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Sample records for media exposure poverty

  1. Persistent exposure to poverty during childhood limits later leader emergence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Weatherhead, Julie G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Persistent exposure to poverty during childhood limits later leader emergence.

    PubMed

    Barling, Julian; Weatherhead, Julie G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599090

  3. Is maternal PTSD associated with greater exposure of very young children to violent media?

    PubMed

    Schechter, Daniel S; Gross, Anna; Willheim, Erica; McCaw, Jaime; Turner, J Blake; Myers, Michael M; Zeanah, Charles H; Gleason, Mary Margaret

    2009-12-01

    This study examined media viewing by mothers with violence-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related media exposure of their preschool-age children. Mothers (N = 67) recruited from community pediatric clinics participated in a protocol involving a media-preference survey. Severity of maternal PTSD and dissociation were significantly associated with child exposure to violent media. Family poverty and maternal viewing behavior were also associated. Maternal viewing behavior mediated the effects specifically of maternal PTSD severity on child exposure. Clinicians should assess maternal and child media viewing practices in families with histories of violent trauma exposure and related psychopathology.

  4. Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Mowafi, M; Khawaja, M

    2005-01-01

    This glossary addresses the complex nature of poverty and raises some conceptual and measurement issues related to poverty in the public health literature, with a focus on poor countries. PMID:15767376

  5. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  6. Duration and Timing of Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and the Risk of Adolescent Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, does not properly analyze the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood. PMID:23720166

  7. Poverty and Youth Violence Exposure: Experiences in Rural Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Karen Townsend

    2006-01-01

    Violence exposure among rural youths is a significant public health problem, yet little research has been conducted on violence in this setting. This study explored rural youths' direct and indirect experience of violence in the neighborhood, school, and home. The author used hierarchical regression analyses to explore youth violence exposure,…

  8. Disaster risk and poverty: assessing the global exposure of the poor to floods and droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Bangalore, Mook; Ward, Philip

    2015-04-01

    Poor people generally have a lower capacity to deal with the impacts of natural hazards. Yet, in several countries, low-income households have been shown to be disproportionately overrepresented in hazard-prone areas compared to households with higher income. Furthermore, the hazardous conditions under which poor households are exposed to now may become worse due to climate change with resulting increases in intensity and frequency of floods and droughts. To date, the relationship between poverty and natural hazard related disasters has only been explored on a case by case basis in a limited amount of countries. With the recent advances in the global spatial modeling of flood and drought hazard, it becomes feasible to study the relationship between poverty and natural hazards globally. In this presentation we present the most comprehensive analysis so far on the exposure of the global poor to floods and droughts under the current climatic conditions as well as under a range of future climate scenarios. We combine state-of-the-art global river flood and drought hazard models with detailed household asset and income datasets for over 50 countries world-wide, to analyse poverty-specific household exposure to current and future hazard levels.

  9. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  10. Mass Media Types: Three Q-Analyses of Mass Media Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, James R.

    The purpose of a mass media study was to (l) identify mass media types (patterns of exposure to mass media content) among seventh graders, high school juniors, and adults in a given geographic area; (2) show similarities and differences in the mass media types isolated for these three age groups; (3) pinpoint demographic variables most strongly…

  11. The Access Gap: Poverty and Characteristics of School Library Media Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribesh, Shana; Gavigan, Karen; Dickinson, Gail

    2011-01-01

    Stephen Krashen believes that schools can counter the effects of poverty in at least one area: access to books. However, little research has been done to determine whether students living in poverty have access to school library services comparable to those attending schools with low concentrations of students living in poverty. We examined the…

  12. Media Exposure, Interpersonal Communication and the Electoral Decision Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimsey, William D.; Hantz, Alan

    The relationships among mass media, interpersonal communication, and voting behavior were explored in a two-stage panel study of 141 respondents during a 1974 Illinois congressional election. Analyses of perceived exposures to mass media and to interpersonal communication were interpreted as supporting Rogers and Shoemakers' (1971)…

  13. Chronic exposure of grandparents to poverty and body mass index trajectories of grandchildren: a prospective intergenerational study.

    PubMed

    Li, Miao

    2015-02-01

    In this study, I used the growth curve model to examine the association between grandparents' (first generation (G1)) life-course exposure to chronic poverty and grandchildren's (third generation (G3)) body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) growth trajectories. This association was estimated separately for male and female grandchildren. Analyses were based on prospective data from a US longitudinal survey, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1968-2011), and 2 of its supplemental studies: the Child Development Supplement (1997-2011) and the Transition into Adulthood Study (1997-2011). A prospectively enrolled nationally representative cohort of 2,613 G3 youth (1,323 male, 1,290 female) sampled in the 2 supplemental studies was linked to 1,719 grandparents from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics core sample. Chronic exposure to poverty among grandparents was prospectively ascertained annually over a 30-year period prior to the collection of data on grandchildren. Findings suggested that grandparents' chronic poverty exposure was positively associated with the slope of the BMI trajectory among granddaughters (β = 0.10, 95% confidence interval: 0.03, 0.17) but not among grandsons (β = 0.02, 95% confidence interval: -0.04, 0.08). The association between grandparents' chronic poverty exposure and granddaughters' BMI growth slope remained even after controlling for parental (second generation (G2)) socioeconomic status and BMI.

  14. The association of media exposure and media literacy with adolescent alcohol and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-ching; Miao, Nae-fang; Lee, Ching-mei; Chen, Ping-hung; Chiu, Chiung-hui; Lee, Shu-ching

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the relationship of media exposure and media literacy to alcohol and tobacco use among adolescents in Taiwan. A total of 2992 10th-grade students recruited from 26 high schools in Taipei, Taiwan, completed a questionnaire in 2010. The multivariable analysis results indicated that the students with higher alcohol and tobacco media exposure were more likely to use alcohol and tobacco and have intentions to drink and smoke, while students with higher media literacy were less likely to use alcohol and have intentions to drink and smoke.

  15. Does Media Literacy Mitigate Risk for Reduced Body Satisfaction Following Exposure to Thin-Ideal Media?

    PubMed

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to thin-ideal media can contribute to increased body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. Understanding the factors that may prevent or exacerbate the negative effects of media exposure on body dissatisfaction is important to facilitate prevention of these problems. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body image in three instructional set experimental conditions: appearance comparison, peer norms, and control. An important aim was to examine baseline levels of media literacy as a protective factor and trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison as risk factors. Early adolescent girls (N = 246) completed baseline measures and 1 week later viewed thin-ideal media images, before and after which they rated their state body satisfaction. Participants in the appearance comparison instruction but not peer norms instruction condition had significantly reduced body satisfaction. Media literacy, particularly high levels of critical thinking, mitigated the negative effects of trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison on body satisfaction outcomes. These findings provide evidence for the role of media literacy as a protective factor against the negative effects on body satisfaction of exposure to thin-ideal media images, and also provide evidence to support the development and implementation of media literacy-based body image interventions. PMID:26880285

  16. Does Media Literacy Mitigate Risk for Reduced Body Satisfaction Following Exposure to Thin-Ideal Media?

    PubMed

    McLean, Siân A; Paxton, Susan J; Wertheim, Eleanor H

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to thin-ideal media can contribute to increased body dissatisfaction in adolescent girls. Understanding the factors that may prevent or exacerbate the negative effects of media exposure on body dissatisfaction is important to facilitate prevention of these problems. This study evaluated the effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body image in three instructional set experimental conditions: appearance comparison, peer norms, and control. An important aim was to examine baseline levels of media literacy as a protective factor and trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison as risk factors. Early adolescent girls (N = 246) completed baseline measures and 1 week later viewed thin-ideal media images, before and after which they rated their state body satisfaction. Participants in the appearance comparison instruction but not peer norms instruction condition had significantly reduced body satisfaction. Media literacy, particularly high levels of critical thinking, mitigated the negative effects of trait thin-ideal internalization and trait upward appearance comparison on body satisfaction outcomes. These findings provide evidence for the role of media literacy as a protective factor against the negative effects on body satisfaction of exposure to thin-ideal media images, and also provide evidence to support the development and implementation of media literacy-based body image interventions.

  17. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory). PMID:27166510

  18. Media Impacts on Women's Fertility Desires: A Prolonged Exposure Experiment.

    PubMed

    Knobloch-Westerwick, Silvia; Willis, Laura E; Kennard, Ashley R

    2016-06-01

    Media exposure may have implications for family planning, a public health issue of key importance. Drawing on social comparison theory and social identity theory, a prolonged exposure experiment examined whether media portrayals of women's social roles affect fertility desires among 166 American, nonstudent, never married, childless women ages 21-35 years old. After sign-up and baseline sessions, participants viewed magazine pages five days in a row. Stimuli presented women in either mother/homemaker roles, beauty ideal roles, or professional roles. Three days later, participants again indicated their number of desired children and time planned until first birth. Exposure to mother/homemaker and beauty ideal portrayals increased the number of desired children across time. Exposure to professional portrayals increased the time planned until 1st birth compared to beauty ideal portrayals-this impact was partially mediated by a shift toward more progressive gender norms (per social identity theory) and assimilation (per social comparison theory).

  19. Adolescent Weight Preoccupation: Influencing Factors and Entertainment Media Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, John; Yoo, Jeong-Ju

    2010-01-01

    This study examined how boys' and girls' weight preoccupation varied by grade level, parent-child relationships, self-classified weight, entertainment media exposure levels, and gender. Seventh-grade girls (n = 190) and boys (n = 132) and 10th-grade girls (n = 99) and boys (n = 67) participated. Girls were more likely to report weight…

  20. Media Exposure and Beliefs about Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, William R.; Rosenberg, William L.

    1987-01-01

    Indicates that (1) feeling both competent about handling scientific information and enthusiastic about scientific and technological advances are strongly related to exposure to media science information and (2) beliefs about specific science and technology issues (such as the need to maintain scientific and technical superiority for national…

  1. Media Exposure to Campaigns: Public Anticipation and Involvement in Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer, Troy A.

    1981-01-01

    Examines how mass media exposure to election campaigns influences beliefs about the closeness of the election race, as well as how these beliefs influence the degree of involvement in the election. Data from the 1968 and 1972 presidential elections are analyzed and indicate that no such relationships exist. (JMF)

  2. Adverse outcomes associated with media exposure to contradictory nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Rebekah H

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the media present conflicting health information on topics including cancer screening and nutrition. Although scholars have speculated that exposure to this information leads to increased public confusion, less trust in health recommendations, and less engagement in health behaviors, there is a lack of empirical research that directly addresses the role of media exposure to conflicting information. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, this study finds that exposure to conflicting information on the health benefits and risks of, for example, wine, fish, and coffee consumption is associated with confusion about what foods are best to eat and the belief that nutrition scientists keep changing their minds. There is evidence that these beliefs, in turn, may lead people to doubt nutrition and health recommendations more generally-including those that are not rife with contradictory information (e.g., fruit/vegetable consumption, exercise). The implications of these findings for healthy eating campaigns and interventions are discussed.

  3. Media ionic strength impacts embryonic responses to engineered nanoparticle exposure

    PubMed Central

    Truong, Lisa; Zaikova, Tatiana; Richman, Erik K.; Hutchison, James E.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic zebrafish were used to assess the impact of solution ion concentrations on agglomeration and resulting in vivo biological responses of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The minimum ion concentration necessary to support embryonic development was determined. Surprisingly, zebrafish exhibit no adverse outcomes when raised in nearly ion-free media. During a rapid throughput screening of AuNPs, 1.2-nm 3-mercaptopropionic acid-functionalized AuNPs (1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs) rapidly agglomerate in exposure solutions. When embryos were exposed to 1.2-nm 3-MPA-AuNPs dispersed in low ionic media, both morbidity and mortality were induced, but when suspended in high ionic media, there was little to no biological response. We demonstrated that the media ionic strength greatly affects agglomeration rates and biological responses. Most importantly, the insensitivity of the zebrafish embryo to external ions indicates that it is possible, and necessary, to adjust the exposure media conditions to optimize NP dispersion prior to assessment. PMID:21809903

  4. Desensitization to Media Violence: Links With Habitual Media Violence Exposure, Aggressive Cognitions, and Aggressive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  5. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content. PMID:21186935

  6. Desensitization to media violence: links with habitual media violence exposure, aggressive cognitions, and aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid; Huesmann, L Rowell; Kirwil, Lucyna; Felber, Juliane; Berger, Anja

    2011-04-01

    This study examined the links between desensitization to violent media stimuli and habitual media violence exposure as a predictor and aggressive cognitions and behavior as outcome variables. Two weeks after completing measures of habitual media violence exposure, trait aggression, trait arousability, and normative beliefs about aggression, undergraduates (N = 303) saw a violent film clip and a sad or a funny comparison clip. Skin conductance level (SCL) was measured continuously, and ratings of anxious and pleasant arousal were obtained after each clip. Following the clips, participants completed a lexical decision task to measure accessibility of aggressive cognitions and a competitive reaction time task to measure aggressive behavior. Habitual media violence exposure correlated negatively with SCL during violent clips and positively with pleasant arousal, response times for aggressive words, and trait aggression, but it was unrelated to anxious arousal and aggressive responding during the reaction time task. In path analyses controlling for trait aggression, normative beliefs, and trait arousability, habitual media violence exposure predicted faster accessibility of aggressive cognitions, partly mediated by higher pleasant arousal. Unprovoked aggression during the reaction time task was predicted by lower anxious arousal. Neither habitual media violence usage nor anxious or pleasant arousal predicted provoked aggression during the laboratory task, and SCL was unrelated to aggressive cognitions and behavior. No relations were found between habitual media violence viewing and arousal in response to the sad and funny film clips, and arousal in response to the sad and funny clips did not predict aggressive cognitions or aggressive behavior on the laboratory task. This suggests that the observed desensitization effects are specific to violent content.

  7. Effect of poverty on the relationship between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of air pollutants in Ho Chi Minh City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Sumi; Sbihi, Hind; Dinh, Tuan Nguyen; Xuan, Dan Vu; Le Thi Thanh, Loan; Thanh, Canh Truong; Le Truong, Giang; Cohen, Aaron; Brauer, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Socioeconomic factors often affect the distribution of exposure to air pollution. The relationships between health, air pollution, and poverty potentially have important public health and policy implications, especially in areas of Asia where air pollution levels are high and income disparity is large. The objective of the study was to characterize the levels, determinants of exposure, and relationships between children personal exposures and ambient concentrations of multiple air pollutants amongst different socioeconomic segments of the population of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Using repeated (N = 9) measures personal exposure monitoring and determinants of exposure modeling, we compared daily average PM2.5, PM10, PM2.5 absorbance and NO2 concentrations measured at ambient monitoring sites to measures of personal exposures for (N = 64) caregivers of young children from high and low socioeconomic groups in two districts (urban and peri-urban), across two seasons. Personal exposures for both PM sizes were significantly higher among the poor compared to non-poor participants in each district. Absolute levels of personal exposures were under-represented by ambient monitors with median individual longitudinal correlations between personal exposures and ambient concentrations of 0.4 for NO2, 0.6 for PM2.5 and PM10 and 0.7 for absorbance. Exposures of the non-poor were more highly correlated with ambient concentrations for both PM size fractions and absorbance while those for NO2 were not significantly affected by socioeconomic position. Determinants of exposure modeling indicated the importance of ventilation quality, time spent in the kitchen, air conditioner use and season as important determinant of exposure that are not fully captured by the differences in socioeconomic position. Our results underscore the need to evaluate how socioeconomic position affects exposure to air pollution. Here, differential exposure to major sources of pollution, further influenced by

  8. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector.

  9. Does Parenting Shield Youth from Exposure to Violence during Adolescence? A 5-Year Longitudinal Test in a High-Poverty Sample of Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M.

    2011-01-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group-based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results…

  10. Adverse outcomes associated with media exposure to contradictory nutrition messages

    PubMed Central

    Nagler, Rebekah H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the media present conflicting health information on topics including cancer screening and nutrition. Although scholars have speculated that exposure to this information leads to increased public confusion, less trust in health recommendations, and less engagement in health behaviors, there is a lack of empirical research that directly addresses the role of media exposure to conflicting information. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, this study finds that exposure to conflicting information on the health benefits and risks of, for example, wine, fish, and coffee consumption is associated with confusion about what foods are best to eat and the belief that nutrition scientists keep changing their minds. There is evidence that these beliefs, in turn, may lead people to doubt nutrition and health recommendations more generally—including those that are not rife with contradictory information (e.g., fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise). The implications of these findings for healthy eating campaigns and interventions are discussed. PMID:24117281

  11. Adverse outcomes associated with media exposure to contradictory nutrition messages.

    PubMed

    Nagler, Rebekah H

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the media present conflicting health information on topics including cancer screening and nutrition. Although scholars have speculated that exposure to this information leads to increased public confusion, less trust in health recommendations, and less engagement in health behaviors, there is a lack of empirical research that directly addresses the role of media exposure to conflicting information. Using data from the Annenberg National Health Communication Survey, this study finds that exposure to conflicting information on the health benefits and risks of, for example, wine, fish, and coffee consumption is associated with confusion about what foods are best to eat and the belief that nutrition scientists keep changing their minds. There is evidence that these beliefs, in turn, may lead people to doubt nutrition and health recommendations more generally-including those that are not rife with contradictory information (e.g., fruit/vegetable consumption, exercise). The implications of these findings for healthy eating campaigns and interventions are discussed. PMID:24117281

  12. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status.

    PubMed

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A

    2015-07-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status.

  13. Poor, Unsafe, and Overweight: The Role of Feeling Unsafe at School in Mediating the Association Among Poverty Exposure, Youth Screen Time, Physical Activity, and Weight Status

    PubMed Central

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Fitzpatrick, Caroline; Séguin, Louise; Barnett, Tracie A.

    2015-01-01

    This study applied socioecological and cumulative risk exposure frameworks to test the hypotheses that 1) the experience of poverty is associated with feeling less safe at school, and 2) feeling less safe is associated with engaging in poorer weight-related behaviors, as well as an increased probability of being overweight or obese. Data were from the ongoing Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development, initiated in 1998 with a population-based cohort of 2,120 Québec (Canada) infants 5 months of age and their parent or primary caregiver. Measures of youths' (age, 13 years) self-reported feelings of safety, screen time, physical activity, and objectively assessed not overweight/obese (70%), overweight (22%), and obese (8%) weight status were collected in 2011. Family poverty trajectory from birth was assessed by using latent growth modeling. As hypothesized, exposure to poverty was associated with feeling less safe at school and, in turn, with an increased probability of being overweight or obese. The association was most pronounced for youths who experienced chronic poverty. Compared with youths who experienced no poverty and felt unsafe, those who experienced chronic poverty and felt unsafe were nearly 18% more likely to be obese (9.2% vs. 11.2%). Although feeling unsafe was associated with screen time, screen time did not predict weight status. PMID:25921649

  14. Poverty and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Pat

    2015-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the multiple ways in which the enduring, and increasing, problems associated with child poverty blight young people's educational opportunities in the school system. Current policies, supported by a sympathetic media, blame individuals for their poverty, and blame teachers when they fail to "close the…

  15. Media exposure predicts children's reactions to crime and terrorism.

    PubMed

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A; Finkelhor, David; Turner, Heather

    2008-01-01

    In this study we examined reactions to 3 news events (September 11 terrorist attacks, Summer 2002 kidnappings, and Fall 2002 sniper shootings) in a national, representative sample of children aged 2 to 17. Media exposure was related to increased worry and changes in activities, with September 11 creating the most concern and shootings the least. More signs of stress were apparent among 10- to 13-year-olds, minority children and those of low socioeconomic status, children with prior adversities, and children who lived in close geographical proximity. Girls aged 10 to 17 had more reaction to the kidnappings, suggesting that other features of target similarity may heighten a sense of risk. The results support moderating exposure for both younger and older youth.

  16. Media exposure in children one hundred miles from a terrorist bombing.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Seale, Thomas W; Brandt, Edward N; Pfefferbaum, Rose L; Doughty, Debby E; Rainwater, Scott M

    2003-03-01

    This study assessed indirect interpersonal exposure to the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, broadcast and print media exposure in the aftermath of the explosion, emotional reactions to media coverage, and posttraumatic stress reactions in children distant from the explosion. A survey was administered to 88 sixth-grade students in the public middle school in a community 100 miles from Oklahoma City 2 years after the bombing. Many children reported indirect interpersonal exposure and most reported bomb-related media exposure. Print media exposure was more strongly associated with enduring posttraumatic stress than broadcast exposure. Indirect interpersonal exposure and the interaction of media exposure with emotional reaction to media coverage in the aftermath of the explosion each predicted ongoing posttraumatic stress. The results suggest that children may have lingering reactions to highly publicized terrorist incidents. Concern about the influence of television viewing has long been proclaimed. This study implicates print media exposure as well. Media exposure to terrorist incidents, therefore, should be monitored and those working with children should assess exposure and stress even in children not directly impacted.

  17. Exposure to Pro-Smoking Media in College Students: Does Type of Media Channel Differentially Contribute to Smoking Risk?

    PubMed Central

    Shadel, William G.; Martino, Steven C.; Setodji, Claude; Scharf, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Background There is almost no data on whether the different channels through which pro-smoking media appears (i.e., point-of-sale advertising, movie smoking) differently influences smoking. Purpose This study used ecological momentary assessment to examine whether differences in smoking risk were observed for exposures to different pro-smoking media channels. Methods College students (n=134) carried smartphones for 21 days, recording their exposures to pro-smoking media and the media channels for that exposure and responding to three randomly-issued control prompts per day. Participants answered questions about their future smoking risk after each pro-smoking media exposure and random prompt. Results Participants had elevated future smoking risk following exposure to pro-smoking media at point-of-sale (p < 0.001); smoking risk at times of exposure to smoking in movies did not differ from risk measured during control prompts (p = 0.78). Conclusions There is merit to examining the relative contribution of different pro-smoking media channels to smoking behavior. PMID:23536120

  18. Predicting Children's Transitions from Head Start to Low-Performing Schools in Chicago: The Roles of Exposure to Poverty-Related Risk and to Early Childhood Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhai, Fuhua; Raver, C. Cybele

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the socioeconomic contexts navigated by low-income children enrolled in the Chicago School Readiness Project (CSRP), as they made the transition from preschool to elementary school. The authors focus on the following two questions. First, do families' exposure to poverty-related risks (i.e., low income, maternal…

  19. Relationally Aggressive Media Exposure and Children's Normative Beliefs: Does Parental Mediation Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linder, Jennifer Ruh; Werner, Nicole E.

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that relationally aggressive media exposure is positively associated with relational aggression in children. Theories of media effects suggest that these associations may be mediated by aggressive cognitions. Although parental mediation can attenuate the effects of violent media, it is unknown whether there are similar benefits…

  20. The Effects of Credibility, Reliance, and Exposure on Media Agenda-Setting: A Path Analysis Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanta, Wayne; Hu, Yu-Wei

    1994-01-01

    Uses path analysis to investigate a model of agenda-setting. Supports the model, showing that, if individuals perceive the media to be highly credible, they will rely on the media for information, will increase their exposure to media messages and in turn will become more susceptible to agenda-setting. (SR)

  1. Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C.

    2011-01-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted…

  2. Media Exposure, Aggression and Prosocial Behavior during Early Childhood: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Crick, Nicki R.

    2006-01-01

    Preschool children (N = 78) enrolled in multi-informant, multi-method longitudinal study were participants in a study designed to investigate the role of media exposure (i.e., violent and educational) on concurrent and future aggressive and prosocial behavior. Specifically, the amount of media exposure and the nature of the content was used to…

  3. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  4. Prevention Rather than Cure? Primary or Secondary Intervention for Dealing with Media Exposure to Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the efficacy of primary versus secondary intervention in moderating state anxiety and state anger from media-based exposure to terrorism. Two hundred participants, allocated to a terrorism or nonterrorism media exposure and to antecedent or subsequent therapeutic or control intervention, were assessed for state anxiety and…

  5. The relation between actual exposure to political violence and preparatory intervention for exposure to media coverage of terrorism.

    PubMed

    Slone, Michelle; Shoshani, Anat; Baumgarten-Katz, Inbar

    2008-07-01

    This laboratory study examined differential effects of television broadcasts of terrorism on viewers' anxiety according to their actual exposure history, and differential efficacy of a preparatory intervention in moderating elevated anxiety for high or low actual exposure. Participants were 80 young Israeli adults, randomly allocated to a terrorism or non-terrorism media broadcast, and for each type of exposure, to a preparatory or control intervention. Actual political violence and terrorism exposure history was assessed, and anxiety measured explicitly and indirectly prior and subsequent to the intervention and media exposure manipulation. Results showed that in the terrorism media exposure, participants with high more than low actual political life events (PLE) exposure showed higher post-test levels of indirectly measured anxiety. Clinical intervention before the terrorism media exposure moderated indirectly measured anxiety among participants with high PLE exposure, but increased anxiety for low PLE. Findings outline preparatory measures that could maximize coping for the high PLE actual exposure at-risk sector. PMID:18938291

  6. The Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle Study: Effects of Prenatal Methamphetamine Exposure, Polydrug Exposure, and Poverty on Intrauterine Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Lynne M.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Grant, Penny; Shah, Rizwan; Arria, Amelia; Huestis, Marilyn; Haning, William; Strauss, Arthur; Grotta, Sheri Della; Liu, Jing; Lester, Barry M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Methamphetamine use among pregnant women is an increasing problem in the United States. Effects of methamphetamine use during pregnancy on fetal growth have not been reported in large, prospective studies. We examined the neonatal growth effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure in the multicenter, longitudinal Infant Development,…

  7. Racial and Ethnic Inequality in Childhood Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and Affluence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Jeffrey, M.

    Despite recent scholarly concern with "neighborhood effects" on children, no study to date has measured the cumulative exposure of children to poor and affluent neighborhoods. This study constructed multi-state life tables to estimate racial and ethnic differences in "childhood expectancy" in five neighborhood types, ranging from affluent to…

  8. Exposure to Neighborhood Affluence and Poverty in Childhood and Adolescence and Academic Achievement and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Sara; Leventhal, Tama; Dupéré, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to associations between the socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods and children's and adolescents' development. A minimal amount of research, however, examines how timing of exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic conditions matters. This study used longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  9. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  10. Media Use and Exposure to Graphic Content in the Week Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nickolas M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure. New media use was correlated with younger age and prior direct exposure to collective traumas. Increased television and online news viewing were associated with exposure to more graphic content. The relationship between traditional and new media was stronger for young adults than all other age groups. We offer insights about the relationship between prior collective trauma exposures and media use following subsequent disasters and identify media sources likely to expose people to graphic content. PMID:27616665

  11. Media Use and Exposure to Graphic Content in the Week Following the Boston Marathon Bombings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Nickolas M; Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2016-09-01

    Traditional and new media inform and expose the public to potentially distressing graphic content following disasters, but predictors of media use have received limited attention. We examine media-use patterns after the Boston Marathon bombings (BMB) in a representative national U.S. sample (n = 2888), with representative oversamples from metropolitan Boston (n = 845) and New York City (n = 941). Respondents completed an Internet-based survey 2-4 weeks post-BMB. Use of traditional media was correlated with older age, prior indirect media-based exposure to collective traumas, and direct BMB exposure. New media use was correlated with younger age and prior direct exposure to collective traumas. Increased television and online news viewing were associated with exposure to more graphic content. The relationship between traditional and new media was stronger for young adults than all other age groups. We offer insights about the relationship between prior collective trauma exposures and media use following subsequent disasters and identify media sources likely to expose people to graphic content.

  12. Using the Integrative Model to explain how exposure to sexual media content influences adolescent sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-10-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this article uses data from a longitudinal study of adolescents ages 16 to 18 (N = 460) to determine how exposure to sexual media content influences sexual behavior. Path analysis and structural equation modeling demonstrated that intention to engage in sexual intercourse is determined by a combination of attitudes, normative pressure, and self-efficacy but that exposure to sexual media content only affects normative pressure beliefs. By applying the Integrative Model, we are able to identify which beliefs are influenced by exposure to media sex and improve the ability of health educators, researchers, and others to design effective messages for health communication campaigns and messages pertaining to adolescents' engaging in sexual intercourse.

  13. Moderating effects of media exposure on associations between socioeconomic position and cancer worry.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo; Chan, Carina Ka Yee; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula

    2014-01-01

    Reducing fear of cancer is significant in developing cancer screening interventions, but the levels of fear may vary depending on the degrees of media exposure as well as individuals' socioeconomic positions (SEP). However, few studies have examined how the SEP influences the fear of cancer under the moderating process of general and specific forms of media exposure. We investigated the moderating effect of media exposure on the relationship between SEP and the level of fear of cancer by assuming that cancer knowledge is a covariate between those two. In particular, this study examined how exposure to both general and specific media changes the series of processes from SEP to fear of cancer. We conducted path analyses with three types of media--television, radio and the Internet--using data from a health communication survey of 613 adults in Massachusetts in the United States. We found that SEP influences cancer knowledge directly and fear of cancer indirectly, as moderated by the level of media exposure. Health-specific exposure, however, had a more consistent effect than general media exposure in lowering the fear of cancer by increasing knowledge about cancer. A higher level of health-specific exposure and greater amount of cancer knowledge lessened the fear of cancer. In addition, the more people were exposed to health information on television and the Internet, the lower the level of fear of cancer as a result. These findings indicate a relationship between SEP and fear of cancer, as moderated by the level and type of media exposure. Furthermore, the findings suggest that for early detection or cancer prevention strategies, health communication approaches through mass media need to be considered. PMID:25081712

  14. Family Poverty--Childhood Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanier Inst. of the Family, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Children comprise the largest group of poor Canadians. While childhood poverty is closely related to a number of factors pertaining to the structure and functioning of families, such as parental marital status and wage-earning patterns, the poverty of children is a consequence of the poverty of families. As such, childhood poverty can be reduced…

  15. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media.

  16. Adolescents' exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Laurence; Monahan, Kathryn C

    2011-03-01

    It is widely believed that exposure to sexy content in the mass media leads teenagers to become sexually active. Although most research linking sexy media exposure to adolescents' sexual behavior is cross-sectional, several recent, well-publicized longitudinal studies purport to find a causal connection, which has alarmed the public and prompted criticism of the entertainment industry for its corrupting influence on youth. One problem in research on media effects on sexual activity, however, is that outcomes that are presumed to result from media exposure may actually be due to factors that differentially predispose adolescents to have different degrees of media exposure and are themselves related to sexual activity. We reanalyzed data from one of these longitudinal studies (Brown et al., 2006) using propensity score matching to control for preexisting differences between adolescents with and without high exposure to sexy media. With such controls for differential selection in place, we found no evidence that the initiation of sexual intercourse is hastened by exposure to sexy media. PMID:20677858

  17. Does parenting shield youth from exposure to violence during adolescence? A 5-year longitudinal test in a high-poverty sample of minority youth.

    PubMed

    Spano, Richard; Rivera, Craig; Bolland, John M

    2011-03-01

    Five waves of longitudinal data collected from 349 African American youth living in extreme poverty were used to determine if parental monitoring shielded youth from exposure to violence during adolescence. Semiparametric group- based modeling was used to identify trajectories of parental monitoring and exposure to violence from T1 to T5. Results from these analyses revealed (a) about 52% of youth had a trajectory of hypervigilant parental monitoring and (b) two out of the five distinct trajectories of exposure to violence were low and/or declining over the 5-year time period. Multivariate findings indicated that (a) youth with a trajectory of hypervigilant parenting were 109% more likely to have middle-declining exposure to violence, but hypervigilant parenting was unrelated to stable and low exposure to violence T1 to T5. The theoretical and policy implications of these findings as well as areas for future research are also discussed.

  18. Moderating Effects of Media Exposure between Socioeconomic Position and Cancer Worry

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    Reducing fear of cancer is significant in developing cancer screening interventions, but the levels of fear may vary depending on the degrees of media exposure as well as individuals’ socioeconomic positions (SEP). However, few studies have examined how the SEP influences the fear of cancer under the moderating process of general and specific forms of media exposure. We investigated the moderating effect of media exposure on the relationship between SEP and the level of fear of cancer by assuming that cancer knowledge is a covariate between those two. In particular, this study examined how exposure to both general and specific media changes the series of processes from SEP to fear of cancer. We conducted path analyses with three types of media—television, radio and the Internet—using data from a health communication survey of 613 adults in Massachusetts in the United States. We found that SEP influences cancer knowledge directly and fear of cancer indirectly, as moderated by the levels of media exposure. Health-specific exposure, however, had a more consistent effect than general media exposure in lowering the fear of cancer by increasing knowledge about cancer. A higher level of health-specific exposure and greater amount of cancer knowledge lessened the fear of cancer. In addition, the more people were exposed to health information on television and the Internet, the lower the level of fear of cancer was a result. These findings indicate a relationship between SEP and fear of cancer, as moderated by the levels and types of media exposure. Furthermore, the findings suggest that for early detection or cancer prevention strategies, health communication approaches through mass media need to be considered. PMID:25081712

  19. Media Exposure and Tobacco, Illicit Drugs, and Alcohol Use among Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez-Smith, Marcella; Wolf, Elizabeth; Huang, Helen Mikiko; Chen, Peggy G.; Lee, Lana; Emanuel, Ezekiel J.; Gross, Cary P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically reviewed 42 quantitative studies on the relationship between media exposure and tobacco, illicit drug, and alcohol use among children and adolescents. Overall, 83% of studies reported that media was associated with increased risk of smoking initiation, use of illicit drugs, and alcohol consumption. Of 30 studies…

  20. Beyond Exposure: A Person-Oriented Approach to Adolescent Media Diets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah; Sorsoli, C. Lynn; Kim, Janna L.; Tolman, Deborah L.

    2009-01-01

    Research on adolescents' use of sexual media has been dominated by a variable-oriented perspective, focusing on incremental effects of media exposure on sexual behavior. The present investigation examines the ways in which adolescents select and organize their television viewing. This study used cluster analysis to identify, validate, and describe…

  1. Using the Integrative Model to Explain How Exposure to Sexual Media Content Influences Adolescent Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleakley, Amy; Hennessy, Michael; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2011-01-01

    Published research demonstrates an association between exposure to media sexual content and a variety of sex-related outcomes for adolescents. What is not known is the mechanism through which sexual content produces this "media effect" on adolescent beliefs, attitudes, and behavior. Using the Integrative Model of Behavioral Prediction, this…

  2. Media violence exposure and executive functioning in aggressive and control adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kronenberger, William G; Mathews, Vincent P; Dunn, David W; Wang, Yang; Wood, Elisabeth A; Giauque, Ann L; Larsen, Joelle J; Rembusch, Mary E; Lowe, Mark J; Li, Tie-Qiang

    2005-06-01

    The relationship between media violence exposure and executive functioning was investigated in samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. Age-, gender-, and IQ-matched samples of adolescents who had no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-fourth edition (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) diagnosis (N = 27) and of adolescents who had DSM-IV Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses (N = 27) completed measures of media violence exposure and tests of executive functioning. Moderate to strong relationships were found between higher amounts of media violence exposure and deficits in self-report, parent-report, and laboratory-based measures of executive functioning. A significant diagnosis by media violence exposure interaction effect was found for Conners' Continuous Performance Test scores, such that the media violence exposure-executive functioning relationship was stronger for adolescents who had Disruptive Behavior Disorder diagnoses. Results indicate that media violence exposure is related to poorer executive functioning, and this relationship may be stronger for adolescents who have a history of aggressive-disruptive behavior. PMID:15468343

  3. Estimating the Longitudinal Association Between Adolescent Sexual Behavior and Exposure to Sexual Media Content

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. Methods A three wave longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14-16 year olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Results Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African-American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Conclusions While changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  4. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks. PMID:19382030

  5. Mass media exposure to tobacco messages among secondary school children in Mumbai.

    PubMed

    Surani, Nikita Shiraz; Shroff, Hemal Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore differences in exposure to media messages (pro- and antitobacco messages, marketing and promotions) between students consuming tobacco, areca nut, nonconsumers, and those intending to quit and to examine differences between municipal and private school students. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey was completed by secondary school students (N = 534) from municipal and private schools in Mumbai. Overall, the number of students who reported ever use of tobacco was quite low (5.1%). There was no significant difference in exposure to media messages between users of tobacco, areca nut, and nonusers. There were significantly higher numbers of ever users of tobacco in private compared to municipal schools. There was a significant association between exposure to marketing and promotions and intention to quit, but not with the other exposure variables. Media exposure may be related to intention to quit but not to quitting behavior.

  6. Estimating the longitudinal association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Michael; Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Jordan, Amy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the association between adolescent sexual behavior and exposure to sexual media content. A three-wave, longitudinal survey sample (N = 506) of 14- to 16-year-olds at baseline is analyzed using growth curves. Growth trajectories are linear for sexual behavior but not for exposure to sexual media content. The signs of the exposure slopes are not uniformly positive: Hispanic and African American respondents show declines of exposure to sexual media content over the age range investigated here. Although changes in exposure to sex content are highly associated with changes in sexual behavior among Whites, there is little or no association between changes in these variables among Blacks.

  7. Limit Kids' Exposure to Media Violence, Pediatricians Say

    MedlinePlus

    ... the reins, while media needs to stop glorifying aggression, statement says To use the sharing features on ... scientific connection" between virtual violence and real-life aggression, the doctors say. Many studies have found such ...

  8. Exposure to Media and Theory-of-Mind Development in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar, Raymond A.; Tackett, Jennifer L.; Moore, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to different forms of narrative media may influence children's development of theory-of-mind. Because engagement with fictional narratives provides one with information about the social world, and possibly draws upon theory-of-mind processes during comprehension, exposure to storybooks, movies, and television may influence theory-of-mind…

  9. Amount, Content and Context of Infant Media Exposure: A Parental Questionnaire and Diary Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Rachel; Danzinger, Catherine; Hilliard, Marissa E.; Andolina, Carolyn; Ruskis, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. This study examined the amount, content and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the USA. Parents of 308 infants aged 6-18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children's television use and…

  10. Relation of media exposure to eating disorder symptomatology: an examination of mediating mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stice, E; Schupak-Neuberg, E; Shaw, H E; Stein, R I

    1994-11-01

    Although investigators have postulated that the thin ideal for women espoused in the media is related to the high rates of eating disorders among females, little research has examined the relation between media exposure and eating pathology. This study assessed the relation of media exposure to eating disorder symptoms and tested whether gender-role endorsement, ideal-body stereotype internalization, and body satisfaction mediated this effect. In data from 238 female undergraduates, structural equation modeling revealed a direct effect of media exposure on eating disorder symptoms. Furthermore, mediational linkages were found for gender-role endorsement, ideal body stereotype internalization, and body satisfaction. The results support the assertion that internalization of sociocultural pressures mediate the adverse effects of the thin ideal.

