances of Kr and the lighter gases in the Earth's interior were similar to or higher than the present-day atmospheric abundances. Subsequent transfer of these lighter rare gases into the atmosphere requires a high rate of post-accretion degassing and melt production. Considerations of Pu-U-Xe systematics suggest that relatively rapid post-accretion degassing was continued to ca. 4.1-4.2 Ga. The present-day degassing history of the Earth is investigated through consideration of rare gas isotope abundances. Although the Earth is a highly degassed body, depleted in rare gases by many orders of magnitude relative to their solar abundances, it is at the present-day losing primordial rare gases which were trapped at the time of accretion.

  19. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  20. Continuous flow dielectrophoretic particle concentrator

    DOEpatents

    Cummings, Eric B.

    2007-04-17

    A continuous-flow filter/concentrator for separating and/or concentrating particles in a fluid is disclosed. The filter is a three-port device an inlet port, an filter port and a concentrate port. The filter separates particles into two streams by the ratio of their dielectrophoretic mobility to their electrokinetic, advective, or diffusive mobility if the dominant transport mechanism is electrokinesis, advection, or diffusion, respectively.Also disclosed is a device for separating and/or concentrating particles by dielectrophoretic trapping of the particles.