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Sample records for medial branch block

  1. [Interventions on facet joints. Techniques of facet joint injection, medial branch block and radiofrequency ablation].

    PubMed

    Artner, J; Klessinger, S

    2015-10-01

    Fluoroscopy-guided interventions on facet joints have been used for decades for the symptomatic management of pain in spinal disorders. A large number of imaging techniques are used to achieve a precise and safe needle placement in interventional procedures. Pulsed fluoroscopy is one of the most widely used and well-accepted tools for these procedures. This article presents a technical overview of commonly used fluoroscopy-guided interventions on the facet joints of the cervical and lumbar spine, such as facet joint injection, blockade of the medial nerve branches and radiofrequency ablation.

  2. Radiofrequency Neurotomy of Cervical Medial Branches for Chronic Cervicobrachialgia

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Woo-Ram; Shin, Dong-Gyu; Shin, Dong-Ah

    2006-01-01

    Chronic neck and arm pain or cervicobrachialgia commonly occurs with the degeneration of cervical spine. Authors investigated the usefulness of radiofrequency (RF) neurotomies of cervical medial branches in patients with cervicobrachialgia and analyzed the factors which can influence the treatment outcome. Demographic data, types of pain distribution, responses of double controlled blocks, electrical stimulation parameters, numbers and levels of neurotomies, and surgical outcomes were evaluated after mean follow-up of 12 months. Pain distribution pattern was not significantly correlated with the results of diagnostic blocks. Average stimulation intensity was 0.45 V, ranging from 0.3 to 0.69, to elicit pain response in cervical medial branches. The most common involvement of nerve branches was C4 (89%), followed by C5 (82%), C6 (75%), and C7 (43%). Among total of 28 patients, nineteen (68%) reported successful outcome according to outcome criteria after 6 months of follow-up (p=0.001), and eight (42%) of 19 patients reported complete relief (100%) of pain. Four patients showed recurrence of pain between 6 and 12 months. It was therefore concluded that cervical medial branch neurotomy is considered useful therapeutic modality for the management of cervicobrachialgia in selected patients, particularly in degenerative zygapophyseal disorders. PMID:16479077

  3. Radiofrequency neurotomy of cervical medial branches for chronic cervicobrachialgia.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woo-Ram; Kim, Hyoung-Ihl; Shin, Dong-Gyu; Shin, Dong-Ah

    2006-02-01

    Chronic neck and arm pain or cervicobrachialgia commonly occurs with the degeneration of cervical spine. Authors investigated the usefulness of radiofrequency (RF) neurotomies of cervical medial branches in patients with cervicobrachialgia and analyzed the factors which can influence the treatment outcome. Demographic data, types of pain distribution, responses of double controlled blocks, electrical stimulation parameters, numbers and levels of neurotomies, and surgical outcomes were evaluated after mean follow-up of 12 months. Pain distribution pattern was not significantly correlated with the results of diagnostic blocks. Average stimulation intensity was 0.45 V, ranging from 0.3 to 0.69, to elicit pain response in cervical medial branches. The most common involvement of nerve branches was C4 (89%), followed by C5 (82%), C6 (75%), and C7 (43%). Among total of 28 patients, nineteen (68%) reported successful outcome according to outcome criteria after 6 months of followup (p=0.001), and eight (42%) of 19 patients reported complete relief (100%) of pain. Four patients showed recurrence of pain between 6 and 12 months. It was therefore concluded that cervical medial branch neurotomy is considered useful therapeutic modality for the management of cervicobrachialgia in selected patients, particularly in degenerative zygapophyseal disorders.

  4. Masquerading bundle branch block: a variety of right bundle branch block with left anterior fascicular block.

    PubMed

    Elizari, Marcelo V; Baranchuk, Adrian; Chiale, Pablo A

    2013-01-01

    The so-called 'masquerading' type of right bundle branch block is caused by the simultaneous presence of a high-degree left anterior fascicular block often accompanied with severe left ventricular enlargement and/or fibrotic block in the anterolateral wall of the left ventricle. These conditions tend to reorient the terminal electrical forces of the QRS complex towards the left and upwards, in such a way that the characteristic slurred S wave in lead I becomes smaller or even disappears. In many cases of standard masquerading right bundle branch block, a small Q wave in lead I is present due to the initial forces of the left anterior fascicular block, which are oriented rightwards and inferiorly. However, in some cases, the Q wave in lead I also vanishes, and the mimicking of a left bundle branch block becomes perfect in standard leads. This is commonly associated with an inferior myocardial infarction or severe inferior fibrosis in cardiomyopathies. The typical QRS changes of right bundle branch block may eventually be concealed even in the right precordial leads; under such circumstances, the ECG diagnosis may be mistaken and the right bundle branch block totally missed. The masquerading right bundle branch block carries a poor prognosis, since it always implies the presence of a severe underlying heart disease.

  5. Branching Patterns of Medial and Inferior Calcaneal Nerves Around the Tarsal Tunnel

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Suk; Choung, Phil Woo; Kwon, Soon Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo

    2015-01-01

    Objective To demonstrate the bifurcation pattern of the tibial nerve and its branches. Methods Eleven legs of seven fresh cadavers were dissected. The reference line for the bifurcation point of tibial nerve branches was an imaginary horizontal line passing the tip of the medial malleolus. The distances between the reference line and the bifurcation points were measured. The bifurcation branching patterns were categorized as type I, the pattern in which the medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) branched most proximally; type II, the pattern in which the three branches occurred at the same point; and type III, in which MCN branched most distally. Results There were seven cases (64%) of type I, three cases (27%) of type III, and one case (9%) of type II. The median MCN branching point was 0.2 cm (range, -1 to 3 cm). The median bifurcation points of the lateral plantar nerves and inferior calcaneal nerves was -0.6 cm (range, -1.5 to 1 cm) and -2.5 cm (range, -3.5 to -1 cm), respectively. Conclusion MCN originated from the tibial nerve in most cases, and plantar nerves were bifurcated below the medial malleolus. In all cases, inferior calcaneal nerves originated from the lateral plantar nerve. These anatomical findings could be useful for performing procedures, such as nerve block or electrophysiologic studies. PMID:25750872

  6. Laughter-induced left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Chow, Grant V; Desai, Dipan; Spragg, David D; Zakaria, Sammy

    2012-10-01

    We present the case of a patient with ischemic heart disease and intermittent left bundle branch block, reproducibly induced by laughter. Following treatment of ischemia with successful deployment of a drug-eluting stent, no further episodes of inducible LBBB were seen. Transient ischemia, exacerbated by elevated intrathoracic pressure during laughter, may have contributed to onset of this phenomenon.

  7. Treatment of nocturnal leg cramps by blockade of the medial branch of the deep peroneal nerve after lumbar spine surgery

    PubMed Central

    Imura, Takayuki; Inoue, Gen; Nakazawa, Toshiyuki; Miyagi, Masayuki; Saito, Wataru; Uchida, Kentaro; Namba, Takanori; Shirasawa, Eiki; Takahira, Naonobu; Takaso, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients with lumbar spine disease sometimes complain of nocturnal leg cramps. We sought to investigate the effectiveness of blocking the medial branch of the deep peroneal nerve as treatment for nocturnal leg cramps after spinal surgery for lumbar spine disease. Methods We evaluated 66 postoperative patients in this prospective comparative study of a group of patients with a nerve block (n = 41) and a control group without (n = 25). In the block group, the medial branch of the deep peroneal nerve was blocked at the distal two-thirds of the interspace between the first and second metatarsals using 5.0 mL of 1.0% lidocaine. Results Two weeks after the block, the frequency of nocturnal leg cramps was reduced to less than a quarter of pretreatment baseline frequency in 61.0% of patients (n = 25) and less than half in 80.5% (n = 33). In the control group, the frequency of the leg cramps was reduced from baseline in 32.0% of patients (n = 8), and was unchanged or increased in 68.0% (n = 17) at 2 weeks. Cramp frequency was reduced to less than a quarter or less than half of baseline frequency in a significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) larger percentage of patients in the block group. The severity of each cramp was less in about two-thirds of patients (63.4%; n = 26) in the block group and was unchanged in one-third (31.7%; n = 13). Conclusions Blocking the medial branch of the peroneal nerve can be an effective, long-lasting, and simple treatment with low risk for nocturnal cramps sustained after lumbar spine surgery. PMID:26445706

  8. Study of the anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches in the distal medial leg

    PubMed Central

    Torres, André Leal Gonçalves; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2012-01-01

    Objective Determine, through dissection in fresh cadavers, the topographic anatomy of the tibial nerve and its branches at the ankle, in relation to the tarsal tunnel. Methods Bilateral dissections were performed on 26 fresh cadavers and the locations of the tibial nerve bifurcation and its branches were measured in millimeters. For the calcaneal branches, the amount and their respective nerves of origin were also analyzed. Results The tibial nerve bifurcation occurred under the tunnel in 88% of the cases and proximally in 12%. As for the calcaneal branches, the medial presented with one (58%), two (34%) and three (8%) branches, with the most common source occurring in the tibial nerve (90%) and the lower with a single branch per leg and lateral plantar nerve as the most common origin (70%). Level of Evidence, V Expert opinion. PMID:24453596

  9. Differential conduction block in branches of a bifurcating axon.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Y; Parnas, I; Spira, M E

    1979-01-01

    1. Propagation of action potentials at high frequency was studied in a branching axon of the lobster by means of simultaneous intracellular recording both before and after the branch point. 2. Although the branching axon studied has a geometrical ratio close to one (perfect impedance matching) conduction across the branch point failed at stimulation frequencies above 30 Hz. 3. The block of conduction after high frequency stimulation occurred at the branch point per se. The parent axon and daughter branches continued to conduct action potentials. 4. Conduction block after high frequency stimulation appeared first in the thicker daughter branch and only later in the thin branch. 5. With high frequency stimulation there was a 10-15% reduction in amplitude of the action potential in the parent axon, a corresponding decrease in the rate of rise of the action potential, a 25-30% decrease in conduction velocity, marked increase in threshold and prolongation of the refractory period. In addition the membrane was depolarized by 1-3 mV. 6. Measurements of the membrane current using the patch clamp technique showed a large decrease in the phase of inward current associated with the action potential, before the branching point. 7. The small membrane depolarization seen after high frequency stimulation is not the sole cause of the conduction block. Imposed prolonged membrane depolarization (8 mV for 120 sec) was insufficient to produce conduction block. 8. In vivo chronic extracellular recordings from the main nerve bundle (which contains the parent axon) and the large daughter branch revealed that: (a) the duration and frequency of trains of action potentials along the axons exceeded those used in the isolated nerve experiments and (b) conduction failure in the large daughter branch could be induced in the whole animal by electrical stimulation of the main branch as in the isolated preparation. 9. Possible mechanisms underlying block of conduction after high frequency

  10. Differential conduction block in branches of a bifurcating axon.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Y; Parnas, I; Spira, M E

    1979-10-01

    1. Propagation of action potentials at high frequency was studied in a branching axon of the lobster by means of simultaneous intracellular recording both before and after the branch point. 2. Although the branching axon studied has a geometrical ratio close to one (perfect impedance matching) conduction across the branch point failed at stimulation frequencies above 30 Hz. 3. The block of conduction after high frequency stimulation occurred at the branch point per se. The parent axon and daughter branches continued to conduct action potentials. 4. Conduction block after high frequency stimulation appeared first in the thicker daughter branch and only later in the thin branch. 5. With high frequency stimulation there was a 10-15% reduction in amplitude of the action potential in the parent axon, a corresponding decrease in the rate of rise of the action potential, a 25-30% decrease in conduction velocity, marked increase in threshold and prolongation of the refractory period. In addition the membrane was depolarized by 1-3 mV. 6. Measurements of the membrane current using the patch clamp technique showed a large decrease in the phase of inward current associated with the action potential, before the branching point. 7. The small membrane depolarization seen after high frequency stimulation is not the sole cause of the conduction block. Imposed prolonged membrane depolarization (8 mV for 120 sec) was insufficient to produce conduction block. 8. In vivo chronic extracellular recordings from the main nerve bundle (which contains the parent axon) and the large daughter branch revealed that: (a) the duration and frequency of trains of action potentials along the axons exceeded those used in the isolated nerve experiments and (b) conduction failure in the large daughter branch could be induced in the whole animal by electrical stimulation of the main branch as in the isolated preparation. 9. Possible mechanisms underlying block of conduction after high frequency

  11. Treatment of Chronic Plantar Heel Pain With Radiofrequency Neural Ablation of the First Branch of the Lateral Plantar Nerve and Medial Calcaneal Nerve Branches.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Aydın; Koca, Tuba Tulay; Utkan, Ali; Sevimli, Resit; Akel, İbrahim

    2016-01-01

    From March 2012 to February 2013, 37 patients experiencing plantar heel pain for ≥6 months despite treatment with physical therapy and other conservative treatment modalities were followed up. If neurogenic heel pain originating from the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve was present, with or without the medial calcaneal nerve, diagnostic nerve blocks to these nerves were performed for confirmation. If the pain was determined to be of neurogenic origin, radiofrequency neural ablation (RFNA) was applied to the corresponding sensory nerve endings. Pain was evaluated using the visual analog scale, and patients were followed for at least one year. A total of 41 feet from 37 patients (30 [81.1%] females, 7 [18.9%] males; mean age, 50.7 ± 1.6 years; mean body mass index, 30.6 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) were included. The mean visual analog scale scores improved significantly from 1 to 6 to 12 months after the procedure relative to before the procedure, with 88% of all patients rating the treatment as either very successful or successful at 12 months postoperatively. RFNA applied to both the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve and the medial calcaneal nerve sensory branches (16 [39%] feet) and only the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve sensory branches (25 [61%] feet) showed similarly high levels of success. Of the 41 feet, 28 [68.3%] had received extracorporeal shockwave therapy, 35 [85.4%] had received steroid injections, and 22 [53.7%] had received both extracorporeal shockwave therapy and steroid injections before RFNA as an index procedure. All were unresponsive to these previous treatments. In contrast, almost all (88%) were treated successfully with RFNA. Despite a high incidence of neurologic variations, with a precise diagnosis and good application of the technique using the painful points, chronic plantar heel pain can be treated successfully with RFNA.