  11. Do Verbal Interactions with Infants during Electronic Media Exposure Mitigate Adverse Impacts on Their Language Development as Toddlers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendelsohn, Alan L.; Brockmeyer, Carolyn A.; Dreyer, Benard P.; Fierman, Arthur H.; Berkule-Silberman, Samantha B.; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether verbal interactions between mothers and their 6-month-old infants during media exposure ("media verbal interactions") might have direct positive impacts, or mitigate any potential adverse impacts of media exposure, on language development at 14 months. For 253 low-income mother-infant dyads…

  12. Media exposure and romantic relationship quality: a slippery slope?

    PubMed

    Reizer, Abira; Hetsroni, Amir

    2014-02-01

    This study examines whether media consumption predicted relationship quality among 188 college students who were involved in romantic relationships. The respondents assessed their commitment to the relationship, their satisfaction from the relationship, and their tendency to engage in conflicts within the relationship. Media consumption was measured by assessing the time dedicated to television viewing in general, watching specific genres, Internet use, and newspaper reading. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that total TV viewing time statistically predicted lower commitment to the relationship, while viewing of programming focusing on romantic relationships predicted lower satisfaction and stronger tendency to engage in conflicts. Consumption of media other than television and the control factors did not predict any indicator of relationship quality. The pattern of negative associations between TV viewing and relationship quality is discussed with reference to cultivation theory and mood management theory. PMID:24765723

  13. Testing the Validity of Campaign Ad Exposure Measures: A Family Planning Media Campaign in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Beaudoin, Christopher E; Stephenson, Michael T; Agha, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Although prior research has tested the nomological validity of media campaign exposure, including the related comparative validity of some measures, it has not well studied predictive validity or made extensions to other types of media campaign exposure. To help build on research in this area, the current study tested the nomological and predictive validity of 5 ad recall and recognition measures specific to the Touch condom media campaign in Pakistan. Between-effects regression of panel survey data confirmed the nomological validity of each of the 5 measures of Touch ad exposure. In addition, 2 sets of panel regression models (i.e., fixed-effects models and fixed-effects with lag models) confirmed the predictive validity of each of the 5 ad exposure measures. Results on comparative validity were quite similar for nomological and predictive validity, indicating that confirmed ad recall and recognition measures tend to have greater validity than unconfirmed measures. PMID:27337154

  14. Indirect exposure to a family planning mass media campaign in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Marc; Storey, J Douglas; Sood, Suruchi

    2002-01-01

    It is often noted that some individuals become aware of a mass media program's messages through discussions with other individuals. However, the extent to which indirect exposure occurs, and its influence on behavior, are somewhat unclear. This study examines the role of indirect exposure in extending the reach of a family planning mass media campaign in Nepal. Sociometric data, gathered from nearly all women between the ages of 15 and 49 years living in six villages in Dang District, Nepal (N = 667), assessed indirect exposure to the radio program. Indirect exposure was extensive; half of all respondents were indirectly exposed to the program's messages and the overall reach of the program increased from 50% to 75% when indirect exposure was considered. Members of community groups had higher levels of direct exposure to the radio program and more extensive and diverse social networks, allowing them to serve as a conduit for these messages into the wider community. While direct exposure to the radio program appeared to influence family planning knowledge, indirect exposure was more strongly associated with contraceptive use. These findings suggest that program evaluations that ignore indirect exposure underestimate the impact of a mass media program on behavior. PMID:12455760

  15. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  16. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating. PMID:20593479

  17. The mass media exposure and disordered eating behaviours in Spanish secondary students.

    PubMed

    Calado, María; Lameiras, María; Sepulveda, Ana R; Rodríguez, Yolanda; Carrera, María V

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between disordered eating behaviours/attitudes and mass media exposure in a cross-sectional national survey of 1165 Spanish secondary students (age between 14 and 16 years). A battery of questionnaires were used to investigate mass media influence, body dissatisfaction, physical appearance, sociocultural attitudes and self-esteem. Likewise, the EAT-26 questionnaire was used to assess disordered eating behaviours/attitudes, identifying that 6.6% (n = 32) of the male and 13.6% (n = 68) of the female students reached a cut-off point of 20 or above. The main finding was that female and male adolescents with disordered eating showed an increased exposure to TV and magazine sections related to body image, specifically regarding music video channels, in comparison with those without eating disordered, gender-matched counterparts. However, findings indicate that media exposure was different to some degree between males and females with disordered eating behaviour. Males with disordered eating behaviours and attitudes were associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to health sections and also greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation of the thin-ideal and social and appearance comparison. In females, disordered eating was associated with higher TV and magazine exposure to dieting, fashion and sport sections, greater body dissatisfaction, internalisation and awareness of the thin-ideal and lower self-esteem. Understanding the mechanism involved in the media exposure's influence on adolescents is critical in preventing disordered eating.

  18. A discrete-time analysis of the effects of more prolonged exposure to neighborhood poverty on the risk of smoking initiation by age 25.

    PubMed

    Kravitz-Wirtz, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who initiate smoking at younger ages are at increased risk for future tobacco dependence and continued use as well as for numerous smoking-attributable health problems. Identifying individual, household, and to a far lesser extent, contextual factors that predict early cigarette use has garnered considerable attention over the last several decades. However, the majority of scholarship in this area has been cross-sectional or conducted over relatively short windows of observation. Few studies have investigated the effects of more prolonged exposure to smoking-related risk factors, particularly neighborhood characteristics, from childhood through early adulthood. Using the 1970-2011 waves of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics merged with census data on respondents' neighborhoods, this study estimates a series of race-specific discrete-time marginal structural logit models for the risk of smoking initiation as a function of neighborhood poverty, as well as individual and household characteristics, from ages four through 25. Neighborhood selection bias is addressed using inverse-probability-of-treatment weights. Results indicate that more prolonged exposure to high (>20%) as opposed to low (<10%) poverty neighborhoods is associated with an increased risk of smoking onset by age 25, although consistent with prior literature, this effect is only evident among white and not nonwhite youth and young adults.

  19. Relating climate change policy to poverty policy: assessing the global exposure of the poor to floods and droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winsemius, Hessel; Jongman, Brenden; Veldkamp, Ted; Hallegatte, Stéphane; Bangalore, Mook; Ward, Philip

    2016-04-01

    Prior to the COP21 conference in Paris this year, the World Bank published a report called "Shockwaves - Managing the Impacts of Climate Change on Poverty". The report flagged that ending poverty and stabilizing climate change should be jointly tackled and that without a good joint policy, a further 100 million people could become trapped in poverty by 2050. As part of the "Shockwaves" report, we investigated whether low-income households are disproportionately overrepresented in hazard-prone areas compared to households with higher income. Furthermore, the hazardous conditions under which poor households are exposed to now may become worse due to climate change with resulting increases in intensity and frequency of floods and droughts. We also show how the amount of affected people to these natural hazards change in the future if nothing is done. We use recent advances in the global spatial modeling of flood and drought hazard and a large sample of household surveys containing asset and income data to explore the relationships.

  20. Reading Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    The central purpose of this book is to challenge current social constructions of poverty, reading education, and the putative relationship between the two. It explores how official and popular representations of poverty are bound to specific historical, social, and economic conditions of their own production. The book offers four stances of…

  1. Associations of neighborhood concentrated poverty, neighborhood racial/ethnic composition, and indoor allergen exposures: a cross-sectional analysis of los angeles households, 2006-2008.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2014-08-01

    Although racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood factors have been linked to asthma, and the association between indoor allergens and asthma is well documented, few studies have examined the relationship between these factors and indoor allergens. We examined the frequency of reported indoor allergens and differences by racial/ethnic, socioeconomic, and neighborhood characteristics among a diverse sample of Los Angeles households. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to analyze the data from 723 households from wave 2 of the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey. The reported presence of rats, mice, cockroaches, mold, pets, and tobacco smoke were the primary outcomes of interest. Hispanic and Asian households had a nearly threefold increase in the odds of reporting cockroaches compared to non-Hispanic Whites (OR, 2.85; 95 % CI 1.38-5.88 and OR, 2.62; 95 % CI 1.02-6.73, respectively) even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors. Primary caregivers who had obtained a high school degree were significantly less likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to primary caregivers with less than a high school degree (OR, 0.19; 95 % CI 0.08-0.46 and OR, 0.39; 95 % CI 0.23-0.68, respectively). Primary caregivers with more than a high school degree were also less likely to report the presence of rats, mice, and cockroaches within their households, compared to those with less than a high school degree. Compared to renters, home owners were less likely to report the presence of mice, cockroaches, and mold within their households. At the neighborhood level, households located within neighborhoods of high concentrated poverty (where the average poverty rate is at least 50 %) were more likely to report the presence of mice and cockroaches compared to households in low concentrated poverty neighborhoods (average poverty rate is 10 % or less), after adjusting for individual race/ethnicity and socioeconomic characteristics. Our study

  2. Amount, content and context of infant media exposure: A parental questionnaire and diary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Rachel; Danziger, Catherine; Hilliard, Marisa; Andolina, Carolyn; Ruskis, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Recent research has indicated that there are long-term consequences of early media exposure. The present study examined the amount, content, and context of television exposure across the infancy period in the United States. Parents of 308 infants aged 6 to 18 months completed questionnaires detailing parental attitudes regarding their children’s television use and 24-hour television diaries to provide an accurate measurement of household television usage. Television exposure during infancy varied as a function of infant age, sibling status, socioeconomic status and parental attitudes toward television. Regression analyses indicated that parental attitudes were not associated with the amount of television exposure, but were associated with the content of television exposure. These findings indicate that television exposure changes rapidly across infancy and is associated with parental attitudes. PMID:20890405

  3. Developing Respondent Based Multi-Media Measures of Exposure to Sexual Content

    PubMed Central

    Bleakley, Amy; Fishbein, Martin; Hennessy, Michal; Jordan, Amy; Chernin, Ariel; Stevens, Robin

    2010-01-01

    Despite the interest in the effects of the media on sexual behavior, there is no single method for assessing exposure to a particular type of media content (e.g., sex). This paper discusses the development of six sexual content exposure measures based on adolescents’ own subjective ratings of the sexual content in titles in 4 media (i.e., television, music, magazines, videogames). We assessed the construct and criterion validity of these measures by examining the associations among each of these measures of exposure to sexual content as well as their associations with adolescents’ sexual activity. Data were collected in summer 2005 through a web-based survey using a quota sample of 547 youth aged 14–16 from the Philadelphia area. Adolescents rated how often they were exposed to specific television shows, magazine titles, etc. on 4-point never to often scales. They also rated the sexual content of those titles on 4-point no sexual content to a lot of sexual content scales. Sexual behavior was measured using an ordered index of lifetime pre-coital and coital sexual activity. The strength of association between exposure to sexual content and sexual activity varied by medium and measure. Based on our findings, we recommend the use of a multiple media weighted sum measure. This measure produces findings that are consistent with those of similar studies. PMID:20411048

  4. Aggregation and dispersion of silver nanoparticles in exposure media for aquatic toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Römer, Isabella; White, Thomas A; Baalousha, Mohammed; Chipman, Kevin; Viant, Mark R; Lead, Jamie R

    2011-07-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are currently being very widely used in industry, mainly because of their anti-bacterial properties, with applications in many areas. Once released into the environment, the mobility, bioavailability, and toxicity of AgNPs in any ecosystem are dominated by colloidal stability. There have been studies on the stability or the aggregation of various nanoparticles (NPs) under a range of environmental conditions, but there is little information on fully characterised AgNPs in media used in (eco)toxicity studies. In this study, monodisperse 7, 10 and 20 nm citrate-stabilised AgNPs were synthesised, characterised and then fractionated and sized by flow field-flow fractionation (FFF) and measured with dynamic light scattering (DLS) in different dilutions of the media recommended by OECD for Daphnia magna (water flea) toxicity testing. Stability of NPs was assessed over 24 h, and less so over 21 days, similar time periods to the OECD acute and chronic toxicity tests for D. magna. All particles aggregated quickly in the media with high ionic strength (media1), resulting in a loss of colour from the solution. The size of particles could be measured by DLS in most cases after 24h, although a fractogram by FFF could not be obtained due to aggregation and polydispersity of the sample. After diluting the media by a factor of 2, 5 or 10, aggregation was reduced, although the smallest NPs were unstable under all media conditions. Media diluted up to 10-fold in the absence of AgNPs did not induce any loss of mobility or fecundity in D. magna. These results confirm that standard OECD media causes aggregation of AgNPs, which result in changes in organism exposure levels and the nature of the exposed particles compared to exposure to fully dispersed particles. Setting aside questions of dose metrics, significant and substantial reduction in concentration over exposure period suggests that literature data are in the main improperly interpreted and

  5. Role of gambling media exposure in influencing trajectories among college students.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyung-Seok; Lemanski, Jennifer Lee; Jun, Jong Woo

    2008-03-01

    In the study, a model of the relationship between mass media depictions of gambling and subsequent gambling attitudes and behavioral intentions of college students was developed. A survey was conducted with 229 undergraduate students (79.5% female, mean age = 20.5, SD = 2.04) enrolled in three different communication courses at a large southeastern university. Through structural equation analysis, the six hypotheses of this study were analyzed using the method of maximum likelihood with AMOS 6. The model was consistent with the hypotheses that media exposure impacts gambling attitudes and behavioral intentions both positively and negatively, depending on the valence of the gambling depiction. Theoretical and practical implications of mass media exposure and gambling behaviors are discussed, and future research directions are outlined. PMID:17901930

  6. The exposure of the nursing profession in online and print media

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Rodrigo José Martins; Graveto, João Manuel Garcia de Nascimento; Queiroz, Ana Maria Correia Albuquerque

    2014-01-01

    Objective to describe the coverage of news concerning the nursing profession in the Portuguese media: informative sites on the Internet and in print media. Method a total of 1,271 health news items were collected in September and October of 2011 (956 online news items and 325 news items originating from the press review of the Portuguese Order of Nurses). Statistical analysis was used to characterize the variables. Results nurses were the sources of information in 6.6% of cases, suggesting limited media exposure. The health news collected is characterized by a production based on limited information sources, that is, male and official sources, on information disseminated by news agencies focused on economic and political issues in the health field. Conclusion the presence of nurses in the news concerning nursing health is reduced. We suggest that nurses develop public communication skills to disseminate the importance of their profession in society and their relationship with the media. PMID:24553715

  7. Is television traumatic? Dreams, stress, and media exposure in the aftermath of September 11, 2001.

    PubMed

    Propper, Ruth E; Stickgold, Robert; Keeley, Raeann; Christman, Stephen D

    2007-04-01

    The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, were traumatic for people living throughout the United States. It has been suggested that people living far from the attacks experienced increased stress because of their exposure to the terrorist events via the media, particularly via television. Following a traumatic or stressful event, individuals may have dreams that reflect that experience. As part of a course on dreaming, individuals recorded their dreams both prior to and following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. On September 12, these same individuals reported their activities and media exposure the previous day. Results revealed (a) changes in dream features following the attacks and (b) a strong relation between exposure to the events on television and changes in dream features after the attacks. Because of the study's within-subjects design, the results provide evidence for a direct association between television viewing and subsequent increases in stress and trauma.

  8. Contaminant exposures in various environmental media: How can toxicity comparisons be made?

    SciTech Connect

    Lanno, R.P.; McCarty, L.S.

    1995-12-31

    Environmental protection is usually based upon guidelines or standards expressed as chemical values in environmental media such as air, sediment, soil, and water. The basis for such guidelines is laboratory toxicity test data, often time-dependent LC50 values (e.g., 96-h LC50s), where toxicity is expressed in terms of the concentration of chemical contaminant in the exposure medium. This preoccupation with exposure-based estimates of toxic dose has led to many difficulties when attempting to compare the relative toxicity of compounds between species and under various modifying conditions in the same medium. Furthermore, viable comparisons of toxic potencies between organisms inhabiting different environmental media has been all but impossible. This paper exploits the relationship between body residues and adverse biological effects to compare the effects of certain modifying factors (e.g., temperature) on expressed toxicity and toxic potency both within and between different species in one medium. As well, this approach is used to make comparisons of toxic potency between different species in different environmental media. Such comparisons are made by standardizing toxic responses to time-independent toxicity thresholds and using the critical body residue at the chosen biological response endpoint as the dose surrogate rather than the concentration of chemical in the exposure medium. Comparisons of exposure-based and organism residue-based toxicity between fish, and invertebrates in soil (earthworms) and sediment (amphipods) are presented. Recommendations to facilitate such comparisons are reviewed.

  9. Middle and high school students' exposure to alcohol- and smoking-related media: a pilot study using ecological momentary assessment.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Deborah M; Martino, Steven C; Setodji, Claude M; Staplefoote, B Lynette; Shadel, William G

    2013-12-01

    The goals of this study were to assess the feasibility of using Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) to measure adolescents' exposure to alcohol and smoking-related media. A sample of 20 middle and high school students completed a 2-week EMA protocol in which they monitored exposures to alcohol and smoking-related media. Results showed that adolescents were highly compliant with the study protocol. A total of 255 exposures to alcohol (67%) and smoking (33%) were captured, representing an average of 8.50 (SD = 5.82) alcohol-related media exposures and 4.25 (SD = 3.67) smoking-related media exposures per participant, during the study period. Exposures tended to occur in the afternoon (52% alcohol; 54% smoking), at point of sale (44% alcohol; 65% smoking), and on days leading up to the weekend (57% alcohol; 57% smoking). Exposures were also likely in the presence of family (69% alcohol; 56% smoking). Overall, results of this small pilot provide preliminary evidence that EMA is a useful tool for tracking and characterizing middle and high school students' real-world exposures to alcohol- and smoking-related media. Future studies may suggest mechanisms by which media exposures lead to youth uptake of drinking and smoking behaviors.

  10. Exposure to media content and sexual health behaviour among adolescents in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Wusu, Onipede

    2013-06-01

    The influence of adolescents' exposure to sexual health content of mass media in their sexual health behaviour in Nigeria is still not clear. Data were gathered through a survey conducted among adolescents aged 12-19 years in Lagos metropolis between November 2009 and February 2010. A multistage sampling strategy was adopted in selecting respondents. Logistic regression technique was utilised in the analysis. The results indicate that the respondents were most frequently exposed to TV (male = 92.2; female = 94.9) and radio (male = 88.2; female = 91.7) media. The odds ratios indicate that sexual health content of mass media significantly predicted condom use, multiple sexual relationship, sexual intercourse and self reported occurrence of abortion in the study sample. The findings imply that positive media sexual health content is likely to promote sexual health among adolescents but negative contents can put adolescents' sexual health in danger. In addition, safe sex can be advanced among adolescents if the media provide accurate information on sexuality, emphasising the dangers of risky sexual practices. Finally, this study posits that accurate portrayal of sexuality in the media would contribute immensely to improving public health in the metropolis.

  11. Women's exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images: body image effects of media-ideal internalization and impact-reduction interventions.

    PubMed

    Yamamiya, Yuko; Cash, Thomas F; Melnyk, Susan E; Posavac, Heidi D; Posavac, Steven S

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to media images of thin-and-beautiful women negatively affects the body image and mood states of young women. However, not all women are equally susceptible to these effects. The present experimental investigation with 123 young college women evaluated the moderating effects of the extent of internalization of media ideals. It also examined the preventative impact of two brief interventions (i.e., media literacy information with and without a dissonance-induction procedure). Results indicated that relative to a control group, the exposure to thin-and-beautiful media images adversely influenced the state body image of participants with high internalization levels. Media-literacy psychoeducation prior to the media exposure prevented this adverse effect. Adding a pre-exposure dissonance-induction procedure did not significantly enhance the preventative effects relative to psychoeducation alone. These results and their implications for the treatment and prevention of body image disturbances are discussed in the context of the empirical literature on the media's effects on body image.

  12. Repeated Exposure to Media Violence Is Associated with Diminished Response in an Inhibitory Frontolimbic Network

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Joy

    2007-01-01

    Background Media depictions of violence, although often claimed to induce viewer aggression, have not been shown to affect the cortical networks that regulate behavior. Methodology/Principal Findings Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that repeated exposure to violent media, but not to other equally arousing media, led to both diminished response in right lateral orbitofrontal cortex (right ltOFC) and a decrease in right ltOFC-amygdala interaction. Reduced function in this network has been previously associated with decreased control over a variety of behaviors, including reactive aggression. Indeed, we found reduced right ltOFC responses to be characteristic of those subjects that reported greater tendencies toward reactive aggression. Furthermore, the violence-induced reduction in right ltOFC response coincided with increased throughput to behavior planning regions. Conclusions These novel findings establish that even short-term exposure to violent media can result in diminished responsiveness of a network associated with behaviors such as reactive aggression. PMID:18060062

  13. High-Flying High-Poverty Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Educator, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In discussing socioeconomic integration before audiences, the author is frequently asked: What about high-poverty schools that do work? Don't they suggest that economic segregation isn't much of a problem after all? High-poverty public schools that beat the odds paint a heartening story that often attracts considerable media attention. In 2000,…

  14. Hazards of New Media: Youth’s Exposure to Tobacco Ads/Promotions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background: A gap in knowledge exists about the youth’s exposure to protobacco campaigns via new electronic media outlets. In response, we use national data to delineate the associations between tobacco ads/promotions delivered through new media outlets (i.e., social network sites and text messages) and youth attitudes/beliefs about tobacco and intent to use (among youth who had not yet used tobacco). Methods: Data were derived from the 2011 National Youth Tobacco Survey, a nationally representative sample of U.S. youth enrolled in both public and private schools (N = 15,673). Logistic regression models were used to examine associations between demographic characteristics and reported exposure to tobacco ads/promotions via social networking sites and text messages. Logistic regression models were also used to investigate associations between exposure tobacco ads/promotions and attitudes toward tobacco. Results: We found that highly susceptible youth (i.e., minorities, very young youth, and youth who have not yet used tobacco) have observed tobacco ads/promotions on social networking sites and text messages. These youth are more likely to have favorable attitudes toward tobacco, including the intention to use tobacco among those who had not yet used tobacco. Conclusions: Our findings underscore the need for policy strategies to more effectively monitor and regulate tobacco advertising via new media outlets. PMID:24163285

  15. Exposure to Weight-Stigmatizing Media: Effects on Exercise Intentions, Motivation, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pearl, Rebecca L; Dovidio, John F; Puhl, Rebecca M; Brownell, Kelly D

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of exposure to weight-stigmatizing media on exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior, as well as to examine the interaction between this exposure and past experiences with weight stigma. A community sample of 72 women were randomly assigned to view a brief weight-stigmatizing or neutral video. Participants' choice of taking the stairs versus the elevator was observed before they completed measures of exercise intentions, motivation, and behavior; psychological well-being; and experiences with weight stigma. A follow-up survey was sent to participants 1 week later that assessed exercise behavior and intentions. Frequency of past weight stigma correlated with worse psychological well-being and more controlled (versus autonomous) exercise motivation. Significant interactions were found between past weight-stigmatizing experiences and exposure to the weight-stigmatizing video for outcomes of exercise intentions, behavior, and drive for thinness. Participants in the stigma condition with higher frequency of past experiences reported greater exercise intentions and behavior, along with higher drive for thinness. Past experiences of weight stigma interact with exposure to weight-stigmatizing media to increase exercise intentions and behavior, although this effect is accompanied by a heightened drive for thinness that may increase risk for long-term negative health consequences.

  16. Media multitasking: Issues posed in measuring the effects of television sexual content exposure

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Rebecca L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents who see more sexual content on television are more likely to initiate intercourse over the subsequent year. The present study hypothesized that use of the internet while watching television would moderate this relationship. Internet use might either strengthen or weaken the association between television-viewing and sex; various theories conflict in their predictions. A national sample of 1,762 12–17 year olds completed a telephone survey at baseline and one year later. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, baseline exposure to sexual content on television was used to predict intercourse initiation by follow-up among baseline virgins. The equation controlled for potentially confounding characteristics and tested for an interaction between sexual content exposure and self-reported multitasking. Half of youth reported using the internet while watching television. The interaction between multitasking and sexual content exposure was significant; exposure to sexual content on television was more strongly related to sexual initiation among multitaskers. Divided attention may allow television messages to “slip past the radar” of viewers who would reject these messages if they devoted cognitive resources to critically examining them. Media multitasking is likely to become more prevalent as new media continue to be introduced. Future studies of television-viewing effects may need to assess multitasking to avoid missing effects in this important subgroup of viewers. PMID:20390045

  17. Does war hurt? Effects of media exposure after missile attacks on chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Lerman, Sheera F; Rudich, Zvia; Shahar, Golan

    2013-03-01

    This study focused on the effects of exposure to terrorist missile attacks on the physical and mental well being of chronic pain patients. In this prospective and longitudinal design, 55 chronic pain patients treated at a specialty pain clinic completed self-report questionnaires regarding their pain, depression and anxiety pre- and post a three week missile attack on the southern region of Israel. In addition, levels of direct and indirect exposure to the attacks were measured. Results of regression analyses showed that exposure to the attacks through the media predicted an increase in pain intensity and in the sensory component of pain during the pre-post war period, but did not predict depression, anxiety or the affective component of pain. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of terrorism on physical and emotional distress and identify chronic pain patients as a vulnerable population requiring special attention during terrorism-related stress.

  18. A comprehensive assessment of human exposure to phthalates from environmental media and food in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yaqin; Wang, Fumei; Zhang, Leibo; Shan, Chunyan; Bai, Zhipeng; Sun, Zengrong; Liu, Lingling; Shen, Boxiong

    2014-08-30

    A total of 448 samples including foodstuffs (rice, steamed bun, vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, milk and fruits), ambient PM10, drinking water, soil, indoor PM10 and indoor dust samples from Tianjin were obtained to determine the distribution of six priority phthalates (PAEs) and assess the human exposure to them. The results indicated that DBP and DEHP were the most frequently detected PAEs in these samples. The concentrations of PAEs in environmental media were higher than those in food. We estimated the daily intake (DI) of PAEs via ingestion, inhalation and dermal absorption from five sources (food, water, air, dust and soil). Dietary intake was the main exposure source to DEP, BBP, DEHP and DOP, whereas water ingestion/absorption was the major source of exposure to DBP, DEHP and DOP. Although food and water were the overwhelmingly predominant sources of PAEs intake by Tianjin population, contaminated air was another important source of DMP, DEP and DBP contributing to up to 45% of the exposure. The results of this study will help in understanding the major pathways of human exposure to PAEs. These findings also suggest that human exposure to phthalate esters via the environment should not be overlooked.

  19. Exposure to Media Violence and Young Children with and without Disabilities: Powerful Opportunities for Family-Professional Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Elizabeth J.; Morton, Naomi

    2008-01-01

    There is growing concern regarding the amount and type of violence that young children are exposed to on a daily basis. Through media, popular toys and video games violent images are consistently present in children's lives starting at a very young age. This paper discusses (a) the growing presence of young children's exposure to media violence,…

  20. Links between Self-Reported Media Violence Exposure and Teacher Ratings of Aggression and Prosocial Behavior among German Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krahe, Barbara; Moller, Ingrid

    2011-01-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant,…

  1. Tektronix color fiber optic tube for exposure of Mead Imaging's Cycolor and 3M's full-color dry silver media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlothlan, J. Kirk

    1990-08-01

    The Tektronix CFOT was used to expose Mead Cycolor and 3M dry silver photosensitive media. The results are presented and compared. The color gamut time to complete exposure and discernible resolution for the media are compared. Reciprocity failure and methods of minimizing the problems associated with it are discussed. The interactions between reciprocity failure and exposure time are discussed. The color coordinates attainable on the exposed media were determined by adjusting the paper feed speed and the intensity of the CFOT to obtain a range of exposures up to and beyond complete exposure. The CIELa*b* color coordinates of the media were measured with a Minolta color meter (Chroma Meter II). The discernible resolution was measured by exposing a 32 x 32 dot matrix on the media and then shrinking the dot to dot spacing between subsequent exposures to obtain a range of dot to dot spacings corresponding to resolutions ranging from 150 to 300 DPI. The exposed media was then examined under magnification to determine where uniform color fill was achieved. 1. CATHODE RAY TUBE DESCRIPTION The CFOT is a line scan tube with a fiber optic faceplate designed for producing full color hard copy on optically sensitive media. The tube has 3 stripes of phosphor each approximately . 060 inches wide by 8 inches long. The three phosphors are red green and blue enabling full color hard copy by sequentially

  2. Race, poverty, and potential exposure of middle-school students to air emissions from confined swine feeding operations.

    PubMed

    Mirabelli, Maria C; Wing, Steve; Marshall, Stephen W; Wilcosky, Timothy C

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies suggest that airborne effluent from swine confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) may affect the health and quality of life of adults and the prevalence of asthma symptoms among children. To investigate the extent to which public school students may be exposed to airborne effluent from swine CAFOs and to evaluate the association between schools' demographic characteristics and swine CAFO exposures, we assessed the proximity of 226 schools to the nearest swine CAFO and conducted a survey of school employees to identify schools with noticeable livestock odor. We used publicly available information describing the enrollment of each school to assess the association between race and socioeconomic status (SES) and swine CAFO exposure. Odor from livestock was noticeable outside (n = 47, 21%) and inside (n = 19, 8%) school buildings. Schools with < 63% enrollment of white students and > or = 47% of students receiving subsidized lunches at school were located closer to swine CAFOs (mean = 4.9 miles) than were the remaining schools (mean = 10.8 miles) and were more likely to be located within 3 miles of an operation than were schools with high-white/high-SES enrollment (prevalence ratio = 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.59-4.33). The prevalence of reported livestock odor varied with SES (low SES, 25%; high SES, 17%). These analyses indicate that the potential for in-school exposure to pollution arising from swine CAFOs in North Carolina and the environmental health risks associated with such exposures vary according to the racial and economic characteristics of enrolled students. PMID:16581551

  3. Understanding Hong Kong Adolescents' Environmental Intention: The Roles of Media Exposure, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioral Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Kaman

    2011-01-01

    This article explores how exposure to environment-related media content, subjective norm and perceived behavioral control play a role in Hong Kong adolescents' environmental intention. The author conducted a survey with a sample of 1,012 (465 male, 547 female) adolescents in Hong Kong. Structural equation modeling confirms that exposure to…

  4. Evaluation of bioaerosol exposures during conditioning of biofilter organic media beds.

    PubMed

    Barth, Ed; Talbott, Nancy; Gable, Robert; Richter, Sheri; Reponen, Tiina

    2002-01-01

    Biological media air filters (biofilters) are currently being used for the treatment of inorganic and organic gases from sewage treatment plants, industrial processes, and remediation systems. The media may be organic material such as compost, wood chips, or synthetic plastic media, each with a large surface area for microorganism growth and activity. An occupational health and safety graduate student team (OHS team) evaluated potential particulate and bioaerosol exposure from a biofilter unit process used to treat hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas generated from a primary sludge settling unit process. The OHS team included an industrial hygiene/environmental health engineering specialist, an occupational safety specialist, an occupational health physician, and an occupational health nurse. Concerns were raised regarding the possibility of adverse health effects to maintenance workers during "conditioning" of the biofilter compost-like media beds. Conditioning activities may include in-situ rearrangement of the existing media, removal from the tank/surface, drying/reinsertion of the existing media, or complete removal of the media, and replacement with new. Neither the design engineering firm nor the manufacturer had specific written recommendations or precautions regarding exposure during the conditioning of the compost beds. No personal protection equipment has been used for this activity. The expected agents for adverse health effects associated with this unit process are respirable particulate dust and bioaerosols, which may contain viable bacteria and fungi, as well as endotoxin. Safety procedures are already in place for H2S. Mixed dust from the compost media bed may cause irritation of pre-existing health conditions such as asthma, chronic lung disease, and some skin conditions, and may also lead to new health problems such as inhalation fever, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, skin rashes and/or skin infections, and upper or lower respiratory

  5. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?☆

    PubMed Central

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-01-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14–15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms. PMID:24215959

  6. Are sexual media exposure, parental restrictions on media use and co-viewing TV and DVDs with parents and friends associated with teenagers' early sexual behaviour?

    PubMed

    Parkes, Alison; Wight, Daniel; Hunt, Kate; Henderson, Marion; Sargent, James

    2013-12-01

    Sexual content in teenagers' media diets is known to predict early sexual behaviour. Research on sexual content has not allowed for the social context of media use, which may affect selection and processing of content. This study investigated whether sexual media content and/or contextual factors (co-viewing, parental media restrictions) were associated with early sexual behaviour using 2251 14-15 year-olds from Scotland, UK. A third (n = 733) reported sexual intercourse. In multivariable analysis the likelihood of intercourse was lower with parental restriction of sexual media and same-sex peer co-viewing; but higher with mixed-sex peer co-viewing. Parental co-viewing, other parental restrictions on media and sexual film content exposure were not associated with intercourse. Findings suggest the context of media use may influence early sexual behaviour. Specific parental restrictions on sexual media may offer more protection against early sex than other restrictions or parental co-viewing. Further research is required to establish causal mechanisms.

  7. Exposure to media predicts use of dietary supplements and anabolic-androgenic steroids among Flemish adolescent boys.

    PubMed

    Frison, Eline; Vandenbosch, Laura; Eggermont, Steven

    2013-10-01

    This study examined whether different types of media affect the use of dietary proteins and amino acid supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. A random sample of 618 boys aged 11-18 years from eight schools in the Flemish part of Belgium completed standardized questionnaires as part of the Media and Adolescent Health Study. The survey measured exposure to sports media, appearance-focused media, fitness media, use of dietary supplements, and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Data were analyzed using logistic regressions and are presented as adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI); 8.6 % indicated to have used dietary proteins, 3.9 % indicated to have used amino acid supplements, and 11.8 % would consider using anabolic-androgenic steroids. After adjusting for fitness activity, exposure to fitness media was associated with the use of dietary proteins (OR = 7.24, CI = 2.25-23.28) and amino acid supplements (5.16, 1.21-21.92; 44.30, 8.25-238). Intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids was associated with exposure to fitness media (2.38, 1.08-5.26; 8.07, 2.55-25.53) and appearance-focused media (6.02, 1.40-25.82; 8.94, 1.78-44.98). Sports media did not correlate with the use of dietary supplements and intent to use anabolic-androgenic steroids. Specific types of media are strong predictors of the use of supplements in adolescent boys. This provides an opportunity for intervention and prevention through the selection of fitness media as a communication channel. Health practitioners should also be aware that the contemporary body culture exerts pressure not only on girls but also on boys.

  8. Residential Exposure to Urban Traffic Is Associated with Increased Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Children

    PubMed Central

    Armijos, Rodrigo X.; Weigel, M. Margaret; Myers, Orrin B.; Li, Wen-Whai; Racines, Marcia; Berwick, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to urban traffic pollution is documented to promote atherosclerosis in adults but little is known about its potential effects in children. Our study examined the association of long-term exposure to traffic with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 287 healthy children. Residential proximity and distance-weighted traffic density (DWTD) were used as proximity markers for traffic-related air pollution exposure. The multivariable analyses revealed that children residing <100 meters from the nearest heavily trafficked road had cIMT mean and maximum measurements that were increased by 15% and 11% compared to those living ≥ 200 meters away (P = 0.0001). Similar increases in cIMT were identified for children in the highest versus lowest DWTD tertile. Children who resided 100–199 meters from traffic or in the middle DWTD tertile also exhibited increased cIMT but these differences were not statistically significant. No statistically significant differences were identified between residential distance to traffic or DWTD and systemic inflammation indicators (CRP, IL-6). The study results suggest that exposure to urban traffic promotes arterial remodeling in children. This finding is important since even small increases in cIMT over time can potentially lead to earlier progression to atherosclerosis. It is also important because traffic-related pollution is potentially modifiable. PMID:25685160

  9. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study. PMID:27521777

  10. Violent media exposure, aggression and CU traits in adolescence: Testing the selection and socialization hypotheses.

    PubMed

    Rydell, Ann-Margret

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the role of exposure to violent action for later aggression and for later callous-unemotional traits in a sample of Swedish adolescents (N = 77-85), testing the selection and socialization hypotheses. Adolescents reported on violent delinquency and on callous-unemotional (CU) traits at age 15, on their media habits at age 16 and on reactive and proactive aggression and CU traits at age 18. The socialization hypothesis was supported with regard to aggression, that is, violent delinquency did not affect consumption of violent action, but controlling for violent delinquency, consumption of violent action added to proactive aggression and, marginally, to reactive aggression. The selection hypothesis was supported with regard to CU traits, that is, high levels of CU traits predicted frequent consumption of violent action, but consumption of violent action did not affect later levels of CU traits. Frequent violent media use was associated with later aggression. The associations between CU traits and violent media need further study.

  11. The Africanization of poverty: a retrospective on "Make Poverty History".

    PubMed

    Harrison, Graham

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the ways in which the British campaign coalition Make Poverty History represented Africa throughout 2005. Focusing particularly on the G8 Gleneagles summit, Make Poverty History (MPH) asserted a series of justice claims which had no geographical reference. Nevertheless, as a result of internal tensions within the coalition, and especially as a result of the ways in which MPH interacted with other political agencies as the summit approached, MPH's messages became increasingly interpolated by references to Africa as a result of the emergence of government, media, and celebrity involvement. The result of this was that global poverty increasingly became an African issue. As 2005 became the "Year of Africa," the justice messages that constituted MPH were largely effaced by the more familiar imperial legacy which represents Africa as a place of indigence in need of outside assistance.

  12. An examination of direct and indirect effects of exposure and attention to health media on intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, Jennette; Riffe, Daniel; Lovejoy, Travis I

    2015-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the United States, accounting for more than 2 million diagnoses and more than 9,000 deaths annually. A regional online survey of students enrolled at institutions of higher education (N = 1,251) examined (a) associations between health media use and intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure and (b) theoretically derived health behavior constructs that may mediate the relationship between media use and individuals' decisions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Individuals with greater exposure and attention to health information in television, magazines, and newspapers had higher intentions to avoid unprotected sun exposure. Multiple mediation models indicated that health behavior constructs collectively mediated the relationship between television use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. Both cumulative and specific indirect mediating effects were observed for the relationship between magazine use and sun-protective behavioral intentions. However, the direction of effects was opposite to the hypothesized direction, due primarily to the association of magazine use with less favorable attitudes about sun protection and reduced behavioral control to avoid unprotected sun exposure. This study provides preliminary evidence for the interrelationships among media use, internal psychological states and cognitions, and health behavior decision making. Future studies should further explicate the mediating processes that account for the relationships between media and health behavior.

  13. Exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling has additive effects on exclusive breastfeeding and its psychosocial determinants among Vietnamese mothers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Alayon, Silvia; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima

    2016-10-01

    The pathways through which behavior change interventions impact breastfeeding practices have not been well studied. This study aimed to examine: (1) the effects of exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and hypothesized psychosocial determinants (i.e. knowledge, intention, beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy); and (2) the pathways through which exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling are associated with EBF. We used survey data from mothers with children < 2 year (n = 2045) from the 2013 process evaluation of Alive & Thrive's program in Viet Nam. Multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used to estimate effects. Exposure to mass media only, interpersonal counseling only, both or neither was 51%, 5%, 19% and 25%, respectively. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal counseling had additive effects on EBF as well as on related psychosocial factors, compared with no exposure. For example, EBF prevalence was 26.1 percentage points (pp) higher in the group that received interpersonal counseling only, 3.9 pp higher in the mass media group and 31.8 pp higher in the group that received both interventions. As hypothesized, more than 90% of the total effect of the two interventions on EBF was explained by the psychosocial factors measured. Our findings suggest that combining different behavior change interventions leads to greater changes in psychosocial factors, which in turn positively affects breastfeeding behaviors.

  14. Exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling has additive effects on exclusive breastfeeding and its psychosocial determinants among Vietnamese mothers.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Tran, Lan M; Alayon, Silvia; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Frongillo, Edward A; Menon, Purnima

    2016-10-01

    The pathways through which behavior change interventions impact breastfeeding practices have not been well studied. This study aimed to examine: (1) the effects of exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling on exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and hypothesized psychosocial determinants (i.e. knowledge, intention, beliefs, social norms, and self-efficacy); and (2) the pathways through which exposure to mass media and interpersonal counseling are associated with EBF. We used survey data from mothers with children < 2 year (n = 2045) from the 2013 process evaluation of Alive & Thrive's program in Viet Nam. Multiple linear regression analyses and structural equation modeling were used to estimate effects. Exposure to mass media only, interpersonal counseling only, both or neither was 51%, 5%, 19% and 25%, respectively. Exposure to both mass media and interpersonal counseling had additive effects on EBF as well as on related psychosocial factors, compared with no exposure. For example, EBF prevalence was 26.1 percentage points (pp) higher in the group that received interpersonal counseling only, 3.9 pp higher in the mass media group and 31.8 pp higher in the group that received both interventions. As hypothesized, more than 90% of the total effect of the two interventions on EBF was explained by the psychosocial factors measured. Our findings suggest that combining different behavior change interventions leads to greater changes in psychosocial factors, which in turn positively affects breastfeeding behaviors. PMID:27334544

  15. Relationships Between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Rebecca L; Martino, Steven C; Elliott, Marc N; Miu, Angela

    2011-03-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the U.S., and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2010) reanalyzed data from one of these studies (Brown et al., 2006) using a propensity-score approach, arguing that this method better addresses the possibility of unobserved confounders. Based on their reanalysis, which found no relationship between media exposure and sexual behavior, they concluded that "Adolescents' Exposure to Sexy Media Does Not Hasten the Initiation of Sexual Intercourse." We subject data from the second study (Collins et al., 2004; Chandra et al., 2008) to reanalysis using a propensity-score approach. We find only modest reductions in two of the three previously documented associations, and no reduction in the third. Based on these findings, we conclude that there is an association between exposure to sex in the media and adolescent sexual outcomes. While the evidence does not prove causality, it is sufficient to advise caution among parents, develop interventions for youth, and work with media producers and distributors to reduce youth exposure to sexual content. PMID:24839301

  16. Effect of media campaigns and smoke-free ordinance on public awareness and secondhand smoke exposure in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fong-Ching; Chung, Chi-Hui; Chuang, Yi-Chia; Hu, Teh-Wei; Yu, Po-Tswen; Chao, Kun-Yu; Hsiao, Mei-Ling

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Taiwan's smoke-free ordinance and media campaigns on public awareness and secondhand smoke exposure. The authors conducted 3 waves of research--in July 2008 (before media campaigns), in December 2008 (during media campaigns), and in March 2009 (3 months after implementation of the smoke-free law). National representative samples of 1074, 1084, and 1094 people, respectively, were interviewed successfully by telephone in the 3 surveys. The results showed that general awareness of smoke-free workplace legislation rose dramatically from 28.5% in July 2008 to 87.6% in December 2008 to 93.6% in March 2009. Exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace fell from 28.5% in July 2008 to 24.9% in December 2008 to 7.3% in March 2009, and household secondhand smoke exposure decreased from 36.8% to 34.3% to 21.3%, respectively, during the same period. Multivariate analyses results indicated that media campaigns, smoke-free ordinance implementation, having higher education, and having higher income were associated with more awareness of the smoke-free workplace legislation. In addition, smoke-free ordinance implementation, being female, having higher education, and having higher income were associated with less likelihood of reporting secondhand smoke exposure in the workplace. In conclusion, smoke-free ordinance implementation and media campaigns were effective in raising public awareness of the new law and reducing secondhand smoke exposure in workplaces, in public places, and at home. PMID:21240721

  17. Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Lee E., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Intended for secondary English teachers, the materials and ideas presented here suggest ways to use media in the classroom in teaching visual and auditory discrimination while enlivening classes and motivating students. Contents include "Media Specialists Need Not Apply," which discusses the need for preparation of media educators with…

  18. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry.

    PubMed

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W

    2015-11-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions.

  19. Exposure of Children and Adolescents to Alcohol Marketing on Social Media Websites

    PubMed Central

    Winpenny, Eleanor M.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Nolte, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Aims: In 2011, online marketing became the largest marketing channel in the UK, overtaking television for the first time. This study aimed to describe the exposure of children and young adults to alcohol marketing on social media websites in the UK. Methods: We used commercially available data on the three most used social media websites among young people in the UK, from December 2010 to May 2011. We analysed by age (6–14 years; 15–24 years) and gender the reach (proportion of internet users who used the site in each month) and impressions (number of individual pages viewed on the site in each month) for Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. We further analysed case studies of five alcohol brands to assess the marketer-generated brand content available on Facebook, YouTube and Twitter in February and March 2012. Results: Facebook was the social media site with the highest reach, with an average monthly reach of 89% of males and 91% of females aged 15–24. YouTube had a similar average monthly reach while Twitter had a considerably lower usage in the age groups studied. All five of the alcohol brands studied maintained a Facebook page, Twitter page and YouTube channel, with varying levels of user engagement. Facebook pages could not be accessed by an under-18 user, but in most cases YouTube content and Twitter content could be accessed by those of all ages. Conclusion: The rise in online marketing of alcohol and the high use of social media websites by young people suggests that this is an area requiring further monitoring and regulation. PMID:24293506

  20. Media exposure, internalization of the thin ideal, and body dissatisfaction: comparing Asian American and European American college females.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mahsa; Hill, Laura G; Orrell-Valente, Joan K

    2011-09-01

    Internalization of the thin ideal mediates the media exposure-body dissatisfaction relation in young adult European American females. There is little related research on Asian Americans. We used structural equations modeling to test: (1) whether media exposure was associated with body dissatisfaction in Asian American young adult females, (2) internalization of the thin ideal mediated any such association, and (3) whether the mediational model provided equivalent fit for European American and Asian American samples. Participants were 287 college females (154 Asian Americans, 133 European Americans). Internalization of the thin ideal explained the media exposure-body dissatisfaction association equally well for both groups. Results suggest that Asian Americans may be employing unhealthy weight control behaviors, and may be prone to developing eating disorders, at rates similar to European American young adult females. Clinicians need to screen carefully for body dissatisfaction, unhealthy weight control behaviors, and eating disorders in Asian American females. PMID:21775227

  1. Exposure to media violence and bullying at school: mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunhee; Kim, Myungja

    2004-10-01

    This study assessed a model of mediating influences of anger and contact with delinquent friends in the relationship between exposure to media violence and bullying at school. Data came from 560 Korean junior high school students who were living with their parents. Analysis indicated that, as hypothesized, exposure to media-portrayed violence was directly associated with bullying at school. Anger and contact with delinquent friends mediated this relationship. In addition, two alternative models were estimated, neither supported by the data, further sustaining the validity of the hypothesized model. Implications and directions for research are discussed. PMID:15587236

  2. Arsenic Exposure From Drinking Water, Arsenic Methylation Capacity, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H.; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010–2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: −0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes. PMID:23788675

  3. Arsenic exposure from drinking water, arsenic methylation capacity, and carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Graziano, Joseph H; Parvez, Faruque; Liu, Mengling; Paul, Rina Rani; Shaheen, Ishrat; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul

    2013-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate the interrelationships between past arsenic exposure, biomarkers specific for susceptibility to arsenic exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in 959 subjects from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh. We measured cIMT levels on average 7.2 years after baseline during 2010-2011. Arsenic exposure was measured in well water at baseline and in urine samples collected at baseline and during follow-up. Every 1-standard-deviation increase in urinary arsenic (357.9 µg/g creatinine) and well-water arsenic (102.0 µg/L) concentration was related to a 11.7-µm (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8, 21.6) and 5.1-µm (95% CI: -0.2, 10.3) increase in cIMT, respectively. For every 10% increase in monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) percentage, there was an increase of 12.1 µm (95% CI: 0.4, 23.8) in cIMT. Among participants with a higher urinary MMA percentage, a higher ratio of urinary MMA to inorganic arsenic, and a lower ratio of dimethylarsinic acid to MMA, the association between well-water arsenic and cIMT was stronger. The findings indicate an effect of past long-term arsenic exposure on cIMT, which may be potentiated by suboptimal or incomplete arsenic methylation capacity. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm the association between arsenic methylation capacity and atherosclerosis-related outcomes.

  4. Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Melki, Jad P; Hitti, Eveline A; Oghia, Michael J; Mufarrij, Afif A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and dominant sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure to idealized images of male muscularity, and mediated social comparison trends among a sample of young Arab adults. The study found evidence that participants more exposed to content that promotes muscularity and those who idealize images of muscularity and perceive them as motivators for achieving muscularity are more likely to be AAS users. It also found that a significant percentage of participants used at least one kind of dietary supplement and that the level of AAS use among health club participants indicates it is a significant public health problem in Lebanon. The study suggests that dealing with this problem requires a unique approach, beyond the typical awareness of risks strategy, since some users were well aware of the risks yet continue to use AAS, and their motivations pertain more to body image and sexuality. A stronger approach that utilizes critical media literacy teaching that ingrains these issues into school and university curricula will have a more lasting impact.

  5. Media exposure, mediated social comparison to idealized images of muscularity, and anabolic steroid use.

    PubMed

    Melki, Jad P; Hitti, Eveline A; Oghia, Michael J; Mufarrij, Afif A

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the association between anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) use and dominant sociocultural factors, specifically media exposure to idealized images of male muscularity, and mediated social comparison trends among a sample of young Arab adults. The study found evidence that participants more exposed to content that promotes muscularity and those who idealize images of muscularity and perceive them as motivators for achieving muscularity are more likely to be AAS users. It also found that a significant percentage of participants used at least one kind of dietary supplement and that the level of AAS use among health club participants indicates it is a significant public health problem in Lebanon. The study suggests that dealing with this problem requires a unique approach, beyond the typical awareness of risks strategy, since some users were well aware of the risks yet continue to use AAS, and their motivations pertain more to body image and sexuality. A stronger approach that utilizes critical media literacy teaching that ingrains these issues into school and university curricula will have a more lasting impact. PMID:24972038

  6. Hope out of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Roy F.; Tolbert, Marsha; Myers-Oliver, Donna; Brissett, Julia M.; Roland, Annissa J.

    2007-01-01

    In "A Framework of Poverty," Ruby Payne (1998) itemizes the things that characterize poverty-stricken people. She talks about how hard it is for a person to move out of poverty. To not pass poverty on to another generation, one must have a vision. One must have a desire to achieve a better life or a strong support system. Schools must become the…

  7. How does poverty beget poverty?

    PubMed Central

    Pagani, Linda S

    2007-01-01

    Although Canadian poverty rates are less than our neighbours to the south, the consequences of growing up poor affects the Canadian economy and its social fabric. As a relatively wealthy nation, Canada is challenged by high rates of single-parent families, the working poor and a budding population of newcomers with fewer resources. Family poverty primarily risks affecting childrens’ achievements and academic attainments. Not performing on a par with their middle-class peer group places these children at greater risk for academic failure and its concomitant behavioural problems. Associated variables such as single-parenthood and ineffective child-rearing account for much of the remaining risk for psychosocial maladjustment. Childhood poverty, especially of the persistent kind, risks charting a developmental course toward low academic attainment, poor health behaviours and attitudes, and adult depression. Such characteristics become more daunting when those who are not resilient become the parents of the next generation. Bien que les taux de pauvreté au Canada soient plus faibles que chez nos voisins du Sud, les conséquences d’une enfance dans la pauvreté influent sur l’économie et le tissu social du Canada. Les taux élevés de monoparentalité et de petits salariés ainsi qu’une population bourgeonnante de nouveau-venus aux ressources plus limitées constituent un défi pour le Canada, une nation relativement prospère. La pauvreté familiale risque surtout de nuire aux réalisations et au rendement scolaire des enfants. Puisque leur rendement n’équivaut pas à celui de leurs camarades des classes moyennes, ces enfants sont plus vulnérables à l’échec scolaire et aux troubles de comportement concomitants. Des variables connexes, comme la monoparentalité et des pratiques éducatives inefficaces, représentent une grande partie du risque résiduel d’inadaptation psychosociale. La pauvreté des enfants, notamment lorsqu’elle persiste, risque d

  8. How does poverty beget poverty?

    PubMed

    Pagani, Linda S

    2007-10-01

    Although Canadian poverty rates are less than our neighbours to the south, the consequences of growing up poor affects the Canadian economy and its social fabric. As a relatively wealthy nation, Canada is challenged by high rates of single-parent families, the working poor and a budding population of newcomers with fewer resources. Family poverty primarily risks affecting childrens' achievements and academic attainments. Not performing on a par with their middle-class peer group places these children at greater risk for academic failure and its concomitant behavioural problems. Associated variables such as single-parenthood and ineffective child-rearing account for much of the remaining risk for psychosocial maladjustment. Childhood poverty, especially of the persistent kind, risks charting a developmental course toward low academic attainment, poor health behaviours and attitudes, and adult depression. Such characteristics become more daunting when those who are not resilient become the parents of the next generation.Bien que les taux de pauvreté au Canada soient plus faibles que chez nos voisins du Sud, les conséquences d'une enfance dans la pauvreté influent sur l'économie et le tissu social du Canada. Les taux élevés de monoparentalité et de petits salariés ainsi qu'une population bourgeonnante de nouveau-venus aux ressources plus limitées constituent un défi pour le Canada, une nation relativement prospère. La pauvreté familiale risque surtout de nuire aux réalisations et au rendement scolaire des enfants. Puisque leur rendement n'équivaut pas à celui de leurs camarades des classes moyennes, ces enfants sont plus vulnérables à l'échec scolaire et aux troubles de comportement concomitants. Des variables connexes, comme la monoparentalité et des pratiques éducatives inefficaces, représentent une grande partie du risque résiduel d'inadaptation psychosociale. La pauvreté des enfants, notamment lorsqu'elle persiste, risque d'ouvrir la voie

  9. Reproducible direct exposure environmental testing of metal-based magnetic media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sides, Paul J.

    1994-01-01

    A flow geometry and flow rate for mixed flowing gas testing is proposed. Use of an impinging jet of humid polluted air can provide a uniform and reproducible exposure of coupons of metal-based magnetic media. Numerical analysis of the fluid flow and mass transfer in such as system has shown that samples confined within a distance equal to the nozzle radius on the surface of impingement are uniformly accessible to pollutants in the impinging gas phase. The critical factor is the nozzle height above the surface of impingement. In particular, the uniformity of exposure is less than plus/minus 2% for a volumetric flow rate of 1600 cm(exp 3)/minute total flow with the following specifications: For a one inch nozzle, the height of the nozzle opening above the stage should be 0.177 inches; for a 2 inch nozzle - 0.390 inches. Not only is the distribution uniform, but one can calculate the maximum delivery rate of pollutants to the samples for comparison with the observed deterioration.

  10. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls.

  11. Links between self-reported media violence exposure and teacher ratings of aggression and prosocial behavior among German adolescents.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Möller, Ingrid

    2011-04-01

    The relations between adolescents' habitual usage of media violence and their tendency to engage in aggressive and prosocial behavior in a school setting were examined in a cross-sectional study with 1688 7th and 8th graders in Germany who completed measures of violent media exposure and normative acceptance of aggression. For each participant, ratings of prosocial and aggressive behavior were obtained from their class teacher. Media violence exposure was a unique predictor of teacher-rated aggression even when relevant covariates were considered, and it predicted prosocial behavior over and above gender. Path analyses confirmed a direct positive link from media violence usage to teacher-rated aggression for girls and boys, but no direct negative link to prosocial behavior was found. Indirect pathways were identified to higher aggressive and lower prosocial behavior via the acceptance of aggression as normative. Although there were significant gender differences in media violence exposure, aggression, and prosocial behavior, similar path models were identified for boys and girls. PMID:20627370

  12. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Combat Exposure, and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Male Twins

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Margarethe; Shah, Amit; Goldberg, Jack; Cheema, Faiz; Shallenberger, Lucy; Murrah, Nancy V.; Bremner, J. Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease, though the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined whether PTSD and combat exposure were associated with CIMT in Vietnam War–era twins after controlling for shared genetic and childhood factors. Between 2002 and 2010, we studied 465 middle-aged twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were free from cardiovascular disease. PTSD was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and CIMT was measured by ultrasound. Mixed-effects regression models were used to examine individual, between-pair, and within-pair associations. Approximately 13% of participants met the criteria for PTSD, and 45% served in the Vietnam Theater. PTSD was associated with 32.7 μm higher CIMT (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 64.5) after adjustment for confounders. The average CIMT for the pair increased by 59.7 μm for each additional twin with PTSD (95% CI: 15.9, 104.2). We found no significant within-pair differences in CIMT when comparing PTSD-discordant co-twins. Results for combat exposure were similar, but its association with CIMT weakened after adjustment for PTSD (95% CI: 7.0, 45.3). Among Vietnam War–era veterans, combat exposure and PTSD are associated with CIMT, though the associations are largely mediated by shared childhood factors. PMID:25301813

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and carotid intima-media thickness in male twins.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Margarethe; Shah, Amit; Goldberg, Jack; Cheema, Faiz; Shallenberger, Lucy; Murrah, Nancy V; Bremner, J Douglas; Vaccarino, Viola

    2014-11-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with an increased risk of ischemic heart disease, though the pathophysiologic mechanisms remain unclear. Carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. We examined whether PTSD and combat exposure were associated with CIMT in Vietnam War-era twins after controlling for shared genetic and childhood factors. Between 2002 and 2010, we studied 465 middle-aged twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry who were free from cardiovascular disease. PTSD was diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, and CIMT was measured by ultrasound. Mixed-effects regression models were used to examine individual, between-pair, and within-pair associations. Approximately 13% of participants met the criteria for PTSD, and 45% served in the Vietnam Theater. PTSD was associated with 32.7 μm higher CIMT (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9, 64.5) after adjustment for confounders. The average CIMT for the pair increased by 59.7 μm for each additional twin with PTSD (95% CI: 15.9, 104.2). We found no significant within-pair differences in CIMT when comparing PTSD-discordant co-twins. Results for combat exposure were similar, but its association with CIMT weakened after adjustment for PTSD (95% CI: 7.0, 45.3). Among Vietnam War-era veterans, combat exposure and PTSD are associated with CIMT, though the associations are largely mediated by shared childhood factors. PMID:25301813

  14. Children's Toleration of Real-Life Aggression after Exposure to Media Violence: A Replication of the Drabman and Thomas Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molitor, Fred; Hirsch, Kenneth William

    1994-01-01

    Results of four mid-1970s experiments continue to be used as evidence that exposure to media violence desensitizes children to real-life aggression. This study replicated procedures from those experiments using contemporary video materials, and results confirmed original findings that children tend to tolerate more the aggressive behaviors of…

  15. QUANTIFICATION OF 2,4-D ON SOLID-PHASE EXPOSURE SAMPLING MEDIA BY LC/MS/MS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three types of solid phase chemical exposure sampling media: cellulose, polyurethane foam (PUF) and XAD-2, were analyzed for 2,4-D and the amine salts of 2,4-D. Individual samples were extracted into acidified methanol and the extracts were analyzed via LC/MS/MS using electrospra...

  16. Preschool Children's Exposure to Media, Technology, and Screen Time: Perspectives of Caregivers from Three Early Childcare Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkins, Kimberly A.; Newton, Allison B.; Albaiz, Najla Essa A.; Ernest, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Young children are being increasingly exposed to media, technology, and screen time (MeTS) at home and in instructional settings. Little is known about the long-term effects of MeTS and there is a lack of research concerning caregivers' opinions regarding young children's exposure to and utilization of MeTS. Therefore, this study explored the…

  17. Relationships between Adolescent Sexual Outcomes and Exposure to Sex in Media: Robustness to Propensity-Based Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Rebecca L.; Martino, Steven C.; Elliott, Marc N.; Miu, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent sexual health is a substantial problem in the United States, and two recent studies have linked adolescent sexual behavior and/or outcomes to youths' exposure to sex in the media. Both studies had longitudinal survey designs and used covariate-adjusted regression analysis. Steinberg and Monahan (2011) reanalyzed data from one of these…

  18. Relationships between Media Exposure, Violent Images, and Attitude towards the U.S.: Contradictions in Japanese Adolescents' Images and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inoue, Yasuhiro

    A study examined the relationship between Japanese adolescents' media exposure, images of the United States, and their attitudes towards the United States and its people by surveying Japanese junior high school students. By using cultivation theory, the study hypothesized that an image of a dangerous America would be partly attributed to Japanese…

  19. NEIGHBORHOOD POVERTY AND NONMARITAL FERTILITY: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL DIMENSIONS

    PubMed Central

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2011-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced this risk. The effect of local neighborhood poverty was especially pronounced when surrounding neighborhoods were economically advantaged. Measuring exposure to neighborhood poverty over the childhood life course yielded stronger effects than measuring exposure at a single age. Neither racial differences in the level of poverty in proximate neighborhoods nor racial differences in neighborhood poverty over the childhood life course explained the racial difference in nonmarital fertility. PMID:21373376

  20. Media Exposure, Body Dissatisfaction, and Disordered Eating in Middle-Aged Women: A Test of the Sociocultural Model of Disordered Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slevec, Julie; Tiggemann, Marika

    2011-01-01

    The primary aim of our study was to examine the influence of media exposure on body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in middle-aged women. A sample of 101 women, aged between 35 and 55 years, completed questionnaire measures of media exposure, thin-ideal internalization, social comparison, appearance investment, aging anxiety, body…

  1. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-01-01

    Background Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. Methods An online survey of 17 522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. Results High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. Conclusions US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. PMID:24935893

  2. Poverty's threat.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    In the debate on the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, chaired by Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, delegates to the UN General Assembly asserted that problems generated by the impact of poverty on the environment could not be solved by restricting aid to developing countries unless those countries promised to cease damaging their environment. Rather, most delegates agreed, aid should include the resources which would enable those countries to achieve "sustainable development," i.e., development that does not destroy the environment and deplete natural resources. The United States countered with the opinion that what is needed is not a UN organized "sustainable development program," but rather a grassroots "sustainable development movement" in all countries. Several delegates pointed out that it was the affluent countries which played a large part in the destruction of the environment. The Present of the Maldives, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, pointed out, for example, that the greenhouse effect, generated by the burning of fossil fuels, would raise the sea level 2 meters, virtually submerging his country. Mrs. Brundtland pointed out that it was not morally acceptable to suggest that the poor remain poor to protect the environment. Governments at all levels, she said, must include environmental concerns in their decision making in all sectors of governmental functioning, e.g., finance, industry, energy, and agriculture. PMID:12341996

  3. Poverty's threat.

    PubMed

    1988-03-01

    In the debate on the Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development, chaired by Mrs. Gro Harlem Brundtland, Prime Minister of Norway, delegates to the UN General Assembly asserted that problems generated by the impact of poverty on the environment could not be solved by restricting aid to developing countries unless those countries promised to cease damaging their environment. Rather, most delegates agreed, aid should include the resources which would enable those countries to achieve "sustainable development," i.e., development that does not destroy the environment and deplete natural resources. The United States countered with the opinion that what is needed is not a UN organized "sustainable development program," but rather a grassroots "sustainable development movement" in all countries. Several delegates pointed out that it was the affluent countries which played a large part in the destruction of the environment. The Present of the Maldives, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, pointed out, for example, that the greenhouse effect, generated by the burning of fossil fuels, would raise the sea level 2 meters, virtually submerging his country. Mrs. Brundtland pointed out that it was not morally acceptable to suggest that the poor remain poor to protect the environment. Governments at all levels, she said, must include environmental concerns in their decision making in all sectors of governmental functioning, e.g., finance, industry, energy, and agriculture.

  4. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction.

  5. Exposure to and engagement with gambling marketing in social media: Reported impacts on moderate-risk and problem gamblers.

    PubMed

    Gainsbury, Sally M; King, Daniel L; Russell, Alex M T; Delfabbro, Paul; Derevensky, Jeffrey; Hing, Nerilee

    2016-03-01

    Digital advertising for gambling and specifically marketing via social media have increased in recent years, and the impact on vulnerable consumers, including moderate-risk and problem gamblers, is unknown. Social media promotions often fall outside of advertising restrictions and codes of conduct and may have an inequitable effect on susceptible gamblers. This study aimed to investigate recall of exposure to, and reported impact on gamblers of, gambling promotions and marketing content on social media, with a focus on vulnerable users currently experiencing gambling problems. Gamblers who use social media (N = 964) completed an online survey assessing their exposure to and engagement with gambling operators on social media, their problem gambling severity, and the impact of social media promotions on their gambling. Gamblers at moderate risk and problem gamblers were significantly more likely to report having been exposed to social media gambling promotions and indicated actively engaging with gambling operators via these platforms. They were more likely to self-report that they had increased gambling as a result of these promotions, and over one third reported that the promotions had increased their problems. This research suggests that gamblers at moderate risk or those experiencing gambling problems are more likely to be impacted by social media promotions, and these may play a role in exacerbating disordered gambling. Future research should verify these self-reported results with behavioral data. However, the potential influence of advertisements via these new platforms should be considered by clinicians and policymakers, given their potential role in the formation of this behavioral addiction. PMID:26828642

  6. The feminization of poverty: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Gimenez, M E

    1989-01-01

    The feminization of poverty is a widely discussed concept in the mass media, and in academic circles, which captures the following facts: there are more poor women than poor men, and women are more likely to fall into poverty because of gender-related factors. In this article, I examine the concept's empirical basis and theoretical significance. The data show that poverty among men increased faster than poverty among women during the 1980-81 recession. While the sex composition of the poverty population has remained relatively unchanged since 1966, its age composition has changed: poverty has increased substantially among working men and women aged 18 to 44. Also, the higher proportion of women in the poverty population cannot be considered simply an effect of male privilege; on the contrary, it may be partially accounted for by higher mortality rates among working-class men. Theoretically, I argue that the meaning of these trends cannot be established using only age and sex categories of analysis. The trends document the progressive immiseration of the working class. Younger workers of both sexes today are worse off than older workers. A discussion of poverty purely in terms of the age, sex, or racial/ethnic composition of the poverty population hides the roots of poverty in the mode of production and succeeds in obfuscating the issues, fueling conflict between men and women, young and old, and white and nonwhite. Only by taking into account the class relations that structure people's life chances is it possible to understand the significance of present trends. PMID:2925300

  7. The feminization of poverty: myth or reality?

    PubMed

    Gimenez, M E

    1989-01-01

    The feminization of poverty is a widely discussed concept in the mass media, and in academic circles, which captures the following facts: there are more poor women than poor men, and women are more likely to fall into poverty because of gender-related factors. In this article, I examine the concept's empirical basis and theoretical significance. The data show that poverty among men increased faster than poverty among women during the 1980-81 recession. While the sex composition of the poverty population has remained relatively unchanged since 1966, its age composition has changed: poverty has increased substantially among working men and women aged 18 to 44. Also, the higher proportion of women in the poverty population cannot be considered simply an effect of male privilege; on the contrary, it may be partially accounted for by higher mortality rates among working-class men. Theoretically, I argue that the meaning of these trends cannot be established using only age and sex categories of analysis. The trends document the progressive immiseration of the working class. Younger workers of both sexes today are worse off than older workers. A discussion of poverty purely in terms of the age, sex, or racial/ethnic composition of the poverty population hides the roots of poverty in the mode of production and succeeds in obfuscating the issues, fueling conflict between men and women, young and old, and white and nonwhite. Only by taking into account the class relations that structure people's life chances is it possible to understand the significance of present trends.

  8. Exploring the linkage between exposure to mass media and HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yujiro; Sedziafa, Alice P; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Boateng, Godfred O; Kuuire, Vincent Z; Boamah, Sheila; Kwon, Eugena

    2016-01-01

    Although HIV testing is critical to the treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS, utilization rate of HIV testing services among married women and men remains low in Ghana. Mass media, as a tool to increase overall HIV testing turnouts, has been considered one of the important strategies in promoting and enhancing behavioural changes related to HIV/AIDS prevention. Using the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, the current study examines the relationship between levels of exposure to print media, radio, and television and the uptake of HIV testing among married women and men in Ghana. Results show that HIV testing is more prevalent among married women than their male counterparts. We also find that higher levels of exposure to radio is associated with HIV testing among women, while higher levels of exposure to print media and television are associated with HIV testing among men. Implications of these findings are discussed for Ghana's HIV/AIDS strategic framework, which aims to expanding efforts at dealing with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Specifically, it is important for health educators and programme planners to deliver HIV-related messages through television, radio, and print media to increase the uptake of HIV testing particularly among married women and men in Ghana.

  9. Determinants of exposure to mass media family planning messages among indigenous people in Bangladesh: a study on the Garo.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Rakibul; Islam, M Amirul; Banowary, Banya

    2009-03-01

    This paper evaluates exposure to mass media family planning (FP) messages among the Garo, an indigenous community in Bangladesh. A sample of 223 currently married Garo women were selected purposively from two districts where most of the Garo population live. The analysis demonstrated that television was the most significant form of mass media to disseminate FP messages among the recipients - more so than radio and newspapers. About 80.6% of the respondents had heard of FP messages through television, while for the radio and newspapers the percentages were 55.3% and 22.7% respectively. The contraceptive prevalence rate is much higher (79.5%) in the study area than the national level (55.8%). A linear logistic regression model was employed to identify the confluence of different demographic and socioeconomic characteristics on mass media FP messages. Regarding exposure to FP messages, four independent variables out of six had significant effects on the exposure to FP messages through any one of the types of media, i.e. radio, television and newspapers. These independent variables were age, level of education, occupation and number of children.

  10. A study of relationship between background characteristics, media exposure and acceptance of family planning in rural Maharashtra.

    PubMed

    Apte, J M

    1988-10-01

    On the basis of data taken from a National Study on the Subject of Reach and Effectiveness of Mass Media in the family welfare program (1980, this paper analyzes the interplay of variables at different levels and their effect on the acceptance of family planning. The level of education is related to exposure to media as well as the use of family planning methods, and negatively related to the degree of apprehension. The higher the level of exposure to media, the greater the acceptance of family planning. However, the relationship between the level of media exposure and degree of apprehension does not show a conclusive trend. The number of living sons is found to be very closely associated with the acceptance of family planning. It is clear that any communication effort which does not attack the problems of sex preference or apprehension will not yield desirable results in terms of acceptance. It is also clear that the proverbial gap between awareness and practice can be better filled by an appropriate use of inter-personal channels.

  11. Fate and Transport of Mercury in Environmental Media and Human Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon-Kyung

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is emitted to the atmosphere from various natural and anthropogenic sources, and degrades with difficulty in the environment. Mercury exists as various species, mainly elemental (Hg0) and divalent (Hg2+) mercury depending on its oxidation states in air and water. Mercury emitted to the atmosphere can be deposited into aqueous environments by wet and dry depositions, and some can be re-emitted into the atmosphere. The deposited mercury species, mainly Hg2+, can react with various organic compounds in water and sediment by biotic reactions mediated by sulfur-reducing bacteria, and abiotic reactions mediated by sunlight photolysis, resulting in conversion into organic mercury such as methylmercury (MeHg). MeHg can be bioaccumulated through the food web in the ecosystem, finally exposing humans who consume fish. For a better understanding of how humans are exposed to mercury in the environment, this review paper summarizes the mechanisms of emission, fate and transport, speciation chemistry, bioaccumulation, levels of contamination in environmental media, and finally exposure assessment of humans. PMID:23230463

  12. Black carbon exposure more strongly associated with census tract poverty compared to household income among US black, white, and Latino working class adults in Boston, MA (2003-2010).

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela D; Gryparis, Alexandros; Coull, Brent A

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the association of individual-level ambient exposure to black carbon (spatiotemporal model-based estimate for latitude and longitude of residential address) with individual, household, and census tract socioeconomic measures among a study sample comprised of 1757 US urban working class white, black and Latino adults (age 25-64) recruited for two studies conducted in Boston, MA (2003-2004; 2008-2010). Controlling for age, study, and exam date, the estimated average annual black carbon exposure for the year prior to study enrollment at the participants' residential address was directly associated with census tract poverty (beta = 0.373; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.322, 0.423) but not with annual household income or education; null associations with race/ethnicity became significant only after controlling for socioeconomic position.

  13. Adolescents and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wight, Vanessa R.

    2011-01-01

    More youth live in poverty and poor youth comprise a larger share of the youth population than was the case a decade ago. This article first provides a descriptive analysis of children in poverty; examining the incidence of poverty among children by selected demographic, socioeconomic, and geographic characteristics with a particular focus on…

  14. Poverty in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greever, Sadie

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide a comprehensive summary of the topic of poverty and its effects upon student behavior and academic performance. Presented in this chapter of the review of the related literature will be: (a) description of poverty and the role of education, (b) effects of poverty on student behavior, (c) effects…

  15. EVALUATION OF BIOAEROSOL EXPOSURES DURING CONDITIONING OF BIOFILTER ORGANIC MEDIA BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biological media air filters (biofilters) are currently being used for the treatment of inorganic and organic gasses from sewage treatment plants, industrial processes, and remediation systems. The media may be organic material such as comost, wood chips, or synthetic plastic med...

  16. Does Watching the News Affect Fear of Terrorism? The Importance of Media Exposure on Terrorism Fear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nellis, Ashley Marie; Savage, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    Several authors have proposed that media hype elevates perceptions of risk and fear of crime. Research suggests that fear of crime is related to the overall amount of media consumption, resonance of news reports, how much attention the individual pays to the news, and how credible he or she believes it to be. The present study examines whether the…

  17. Protobacco Media Exposure and Youth Susceptibility to Smoking Cigarettes, Cigarette Experimentation, and Current Tobacco Use among US Youth

    PubMed Central

    Fulmer, Erika B.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kuiper, Nicole M.; Arrazola, Rene A.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Youth are exposed to many types of protobacco influences, including smoking in movies, which has been shown to cause initiation. This study investigates associations between different channels of protobacco media and susceptibility to smoking cigarettes, cigarette experimentation, and current tobacco use among US middle and high school students. Methods By using data from the 2012 National Youth Tobacco Survey, structural equation modeling was performed in 2013. The analyses examined exposure to tobacco use in different channels of protobacco media on smoking susceptibility, experimentation, and current tobacco use, accounting for perceived peer tobacco use. Results In 2012, 27.9% of respondents were never-smokers who reported being susceptible to trying cigarette smoking. Cigarette experimentation increased from 6.3% in 6th grade to 37.1% in 12th grade. Likewise, current tobacco use increased from 5.2% in 6th grade to 33.2% in 12th grade. Structural equation modeling supported a model in which current tobacco use is associated with exposure to static advertising through perception of peer use, and by exposure to tobacco use depicted on TV and in movies, both directly and through perception of peer use. Exposure to static advertising appears to directly increase smoking susceptibility but indirectly (through increased perceptions of peer use) to increase cigarette experimentation. Models that explicitly incorporate peer use as a mediator can better discern the direct and indirect effects of exposure to static advertising on youth tobacco use initiation. Conclusions These findings underscore the importance of reducing youth exposure to smoking in TV, movies, and static advertising. PMID:26308217

  18. The Effects of Risk-Glorifying Media Exposure on Risk-Positive Cognitions, Emotions, and Behaviors: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Kastenmuller, Andreas; Vogrincic, Claudia; Sauer, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge in the quantity of media content that glorifies risk-taking behavior, such as risky driving, extreme sports, or binge drinking. The authors conducted a meta-analysis involving more than 80,000 participants and 105 independent effect sizes to examine whether exposure to such media depictions increased their…

  19. Association between exposure to media and body weight concern among female university students in five Arab countries: a preliminary cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Mannai, Mariam

    2014-03-01

    Mass media play an important role in changing body image. This study aimed to determine the role of media (magazines and television) in body weight concern among university females in five Arab countries. A total sample of 1134 female university students was selected at convenience from universities in five Arab countries: Bahrain, Egypt, Jordan, Oman and Syria. The females' ages ranged from 17 to 32. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess the exposure to mass media regarding weight concerns. For the variables on exposure to mass media, girls were divided into two groups: infrequently exposed and frequently exposed. In general, the females who were exposed to mass media had a greater risk of having dieted to lose weight and changing their ideas of a perfect body shape than those who were not exposed or infrequently exposed. The association of exposure to magazines with having dieted to lose weight was only significant among females in Bahrain (p<0.044), Egypt (p<0.001) and Jordan (p<0.001). Exposure to television had a weaker association than exposure to magazines with body weight concerns of females. The association of exposure to television with females' idea of a perfect body shape was only statistically significant in females in Egypt (p<0.019) and Oman (p<0.019). The pressure from mass media on the body weight concern of female university students may lead these women to practise unhealthy weight control diets.