  12. Acute bilateral cerebellar infarction in the territory of the medial branches of posterior inferior cerebellar arteries.

    PubMed

    Gurer, G; Sahin, G; Cekirge, S; Tan, E; Saribas, O

    2001-10-01

    The most frequent type of cerebellar infarcts involved the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and superior cerebellar artery territories but bilateral involvement of lateral or medial branches of PICA is extremely rare. In this report, we present a 55-year-old male who admitted to hospital with vomiting, nausea and dizziness. On examination left-sided hemiparesia and ataxic gait were detected. Infarct on bilateral medial branch of PICA artery territories was found out with cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique and 99% stenosis of the left vertebral artery was found out with digital subtraction arteriography. The patient was put on heparin treatment. After 3 weeks, his complaints and symptoms had disappeared except for mild gait ataxia.

  13. Medial pterygoid trismus (myospasm) following inferior alveolar nerve block: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wright, Edward F

    2011-01-01

    A patient developed a medial pterygoid trismus (myospasm) the day after receiving three inferior alveolar nerve blocks and a routine restoration. She had a significantly restricted mouth opening and significant medial pterygoid muscle pain when she opened beyond the restriction; however, she had no swelling, lymphadenopathy, or fever. A medial pterygoid myospasm can occur secondary to an inferior alveolar nerve block. This disorder generally is treated by the application of heat, muscle stretches, analgesic and/or muscle relaxant ingestion, and a physical therapy referral. The severity of the disorder typically dictates the extent of therapy that is needed.

  14. The terminal branches of the medial femoral circumflex artery: the arterial supply of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Lazaro, L E; Klinger, C E; Sculco, P K; Helfet, D L; Lorich, D G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates and defines the topographic anatomy of the medial femoral circumflex artery (MFCA) terminal branches supplying the femoral head (FH). Gross dissection of 14 fresh-frozen cadaveric hips was undertaken to determine the extra and intracapsular course of the MFCA's terminal branches. A constant branch arising from the transverse MFCA (inferior retinacular artery; IRA) penetrates the capsule at the level of the anteroinferior neck, then courses obliquely within the fibrous prolongation of the capsule wall (inferior retinacula of Weitbrecht), elevated from the neck, to the posteroinferior femoral head-neck junction. This vessel has a mean of five (three to nine) terminal branches, of which the majority penetrate posteriorly. Branches from the ascending MFCA entered the femoral capsular attachment posteriorly, running deep to the synovium, through the neck, and terminating in two branches. The deep MFCA penetrates the posterosuperior femoral capsular. Once intracapsular, it divides into a mean of six (four to nine) terminal branches running deep to the synovium, within the superior retinacula of Weitbrecht of which 80% are posterior. Our study defines the exact anatomical location of the vessels, arising from the MFCA and supplying the FH. The IRA is in an elevated position from the femoral neck and may be protected from injury during fracture of the femoral neck. We present vascular 'danger zones' that may help avoid iatrogenic vascular injury during surgical interventions about the hip.

  15. Masquerading Bundle Branch Block: A Poor Prognostic Sign Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Dhanse, Suheil; Kareem, Hashir; Devasia, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Masquerading bundle branch block is a rare but important finding on the Electrocardiogram (ECG). It is an indication of severe and diffuse conduction system disease and usually indicates poor prognosis. The precordial leads show a Right Bundle Branch Block (RBBB) pattern while the limb leads resemble a Left Bundle Branch Block (LBBB). This finding on an ECG is almost invariably associated with severe underlying heart disease. It is extremely important to be aware of this finding as it is a marker of poor cardiac outcomes. We report the case of a 68-year-old gentleman, who presented with progressive dyspnoea on exertion over three months. ECG showed a broad QRS complex with a RBBB pattern on the precordial leads and a LBBB pattern on the limb leads (suggestive of masquerading bundle branch block). A coronary angiogram revealed severe Triple Vessel Disease (TVD). The patient was scheduled for an early Coronary Artery By-Pass Grafting Surgery. However, his clinical condition deteriorated and he died while awaiting the surgery. PMID:27790494

  16. TopMaker: A Technique for Automatic Multi-Block Topology Generation Using the Medial Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D. (Technical Monitor); Rigby, David L.

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-block topology generation technique has been developed. Very general configurations are addressable by the technique. A configuration is defined by a collection of non-intersecting closed curves, which will be referred to as loops. More than a single loop implies that holes exist in the domain, which poses no problem. This technique requires only the medial vertices and the touch points that define each vertex. From the information about the medial vertices, the connectivity between medial vertices is generated. The physical shape of the medial edge is not required. By applying a few simple rules to each medial edge, the multiblock topology is generated with no user intervention required. The resulting topologies contain only the level of complexity dictated by the configurations. Grid lines remain attached to the boundary except at sharp concave turns where a change in index family is introduced as would be desired. Keeping grid lines attached to the boundary is especially important in the area of computational fluid dynamics where highly clustered grids are used near no-slip boundaries. This technique is simple and robust and can easily be incorporated into the overall grid generation process.

  17. Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury after brachial plexus block: two case reports.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mi Jin; Byun, Ha Young; Lee, Chang Hee; Moon, Seung Won; Oh, Min-Kyun; Shin, Heesuk

    2013-12-01

    Medial antebrachial cutaneous (MABC) nerve injury associated with iatrogenic causes has been rarely reported. Local anesthesia may be implicated in the etiology of such injury, but has not been reported. Two patients with numbness and painful paresthesia over the medial aspect of the unilateral forearm were referred for electrodiagnostic study, which revealed MABC nerve lesion in each case. The highly selective nature of the MABC nerve injuries strongly suggested that they were the result of direct nerve injury by an injection needle during previous brachial plexus block procedures. Electrodiagnostic studies can be helpful in evaluating cases of sensory disturbance after local anesthesia. To our knowledge, these are the first documented cases of isolated MABC nerve injury following ultrasound-guided axillary brachial plexus block.

  18. Rare Manifestation of Digoxin Toxicity: Right Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Dalvir; Zaidi, Samana

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old female, with medical history significant for systolic congestive heart failure, who presented to the emergency department with lethargy and abdominal pain with diarrhea for the past 3 weeks. Due to hypotension, the patient received multiple boluses of isotonic saline and was started on norepinephrine. Laboratories were significant for severe digoxin toxicity (29 ng/mL), in setting of acute kidney injury. Electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed a new right bundle branch block (RBBB). She was given Digibind and her repeat digoxin level was 20 ng/mL. Repeat EKG showed resolved RBBB. This case identifies that patients with digoxin toxicity are at risk for RBBB. This is a rare finding and is not commonly recognized. Emergency medicine physicians are often the first to encounter patients with digoxin toxicity and need to be aware of such EKG findings. PMID:28104974

  19. The left bundle branch block revised with novel imaging modalities

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, J.; Mannaerts, H.F.J.; Germans, T.; Hauer, H.A.; Knaapen, P.; Visser, C.A.; Kamp, O.

    2006-01-01

    Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is related to abnormal cardiac conduction and mechanical asynchrony and is associated with hypertension and coronary artery disease. Improved evaluation of left ventricular (LV) mechanical asynchrony is needed, because of the increasing number of patients with LBBB and heart failure. In this paper, we describe tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), strain (rate) imaging and tissue tracking in LBBB patients. A variety of patterns of mechanical activation can be observed in LBBB patients. A recent development, referred to as tissue synchronisation imaging, colour codes TDI time-to-peak systolic velocities of segments and displays mechanical asynchrony. Furthermore, real-time 3D echocardiography provides new regional information about mechanical asynchrony. Contained in an LV model and projected on a bull's eye plot, this modality helps to display the spatial distribution of mechanical asynchrony. Finally, segmental time-to-peak circumferential strain curves, produced by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, provide additional quantification of LV mechanical asynchrony. Effects of LBBB on regional and global cardiac function are impressive, myocardial involvement seems to play a role and with the help of these novel imaging modalities, new insights continue to develop. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7 PMID:25696572

  20. Segmentation of the Aortic Valve Apparatus in 3D Echocardiographic Images: Deformable Modeling of a Branching Medial Structure.

    PubMed

    Pouch, Alison M; Tian, Sijie; Takabe, Manabu; Wang, Hongzhi; Yuan, Jiefu; Cheung, Albert T; Jackson, Benjamin M; Gorman, Joseph H; Gorman, Robert C; Yushkevich, Paul A

    2015-01-01

    3D echocardiographic (3DE) imaging is a useful tool for assessing the complex geometry of the aortic valve apparatus. Segmentation of this structure in 3DE images is a challenging task that benefits from shape-guided deformable modeling methods, which enable inter-subject statistical shape comparison. Prior work demonstrates the efficacy of using continuous medial representation (cm-rep) as a shape descriptor for valve leaflets. However, its application to the entire aortic valve apparatus is limited since the structure has a branching medial geometry that cannot be explicitly parameterized in the original cm-rep framework. In this work, we show that the aortic valve apparatus can be accurately segmented using a new branching medial modeling paradigm. The segmentation method achieves a mean boundary displacement of 0.6 ± 0.1 mm (approximately one voxel) relative to manual segmentation on 11 3DE images of normal open aortic valves. This study demonstrates a promising approach for quantitative 3DE analysis of aortic valve morphology.

  1. A Clinical and Follow-up Study of Right and Left Bundle Branch Block

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-03

    I’SAFSAM) The pur- pose of the study was to group subjects with bundle branch block into various fascicular combinations and to compare and...and left bundle branch block with no clinically apparent cardiovascular disease have revealed a mild diffuse abnormality of the ventricular

  2. Ventricular fibrillation associated with complete right bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Takatsuki, Seiji; Kimura, Takehiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Fukumoto, Kotaro; Tanimoto, Yoko; Tanimoto, Kojiro; Miyoshi, Shunichiro; Suzuki, Makoto; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Chinushi, Masaomi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Ogawa, Satoshi; Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Antzelevitch, Charles; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A substantial number of patients with idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (IVF) present with no specific electrocardiographic (ECG) findings. OBJECTIVE To evaluate complete right bundle branch block (RBBB) in patients with IVF. METHODS Patients with IVF showing complete RBBB were included in the present study. Structural and primary electrical diseases were excluded, and provocation tests were performed to exclude the presence of spastic angina or Brugada syndrome (BrS). The prevalence of complete RBBB and the clinical and ECG parameters were compared either in patients with IVF who did not show RBBB or in the general population and age and sex comparable controls with RBBB. RESULTS Of 96 patients with IVF, 9 patients were excluded for the presence of BrS. Of 87 patients studied, 10 (11.5%) patients showed complete RBBB. None had structural heart diseases, BrS, or coronary spasms. The mean age was 44 ± 15 years, and 8 of 10 patients were men. Among the ECG parameters, only the QRS duration was different from that of the other patients with IVF who did not show complete RBBB. Ventricular fibrillation recurred in 3:2 in the form of storms, which were well suppressed by isoproterenol. Complete RBBB was found less often in control subjects (1.37%; P < .0001), and the QRS duration was more prolonged in patients with IVF: 139 ± 10 ms vs 150 ± 14 ms (P = .0061). CONCLUSIONS Complete RBBB exists more often in patients with IVF than in controls. A prolonged QRS complex suggests a conduction abnormality. Our findings warrant further investigation of the role of RBBB in the development of arrhythmias in patients with IVF. PMID:23499623

  3. Localized disruption of Narp in medial prefrontal cortex blocks reinforcer devaluation performance.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alexander W; Han, Sungho; Blouin, Ashley M; Saini, Jasjit; Worley, Paul F; During, Matthew J; Holland, Peter C; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2010-12-01

    Neuronal activity regulated pentraxin (Narp) is a secreted protein that regulates α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPAR) aggregation and synaptogenesis. Mapping of Narp-positive neurons in brain has revealed it is prominently expressed in several limbic system projection pathways. Consistent with this localization pattern, Narp knockout mice show deficits in using the current value of a reinforcer to guide behavior, a critical function of the limbic system. To help assess whether this behavioral deficit is due to impairment of synaptogenesis during development or in modulating synaptic signaling in the mature brain, we have used a dominant negative Narp viral construct which blocks trafficking of endogenous Narp to axons. Focal injection of this viral construct into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of adult mice, a region containing Narp-positive projection neurons, blocked reinforcer devaluation. Thus, these results indicate that Narp released from mPFC neurons plays a key role in mediating synaptic changes underlying instrumental reinforcer devaluation.

  4. A histone octamer blocks branch migration of a Holliday junction.

    PubMed Central

    Grigoriev, M; Hsieh, P

    1997-01-01

    The Holliday junction is a key intermediate in genetic recombination. Here, we examine the effect of a nucleosome core on movement of the Holliday junction in vitro by spontaneous branch migration. Histone octamers consisting of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 are reconstituted onto DNA duplexes containing an artificial nucleosome-positioning sequence consisting of a tandem array of an alternating AT-GC sequence motif. Characterization of the reconstituted branch migration substrates by micrococcal nuclease mapping and exonuclease III and hydroxyl radical footprinting reveal that 70% of the reconstituted octamers are positioned near the center of the substrate and the remaining 30% are located at the distal end, although in both cases some translational degeneracy is observed. Branch migration assays with the octamer-containing substrates reveal that the Holliday junction cannot migrate spontaneously through DNA organized into a nucleosomal core unless DNA-histone interactions are completely disrupted. Similar results are obtained with branch migration substrates containing an octamer positioned on a naturally occurring sequence derived from the yeast GLN3 locus. Digestion of Holliday junctions with T7 endonuclease I establishes that the junction is not trapped by the octamer but can branch migrate in regions free of histone octamers. Our findings suggest that migration of Holliday junctions during recombination and the recombinational repair of DNA damage requires proteins not only to accelerate the intrinsic rate of branch migration but also to facilitate the passage of the Holliday junction through a nucleosome. PMID:9372946

  5. A case report of different degrees of the left anterior, septal and posterior fascicular branch block.

    PubMed

    Sun, Huaqun; Hong, Yupeng; Jin, Tao

    2015-03-01

    We present a rare case of various conduction defects involving the left anterior, septal, and posterior branch in one patient. The different degrees of block of anterior, septal, and posterior fascicular of the left bundle branch indicate pathological changes in left ventricle. However, the values of this electrocardiographic presentation indicating the left ventricular function still need more investigations.