  20. Occupational exposures to noise resulting from the workplace use of personal media players at a manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Sandfort, Delvin R; Lipsey, Tiffany; Brazile, William J

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of noise exposures from personal media player (PMP) use in the workplace to overall employee noise exposures at a Colorado manufacturing facility. A total of 24 workers' PMP and background noise exposures were measured. Twelve PMP users worked in high-background-noise exposure (HBNE) areas, and 12 worked in low-background-noise exposure (LBNE) areas. The self-selected PMP listening level of each worker was measured using an ear simulator, and the background noise of each employee workstation was measured using a sound level meter. Workers' self-reported PMP duration of use, PMP listening exposure levels, and background noise levels were used to estimate the daily occupational noise exposures. Measured background noise levels averaged 81 dBA for HBNE workers and 59 dBA for LBNE workers. Measured, free-field equivalent listening exposure levels were significantly greater for HBNE workers (85 dBA) compared with LBNE workers (75 dBA) (p = 0.0006). Estimated mean daily noise exposures for both groups were below the ACGIH threshold limit value for noise of 85 dBA8-hr time weighted average (TWA), specifically 84 dBA TWA for HBNE workers and 72 dBA TWA for LBNE workers. Three of 12 (25%) HBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA when only background noise was considered, yet when PMP use was also considered, 6 of 12 (50%) had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA, suggesting that PMP use doubled the number of overexposed workers. None of the LBNE workers had estimated exposures greater than 85 dBA TWA. The contribution of PMP use to overall noise exposures was substantially less among HBNE workers than LBNE workers due to the disproportionate selection of noise-attenuating headsets among HBNE workers compared with LBNE workers. It is recommended that the facility management either restrict workplace PMP use among HBNE workers or require output-limiting technology to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing

  1. Units related to radiation exposure and radioactivity in mass media: the Fukushima case study in Europe and Russia.

    PubMed

    Perko, T; Tomkiv, Y; Oughton, D H; Cantone, M C; Gallego, E; Prezelj, I; Byrkina, E

    2015-04-01

    Using an analysis of the way European newspapers covered the Fukushima nuclear accident, this article explores how the mass media transmit information about radiation risks from experts to the general public. The study applied a media content analysis method on a total of 1340 articles from 12 leading newspapers in 6 countries: Belgium (N = 260), Italy (N = 270), Norway (N = 133), Russia (N = 172), Slovenia (N = 190) and Spain (N = 315). All articles analysed were selected as being directly or indirectly related to the Fukushima accident by containing the word 'nuclear' and/or 'Fukushima' and were published between the 11th March and the 11th May 2011. The data presented here focus specifically on a cross-cultural comparison of the way the media use quantitative units. Results suggest that although experts are accustomed to communicating about radiological risks in technical language, often using quantitative units to describe the risks, mass media do not tend to use these units in their reporting. Although the study found a large variation in the measurement units used in different countries, it appeared that journalists in all the analysed countries preferred to describe radioactivity by comparing different radiation exposures, rather than reporting the actual measured units. The paper concludes with some practical guidelines for sound public communication about radiation risks.

  2. Early exposure to otitis media: a preliminary investigation of behavioral outcome.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Sonnenschein, S

    1993-06-01

    Factors that contribute to developmental vulnerability were examined in a 4-year follow-up of 31 children who, as infants, had participated in an investigation of the relationship between recurrent otitis media and developmental status. The children in this inner-city sample experienced significant decline in their language and developmental status regardless of their history with otitis media. Findings support a threshold model of risk, suggesting that otitis media does not necessarily pose an additional stress to the language and cognitive development of low-income, inner-city children. In keeping with theoretical models by Vygotsky and Rutter, maternal cognitive growth fostering facilitated children's language development by serving as a compensatory factor, counteracting the potential impact of recurrent otitis media. PMID:7688005

  3. Media exposure and the sexual attitudes and behaviors of college students.

    PubMed

    Strouse, J S; Buerkel-rothfuss, N L

    1987-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between popular media consumption and sexual attitudes and behavior for 475 college students, while controlling for commonly related social-psychological variables. Results indicate that females consume more sexually suggestive media (TV soap operas and pop music) than males. General media consumption was not a powerful predictor of permissiveness. Regression analyses revealed that Music Television consumption was the only media variable significantly associated with permissiveness for females. Self-esteem was positively associated with permissive attitudes and behavior for both males and females. Soap opera consumption was significantly associated with permissive behavior for males but not for females. Sexual permissiveness for females was more significantly related to religiosity but less significantly related to self-esteem than for males. No important extraneous variable influences were found. Findings are discussed in terms of gender differences, the normative context hypothesis, social scripts, the double standard, the sexual revolution, and the cultivation hypothesis.

  4. The effect of exposure to missile attacks on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as a function of perceived media control and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Yaakov S G; Shrira, Amit; Cohen-Fridel, Sara; Grossman, Ephraim S; Bodner, Ehud

    2016-10-30

    Exposure is one of the most robust predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in warfare situations. Yet, while many are sensitive to exposure, others do not develop PTSD. In the current study, we address how perceived media control along with external locus of control moderate effects of exposure on PTSD symptoms among 1268 individuals exposed to missile attacks (mean age=36.97). We expected that the coupling of low perceived media control, whereby one feels poor control over media consumption (an inability to stop), especially when irrelevant and non-informative (e.g., involuntarily viewing the same terror incident shown repeatedly in a looped fashion) along with a self-perception of external locus of control, will render participants highly vulnerable to exposure. As expected, results suggest that effects of exposure on PTSD are not automatic, rather, the coupling of both low media control along with believing that life event are controlled by external factors exacerbates effects of exposure. These findings bear practical implications, as both media control and locus of control can be modified by therapeutic interventions, rendering one less vulnerable to the detrimental effects of traumatic exposure.

  5. The effect of exposure to missile attacks on posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as a function of perceived media control and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Yaakov S G; Shrira, Amit; Cohen-Fridel, Sara; Grossman, Ephraim S; Bodner, Ehud

    2016-10-30

    Exposure is one of the most robust predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in warfare situations. Yet, while many are sensitive to exposure, others do not develop PTSD. In the current study, we address how perceived media control along with external locus of control moderate effects of exposure on PTSD symptoms among 1268 individuals exposed to missile attacks (mean age=36.97). We expected that the coupling of low perceived media control, whereby one feels poor control over media consumption (an inability to stop), especially when irrelevant and non-informative (e.g., involuntarily viewing the same terror incident shown repeatedly in a looped fashion) along with a self-perception of external locus of control, will render participants highly vulnerable to exposure. As expected, results suggest that effects of exposure on PTSD are not automatic, rather, the coupling of both low media control along with believing that life event are controlled by external factors exacerbates effects of exposure. These findings bear practical implications, as both media control and locus of control can be modified by therapeutic interventions, rendering one less vulnerable to the detrimental effects of traumatic exposure. PMID:27467701

  6. Poverty and program participation among immigrant children.

    PubMed

    Borjas, George J

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children differently. George Borjas uses Current Population Survey (CPS) data on two specific indicators of poverty-the poverty rate and the rate of participation in public assistance programs-to begin answering that question. He finds that immigrant children have significantly higher rates both of poverty and of program participation than do native children. Nearly half of immigrant children are being raised in households that receive some type of public assistance, compared with roughly one-third of native children. Although the shares of immigrant and native children living in poverty are lower, the rate for immigrant children is nonetheless about 15 percentage points higher than that for native children-about the same as the gap in public assistance. Poverty and program participation rates among different groups of immigrant children also vary widely, depending in part on place of birth (foreign- or U.S.-born), parents (immigrant or native), and national origin. According to the CPS data, these native-immigrant differences persist into young adulthood. In particular, the program participation and poverty status of immigrant children is strongly correlated with their program participation and poverty status when they become young adults. But it is not possible, says Borjas, to tell whether the link results from a set of permanent factors associated with specific individuals or groups that tends to lead to "good" or "bad" outcomes systematically over time or from exposure during childhood to adverse socioeconomic outcomes, such as poverty or welfare dependency. Future research must explore the causal impact of childhood poverty on

  7. Garden soil and house dust as exposure media for lead uptake in the mining village of Stratoni, Greece.

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Ariadne

    2014-08-01

    The relationships between two exposure media, garden soil and house dust, were studied for Pb uptake in Stratoni village in northern Greece, an industrial area of mining and processing of sulphide ore. Lead data for the two media were assessed in terms of total and bioaccessible content, measurement and geochemical variability, and mineralogical composition. It was found that total Pb was enriched in house dust samples by a factor of 2 on average. Total Pb concentration in soil samples had a maximum of 2,040 mg/kg and reached a maximum of 7,000 mg/kg in house dust samples. The estimated variability due to measurement uncertainty was dominated by the sampling process, and the proportion of sampling variance was greater for soil samples, indicating a higher degree of Pb heterogeneity in soil on the given spatial scale of sampling strata. Although the same general spatial trend was observed for both sampling media with decreasing Pb concentration by increasing distance from the ore-processing plant, Pb in dust samples displayed the highest concentrations within a 300-600-m zone from the ore-processing facility. The significant differences which were observed in Pb speciation between the studied media were explained by differences in mineralogical composition of outdoor soil and indoor dust. Lead-enriched Fe and Mn oxides predominated in soil samples while fine galena grains (<10-20 μm diameter) were the major Pb-bearing phase in dust samples. The integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model was used to predict the risk of elevated blood lead levels in children of Stratoni. Model prediction indicated an average probability of 61 % for blood-Pb to exceed 10 μg/dl. The results underline the importance of house dust in risk assessment and highlight the effect of outdoor and indoor conditions on the fate of Pb in the particular environment of Stratoni.

  8. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents.

  9. Media education.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, Victor C

    2010-11-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (eg, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising) presents health risks for children and adolescents but can provide benefits as well. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media and accentuate the positive effects. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing harmful effects of media on children and adolescents. PMID:20876180

  10. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents’ brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion–attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior. PMID:20934985

  11. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents' brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion-attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior. PMID:20934985

  12. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents' brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion-attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior.

  13. Self-esteem threat combined with exposure to thin media images leads to body image compensatory self-enhancement.

    PubMed

    Jarry, Josée L; Kossert, Amy L

    2007-03-01

    This study examined the effect of a self-esteem threat combined with exposure to thin images on body image (BI) satisfaction and investment. Female participants (N=94) received a self-esteem threat consisting of false failure feedback or received false success feedback on an intellectual task allegedly highly predictive of academic and professional success. They then viewed media images featuring thin models or products. After viewing thin models, women who had received failure feedback declared themselves more satisfied about their appearance and less invested in it than did women who had received success feedback. These results suggest that exposure to the thin ideal may inspire women experiencing self-esteem threats to use appearance as an alternative source of worth, thus maintaining their global esteem through BI compensatory self-enhancement. Potential long-term implications of this strategy, such as a paradoxical increase in BI investment and the development of eating pathology, are discussed.

  14. Poverty, Trauma, and Infant Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Osofsky, Joy D.

    2009-01-01

    Young children growing up in poverty face chronic risk factors, including abuse and neglect, severe maternal depression, parental substance abuse, harsh parenting, and family and community violence as well as greater exposure to physical risks, including substandard housing, lack of access to resources, and environmental toxins. The authors offer…

  15. Poverty and Program Participation among Immigrant Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borjas, George J.

    2011-01-01

    Researchers have long known that poverty in childhood is linked with a range of negative adult socioeconomic outcomes, from lower educational achievement and behavioral problems to lower earnings in the labor market. But few researchers have explored whether exposure to a disadvantaged background affects immigrant children and native children…

  16. Pathways from Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Barbara, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Articles in this theme issue are based on presentations at the Pathways from Poverty Workshop held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, on May 18-25, 1995. The event aimed to foster development of a network to address rural poverty issues in the Western Rural Development Center (WRDC) region. Articles report on outcomes from the Pathways from Poverty…

  17. Poverty and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wamba, Nathalis, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There is a mutual dependence between poverty and academic achievement, creative pedagogies for low-income pupils, school models that "beat the odds", and the resiliency of low-income families dedicated to the academic success of their children. This book examines the connection between poverty and literacy, looking at the potential roles and…

  18. Institutions and poverty.

    PubMed

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution. PMID:20645460

  19. Institutions and poverty.

    PubMed

    Tebaldi, Edinaldo; Mohan, Ramesh

    2010-01-01

    This study utilises eight alternative measures of institutions and the instrumental variable method to examine the impacts of institutions on poverty. The estimates show that an economy with a robust system to control corruption, an effective government, and a stable political system will create the conditions to promote economic growth, minimise income distribution conflicts, and reduce poverty. Corruption, ineffective governments, and political instability will not only hurt income levels through market inefficiencies, but also escalate poverty incidence via increased income inequality. The results also imply that the quality of the regulatory system, rule of law, voice and accountability, and expropriation risk are inversely related to poverty but their effect on poverty is via average income rather than income distribution.

  20. Foreign Media Exposure and Perceptions of Americans in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willnat, Lars; He, Zhou; Xiaoming, Hao

    1997-01-01

    Finds that foreign TV consumption is related to negative stereotypical perceptions of and feelings toward Americans among undergraduate students attending universities in Hong Kong, Shenzhen, and Singapore; but that different types of foreign media, such as newspaper, radio, video, and movies, exhibit distinct and different relationships with…

  1. AIDS-related information exposure in the mass media and discussion within social networks among married women in Bombay, India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, N

    1999-08-01

    Married women are at high risk of acquiring HIV infection in India and health education remains the most feasible preventive tool in their context. In a survey conducted among 350 married women in Bombay, it was found that a majority had acquired information about AIDS from the mass media, especially television. Although 87% of women who knew of AIDS had been exposed to AIDS-related information in the mass media in the past four weeks, only 57% had discussed it within their social networks. Those with more exposure to AIDS information in the mass media were significantly more likely to discuss AIDS within social networks. The women were most likely to discuss AIDS with their husbands as a general social issue, followed by friends and family members and least likely to talk to husbands about AIDS as a personal issue relating to their sexual relationship. Increased frequency and duration of AIDS messages on television will have a positive influence on AIDS knowledge in this group.

  2. Reinforcing Spirals Model: Conceptualizing the Relationship Between Media Content Exposure and the Development and Maintenance of Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The Reinforcing Spirals Model (RSM, Citation Withheld) has two primary purposes. First, the RSM provides a general framework for conceptualizing media use as part of a dynamic, endogenous process combining selective exposure and media effects that may be drawn on by theorists concerned with a variety of social processes and effects. Second, the RSM utilizes a systems-theory perspective to describe how patterns of mediated and interpersonal communication contribute to the development and maintenance of social identities and ideology as well as more transient attitudes and related behaviors, and how those outcomes may influence subsequent media use. The RSM suggests contingencies that may lead to homeostasis or encourage certain individuals or groups to extreme polarization of such attitudes. In addition, the RSM proposes social cognitive mechanisms that may be responsible for attitude maintenance and reinforcement. This article discusses empirical progress in testing the model, addresses misconceptions that have arisen, and provides elaborated illustrations of the model. The article also identifies potentially fruitful directions for further conceptual development and empirical testing of the RSM. PMID:26366124

  3. Arsenic exposure in multiple environmental media in children near a smelter.

    PubMed

    Morse, D L; Harrington, J M; Housworth, J; Landrigan, P J; Kelter, A

    1979-04-01

    A nationwide survey of heavy-metal exposure in children living near primary nonferrous metal smelters demonstrated high urine arsenic levels in children living near a copper smelter in Ajo, Arizona. Airborne smelter emissions and drinking water were the apparent sources of exposure. To determine whether increased arsenic absorption had produced adverse health effects, we conducted an evaluation of 132 Ajo children 5 to 18 years old and compared results with those of 47 children from a comparison town with low arsenic exposure. Environmental testing showed that Ajo's municipal water supply contained arsenic in concentrations of 0.09 mg/l (the EPA standard is 0.05 mg/l); arsenic concentrations in dust averaged 342.2 microgram/g. Urine arsenic levels in Ajo children correlated positively with amount of tap-water consumed (r = .32, p less than. 0002) and with distance of residence from the smelter (r = .20, p less than .02). Tap-water drinkers had significantly higher urine arsenic levels than bottled water drinkers (t = 4.21 p less than .001). Mean urine arsenic levels were significantly higher for children in Ajo (4.75 microgram/100 ml) than for children in the comparison town (1.17 microgram/100 ml). Hair arsenic levels correlated poorly with arsenic exposure. Despite the study population's chronic exposure to elevated environmental levels of arsenic, no clinical or hematologic abnormalities attributable to arsenic were found. PMID:466981

  4. Segregation and Poverty Concentration: The Role of Three Segregations

    PubMed Central

    Quillian, Lincoln

    2014-01-01

    A key argument of Massey and Denton’s American Apartheid (1993) is that racial residential segregation and non-white group poverty rates combine interactively to produce spatially concentrated poverty. Despite a compelling theoretical rationale, the empirical tests of this proposition have been negative or mixed. This paper develops a formal decomposition model that expands the Massey model of how segregation, group poverty rates, and other spatial conditions combine to form concentrated poverty. The revised decomposition model allows for income effects on cross-race neighborhood residence and interactive combinations of multiple spatial conditions in the formation of concentrated poverty. Applying the model to data reveals that racial segregation and income segregation within race contribute importantly to poverty concentration, as Massey argued, but that almost equally important for poverty concentration is the disproportionate poverty of the non-group neighbors of blacks and Hispanics. The missing interaction Massey expected in empirical tests can be found with proper accounting for the factors in the expanded model. “Because of racial segregation, a significant share of black America is condemned to experience a social environment where poverty and joblessness are the norm, where a majority of children are born out of wedlock, where most families are on welfare, where educational failure prevails, and where social and physical deterioration abound. Through prolonged exposure to such an environment, black chances for social and economic success are drastically reduced.”--Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton, American Apartheid, p. 2 PMID:24648570

  5. Long-term Exposure to Black Carbon and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: The Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Mittleman, Murray A.; Coull, Brent A.; Gryparis, Alexandros; Bots, Michiel L.; Schwartz, Joel; Sparrow, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that air pollution is associated with atherosclerosis and that traffic-related particles are a particularly important contributor to the association. Objectives: We investigated the association between long-term exposure to black carbon, a correlate of traffic particles, and intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (CIMT) in elderly men residing in the greater Boston, Massachusetts, area. Methods: We estimated 1-year average exposures to black carbon at the home addresses of Normative Aging Study participants before their first CIMT measurement. The association between estimated black carbon levels and CIMT was estimated using mixed effects models to account for repeated outcome measures. In secondary analyses, we examined whether living close to a major road or average daily traffic within 100 m of residence was associated with CIMT. Results: There were 380 participants (97% self-reported white race) with an initial visit between 2004 and 2008. Two or three follow-up CIMT measurements 1.5 years apart were available for 340 (89%) and 260 (68%) men, respectively. At first examination, the average ± SD age was 76 ± 6.4 years and the mean ± SD CIMT was 0.99 ± 0.18 mm. A one-interquartile range increase in 1-year average black carbon (0.26 µg/m3) was associated with a 1.1% higher CIMT (95% CI: 0.4, 1.7%) based on a fully adjusted model. Conclusions: Annual mean black carbon concentration based on spatially resolved exposure estimates was associated with CIMT in a population of elderly men. These findings support an association between long-term air pollution exposure and atherosclerosis. Citation: Wilker EH, Mittleman MA, Coull BA, Gryparis A, Bots ML, Schwartz J, Sparrow D. 2013. Long-term exposure to black carbon and carotid intima-media thickness: the Normative Aging Study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1061–1067; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1104845 [Online 2 July 2013] PMID:23820848

  6. Analysis of 1986 Poverty Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food Research and Action Center, Washington, DC.

    Poverty data released by the U. S. Census Bureau indicates no significant progress toward reducing the poverty rate during a period of economic recovery. The 1986 poverty rate of 13.6 percent remains significantly higher than anytime in the 1970s. Minority group children represent the largest age group of the poverty population. The sluggish…

  7. Association of Exposure to Particular Matter and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaole; Lian, Hui; Ruan, Yanping; Liang, Ruijuan; Zhao, Xiaoyi; Routledge, Michael; Fan, Zhongjie

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long time exposure to particular matter has been linked to myocardial infarction, stroke and blood pressure, but its association with atherosclerosis is not clear. This meta-analysis was aimed at assessing whether PM2.5 and PM10 have an effect on subclinical atherosclerosis measured by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Methods: Pubmed, Ovid Medline, Embase and NICK between 1948 and 31 March 2015 were searched by combining the keywords about exposure to the outcome related words. The random-effects model was applied in computing the change of CIMT and their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The effect of potential confounding factors was assessed by stratified analysis and the impact of traffic proximity was also estimated. Results: Among 56 identified studies, 11 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. In overall analysis increments of 10 μg/m3 in PM2.5 and PM10 were associated with an increase of CIMT (16.79 μm; 95% CI, 4.95–28.63 μm and 4.13 μm; 95% CI, −5.79–14.04 μm, respectively). Results shown in subgroup analysis had reference value for comparing with those of the overall analysis. The impact of traffic proximity on CIMT was uncertain. Conclusions: Exposure to PM2.5 had a significant association with CIMT and for women the effect may be more obvious. PMID:26501300

  8. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms following media exposure to tragic events: impact of 9/11 on children at risk for anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Otto, Michael W; Henin, Aude; Hirshfeld-Becker, Dina R; Pollack, Mark H; Biederman, Joseph; Rosenbaum, Jerrold F

    2007-01-01

    With the extensive media coverage on September 11, 2001, adults and children indirectly witnessed the terrorist attacks leading to the deaths of almost 3,000 people. An ongoing longitudinal study provided the opportunity to examine pre-event characteristics and the impact of this media exposure. We assessed symptoms of PTSD in 166 children and 84 mothers who had no direct exposure to the 9/11 attacks. The sample included children who had parents with or without anxiety and mood disorders, and who had been assessed for the presence or absence of temperamental behavioral inhibition (BI). We found a 5.4 percent rate of symptomatic PTSD in response to 9/11 in children and 1.2 percent in their mothers. Children's identification with victims of the attack, and for younger children, the amount of television viewing predicted increased risk of PTSD symptoms. Parental depression was associated with higher symptoms, and pre-event levels of family support was associated with a lower risk for PTSD symptoms. BI in children was also linked to lower rates of PTSD symptoms, suggesting that a cautious and fearful approach to novelty may offer protection against exposure to media-based traumatic images. Media viewing of tragic events is sufficient to produce PTSD symptoms in vulnerable populations such as children. Given the links between PTSD symptoms and viewing habits, parental monitoring of media exposure may be important for younger children.

  9. Tuberculosis and poverty.

    PubMed Central

    Spence, D P; Hotchkiss, J; Williams, C S; Davies, P D

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the historical link between tuberculosis and poverty still exists. DESIGN--Retrospective study examining the notifications of all forms of tuberculosis by council ward over a six year period and correlating this with four indices of poverty; council housing, free school meals, the Townsend overall deprivation index, and the Jarman index. SETTING--The 33 electoral wards of the city of Liverpool. SUBJECTS--344 residents of Liverpool with tuberculosis. RESULTS--The rate of tuberculosis was correlated with all measures of poverty, the strongest correlation being with the Jarman index (r = 0.73, p < 0.0001). This link was independent of the high rates of tuberculosis seen in ethnic minorities. CONCLUSION--Tuberculosis remains strongly associated with poverty. PMID:8219945

  10. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies.

  11. The protective role of general self-determination against 'thin ideal' media exposure on women's body image and eating-related concerns.

    PubMed

    Mask, Lisa; Blanchard, Céline M

    2011-04-01

    Women's responses to 'thin ideal' media pending their level of general self-determination (GSD) were examined. High and low GSD women (N = 99) viewed a 'thin physique salient' (TPS) video or a 'thin physique non-salient' (TPNS) video. Following exposure to the TPS video, perceptions of pressure from the media to be thin, body dissatisfaction, and concerns over quantity of food were greater for low but not high GSD women. However, high GSD women reported greater concerns over the quality of food they eat following exposure to the TPNS video. Prevention efforts aimed at enhancing GSD are discussed.

  12. Familiarity breeds distortion: the effects of media exposure on false reports concerning media coverage of the terrorist attacks in london on 7 July 2005.

    PubMed

    Ost, James; Granhag, Pär-Anders; Udell, Julie; Roos af Hjelmsäter, Emma

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment investigated whether increased media exposure could lead to an increase in memory distortions regarding a traumatic public event: the explosion of the No. 30 bus in Tavistock Square, London on 7 July 2005. A total of 150 Swedish and 150 UK participants completed a series of questionnaires about their memory of either (i) the aftermath of the explosion, (ii) a non-existent computerised reconstruction of the moment of the explosion, or (iii) non-existent closed circuit television footage of the moment of the explosion. In line with the availability heuristic, U.K. participants were more likely than Swedish participants to claim to have seen all three types of footage. Furthermore, a subsample of U.K. participants who appeared to have developed false "memories" of seeing the No. 30 bus explode scored significantly higher on measures of dissociation and fantasy proneness than participants who did not develop false "memories". This experiment provides further support for the role of imaginative processes in the development of false memories.

  13. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings.

  14. Increasing Youths' Exposure to a Tobacco Prevention Media Campaign in Rural and Low-Population-Density Communities

    PubMed Central

    Vallone, Donna M.; Allen, Jane A.; Cullen, Jennifer; Mowery, Paul D.; Xiao, Haijun; Dorrler, Nicole; Asche, Eric T.; Healton, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effectiveness of a program to increase exposure to national “truth” tobacco countermarketing messages among youths in rural and low-population-density communities. Methods. A longitudinal survey of 2618 youths aged 12 to 17 years was conducted over 5 months in 8 media markets receiving supplemental advertising and 8 comparison markets receiving less than the national average of “truth” messages. Results. Confirmed awareness of “truth” increased from 40% to 71% among youths in treatment markets while remaining stable in comparison markets. Over 35% of all youths who were unaware of the campaign at baseline became aware of it as a direct result of the increased advertising. Youths living in rural and low-population-density communities were receptive to the campaign's messages. Conclusions. Through purchase of airtime in local broadcast media, the reach of a national tobacco countermarketing campaign was expanded among youths living in rural and low-population-density areas. This strategy of augmenting delivery of nationally broadcast antitobacco ads can serve as a model for leveraging limited tobacco control resources to increase the impact of evidence-based tobacco prevention campaigns. PMID:19833994

  15. Exposure to violent media: the effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Carnagey, Nicholas L; Eubanks, Janie

    2003-05-01

    Five experiments examined effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings. Experiments 1, 3, 4 and 5 demonstrated that college students who heard a violent song felt more hostile than those who heard a similar but nonviolent song. Experiments 2-5 demonstrated a similar increase in aggressive thoughts. These effects replicated across songs and song types (e.g., rock, humorous, nonhumorous). Experiments 3-5 also demonstrated that trait hostility was positively related to state hostility but did not moderate the song lyric effects. Discussion centers on the potential role of lyric content on aggression in short-term settings, relation to catharsis and other media violence domains, development of aggressive personality, differences between long-term and short-term effects, and possible mitigating factors. PMID:12757141

  16. Exposure to violent media: the effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Craig A; Carnagey, Nicholas L; Eubanks, Janie

    2003-05-01

    Five experiments examined effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and hostile feelings. Experiments 1, 3, 4 and 5 demonstrated that college students who heard a violent song felt more hostile than those who heard a similar but nonviolent song. Experiments 2-5 demonstrated a similar increase in aggressive thoughts. These effects replicated across songs and song types (e.g., rock, humorous, nonhumorous). Experiments 3-5 also demonstrated that trait hostility was positively related to state hostility but did not moderate the song lyric effects. Discussion centers on the potential role of lyric content on aggression in short-term settings, relation to catharsis and other media violence domains, development of aggressive personality, differences between long-term and short-term effects, and possible mitigating factors.

  17. Peculiarities of the exposure of actinic radiation on polymeric holographic recording media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manukhin, B. G.; Andreeva, N. V.; Andreeva, O. V.

    2016-08-01

    The results of experiments that allow to evaluate changes of optical parameters of polymeric recording medium with diffusional amplification occurring during recording of information are presented. It is shown that phase characteristics of the sample compared to its initial state are observed during recording of information and in the post-exposure period, i.e. in a stable condition of the finished element. Quantitative estimates which can be used for planning conditions of holographic experiment during creating highly selective holographic optical elements (HOE) with given parameters are obtained.

  18. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima–media thickness in Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; and others

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility for the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima–media thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = − 5.1 μm, 95% CI = − 31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = − 3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to the proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. - Highlights: • Nine SNPs had a nominally significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. • Three SNPs in AS3MT showed nominally significant interactions with urinary arsenic. • cIMT was much higher among subjects with higher arsenic exposure and AS3MT

  19. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sean T.; Okada, Go; Shaun Ho, S.; Swain, James E.; Evans, Gary W.

    2015-01-01

    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty’s ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions. PMID:25939653

  20. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huesmann, L Rowell; Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-09-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans.

  1. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school students about their exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, their social cognitive reactions to it, and their stereotypes toward ethnic groups. Beyond the effects of ethnic identity, the degree to which adolescents identified with Israelis and Palestinians in the media was a key variable linking exposure to media depictions of the conflict and the implicit ethnic stereotypes they displayed about Jewish Americans and Arab Americans. PMID:23243381

  2. Waging War on Poverty: Poverty Trends Using a Historical Supplemental Poverty Measure

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Liana E.; Wimer, Christopher; Garfinkel, Irwin; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the March Current Population Survey, we provide poverty estimates for 1967 to 2012 based on a historical Supplemental Poverty Measure (SPM). During this period, poverty, as officially measured, has stagnated. However, the official poverty measure (OPM) does not account for the effect of near-cash transfers on the financial resources available to families, an important omission since such transfers have become an increasingly important part of government anti-poverty policy. Applying the historical SPM, which does count such transfers, we find that trends in poverty have been more favorable than the OPM suggests and that government policies have played an important and growing role in reducing poverty—a role that is not evident when the OPM is used to assess poverty. We also find that government programs have played a particularly important role in alleviating child poverty and deep poverty, especially during economic downturns. PMID:26347369

  3. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    PubMed

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs.

  4. Poverty Matters: The Cost of Child Poverty in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Arloc

    The poverty affecting 14.5 million U.S. children living below the poverty line poses long-term effects, including risks to health, educational achievement, family stability, and employment prospects. This report provides compelling evidence of the substantial costs of poverty among children to our nation's economic well-being, and shows that…

  5. Poverty rates in Venezuela: getting the numbers right.

    PubMed

    Weisbrot, Mark; Sandoval, Luis; Rosnick, David

    2006-01-01

    This article looks at household and individual poverty rates in Venezuela over the past seven years. For more than a year, the statement that poverty in Venezuela has increased under the government of President Hugo Chávez has appeared in scores of major newspapers, on major television and radio programs, and even in publications devoted to foreign policy. There are no data to support such statements, and in fact the available data show a decline in poverty for both individuals and households over the seven-year period: the percentage of people in poverty declined from 50 percent in the first quarter of 1999 to 43.7 percent in 2005. Further, there is no evidence to suggest any change in the methodology for measuring poverty during this period, as has been alleged in a number of reports. The article also examines briefly the impact of significant changes in non-cash benefits such as free health care, which are not taken into account in the measured poverty rate, on poor people in Venezuela. Finally, the authors look at how the mistakes in reporting on Venezuela's poverty rate were made; an appendix gives examples of mistakes in major media and foreign policy publications.

  6. Alternatives for Benzene in the Extraction of Bitumen Fume from Exposure Sample Media.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Benjamin; Ravera, Christel; Hussard, Caroline; Langlois, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is frequently used to extract collected bitumen fumes from personal sampler substrates. However, this solvent is particularly dangerous because of its carcinogenicity (group 1 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification). Therefore, to prevent the exposure of laboratory technicians to benzene during the fume extraction step from samplers, a compromise had to be found to identify a less toxic solvent with the same extraction capacity. To compare the extraction capacities of selected solvents, bitumen fumes were generated in the laboratory from three different batches of road surfacing bitumen collected on dedicated bitumen fume samplers. The samplers were then extracted by benzene and the solvents tested. Of 11 selected solvents less toxic than benzene and used in studies on bitumen and bitumen fume analyses, n-hexane and n-heptane were identified as alternatives to benzene. In particular, the results demonstrated that n-heptane was the best candidate solvent for benzene replacement, due to its extraction efficiency comparable to benzene for the three bitumen fumes tested and its low toxicity, which is highly compatible with benzene replacement. PMID:26400870

  7. Alternatives for Benzene in the Extraction of Bitumen Fume from Exposure Sample Media.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Benjamin; Ravera, Christel; Hussard, Caroline; Langlois, Eddy

    2016-01-01

    Benzene is frequently used to extract collected bitumen fumes from personal sampler substrates. However, this solvent is particularly dangerous because of its carcinogenicity (group 1 of the International Agency for Research on Cancer classification). Therefore, to prevent the exposure of laboratory technicians to benzene during the fume extraction step from samplers, a compromise had to be found to identify a less toxic solvent with the same extraction capacity. To compare the extraction capacities of selected solvents, bitumen fumes were generated in the laboratory from three different batches of road surfacing bitumen collected on dedicated bitumen fume samplers. The samplers were then extracted by benzene and the solvents tested. Of 11 selected solvents less toxic than benzene and used in studies on bitumen and bitumen fume analyses, n-hexane and n-heptane were identified as alternatives to benzene. In particular, the results demonstrated that n-heptane was the best candidate solvent for benzene replacement, due to its extraction efficiency comparable to benzene for the three bitumen fumes tested and its low toxicity, which is highly compatible with benzene replacement.

  8. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  9. Technology Helps Increase Poverty Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samaras, Anastasia P.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of developing curricular initiatives that educate students on the major facts and issues associated with poverty in America. Provides key poverty statistics and highlights useful Internet resources that offer resource lists, success stories, relevant press releases, and curriculum guides. For example, the PovertyUSA Web…

  10. Carotid artery intima–media thickness and HIV infection: traditional risk factors overshadow impact of protease inhibitor exposure

    PubMed Central

    Currier, Judith S.; Kendall, Michelle A.; Zackin, Robert; Henry, W. Keith; Alston-Smith, Beverly; Torriani, Francesca J.; Schouten, Jeff; Mickelberg, Keith; Li, Yanjie; Hodis, Howard N.

    2005-01-01

    Context The impact of HIV infection and exposure to antiretroviral therapy on the development of subclinical atherosclerosis is incompletely understood. Objective To compare intima–media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery between HIV-infected subjects receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens and subjects not receiving these regimens and to compare differences in the IMT of the carotid artery between HIV-infected subjects and HIV-uninfected subjects. Methods A prospective matched cohort study in university-based outpatient clinics. Groups of three individuals (triads) matched on the following characteristics were enrolled: age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking status, blood pressure and menopausal status. Group 1, HIV-infected subjects with continuous use of protease inhibitor (PI) therapy for ≥ 2 years; group 2, HIV-infected subjects without prior PI use; and group 3: HIV-uninfected. Ultrasonographers at six sites sent standardized ultrasound images to a central reading site for carotid IMT measurements. Carotid IMT was compared within the HIV-infected groups (1 and 2) and between the HIV-infected and uninfected groups in a matched analysis. Results One hundred and thirty-four individuals were enrolled in 45 triads. The median IMT in groups 1, 2 and 3 was 0.690, 0.712 and 0.698 mm, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in IMT between groups 1 and 2, or in the combined HIV groups compared with the HIV uninfected group. Significant predictors of carotid IMT in a multivariate model included high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, the interaction of HDL cholesterol and triglycerides, age and body mass index. Conclusions We found no association between PI inhibitor exposure or HIV infection and carotid IMT. PMID:15905673

  11. The effects of risk-glorifying media exposure on risk-positive cognitions, emotions, and behaviors: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Vogrincic, Claudia; Sauer, Anne

    2011-05-01

    In recent years, there has been a surge in the quantity of media content that glorifies risk-taking behavior, such as risky driving, extreme sports, or binge drinking. The authors conducted a meta-analysis involving more than 80,000 participants and 105 independent effect sizes to examine whether exposure to such media depictions increased their recipients' risk-taking inclinations. A positive connection was found for overall, combined risk taking (g=.41); as well as its underlying dimensions: risk-taking behaviors (g=.41), risk-positive cognitions and attitudes (g=.35), and risk-positive emotions (g=.56). This effect was observed across varying research methods (experimental, correlational, longitudinal); types of media (video games, movies, advertising, TV, music); and differing risk-related outcome measures (e.g., smoking, drinking, risky driving, sexual behavior). Multiple moderator analyses revealed 2 theoretically new boundary conditions for sociocognitive models. First, the effect was stronger for active (i.e., video games) than for passive (e.g., film, music) exposure to risk-glorifying media content. Second, the effect was stronger when there was a high degree of contextual fit between the media content and type of risk-taking measure. The theoretical, practical, and societal implications of the present research synthesis are discussed. PMID:21341887

  12. The neurology of poverty.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce.

  13. Poverty and Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Equity does not require that everyone have the same amount of resources to satisfy basic needs, but it does require that each of us be able to live decently. The articles in this issue focus on poverty and its effects on children, particularly with respect to education and the ability to learn. The following articles are included: (1) "Poor Kids…

  14. Poverty in School Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.; Kealy, William A.

    2013-01-01

    What are acute poverty challenges for culturally disadvantaged school communities across the United States? How do practicing teacher-researchers, pursuing advanced degrees, view this issue and the 21st century skills and dispositions classroom teachers need to foster change? Curious about this topic from the viewpoints of teachers who are…

  15. The neurology of poverty.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G

    1982-01-01

    An intellectual deficit is known to exist in populations where extreme poverty is rife and is thus seen extensively in the lower socio-economic strata of underdeveloped nations. Poverty is a complex entity whose sociological and economic indicators often bear little relevance to the biological agents which can affect the central nervous system. An attempt is made to express poverty in terms of identifiable defects, physiological in nature. Thus adverse socio-economic factors are converted into specific biological entities which, though necessary for adequate development of the brain, are restricted where there is poverty. A number of causative deficiencies, including nutritional, visual, auditory, tactile, vestibular, affective, and other stimuli are postulated. These interact and potentiate one another. Each is capable of an independent action on the brain and examples are given of some sensory deprivations as well as malnutrition and their possible mechanism of action. If the various deficiencies can independently harm the brain, then a number of separate specific functions should be affected; examples are offered. The nature of this intellectual deficit is probably a non-fulfillment of genetic potential of certain specific functions of the brain, which may exhibit limited variations between one community and another, depending on cultural differences. The deleterious effect of this intellectual impairment is seen most clearly in figures of school desertion, for example in Latin America. Analogous data for adults is scarce. PMID:7112171

  16. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  17. Strategies Against Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riessman, Frank

    The major antipoverty strategies of the 1960's are analyzed--the conflict model of Alinsky, the welfare crisis approach of Cloward and Piven, and the new careers viewpoint of Riessman and Pearl. The latter strategy is said to have a greater "multiplier effect" on poverty than other approaches. Discussed are such specific strategies in the human…

  18. Poverty and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Franco, E.; Fuckar, N. S.; Kalmbach, E. R.; Kayatta, E.; Lankester, K.; Rothschild, R. E.; Sarma, A.; Wall, M. L.

    2008-05-01

    The poor are disproportionately vulnerable to environmental change because they have the least amount of resources with which to adapt, and they live in areas (e.g. flood plains, low-lying coastal areas, and marginal drylands) that are particularly vulnerable to the manifestations of climate change. By quantifying the various environmental, economic, and social factors that can contribute to poverty, we identify populations that are most vulnerable to poverty and poverty traps due to environmental change. We define vulnerability as consisting of risk (probability of event and exposed elements), resiliency, and capacity to respond. Resiliency captures the social system's ability to absorb a natural disaster while retaining the same basic structure, organization, and ways of functioning, as well as its general capacity to adapt to stress and change. Capacity to respond is a surrogate for technical skills, institutional capabilities, and efficacy within countries and their economies. We use a "climate change multiplier" to account for possible increases in the frequency and severity of natural events due to climate change. Through various analytical methods, we quantify the social, political, economic, and environmental factors that contribute to poverty or poverty traps. These data sets are then used to determine vulnerability through raster multiplication in geospatial analysis. The vulnerability of a particular location to climate change is then mapped, with areas of high vulnerability clearly delineated. The success of this methodology indicates that it is indeed possible to quantify the effects of climate change on global vulnerability to natural disasters, and can be used as a mechanism to identify areas where proactive measures, such as improving adaptation or capacity to respond, can reduce the humanitarian and economic impacts of climate change.

  19. The class analysis of poverty.

    PubMed

    Wright, E O

    1995-01-01

    To understand more fully the nature of poverty it must be viewed as the result, in part, of inherent features of the social system. The author describes four general approaches to explaining poverty: poverty as a result of inherent individual attributes, as the by-product of contingent individual characteristics, as a by-product of social causes, and as a result of inherent properties of the social system. He then elaborates a class exploitation analysis of poverty by explaining how economic oppression, economic exploitation, and class generate a social system in which poverty plays a crucial functional role. The general problem of poverty must be broken down into two subproblems: poverty generated inside exploitative relations (the working poor) and poverty generated by nonexploitative oppression (the underclass). A class analysis of poverty argues that significant numbers of privileged people have a strong, positive material interest in maintaining poverty. Poverty can be reduced in the United States only through popular mobilization of pressure that challenges the power of the dominant classes.

  20. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important. PMID:9299836

  1. Women in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    Population is estimated to increase from 5.5 billion in 1990 to 10 billion by 2050; the poverty level is expected to increase from 1 billion to 2-3 billion people. Women in development has been promoted throughout the UN and development system, but women in poverty who perform work in the informal sector are still uncounted, and solutions are elusive. The issue of extreme poverty can not be approached as just another natural disaster with immediate emergency relief. Many people live in precarious economic circumstances throughout their lives. Recent research reveals a greater understanding of the underlying causes and the need for inclusion of poor women in sustainable development. Sanitation, water, housing, health facilities need to be improved. Women must have access to education, opportunities for trading, and loans on reasonable terms. UNESCO makes available a book on survival strategies for poor women in the informal sector. The profile shows common problems of illiteracy, broken marriages, and full time involvement in provision of subsistence level existence. Existence is a fragile balance. Jeanne Vickers' "Women and the World" offers simple, low cost interventions for aiding extremely poor women. The 1992 Commission on the Status of Women was held in Vienna. Excerpts from several speeches are provided. The emphasis is on some global responses and an analysis of solutions. The recommendation is for attention to the gender dimension of poverty. Women's dual role contributes to greater disadvantages. Women are affected differently by macroeconomic factors, and that there is intergenerational transfer of poverty. Social services should be viewed as investments and directed to easing the burdens on time and energy. Public programs must be equipped to deal with poverty and to bring about social and economic change. Programs must be aware of the different distribution of resources within households. Women must be recognized as principal economic providers within

  2. Meta-analytic moderators of experimental exposure to media portrayals of women on female appearance satisfaction: Social comparisons as automatic processes.

    PubMed

    Want, Stephen C

    2009-09-01

    Experimental exposure to idealized media portrayals of women is thought to induce social comparisons in female viewers and thereby to be generally detrimental to female viewers' satisfaction with their own appearance. Through meta-analysis, the present paper examines the impact of moderators of this effect, some identified and updated from a prior meta-analysis and some that have hitherto received little attention. Participants' pre-existing appearance concerns and the processing instructions participants were given when exposed to media portrayals were found to significantly moderate effect sizes. With regard to processing instructions, a novel and counter-intuitive pattern was revealed; effect sizes were smallest when participants were instructed to focus on the appearance of women in media portrayals, and largest when participants processed the portrayals on a distracting, non-appearance dimension. These results are interpreted through a framework that suggests that social comparisons are automatic processes, the effects of which can be modified through conscious processing.

  3. Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6-9 year-old girls.

    PubMed

    Slater, Amy; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-09-01

    Despite widespread public concern about the early sexualization of young girls, as yet there has been little empirical examination of potential negative effects. In the present study a sample of 300 6-9 year-old girls completed individual interviews assessing exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualized messages (measured via preference for sexualized clothing), and body image attitudes (body esteem, body dissatisfaction). Exposure to sexualized media was found to be correlated with internalization of sexualization messages, itself correlated with negative body image. The findings provide preliminary evidence that sexualized messages appear to be internalized by very young girls which, in turn, has negative implications for how they feel about their bodies. PMID:27236473

  4. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all

  5. Social evils, poverty & health.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rajeev; Kumar, Praneet

    2007-10-01

    There is a close association between social circumstances and health. In India, there is a significant burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases. Risk factors responsible for these conditions are underweight, unsafe sex, unsafe water, poor sanitation and hygiene, indoor smoke pollution, zinc, iron and vitamin A deficiency, tobacco use, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol. All these risk factors are influenced by social factors and in India the more important factors are poverty and illiteracy. Changing lifestyles as a result of rising incomes are significant risk factors for non communicable diseases. The social evils that influence poverty and health are macrolevel national and regional issues such as physical geography, governance patterns and failures, geopolitics, economic policy, natural resources decline, population growth, the demographic trap and the fiscal trap. Household and microlevel factors include the poverty trap, cultural barriers, lack of innovation and saving, absence of trade or business, unemployment, technological reversal, adverse productivity shock, social issues related to females, and adolescent social issues. Social determinants important for non communicable diseases, defined by the World Health Organization include the social gradient, stress, early life events, social exclusion, improper work conditions, unemployment, lack of social support, addiction, food scarcity or excess and uneven distribution, lack of proper transport, and illiteracy or low educational status. There are multiple pathways through which social factors influence health, and pathophysiological mechanisms involve homeostatic and allostatic changes in response to stress, neuroendocrine changes and altered autonomic functions, and abnormal inflammatory and immune responses. A concerted action to eradicate these social evils shall have to focus on reducing poverty, improving educational status and providing equitable and accessible healthcare to all.

  6. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    PubMed

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. PMID:27044701

  7. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    PubMed

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. PMID:26560884

  8. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this ‘proof of concept’ study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. PMID:26560884

  9. Quantifying and Mapping Global Data Poverty.

    PubMed

    Leidig, Mathias; Teeuw, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Digital information technologies, such as the Internet, mobile phones and social media, provide vast amounts of data for decision-making and resource management. However, access to these technologies, as well as their associated software and training materials, is not evenly distributed: since the 1990s there has been concern about a "Digital Divide" between the data-rich and the data-poor. We present an innovative metric for evaluating international variations in access to digital data: the Data Poverty Index (DPI). The DPI is based on Internet speeds, numbers of computer owners and Internet users, mobile phone ownership and network coverage, as well as provision of higher education. The datasets used to produce the DPI are provided annually for almost all the countries of the world and can be freely downloaded. The index that we present in this 'proof of concept' study is the first to quantify and visualise the problem of global data poverty, using the most recent datasets, for 2013. The effects of severe data poverty, particularly limited access to geoinformatic data, free software and online training materials, are discussed in the context of sustainable development and disaster risk reduction. The DPI highlights countries where support is needed for improving access to the Internet and for the provision of training in geoinfomatics. We conclude that the DPI is of value as a potential metric for monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

  10. Poverty nutrition linkages.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Prema

    2007-10-01

    At the time of independence majority of Indians were poor. In spite of spending over 80 per cent of their income on food, they could not get adequate food. Living in areas of poor environmental sanitation they had high morbidity due to infections; nutrition toll due to infections was high because of poor access to health care. As a result, majority of Indians especially children were undernourished. The country initiated programmes to improve economic growth, reduce poverty, improve household food security and nutritional status of its citizens, especially women and children. India defined poverty on the basis of calorie requirement and focused its attention on providing subsidized food and essential services to people below poverty line. After a period of slow but steady economic growth, the last decade witnessed acceleration of economic growth. India is now one of the fastest growing economies in the world with gross domestic product (GDP) growth over 8 per cent. There has been a steady but slow decline in poverty; but last decade's rapid economic growth did not translate in to rapid decline in poverty. In 1970s, country became self sufficient in food production; adequate buffer stocks have been built up. Poor had access to subsidized food through the public distribution system. As a result, famines have been eliminated, though pockets of food scarcity still existed. Over the years there has been a decline in household expenditure on food due to availability of food grains at low cost but energy intake has declined except among for the poor. In spite of unaltered/declining energy intake there has been some reduction in undernutrition and increase in overnutrition in adults. This is most probably due to reduction in physical activity. Under the Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) programme food supplements are being provided to children, pregnant and lactating women in the entire country. In spite of these, low birth weight rates are still over 30 per

  11. The Literature of Poverty, the Poverty of Literature Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, John

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author focuses on the possibilities--and the limits--of undergraduate courses on the literature of poverty. He describes an undergraduate course he has taught on U.S. literature about poverty, but he also expresses doubt that such courses can help produce major social change. He argues that something about the literature of…

  12. Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty. Poverty Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron, Neil

    2015-01-01

    "Brain Drain: A Child's Brain on Poverty," released in March 2015 and prepared by intern Neil Damron, explores the brain's basic anatomy and recent research findings suggesting that poverty affects the brain development of infants and young children and the potential lifelong effects of the changes. The sheet draws from a variety of…

  13. Relative Poverty. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper XIII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Jack

    This paper examines some of the implications, including geographic and residential considerations, of adopting a relative poverty defintion which would fix the poverty threshold at some proportion of median income. The major virtues of such a definition are that it is explicitly relative and it is easy to understand and construct. The major flaw…

  14. Protected areas and poverty

    PubMed Central

    Brockington, Daniel; Wilkie, David

    2015-01-01

    Protected areas are controversial because they are so important for conservation and because they distribute fortune and misfortune unevenly. The nature of that distribution, as well as the terrain of protected areas themselves, have been vigorously contested. In particular, the relationship between protected areas and poverty is a long-running debate in academic and policy circles. We review the origins of this debate and chart its key moments. We then outline the continuing flashpoints and ways in which further evaluation studies could improve the evidence base for policy-making and conservation practice. PMID:26460124

  15. Poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid. PMID:17942702

  16. The interacting role of media violence exposure and aggressive-disruptive behavior in adolescent brain activation during an emotional Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Kalnin, Andrew J; Edwards, Chad R; Wang, Yang; Kronenberger, William G; Hummer, Tom A; Mosier, Kristine M; Dunn, David W; Mathews, Vincent P

    2011-04-30

    Only recently have investigations of the relationship between media violence exposure (MVE) and aggressive behavior focused on brain functioning. In this study, we examined the relationship between brain activation and history of media violence exposure in adolescents, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Samples of adolescents with no psychiatric diagnosis or with disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) with aggression were compared to investigate whether the association of MVE history and brain activation is moderated by aggressive behavior/personality. Twenty-two adolescents with a history of aggressive behavior and diagnosis of either conduct disorder or oppositional-defiant disorder (DBD sample) and 22 controls completed an emotional Stroop task during fMRI. Primary imaging results indicated that controls with a history of low MVE demonstrated greater activity in the right inferior frontal gyrus and rostral anterior cingulate during the violent word condition. In contrast, in adolescents with DBD, those with high MVE exhibited decreased activation in the right amygdala, compared with those with low MVE. These findings are consistent with research demonstrating the importance of fronto-limbic structures for processing emotional stimuli, and with research suggesting that media violence may affect individuals in different ways depending on the presence of aggressive traits. PMID:21376543

  17. The global distribution of risk factors by poverty level.

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Tony; Hales, Simon; Kieft, Charlotte; Wilson, Nick; Woodward, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the individual-level association of income poverty with being underweight, using tobacco, drinking alcohol, having access only to unsafe water and sanitation, being exposed to indoor air pollution and being obese. METHODS: Using survey data for as many countries as possible, we estimated the relative risk association between income or assets and risk factors at the individual level within 11 medium- and low-income subregions of WHO. WHO and The World Bank data on the prevalence of risk factors and income poverty (defined as living on < US$ 1.00 per day, US$ 1-2.00 per day and > US$ 2.00 per day) were analysed to impute the association between poverty and risk factors for each subregion. The possible effect of poverty reduction on the prevalence of risk factors was estimated using population-attributable risk percentages. FINDINGS: There were strong associations between poverty and malnutrition among children, having access only to unsafe water and sanitation, and being exposed to indoor air pollution within each subregion (relative risks were twofold to threefold greater for those living on < US$ 1.00 per day compared with those living on > US$ 2.00 per day). Associations between poverty and obesity, tobacco use and alcohol use varied across subregions. If everyone living on < US$ 2.00 per day had the risk factor profile of those living on > US$ 2.00 per day, 51% of exposures to unimproved water and sanitation could be avoided as could 37% of malnutrition among children and 38% of exposure to indoor air pollution. The more realistic, but still challenging, Millennium Development Goal of halving the number of people living on < US$ 1.00 per day would achieve much smaller reductions. CONCLUSION: To achieve large gains in global health requires both poverty eradication and public health action. The methods used in this study may be useful for monitoring pro-equity progress towards Millennium Development Goals. PMID:15744404

  18. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  19. Poverty Reduction Begins with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY.

    This report describes how children bear the brunt of poverty and explains why they are central to poverty reduction in developing nations. The report also illustrates UNICEF's support for the process of improving access to, and quality of, health care, education, water and sanitation, and child protection. It describes how the participation of the…

  20. Neighborhood Poverty and Adolescent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride Murry, Velma; Berkel, Cady; Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Nation, Maury

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of studies conducted over the past decade on the effects of neighborhood and poverty on adolescent normative and nonnormative development. Our review includes a summary of studies examining the associations between neighborhood poverty and adolescent identity development followed by a review of studies…

  1. Poverty in the Nonmetropolitan South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George; Stewart, Merrilee

    The unknowns about nonmetropolitan Southern poverty are systematically addressed by this monograph. The methodology employed isolates and gives equal treatment to 5 causal explanations. The 5 are genetic, culture of poverty, opportunity, maldistribution, and scarce resource explanations. Comprehensive materials are then organized around these…

  2. Pathways from Poverty Educational Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northeast Regional Center for Rural Development, University Park, PA.

    Pathways from Poverty is a public policy education and research initiative organized by the Rural Sociological Society's Task Force on Persistent Rural Poverty and the four regional rural development centers. This publication focuses on project efforts in the Northeast and includes three sections. The first section describes the Pathways from…

  3. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic factors as predictors of Kenyan high school students' exposure to sexual content in television.

    PubMed

    Ngula, Kyalo wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville

    2016-01-01

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students. PMID:27002353

  4. Parental mediation of adolescent media use and demographic factors as predictors of Kenyan high school students' exposure to sexual content in television.

    PubMed

    Ngula, Kyalo wa; Mberia, Hellen K; Miller, Ann Neville

    2016-01-01

    Research in Western nations suggests that parents' involvement in their children's media use can make a difference in how adolescents select, process and respond to sexual television messages. Little or no published research has investigated this issue in sub-Saharan Africa, even though adolescents and young adults remain among the groups at highest risk for HIV transmission. This study investigated the relationship between Kenyan adolescents' level of exposure to sexual television content and their parents' mediation of their television use. A cluster sample of 427 Nairobi public high school students was surveyed regarding parental mediation of their media use and their intake of sexual television content. Co-viewing with opposite sex friends was associated with higher intake of sexual TV content. This relationship was stronger among boarding school students than among day school students. Parental mediation and co-viewing variables predicted three times as much variance among boarding than among day school students.

  5. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  6. Association of Child Poverty, Brain Development, and Academic Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Hair, Nicole L.; Hanson, Jamie L.; Wolfe, Barbara L.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Children living in poverty generally perform poorly in school, with markedly lower standardized test scores and lower educational attainment. The longer children live in poverty, the greater their academic deficits. These patterns persist to adulthood, contributing to lifetime-reduced occupational attainment. OBJECTIVE To determine whether atypical patterns of structural brain development mediate the relationship between household poverty and impaired academic performance. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Longitudinal cohort study analyzing 823 magnetic resonance imaging scans of 389 typically developing children and adolescents aged 4 to 22 years from the National Institutes of Health Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study of Normal Brain Development with complete sociodemographic and neuroimaging data. Data collection began in November 2001 and ended in August 2007. Participants were screened for a variety of factors suspected to adversely affect brain development, recruited at 6 data collection sites across the United States, assessed at baseline, and followed up at 24-month intervals for a total of 3 periods. Each study center used community-based sampling to reflect regional and overall US demographics of income, race, and ethnicity based on the US Department of Housing and Urban Development definitions of area income. One-quarter of sample households reported the total family income below 200% of the federal poverty level. Repeated observations were available for 301 participants. EXPOSURE Household poverty measured by family income and adjusted for family size as a percentage of the federal poverty level. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Children’s scores on cognitive and academic achievement assessments and brain tissue, including gray matter of the total brain, frontal lobe, temporal lobe, and hippocampus. RESULTS Poverty is tied to structural differences in several areas of the brain associated with school readiness skills, with the largest influence

  7. Exposure and impact of a mass media campaign targeting sexual health amongst Scottish men who have sex with men: an outcome evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper explores the exposure and impact of a Scottish mass media campaign: Make Your Position Clear. It ran from October 2009 to July 2010, targeted gay men and other men who have sex with men (MSM), and had two key aims: to promote regular sexual health and HIV testing every 6 months, and to promote the use of appropriate condoms and water-based lubricant with each episode of anal intercourse. Methods A cross-sectional survey (anonymous and self-report) was conducted 10 months after the campaign was launched (July 2010). Men were recruited from commercial venues. Outcome measures included use of lubricant, testing for sexually transmitted infections and HIV, and intentions to seek HIV testing within the following six months. Linear-by-linear chi-square analysis and binary logistic regressions were conducted to explore the associations between the outcome measures and campaign exposure. Results The total sample was 822 men (62.6% response rate). Men self-identifying as HIV positive were excluded from the analysis (n = 38). Binary logistic analysis indicated that those with mid or high campaign exposure were more likely to have been tested for HIV in the previous six months when adjusted for age, area of residence and use of the “gay scene” (AOR = 1.96, 95% CI = 1.26 to 3.06, p = .003), but were not more likely to be tested for STIs (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI = 0.88 to 2.16, p = .167). When adjusted for previous HIV testing, those with mid or high campaign exposure were not more likely to indicate intention to be tested for HIV in the following six months (AOR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.73 to 2.32, p = .367). Those with no campaign exposure were less likely than those with low exposure to have used appropriate lubricant with anal sex partners in the previous year (AOR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.23 to 0.77, p = .005). Conclusions The campaign had demonstrable reach. The analysis showed partial support for the role of

  8. After Beijing: emphasis on poverty eradication.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    In March 1996, during its first meeting since the Fourth World Conference on Women, the UN Commission on the Status of Women (CSW), called for a gender perspective to be integrated into policies and programs dealing with poverty, child and dependent care, and the media. Three expert panels examined each of these areas through a format which encouraged dialogue and led to the adoption of 17 resolutions, decisions, and agreed conclusions as well as a recommendation that the UN adopt a multi-year work program for the CSW to allow it to review progress in elimination of the 12 main obstacles to women's advancement identified at Beijing. Among the resolutions adopted by the CSW were calls to 1) take a broad and integrated approach to poverty eradication, 2) enhance women's empowerment and autonomy, 3) promote equity and equality in the public domain, 4) promote women's employment, 5) give women social and economic protection when they are unable to work, 6) counteract negative images of women and sex-stereotyping in the media, 7) reduce the representation of violence against women in the media, 8) strengthen the role of women in global communications, 9) encourage the participation of men in child and dependent care, and 10) recognize women's double burden of work. The CSW also agreed to pursue further discussions about drafting an optional protocol to the 1979 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. Among its other actions, the CSW called for mechanisms to protect the rights of women migrant workers, to protect women and children during armed conflicts, to include gender-based human rights violations in UN activities, and to address the root factors which lead to social ills such as trafficking in women and girls. In addition, the CSW submitted a draft resolution demanding that Israel protect the rights of Palestinian women and their families.

  9. Going beyond exposure to local news media: an information-processing examination of public perceptions of food safety.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kenneth; Thorson, Esther; Zhang, Yuyan

    2006-12-01

    The relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety was examined in a statewide telephone survey (n = 524). The theoretical framework of the study was based on a review of the social and psychological factors that affect public concerns about food safety, the relationship between mass communication and risk perception, and the thesis of information-processing strategies and its impact on learning from the news. The results show that information-processing strategies substantially mediated the relationship between local news media and public perceptions of food safety, with elaborative processing being more influential than active reflection in people's learning from the news media. Attention to local television had an independent effect, after demographics, awareness of food safety problems, and perceived safety of local food supply were statistically controlled. Other important predictors included gender, education, ethnicity, and perceived safety of local food supply.

  10. POTENTIAL MEDIA FOR MONITORING IN UTERO EXPOSURE TO 2,2’,4,4’-TETRABROMODIPHENYL ETHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that many diseases are linked to environmental exposures early in life. Little is known about in utero exposures to most environmental chemicals. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widespread in the environment as a result of many years of usage ...

  11. Poverty eradication: a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pethe, V P

    1998-08-01

    This article offers a new paradigm for eradicating poverty in India. It was assumed incorrectly by Mahatma Gandhi that a good society without mass poverty would follow after independence. India copied Western models of development and developed giant factories, big dams, and megacities. Agriculture did not expand the number of jobs for people. The Western paradigm failed in India because of the false assumption of "trickle down" of income to the masses. The targeted programs to the poor did not directly benefit enough of the poor. Mega-industrialization led to reduced employment and higher skill needs. The model failed mainly because it was a proxy and relied on indirect ways of reaching the poor. The models failed to be adapted to conditions in India. The Swadeshi paradigm is a direct model for addressing mass poverty. Poverty is affected by immediate, intermediate, and ultimate determinants. Poverty begets social and economic problems, such as ignorance, ill health, high fertility, unemployment, and crime. In India and developing countries, mass poverty results from under use of human resources; lack of equal opportunities; and an outdated non-egalitarian social structure, an unjust global economic order, human cruelty, and erosion of ethical values. Indians are squandering their precious resources mimicking Western consumerism. Poverty leads to rapid population growth. People become productive assets with universal literacy, compulsory and free education, health services and sanitation, vocational training, and work ethics. India needs people-oriented policies with less emphasis on capital accumulation.

  12. Vaccines against poverty.

    PubMed

    MacLennan, Calman A; Saul, Allan

    2014-08-26

    With the 2010s declared the Decade of Vaccines, and Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5 focused on reducing diseases that are potentially vaccine preventable, now is an exciting time for vaccines against poverty, that is, vaccines against diseases that disproportionately affect low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 has helped better understand which vaccines are most needed. In 2012, US$1.3 billion was spent on research and development for new vaccines for neglected infectious diseases. However, the majority of this went to three diseases: HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis, and not neglected diseases. Much of it went to basic research rather than development, with an ongoing decline in funding for product development partnerships. Further investment in vaccines against diarrheal diseases, hepatitis C, and group A Streptococcus could lead to a major health impact in LMICs, along with vaccines to prevent sepsis, particularly among mothers and neonates. The Advanced Market Commitment strategy of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) Alliance is helping to implement vaccines against rotavirus and pneumococcus in LMICs, and the roll out of the MenAfriVac meningococcal A vaccine in the African Meningitis Belt represents a paradigm shift in vaccines against poverty: the development of a vaccine primarily targeted at LMICs. Global health vaccine institutes and increasing capacity of vaccine manufacturers in emerging economies are helping drive forward new vaccines for LMICs. Above all, partnership is needed between those developing and manufacturing LMIC vaccines and the scientists, health care professionals, and policy makers in LMICs where such vaccines will be implemented.

  13. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  14. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  15. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  16. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  17. 24 CFR 598.115 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Poverty rate. 598.115 Section 598... Requirements § 598.115 Poverty rate. (a) General. In order to be eligible for designation, an area's poverty... poverty rate must be not less than 20 percent; and (2) For at least 90 percent of the census tracts...

  18. Causal Relationships between Poverty and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Strauser, David R.

    2007-01-01

    Although research suggests why disability may cause poverty, it is not well understood why poverty may cause disability. This article presents the Poverty Disability Model, which includes four groups of factors that increase the risk that poverty will cause disability and chronic health problems. Rehabilitation interventions and counselor…

  19. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26835604

  20. Different digital paths to the keg? How exposure to peers' alcohol-related social media content influences drinking among male and female first-year college students.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Froidevaux, Nicole M; Witkovic, Yong D

    2016-06-01

    Despite speculation that peers' alcohol-related content on social media sites (SMS) may influence the alcohol use behaviors of SMS frequenting college students, this relationship has not been investigated longitudinally. The current prospective study assesses the relationship between exposure to peers' alcohol-related SMS content and later-drinking among first-year college students. Among 408 first-year students, total exposure to peers' alcohol-related content on Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat during the initial 6 weeks of college predicted alcohol consumption 6 months later. The rather robust relationship persisted even after students' and close friends drinking were accounted for, indicating that alcohol references on SMS do not simply reflect alcohol use behaviors that would otherwise be observed in the absence of SMS and be predictive of later alcohol use. Findings also illuminate important gender differences in the degree to which peers' alcohol-related SMS content influenced later drinking behavior as well as psychological mediators of this relationship. Among females, enhancement drinking motives and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience fully mediated the relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and later drinking. Males, however, evidenced a much stronger predictive relationship between SMS alcohol exposure and second semester drinking, with this relationship only partially explained by perceptions of drinking norms, enhancement drinking motives, and beliefs about the role of alcohol in the college experience. Implications of these findings for college drinking prevention efforts and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Environmental Media Systems: Innovations at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Exposure Research Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costelloe-Kuehn, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    This multi-sited ethnography analyzes challenges and opportunities in the design and development of digital media systems in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) at the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Drawing heavily from interviews conducted over the course of three years, primarily with scientists at the ORD's…

  2. Carotid Intima-Media Thickness and Long-Term Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Middle-Aged Residents of Taiwan: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Su, Ta-Chen; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Shen, Yu-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Associations between long-term exposure to air pollution and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) have inconsistent findings. Objectives In this study we aimed to evaluate association between 1-year average exposure to traffic-related air pollution and CIMT in middle-aged adults in Asia. Methods CIMT was measured in Taipei, Taiwan, between 2009 and 2011 in 689 volunteers 35–65 years of age who were recruited as the control subjects of an acute coronary heart disease cohort study. We applied land-use regression models developed by the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) to estimate each subject’s 1-year average exposure to traffic-related air pollutants with particulate matter diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM10) and ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and the absorbance levels of PM2.5 (PM2.5abs), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and nitrogen oxides (NOx) in the urban environment. Results One-year average air pollution exposures were 44.21 ± 4.19 μg/m3 for PM10, 27.34 ± 5.12 μg/m3 for PM2.5, and (1.97 ± 0.36) × 10–5/m for PM2.5abs. Multivariate regression analyses showed average percentage increases in maximum left CIMT of 4.23% (95% CI: 0.32, 8.13) per 1.0 × 10–5/m increase in PM2.5abs; 3.72% (95% CI: 0.32, 7.11) per 10-μg/m3 increase in PM10; 2.81% (95% CI: 0.32, 5.31) per 20-μg/m3 increase in NO2; and 0.74% (95% CI: 0.08, 1.41) per 10-μg/m3 increase in NOx. The associations were not evident for right CIMT, and PM2.5 mass concentration was not associated with the outcomes. Conclusions Long-term exposures to traffic-related air pollution of PM2.5abs, PM10, NO2, and NOx were positively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis in middle-aged adults. Citation Su TC, Hwang JJ, Shen YC, Chan CC. 2015. Carotid intima–media thickness and long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution in middle-aged residents of Taiwan: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health Perspect 123:773–778; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408553 PMID:25793433

  3. Effect of ambient light exposure of media and embryos on development and quality of porcine parthenogenetically activated embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Liu, Ying; Pedersen, Hanne Skovsgaard; Callesen, Henrik

    2015-06-01

    Light exposure is a common stress factor during in vitro handling of oocytes and embryos that originates from both microscope and ambient light. In the current study, the effect of two types of ambient light (daylight and laboratory light) on porcine parthenogenetically activated (PA) embryos was tested in two experiments: (1) ambient light on medium subsequently used for embryo in vitro development; and (2) ambient light exposure on activated oocytes before in vitro development. The results from Experiment 1 showed that exposure of culture medium to both types of ambient light decreased the percentage of blastocysts that showed good morphology, only after 24 h exposure. The results from Experiment 2 revealed a reduction in both blastocyst formation and quality when activated oocytes were exposed to both types of ambient light. This effect was seen after only 1 h exposure and increased with time. In conclusion, exposure to ambient light can be harmful to embryo development, both when medium is exposed for a long period of time and, to a greater extent, when the embryo itself is exposed for >1 h. In practice, it is therefore recommended to protect both culture medium and porcine embryos against ambient light during in vitro handling in the laboratory.

  4. Joining together to combat poverty.

    PubMed

    Heath, I; Haines, A; Malenica, Z; Oulton, J A; Leopando, Z; Kaseje, D; Addington, W W; Giscard D'Estaing, O; Tumwine, J K; Koivusalo, M; Biscoe, G; Nickson, P; Marusić, M; Vuk Pavlović, S

    2000-03-01

    The International Poverty and Health Network (IPHN) was created in December 1997 following a series of conferences organized by the World Health Organization, with the aim of integrating health into plans to eradicate poverty. Around 1.3 billion people live on less than US$1 per day. Of the 4.4 billion people in developing countries nearly 60% lack access to sanitation, 30% do not have clean water, 20% have no health care, and 20% do not have enough dietary energy and protein. Even among rich nations there are gross socioeconomic inequalities. Many children are robbed of their physical and mental potential through poverty. Expressed in constant 1963 US dollars, an average Croatian family needed the annual income of US$894 to meet the poverty line in 1960 and US$9,027 in 1995. Accordingly, 9-25% of Croatian households were below the poverty line between 1960 and 1995. The increase in the poverty rate after 1991 was compounded by the war that destroyed almost a third of industrial capacity and infrastructure. Dissipation of the communist economy and inadequate privatization have contributed to the increase in unemployment rate, corruption, and other social ills. IPHN invited Croatian Medical Journal to publish this editorial to help push the issue of poverty up political and medical agendas on a global level. We argue that a factor contributing to the failure of most large-scale programs against poverty to date is the excessive emphasis on material and infrastructure assistance at the expense of spiritual, moral, and intellectual development.

  5. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction. PMID:27085112

  6. Reducing the negative effects of media exposure on body image: Testing the effectiveness of subvertising and disclaimer labels.

    PubMed

    Frederick, David A; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Scott, Terri; Akbari, Yasmin

    2016-06-01

    Body image activists have proposed adding disclaimer labels to digitally altered media as a way to promote positive body image. Another approach advocated by activists is to alter advertisements through subvertising (adding social commentary to the image to undermine the message of the advertisement). We examined if body image could be enhanced by attaching Photoshop disclaimers or subvertising to thin-ideal media images of swimsuit models. In Study 1 (N=1268), adult women exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher body state satisfaction or lower drive for thinness than women exposed to unaltered images. In Study 2 (N=820), adult women who were exposed to disclaimers or subvertising did not report higher state body satisfaction or lower state social appearance comparisons than women exposed to unaltered images or to no images. These results raise questions about the effectiveness of disclaimers and subvertising for promoting body satisfaction.

  7. Plaque-media rewelding with reversible tissue optical property changes during receptive cw Nd:YAG laser exposure.

    PubMed

    Spears, J R; James, L M; Leonard, B M; Sinclair, I N; Jenkins, R D; Motamedi, M; Sinofsky, E L

    1988-01-01

    Laser dosimetry for thermal fusion of plaque-wall separations during laser balloon angioplasty (LBA) is dependent upon the optical properties of the atheromatous arterial wall during one or more exposures to cw Nd:YAG laser radiation. An integrating sphere technique was used to measure relative transmission and reflection continuously during irradiation of human postmortem atheromatous aortic sections. Tissue luminal surface temperature was recorded continuously with a thermographic video imager during repetitive 20-30-sec, 8-15-watt exposure of a 3-mm nominal spot. In all specimens, transmission fell progressively during each exposure by 10-70% of baseline values. This effect was reversible with normalization of transmission during the initial phase of each subsequent exposure. Changes in transmission were inversely related to temperature over a 50-170 degrees C range, whereas relative reflection remained constant. Accompanying reversible transmission changes was the observation that the weld strength of plaque-aortic wall separations was unchanged by repetitive laser welding and tissue separation of individual sections. In conclusion, temperature-dependent reversible optical and physical properties of plaque occur during exposure to 1.06 microns cw laser radiation. PMID:2976446

  8. Smoking and poverty.

    PubMed

    Haustein, Knut-Olaf

    2006-06-01

    The problem of poverty leads to increased use of both legal and illegal drugs. Tobacco and alcohol are legal drugs that cause particular concern. Both drugs are widely abused in Germany by people attempting to escape their everyday problems. For decades it has been known that tobacco and alcohol use are more prevalent in lower socio-economic groups of society (those with low educational achievement, compared with people with further or higher education qualifications). Tobacco and alcohol use is particularly high among the unemployed, either temporarily or long-term, as well as people living alone. Children and women are more concerned about smoking than men. Female loneliness, often accompanied by the appearance of depressive reactions or of depression, increases the likelihood of cigarette smoking. Poor people spend up to 20% of their income on tobacco. In many industrialized countries, the age of onset of smoking is becoming younger and younger, increasing the risk of development of avoidable tobacco-related illnesses at an earlier age. This means that young smokers who develop chronic tobacco-related illnesses will require medical care over many years, increasing the cost of treating tobacco-related disease. Within the next few years, effective prevention programs against smoking must be developed, particularly for the lower socio-economic populations, in order to stop the cost of healthcare systems spiraling over the coming decades. PMID:16926658

  9. Children's Media Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Amy B.

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems…

  10. Child poverty can be reduced.

    PubMed

    Plotnick, R D

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty can be reduced by policies that help families earn more and supplement earned income with other sources of cash. A comprehensive antipoverty strategy could use a combination of these approaches. This article reviews recent U.S. experience with these broad approaches to reducing child poverty and discusses lessons from abroad for U.S. policymakers. The evidence reviewed suggests that, although policies to increase earned incomes among low-wage workers can help, these earnings gains will not be sufficient to reduce child poverty substantially. Government income support programs, tax policy, and child support payments from absent parents can be used to supplement earned incomes of poor families with children. Until recently, Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) was the main government assistance program for low-income families with children. Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) has recently replaced AFDC. This article explains why TANF benefits are likely to be less than AFDC benefits. The article also examines the effects of Social Security and Supplemental Security Income on child poverty. The most encouraging recent development in antipoverty policy has been the decline in the federal tax burden on poor families, primarily as a result of the expansion of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC), now the largest cash assistance program for families with children. In 1995, government transfer programs (including the value of cash, food, housing, medical care, and taxes) decreased child poverty by 38% (from 24.2% to 14.2% of children under 18). Child poverty may also be reduced by policies that increase contributions from absent single parents to support their children. Overall, evidence from the United States and other developed countries suggests that a variety of approaches to reducing child poverty are feasible. Implementation of effective programs will depend, however, on the nation's political willingness to devote more resources to

  11. Effects of Mass Media Campaign Exposure Intensity and Durability on Quit Attempts in a Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakefield, M. A.; Spittal, M. J.; Yong, H-H.; Durkin, S. J.; Borland, R.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the extent to which intensity and timing of televised anti-smoking advertising emphasizing the serious harms of smoking influences quit attempts. Methods: Using advertising gross rating points (GRPs), we estimated exposure to tobacco control and nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) advertising in the 3, 4-6, 7-9 and 10-12 months…

  12. CAirTOX, An inter-media transfer model for assessing indirect exposures to hazardous air contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    McKone, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    Risk assessment is a quantitative evaluation of information on potential health hazards of environmental contaminants and the extent of human exposure to these contaminants. As applied to toxic chemical emissions to air, risk assessment involves four interrelated steps. These are (1) determination of source concentrations or emission characteristics, (2) exposure assessment, (3) toxicity assessment, and (4) risk characterization. These steps can be carried out with assistance from analytical models in order to estimate the potential risk associated with existing and future releases. CAirTOX has been developed as a spreadsheet model to assist in making these types of calculations. CAirTOX follows an approach that has been incorporated into the CalTOX model, which was developed for the California Department of Toxic Substances Control, With CAirTOX, we can address how contaminants released to an air basin can lead to contamination of soil, food, surface water, and sediments. The modeling effort includes a multimedia transport and transformation model, exposure scenario models, and efforts to quantify uncertainty in multimedia, multiple-pathway exposure assessments. The capacity to explicitly address uncertainty has been incorporated into the model in two ways. First, the spreadsheet form of the model makes it compatible with Monte-Carlo add-on programs that are available for uncertainty analysis. Second, all model inputs are specified in terms of an arithmetic mean and coefficient of variation so that uncertainty analyses can be carried out.