  6. Risk of advanced heart block during extradural anaesthesia in patients with right bundle branch block and left anterior hemiblock.

    PubMed

    Coriat, P; Harari, A; Ducardonet, A; Tarot, J P; Viars, P

    1981-05-01

    Electrocardiographic recording by Holter monitoring demonstrated the absence of any modification, however minimal, of the intranodal conduction during surgical procedures under extradural anaesthesia in 20 patients with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left anterior hemiblock (LAHB) but without symptoms. These data suggest that extradural anaesthesia can be used safely in patients with asymptomatic chronic RBBB and LAHB without prophylactic insertion of pacemakers. However, patients having experienced either syncope or transient Mobitz II second degree AV block are likely to have a trifascicular block and increased risk of advanced heart block during extradural anaesthesia.

  7. Electrocardiographic criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy in left bundle-branch block.

    PubMed Central

    Cokkinos, D V; Demopoulos, J N; Heimonas, E T; Mallios, C; Papazoglou, N; Vorides, E M

    1978-01-01

    In order to determine whether the electrocardiographic criteria of left ventricular hypertrophy apply in the presence of left bundle-branch block we studied 79 cases of intermittent left bundle-branch block and compared the QRS voltage and axis before and after its onset. Cases of incomplete left bundle-branch block were excluded. There was a statistically significant correlation between pre- and post-left bundle-branch block values of R or S wave voltage in leads I, V1, V2, V5, and V6, the Sokolow index (R V5 or V6 + S V1), and the QRS axis. There was a statistically significant reduction in R wave voltage in leads I, V5, and V6, an increase in S wave voltage in V1 and V2, and leftward shift of QRS axis, but the Sokolow index remained unchanged, after the onset of left bundle-branch block. The Sokolow criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy apply satisfactorily even in the presence of left bundle-branch block, though specificity is low, but QRS axis is unhelpful. Images PMID:147697

  8. Effect of adductor canal block on medial compartment knee pain in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Lee, Michael Y.; Kwack, Kyu-Sung; Yoon, Seung-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a common disease in middle-aged and elderly people. Pain is the chief complaint of symptomatic KOA and a leading cause of chronic disability, which is most often found in medial knees. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of pain relief and functional improvement in KOA patients treated with ultrasound-guided adductor canal block (ACB). This is a 3-month retrospective case-controlled comparative study. Two hundred patients with anteromedial knee pain owing to KOA that was unresponsive to 3-month long conservative treatments. Ninety-two patients received ACB with 9 mL of 1% of lidocaine and 1 mL of 10 mg triamcinolone acetonide (ACB group), and 108 continued conservative treatments (control group). The main outcome measure was visual analog scale (VAS) of the average knee pain level for the past one week. Secondary outcomes were the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the timed up and go test, numbers of analgesic ingestion per day, and opioid consumption per day. During the 3-month follow-up, 86 patients in ACB group and 92 in control group were analyzed. There was no significant difference, with the exception of the duration of symptoms, between the 2 groups in age, sex, body mass index, and Kellgren-Lawrence grade. Repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests showed improvement of VAS (at month 1), WOMAC (at month 1), and opioid consumption per day (at month 1 and 2) in ACB group. No adverse events were reported. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the efficacy of ACB for patients with KOA. ACB is an effective and safe treatment and can be an option for patients who are either unresponsive or unable to take analgesics. PMID:28328826

  9. Medial Amygdala Lesions Selectively Block Aversive Pavlovian–Instrumental Transfer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    McCue, Margaret G.; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CSs) play an important role in the reinforcement and motivation of instrumental active avoidance (AA). Conditioned threats can also invigorate ongoing AA responding [aversive Pavlovian–instrumental transfer (PIT)]. The neural circuits mediating AA are poorly understood, although lesion studies suggest that lateral, basal, and central amygdala nuclei, as well as infralimbic prefrontal cortex, make key, and sometimes opposing, contributions. We recently completed an extensive analysis of brain c-Fos expression in good vs. poor avoiders following an AA test (Martinez et al., 2013, Learning and Memory). This analysis identified medial amygdala (MeA) as a potentially important region for Pavlovian motivation of instrumental actions. MeA is known to mediate defensive responding to innate threats as well as social behaviors, but its role in mediating aversive Pavlovian–instrumental interactions is unknown. We evaluated the effect of MeA lesions on Pavlovian conditioning, Sidman two-way AA conditioning (shuttling) and aversive PIT in rats. Mild footshocks served as the unconditioned stimulus in all conditioning phases. MeA lesions had no effect on AA but blocked the expression of aversive PIT and 22 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in the AA context. Interestingly, MeA lesions failed to affect Pavlovian freezing to discrete threats but reduced freezing to contextual threats when assessed outside of the AA chamber. These findings differentiate MeA from lateral and central amygdala, as lesions of these nuclei disrupt Pavlovian freezing and aversive PIT, but have opposite effects on AA performance. Taken together, these results suggest that MeA plays a selective role in the motivation of instrumental avoidance by general or uncertain Pavlovian threats. PMID:25278858

  10. Excess mortality and morbidity associated with right bundle branch and left anterior fascicular block.

    PubMed

    Pine, M B; Oren, M; Ciafone, R; Rosner, B; Hirota, Y; Rabinowitz, B; Abelmann, W H

    1983-05-01

    Excess mortality and morbidity associated with right bundle branch and left anterior fascicular block were evaluated in 108 patients with block (age 74 +/- 10 years, 69% male) and 108 age- and sex-matched control patients with normal conduction. Clinical characteristics were similar initially except for more congestive heart failure in patients with block. Life table analysis revealed a higher 12 year mortality with block, even after omitting patients with moderate or severe congestive heart failure (risk ratio 1.47, p less than 0.05). Compared with control subjects, the group of patients with block had more sudden death and deaths of unknown cause, but a similar number of noncardiac and diagnosed cardiac deaths. More patients with block developed new second and third degree atrioventricular block or new overt coronary artery disease, but this finding did not support prophylactic pacing in asymptomatic patients. The importance of internal controls in assessing the natural history of clinical and electrocardiographic abnormalities is emphasized.

  11. Usefulness of the ajmaline test in patients with latent bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Chiale, P A; Przybylski, J; Laiño, R A; Halpern, M S; Nau, G J; Sánchez, R A; Lázzari, J O; Elizari, M V; Rosenbaum, M B

    1982-01-01

    Twelve patients were studied with intermittent bundle branch block whose conduction disturbance disappeared completely and could no longer be recorded even after provoked changes in heart rate. Premature atrial stimulation and atrial pacing at rapid rates were performed in nine patients; in none of these nine were these procedures able to evoke the complete bundle branch block pattern that all patients exhibited before the spontaneous normalization of conduction. In marked contrast, the administration of ajmaline (1 mg/kg body weight, intravenously in 90 seconds) caused the bundle branch block pattern to reappear in 10 (83.3 percent) of the 12 patients 30 to 120 seconds after the end of the injection, and in 11 patients (91.6 percent) when additional atrial stimulation was performed in 1 of the 2 "failures." This pharmacologic test was much more rapid and simple than electrophysiologic testing and it was noninvasive. Results of this study suggest that some form of subclinical fascicular injury was present (or had persisted) at a time when intraventricular conduction was persistently normal even though no significant physiologic alteration could be demonstrated by the atrial stimulation techniques. The ajmaline test may become a valuable tool for uncovering cases of latent bundle branch block and furthering our knowledge of the early natural history of intraventricular block.

  12. Significance of complete right bundle-branch block when an isolated finding. An echocardiographic study.

    PubMed Central

    Dancy, M; Leech, G; Leatham, A

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complete right bundle-branch block as the only abnormal finding were studied using high speed M-mode echocardiography to determine the effect of the electrical delay on the mechanical events of right ventricular systole. Pulmonary valve opening (PVOm) was delayed in all cases. In some the delay was mainly between mitral valve closure (MVC) and tricuspid valve closure (TVC), and this was designated proximal block. In the others the main delay was between tricuspid valve closure and pulmonary valve opening and this was designated distal block. The patients were divided into those with proximal and those with distal block by calculating the ratio TVC-PVOm/MVC-TVC. Twelve out of 13 of those with distal delay but only one out of 14 of those with proximal delay had episodes of syncope or near syncope. These results are consistent with previous theories about the pathophysiology of right bundle-branch block. Echocardiography may offer a non-invasive method to estimate the prognosis in isolated right bundle-branch block. PMID:7104112

  13. Combination of diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve block followed by pulsed radiofrequency for plantar fascitis pain: A new modality.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Deepak; Ahuja, Vanita

    2014-03-01

    Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of chronic heel pain which may be bilateral in 20 to 30% of patients. It is a very painful and disabling condition which can affect the quality of life. The management includes both pharmacological and operative procedures with no single proven effective treatment modality. In the present case series, we managed three patients with PF (one with bilateral PF). Following a diagnostic medial calcaneal nerve (MCN) block at its origin, we observed reduction in verbal numerical rating scale (VNRS) in all the three patients. Two patients has relapse of PF pain which was managed with MCN block followed with pulsed radio frequency (PRF). All the patients were pain-free at the time of reporting. This case series highlights the possible role of combination of diagnostic MCN block near its origin followed with PRF as a new modality in management of patients with PF.

  14. [Intervention among patients with right bundle branch block and left anterior hemiblock. Operatory risk (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Coriat, P; Harari, A; Tarot, J P; Ducardonnet, A; Viars, P

    1981-01-01

    In order to assess the risk of advanced heart block during anesthesia in patients with right bundle branch block and left anterior hemiblock, 35 consecutive patients were monitored throughout the pre-, intra- and postoperative period. As conventional ECG monitoring may only detect advanced atrioventricular block, patients were monitored according to the Holter method which can easily detect even minor changes of atrioventricular conduction namely slight increased PR interval or dropped P wave. All patients were asymptomatic, in normal sinus rhythm without second degree AV block. Surgical procedures were performed under general anesthesia (n = 15) and epidural anesthesia using lidocaine (n = 20). No episode of second or third degree atrioventricular block occurred. The only modifications observed were rare and transient increase of PR, occurring during surgical procedures in 5 patients, always associated with a sinus bradycardia. They immediately regressed at the termination of the sinus bradycardia either spontaneously or following atropine injection, strongly suggesting the responsability of increased vagal tone. Thus general or epidural anesthesia did not compromise infranodal conduction in any of the observed patients. These data indicate that anesthesia can be safely used without prophylactic preoperative insertion of pacemakers in patients with asymptomatic chronic right bundle branch block and left anterior hemi-block.

  15. Comparative effects of ajmaline on intermittent bundle branch block and the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chiale, P A; Przybylski, J; Halpern, M S; Lazzari, J O; Elizari, M V; Rosenbaum, M B

    1977-05-04

    Phase 4 or phase 3 block or both occurred in the His bundle branch system of 11 patients with intermittent bundle branch block and in the anomalous bundle of 6 of 46 patients with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome (13%). Administration of a single dose of ajmaline (50 mg intravenously) in these patients caused a similar response: expansion of the range of phase 3 and phase 4 block at the expense of the intermediate normal conduction range and total interruption of conduction in the affected fascicle when the effect of the drug was maximal. The great similarity in physiologic behavior and pharmacologic response in these groups of patients suggests that the anomalous bundle was probably diseased or abnormal in the six patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White conduction. In addition, ajmaline caused the first appearance of phase 4 or phase 3 block, or both, but not total interruption of conduction in 26 of the 46 patients with Wolff-Parkinson-White conduction (56.5%). Ajmaline does not cause fascicular block in normal subjects; thus this finding suggests either that the anomalous bundle is diseased or that the safety margin for conduction in the anomalous bundle is much narrower than in the bundle branch system. The conduction-depressing action of ajmaline may be greater at relatively rapid or relatively slow rates of stimulation, and smaller or absent at intermediate rates.

  16. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B with tachycardia-dependent (phase 3) block in the accessory pathway and in left bundle-branch coexisting with rate-unrelated right bundle-branch block.

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, I J; Castellanos, A; Sung, R J

    1980-01-01

    A patient with Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B developed 2:1 atrioventricular block resulting from the association of persistent right bundle-branch block with tachycardia-dependent (phase 3) left bundle-branch block. Electrophysiological studies disclosed the coexistence of a tachycardia-dependent (phase 3) block in the accessory pathway. This conduction disturbance was exposed, not by carotid sinus massage as in previous studies, but by pacing-induced prolongation of the interval between two consecutively conducted atrial impulses. Furthermore, the surface electrocardiogram showed, at different times, ventricular complexes resulting from: (1) exclusive atrioventricular conduction through the normal pathway without bundle-branch block; (2) predominant, or exclusive, atrioventricular conduction through a right-sided accessory pathway; (3) exclusive atrioventricular conduction through the normal pathway with right bundle-branch block; (4) exclusive conduction through the normal pathway, with left bundle-branch block; (5) fusion between (1) and (2); and finally, (6) fusion between (2) and (3) However, QRS complexes resulting from simultaneously occurring Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block could not be identified. Future electrophysiological investigations should re-evaluate the criteria used to diffrentiate between true and false patterns of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B coexisting with left bundle-branch block. PMID:7397051

  17. [Ultrasound-guided cutaneous intercostal branches nerves block: A good analgesic alternative for gallbladder open surgery].

    PubMed

    Fernández Martín, M T; López Álvarez, S; Mozo Herrera, G; Platero Burgos, J J

    2015-12-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard treatment for gallbladder diseases. However, there are still some patients for whom conversion to open surgery is required. This surgery can produce significant post-operative pain. Opioids drugs have traditionally been used to treat this pain, but side effects have led to seeking alternatives (plexus, nerve or fascia blocks or wound). The cases are presented of 4 patients subjected to ultrasound-guided intercostal branches blocks in the mid-axillary line from T6 to T12 with levobupivacaine as an analgesic alternative in open surgery of gallbladder, with satisfactory results.