  13. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T.; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W.; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2016-09-01

    Transport of reactive solutes in groundwater is affected by physical and chemical heterogeneity of the porous medium, leading to complex spatio-temporal patterns of concentrations and reaction rates. For certain cases of bioreactive transport, it could be shown that the concentrations of reactive constituents in multi-dimensional domains are approximately aligned with isochrones, that is, lines of identical travel time, provided that the chemical properties of the matrix are uniform. We extend this concept to combined physical and chemical heterogeneity by additionally considering the time that a water parcel has been exposed to reactive materials, the so-called exposure time. We simulate bioreactive transport in a one-dimensional domain as function of time and exposure time, rather than space. Subsequently, we map the concentrations to multi-dimensional heterogeneous domains by means of the mean exposure time at each location in the multi-dimensional domain. Differences in travel and exposure time at a given location are accounted for as time difference. This approximation simplifies reactive-transport simulations significantly under conditions of steady-state flow when reactions are restricted to specific locations. It is not expected to be exact in realistic applications because the underlying assumption, such as neglecting transverse mixing altogether, may not hold. We quantify the error introduced by the approximation for the hypothetical case of a two-dimensional, binary aquifer made of highly-permeable, non-reactive and low-permeable, reactive materials releasing dissolved organic matter acting as electron donor for aerobic respiration and denitrification. The kinetically controlled reactions are catalyzed by two non-competitive bacteria populations, enabling microbial growth. Even though the initial biomass concentrations were uniform, the interplay between transport, non-uniform electron-donor supply, and bio-reactions led to distinct spatial patterns of

  14. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-09-01

    Transport of reactive solutes in groundwater is affected by physical and chemical heterogeneity of the porous medium, leading to complex spatio-temporal patterns of concentrations and reaction rates. For certain cases of bioreactive transport, it could be shown that the concentrations of reactive constituents in multi-dimensional domains are approximately aligned with isochrones, that is, lines of identical travel time, provided that the chemical properties of the matrix are uniform. We extend this concept to combined physical and chemical heterogeneity by additionally considering the time that a water parcel has been exposed to reactive materials, the so-called exposure time. We simulate bioreactive transport in a one-dimensional domain as function of time and exposure time, rather than space. Subsequently, we map the concentrations to multi-dimensional heterogeneous domains by means of the mean exposure time at each location in the multi-dimensional domain. Differences in travel and exposure time at a given location are accounted for as time difference. This approximation simplifies reactive-transport simulations significantly under conditions of steady-state flow when reactions are restricted to specific locations. It is not expected to be exact in realistic applications because the underlying assumption, such as neglecting transverse mixing altogether, may not hold. We quantify the error introduced by the approximation for the hypothetical case of a two-dimensional, binary aquifer made of highly-permeable, non-reactive and low-permeable, reactive materials releasing dissolved organic matter acting as electron donor for aerobic respiration and denitrification. The kinetically controlled reactions are catalyzed by two non-competitive bacteria populations, enabling microbial growth. Even though the initial biomass concentrations were uniform, the interplay between transport, non-uniform electron-donor supply, and bio-reactions led to distinct spatial patterns of

  15. Exposure-time based modeling of nonlinear reactive transport in porous media subject to physical and geochemical heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Amos, Richard T; Finkel, Michael; Blowes, David W; Cirpka, Olaf A

    2016-09-01

    Transport of reactive solutes in groundwater is affected by physical and chemical heterogeneity of the porous medium, leading to complex spatio-temporal patterns of concentrations and reaction rates. For certain cases of bioreactive transport, it could be shown that the concentrations of reactive constituents in multi-dimensional domains are approximately aligned with isochrones, that is, lines of identical travel time, provided that the chemical properties of the matrix are uniform. We extend this concept to combined physical and chemical heterogeneity by additionally considering the time that a water parcel has been exposed to reactive materials, the so-called exposure time. We simulate bioreactive transport in a one-dimensional domain as function of time and exposure time, rather than space. Subsequently, we map the concentrations to multi-dimensional heterogeneous domains by means of the mean exposure time at each location in the multi-dimensional domain. Differences in travel and exposure time at a given location are accounted for as time difference. This approximation simplifies reactive-transport simulations significantly under conditions of steady-state flow when reactions are restricted to specific locations. It is not expected to be exact in realistic applications because the underlying assumption, such as neglecting transverse mixing altogether, may not hold. We quantify the error introduced by the approximation for the hypothetical case of a two-dimensional, binary aquifer made of highly-permeable, non-reactive and low-permeable, reactive materials releasing dissolved organic matter acting as electron donor for aerobic respiration and denitrification. The kinetically controlled reactions are catalyzed by two non-competitive bacteria populations, enabling microbial growth. Even though the initial biomass concentrations were uniform, the interplay between transport, non-uniform electron-donor supply, and bio-reactions led to distinct spatial patterns of

  16. [An end to poverty

    PubMed

    Engelhard, P

    1994-10-01

    The African continent is distinguished by a much higher fertility rate than other regions. Fertility in Africa has remained almost constant at slightly over six children per woman on average, while important declines have occurred elsewhere over the past 25 years. High fertility in Africa is often attributed to poor diffusion of family planning, early marriage, and low female educational attainment, but other cultural and economic factors are involved. The significant decline of infant mortality over the past several decades has produced growth rates never before observed. Africa's very young populations may be at the origin of uncontrollable political disorder, as young persons with bleak prospects fall easy prey to ethnic, religious, and political extremism. Demographic growth has become an additional barrier to development. High fertility is tolerated or encouraged as constituting a cultural trait, but the resulting population growth is not a cultural trait. Demographic pressure has increased environmental problems in many regions. It is estimated that over ten million rural residents of the Sahel have been affected by soil degradation. The per capita availability of arable land fell from one-half to one-third hectare between 1965 and 1987. Shortages of firewood and water have become more common. The relationship between demographic growth, environmental crisis, and poverty in the countryside depends on other factors such as production techniques, modes of access to land and water, and the degree of security of land tenure. Population pressure was not the initial factor that disturbed the balance of the traditional societies, but it exacerbated the effects of other forces such as the introduction of cash crops and monetarization of the economy. Rural exodus and accelerated urban migration have been prompted in large part by the higher incomes and greater availability of services of all types in the cities. Achieving control of fertility in Africa will require

  17. Prospective influence of music-related media exposure on adolescent substance-use initiation: a peer group mediation model.

    PubMed

    Slater, Michael D; Henry, Kimberly L

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests prospective effects of music-related media content (from television, Internet, and magazines) on youth alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use initiation. Indirect effects through association with substance-using peers were tested in a 4-wave longitudinal data set (2,729 middle school students for the alcohol model, 2,716 students for the cigarette model, and 2,710 students for the marijuana model) from schools across the United States. In so doing, the authors examine theoretical claims regarding socialization mechanisms for effects of popular music listenership on substance use initiation. Results supported direct effects on alcohol and cigarette uptake, and indirect effects through association with substance-using peers on all 3 substances. This research, in combination with prior studies by several research teams, suggests elevated popular music involvement is a risk factor with respect to younger adolescents' substance use behavior. This influence is in part explained by the role of music-related media content in socialization to substance-using peer groups.

  18. Effects of exposure to thin-ideal media images on body dissatisfaction: testing the inclusion of a disclaimer versus warning label.

    PubMed

    Ata, Rheanna N; Thompson, J Kevin; Small, Brent J

    2013-09-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether the inclusion of a disclaimer (i.e., "Retouched photograph aimed at changing a person's physical appearance.") or warning (i.e., "Warning: Trying to look as thin as this model may be dangerous to your health.") added to images of thin/attractive models would affect body dissatisfaction and intent to diet in female undergraduate students (n=342). Participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: (a) disclaimer, (b) warning, (c) model control, or (d) car control. Results revealed a significant interaction between group and time, whereby only the car control group reported a significant change (i.e., decrease) in body dissatisfaction over time. Groups did not differ on intent to diet measured at post-exposure. The results largely replicate other findings in this area and call into question advocacy efforts to label media images as a strategy to decrease women's identification with the stimuli. PMID:23688859

  19. Exposure to the 'Dark Side of Tanning' skin cancer prevention mass media campaign and its association with tanning attitudes in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M; Cust, Anne E; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The 'Dark Side of Tanning' (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of 13- to 44-year-olds living in New South Wales in the summer months of 2007-2010 (n = 7490). Regression models were used to determine predictors of recall of DSOT and to investigate associations between exposure to the campaign and tanning attitudes. The campaign achieved consistently high recall (unprompted recall 42-53% during campaign periods; prompted recall 76-84%). Those who recalled DSOT advertisements had a higher likelihood of reporting negative tanning attitudes compared with those who reported no recall, after adjusting for other factors (odds ratio [OR] 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.27 for unprompted recall; OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.03-1.36 for prompted recall). Being interviewed in later campaign years was also a significant predictor of negative tanning attitudes (e.g. fourth year of campaign versus first year: OR 1.24, 95% CI 1.01-1.53). These results suggest that mass media campaigns have potential to influence tanning-related attitudes and could play an important role in skin cancer prevention.

  20. Urban air pollution, poverty, violence and health--Neurological and immunological aspects as mediating factors.

    PubMed

    Kristiansson, Marianne; Sörman, Karolina; Tekwe, Carmen; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian

    2015-07-01

    Rapid rural-urban migration has created overcrowded areas characterized by concentrated poverty and increases in indoor and outdoor air pollutants. These "hotspots" constitute an increased risk of violence and disease outbreaks. We hypothesize that the effects of poverty and associated air pollution-related stress on impaired cognitive skills are mediated by inflammatory cytokines. A research framework is proposed, encompassing (i) an epidemiological investigation of associations between poverty, high concentrations of air pollutants, violence and health, (ii) a longitudinal follow-up of working memory capacities and inflammatory markers, and (iii) intervention programs aiming to strengthen employability and decreased exposures to toxic air pollutants.

  1. The age of extremes: concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Massey, D S

    1996-11-01

    Urbanization, rising income inequality, and increasing class segregation have produced a geographic concentration of affluence and poverty throughout the world, creating a radical change in the geographic basis of human society. As the density of poverty rises in the environment of the world's poor, so will their exposure to crime, disease, violence, and family disruption. Meanwhile the spatial concentration of affluence will enhance the benefits and privileges of the rich. In the twenty-first century the advantages and disadvantages of one's class position will be compounded and re-inforced through ecological mechanisms made possible by the geographic concentration of affluence and poverty, creating a deeply divided and increasingly violent social world.

  2. Interaction between arsenic exposure from drinking water and genetic susceptibility in carotid intima-media thickness in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fen; Jasmine, Farzana; Kibriya, Muhammad G.; Liu, Mengling; Cheng, Xin; Parvez, Faruque; Paul-Brutus, Rachelle; Islam, Tariqul; Paul, Rina Rani; Sarwar, Golam; Ahmed, Alauddin; Jiang, Jieying; Islam, Tariqul; Slavkovich, Vesna; Rundek, Tatjana; Demmer, Ryan T.; Desvarieux, Moise; Ahsan, Habibul; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies that evaluated genetic susceptibility to the effects of arsenic exposure from drinking water on subclinical atherosclerosis are limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 1,078 participants randomly selected from the Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study in Bangladesh to evaluate whether the association between arsenic exposure and carotid artery intima-medial thickness (cIMT) differs by 207 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 18 genes related to arsenic metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. Although not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing, nine SNPs in APOE, AS3MT, PNP, and TNF genes had a nominally statistically significant interaction with well-water arsenic in cIMT. For instance, the joint presence of a higher level of well-water arsenic (≥ 40.4 μg/L) and the GG genotype of AS3MT rs3740392 was associated with a difference of 40.9 μm (95% CI = 14.4, 67.5) in cIMT, much greater than the difference of cIMT associated with the genotype alone (β = -5.1 μm, 95% CI = -31.6, 21.3) or arsenic exposure alone (β = 7.2 μm, 95% CI = -3.1, 17.5). The pattern and magnitude of the interactions were similar when urinary arsenic was used as the exposure variable. Additionally, the at-risk genotypes of the AS3MT SNPs were positively related to proportion of monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) in urine, which is indicative of arsenic methylation capacity. The findings provide novel evidence that genetic variants related to arsenic metabolism may play an important role in arsenic-induced subclinical atherosclerosis. Future replication studies in diverse populations are needed to confirm the findings. PMID:24593923

  3. The Future of American Poverty; Some Basic Issues in Evaluating Alternative Anti-Poverty Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Paul C.; And Others

    Embracing four separate reports, this document contains a context and summary for studying orientations toward poverty, kinds of poor, and other basic issues of poverty; equality of economic opportunity and other criteria for evaluating poverty programs; general solutions to poverty; characteristics of transfer payment systems, birth control, and…

  4. Subjective Poverty and Its Relation to Objective Poverty Concepts in Hungary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nandori, Eszter Siposne

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes subjective poverty in Hungary and compares it to the objective poverty concepts. Subjective poverty is defined by examining who people consider to be poor. Based on the Easterlin paradox, the initial hypothesis states that subjective and absolute poverty concepts are highly correlated. Taking into account that Hungary is a…

  5. NEIGHBOURHOOD POVERTY, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND CENTRAL ADIPOSITY IN THE USA: INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS IN A REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Shanks, Trina R; Perkins, Denise White

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods with high concentrations of poverty were more likely to show increases in central adiposity compared with those in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of poverty. In models adjusted for BMI, neighbourhood poverty at baseline was associated with a greater change in central adiposity among participants who lived in neighbourhoods in the second (B=3.79, p=0.025) and third (B=3.73, p=0.024) poverty quartiles, compared with those in the lowest poverty neighbourhoods. The results from models that included both neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination showed that both were associated with increased risk of increased central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods in the second (B=9.58, p<0.001), third (B=8.25, p=0.004) and fourth (B=7.66, p=0.030) quartiles of poverty were more likely to show greater increases in central adiposity over time, compared with those in the lowest poverty quartile, with mean discrimination at baseline independently and positively associated with increases in central adiposity over time (B=2.36, p=0.020). The results suggest that neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination are independently associated with a heightened risk of increase in central adiposity over time. Efforts to address persistent disparities in central adiposity in the USA should include strategies to

  6. Associations between metals in residential environmental media and exposure biomarkers over time in infants living near a mining-impacted site.

    PubMed

    Zota, Ami R; Riederer, Anne M; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Schaider, Laurel A; Shine, James P; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Wright, Robert O; Spengler, John D

    2016-09-01

    Infant exposures to metals are a concern for mining-impacted communities, although limited information is available to assess residential exposures over the first year of life. We measured lead (Pb), manganese, arsenic, and cadmium in indoor air, house dust, yard soil, and tap water from 53 infants' homes near the Tar Creek Superfund Site (Oklahoma, USA) at two time points representing developmental stages before and during initial ambulation (age 0-6 and 6-12 months). We measured infant metal biomarkers in: umbilical cord blood (n=53); 12- (n=43) and 24- (n=22) month blood; and hair at age 12 months (n=39). We evaluated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between infant residential and biomarker concentrations. A doubling of mean dust Pb concentration was consistently associated with 36-49% higher 12-month blood Pb adjusting for cord blood Pb (P⩽0.05). Adjusted dust concentration explained 29-35% of blood Pb variance, and consistent associations with other media were not observed. Although concentrations in dust and blood were generally low, strong and consistent associations between dust and body burden suggest that house dust in mining-impacted communities may impact children's health. These relationships were observed at a young age, typically before blood Pb levels peak and when children's development may be particularly vulnerable to toxic insult. PMID:26648247

  7. THE CULTURE OF POVERTY AMONG AMERICAN NEGROES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GEHLBACH, SALLY J.

    WITH OSCAR LEWIS' CONCEPT OF A "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AS A FRAME OF REFERENCE, THIS PAPER EXPLORES THE NATURE OF POVERTY AMONG AMERICAN NEGROES AS PORTRAYED IN NOVELS, AUTOBIOGRAPHIES, AND SOCIOLOGICAL STUDIES. THE POOR WHO LIVE IN THIS "CULTURE OF POVERTY" LOSE THEIR PLACE IN SOCIETY AND, OVER GENERATIONS, FAIL TO BECOME EFFECTIVE PARTICIPANTS IN…

  8. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  9. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  10. Examining the Culture of Poverty: Promising Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuthrell, Kristen; Stapleton, Joy; Ledford, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Spurred by preservice teachers' perceptions that diversity issues such as poverty would not affect their teaching, professors in 1 southeastern U.S. elementary teacher-preparation program took action, which resulted in this examination of the culture of poverty and the identification of strategies to best serve children living in poverty. The…

  11. The Effects of Poverty on Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacour, Misty; Tissington, Laura D.

    2011-01-01

    Poverty, which forms a specific culture and way of life, is a growing issue in the United States. The number of Americans living in poverty is continually increasing. Poverty indicates the extent to which an individual does without resources. Resources can include financial, emotional, mental, spiritual, and physical resources as well as support…

  12. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Poverty rate. 597.103 Section 597... Area Requirements § 597.103 Poverty rate. (a) General. The poverty rate shall be established in accordance with the following criteria: (1) In each census tract within a nominated urban area, the...

  13. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  14. Gender and Poverty Reduction: A Kenyan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimani, Elishiba Njambi; Kombo, Donald Kisilu

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is a dehumanising condition for every one. It erodes human rights of the affected whether women or men. Poverty subjects an individual to a state of powerlessness, hopelessness, and lack of self-esteem, confidence, and integrity, leading to a situation of multidimensional vulnerability. Poverty has a gender dimension since women and men…

  15. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  16. Poverty and People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have consistently reported a significant association between poverty and the prevalence of intellectual disabilities. The available evidence suggests that this association reflects two distinct processes. First, poverty causes intellectual disabilities, an effect mediated through the association between poverty and exposure…

  17. Divided Opportunities: Minorities, Poverty, and Social Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandefur, Gary D., Ed.; Tienda, Marta, Ed.

    A healthy economy is the best offense against poverty, but economic growth alone cannot close the wide gap between the poverty rates of minorities and whites. This collection examines the socioeconomic status of racial and ethnic minorities, their experiences with poverty, and the effects of federal social policies toward minority groups from 1787…

  18. The School Administrator's Publicity Handbook, with 74 Story Ideas in Handy Checkoff Format. Internal and External PR for Maximum Media Exposure and an Orderly System for Setting Up the Program. Operations Notebook 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of California School Administrators, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This booklet presents brief, detailed guidelines intended to aid school administrators in developing and managing a publicity program for schools. Primary emphasis of the discussion is on generating publicity and media exposure; only cursory attention is devoted to the other facets of a complete public relations program. Major topics of discussion…

  19. Mass Media and Political Issue Perceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstetter, C. Richard; Strand, Paul J.

    1983-01-01

    Based on one intensive survey of media behavior and a series of other national surveys, the study shows that holding issue positions and perceptions of major party candidates' issue positions are functions of media exposure to public affairs media. (Author)

  20. The Three Types of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingue, Michel Doo

    1975-01-01

    Poverty in Africa can be attributed to colonial conquest and exploitation. The African economy was organized to meet the needs of the colonizing country, not the needs of the native population. Political independence did not bring about economic independence. A new economic order is needed between developed and developing nations. (MR)

  1. How Poverty Affects Classroom Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric

    2013-01-01

    "Poverty" is an uncomfortable word. Teachers are often unsure what to expect from kids from low-income households and what to do differently as a result. Well-known author and educator Eric Jensen points to seven differences that show up in school between low- and middle-income children. By understanding what they are and how to address…

  2. Poverty among Elderly in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srivastava, Akanksha; Mohanty, Sanjay K.

    2012-01-01

    Using consumption expenditure data of the National Sample Survey 2004-2005, this paper estimates the size of elderly poor and tests the hypotheses that elderly households are not economically better-off compared to non-elderly households in India. Poverty estimates are derived under three scenarios--by applying the official cut-off point of the…

  3. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  4. How High Poverty Districts Improve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Togneri, Wendy; Anderson, Stephen E.

    2003-01-01

    Describes results of study of five high-poverty districts' successful efforts to improve academic achievement: Adline Independent School District (Texas), Chula Vista Elementary School District (California), Kent County Public Schools (Maryland), Minneapolis Public Schools (Minnesota), and Providence Public Schools (Rhode Island). Focuses on…

  5. Effects of test media on reproduction in Potamopyrgus antipodarum and of pre-exposure population densities on sensitivity to cadmium in a reproduction test.

    PubMed

    Sieratowicz, Agnes; Schulte-Oehlmann, Ulrike; Wigh, Adriana; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Molluscan species can be affected by various anthropogenic substances. Yet, these effects are disregarded in chemical risk assessment as molluscs are unrepresented in standard OECD guidelines. The project "validation of a mollusc reproduction test" (Federal Environment Agency, code 371165417) deals with the development of a test method with the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum for OECD purposes. In this context, the influence on reproduction of both, different media and varying snail density, has been observed in independent experiments. Further, the impact of density on the outcome of subsequent cadmium (Cd) toxicity in a test has been investigated to refine the existing methodology. First, adult snails were kept in different test media for 12 weeks. Second, snail density was increased for 4 weeks to induce stress. Snails from each density scenario were used for another 4 weeks in a reproduction test at an equal density with 12 μg Cd/L, respectively. Significant differences in reproduction between medium groups were noted after 4 and 8, but not 12, weeks. Further, reproduction was significantly altered by snail density in the beakers but after subsequent 4 weeks at a constant density, no differences were observed between control groups. Cd reduced reproduction and this effect increased with snail density in the pre-exposure period, demonstrating that a previous stress factor may result in increased sensitivity to chemicals and underlines the need for more standardized breeding conditions to minimize effect variations. Based on the outcome of this study, an acclimatization period of 12 weeks must be guaranteed for specimens transferred to another medium. Further, 4 weeks of acclimatization are necessary after density stress. An additional 12 weeks density experiment showed that medium volume in each replicate can be decreased by half to save on chemicals, water and space during tests.

  6. Inequality, income, and poverty: comparative global evidence.

    PubMed

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study seeks to provide comparative global evidence on the role of income inequality, relative to income growth, in poverty reduction.Methods. An analysis-of-covariance model is estimated using a large global sample of 1980–2004 unbalanced panel data, with the headcount measure of poverty as the dependent variable, and the Gini coefficient and PPP-adjusted mean income as explanatory variables. Both random-effects and fixed-effects methods are employed in the estimation.Results. The responsiveness of poverty to income is a decreasing function of inequality, and the inequality elasticity of poverty is actually larger than the income elasticity of poverty. Furthermore, there is a large variation across regions (and countries) in the relative effects of inequality on poverty.Conclusion. Income distribution plays a more important role than might be traditionally acknowledged in poverty reduction, though this importance varies widely across regions and countries.

  7. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F; Johnson, Dayna A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  8. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  9. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    PubMed

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children. PMID:27044710

  10. The Role of Public Health Insurance in Reducing Child Poverty.

    PubMed

    Wherry, Laura R; Kenney, Genevieve M; Sommers, Benjamin D

    2016-04-01

    Over the past 30 years, there have been major expansions in public health insurance for low-income children in the United States through Medicaid, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and other state-based efforts. In addition, many low-income parents have gained Medicaid coverage since 2014 under the Affordable Care Act. Most of the research to date on health insurance coverage among low-income populations has focused on its effect on health care utilization and health outcomes, with much less attention to the financial protection it offers families. We review a growing body of evidence that public health insurance provides important financial benefits to low-income families. Expansions in public health insurance for low-income children and adults are associated with reduced out of pocket medical spending, increased financial stability, and improved material well-being for families. We also review the potential poverty-reducing effects of public health insurance coverage. When out of pocket medical expenses are taken into account in defining the poverty rate, Medicaid plays a significant role in decreasing poverty for many children and families. In addition, public health insurance programs connect families to other social supports such as food assistance programs that also help reduce poverty. We conclude by reviewing emerging evidence that access to public health insurance in childhood has long-term effects for health and economic outcomes in adulthood. Exposure to Medicaid and CHIP during childhood has been linked to decreased mortality and fewer chronic health conditions, better educational attainment, and less reliance on government support later in life. In sum, the nation's public health insurance programs have many important short- and long-term poverty-reducing benefits for low-income families with children.

  11. Poverty and health sector inequalities.

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Poverty and ill-health are intertwined. Poor countries tend to have worse health outcomes than better-off countries. Within countries, poor people have worse health outcomes than better-off people. This association reflects causality running in both directions: poverty breeds ill-health, and ill-health keeps poor people poor. The evidence on inequalities in health between the poor and non-poor and on the consequences for impoverishment and income inequality associated with health care expenses is discussed in this article. An outline is given of what is known about the causes of inequalities and about the effectiveness of policies intended to combat them. It is argued that too little is known about the impacts of such policies, notwithstanding a wealth of measurement techniques and considerable evidence on the extent and causes of inequalities. PMID:11953787

  12. Entertainment-education in a media-saturated environment: examining the impact of single and multiple exposures to breast cancer storylines on two popular medical dramas.

    PubMed

    Hether, Heather J; Huang, Grace C; Beck, Vicki; Murphy, Sheila T; Valente, Thomas W

    2008-12-01

    In the United States, entertainment-education (E-E) initiatives in primetime television that provide public health information are at risk for diminished impact due to the media-saturated environment in which they must compete. One strategy to overcome this limitation is to use multiple primetime TV shows to reinforce similar health messages in multiple storylines. The current study explores such an approach by evaluating the impact of two separate breast cancer genetics storylines featured on two different TV programs as the result of outreach to writers and producers. These storylines aired within approximately 3 weeks of each other on the popular medical dramas, ER (NBC) and Grey's Anatomy (ABC), and included information about the BRCA1 breast cancer gene mutation and the risks it poses to women who test positive for it. The evaluation used data collected from a panel sample of 599 female survey respondents at three points in time. Results show that while the individual storylines had a modest impact on viewers' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to breast cancer, combined exposure seemed to be most effective at changing outcomes. Implications of our findings for future E-E interventions and evaluations are discussed. PMID:19051115

  13. Chronic exposure to biomass fuel is associated with increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and a higher prevalence of atherosclerotic plaque

    PubMed Central

    Painschab, Matthew S; Davila-Roman, Victor G; Gilman, Robert H; Vasquez-Villar, Angel D; Pollard, Suzanne L; Wise, Robert A; Miranda, J Jaime; Checkley, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomass fuels are used for cooking in the majority of rural households worldwide. While their use is associated with an increased risk of lung diseases and all-cause mortality, the effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not well characterised. Exposure to biomass fuel smoke has been associated with lung-mediated inflammation and oxidative stress, which may increase the risk of atherosclerosis as evaluated by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), carotid atherosclerotic plaque prevalence and blood pressure. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 266 adults aged ≥35 years in Puno, Peru (3825 m above sea level). We stratified participants by their long-term history of exposure to clean fuel (n=112) or biomass fuel (n=154) and measured 24 h indoor particulate matter (PM2.5) in a random subset (n=84). Participants completed questionnaires and underwent a clinical assessment, laboratory analyses and carotid artery ultrasound. The main outcome measures were CIMT, carotid plaque and blood pressure. Results The groups were similar in age and gender. The biomass fuel group had greater unadjusted mean CIMT (0.66 vs 0.60 mm; p<0.001), carotid plaque prevalence (26% vs 14%; p=0.03), systolic blood pressure (118 vs 111 mm Hg; p<0.001) and median household PM2.5 (280 vs 14 μg/m3; p<0.001). In multivariable regression, the biomass fuel group had greater mean CIMT (mean difference=0.03 mm, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.06; p=0.02), a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.0; p=0.03) and higher systolic blood pressure (mean difference=9.2 mm Hg, 95% CI 5.4 to 13.0; p<0.001). Conclusions Chronic exposure to biomass fuel was associated with increased CIMT, increased prevalence of atherosclerotic plaques and higher blood pressure. These findings identify biomass fuel use as a risk factor for CVD, which may have important global health implications. PMID:23619984

  14. Poverty, Socio-Economic Position, Social Capital and the Health of Children and Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities in Britain: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, E.; Hatton, C.

    2007-01-01

    Background: When compared with their nonintellectually disabled peers, people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have poorer health and are more likely to be exposed to poverty during childhood. Given that exposure to child poverty has been linked to poorer health outcomes, we attempted to estimate the extent to which the health inequalities…

  15. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils.

  16. Multidimensional Poverty and Health Status as a Predictor of Chronic Income Poverty.

    PubMed

    Callander, Emily J; Schofield, Deborah J

    2015-12-01

    Longitudinal analysis of Wave 5 to 10 of the nationally representative Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia dataset was undertaken to assess whether multidimensional poverty status can predict chronic income poverty. Of those who were multidimensionally poor (low income plus poor health or poor health and insufficient education attainment) in 2007, and those who were in income poverty only (no other forms of disadvantage) in 2007, a greater proportion of those in multidimensional poverty continued to be in income poverty for the subsequent 5 years through to 2012. People who were multidimensionally poor in 2007 had 2.17 times the odds of being in income poverty each year through to 2012 than those who were in income poverty only in 2005 (95% CI: 1.23-3.83). Multidimensional poverty measures are a useful tool for policymakers to identify target populations for policies aiming to improve equity and reduce chronic disadvantage.

  17. On biodiversity conservation and poverty traps

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Christopher B.; Travis, Alexander J.; Dasgupta, Partha

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a special feature on biodiversity conservation and poverty traps. We define and explain the core concepts and then identify four distinct classes of mechanisms that define important interlinkages between biodiversity and poverty. The multiplicity of candidate mechanisms underscores a major challenge in designing policy appropriate across settings. This framework is then used to introduce the ensuing set of papers, which empirically explore these various mechanisms linking poverty traps and biodiversity conservation. PMID:21873176

  18. Elderly poverty and Supplemental Security Income.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Joyce; Wiseman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, poverty is generally assessed on the basis of income, as reported in the Current Population Survey's (CPS's) Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC), using an official poverty standard established in the 1960s. The prevalence of receipt of means-tested transfers is underreported in the CPS, with uncertain consequences for the measurement of poverty rates by both the official standard and by using alternative "relative" measures linked to the contemporaneous income distribution. The article reports results estimating the prevalence of poverty in 2002. We complete this effort by using a version of the 2003 CPS/ASEC for which a substantial majority (76 percent) of respondents have individual records matching administrative data from the Social Security Administration on earnings and receipt of income from the Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance and Supplemental Security Income (SSI) programs. Adjustment of the CPS income data with administrative data substantially improves coverage of SSI receipt. The consequence for general poverty is sensitive to the merge procedures employed, but under both sets of merge procedures considered, the estimated poverty rate among all elderly persons and among elderly SSI recipients is substantially less than rates estimated using the unadjusted CPS. The effect of the administrative adjustment is less significant for perception of relative poverty than for absolute poverty. We emphasize the effect of these adjustments on perception of poverty among the elderly in general and elderly SSI recipients in particular.

  19. Poverty PhDs: Funds of Knowledge, Poverty, and Professional Identity in Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutri, Ramona Maile; Manning, Jill Michelle; Chun, Marc

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to the common deficit approach, this self-study explores the relationship between the funds of knowledge possessed by people of poverty and their development of professional identity in academia. All three authors have moved beyond conditions of financial poverty, but all find that the mental conditions of poverty persist. We conclude…

  20. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  1. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15–49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15–49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09–1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07–1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18–1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27019532

  2. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among married women in rural Bangladesh and exposure to media: a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Asaduzzaman, Mohammad; Higuchi, Michiyo; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to describe awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS among Bangladeshi married women in rural areas and to examine associations between exposure to mass media and their awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS where mass media has been suggested to be vital sources of information. From the original dataset of the sixth Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey in 2011, the data of 11,570 rural married women aged 15-49 years old were extracted. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We found that approximately two-thirds of women (63.0%) aged 15-49 years had heard about HIV/AIDS. Exposure to each type of media was significantly associated with awareness of HIV/AIDS. Comparing to those who were not exposed to each of the investigated media, the adjusted ORs of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS were significantly high for those exposed to newspapers/magazines less than once a week (1.34, 95% CI 1.09-1.65), newspapers/ magazines at least once a week (1.44, 95% CI 1.07-1.94), television at least once a week (1.41, 95% CI 1.18-1.68). It was suggested that television can be utilized to increase awareness and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS through effective programs. Although the level of exposure was still low, significant associations between exposure to newspapers/magazines and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS suggested potential of written messages to promote knowledge of HIV/AIDS. PMID:27019532

  3. Childhood poverty, chronic stress, and young adult working memory: the protective role of self-regulatory capacity.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E

    2013-09-01

    Prior research shows that childhood poverty as well as chronic stress can damage children's executive functioning (EF) capacities, including working memory. However, it is also clear that not all children suffer the same degree of adverse consequences from risk exposure. We show that chronic stress early in life (ages 9-13) links childhood poverty from birth to age 13 to young adult working memory. However, 9-year-olds high in self-regulatory capacity, assessed by a standard delay of gratification protocol, are protected from such insults. Self-regulatory skills may afford the developing prefrontal cortex some protection from childhood poverty.

  4. A Media Advocacy Intervention Linking Health Disparities and Food Insecurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rock, Melanie J.; McIntyre, Lynn; Persaud, Steven A.; Thomas, Karen L.

    2011-01-01

    Media advocacy is a well-established strategy for transmitting health messages to the public. This paper discusses a media advocacy intervention that raised issues about how the public interprets messages about the negative effects of poverty on population health. In conjunction with the publication of a manuscript illustrating how income-related…

  5. Overcoming Persistent Poverty--and Sinking into It. Income Trends in Persistent-Poverty and Other High-Poverty Rural Counties, 1989-94.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Mark

    In 1989, 31.6 percent of the rural poor lived in persistent-poverty counties (those with poverty rates exceeding 20 percent for every decennial census year since 1960), and an additional 12.6 percent lived in "new" high-poverty counties. While this represents less than half the rural poor, high and persistent poverty is of particular concern to…

  6. Using Asset Poverty Measures to Understand Poverty Dynamics, Poverty Traps and Farmer Behavior in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Focus on Rural Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liverpool, Lenis Saweda

    2009-01-01

    Effective poverty reduction programs require careful measurement of poverty status. Commonly used consumption or income-based classifications of poverty aggregate together households that are persistently poor with those who are only in poverty due to passing conditions. They also classify as non-poor households that are at risk of falling into…

  7. Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S; Swain, James E; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan

    2013-11-12

    Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty-health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty.

  8. Figurative Language of Disadvantaged Blacks as Related to Poverty, Music, Poetry, Language and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    The unjustified assumption that black children have limited verbal or articulation skills stems from the fact that blacks use figurative, nonliteral, and nonstandard language in the classroom. The language that most disadvantaged blacks learn at home and bring to the classroom is a restricted form born out of poverty and limited exposure to good…

  9. Arizona Women in Poverty Hearings. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coudroglou, Aliki

    Prepared at the request of Arizona Governor Bruce Babbit, this report documents the state of poverty among women in Arizona and recommends an action plan that will alleviate their poor economic status. Discussion focuses on three factors identified as influencing conditions of poverty experienced by women: changing family structure, the labor…

  10. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. PMID:27044706

  11. Young Children in Poverty: A Statistical Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Li, Jiali; Song, Younghwan; Yang, Keming

    This document continues a series of statistical reports from the National Center for Children in Poverty about young child poverty in the United States. The highlights of this update include the current profile of extremely poor, poor, and near poor population of young children; an examination of the changing association between higher education…

  12. Asset-Based Measurement of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandolini, Andrea; Magri, Silvia; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Poverty is generally defined as income or expenditure insufficiency, but the economic condition of a household also depends on its real and financial asset holdings. This paper investigates measures of poverty that rely on indicators of household net worth. We review and assess two main approaches followed in the literature: income-net worth…

  13. The Impact of Mass Incarceration on Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFina, Robert; Hannon, Lance

    2013-01-01

    During the past 30 years, U.S. poverty has remained high despite overall economic growth. At the same time, incarceration rates have risen by more than 300%, a phenomenon that many analysts have referred to as mass incarceration. This article explores whether the mass incarceration of the past few decades impeded progress toward poverty reduction.…

  14. General Music and Children Living in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAnally, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    A review of recent writing makes the case that children living in poverty (urban, rural, or other) are more in jeopardy now than ever. As teachers attest and research asserts, poverty affects children in profound, complicated, and lasting ways. However, the general music program is uniquely positioned to meet children’s needs, especially those…

  15. Rural Poverty & Education: A Foundational Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue

    In 1991, after 25 workers died in a fire in a rural North Carolina poultry-processing plant, reporters exposed the exploitation that workers had endured and the company's callous disregard for workers' safety. This paper draws on the story of the fire and its victims to challenge some popular assumptions about poverty in general; rural poverty in…

  16. Disadvantage and Poverty in Rural Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwan, David

    1996-01-01

    A 1993 survey of 500 households in rural Scotland, followed by 120 interviews, found that poverty was widespread; subjective assessments of poverty contradicted objective definitions in that people were satisfied with rural life; acceptance of government benefits was low; rental housing was scarce; employment opportunities were limited, especially…

  17. Information and Communication Technology for Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharama, Motilal

    2005-01-01

    It has been estimated that over 700 million of the world's poor live in Asia-Pacifiui region i.e., those who earn $1 or less a day. Nearly one of three Asians is poor. It is claimed by multilateral agencies that the incidence of poverty (proportion of people below the poverty line) is slightly declining. Others question this claim and argue that…

  18. Poverty, Education and Work: Some Introductory Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agostino, Ana

    2007-01-01

    The article argues that poverty must be understood within a human rights approach, moving beyond a narrow economic definition. Recognising the multidimensional character of poverty also leads to acknowledge that there are no universal answers. Solutions must be culturally determined and this poses one of the major challenges for adult education…

  19. Poverty and Public Policy. Final Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leveson, Irving

    This comprehensive document studies poverty in the U.S. and develops a set of recommendations for dealing with the problems. It examines poverty from the perspectives of both the national economy and local areas. It considers circumstances in both labor and consumer markets and looks at public and private activities, at revenue and spending…

  20. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... rate shall be not less than 20 percent; (2) For at least 90 percent of the population census tracts... 50 percent of the population census tracts within the nominated urban area, the poverty rate shall be... tracts with no population. Census tracts with no population shall be treated as having a poverty...

  1. The Economic Demography of Mass Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abegaz, Berhanu, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The four papers in this volume discuss various facets of the poverty-demography interaction: the rationale for the desired family size of the poor, the problems of attaining such size, the effect of family size/structure on household economy, and the future well-being of the children of the poor. "Mass Poverty, Demography, and Development…

  2. Agricultural Change, Community Change, and Rural Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitchen, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the collapse of the rural community attendant on the demise of agriculture. Reports results of interviews of dairy farmers and their families in rural New York which suggest that farm problems exacerbate problems of rural poverty. Recommends effective intervention to prevent increasing rural economic poverty and social marginality. (DHP)

  3. Cultural Diversity and Anti-Poverty Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamont, Michele; Small, Mario Luis

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how anti-poverty policy has considered the role of culture and how it ought to do so. While some have explained poverty as a function of the presumed cultural deficiency or distinctiveness of the poor, we suggest that these explanations have not been convincing and that policy requires a broader and more sophisticated…

  4. Education Looks at Poverty: Conceptions and Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Benjamin

    Poverty is one of the most important influences on educational attainment in Canada. Using Statistics Canada definitions, the overall poverty rate in Canada in 1991 was 16 percent; 4.2 million people fell below low income thresholds, and most poor families fell well below the cutoff ($21,000 for an urban family of four). The most notable change in…

  5. The Influence of Poverty on Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienken, Christopher H.

    2012-01-01

    Without a doubt, poverty has a negative influence on student achievement, especially when achievement is measured by state-mandated standardized tests. However, some bureaucrats, such as state commissioners of education and even state governors, continue to downplay the influence of poverty on student achievement. New Jersey's Governor Chris…

  6. Poverty: Teaching Mathematics and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Leah P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents three mathematics lessons in a social justice setting of learning about poverty. Student activities include budgeting, graphic data representation, and linear regression, all in the context of connecting, communicating, and reasoning about poverty. (Contains 1 table, 5 figures and 6 online resources.)

  7. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward.

  8. Participatory Child Poverty Assessment in Rural Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpham, Trudy; Huong, Nguyen Thu; Long, Tran Thap; Tuan, Tran

    2005-01-01

    There are increasing calls for more child specific measures of poverty in developing countries and the need for such measures to be multi-dimensional (that is not just based on income) has been recognised. Participatory Poverty Assessments (PPAs) are now common in international development research. Most PPAs have been undertaken with adults and…

  9. Poverty and Delinquency: A Theoretical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, Hyman

    One of 52 theoretical papers on school crime and its relation to poverty, this chapter reviews the major cultural and structural statements on the relationship between poverty and delinquency. The value stretch perspective, stemming from research on family values and on aspirations is introduced in order to challenge and clarify the basic works of…

  10. Poverty and the Child: A Canadian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Thomas J.

    Contents of this study include the following essays: (1) "Economic Considerations of Poverty," Harry Lacombe; (2) "Physical Growth and Development: Some Socioeconomic Factors During Prenatal and Postnatal Life," Geoffrey C. Robinson, (3) "Language, Cognition and Poverty," Alan R. Moffit; (4) "Personality Development," Elizabeth J. Davis; (5) "The…

  11. Poverty in Ireland in Comparative European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Christopher T.; Maitre, Bertrand

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we seek to put Irish poverty rates in a comparative European context. We do so in a context whereby the Irish economic boom and EU enlargement have led to increasing reservations being expressed regarding rates deriving from the EU "at risk of poverty" indicator. Our comparative analysis reports findings for both overall levels of…

  12. Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…

  13. A Health Plan to Reduce Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weil, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Noting that the failures of the U.S. health care system are compounding the problems faced by low-income Americans, Alan Weil argues that any strategy to reduce poverty must provide access to health care for all low-income families. Although nearly all children in families with incomes under 200 percent of poverty are eligible for either Medicaid…

  14. Ninez y Pobreza (Childhood and Poverty).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didonet, Vital

    1992-01-01

    Reviews data on child poverty worldwide, providing statistics on 20 poverty-related problems. Examines effects of economic factors (i.e., unemployment, wage stagnation, inflation, and internal migration) and political policies (i.e., military spending over health and education) on child well-being, arguing that families and children themselves…

  15. 24 CFR 597.103 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... rate shall be not less than 20 percent; (2) For at least 90 percent of the population census tracts... 50 percent of the population census tracts within the nominated urban area, the poverty rate shall be... tracts with no population. Census tracts with no population shall be treated as having a poverty...

  16. Rural Poverty Resource Directory. 2nd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Summers, Gene F., Comp.; And Others

    This directory contains names and contact information for over 50 social scientists who are available for consultation on policy issues related to poverty in rural America. Part I is organized by topics that are relevant to rural poverty policies and legislation. Under each topic heading are the names; university affiliations; addresses; and…

  17. The role of chaos in poverty and children's socioemotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Gonnella, Carrie; Marcynyszyn, Lyscha A; Gentile, Lauren; Salpekar, Nicholas

    2005-07-01

    There are growing levels of chaos in the lives of American children, youth, and families. Increasingly, children grow up in households lacking in structure and routine, inundated by background stimulation from noise and crowding, and forced to contend with the frenetic pace of modern life. Although widespread, chaos does not occur randomly in the population. We document that low-income adolescents face higher levels of chaos than their more affluent counterparts and provide longitudinal evidence that some of the adverse effects of poverty on socioemotional adjustment are mediated by exposure to chaotic living conditions. PMID:16008790

  18. Poverty, development, and Himalayan ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Sandhu, Sukhbir

    2015-05-01

    The Himalayas are rich in biodiversity but vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. They are also host to growing number of rural poor who are dependent on forest and ecosystem services for their livelihood. Local and global efforts to integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the Himalayas remain elusive so far. In this work, we highlight two key impediments in achieving sustainable development in the Himalayas. On the positive side, we also highlight the work of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a research organization based in India that seeks to integrate biodiversity concerns with livelihood security. For impediments, we draw on two examples from the Darjeeling district, India, in Eastern Himalayan region to illustrate how development organizations are failing to simultaneously address poverty and environmental issues. Based on the success of ATREE, we then propose a conceptual framework to integrate livelihood generating activities with sustainable and equitable development agenda. We recommend developing a Hindu-Kush Himalayan Ecosystem Services Network in the region to formulate a strategy for further action. We conclude by offering measures to address the challenge of integrating livelihood and environment issues through this network. PMID:25366246

  19. Poverty, development, and Himalayan ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Harpinder; Sandhu, Sukhbir

    2015-05-01

    The Himalayas are rich in biodiversity but vulnerable to anthropogenic pressures. They are also host to growing number of rural poor who are dependent on forest and ecosystem services for their livelihood. Local and global efforts to integrate poverty alleviation and biodiversity conservation in the Himalayas remain elusive so far. In this work, we highlight two key impediments in achieving sustainable development in the Himalayas. On the positive side, we also highlight the work of Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), a research organization based in India that seeks to integrate biodiversity concerns with livelihood security. For impediments, we draw on two examples from the Darjeeling district, India, in Eastern Himalayan region to illustrate how development organizations are failing to simultaneously address poverty and environmental issues. Based on the success of ATREE, we then propose a conceptual framework to integrate livelihood generating activities with sustainable and equitable development agenda. We recommend developing a Hindu-Kush Himalayan Ecosystem Services Network in the region to formulate a strategy for further action. We conclude by offering measures to address the challenge of integrating livelihood and environment issues through this network.

  20. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health. PMID:18049180

  1. Why epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2007-11-01

    Epidemiologists cannot afford to ignore poverty. To do so would, first, wrongly obscure the devastating impact of poverty on population health, and, second, undercut our commitment to scientific rigor. At issue is doing correct science, not "politically correct" science. Blot poverty and inequity from view, and not only will we contribute to making suffering invisible but our understanding of disease etiology and distribution will be marred. To make this case, I address current debates about the causal relationships between poverty and health, and provide examples of how failing to consider the impact of socioeconomic position has biased epidemiologic knowledge and harmed the public's health. By definition, the people we study are simultaneously social beings and biologic organisms-and we cannot study the latter without taking into account the former. It is the responsibility of all epidemiologists, and not only social epidemiologists, to keep in mind the connections between poverty and health.

  2. The effects of contraception on female poverty.

    PubMed

    Browne, Stephanie P; LaLumia, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Poverty rates are particularly high among households headed by single women, and childbirth is often the event preceding these households' poverty spells. This paper examines the relationship between legal access to the birth control pill and female poverty. We rely on exogenous cross-state variation in the year in which oral contraception became legally available to young, single women. Using census data from 1960 to 1990, we find that having legal access to the birth control pill by age 20 significantly reduces the probability that a woman is subsequently in poverty. We estimate that early legal access to oral contraception reduces female poverty by 0.5 percentage points, even when controlling for completed education, employment status, and household composition.

  3. Poverty in the United States, 1986.

    PubMed

    Littman, M S; Baugher, E F

    1988-06-01

    This report presents social and economic characteristics of the US population below the poverty level in 1986, based on the March 1987 Current Population Survey. The poverty definition consists of a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. The average poverty threshold for a family of 4 was $11,203 in 1986 and $10,989 in 1985. The number of persons below the poverty level was 32.4 million in 1986 and the poverty rate was 14.6%. The number of poor in 1986 was not statistically different from the 1985 figure, but was below the recent peak of 35.3 million recorded in 1983. Whites represented 69% of the poor in 1986, Blacks represented 28%, and the remainder were persons of other races (principally Asians and American Indians). The poverty rate for persons of Hispanic origin (who may be of any race) was 27% in 1987. The number of poor and the poverty rates in the Northeast and Midwest Regions declined between 1985 and 1986, but there were no significant changes in the South or West. The number of poor families in 1986 was about 7 million, not significantly different from the 1985 figure. Persons in families represented 76% of the poor in 1986 and persons living alone or with nonrelatives represented 21%. The poverty rate in 1986 was about 20% for related children under 18 years old in families and 12% for persons 65 years and older. The 1986 poverty rate was higher in central cities of metropolitan areas and in nonmetropolitan areas than in the suburbs (about 8%). 1/2 of poor family householders worked at some time during 1986, and 17% worked year-round, full-time. In 1986, the average amount of additional money needed to raise the incomes of poor families above their respective poverty threshold was about $4400; for unrelated individuals the comparable figure was about $2500.

  4. Pervasive media violence.

    PubMed

    Schooler, C; Flora, J A

    1996-01-01

    In this review, we focus our discussion on studies examining effects on children and young adults. We believe that the current epidemic of youth violence in the United States justifies a focus on this vulnerable segment of society. We consider media effects on individual children's behaviors, such as imitating aggressive acts. In addition, we examine how the media influence young people's perceptions of norms regarding interpersonal relationships. Next, we assess mass media effects on societal beliefs, or what children and adolescents think the "real world" is like. We suggest these media influences are cumulative and mutually reinforcing, and discuss the implications of repeated exposure to prominent and prevalent violent media messages. Finally, we catalog multiple intervention possibilities ranging from education to regulation. From a public health perspective, therefore, we evaluate the effects that pervasive media messages depicting violence have on young people and present multiple strategies to promote more healthful outcomes. PMID:8724228

  5. The Bank and urban poverty.

    PubMed

    Jaycox, E

    1978-09-01

    Since the urban population of developing countries has increased at a rate of almost 5%/annum over the past 25 years, the World Bank is undertaking an urban poverty program with 2 complementary thrusts: 1) to create nonfarm job opportunities at low capital costs/job, and 2) to develop economically feasible programs to deliver basic services to the masses of urban poor on a large scale. By significantly slowing population growth and increasing rural as well as urban productivity, there is hope for a chance to stem high unemployment and low per capita incomes. It is too late for population planning to affect the immediate future, as people who will join the labor force every year through the 1990s have already been born. The World Bank's projects will be either labor intensive projects integrated housing projects, or water and sanitation projects to connect to existing systems.

  6. Darwin, artificial selection, and poverty.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Luis

    2010-03-01

    This paper argues that the processes of evolutionary selection are becoming increasingly artificial, a trend that goes against the belief in a purely natural selection process claimed by Darwin's natural selection theory. Artificial selection is mentioned by Darwin, but it was ignored by Social Darwinists, and it is all but absent in neo-Darwinian thinking. This omission results in an underestimation of probable impacts of artificial selection upon assumed evolutionary processes, and has implications for the ideological uses of Darwin's language, particularly in relation to poverty and other social inequalities. The influence of artificial selection on genotypic and phenotypic adaptations arguably represents a substantial shift in the presumed path of evolution, a shift laden with both biological and political implications.

  7. Poverty of the stimulus revisited.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Robert C; Pietroski, Paul; Yankama, Beracah; Chomsky, Noam

    2011-01-01

    A central goal of modern generative grammar has been to discover invariant properties of human languages that reflect "the innate schematism of mind that is applied to the data of experience" and that "might reasonably be attributed to the organism itself as its contribution to the task of the acquisition of knowledge" (Chomsky, 1971). Candidates for such invariances include the structure dependence of grammatical rules, and in particular, certain constraints on question formation. Various "poverty of stimulus" (POS) arguments suggest that these invariances reflect an innate human endowment, as opposed to common experience: Such experience warrants selection of the grammars acquired only if humans assume, a priori, that selectable grammars respect substantive constraints. Recently, several researchers have tried to rebut these POS arguments. In response, we illustrate why POS arguments remain an important source of support for appeal to a priori structure-dependent constraints on the grammars that humans naturally acquire.

  8. Media Violence: The Search for Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoman, Elizabeth

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the influence of mass media depictions of violence on children and provides suggestions for media literacy education. Calls for reducing children's exposure to media violence; changing the impact of violent images; stressing alternatives to violence for resolving conflicts; challenging the social supports for media violence; and…

  9. Stress, Social Support and Problem Drinking among Women in Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Mulia, Nina; Schmidt, Laura; Bond, Jason; Jacobs, Laurie; Korcha, Rachael

    2009-01-01

    Aims Prior studies find that stress contributes to problem drinking while social support can buffer its effects. However, these studies are largely confined to middle class and general populations. We extend what is known by examining how the unique stressors and forms of social support experienced by women in poverty impact alcohol problems over a 4-year time period. Design and Participants This prospective study used GEE transition modeling and 4 annual waves of survey data from 392 American mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) in a large Northern California county. Measurements We examined the effects of neighborhood disorder, stressful life events and economic hardship on psychological distress and problem drinking over time, and whether social support moderated these relationships for women in poverty. Findings Neighborhood disorder and stressful life events significantly increased the risk for problem drinking, largely through their effect on psychological distress. We found little evidence, however, that social support buffers poor women from the effects of these stressors. Conclusions Women in poverty are exposed to severe, chronic stressors within their communities and immediate social networks which increase vulnerability to psychological distress and problem drinking. The finding that social support does not buffer stress among these women may reflect their high level of exposure to stressors, as well as the hardships and scarce resources within their networks. If the “private safety net” of the social network fails to provide a strong buffer, more effective environmental interventions that reduce exposure to stressors may be needed to prevent alcohol problems in poor women’s lives. PMID:18855817

  10. Comparative avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts of Cd, Cu and Zn using filter paper and extruded water agar gels as exposure media.

    PubMed

    Demuynck, Sylvain; Lebel, Aurélie; Grumiaux, Fabien; Pernin, Céline; Leprêtre, Alain; Lemière, Sébastien

    2016-07-01

    We studied the avoidance behaviour of the earthworm Eisenia fetida towards Cd, Cu, and Zn, trace elements (TEs) tested as chloride, nitrate and sulphate salts. Sub adults were exposed individually using dual-cell chambers at 20+2°C in the dark. Recordings were realised at different dates from 2h to 32h. We used filter paper and extruded water agar gel as exposure media to evaluate the contribution of the dermal and the digestive exposure routes on the avoidance reactions. Exposures to Cu or Cd (10mgmetal ionL(-1)) resulted in highly significant avoidance reactions through the exposure duration. Worms avoided Zn poorly and reactions towards Zn salts varied along the exposure. Worm sensitivity towards TEs differed between salts and this could result from differential toxicity or accessibility of these TE salts to earthworms. The anion in itself was not the determinant of the avoidance reactions since exposures to similar concentrations of these anions using calcium salts did not result in significant avoidance worm behaviour. Avoidance responses towards TEs were higher in the case of water agar exposures than in filter paper exposures. Thus, dermal contacts with TE solutions would elicit worm avoidance but signals from receptors located inside the digestive tract could reinforce this behaviour. The use of extruded water agar gels as the substrate allows checking the real sensitivity of earthworm species towards TEs since the TE concentrations leading to significant avoidance reactions were below those reported in the literature when using TE-spiked soils. PMID:26995062

  11. Income inequality, poverty and crime across nations.

    PubMed

    Pare, Paul-Philippe; Felson, Richard

    2014-09-01

    We examine the relationship between income inequality, poverty, and different types of crime. Our results are consistent with recent research in showing that inequality is unrelated to homicide rates when poverty is controlled. In our multi-level analyses of the International Crime Victimization Survey we find that inequality is unrelated to assault, robbery, burglary, and theft when poverty is controlled. We argue that there are also theoretical reasons to doubt that the level of income inequality of a country affects the likelihood of criminal behaviour.

  12. Response to "Learning through Life": Thematic Area of Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to the NIACE report "Learning through Life" in relation to the report's thematic area of poverty reduction. The paper draws on the thematic working papers that informed the report as well as wider literature on poverty. It takes a multidimensional perspective of poverty, drawing on Sen's concept of poverty as "unfreedom" and…

  13. Access to Education and Employment Opportunities: Implications for Poverty Reduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adewale, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The study examined the linkages between Education and poverty and the possibility of poverty reduction through access to education and better employment opportunities. The paper also stressed that poverty acts as both cause and effect on lack of education. In particular the paper examined whether education is contributing to poverty reduction…

  14. Education Solutions for Child Poverty: New Modalities from New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Airini

    2015-01-01

    This article describes education solutions to child poverty. Through a focus on New Zealand, the article explores the meaning of child poverty, children's perspectives on child poverty and solutions, and modalities in citizenship, social and economics education to help address child poverty. Four modalities are proposed: centre our work in…

  15. Europe's Other Poverty Measures: Absolute Thresholds Underlying Social Assistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavier, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The first thing many learn about international poverty measurement is that European nations apply a "relative" poverty threshold and that they also do a better job of reducing poverty. Unlike the European model, the "absolute" U.S. poverty threshold does not increase in real value when the nation's standard of living rises, even though it is…

  16. Poverty in the United States: Where Do We Stand Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhr, E.; Evanson, Elizabeth

    1984-01-01

    This report summarizes some of the testimony presented during Congressional hearings in October 1983 to examine the reasons for increased poverty in this country since 1979. Terms used in measuring poverty are defined, and data relating to the amount of poverty that currently exists, who the poor are, and how long they remain in poverty are…

  17. Poverty in the United States, 1969-1970: Selected References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachariasen, Ellen, Comp.

    This select bibliography on poverty in the U.S. is divided into the following areas: (1) general references; (2) economics of poverty; (3) the poor; (4) Office of Economic Opportunity Programs - General; (5) Community Action, VISTA, and participation of the poor; (6) manpower and poverty; (7) poverty and health; (8) education and the poor; (9) the…

  18. Poverty in Albania: A Qualitative Assessment. World Bank Technical Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Soto, Hermine; Gordon, Peter; Gedeshi, Ilir; Sinoimeri, Zamira

    This World Bank qualitative assessment of poverty in Albania outlines five objectives: (1) it seeks to develop the understanding of poverty in the country by involving poor Albanians in a process of exploring the causes, nature, extent of poverty and its effects; (2) it is intended to support the Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (GPRS),…

  19. Early-starting conduct problems: intersection of conduct problems and poverty.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Shelleby, Elizabeth C

    2014-01-01

    The current article reviews extant literature on the intersection between poverty and the development of conduct problems (CP) in early childhood. Associations between exposure to poverty and disruptive behavior are reviewed through the framework of models emphasizing how the stressors associated with poverty indirectly influence child CP by compromising parent psychological resources, investments in children's welfare, and/or caregiving quality. We expand on the best-studied model, the family stress model, by emphasizing the mediating contribution of parent psychological resources on children's risk for early CP, in addition to the mediating effects of parenting. Specifically, we focus on the contribution of maternal depression, in terms of both compromising parenting quality and exposing children to higher levels of stressful events and contexts. Implications of the adapted family stress model are then discussed in terms of its implications for the prevention and treatment of young children's emerging CP.

  20. Early-Onset Conduct Problems: Intersection of Conduct Problems and Poverty

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.

    2014-01-01

    The current paper reviewed extant literature on the intersection between poverty and the development of conduct problems (CP) in early childhood. Associations between exposure to poverty and disruptive behavior were reviewed through the framework of models emphasizing how the stressors associated with poverty indirectly influence child CP by compromising parent psychological resources, investments in children’s welfare, and/or caregiving quality. We expanded upon the most well studied of these models, the family stress model, by emphasizing the mediating contribution of parent psychological resources on children’s risk for early CP, in addition to the mediating effects of parenting. Specifically, in we focused on the contribution of maternal depression, both in terms of compromising parenting quality and exposing children to even higher levels of stressful events and contexts. Implications of the adapted family stress model were then discussed in terms of its implications for the prevention and treatment of young children’s emerging CP. PMID:24471370

  1. Child Poverty and the Promise of Human Capacity: Childhood as a Foundation for Healthy Aging.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul H

    2016-04-01

    The effect of child poverty and related early life experiences on adult health outcomes and patterns of aging has become a central focus of child health research and advocacy. In this article a critical review of this proliferating literature and its relevance to child health programs and policy are presented. This literature review focused on evidence of the influence of child poverty on the major contributors to adult morbidity and mortality in the United States, the mechanisms by which these associations operate, and the implications for reforming child health programs and policies. Strong and varied evidence base documents the effect of child poverty and related early life experiences and exposures on the major threats to adult health and healthy aging. Studies using a variety of methodologies, including longitudinal and cross-sectional strategies, have reported significant findings regarding cardiovascular disorders, obesity and diabetes, certain cancers, mental health conditions, osteoporosis and fractures, and possibly dementia. These relationships can operate through alterations in fetal and infant development, stress reactivity and inflammation, the development of adverse health behaviors, the conveyance of child chronic illness into adulthood, and inadequate access to effective interventions in childhood. Although the reviewed studies document meaningful relationships between child poverty and adult outcomes, they also reveal that poverty, experiences, and behaviors in adulthood make important contributions to adult health and aging. There is strong evidence that poverty in childhood contributes significantly to adult health. Changes in the content, financing, and advocacy of current child health programs will be required to address the childhood influences on adult health and disease. Policy reforms that reduce child poverty and mitigate its developmental effects must be integrated into broader initiatives and advocacy that also attend to the health and

  2. Are All Risks Equal? Early Experiences of Poverty-Related Risk and Children’s Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Amanda L.; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Using cumulative risk and latent class analysis (LCA) models, this research examines how exposure to deep poverty (income-to-needs ratio <.50) and four poverty-related risks (single-parent household, residential crowding, caregiver depression, and multiple life stressors) in preschool is related to children’s future difficulty in school in a longitudinal sample of 602 Head-Start enrolled, low-income families. Results from the LCA revealed four risk profiles: low risk, deep poverty and single, single and stressed, and deep poverty and crowded household. Tests of measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups established that although patterns of risk are similar across groups (i.e. risks co-vary in the same way), the prevalence of risk profiles differ. African American families were over-represented in the ‘deep poverty and single’ profile while Latino and White families were over-represented in the ‘deep poverty and crowded’ profile. Finally, children’s third grade functioning in three domains (academic performance, behavior problems, self-regulatory skills) was predicted using a cumulative risk index and LCA identified risk profiles. Both approaches demonstrated that children who experienced higher levels of risk in preschool had worse school performance than children with low levels of risk. However, the LCA also revealed that children who experienced ‘single and stressed’ family settings had more behavior problems than low risk children while children who experienced ‘deep poverty and crowded’ family settings had worse academic performance. The results indicate that all risks are not equal for children’s development and highlight the utility of LCA for tailoring intervention efforts to best meet the needs of target populations. PMID:24749652

  3. Are all risks equal? Early experiences of poverty-related risk and children's functioning.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amanda L; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-06-01

    Using cumulative risk and latent class analysis (LCA) models, we examined how exposure to deep poverty (income-to-needs ratio <0.50) and 4 poverty-related risks (i.e., single-parent household, residential crowding, caregiver depression, and multiple life stressors) in preschool is related to children's future difficulty in school in a longitudinal sample of 602 Head Start-enrolled, low-income families. Results from the LCA revealed 4 risk profiles: low risk, deep poverty and single, single and stressed, and deep poverty and crowded household. Tests of measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups established that, although patterns of risk are similar across groups (i.e., risks covary in the same way), the prevalence of risk profiles differs. African American families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and single" profile while Latino and White families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and crowded" profile. Finally, children's third grade functioning in 3 domains (i.e., academic performance, behavior problems, and self-regulatory skills) was predicted using a cumulative risk index and LCA-identified risk profiles. Both approaches demonstrated that children who experienced higher levels of risk in preschool had worse school performance than children with low levels of risk. However, LCA also revealed that children who experienced "single and stressed" family settings had more behavior problems than low-risk children while children who experienced "deep poverty and crowded" family settings had worse academic performance. The results indicate that all risks are not equal for children's development and highlight the utility of LCA for tailoring intervention efforts to best meet the needs of target populations. PMID:24749652

  4. Are all risks equal? Early experiences of poverty-related risk and children's functioning.

    PubMed

    Roy, Amanda L; Raver, C Cybele

    2014-06-01

    Using cumulative risk and latent class analysis (LCA) models, we examined how exposure to deep poverty (income-to-needs ratio <0.50) and 4 poverty-related risks (i.e., single-parent household, residential crowding, caregiver depression, and multiple life stressors) in preschool is related to children's future difficulty in school in a longitudinal sample of 602 Head Start-enrolled, low-income families. Results from the LCA revealed 4 risk profiles: low risk, deep poverty and single, single and stressed, and deep poverty and crowded household. Tests of measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups established that, although patterns of risk are similar across groups (i.e., risks covary in the same way), the prevalence of risk profiles differs. African American families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and single" profile while Latino and White families were overrepresented in the "deep poverty and crowded" profile. Finally, children's third grade functioning in 3 domains (i.e., academic performance, behavior problems, and self-regulatory skills) was predicted using a cumulative risk index and LCA-identified risk profiles. Both approaches demonstrated that children who experienced higher levels of risk in preschool had worse school performance than children with low levels of risk. However, LCA also revealed that children who experienced "single and stressed" family settings had more behavior problems than low-risk children while children who experienced "deep poverty and crowded" family settings had worse academic performance. The results indicate that all risks are not equal for children's development and highlight the utility of LCA for tailoring intervention efforts to best meet the needs of target populations.

  5. Collected Papers on Poverty Issues. Volume 4: International Poverty and Social Welfare Policies: A Studey of Seven Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokelson, Doris, Ed.; Karsten, Peter, Ed.

    The final and fourth volume in a collection of papers on poverty issues, this document deals with studies of poverty and social welfare programs in five Western European countries, Canada, and Japan. Eight sections constitute the document: some cross-national characteristics of poverty; poverty and antipoverty in Britain (characteristics of…

  6. Poverty, household chaos, and interparental aggression predict children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Raver, C Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Garrett-Peters, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    The following prospective longitudinal study considers the ways that protracted exposure to verbal and physical aggression between parents may take a substantial toll on emotional adjustment for 1,025 children followed from 6 to 58 months of age. Exposure to chronic poverty from infancy to early childhood as well as multiple measures of household chaos were also included as predictors of children's ability to recognize and modulate negative emotions in order to disentangle the role of interparental conflict from the socioeconomic forces that sometimes accompany it. Analyses revealed that exposure to greater levels of interparental conflict, more chaos in the household, and a higher number of years in poverty can be empirically distinguished as key contributors to 58-month-olds' ability to recognize and modulate negative emotion. Implications for models of experiential canalization of emotional processes within the context of adversity are discussed.

  7. Population growth, inequality and poverty.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, G

    1983-01-01

    In this discussion of population growth, inequality, and poverty, the type of relationships that can be observed in intercountry comparisons are explored, reviewing the findings of several other authors, presenting some new estimates using an International Labor Office data bank, considering some basic conceptual problems, and examining some of the theoretical and empirical issues that call for investigation at the national level. Intercountry comparisons, despite their limitations, appear to be the easiest starting point for empirical analysis. The approach adopted by most researchers has been to select 1 or more population indicators and a measure of national income inequality and to explain intercountry differences in 1 or both of these variables in terms of each other and of other indicators of economic and social development. Underlying this methodology is the assumption that there are aspects of demographic and economic change that are common to all countries included in the study, so that differences between countries give some guide to the likely evolution over time within any 1 country. This can be accepted at best with reservations, but given the scarcity of data on the evolution of inequality over time, a working hypothesis of this type appears unavoidable. But, as many of the factors likely to cause population growth and inequality operate over extended periods of time, a dynamic model is indicated. A simpler model, which pays particular attention to lags and variations over time, may generate new insights. A summary of the results of a new international cross-section analysis set up on these lines is presented. Results suggest that contrary to expectations, reducing population growth does not seem to generate longterm benefits for the poor in this model, though some short term gains are found. Increasing equality does appear to generate some decline in population growth, as well as persistent gains in incomes among the poor, but the reductions in

  8. The economics of poverty in poor countries.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, P

    1998-01-01

    This paper, which examines recently studied links between 1) poverty, high fertility, and undernourishment and 2) environmental degradation and civic disconnection in developing countries, opens by reviewing the limitations of orthodox discussions of economic institutions and property rights and the orthodox dichotomy that has located the cause of poverty in the suppression of markets. The introduction also notes that much of the analysis in this paper is based on data from sub-Saharan Africa and India. The next section of the paper summarizes evidence on the magnitude and extent of world poverty. Section 3 exposes the connection between undernourishment and a person's capacity to work as one of the pathways to the poverty trap. Sections 4 and 5 consider the dependence of impoverished rural populations on common-property resources and how the conventional process of economic growth can break down this system and make certain sections of the population especially vulnerable to economic shocks. The next two sections explore the possibility that links between poverty, high fertility, and environmental degradation may constitute another pathway to the poverty trap. The eighth section reviews the methodology of using net national product (which includes resource depletion and environmental deterioration) as an evaluation criterion and argues that mainstream development economists may have neglected environmental and population problems because they have been relying on the wrong economic indices. The final section concludes that a number of policies must be used to improve options for people.

  9. [Poverty in Mexico. I. Methodology and evolution].

    PubMed

    Boltvinik, J

    1995-01-01

    This article is the first of two parts of a research report on the evolution and magnitude of poverty in Mexico. Herein are presented the methodologies used in both parts and the evolution of poverty. The Poverty Line methodology (PL), in its Standard Basket of Essential Satisfiers version, is succinctly explained. Two problems on the definition of normative requirements are emphasized: the foundations of such requirements and the access route by which needs are to be met (private consumption or public transfers). Identification of six household welfare sources allows for criticism of PL and Unsatisfied Basic Needs methodologies which the Integrated Poverty Measurement Method (IPMM) brings together. IPMM is used to estimate the magnitude of poverty in 1989. The results are presented in the second part of this report. Results analyzed in the last section of this article show that while poverty in Mexico decreased steadily from 77.5% in 1963 to 48.5% in 1981, it increased since 1982, reaching 66% in 1992.

  10. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%.

  11. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  12. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  13. Exposure to the "Dark Side of Tanning" Skin Cancer Prevention Mass Media Campaign and Its Association with Tanning Attitudes in New South Wales, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Donna; Kite, James; Dunlop, Sally M.; Cust, Anne E.; Goumas, Chris; Cotter, Trish; Walsberger, Scott C.; Dessaix, Anita; Bauman, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most common cancer among 15- to 29-year-olds in Australia, with rates increasing with age. The "Dark Side of Tanning" (DSOT) mass media campaign was developed in 2007 to influence attitudes related to tanning. This study aimed to assess recall and impact of the DSOT campaign. Data were collected using online surveys of…

  14. The Changing Face of Child Poverty in California. State Child Poverty Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Julian S.; Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsein-Hen

    Despite the national decline in child poverty and low-income rates in the United States since the early 1990s, the rates in California have surpassed those of the nation. This report, the first in a new series on child poverty in individual states, provides a demographic profile of California's low-income families, highlighting the high number and…

  15. Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Imboela, Bruce Lubinda

    2005-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utilization of World Bank loans and grants to alleviate debt under the bank's programs of action for poverty reduction in highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs). This article argues that structural transformation is a prerequisite for poverty…

  16. What Makes Poverty So Intractable in High-Poverty Nonmetro Counties?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Elizabeth S.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of counties with high poverty rates--sparser population, larger proportion of poor and most poverty-prone populations, less educated population, greater reliance on transfer payments, and higher proportions of income from farming. Suggests that government assistance in the form of income transfers could help alleviate…

  17. Kentucky Child Poverty, 2000: One in Four Children Is Poor. Census Brief: Child Poverty in Kentucky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graycarek, Rick; Hoye, Kathleen

    This census brief examines changes in the child poverty rate during the 1990s for the state of Kentucky. The brief notes that more than one in four children in Kentucky is living in poverty, with nearly half of Kentucky's children living in families that are not financially self-sufficient. The majority of poor children live in urban areas, most…

  18. The Poor: A Culture of Poverty or a Poverty of Culture?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winter, J. Alan, Ed.

    The first paper, "Introduction: The culture of poverty hypotheses and their import for social science and social policy," discusses three related hypotheses developed by Oscar Lewis concerning the poor with respect to the views of the other contributors to this volume bearing on those hypotheses. The second paper, "Family structure, poverty, and…

  19. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers: An Analysis of a Hegemonic Link between Education and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarabini, Aina; Jacovkis, Judith

    2012-01-01

    This paper has two main objectives. First, it aims to analyse the connections between education and poverty established by the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs), a central policy tool for the articulation of the Post Washington Consensus. Second, it intends to study how the PRSPs have been consolidated and expanded through different…

  20. Contending with Poverty: Applied Research in a Community-Based Poverty Intervention Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGettigan, Timothy

    This paper describes preliminary results from a study at the Crisis Control Ministry, a poverty relief organization in Winston-Salem (North Carolina). The intent of the study was to explore the nature of and influences on contemporary urban poverty by having the investigator serve as a volunteer interviewer at the Crisis Control Ministry. Another…

  1. Effects of Media on Female Body Image: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryla, Karen Y.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the media's influence on female body image. differentiating between the effects of print and electronic media. Results suggest that print media have a direct, immediate, and negative effect on female body image, while no such relationship exists for electronic media. Results also indicate that exploring only exposure to media images is…

  2. The World Bank and poverty.

    PubMed

    Lipton, M; Shakow, A

    1982-06-01

    During the 1970s it was World Bank policy to use its funds to raise the productivity and living standards of the poor. It has increased its lending for sector and subsectors considered to offer the most direct benefits to the poor such as rural development, population, health, and nutrition. Projects with particular emphasis on poverty have benefitted large numbers of poor people and have had good economic rates of return. Lending for rural projects increased in the 1970s from US$2.6 billion in 1969-73 to over US$13 billion in 1978-81; rural development projects audited in 1979 benfitted 660 small farmers for every US$1 million loaned compared with 47 farmers/US$1 million in other agricultural projects. Some problems are: 1) low-risk technical packages appropriate for poor farmers in semi-arid rainfed areas are not readily available; 2) the Bank's rural development strategy seeks mainly to raise the production of small farms, but other aspects need to be emphasized; 3) domestic pricing and postharvest policies often undermine the success of projects aimed at the rural poor; and 4) success in rural development often rests on sociological and cultural factors, difficult areas that deserve more attention. For urban areas the Bank has strongly endorsed providing "sites and sources" instead of structures; since 1972, 52 Bank projects centered on urban shelter involving US$1.6 billion have been undertaken. Cost recovery is established at 66-95%. About 5% of Bank lending is for education and despite the importance of population, health, and nutrition, these areas absorb less than 1% of the Bank's total lending program. Only US$400 million in population loans were made to 13 countries in the 1970s and only recently have separate health projects been started. Emphasis for the 1980s must be on rural development, urban shelter, primary education, health, education, and population. PMID:12338639

  3. The World Bank and poverty.

    PubMed

    Lipton, M; Shakow, A

    1982-06-01

    During the 1970s it was World Bank policy to use its funds to raise the productivity and living standards of the poor. It has increased its lending for sector and subsectors considered to offer the most direct benefits to the poor such as rural development, population, health, and nutrition. Projects with particular emphasis on poverty have benefitted large numbers of poor people and have had good economic rates of return. Lending for rural projects increased in the 1970s from US$2.6 billion in 1969-73 to over US$13 billion in 1978-81; rural development projects audited in 1979 benfitted 660 small farmers for every US$1 million loaned compared with 47 farmers/US$1 million in other agricultural projects. Some problems are: 1) low-risk technical packages appropriate for poor farmers in semi-arid rainfed areas are not readily available; 2) the Bank's rural development strategy seeks mainly to raise the production of small farms, but other aspects need to be emphasized; 3) domestic pricing and postharvest policies often undermine the success of projects aimed at the rural poor; and 4) success in rural development often rests on sociological and cultural factors, difficult areas that deserve more attention. For urban areas the Bank has strongly endorsed providing "sites and sources" instead of structures; since 1972, 52 Bank projects centered on urban shelter involving US$1.6 billion have been undertaken. Cost recovery is established at 66-95%. About 5% of Bank lending is for education and despite the importance of population, health, and nutrition, these areas absorb less than 1% of the Bank's total lending program. Only US$400 million in population loans were made to 13 countries in the 1970s and only recently have separate health projects been started. Emphasis for the 1980s must be on rural development, urban shelter, primary education, health, education, and population.

  4. Can Earth Sciences Help Alleviate Global Poverty?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutter, J. C.

    2004-12-01

    Poverty is not properly described solely in terms of economics. Certainly the billion people living on less than a dollar a day are the extreme poor and the two billion people who are living today on two dollars a day or less are poor also. One third of all humans live in poverty today. But poverty concerns deprivation - of good health, adequate nutrition, adequate education, properly paid employment, clean water, adequate housing and good sanitation. It is a fundamental denial of opportunity and a violation of basic human rights. Despite its prevalence and persistence of poverty and the attention given it by many scholars, the causes of poverty are not well understood and hence interventions to bring poor societies out of their condition often fail. One commonly missed component in the search for solutions to poverty is the fundamental co-dependence between the state of the Earth and the state of human well-being. These relationships, are compelling but often indirect and non-linear and sometimes deeply nuanced. They are also largely empirical in nature, lacking theory or models that describe the nature of the relationships. So while it is quite apparent that the poorest people are much more vulnerable than the rich to the Earths excesses and even to relatively small natural variations in places where the base conditions are poor, we do not presently know whether the recognized vulnerability is both an outcome of poverty and a contributing cause. Are societies poor, or held from development out of poverty because of their particular relationship to Earth's natural systems? Does how we live depend on where we live? Providing answers to these questions is one of the most fundamental research challenges of our time. That research lies in a domain squarely at the boundary between the natural and social sciences and cannot be answered by studies in either domain alone. What is clear even now, is that an understanding of the Earth gained from the natural sciences is

  5. Digital Media and Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hisrich, Katy; Blanchard, Jay

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses digital media and its potential effects on emergent literacy skills development for young children. While the impact of digital media exposure on children's emergent literacy development is largely unknown, it is becoming a significant issue, as more and more young children throughout the world observe and use various forms…

  6. Media and Young Children's Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkorian, Heather L.; Wartella, Ellen A.; Anderson, Daniel R.