  18. Is It Complete Left Bundle Branch Block? Just Ablate the Right Bundle.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hussam; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Foresti, Sara; De Ambroggi, Guido; Epicoco, Gianluca; Fundaliotis, Angelica; Cappato, Riccardo

    2017-03-01

    Complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) is established according to standard electrocardiographic criteria. However, functional LBBB may be rate-dependent or can perpetuate during tachycardia due to repetitive concealed retrograde penetration of impulses through the contralateral bundle "linking phenomenon." In this brief article, we present two patients with basal complete LBBB in whom ablating the right bundle unmasked the actual antegrade conduction capabilities of the left bundle. These cases highlight intriguing overlap between electrophysiological concepts of complete block, linking, extremely slow, and concealed conduction.

  19. Aortic root abscess presenting as alternating bundle branch block: Infective endocarditis of bicuspid aortic valve

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Rakesh; Kader, Muneer; Sajeev, C.G.; Krishnan, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common congenital cardiac malformation, affecting 1%–2% of the population. Among various complications, incidence of infective endocarditis (IE) in the bicuspid aortic valve population is high with higher rate of periannular extension resulting in conduction disturbances. Here we are reporting a rare case of infective endocarditis of bicuspid aortic valve presented with alternating bundle branch block. PMID:26138186

  20. Medial Versus Traditional Approach to US-guided TAP Blocks for Open Inguinal Hernia Repair

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-04-30

    Abdominal Muscles/Ultrasonography; Adult; Ambulatory Surgical Procedures; Anesthetics, Local/Administration & Dosage; Ropivacaine/Administration & Dosage; Ropivacaine/Analogs & Derivatives; Hernia, Inguinal/Surgery; Humans; Nerve Block/Methods; Pain Measurement/Methods; Pain, Postoperative/Prevention & Control; Ultrasonography, Interventional

  1. [Type A Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome associated with left bundle-branch block. Electrocardiographic, vectorcardiographic, and endocavitary electrophysiological study].

    PubMed

    Baudouy, M; Molina, B; Varenne, A; Guiran, J B

    1976-05-01

    The rate association of a "type A" W.P.W. syndrome with a left bundle branch block gives a characteristic electrocardiographic picture:--the left bundle branch block is partially masked, the delay in the basial region of the left ventricle being in part cancelled by pre-excitation--the features of the W.P.W. syndrome are also modified, since the ventricular axis is corrected by the left bundle branch block. The electrocardiographic tracings taken during the various tachycardias and during treatment for arrhythmia, together with the intra-cavitary recordings allow a precise diagnosis to be made. In this case, vectocardiography was particularly useful as it gave a clear demonstration of the median delay of the ventricular loop, the only pathognomic feature of left bundle branch block, during a period when the left bundle of Kent was functioning.

  2. A Modified Posterolateral Approach for Radiofrequency Denervation of the Medial Branch of the Cervical Segmental Nerve in Cervical Facet Joint Pain Based on Anatomical Considerations.

    PubMed

    van Eerd, Maarten; Lataster, Arno; Sommer, Micha; Patijn, Jacob; van Kleef, Maarten

    2016-10-13

    The cervical facet joints, also called the zygapophyseal joints, are a potential source of neck pain (cervical facet joint pain). The cervical facet joints are innervated by the cervical medial branches (CMBs) of the cervical segmental nerves. Cervical facet joint pain has been shown to respond to multisegmental radiofrequency denervation of the cervical medial branches. This procedure is performed under fluoroscopic guidance. Currently, three approaches are described and used. Those three techniques of radiofrequency treatment of the CMBs, classified on the base of the needle trajectory toward the anatomical planes, are as follows: the posterolateral technique, the posterior technique, and the lateral technique. We describe the three techniques with their advantages and disadvantages. Anatomical studies providing a topographic anatomy of the course of the CMBs are reviewed. We developed a novel approach based on the observed strengths and weaknesses of the three currently used approaches and based on recent anatomical findings. With this fluoroscopic-guided approach, there is always bone (the facet column) in front of the needle, which makes it safer, and the insertion point is easier to determine without the risk of positioning the radiofrequency needle too dorsally.

  3. Efficacy of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Cervical 2-3 Posterior Medial Branches in Treating Chronic Migraine: A Randomized, Controlled, and Double-Blind Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yuecheng; Huang, Xuehua; Fan, Yinghui; Wang, Yingwei; Ma, Ke

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) in the treatment of chronic migraine (CM) on cervical 2-3 posterior medial branches. Methods. This randomized, double-blind, and controlled clinical trial included 40 subjects with CM, who were randomly divided into two groups: treatment (treated by PRF) and sham (treated by sham treatment). Pain intensity, headache duration (days), the Migraine Disability Assessment Questionnaire (MIDAS), and aspirin dose taken by patients were evaluated at 1, 2, and 6 months after the intervention. Side effects were observed from the time of treatment and throughout the follow-up period. Results. During the follow-up, pain intensity, headache duration (days), disability score, and the analgesic dose were significantly improved in the treatment group compared to the sham group (P < 0.001) and the baseline (P < 0.001) at all measured time points after intervention. No serious complications were reported. Conclusion. PRF on the cervical 2-3 posterior medial branches could provide satisfactory efficacy in the treatment of CM without obvious adverse effects. PMID:26170880

  4. Hybrid Bacterial Foraging and Particle Swarm Optimization for detecting Bundle Branch Block.

    PubMed

    Kora, Padmavathi; Kalva, Sri Ramakrishna

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal cardiac beat identification is a key process in the detection of heart diseases. Our present study describes a procedure for the detection of left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns. The electrical impulses that control the cardiac beat face difficulty in moving inside the heart. This problem is termed as bundle branch block (BBB). BBB makes it harder for the heart to pump blood effectively through the heart circulatory system. ECG feature extraction is a key process in detecting heart ailments. Our present study comes up with a hybrid method combining two heuristic optimization methods: Bacterial Forging Optimization (BFO) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the feature selection of ECG signals. One of the major controlling forces of BFO algorithm is the chemotactic movement of a bacterium that models a test solution. The chemotaxis process of the BFO depends on random search directions which may lead to a delay in achieving the global optimum solution. The hybrid technique: Bacterial Forging-Particle Swarm Optimization (BFPSO) incorporates the concepts from BFO and PSO and it creates individuals in a new generation. This BFPSO method performs local search through the chemotactic movement of BFO and the global search over the entire search domain is accomplished by a PSO operator. The BFPSO feature values are given as the input for the Levenberg-Marquardt Neural Network classifier.

  5. His bundle recordings in right bundle-branch block coexisting with iatrogenic right ventricular pre-excitation

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Agustin; Castillo, Cesar A.

    1972-01-01

    Iatrogenic right ventricular pre-excitation failed to abolish right bundle-branch block in two patients. When `exclusive' His bundle pacing was performed, the QRS complexes, St-V, and St-LVE intervals were similar to the ventricular deflections, H-V, and V-LVE (intervals) recorded during sinus rhythm. `Exclusive' pacing of the ordinary muscle at the right ventricular inflow tract produced a complete left bundle-branch block pattern without abnormal left axis deviation. Pacing of both His bundle and ordinary muscle yielded combination complexes in which the right bundle-branch block pattern persisted. The ventricular activation process was studied in these beats, as well as during the right and left bundle-branch block induced by coupled atrial stimulation. It appeared as if certain areas of the right septal surface behaved, electrophysiologically, as if they belonged to the left ventricle. Impulses emerging from these sites were not propagated to the right ventricular free wall. The latter was activated by the excitation front emerging through the left bundle system. During right bundle-branch block the endocardium of the right ventricular inflow was activated before the peak of the R in V1. Bipolar leads, 1 mm apart (with the possible exception of the ones over the tricuspid valve), were helpful in mapping the spread of activation in the human heart. Images PMID:18610233

  6. Adenosine Stress Induced Left Bundle Branch Block During Technetium-99m Tetrofosmin Myocardial Perfusion Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthi, Mohan Roop; Sasikumar, Arun; Gorla, Arun Kumar Reddy; Sood, Ashwani; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence of left bundle branch block (LBBB) in electrocardiogram during exercise testing is a relatively rare finding. The incidence of LBBB during exercise testing ranges from 0.5% to 1.1%. The mechanism of exercise-induced LBBB (EI-LBBB) is poorly understood, but ischemia is a proposed etiology. Stress myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) can be useful in patients with EI-LBBB to rule out coronary artery disease. Adenosine vasodilator stress is the preferred mode of stress in patients with LBBB for performing stress-MPI. Here we present an interesting case of adenosine-induced LBBB during stress-MPI in a 67-year-old female patient with normal coronary angiography. PMID:28217027

  7. Comparison of the calculation QRS angle for bundle branch block detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeirmanto, L.; Mengko, R.; Rajab, T. L.

    2016-04-01

    QRS angle represent condition of blood circulation in the heart. Normally QRS angle is between -30 until 90 degree. Left Axis Defiation (LAD) and Right Axis Defiation (RAD) are abnormality conditions that lead to Bundle Branch Block. QRS angle is calculated using common method from physicians and compared to mathematical method using difference amplitudos and difference areas. We analyzed the standard 12 lead electrocardiogram data from MITBIH physiobank database. All methods using lead I and lead avF produce similar QRS angle and right QRS axis quadrant. QRS angle from mathematical method using difference areas is close to common method from physician. Mathematical method using difference areas can be used as a trigger for detecting heart condition.

  8. Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B and left bundle-branch block: electrophysiologic and radionuclide study

    SciTech Connect

    Rakovec, P.; Kranjec, I.; Fettich, J.J.; Jakopin, J.; Fidler, V.; Turk, J.

    1985-01-01

    Coinciding left bundle-branch block and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome type B, a very rare electrocardiographic occurrence, was found in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy. Electrophysiologic study revealed eccentric retrograde atrial activation during ventricular pacing, suggesting right-sided accessory pathway. At programmed atrial pacing, effective refractory period of the accessory pathway was 310 ms; at shorter pacing coupling intervals, normal atrioventricular conduction with left bundle-branch block was seen. Left bundle-branch block was seen also with His bundle pacing. Radionuclide phase imaging demonstrated right ventricular phase advance and left ventricular phase delay; both right and left ventricular phase images revealed broad phase distribution histograms. Combined electrophysiologic and radionuclide investigations are useful to disclose complex conduction abnormalities and their mechanical correlates.

  9. Diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with syncope and bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Angel; García-Civera, Roberto; Croci, Francesco; Menozzi, Carlo; Brugada, Josep; Ammirati, Fabrizio; Del Rosso, Attilio; Bellver-Navarro, Alejandro; Garcia-Sacristán, Jesús; Bortnik, Miriam; Mont, Lluis; Ruiz-Granell, Ricardo; Navarro, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Aims Although patients with syncope and bundle branch block (BBB) are at high risk of developing atrio-ventricular block, syncope may be due to other aetiologies. We performed a prospective, observational study of the clinical outcomes of patients with syncope and BBB following a systematic diagnostic approach. Methods and results Patients with ≥1 syncope in the last 6 months, with QRS duration ≥120 ms, were prospectively studied following a three-phase diagnostic strategy: Phase I, initial evaluation; Phase II, electrophysiological study (EPS); and Phase III, insertion of an implantable loop recorder (ILR). Overall, 323 patients (left ventricular ejection fraction 56 ± 12%) were studied. The aetiological diagnosis was established in 267 (82.7%) patients (102 at initial evaluation, 113 upon EPS, and 52 upon ILR) with the following aetiologies: bradyarrhythmia (202), carotid sinus syndrome (20), ventricular tachycardia (18), neurally mediated (9), orthostatic hypotension (4), drug-induced (3), secondary to cardiopulmonary disease (2), supraventricular tachycardia (1), bradycardia–tachycardia (1), and non-arrhythmic (7). A pacemaker was implanted in 220 (68.1%), an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in 19 (5.8%), and radiofrequency catheter ablation was performed in 3 patients. Twenty patients (6%) had died at an average follow-up of 19.2 ± 8.2 months. Conclusion In patients with syncope, BBB, and mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 56 ± 12%, a systematic diagnostic approach achieves a high rate of aetiological diagnosis and allows to select specific treatment. PMID:21444367

  10. Inducible Nitric Oxide Inhibitors Block NMDA Antagonist-Stimulated Motoric Behaviors and Medial Prefrontal Cortical Glutamate Efflux

    PubMed Central

    Bergstrom, Hadley C.; Darvesh, Altaf S.; Berger, S. P.

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a critical role in the motoric and glutamate releasing action of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-antagonist stimulants. Earlier studies utilized neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (nNOS) for studying the neurobehavioral effects of non-competitive NMDA-antagonist stimulants such as dizocilpine (MK-801) and phencyclidine (PCP). This study explores the role of the inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (iNOS) aminoguanidine (AG) and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in NMDA-antagonist induced motoric behavior and prefrontal cortical glutamate efflux. Adult male rats were administered a dose range of AG, EGCG, or vehicle prior to receiving NMDA antagonists MK-801, PCP, or a conventional psychostimulant (cocaine) and tested for motoric behavior in an open arena. Glutamate in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was measured using in vivo microdialysis after a combination of AG or EGCG prior to MK-801. Acute administration of AG or EGCG dose-dependently attenuated the locomotor and ataxic properties of MK-801 and PCP. Both AG and EGCG were unable to block the motoric effects of cocaine, indicating the acute pharmacologic action of AG and EGCG is specific to NMDA antagonism and not generalizable to all stimulant class drugs. AG and EGCG normalized MK-801-stimulated mPFC glutamate efflux. These data demonstrate that AG and EGCG attenuates NMDA antagonist-stimulated motoric behavior and cortical glutamate efflux. Our results suggest that EGCG-like polyphenol nutraceuticals (contained in “green tea” and chocolate) may be clinically useful in protecting against the adverse behavioral dissociative and cortical glutamate stimulating effects of NMDA antagonists. Medications that interfere with NMDA antagonists such as MK-801 and PCP have been proposed as treatments for schizophrenia. PMID:26696891

  11. Bundle brunch reentrant ventricular tachycardia with two distinct conduction patterns in a patient with complete right bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Enjoji, Yoshihisa; Mizobuchi, Masahiro; Shibata, Kensaku; Ono, Tsuyoshi; Funatsu, Atsushi; Kanbayashi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Nakamura, Shigeru

    2006-12-01

    We report a rare case of bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia [BBRVT]. A 67-year-old female was admitted for management of wide QRS tachycardia (right bundle branch block [RBBB] and a southwest axis). The mapping procedure revealed the tachycardia circuit consisted of the left anterior fascicle (LAF) as an antegrade, and the right bundle as a retrograde pathway. She presented RBBB during sinus rhythm. LAF ablation changed the tachycardia configuration to a northwest axis and prolonged the cycle length. Left posterior fascicle ablation terminated the tachycardia, and complete atrioventricular block occurred, which showed the unidirectional conduction over the right bundle.