    2008-01-01

    Electronic media, particularly television, have long been criticized for their potential impact on children. One area for concern is how early media exposure influences cognitive development and academic achievement. Heather Kirkorian, Ellen Wartella, and Daniel Anderson summarize the relevant research and provide suggestions for maximizing the…

  7. The potential impact of media reporting in syndromic surveillance: an example using a possible Cryptosporidium exposure in North West England, August to September 2015

    PubMed Central

    Elliot, Alex J; Hughes, Helen E; Astbury, John; Nixon, Grainne; Brierley, Kate; Vivancos, Roberto; Inns, Thomas; Decraene, Valerie; Platt, Katherine; Lake, Iain; O’Brien, Sarah J; Smith, Gillian E

    2016-01-01

    During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24.8% (from 13.49 to 16.84) during the BWN period; average diarrhoea consultations increased by 28.5% (from 8.33 to 10.71). Local public health investigations revealed no laboratory reported cases confirmed as being associated with the water supply. These findings suggest that the increases reported by syndromic surveillance of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea likely resulted from changes in healthcare seeking behaviour driven by the intense local and national media coverage of the potential health risks during the event. This study has further highlighted the potential for media-driven bias in syndromic surveillance, and the challenges in disentangling true increases in community infection from those driven by media reporting. PMID:27762208

  8. Application of experimental poverty measures to the aged.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau recently released new, experimental measures of poverty based on a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel's recommendations. This article examines the effects of the experimental measures on poverty rates among persons aged 65 or older in order to help inform policy debate. Policymakers and analysts use poverty rates to measure the successes and failures of existing programs and to create and defend new policy initiatives. The Census Bureau computes the official rates of poverty using poverty thresholds and definitions of countable income that have changed little since the official poverty measure was adopted in 1965. Amid growing concerns about the adequacy of the official poverty measure, a NAS panel undertook a study of the concepts, methodology, and data needed to measure poverty. The panel concluded in its 1995 report that the current measure no longer provides an accurate picture of relative rates of poverty for different groups in the population or of changes in poverty over time. The panel recommended changes in establishing the poverty thresholds, defining family resources, and obtaining the required data. The Census Bureau report shows how estimated levels of poverty would differ from the official level as specific recommendations of the NAS panel are implemented individually and how estimated trends would differ when many recommendations are implemented simultaneously. It computes nonstandardized and standardized poverty rates. (The latter constrains the overall poverty rate under the experimental measures to match the official rate.) This article reports poverty rates that have not been standardized and provides considerably more detail than the Census report about the effects of the experimental measures on poverty among the aged. It examines the effects of changing the poverty thresholds and the items included or excluded from the definition of available resources. It also explores the effects of the experimental measures on

  9. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2006-01-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States. PMID:16900262

  10. Mapping energy poverty in Huntington, West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callicoat, Elizabeth Anne

    Energy poverty is a growing phenomenon culminating from the combination of low to mid household income, deteriorating housing structures and rising household energy costs. Energy prices are increasing for all households, but the burden is proportionally larger for those with low to mid income. These groups must sacrifice to afford energy, and are often unable or do not have the autonomy to make structural improvements, especially if they rent their home. Data on residential dwellings from the Cabell County Tax Assessor's Office was used within a geographic information system to map where energy poverty likely exists within the city limits of Huntington, WV. It was found that one fifth of Huntington households are at a high risk of energy poverty, primarily located across the northern section of the city and in the center, surrounding Marshall University, Downtown and Cabell Huntington Hospital.

  11. Poverty, Socioeconomic Change, Institutional Anomie, and Homicide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Weon; Pridemore, William Alex

    2005-12-01

    Objective. This study examined institutional anomie theory in the context of transitional Russia. Methods. We employed an index of negative socioeconomic change and measures of family, education, and polity to test the hypothesis that institutional strength conditions the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on homicide rates. Results. As expected, the results of models estimated using negative binomial regression show direct positive effects of poverty and socioeconomic change and direct negative effects of family strength and polity on regional homicide rates. There was no support, however, for the hypothesis that stronger social institutions reduce the effects of poverty and socioeconomic change on violence. Conclusions. We interpret these results in the Russia-specific setting, concluding that Russia is a rich laboratory for examining the effects of social change on crime and that empirical research in other nations is important when assessing the generalizability of theories developed to explain crime and violence in the United States.

  12. Poverty, social exclusion and health in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Santana, Paula

    2002-07-01

    People in Portugal have never been so healthy. Nevertheless, there are great differences in health status between social groups and regions. In 1994, Portugal was the country with the second worst level of inequality in terms of income distribution and with the highest level of poverty in the European Union (EU). Poverty in Portugal affects mainly the elderly and women (especially in single parent families). Beyond these groups, there are the children, the ethnic minorities and the homeless. Substance abusers, the unemployed, and ex-prisoners are also strongly affected by situations of social exclusion and poverty. Although poverty has been an important issue on the political agenda in Portugal, it shows a worrying tendency to resist traditional Social Security interventions. In the late 1990s, however, welfare coverage rates appear to have risen. To what extent can poverty cause a worsening of health status? Is there any sustainable positive association between welfare and improved health status? How, to whom and when should actions to improve the health status of the disadvantaged be addressed, without subverting the health status of the rest of the population. It is also necessary to reveal the consequences of poor health to individuals, families and communities in terms of income, social empowerment and the ability to fulfil other needs. Finally, reflection on the role and effectiveness of traditional social security models is necessary, in order to improve the impact and adequacy of its interventions. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge about disadvantage, the current health situation of the most vulnerable groups in Portuguese society-those affected by poverty, deprivation and social exclusion-and to detect the constraints on access to health and health care. PMID:12137187

  13. Poverty and Environmental Degradation Challenges within the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mabogunje, Akin L.

    2002-01-01

    Since the end of the second World War, the link between deepening poverty and environmental degradation has increased in visibility despite the efforts of the United Nations and other international agencies. Focuses on globalization, poverty, and the environment. (DDR)

  14. Childhood Poverty, Chronic Stress, and Young Adult Working Memory: The Protective Role of Self-Regulatory Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Gary W.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Prior research shows that childhood poverty as well as chronic stress can damage children's executive functioning (EF) capacities, including working memory. However, it is also clear that not all children suffer the same degree of adverse consequences from risk exposure. We show that chronic stress early in life (ages 9-13) links childhood…

  15. Poverty as a Predictor of 4-Year-Olds' Executive Function: New Perspectives on Models of Differential Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raver, C. Cybele; Blair, Clancy; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a predominantly low-income, population-based longitudinal sample of 1,259 children followed from birth, results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty and the strains of financial hardship were each uniquely predictive of young children's performance on measures of executive functioning. Results suggest that temperament-based vulnerability…

  16. Women and poverty: a demographic overview.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J B

    1987-01-01

    In the current debate about causes and cures for poverty, much attention is given to women. Women are more likely than men to be poor, and once impoverished, to remain poor for longer periods of time than do men. In addition, a much greater responsibility for raising the next generation of adults belongs to poor women than to poor men. No individual policy response will alleviate poverty among women. Rather, a multi-faceted policy response that recognizes the wide diversity of their situations is necessary. This paper describes the diversity among poor women and suggests a series of appropriate policies.

  17. Media education. American Academy of Pediatrics. Committee on Public Education.

    PubMed

    1999-08-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that exposure to mass media (ie, television, movies, video and computer games, the Internet, music lyrics and videos, newspapers, magazines, books, advertising, etc) presents both health risks and benefits for children and adolescents. Media education has the potential to reduce the harmful effects of media. By understanding and supporting media education, pediatricians can play an important role in reducing the risk of exposure to mass media for children and adolescents.

  18. Media and Children's Aggression, Fear, and Altruism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Barbara J.

    2008-01-01

    Noting that the social and emotional experiences of American children today often heavily involve electronic media, Barbara Wilson takes a close look at how exposure to screen media affects children's well-being and development. She concludes that media influence on children depends more on the type of content that children find attractive than on…

  19. The Pennsylvania Panel on Rural Poverty. Final Summary Report, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Community Affairs, Harrisburg.

    An analysis of the facts and opinions on rural poverty presented in over 1,000 pages of testimony to the Pennsylvania Panel on Rural Poverty is presented in this report. The problem of poverty is discussed in general and also as it specifically relates to Pennsylvania in terms of conditions, causes, proposals for improvement, comments, and the…

  20. Shortchanged: Recent Developments in Hispanic Poverty, Income, and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Robert; And Others

    Despite a fifth year of economic recovery in 1987, the poverty rate for Hispanic Americans remained at nearly the same level in 1987 as during the severe recession of the early 1980s. Among non-Hispanics, by contrast, poverty rates have declined during the recovery, making Hispanics the only racial or ethnic group whose poverty rates remain at or…

  1. The Relationship of Child Poverty to School Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a global issue that affects around half the children in the world; it is inextricably bound to the poverty experienced by their parents and families and has been identified by the United Nations as a human rights issue. Child poverty can be a barrier to children and young people accessing school education or achieving any form of…

  2. Education: A Solution for Rural Poverty? Staff Paper 350.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clouser, Rodney L.

    This paper presents an overview of poverty in rural America, and examines the ways in which improved education could alleviate rural poverty. The question of education as a mechanism to reduce poverty includes issues of economic demand and supply. On the demand side, labor market projections indicate that the service sector will continue to grow,…

  3. Online Resources for Developing an Awareness of Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Kathy R.

    2008-01-01

    In the elementary school, poverty, hunger, and homelessness are most often discussed in terms of a canned food drive conducted during a holiday season, but there are other options for activities in which children can learn about poverty, and to do something about it. This article describes ways to develop students awareness of poverty. Some print…

  4. A Regional Approach to the War Against Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Theodore J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent of poverty in some rural areas of Texas, to determine and evaluate the attitudes of local leaders toward the anti-poverty effort, and to prescribe remedial action. The extent of poverty was based on the incidence of low income, then questionnaires were developed, tested, and used to obtain…

  5. Neighborhood Poverty and Nonmarital Fertility: Spatial and Temporal Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Data from 4,855 respondents to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics were used to examine spatial and temporal dimensions of the effect of neighborhood poverty on teenage premarital childbearing. Although high poverty in the immediate neighborhood increased the risk of becoming an unmarried parent, high poverty in surrounding neighborhoods reduced…

  6. The Relationships between School Poverty and Student Achievement in Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silvernail, David L.; Sloan, James E.; Paul, Chelsea R.; Johnson, Amy F.; Stump, Erika K.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between school level poverty found in Maine schools and student academic performance. The evidence clearly shows that there is a relationship. As the percent of poverty increases in a school, student performance declines. But the poverty level alone does not explain the wide variations in…

  7. Addressing Child Maltreatment in New Zealand: Is Poverty Reduction Enough?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dare, Tim; Vaithianathan, Rhema; De Haan, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Jonathan Boston provides an insightful analysis of the emergence and persistence of child poverty in New Zealand (Boston, 2014, "Educational Philosophy and Theory"). His remarks on why child poverty matters are brief but, as he reports, "there is a large and robust body of research on the harmful consequences of child poverty"…

  8. 76 FR 3637 - Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-20

    ... was delayed, as described at 75 FR 45628. However, the level of the 2011 poverty guidelines presented... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Annual Update of the HHS Poverty Guidelines AGENCY: Department of... Health and Human Services (HHS) poverty guidelines to account for last calendar year's increase in...

  9. Using the Consumer Expenditure Survey to Teach Poverty Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diduch, Amy McCormick

    2012-01-01

    Poverty measurement is often controversial, but good public policy relies crucially on a broadly supported and understood poverty measure. In 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau announced it would begin regular reporting of a new supplemental poverty measure in October 2011. The present article provides background information for a student exercise…

  10. Remediating Child Poverty via Preschool: Exploring Practitioners' Perspectives in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Within developed countries child poverty is a social problem with significant negative effects. With a backdrop of austerity, the UK's first child poverty strategy was released in 2011. Pervaded by neo-liberal ideology this strategy identifies preschool services as key to remediating the negative effects of child poverty on children and families…

  11. Monitoring Perceptions of the Causes of Poverty in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Yul Derek; Gouws, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study explored how people perceive the causes of poverty. Literature revealed that there are three broad theoretical explanations of perceptions of the causes of poverty, namely individualistic explanations, where blame is placed squarely on the poor themselves; structural explanations, where poverty is blamed on external social and economic…

  12. Five Evils: Multidimensional Poverty and Race in America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Richard; Rodrigue, Edward; Kneebone, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Poverty is about a lack of money, but it's not only about that. As a lived experience, poverty is also characterized by ill health, insecurity, discomfort, isolation, and more. To put it another way: Poverty is multidimensional, and its dimensions often cluster together to intensify the negative effects of being poor. In this first of a two-part…

  13. The Effects of Parental Employment on Child Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Eggebeen, David J.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes data from 1990 Current Population Survey supporting three general conclusions: (1) parental employment and children's poverty are linked in married-couple and female-headed families; (2) child poverty rates are insensitive to parental employment; (3) black-white differences in child poverty are not result of racial differences in…

  14. Poverty Areas and the "Underclass": Untangling the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littman, Mark S.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of changes in metropolitan area definition and poverty area boundaries was analyzed. Between 1972 and 1989, the poor became less concentrated in high poverty areas. However, the numbers of poor people and the national poverty rate in 1989 remained higher than in the 1970s. (SK)

  15. Poverty, Literacy, and Politics: Living in the USA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Patrick

    1996-01-01

    Offers an extended discussion of poverty and class in America. Explores definitions of class and the government's role in the maintenance of poverty and wealth. Presents alternative explanations for the causes of poverty in the United States. Brings into question the functionalist axiom that literacy is a tool for school and economic success. (RS)

  16. Education, Cognitive Development, and Poverty: Implications for School Finance Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BenDavid-Hadar, Iris

    2014-01-01

    Child poverty is a growing problem that adversely affects both future society and the poor children themselves. This paper's purpose is to investigate the intergenerational links between education and poverty. Israel serves as an interesting case study because it has exhibited an incremental trend in child poverty between 1980 and 2010 (from 5% to…

  17. Turning High-Poverty Schools into High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrett, William H.; Budge, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    If some schools can overcome the powerful and pervasive effects of poverty to become high performing, shouldn't any school be able to do the same? Shouldn't we be compelled to learn from those schools? Although schools alone will never systemically eliminate poverty, high-poverty, high-performing (HP/HP) schools take control of what they can to…

  18. Attacking Poverty. World Development Report, 2000/2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank, Washington, DC.

    This report seeks to expand the understanding of poverty and its causes and sets out actions to create to create a world free of poverty in all its dimensions. The report both builds on past thinking and strategy and substantially broadens and deepens what is judged to be necessary to meet the challenge of reducing poverty. It argues that major…

  19. Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE): 2010 Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This document presents 2010 data from the Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program of the U.S. Census Bureau. The SAIPE program produces poverty estimates for the total population and median household income estimates annually for all counties and states. SAIPE data also produces single-year poverty estimates for the school-age…

  20. Incidence, Depth and Severity of Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delamonica, Enrique Ernesto; Minujin, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    Recently, the first ever estimate of the number of children living poverty in developing countries was undertaken. The incidence of child poverty was estimated by establishing how many children suffer severe deprivation in at least one out of seven indicators which are internationally recognized as their rights as well as constitutive of poverty.…

  1. Development and Validation of the Poverty Attributions Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Robert M.; Raiz, Lisa; Davis, Tamara S.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the process of developing and testing the Poverty Attribution Survey (PAS), a measure of poverty attributions. The PAS is theory based and includes original items as well as items from previously tested poverty attribution instruments. The PAS was electronically administered to a sample of state-licensed professional social…

  2. Income distribution dependence of poverty measure: A theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattopadhyay, Amit K.; Mallick, Sushanta K.

    2007-04-01

    Using a modified deprivation (or poverty) function, in this paper, we theoretically study the changes in poverty with respect to the ‘global’ mean and variance of the income distribution using Indian survey data. We show that when the income obeys a log-normal distribution, a rising mean income generally indicates a reduction in poverty while an increase in the variance of the income distribution increases poverty. This altruistic view for a developing economy, however, is not tenable anymore once the poverty index is found to follow a pareto distribution. Here although a rising mean income indicates a reduction in poverty, due to the presence of an inflexion point in the poverty function, there is a critical value of the variance below which poverty decreases with increasing variance while beyond this value, poverty undergoes a steep increase followed by a decrease with respect to higher variance. Identifying this inflexion point as the poverty line, we show that the pareto poverty function satisfies all three standard axioms of a poverty index [N.C. Kakwani, Econometrica 43 (1980) 437; A.K. Sen, Econometrica 44 (1976) 219] whereas the log-normal distribution falls short of this requisite. Following these results, we make quantitative predictions to correlate a developing with a developed economy.

  3. Neighborhood Poverty. Policy Implications in Studying Neighborhoods. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Ed.; Duncan, Greg J., Ed.; Aber, J. Lawrence, Ed.

    Volume 2 of the "Neighborhood Poverty" series incorporates empirical data on neighborhood poverty into discussions of policy and program development. The chapters are: (1) "Ecological Perspectives on the Neighborhood Context of Urban Poverty: Past and Present" (Robert J. Sampson and Jeffrey D. Morenoff); (2) "The Influence of Neighborhoods on…

  4. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  5. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  6. Rural Principal Attitudes toward Poverty and the Poor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gholson, Melissa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study used Yun and Weaver's (2010) Attitudes toward Poverty Short Form (ATP-SF) of twenty-one items on a Likert-type scale to determine the poverty attitudes of 309 principals in a rural Appalachian state in the United States. The study compared the poverty attitudes from the ATP-SF scaled score as a dependent variable to the following…

  7. Has Poverty Really Increased among Children since 1970? Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.; Jencks, Christopher

    After a century of fairly steady decline, the official poverty rate among American children increased from 14.0% in 1969 to 19.6% in 1989, suggesting that the United States is losing the war on poverty. However, once various defects in the official poverty measure are corrected, it appears that the proportion of children in households with income…

  8. Understanding the Link between Poverty and Food Insecurity among Children: Does the Definition of Poverty Matter?

    PubMed

    Wight, Vanessa; Kaushal, Neeraj; Waldfogel, Jane; Garfinkel, Irv

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the association between poverty and food insecurity among children, using two different definitions of poverty-the official poverty measure (OPM) and the new supplemental poverty measure (SPM) of the Census Bureau, which is based on a more inclusive definition of family resources and needs. Our analysis is based on data from the 2001-11 Current Population Survey and shows that food insecurity and very low food security among children decline as income-to-needs ratio increases. The point estimates show that the associations are stronger as measured by the new supplemental measure of income-to-needs ratio than when estimated through the official measure. Statistical tests reject the hypothesis that poor households' odds of experiencing low food security are the same whether the SPM or OPM measure is used; but the tests do not reject the hypothesis when very low food security is the outcome.

  9. Media violence.

    PubMed

    Strasburger, V C

    1999-01-01

    For decades, media violence has been viewed as largely a Western problem. New studies indicate that Indian children have increasing access to the media and that media violence will subject them to the same problems as Western children: imitation, desensitization, fear, and inappropriate attitudes about violence and aggression. Solutions exist but will have to be implemented within the next decade to protect Indian children and adolescents from the harmful effects of media violence.

  10. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods.

  11. Racial/ethnic and income disparities in child and adolescent exposure to food and beverage television ads across the U.S. media markets.

    PubMed

    Powell, Lisa M; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-09-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  12. Racial/Ethnic and Income Disparities in Child and Adolescent Exposure to Food and Beverage Television Ads across U.S. Media Markets

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Lisa M.; Wada, Roy; Kumanyika, Shiriki K.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity prevalence and related health burdens are greater among U.S. racial/ethnic minority and low-income populations. Targeted advertising may contribute to disparities. Designated market area (DMA) spot television ratings were used to assess geographic differences in child/adolescent exposure to food-related advertisements based on DMA-level racial/ethnic and income characteristics. Controlling for unobserved DMA-level factors and time trends, child/adolescent exposure to food-related ads, particularly for sugar-sweetened beverages and fast-food restaurants, was significantly higher in areas with higher proportions of black children/adolescents and lower-income households. Geographically targeted TV ads are important to consider when assessing obesity-promoting influences in black and low-income neighborhoods. PMID:25086271

  13. Children and Poverty: The Search for Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeva, E. B.

    2005-01-01

    Children's problems are just as acute as before. The percentage of children living in poverty is especially high. Between the ages of seven and fifteen, the percentage of poor children in 2001 was 38.5 percent, whereas among the population at large the figure was 27.6 percent. Moreover, families with a higher number of children are not provided…

  14. Poverty, Food Programs, and Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Curtin, Sally

    2005-01-01

    Sixteen percent of children 6-11 years of age were classified as overweight in 1999-2002, four times the percentage in 1965. Although poverty has traditionally been associated with underweight as a result of poor diet, researchers have recently pointed to a paradox in the U.S., which is that low income and obesity can coexist in the same…

  15. Addressing Energy Poverty through Smarter Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldfield, Eddie

    2011-01-01

    Energy poverty is a key detriment to labor productivity, economic growth, and social well-being. This article presents a qualitative review of literature on the potential role of intelligent communication technology, web-based standards, and smart grid technology to alleviate energy costs and improve access to clean distributed energy in developed…

  16. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-11-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions.

  17. The Culture of Poverty: A Critique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leacock, Eleanor Burke, Ed.

    This book, originating as a series of papers given in a critical symposium on the "culture of poverty" concept, comprises chapters written expressly for the book, with a couple of exceptions, and embodying reports on the original research or direct experience of the individual writers. The authors vary in their emphases and interests, but share…

  18. Education and Poverty Reduction in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedgwood, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews research on the returns to education in Tanzania, both financial and non-financial, and considers whether these returns translate into poverty reduction. It looks at reasons why achievement of high primary enrolment rates in the past did not lead to the realisation of the associated developmental outcomes, considering factors…

  19. Obesity and Poverty: A Growing Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Dianne Yow; Queen, J. Allen; Schumacher, Donald

    2007-01-01

    This research study addresses the childhood obesity epidemic, which has seen the number of overweight children from the ages of 6 to 11 triple since the mid-1970s. The authors note that there are more than twice as many poor and obese adolescents compared with more affluent youths, and examine a number of factors linking obesity and poverty.…

  20. Myths of Poverty--Realities for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Alice

    2010-01-01

    A full stomach and clear mind are prerequisites for learning. Many children who live in poverty have neither. And the number of children who might be considered "food challenged" is growing at an alarming rate. This economic reality translates into ever-growing challenges for the public education system, which already struggles to provide all the…

  1. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  2. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-01-01

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems “outside the system.” Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa. PMID:17942700

  3. The Other Poor: Rural Poverty and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Books, Sue

    1997-01-01

    This paper argues that rural poverty remains relatively invisible because, although shameful, it is profitable, and the rural poor pose little threat to their suburban neighbors. This is illustrated via interrogation concerning a rural poultry plant fire. The paper examines implications of this case for foundations scholars and educational…

  4. Poverty in the Developing Countries--1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clausen, A. W.

    Although the number of people in developing nations who are too poor to provide themselves with an adequate diet is rising, this is not reason to assume that such poverty is inevitable. Strategies that foster economic growth and include poor people in the growth process can be found in countries with such diverse political and economic systems as…

  5. Health systems perspectives - infectious diseases of poverty.

    PubMed

    Huntington, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The right to health as a fundamental human right is enshrined in the World Health Organization's charter and has been reaffirmed in international agreements spanning decades. This new journal reminds us of the essential characteristic of poverty as a violent abuse of human rights. The context of poverty - its social, political and economic dimensions - remain in the reader's mind as evidence is provided on technical solutions to managing the infectious diseases that afflict poor populations world-wide. Applying a health systems framework to a discussion on infectious diseases of poverty emerges from the papers in this journal's first edition. Many of the articles discuss treatments, indicating the importance of pharmaceuticals for neglected diseases. Delivery strategies to reach impoverished populations also figure within this first round of papers. Innovative programs that provide diagnostics and treatment for infectious diseases to hard-to-reach rural and urban communities are needed clearly needed, and some good examples are discussed here. Future editions will explore other health system components, broadening the evidence base to increase understanding of effective and sustainable interventions to reduce the burden of infectious disease among the poor. The editors are to be congratulated on the release of this inaugural issue of the journal Infectious Diseases of Poverty. We look forward to reading subsequent editions. PMID:23848993

  6. An inside Look at Education and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Carol M.

    2006-01-01

    Behind this discussion of minority achievement is a story of one who transcended poverty and rose to the top of American education. Carol Swain advises that a student from a poor family should not be penalized because her parents are not able to involve themselves in school. This and other recommendations on policy reflect a profoundly personal…

  7. Life and Poverty in the Maritimes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin, Pierre-Yves

    Five areas in the Maritime Provinces of Canada were subjected to intensive geographical, economic, and sociological surveys in an attempt to determine and define poverty illustratively rather than statistically. Information was obtained by in-residence researchers on bio-physical setting, settlement, population, labor and economic activity,…

  8. Poverty, Ethnic Identity, and Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Bonnie; Bullough, Vern L.

    This book tries to present the health care problems of the major ethnic minority groups in perspective. Although poverty is probably the most crucial variable in the genesis of these problems, there are still many subtle and not so subtle forms of discrimination operating in the health field. Unfortunately, discrimination in other aspects of…

  9. Tobacco and poverty: evidence from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Efroymson, Debra; Pham, Hoang Anh; Jones, Lori; FitzGerald, Sian; Thu, Le Thi; Hien, Le Thi Thu

    2011-07-01

    This review examined existing evidence to investigate the link between tobacco and poverty in Vietnam, to assess the impact of tobacco control policies on employment related to tobacco consumption and to identify information gaps that require further research for the purposes of advocating stronger tobacco control policies. A Medline, PubMed and Google Scholar search identified studies addressing the tobacco and poverty association in Vietnam using extensive criteria. In all, 22 articles related either to tobacco and health or economics, or to the potential impact of tobacco control policies, were identified from titles, abstracts or the full text. 28 additional publications were identified by other means. PHA, LTT and LTTH reviewed the publications and prepared the initial literature review. There is extensive evidence that tobacco use contributes to poverty and inequality in Vietnam and that tobacco control policies would not have a negative impact on overall employment. Tobacco use wastes household and national financial resources and widens social inequality. The implementation and enforcement of a range of tobacco control measures could prove beneficial not only to improve public health but also to alleviate poverty.

  10. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements... met; and (iv) The Secretary may designate not more than one rural Empowerment Zone without regard...

  11. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements... met; and (iv) The Secretary may designate not more than one rural Empowerment Zone without regard...

  12. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements... met; and (iv) The Secretary may designate not more than one rural Empowerment Zone without regard...

  13. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements... met; and (iv) The Secretary may designate not more than one rural Empowerment Zone without regard...

  14. 7 CFR 25.104 - Poverty rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poverty rate. 25.104 Section 25.104 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture RURAL EMPOWERMENT ZONES AND ENTERPRISE COMMUNITIES Area Requirements... met; and (iv) The Secretary may designate not more than one rural Empowerment Zone without regard...

  15. Poverty and Aging in Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coward, Raymond T.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines the high incidence of poverty among the rural elderly, their sources of income, and their helping networks. Calls attention to rural-urban differences, farm/nonfarm resident distinctions, regional differences, and characteristics of recent immigrants versus long-term residents. Urges social work interventions that address the distinctive…

  16. The Urban Challenge - Poverty and Race.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This book combines scholarship and personal experiences as several facets of the urban experience are investigated. Eight major chapters focus on poverty, unemployment, welfare, law enforcement, urban finance, housing, education, and health care. Each chapter examines each problem and provides recommendations for dealing with it. The chapter on…

  17. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  18. Integrating Global Poverty into Mainstream Business Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paton, Bruce; Harris-Boundy, Jason; Melhus, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Most of the products and services discussed in business curricula serve a small portion of humanity. But the great majority of economic growth over the next few decades is expected to occur in emerging and frontier markets. This emerging reality increases the urgency for including topics related to global poverty, unmet human needs, and emergence…

  19. The Poverty of the Mayan Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pye, Clifton

    2012-01-01

    Poverty of the stimulus (POS) arguments have instigated considerable debate in the recent linguistics literature. This article uses the comparative method to challenge the logic of POS arguments. Rather than question the premises of POS arguments, the article demonstrates how POS arguments for individual languages lead to a "reductio ad absurdum"…

  20. Breaking out of the Circle of Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, J. D. Ekundayo

    1996-01-01

    Poverty in Africa is related to numerous factors: history of slavery, colonial and neocolonial rule, political and economic dependence, foreign debt, government corruption, high illiteracy, gender insensitivity, civil wars that create refugees, and unemployment. Solutions must take into account the political, economic, and social factors that…

  1. Poverty and Health: Working with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Clare

    This book is concerned with the impact of poverty on health, focusing on families with young children in the United Kingdom. It draws together information from a wide range of disciplines to provide workers in the health and welfare fields with a better understanding of the complex interconnections between living conditions, lifestyles, and health…

  2. The New Poverty: Homeless Families in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nunez, Ralph da Costa

    This book discusses homeless families in the United States and advocates the efforts of residential educational and employment training centers--American Family Inns--which provide comprehensive services education, job training, and parenting and life skills to address the poverty-related conditions that contribute to homelessness. Chapters of the…

  3. Poverty and the Power of Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolaro, John D.; Eschbach, Elizabeth

    According to the authors, the real conditions of poverty and homelessness in America remain obscure. The homeless, contrary to popular belief, are not homeless by choice. 25% of the homeless are employed full-time in low-wage jobs, 25% are war veterans of one kind or another, and 25% are emotionally disturbed. According to the Rand Corporation,…

  4. Teacher Resilience: Theorizing Resilience and Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersöhn, Liesel

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I hope to provide some novel insights into teacher resilience and poverty on the basis of ten-year long-term ethnographic participatory reflection and action data obtained from teachers (n?=?87) in rural (n?=?6) and urban (n?=?8) schools (n?=?14, high schools?=?4, primary schools?=?10) in three South African provinces. In…

  5. Educational Relationships and Their Impact on Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wikeley, Felicity; Bullock, Kate; Muschamp, Yolande; Ridge, Tess

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the premise that children in poverty are disadvantaged in their potential to learn by the extent and quality of their social networks and educational relationships. The research examines the quality and sustainability of educational relationships between children and adults in out-of-school activities. We build a theoretical…

  6. The Feminization of Poverty among Hispanic Households.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Fernando M.; And Others

    This study examines characteristics of Hispanic females in single- and dual-headed households in an effort to understand the impact of the feminization of poverty on Hispanic Americans of Mexican, Cuban, and Puerto Rican origin. The following aspects of these women are examined: (1) sociodemographic characteristics; (2) language of interview; (3)…

  7. Poverty and Mental Retardation: A Causal Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Rodger L.

    The incidence of mental retardation among the poor and the reasons for such high prevalence are the focus of the text which is based largely on the state of New Jersey. Mental retardation is viewed as a social pathology which thrives in the ghetto; the effects of poverty and racial prejudice are explored as are the assessment of intelligence and…

  8. New Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downtown Business Quarterly, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue explores lower Manhattan's burgeoning "New Media" industry, a growing source of jobs in lower Manhattan. The first article, "New Media Manpower Issues" (Rodney Alexander), addresses manpower, training, and workforce demands faced by new media companies in New York City. The second article, "Case Study: Hiring @ Dynamid" (John…

  9. Child Poverty in the States: Levels and Trends from 1979 to 1998. Childhood Poverty Research Brief 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Neil G.; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    This research brief uses the official measure of poverty and the most recent data available from the U.S. Census Bureau to document poverty rates for children under age 18 in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. The brief examines long-term trends in child poverty between 1979 and 1998 in each state. Further, the brief examines components…

  10. The Effects of the Recession on Child Poverty: Poverty Statistics for 2008 and Growth in Need during 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Julia B.

    2009-01-01

    Nearly one in five children under age 18 lived in poor families in 2008, according to poverty statistics released by the Census Bureau in September 2009. Though high, this statistic does not capture the full impact of the economic downturn, which is expected to drive poverty even higher in 2009. However, updated poverty statistics will not be…

  11. Exploring Differences in National and International Poverty Estimates: Is Uganda on Track to Halve Poverty by 2015?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores causes of differences in estimates of poverty incidence in Uganda since the early 1990s as measured by the Uganda Bureau of Statistics and the World Bank. While both sets of estimates from the two organisations show a declining trend in poverty incidence there are important differences in the levels of poverty, the speed of the…

  12. Characteristics of Low-Income Populations Under Alternative Poverty Definitions. The Measure of Poverty, Technical Paper VI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lawrence L. III; Miller, Renee

    This technical paper examines how different poverty standards can change the statistical description of the low income population. It supplements a chapter in a report submitted to the U.S. Congress in 1976 titled, "The Measure of Poverty". The poverty measure currently used in Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (the Census…

  13. Putting Poverty in Political Context: A Multi-Level Analysis of Adult Poverty across 18 Affluent Democracies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, David; Fullerton, Andrew S.; Cross, Jennifer Moren

    2009-01-01

    Our study analyzes how political context, embodied by the welfare state and Leftist political actors, shapes individual poverty. Using the Luxembourg Income Study, we conduct a multi-level analysis of working-aged adult poverty across 18 affluent Western democracies. Our index of welfare generosity has a negative effect on poverty net of…

  14. An Indirect Effects Model of the Association between Poverty and Child Functioning: The Role of Children's Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Raviv, Tali; Reinhard, Christine; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Einhorn, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    The authors tested a theoretical model positing that poverty has an indirect effect on child and adolescent functioning through children's poverty-related stress. Path analyses with a multiethnic sample of 164 children aged 6 to 18 revealed that the stress associated with poverty, such as economic strain, family conflict, violence/trauma, and…

  15. Distribution of 2,4-D in air and on surfaces inside residences after lawn applications: comparing exposure estimates from various media for young children.

    PubMed

    Nishioka, M G; Lewis, R G; Brinkman, M C; Burkholder, H M; Hines, C E; Menkedick, J R

    2001-11-01

    We collected indoor air, surface wipes (floors, table tops, and window sills), and floor dust samples at multiple locations within 11 occupied and two unoccupied homes both before and after lawn application of the herbicide 2,4-D. We measured residues 1 week before and after application. We used collected samples to determine transport routes of 2,4-D from the lawn into the homes, its subsequent distribution between the indoor surfaces, and air concentration as a function of airborne particle size. We used residue measurements to estimate potential exposures within these homes. After lawn application, 2,4-D was detected in indoor air and on all surfaces throughout all homes. Track-in by an active dog and by the homeowner applicator were the most significant factors for intrusion. Resuspension of floor dust was the major source of 2,4-D in indoor air, with highest levels of 2,4-D found in the particle size range of 2.5-10 microm. Resuspended floor dust was also a major source of 2,4-D on tables and window sills. Estimated postapplication indoor exposure levels for young children from nondietary ingestion may be 1-10 microg/day from contact with floors, and 0.2-30 microg/day from contact with table tops. These are estimated to be about 10 times higher than the preapplication exposures. By comparison, dietary ingestion of 2,4-D is approximately 1.3 microg/day.

  16. Distribution of 2,4-D in air and on surfaces inside residences after lawn applications: comparing exposure estimates from various media for young children.

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, M G; Lewis, R G; Brinkman, M C; Burkholder, H M; Hines, C E; Menkedick, J R

    2001-01-01

    We collected indoor air, surface wipes (floors, table tops, and window sills), and floor dust samples at multiple locations within 11 occupied and two unoccupied homes both before and after lawn application of the herbicide 2,4-D. We measured residues 1 week before and after application. We used collected samples to determine transport routes of 2,4-D from the lawn into the homes, its subsequent distribution between the indoor surfaces, and air concentration as a function of airborne particle size. We used residue measurements to estimate potential exposures within these homes. After lawn application, 2,4-D was detected in indoor air and on all surfaces throughout all homes. Track-in by an active dog and by the homeowner applicator were the most significant factors for intrusion. Resuspension of floor dust was the major source of 2,4-D in indoor air, with highest levels of 2,4-D found in the particle size range of 2.5-10 microm. Resuspended floor dust was also a major source of 2,4-D on tables and window sills. Estimated postapplication indoor exposure levels for young children from nondietary ingestion may be 1-10 microg/day from contact with floors, and 0.2-30 microg/day from contact with table tops. These are estimated to be about 10 times higher than the preapplication exposures. By comparison, dietary ingestion of 2,4-D is approximately 1.3 microg/day. PMID:11713005

  17. Rural poverty and development in West Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Peacock, F

    1981-07-01

    Rural poverty in West Malaysia during the 1957-1970 period is examined. The period covered was 1 of a high rate of growth combined with an increasing inequality of income and worsening poverty. During the 1955-1970 period, a large amount of development funds, manpower, and expertise was directed towards a reduction of West Malaysia's rural poverty. Despite these efforts, rural poverty increased. Over the period under review, the share of income going to the richest 20% of the population increased from 50% to 56%; the share going to the middle 20% of the population remained constant at 20%; the poorest 60% of the population saw their share of income decline from 30% to 24%. The poorest 40% of the population received only 11.6% of income in 1970. They were predominantly rural, with this sector accounting for 87% of all poverty. The 3 development plans of this period set high aggregate growth rates as the primary targets and emphasized productivity and income in the rural sector. Rural development has not been sold short; the total funding figure of $2,209.46 million represents 40% of all development spending between 1956 and 1970. The money funded 3 broad areas of rural development: replanting of smallholder rubber with high-yielding clones; increasing rice production; and opening new land. The strategy has been to concentrate upon raising the yields from existing farmland and expanding into new areas of settlement. The problem of dealing with poverty in West Malaysia was made worse by the rapid rate of population increase. The population increase of 1,657,000 was absorbed into the traditional smallholder sector, very largely in exisitng areas of settlement. Over the same period, the modern sector of agriculture, the rubber estates, reduced their labor force by 30,000 as they moved into the cultivation of oil palm, a crop requiring less labor. Some of the additional agricultural workers were placed on new land under government land-development and resettlement

  18. A Global Poverty Map Derived from Satellite Data

    SciTech Connect

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Sutton, Paul S.; Ghosh, Tilottama; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A

    2009-01-01

    A global poverty map has been produced at 30 arc sec resolution using a poverty index calculated by dividing population count (LandScan2004) by the brightness of satellite observed lighting (DMSP nighttimelights). Inputs to the LandScan product include satellite-derived landcover and topography, plus human settlement outlines derived from high-resolution imagery. The poverty estimates have been calibrated using national level poverty data from the World Development Indicators (WDI) 2006 edition. The total estimate of the numbers of individuals living in poverty is 2.2billion, slightly under the WDI estimate of 2.6 billion. We have demonstrated a new class of poverty map that should improve over time through the inclusion of new reference data for calibration of poverty estimates and as improvements are made in the satellite observation of human activities related to economic activity and technology access.

  19. Evaluating Media Performance by Gratifications Sought and Received.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Jack M.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examines two motivational models: a drive reduction model in which media use and satisfaction are directed by the gratifications people seek, and an exposure-learning model in which the gratifications are largely received as an accidental result of exposure to media. Concludes that both can be used effectively to represent media use and…

  20. Children's media policy.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Amy B

    2008-01-01

    Amy Jordan addresses the need to balance the media industry's potentially important contributions to the healthy development of America's children against the consequences of excessive and age-inappropriate media exposure. Much of the philosophical tension regarding how much say the government should have about media content and delivery stems from the U.S. Constitution's First Amendment protection against government interference in free speech, including commercial speech. Courts, Jordan says, have repeatedly had to weigh the rights of commercial entities to say what they please against the need to protect vulnerable citizens such as children. This balancing act is complicated even further, she says, because many government regulations apply only to broadcast television and not to non-broadcast media such as the Internet or cable television, though Congress has addressed the need to protect children's privacy online. The need to protect both free speech and children has given rise to a fluid media policy mix of federal mandates and industry self-regulation. Jordan describes the role of the three branches of the federal government in formulating and implementing media policy. She also notes the jockeying for influence in policymaking by industry lobbies, child advocacy groups, and academic researchers. The media industry itself, says Jordan, is spurred to self-regulation when public disapproval grows severe enough to raise the possibility of new government action. Jordan surveys a range of government and industry actions, from legislatively required parental monitoring tools, such as the V-Chip blocking device on television sets, to the voluntary industry ratings systems governing television, movies, and video games, to voluntary social website disclosures to outright government bans, such as indecency and child privacy information collection. She considers the success of these efforts in limiting children's exposure to damaging content and in improving parents