  12. Contrasting effects of verapamil and procainamide on rate-dependent bundle branch block: pharmacologic evidence for the role of depressed sodium channel responses.

    PubMed

    Chiale, P A; Pastori, J D; Sánchez, R A; Elizari, M V; Rosenbaum, M B

    1990-03-01

    The mechanisms responsible for intermittent bundle branch block are still under debate. The role of the time-dependent behavior of the slow calcium channel has recently been emphasized. To test this hypothesis and ascertain the possible involvement of the fast sodium channel, the effects of the slow calcium channel blocker verapamil and the fast sodium channel blocker procainamide were compared in 10 patients with intermittent bundle branch block. All 10 patients showed bundle branch block during spontaneous sinus rhythm. Maneuvers to slow cardiac rate (that is, carotid sinus massage, Valsalva maneuver) were performed to identify normal conduction as well as phase 4 bundle branch block. Thus, the ranges of diastolic intervals (RR) resulting in phase 3 (tachycardia-dependent) bundle branch block, phase 4 (bradycardia-dependent) bundle branch block and normal conduction were measured in two control studies performed before intravenous administration of verapamil (control 1) and procainamide (control 2) and at the peak effect of both drugs. In the control studies, all 10 patients showed phase 3 bundle branch block, whereas phase 4 bundle branch block occurred in only 4 patients. The ranges of phase 3 bundle branch block, phase 4 bundle branch block and normal conduction were very similar in control studies 1 and 2. The phase 3 bundle branch block range was slightly shortened by verapamil (983 +/- 83.5 ms in control 1; 930 +/- 69.4 ms at the peak effect of verapamil), whereas phase 4 bundle branch block remained unchanged. In contrast, conduction was systematically worsened by procainamide.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Protective Role of False Tendon in Subjects with Left Bundle Branch Block: A Virtual Population Study

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Di Marco, Luigi Yuri; Lekadir, Karim; Lassila, Toni; Frangi, Alejandro F.

    2016-01-01

    False tendons (FTs) are fibrous or fibromuscular bands that can be found in both the normal and abnormal human heart in various anatomical forms depending on their attachment points, tissue types, and geometrical properties. While FTs are widely considered to affect the function of the heart, their specific roles remain largely unclear and unexplored. In this paper, we present an in silico study of the ventricular activation time of the human heart in the presence of FTs. This study presents the first computational model of the human heart that includes a FT, Purkinje network, and papillary muscles. Based on this model, we perform simulations to investigate the effect of different types of FTs on hearts with the electrical conduction abnormality of a left bundle branch block (LBBB). We employ a virtual population of 70 human hearts derived from a statistical atlas, and run a total of 560 simulations to assess ventricular activation time with different FT configurations. The obtained results indicate that, in the presence of a LBBB, the FT reduces the total activation time that is abnormally augmented due to a branch block, to such an extent that surgical implant of cardiac resynchronisation devices might not be recommended by international guidelines. Specifically, the simulation results show that FTs reduce the QRS duration at least 10 ms in 80% of hearts, and up to 45 ms for FTs connecting to the ventricular free wall, suggesting a significant reduction of cardiovascular mortality risk. In further simulation studies we show the reduction in the QRS duration is more sensitive to the shape of the heart then the size of the heart or the exact location of the FT. Finally, the model suggests that FTs may contribute to reducing the activation time difference between the left and right ventricles from 12 ms to 4 ms. We conclude that FTs may provide an alternative conduction pathway that compensates for the propagation delay caused by the LBBB. Further investigation is

  14. Drug nanoparticles by emulsion-freeze-drying via the employment of branched block copolymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wais, Ulrike; Jackson, Alexander W; Zuo, Yanming; Xiang, Yu; He, Tao; Zhang, Haifei

    2016-01-28

    A large percentage of drug compounds exhibit low water solubility and hence low bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy. This may be addressed by preparation of drug nanoparticles, leading to enhanced dissolution rate and direct use for treatment. Various methods have been developed to produce drug nanocrystals, including wet milling, homogenization, solution precipitation, emulsion diffusion, and the recently developed emulsion freeze-drying. The drawback for these methods may include difficult control in particles size, use of surfactants & polymer, and low ratio of drug to stabilizer. Here, biocompatible branched block copolymer nanoparticles with lightly-crosslinked hydrophobic core and hydrophilic surface groups are synthesized by the direct monomer-to-particle methodology, characterized, and then used as scaffold polymer/surfactant to produce drug nanoparticles via the emulsion-freeze-drying approach. This method can be used for model organic dye and different poorly water-soluble drugs. Aqueous drug nanoparticle dispersions can be obtained with high ratio of drug to stabilizer and relatively uniform nanoparticle sizes.

  15. Novel "star anise"-like nano aggregate prepared by self-assembling of preformed microcrystals from branched crystalline-coil alternating multi-block copolymer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-Chong; Wu, Gang; Shi, Jing; Wang, Yu-Zhong

    2011-04-14

    Nano aggregates in aqueous medium with a novel "star anise"-like morphology were prepared from a branched alternating multi-block copolymer composed of 3-arm star-like hydrophobic poly(p-dioxanone) block and linear hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) block. The influence of block length on the morphology of the nano aggregate was investigated.

  16. Right ventricular failure predicted from right bundle branch block: cardiac magnetic resonance imaging validation

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Sameer; Ahmad, Ali; Sood, Mike; El Sergany, Amaar; Sacchi, Terrence; Saul, Barry; Gaglani, Rahul; Heitner, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Right ventricular (RV) failure has proven to be independently associated with adverse outcomes. Electrocardiographic parameters assessing RV function are largely unknown, making echocardiography the first line for RV function assessment. It is however, limited by geometrical assumptions and is inferior to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) which is widely regarded as the most accurate tool for assessing RV function. Methods We seek to determine the correlation of ECG parameters of right bundle branch block (RBBB) with RV ejection fraction (EF) and RV dimensions using the CMRI. QRS duration, R amplitude and R’ duration were obtained from precordial lead V1; S duration and amplitude were obtained from lead I and AVL. RV systolic dysfunction was defined as RV EF <40%. RV systolic dysfunction group (mean EF of 24±10%) were compared with normal RV systolic function group which acted as control (mean EF of 48±8%). CMRI and ECG parameters were compared between the two groups. Rank correlations and scatter diagrams between individual CMRI parameters and ECG parameters were done using medcalc for windows, version 12.5. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Results RV systolic dysfunction group was found to have larger RV end systolic volumes (90±42 vs. 59±40 mL, P=0.02). ECG evaluation of RV dysfunction group revealed longer R’ duration (103±22 vs. 84±18 msec, P=0.005) as compared to the control group. The specificity of R’ duration >100 msec to detect RV systolic dysfunction was found to be 93%. R’ duration was found to have an inverse correlation with RV EF (r=−0.49, P=0.007). Conclusions Larger RV end systolic volumes seen with RV dysfunction can affect the latter part of right bundle branch leading to prolonged R’ duration. We here found prolonged R’ duration in lead V1 to have a highly specific inverse correlation to RV systolic function. ECG can be used as an inexpensive tool for RV function

  17. Complete right bundle-branch block: echophonocardiographic study of first heart sound and right ventricular contraction times.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, N; Leech, G; Leatham, A

    1979-01-01

    High speed enchocardiograms of the mitral, tricuspid, and pulmonary valves were recorded with a simultaneous electrocardiogram and phonocardiogram in 20 patients with complete right bundle-branch block and in 67 normal subjects. Late opening of the pulmonary valve indicating late right ventricular ejection was found in all patients. In 8 patients with wide splitting of the first heart sound the late ejection was related mainly to delay in tricuspid valve closure, suggesting a late onset of the right ventricular pressure pulse. In 10 patients with a single first heart sound the delayed ejection was associated with a long interval between tricuspid valve closure and pulmonary valve opening, suggesting a slow rising right ventricular pressure pulse; 3 of these patients also had late tricuspid valve closure but the tricuspid component of the first sound was absent. Late onset of pressure rise is thought to result from block in the main right bundle-branch, and a slow rising pulse from block in the distal Purkinje network. These findings explain the conflicting results in previous studies of the first heart sound and right ventricular pressure pulse in patients with right bundle-branch block, and may have prognostic significance. Images PMID:465238

  18. Myocardial blood flow assessment with 82rubidium-PET imaging in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Falcão, Andréa; Chalela, William; Giorgi, Maria Clementina; Imada, Rodrigo; Soares, José; Do Val, Renata; Oliveira, Marco Antonio; Izaki, Marisa; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Meneghetti, José C

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Perfusion abnormalities are frequently seen in Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) when a left bundle branch block is present. A few studies have shown decreased coronary flow reserve in the left anterior descending territory, regardless of the presence of coronary artery disease. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography imaging in the assessment of myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve in patients with left bundle branch block. METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with left bundle branch block (GI), median age 63.5 years, 22 (58%) female, 12 with coronary artery disease (≥70%; GI-A) and 26 with no evidence of significant coronary artery disease (GI-B), underwent rest-dipyridamole stress 82Rb-positron emission tomography with absolute quantitative flow measurements using Cedars-Sinai software (mL/min/g). The relative myocardial perfusion and left ventricular ejection fraction were assessed in 17 segments. These parameters were compared with those obtained from 30 patients with normal 82Rb-positron emission tomography studies and without left bundle branch block (GII). RESULTS: Stress myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve were significantly lower in GI than in GII (p<0.05). The comparison of coronary flow reserve between GI-A and GI-B showed that it was different from the global coronary flow reserve (p<0.05) and the stress flow was significantly lower in the anterior than in the septal wall for both groups. Perfusion abnormalities were more prevalent in GI-A (p=0.06) and the left ventricular ejection fraction was not different between GI-A and GI-B, whereas it was lower in GI than in GII (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: The data confirm that patients with left bundle branch block had decreased myocardial blood flow and coronary flow reserve and coronary flow reserve assessed by 82Rb-positron emission tomography imaging may be useful in identifying coronary artery disease in patients with

  19. Dipyridamole stress myocardial perfusion by computed tomography in patients with left bundle branch block

    PubMed Central

    Cabeda, Estêvan Vieira; Falcão, Andréa Maria Gomes; Soares Jr., José; Rochitte, Carlos Eduardo; Nomura, César Higa; Ávila, Luiz Francisco Rodrigues; Parga, José Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Background Functional tests have limited accuracy for identifying myocardial ischemia in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Objective To assess the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-stress myocardial computed tomography perfusion (CTP) by 320-detector CT in patients with LBBB using invasive quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) (stenosis ≥ 70%) as reference; to investigate the advantage of adding CTP to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) and compare the results with those of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. Methods Thirty patients with LBBB who had undergone SPECT for the investigation of coronary artery disease were referred for stress tomography. Independent examiners performed per-patient and per-coronary territory assessments. All patients gave written informed consent to participate in the study that was approved by the institution’s ethics committee. Results The patients’ mean age was 62 ± 10 years. The mean dose of radiation for the tomography protocol was 9.3 ± 4.6 mSv. With regard to CTP, the per-patient values for sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were 86%, 81%, 80%, 87%, and 83%, respectively (p = 0.001). The per-territory values were 63%, 86%, 65%, 84%, and 79%, respectively (p < 0.001). In both analyses, the addition of CTP to CTA achieved higher diagnostic accuracy for detecting myocardial ischemia than SPECT (p < 0.001). Conclusion The use of the stress tomography protocol is feasible and has good diagnostic accuracy for assessing myocardial ischemia in patients with LBBB. PMID:26421532

  20. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance features of mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Revah, Giselle; Wu, Vincent; Huntjens, Peter R; Piekarski, Eve; Chyou, Janice Y; Axel, Leon

    2016-09-01

    Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) can exhibit mechanical dyssynchrony which may contribute to heart failure; such patients may benefit from cardiac resynchronization treatment (CRT). While cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) has become a common part of heart failure work-up, CMR features of mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with LBBB have not been well characterized. This study aims to investigate the potential of CMR to characterize mechanical features of LBBB. CMR examinations from 43 patients with LBBB on their electrocardiogram, but without significant focal structural abnormalities, and from 43 age- and gender-matched normal controls were retrospectively reviewed. The following mechanical features of LBBB were evaluated: septal flash (SF), apical rocking (AR), delayed aortic valve opening measured relative to both end-diastole (AVOED) and pulmonic valve opening (AVOPVO), delayed left-ventricular (LV) free-wall contraction, and curvatures of the septum and LV free-wall. Septal displacement curves were also generated, using feature-tracking techniques. The echocardiographic findings of LBBB were also reviewed in those subjects for whom they were available. LBBB was significantly associated with the presence of SF and AR; within the LBBB group, 79 % had SF and 65 % had AR. Delayed AVOED, AVOPVO, and delayed LV free-wall contraction were significantly associated with LBBB. AVOED and AVOPVO positively correlated with QRS duration and negatively correlated with ejection fraction. Hearts with electrocardiographic evidence of LBBB showed lower septal-to-LV free-wall curvature ratios at end-diastole compared to normal controls. CMR can be used to identify and evaluate mechanical dyssynchrony in patients with LBBB. None of the normal controls showed the mechanical features associated with LBBB. Moreover, not all patients with LBBB showed the same degree of mechanical dyssynchrony, which could have implications for CRT.

  1. [Wall motion abnormalities and hemodynamic parameters in patients with left bundle branch block during exercise echocardiography].

    PubMed

    Dupliakov, D V; Vozhdaeva, Z I; Sysuenkova, E V; Zemlianova, M E; Lotina, A S; Goleva, S V; Svetlakova, A P; Khokhlunov, S M

    2011-01-01

    Study aim was to investigate dynamics of local contractility and hemodynamic parameters during exercise stress echocardiography (EEcho) in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). We examined 23 patients (15 men, 8 women) aged 48-65 years (mean age 53.9+/-8.1 years). Bicycle EEcho was accomplished according to standard protocol. Patients without clinical signs of ischemic heart disease (n=11) comprised group 1, patients after myocardial infarction (n=12) - group 2 (subgroup 2A - with negative test result, subgroup 2B - with worsening of local left ventricular contractility during EEcho). At baseline group 1 patients had significantly better hemodynamic parameters (ejection fraction - EF, left ventricular end diastolic volume - LVEDV) and no abnormalities of local contractility. Exercise tolerance was also the highest in this group. Insignificant worsening of postexercise EF occurred in patients of subgroup 2B (from 46+/-10.5 to 44,2+/-9.4%). In group 1 EF significantly increased (from 56.8+/-10.5% to 64.7+/-15.4%, <0.05), in subgroup 2A tendency to EF increase up to 48.7+/-9.9% was registered. Lowering of local contractility abnormalities index was noted also only in patients of subgroup 2B (from 1.54+/-0.4 to 2.17+/-0.37 (p<0.01). LVEDV compared with initial values tended to decrease in both groups (however differences between groups were not significant). Positive echocardiographic response was associated with significant changes of transmitral blood flow. Angiographically clean coronary arteries were found in 8 of 10 patients in group 1. Six group 2 patients with history of typical clinical picture of angina and myocardial infarction) had multivessel lesions in coronary vascular bed. EEcho result was positive in 5 of 6 group 2 patients. Thus EEcho possesses high potential for diagnosis of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with LBBB. This allows recommending it as a first line method in patients with this pathology.

  2. Depressive-like behaviours and decreased dendritic branching in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice with tumors: A novel validated model of cancer-induced depression.

    PubMed

    Nashed, Mina G; Seidlitz, Eric P; Frey, Benicio N; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-11-01

    Depression is commonly comorbid in cancer patients and has detrimental effects on disease progression. Evidence suggests that biological mechanisms may induce the onset of cancer-induced depression (CID). The present investigation aims to establish a validated preclinical animal model of CID. Female BALB/c mice were allocated to four groups: control (n=12), chronic oral exposure to corticosterone (CORT) (n=12), CORT exposure followed by chronic low dose fluoxetine (FLX) treatment (n=12), and subcutaneous inoculation of 4T1 mammary carcinoma cells (n=13). Anhedonia was evaluated using the sucrose preference test (SPT), and behavioural despair was evaluated using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). Sholl analyses were used to examine the dendritic morphology of Golgi-Cox impregnated neurons from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). CORT exposure and tumor burden were both associated with decreased sucrose preference, increased FST immobility, and decreased basilar and apical dendritic branching of neurons in the mPFC. CORT-induced behavioural and dendritic morphological changes were reversible by FLX. No differences in TST immobility were observed between groups. On the secondary TST outcome measure, CORT exposure and tumor burden were associated with a trend towards decreased power of movement. CORT exposure induced a positive control model of a depressive-like state, with FLX treatment confirming the predictive validity of the model. This verified the sensitivity of behavioural and histological tests, which were used to assess the CID model. The induction of a depressive-like state in this model represents the first successfully validated animal model of CID.

  3. Reduced Glutamatergic Currents and Dendritic Branching of Layer 5 Pyramidal Cells Contribute to Medial Prefrontal Cortex Deactivation in a Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Crystle J.; Huang, Mei; Meltzer, Herbert; Martina, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Multiple studies have demonstrated that neuropathic pain is associated with major reorganization in multiple brain areas. In line with the strong emotional salience of chronic pain, involvement of the limbic system appears particularly important. Within the past few years, it has become clear that the functional deactivation of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for both the cognitive/emotional and the sensory components of pain. However, at the cellular level, details of this deactivation remain in large part unclear. Here we show that 1 week after a peripheral neuropathic injury (Spared Nerve Injury model) pyramidal cells in layer 5 (L5) of the rat medial PFC show responses to excitatory glutamatergic inputs that are reduced by about 50%, as well as reduced frequency of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents. Additionally, these cells have reduced membrane capacitance and increased input resistance. All these findings are consistent with decreased dendritic length, thus we performed a detailed morphological analysis on a subset of the recorded neurons. We found that the apical dendrites proximal to the soma (excluding the tuft) are shorter and less complex in SNI animals, in agreement with the reduced capacitance and glutamatergic input. Finally, we used in vivo microdialysis to compare the basal concentrations of glutamate and GABA in the PFC of sham and SNI rats and found that ambient glutamate is decreased in SNI rats. Taken together, these data show that impaired glutamatergic transmission contributes to the functional deactivation of the mPFC in neuropathic pain. Additionally, the reduced branching of apical dendrites of L5 pyramidal neurons may underlay the gray matter reduction in chronic pain. PMID:27252623

  4. The inhibition of prions through blocking prion conversion by permanently charged branched polyamines of low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yong-beom; Mays, Charles E; Kim, Younghwan; Titlow, William B; Ryou, Chongsuk

    2010-03-01

    Branched polyamines are effective in inhibiting prions in a cationic surface charge density dependent manner. However, toxicity associated with branched polyamines, in general, often hampers the successful application of the compounds to treat prion diseases. Here, we report that constitutively maintained cationic properties in branched polyamines reduced the intrinsic toxicity of the compounds while retaining the anti-prion activities. In prion-infected neuroblastoma cells, quaternization of amines in polyethyleneimine (PEI) and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers markedly increased the nontoxic concentration ranges of the compounds and still supported, albeit reduced, an appreciable level of anti-prion activity in clearing prions from the infected cells. Furthermore, quaternized PEI was able to degrade prions at acidic pH conditions and inhibit the in vitro prion propagation facilitated by conversion of the normal prion protein isoform to its misfolded counterpart, although such activities were decreased by quaternization. Quaternized PAMAM was least effective in degrading prions but efficiently inhibited prion conversion with the same efficacy as unmodified PAMAM. Our results suggest that quaternization represents an effective strategy for developing nontoxic branched polyamines with potent anti-prion activity. This study highlights the importance of polyamine structural control for developing polyamine-based anti-prion agents and understanding of an action mechanism of quaternized branched polyamines.

  5. Influence of BMI, gender, and sports on pain decrease and medication usage after facet–medial branch neurotomy or SI joint lateral branch cooled RF-neurotomy in case of low back pain: original research in the Austrian population

    PubMed Central

    Stelzer, Wolfgang; Stelzer, Valentin; Stelzer, Dominik; Braune, Monika; Duller, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This retrospective original research was designed to illustrate the general outcome after radiofrequency (RF) neurotomy of lumbar medial branch (MB) and posterior ramus of the sacroiliac joint of 160 patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) 1, 6, and 12 months after treatment. Methods Visual Analog Scale (VAS) 0–10 pain scores, quality of life, body mass index (BMI), medication usage, and frequency of physical exercise/sports participation (none, 1–3×/week, more) were collected before the procedure, at 1 month post procedure (n=160), and again at 6 (n=73) and 12 months (n=89) post procedure. Results A VAS decrease of 4 points on a 10-point scale (from 8 to 4) in the overall group was seen after 6 months and of 4.5 after 12 months. Lower medication usage was reported, with opioids decreased by 40% and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) by 60%. Decreased pain lasted for 12 months. Significantly better outcomes were reported by patients with BMIs <30. No gender-specific differences occurred in the reported decrease in VAS. Analysis of the “no-sports” group versus the more active (1–3 times weekly sports) group showed a better pain decrease after 1 year in the active group. Conclusion The data suggest RF treatment for chronic LBP that can lead to long-term improvement. Patients with a BMI >30 are less likely to report decreased pain. The better long-term pain relief in the sports participating group is a motivation for the authors to keep the patients in motion. PMID:28144161

  6. A complete right bundle-branch block masking Brugada syndrome: a case

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Makoto; Kitazawa, Hitoshi; Sato, Masahito; Okabe, Masaaki; Antzelevitch, Charles; Aizawa, Yoshifusa

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old man without structural heart disease was admitted for syncope. His electrocardiogram displayed complete right bundle branch (CRBBB). A coved type ST elevation was observed with transient normalization of CRBBB giving rise to a normal QRS. These findings suggest that Brugada syndrome can be masked by CRBBB. PMID:22832153

  7. Molecular changes in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens are associated with blocking the behavioral sensitization to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Huang, Can; Zhang, Xiuwu

    2015-11-05

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization is associated with persistent functional and structural alterations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc); however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes have not been elucidated. In this study, the behavioral sensitization to cocaine was established in Sprague Dawley rats and was measured by locomotion and behavioral rating. The brain tissue homogenization was used for measuring the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the expression and activity of integrin-linked kinase (ILK), level of protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation at serine 473 and threonine 308, and the expression of p75(NTR), TrkA, and TrkB protein. The Results showed that cocaine sensitization was associated with increased BDNF, ILK activity, phospho-Akt Ser(473), p75(NTR), and TrkB protein levels in the mPFC and NAc core. The combination of pergolide and ondansetron normalized not only behavioral sensitization, but also the increases in these molecular markers. Dual immunofluoresence staining showed that ILK expression is co-distributed with p75(NTR) and TrkA expression in both the mPFC and NAc core. Results suggested that the BDNF-TrkA/p75(NTR)-ILK-Akt signaling pathway may be active in cocaine sensitization and associated neural plasticity in the mPFC and NAc core.

  8. Cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure induced by left bundle branch block after transcatheter closure of ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed

    Du, Rong-Zeng; Qian, Jun; Wu, Jun; Liang, Yi; Chen, Guang-Hua; Sun, Tao; Zhou, Ye; Zhao, Yang; Yan, Jin-Chuan

    2014-12-01

    A 54-year-old female patient with congenital heart disease had a persistent complete left bundle branch block three months after closure by an Amplatzer ventricular septal defect occluder. Nine months later, the patient suffered from chest distress, palpitation, and sweating at daily activities, and her 6-min walk distance decreased significantly (155 m). Her echocardiography showed increased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter with left ventricular ejection fraction of 37%. Her symptoms reduced significantly one week after received cardiac resynchronization therapy. She had no symptoms at daily activities, and her echo showed left ventricular ejection fraction of 46% and 53%. Moreover, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter decreased 6 and 10 months after cardiac resynchronization therapy, and 6-min walk distance remarkably increased. This case demonstrated that persistent complete left bundle branch block for nine months after transcatheter closure with ventricular septal defect Amplatzer occluder could lead to left ventricular enlargement and a significant decrease in left ventricular systolic function. Cardiac resynchronization therapy decreased left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and increased left ventricular ejection fraction, thereby improving the patient's heart functions.

  9. Mechanism of Estradiol-Induced Block of Voltage-Gated K+ Currents in Rat Medial Preoptic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Druzin, Michael; Malinina, Evgenya; Grimsholm, Ola; Johansson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize possible rapid effects of 17-β-estradiol on voltage-gated K+ channels in preoptic neurons and, in particular, to identify the mechanisms by which 17-β-estradiol affects the K+ channels. Whole-cell currents from dissociated rat preoptic neurons were studied by perforated-patch recording. 17-β-estradiol rapidly (within seconds) and reversibly reduced the K+ currents, showing an EC50 value of 9.7 µM. The effect was slightly voltage dependent, but independent of external Ca2+, and not sensitive to an estrogen-receptor blocker. Although 17-α-estradiol also significantly reduced the K+ currents, membrane-impermeant forms of estradiol did not reduce the K+ currents and other estrogens, testosterone and cholesterol were considerably less effective. The reduction induced by estradiol was overlapping with that of the KV-2-channel blocker r-stromatoxin-1. The time course of K+ current in 17-β-estradiol, with a time-dependent inhibition and a slight dependence on external K+, suggested an open-channel block mechanism. The properties of block were predicted from a computational model where 17-β-estradiol binds to open K+ channels. It was concluded that 17-β-estradiol rapidly reduces voltage-gated K+ currents in a way consistent with an open-channel block mechanism. This suggests a new mechanism for steroid action on ion channels. PMID:21625454

  10. Mechanism of estradiol-induced block of voltage-gated K+ currents in rat medial preoptic neurons.

    PubMed

    Druzin, Michael; Malinina, Evgenya; Grimsholm, Ola; Johansson, Staffan

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize possible rapid effects of 17-β-estradiol on voltage-gated K(+) channels in preoptic neurons and, in particular, to identify the mechanisms by which 17-β-estradiol affects the K(+) channels. Whole-cell currents from dissociated rat preoptic neurons were studied by perforated-patch recording. 17-β-Estradiol rapidly (within seconds) and reversibly reduced the K(+) currents, showing an EC(50) value of 9.7 µM. The effect was slightly voltage dependent, but independent of external Ca(2+), and not sensitive to an estrogen-receptor blocker. Although 17-α-estradiol also significantly reduced the K(+) currents, membrane-impermeant forms of estradiol did not reduce the K(+) currents and other estrogens, testosterone and cholesterol were considerably less effective. The reduction induced by estradiol was overlapping with that of the K(V)-2-channel blocker r-stromatoxin-1. The time course of K(+) current in 17-β-estradiol, with a time-dependent inhibition and a slight dependence on external K(+), suggested an open-channel block mechanism. The properties of block were predicted from a computational model where 17-β-estradiol binds to open K(+) channels. It was concluded that 17-β-estradiol rapidly reduces voltage-gated K(+) currents in a way consistent with an open-channel block mechanism. This suggests a new mechanism for steroid action on ion channels.

  11. Tachycardia-dependent bilateral bundle branch block in ischemic heart disease with systolic dysfunction: case report and review of prognostic implications.

    PubMed

    Ferrando-Castagnetto, Federico; Vidal, Alejandro; Ricca-Mallada, Roberto; Nogara, Romina; Marichal, Pablo; Martínez, Fabián

    2015-10-16

    A proper characterization of frequency-dependent bundle branch blocks can provide useful prognostic information in some clinical situations. Often, this physiological event may be due to an extensive damage of infrahisian system, which poses a high risk of developing advanced atrioventricular block requiring pacemaker implantation. We describe the case of a 62 year-old man with chronic ischemic heart disease who exhibited alternating tachycardia-dependent bundle branch block during stress test. We discuss the main prognostic implications of this unusual event in the context of systolic dysfunction.

  12. Ceftriaxone upregulates the glutamate transporter in medial prefrontal cortex and blocks reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking in a condition place preference paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Abulseoud, Osama A.; Miller, Joseph D.; Wu, Jinhua; Choi, Doo-Sup; Holschneider, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate signaling plays an essential role in drug-seeking behavior. Using reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP), we determined whether ceftriaxone, a β-lactam antibiotic known to increase the expression and activity of the glutamate transporter (EAAT2) on glial cells, blocks methamphetamine-triggered reinstatement of CPP. Rats acquired methamphetamine CPP following 7 consecutive days of conditioning, during which each animal received pairings of alternating morning methamphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, IP) and afternoon saline (IP). Animals showing CPP were successfully extinguished with repeated twice daily saline administration over a 7-day period. Ceftriaxone (200 mg/kg, IP) was administered (vs. saline) once a day for 7 days during the extinction period. Upon successful extinction, animals received a single dose of methamphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, IP) for reinstatement and were tested for CPP one day later. Using real time PCR, EAAT2 mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) were quantified in response to ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone blocked methamphetamine-triggered reinstatement of CPP and significantly increased EAAT2 mRNA levels in the mPFC, with a trend towards significance in the NAc. In conclusion, Ceftriaxone modulated the expression of the glutamate transporter in a critical region of the cortico-striatal addiction circuitry and attenuated drug-seeking behavior in rats. Further research is needed to test the efficacy of compounds targeting the EAAT2 in human methamphetamine-dependent users. PMID:22521042

  13. Branched ZnO nanostructures as building blocks of photoelectrodes for efficient solar energy conversion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Qiu, Yongcai; Yang, Shihe

    2012-08-21

    ZnO nanotetrapods are distinguished by their unique nanocrystalline geometric form with four tetrahedrally directed arms, which endows them the ability to handily assemble three-dimensional network structures. Such network structures, coupled with the intrinsically excellent electronic properties of the semiconducting ZnO, have proved advantageous for building photoelectrodes in energy conversion devices since they allow fast vectorial electron transport. In this review article, we summarize recent efforts, with partial emphasis on our own, in the development of ZnO nanotetrapod-based devices for solar energy conversion, including dye-sensitized solar cells and photoelectrochemical cells for water splitting. A pure ZnO nanotetrapod network was firstly demonstrated to have excellent charge collection properties even with just physical contacts. Composition design of ZnO nanotetrapods/SnO(2) nanoparticles yielded a high efficiency of 4.91% in flexible DSSCs. More significantly, by secondary branching and nitrogen doping, a record performance for water splitting has been achieved. A perspective on future research directions in ZnO nanotetrapod-based solar energy conversion devices is also discussed together with possible strategies of pursuit. It is hoped that the results obtained so far with the ZnO nanotetrapods could inspire and catalyze future developments of solar energy conversion systems based on branched nanostructural materials, contributing to solving global energy and environmental issues.

  14. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better

  15. Prevalence and Prognostic Implications of Bundle Branch Block in Comatose Survivors of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Grand, Johannes; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Nielsen, Niklas; Erlinge, David; Wiberg, Sebastian; Wanscher, Michael; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Hassager, Christian

    2016-10-15

    This study reports the prevalence and prognostic impact of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and left bundle branch block (LBBB) in the admission electrocardiogram (ECG) of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The present study is part of the predefined electrocardiographic substudy of the prospective randomized target temperature management trial, which found no benefit of targeting 33°C over 36°C in terms of outcome. Six-hundred eighty-two patients were included in the substudy. An admission ECG, which defined the present study population, was available in 602 patients (88%). These ECGs were stratified by the presence of LBBB, RBBB, or no-BBB (reference) on admission. End points were mortality and neurologic outcome 6 months after OHCA. RBBB was present in 79 patients (13%) and LBBB in 65 patients (11%), and the majority of BBBs (92%) had resolved 4 hours after admission. RBBB was associated with significantly higher 6 months mortality (RBBB: hazard ratio [HR]unadjusted 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 2.43; LBBB: HRunadjusted 1.26, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.81), but this did not reach a level of significance in the adjusted model (HRadjusted 1.33, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.87). Similar findings were seen for neurologic outcome in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. RBBB was further independently associated with higher odds of unfavorable neurologic outcome (RBBB: adjusted odds ratio 1.97, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.71). In conclusion, BBBs after OHCA were transient in most patients, and RBBB was directly associated with higher mortality and independently associated with higher odds of unfavorable neurologic outcome. RBBB is seemingly an early indicator of an unfavorable prognosis after OHCA.

  16. Mechanical analysis of congestive heart failure caused by bundle branch block based on an electromechanical canine heart model.

    PubMed

    Dou, Jianhong; Xia, Ling; Zhang, Yu; Shou, Guofa; Wei, Qing; Liu, Feng; Crozier, Stuart

    2009-01-21

    Asynchronous electrical activation, induced by bundle branch block (BBB), can cause reduced ventricular function. However, the effects of BBB on the mechanical function of heart are difficult to assess experimentally. Many heart models have been developed to investigate cardiac properties during BBB but have mainly focused on the electrophysiological properties. To date, the mechanical function of BBB has not been well investigated. Based on a three-dimensional electromechanical canine heart model, the mechanical properties of complete left and right bundle branch block (LBBB and RBBB) were simulated. The anatomical model as well as the fiber orientations of a dog heart was reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI). Using the solutions of reaction-diffusion equations and with a strategy of parallel computation, the asynchronous excitation propagation and intraventricular conduction in BBB was simulated. The mechanics of myocardial tissues were computed with time-, sarcomere length-dependent uniaxial active stress initiated at the time of depolarization. The quantification of mechanical intra- and interventricular asynchrony of BBB was then investigated using the finite-element method with an eight-node isoparametric element. The simulation results show that (1) there exists inter- and intraventricular systolic dyssynchrony during BBB; (2) RBBB may have more mechanical synchrony and better systolic function of the left ventricle (LV) than LBBB; (3) the ventricles always move toward the early-activated ventricle; and (4) the septum experiences higher stress than left and right ventricular free walls in BBB. The simulation results validate clinical and experimental recordings of heart deformation and provide regional quantitative estimates of ventricular wall strain and stress. The present work suggests that an electromechanical heart model, incorporating real geometry and fiber orientations, may be helpful for better

  17. Intermittent bundle-branch block in patients with accessory atrio-His or atrio-AV nodal pathways. Variants of the Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome.

    PubMed

    Befeler, B; Castellanos, A; Aranda, J; Gutierrez, R; Lazzara, R

    1976-02-01

    Intracardiac electrophysiological studies were performed in two patients with a documented history of repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. Case 1, with short PR interval and narrow QRS complexes had a short AH interval and intermittent right bundle-branch block. Thus the short PR wide QRS syndrome is not always a result of the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome but can also be seen in the Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome coexisting with bundle-branch block. Case 2, with normal PR and AH at the lower limits of normal, showed the dual pathway response to atrial pacing that can occur in patients with Lown-Ganong-Levine syndrome. He also had tachycardia-dependent right bundle-branch block and left posterior hemiblock. Therefore, neither the short PR interval nor the narrow QRS complexes characterized these forms of pre-excitation. The constant features were, from the clinical viewpoint, the occurrence of repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, and electrophysiologically the abnormal response to atrial stimulation.

  18. A subset of yeast vacuolar protein sorting mutants is blocked in one branch of the exocytic pathway.

    PubMed

    Harsay, Edina; Schekman, Randy

    2002-01-21

    Exocytic vesicles that accumulate in a temperature-sensitive sec6 mutant at a restrictive temperature can be separated into at least two populations with different buoyant densities and unique cargo molecules. Using a sec6 mutant background to isolate vesicles, we have found that vacuolar protein sorting mutants that block an endosome-mediated route to the vacuole, including vps1, pep12, vps4, and a temperature-sensitive clathrin mutant, missort cargo normally transported by dense exocytic vesicles, such as invertase, into light exocytic vesicles, whereas transport of cargo specific to the light exocytic vesicles appears unaffected. Immunoisolation experiments confirm that missorting, rather than a changed property of the normally dense vesicles, is responsible for the altered density gradient fractionation profile. The vps41Delta and apl6Delta mutants, which block transport of only the subset of vacuolar proteins that bypasses endosomes, sort exocytic cargo normally. Furthermore, a vps10Delta sec6 mutant, which lacks the sorting receptor for carboxypeptidase Y (CPY), accumulates both invertase and CPY in dense vesicles. These results suggest that at least one branch of the yeast exocytic pathway transits through endosomes before reaching the cell surface. Consistent with this possibility, we show that immunoisolated clathrin-coated vesicles contain invertase.

  19. Detection of inter-patient left and right bundle branch block heartbeats in ECG using ensemble classifiers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Left bundle branch block (LBBB) and right bundle branch block (RBBB) not only mask electrocardiogram (ECG) changes that reflect diseases but also indicate important underlying pathology. The timely detection of LBBB and RBBB is critical in the treatment of cardiac diseases. Inter-patient heartbeat classification is based on independent training and testing sets to construct and evaluate a heartbeat classification system. Therefore, a heartbeat classification system with a high performance evaluation possesses a strong predictive capability for unknown data. The aim of this study was to propose a method for inter-patient classification of heartbeats to accurately detect LBBB and RBBB from the normal beat (NORM). Methods This study proposed a heartbeat classification method through a combination of three different types of classifiers: a minimum distance classifier constructed between NORM and LBBB; a weighted linear discriminant classifier between NORM and RBBB based on Bayesian decision making using posterior probabilities; and a linear support vector machine (SVM) between LBBB and RBBB. Each classifier was used with matching features to obtain better classification performance. The final types of the test heartbeats were determined using a majority voting strategy through the combination of class labels from the three classifiers. The optimal parameters for the classifiers were selected using cross-validation on the training set. The effects of different lead configurations on the classification results were assessed, and the performance of these three classifiers was compared for the detection of each pair of heartbeat types. Results The study results showed that a two-lead configuration exhibited better classification results compared with a single-lead configuration. The construction of a classifier with good performance between each pair of heartbeat types significantly improved the heartbeat classification performance. The results showed a

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of exercise thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Larcos, G; Gibbons, R J; Brown, M L

    1991-09-15

    Recent reports have proposed that abnormal apical or anterior wall perfusion with exercise thallium-201 imaging may increase diagnostic accuracy for disease of the left anterior descending artery in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). To evaluate these suggestions, 83 patients with LBBB who underwent thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography within an interval of 3 months were retrospectively reviewed. There were 59 men and 24 women aged 33 to 84 years (mean 65). Myocardial perfusion to the apex, anterior wall and anterior septum were scored qualitatively by consensus of 2 experienced observers and by quantitative analysis in comparison with a normal data base. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of perfusion defects in these segments were then expressed according to angiographic findings. Significant stenosis of vessels within the left anterior descending artery territory was present in 38 patients. By receiver-operator characteristic analysis, a fixed or reversible defect within the apex by the qualitative method was the best criterion for coronary artery disease. However, although highly sensitive (79 and 85% by the qualitative and quantitative methods, respectively), an apical defect was neither specific (38 and 16%, respectively), nor accurate (57 and 46%, respectively). Perfusion abnormalities in the anterior wall and septum were also of limited diagnostic accuracy. Thus, modified interpretative criteria in patients with LBBB are not clinically useful in the assessment of left anterior descending artery disease.

  1. Persistent left bundle branch block in a patient with dilated cardiomyopathy that improved with low dose carvedilol therapy.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Bunji; Sato, Takao; Nakatani, Yosuke; Katsuda, Shoji; Taguchi, Tomio; Nitta, Yutaka; Hiraiwa, Yoshio

    2008-03-01

    A 43-year-old Japanese woman with dilated cardiomyopathy had complete left ventricular bundle branch block (CLBBB), which had persisted for at least two years. At the time of admission, the serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentration was 502 pg/mL (normal range, 0-18 pg/mL), the left ventricular diastolic dimension (LVDd) was 59 mm, the left ventricular systolic dimension (LVDs) was 54 mm, the %fractional shortening (FS) was 8%, and the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 19.7% by echocardiography. Low dose carvedilol was initiated for the treatment of heart failure. Adverse effects, such as progression of cardiac conduction disturbances, did not occur after initiation of carvedilol therapy. About one year after initiation of carvedilol therapy, the CLBBB disappeared and a significant improvement in left ventricular function was noted. The LVDd was 44 mm, the LVDs was 30 mm, the %FS was 33%, and the LVEF was 61%, and the serum BNP concentration was decreased to 18.5 pg/mL. We describe a case in which low dose carvedilol was effective for treating both CLBBB and left ventricular function.

  2. Diagnostic accuracy of exercise thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography in patients with left bundle branch block

    SciTech Connect

    Larcos, G.; Gibbons, R.J.; Brown, M.L. )

    1991-09-15

    Recent reports have proposed that abnormal apical or anterior wall perfusion with exercise thallium-201 imaging may increase diagnostic accuracy for disease of the left anterior descending artery in patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). To evaluate these suggestions, 83 patients with LBBB who underwent thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and coronary angiography within an interval of 3 months were retrospectively reviewed. There were 59 men and 24 women aged 33 to 84 years (mean 65). Myocardial perfusion to the apex, anterior wall and anterior septum were scored qualitatively by consensus of 2 experienced observers and by quantitative analysis in comparison with a normal data base. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of perfusion defects in these segments were then expressed according to angiographic findings. Significant stenosis of vessels within the left anterior descending artery territory was present in 38 patients. By receiver-operator characteristic analysis, a fixed or reversible defect within the apex by the qualitative method was the best criterion for coronary artery disease. However, although highly sensitive (79 and 85% by the qualitative and quantitative methods, respectively), an apical defect was neither specific (38 and 16%, respectively), nor accurate (57 and 46%, respectively). Perfusion abnormalities in the anterior wall and septum were also of limited diagnostic accuracy. Thus, modified interpretative criteria in patients with LBBB are not clinically useful in the assessment of left anterior descending artery disease.

  3. Bundle Branch Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... records the electrical impulses in your heart through wires attached to the skin on your chest and ... of your upper chest (internal pacemaker) with two wires that connect to the right side of your ...

  4. Clinical Characteristics, Management, and Outcomes of Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients With Right Bundle Branch Block on Presentation.

    PubMed

    Chan, William K; Goodman, Shaun G; Brieger, David; Fox, Keith A A; Gale, Chris P; Chew, Derek P; Udell, Jacob A; Lopez-Sendon, Jose; Huynh, Thao; Yan, Raymond T; Singh, Sheldon M; Yan, Andrew T

    2016-03-01

    We examined the relations between right bundle branch block (RBBB) and clinical characteristics, management, and outcomes among a broad spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Admission electrocardiograms of patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) electrocardiogram substudy and the Canadian ACS Registry I were analyzed independently at a blinded core laboratory. We performed multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess the independent prognostic significance of admission RBBB on in-hospital and 6-month mortality. Of 11,830 eligible patients with ACS (mean age 65; 66% non-ST-elevation ACS), 5% had RBBB. RBBB on admission was associated with older age, male sex, more cardiovascular risk factors, worse Killip class, and higher GRACE risk score (all p <0.01). Patients with RBBB less frequently received in-hospital cardiac catheterization, coronary revascularization, or reperfusion therapy (all p <0.05). The RBBB group had higher unadjusted in-hospital (8.8% vs 3.8%, p <0.001) and 6-month mortality rates (15.1% vs 7.6%, p <0.001). After adjusting for established prognostic factors in the GRACE risk score, RBBB was a significant independent predictor of in-hospital death (odds ratio 1.45, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.07, p = 0.039), but not cumulative 6-month mortality (odds ratio 1.29, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.74, p = 0.098). There was no significant interaction between RBBB and the type of ACS for either in-hospital or 6-month mortality (both p >0.50). In conclusion, across a spectrum of ACS, RBBB was associated with preexisting cardiovascular disease, high-risk clinical features, fewer cardiac interventions, and worse unadjusted outcomes. After adjusting for components of the GRACE risk score, RBBB was a significant independent predictor of early mortality.

  5. Prognostic Implication of the QRS Axis and its Association with Myocardial Scarring in Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan Soon; Cha, Myung-jin; Choi, Eue-Keun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives Left bundle branch block (LBBB) with left axis deviation (LAD) has a worse prognosis than LBBB with a normal axis, and myocardial dysfunction has been suggested as a cause of left axis deviation. This study investigated the prognostic significance of the QRS axis in patients with LBBB and analyzed its relationship with the amount of myocardial scarring. Subjects and Methods A total of 829 patients were diagnosed with LBBB at Seoul National University Hospital from October 2004 to June 2014. Of these, 314 who were asymptomatic and had no previous history of cardiac disease were included in the present study. Myocardial scarring was calculated using the Selvester QRS scoring system, and LAD was defined as a QRS axis between -180° and -30°. Results Of the total patients, 91 (29%) had LAD, and patients were followed for a median of 30 months. During follow-up, two patients were hospitalized for de novo heart failure, four had pacemaker implants, and 10 died. There was a significant inverse correlation between myocardial scar score and the QRS axis (r=-0.356, p<0.001). Patients with concomitant LAD had a higher rate of major cardiac adverse events compared with patients with a normal axis (5.5% vs. 1.3%, log-rank p=0.010); the prognostic value was attenuated in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio 4.117; 95% confidence interval 0.955-17.743; p=0.058). Conclusion Concomitant LAD is an indicator of poor prognosis for patients with LBBB and may be associated with greater myocardial scarring. PMID:28382083

  6. Electrocardiogram Performance in the Diagnosis of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Hypertensive Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Burgos, Paula Freitas Martins; Luna Filho, Bráulio; Costa, Francisco de Assis; Bombig, Maria Teresa Nogueira; de Souza, Dilma; Bianco, Henrique Tria; Oliveira Filho, Japy Angelini; Izar, Maria Cristina de Oliveira; Fonseca, Francisco Antonio Helfenstein; Póvoa, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular events, and its detection usually begins with an electrocardiogram (ECG). Objective To evaluate the impact of complete left bundle branch block (CLBBB) in hypertensive patients in the diagnostic performance of LVH by ECG. Methods A total of 2,240 hypertensive patients were studied. All of them were submitted to an ECG and an echocardiogram (ECHO). We evaluated the most frequently used electrocardiographic criteria for LVH diagnosis: Cornell voltage, Cornell voltage product, Sokolow-Lyon voltage, Sokolow-Lyon product, RaVL, RaVL+SV3, RV6/RV5 ratio, strain pattern, left atrial enlargement, and QT interval. LVH identification pattern was the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) obtained by ECHO in all participants. Results Mean age was 11.3 years ± 58.7 years, 684 (30.5%) were male and 1,556 (69.5%) were female. In patients without CLBBB, ECG sensitivity to the presence of LVH varied between 7.6 and 40.9%, and specificity varied between 70.2% and 99.2%. In participants with CLBBB, sensitivity to LVH varied between 11.9 and 95.2%, and specificity between 6.6 and 96.6%. Among the criteria with the best performance for LVH with CLBBB, Sokolow-Lyon, for a voltage of ≥ 3,0mV, stood out with a sensitivity of 22.2% (CI 95% 15.8 - 30.8) and specificity of 88.3% (CI 95% 77.8 - 94.2). Conclusion In hypertensive patients with CLBBB, the most often used criteria for the detection of LVH with ECG showed significant decrease in performance with regards to sensitivity and specificity. In this scenario, Sokolow-Lyon criteria with voltage ≥3,0mV presented the best performance. PMID:27992034

  7. Asymptomatic Left Bundle Branch Block Predicts New-Onset Congestive Heart Failure and Death From Cardiovascular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Azadani, Peyman N.; Soleimanirahbar, Ata; Marcus, Gregory M.; Haight, Thaddeus J.; Hollenberg, Milton; Olgin, Jeffrey E.; Lee, Byron K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Left bundle branch block (LBBB) has been proposed as a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We sought to characterize the strength of these associations in a population without preexisting clinical heart disease. Methods The association between LBBB and new-onset congestive heart failure (CHF) or death from cardiovascular diseases was examined in 1,688 participants enrolled in the SPPARCS study who were free of known CHF or previous myocardial infarction. SPPARCS is a community-based cohort study in residents of Sonoma, California that are > 55 years. Medical history and 12-lead ECGs were obtained every 2 years for up to 6 years of follow-up. LBBB at enrollment or year 2 was considered “baseline” and assessed as a predictor of CHF and cardiovascular death ascertained at years 4 and 6. Results The prevalence of LBBB at baseline was 2.5% (n = 42). During 6 years of follow-up, 70 (4.8%) people developed new CHF. Incidence of CHF was higher in patients with LBBB than in participants without LBBB. This association persisted after controlling for potential confounders (odds ratio (OR): 2.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01 - 8.02; P = 0.047). A higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases was also found in participants with LBBB after adjusting for potential confounders (OR: 2.35, 95%CI: 1.02 - 5.41; P = 0.044). Conclusions LBBB in the absence of a clinically detectable heart disease is associated with new-onset CHF and death from cardiovascular diseases. Further study is warranted to determine if additional diagnostic testing or earlier treatment in patients with asymptomatic LBBB can decrease cardiovascular morbidity or mortality.

  8. Trastuzumab (Herceptin)-associated cardiomyopathy presented as new onset of complete left bundle-branch block mimicking acute coronary syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chung-Ming; Chu, Kai-Ming; Yang, Shin-Ping; Cheng, Shu-Mung; Wang, Wen-Been

    2009-09-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is well documented in reducing suffering and mortality from breast cancer. The clinically most important side effect of Herceptin is cardiotoxicity, which is reported in 2.6% to 4.5% of patients receiving trastuzumab alone and in as many as 27% of patients when trastuzumab is combined with an anthracycline in metastatic disease. We reported the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented to our emergency department (ED) because of chest pain and shortness of breath. On physical examination, holosystolic murmur over apex could be heard. Pulmonary and abdominal examinations were unremarkable. Twelve-lead electrocardiography showed sinus tachycardia and new onset of complete left bundle-branch block. Emergent transthoracic echocardiography revealed generalized hypokinesia of left ventricle and akinesia over interventricular septum and apex. She subsequently underwent immediate coronary angiography that revealed normal coronary angiography, and left ventriculogram revealed generalized hypokinesia with severe left ventricle dysfunction with ejection fraction of 33%. During right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy, cardiac tamponade developed and was successfully relieved by pericardial window. She was discharged event-free 3 weeks later with conservative treatment. Although new onset of complete left bundle-branch block in a patient with chest pain may be acute coronary syndrome, careful review of medicine history is mandatory to avoid unnecessary procedure and complications.

  9. Chronic Desipramine Prevents Acute Stress-Induced Reorganization of Medial Prefrontal Cortex Architecture by Blocking Glutamate Vesicle Accumulation and Excitatory Synapse Increase

    PubMed Central

    Treccani, Giulia; Liebenberg, Nico; Chen, Fenghua; Popoli, Maurizio; Wegener, Gregers; Nyengaard, Jens Randel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although a clear negative influence of chronic exposure to stressful experiences has been repeatedly demonstrated, the outcome of acute stress on key brain regions has only just started to be elucidated. Although it has been proposed that acute stress may produce enhancement of brain plasticity and that antidepressants may prevent such changes, we still lack ultrastructural evidence that acute stress-induced changes in neurotransmitter physiology are coupled with structural synaptic modifications. Methods: Rats were pretreated chronically (14 days) with desipramine (10mg/kg) and then subjected to acute foot-shock stress. By means of serial section electron microscopy, the structural remodeling of medial prefrontal cortex glutamate synapses was assessed soon after acute stressor cessation and stress hormone levels were measured. Results: Foot-shock stress induced a remarkable increase in the number of docked vesicles and small excitatory synapses, partially and strongly prevented by desipramine pretreatment, respectively. Acute stress-induced corticosterone elevation was not affected by drug treatment. Conclusions: Since desipramine pretreatment prevented the stress-induced structural plasticity but not the hormone level increase, we hypothesize that the preventing action of desipramine is located on pathways downstream of this process and/or other pathways. Moreover, because enhancement of glutamate system remodeling may contribute to overexcitation dysfunctions, this aspect could represent a crucial component in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. PMID:25522419

  10. Comparison of the relation between left ventricular anatomy and QRS duration in patients with cardiomyopathy with versus without left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dulciana D; Wu, Katherine C; Loring, Zak; Galeotti, Loriano; Gerstenblith, Gary; Tomaselli, Gordon; Weiss, Robert G; Wagner, Galen S; Strauss, David G

    2014-05-15

    QRS duration (QRSd) is used to diagnose left bundle branch block (LBBB) and is important to determine cardiac resynchronization therapy eligibility. The same QRSd thresholds established decades ago are used for all patients. However, significant interpatient variability of normal QRSd exists, and individualized QRSd thresholds might improve diagnosis and intervention strategies. Previous work reported left ventricular (LV) mass and papillary muscle location predicted QRSd in healthy subjects, but the relation in diseased ventricles is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between LV anatomy and QRSd in patients with cardiomyopathy. Patients referred for primary prevention implantable defibrillators (n = 166) received cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and those with normal conduction (without bundle branch or fascicular block) and LBBB were studied. The LV mass, length, internal diameter, LV end-diastolic volume, septal and lateral wall thicknesses, and papillary muscle location were measured. In patients with normal conduction, LV length (r = 0.35, p <0.001), mass (r = 0.32, p <0.001), diameter (r = 0.20, p = 0.03), and septal wall thickness (r = 0.20, p = 0.03) had positive correlations with QRSd. In patients with LBBB, LV length (r = 0.32, p = 0.03), mass (r = 0.39, p = 0.01), diameter (r = 0.34, p = 0.02), and LV end-diastolic volume (r = 0.32, p = 0.04) had positive correlations with QRSd. Contrary to previous studies in healthy subjects, papillary muscle angle (location) was not associated with QRSd in cardiomyopathy patients with normal conduction or LBBB. In conclusion, increasing LV anatomical measurements were associated with increasing QRSd in patients with cardiomyopathy. Future work should investigate the use of LV anatomical measurements in developing individualized QRSd thresholds for diagnosing conduction abnormalities such as LBBB and identifying candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy.

  11. Too Much of a Good Thing: Blocking Noradrenergic Facilitation in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Prevents the Detrimental Effects of Chronic Stress on Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Jett, Julianne D; Morilak, David A

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive impairments associated with dysfunction of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are prominent in stress-related psychiatric disorders. We have shown that enhancing noradrenergic tone acutely in the rat mPFC facilitated extra-dimensional (ED) set-shifting on the attentional set-shifting test (AST), whereas chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) impaired ED. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the acute facilitatory effect of norepinephrine (NE) in mPFC becomes detrimental when activated repeatedly during CUS. Using microdialysis, we showed that the release of NE evoked in mPFC by acute stress was unchanged at the end of CUS treatment. Thus, to then determine if repeated elicitation of this NE activity in mPFC during CUS may have contributed to the ED deficit, we infused a cocktail of α1-, β1-, and β2-adrenergic receptor antagonists into the mPFC prior to each CUS session, then tested animals drug free on the AST. Antagonist treatment prevented the CUS-induced ED deficit, suggesting that NE signaling during CUS compromised mPFC function. We confirmed that this was not attributable to sensitization of adrenergic receptor function following chronic antagonist treatment, by administering an additional microinjection into the mPFC immediately prior to ED testing. Acute antagonist treatment did not reverse the beneficial effects of chronic drug treatment during CUS, nor have any effect on baseline ED performance in chronic vehicle controls. Thus, we conclude that blockade of noradrenergic receptors in mPFC protected against the detrimental cognitive effects of CUS, and that repeated elicitation of noradrenergic facilitatory activity is one mechanism by which chronic stress may promote mPFC cognitive dysfunction. PMID:23132268

  12. Epidemiological and evolutionary characteristics of heart failure in patients with left bundle branch block – A Moroccan center-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bouqata, N.; Kheyi, J.; Miftah, F.; Sabor, H.; Bouziane, A.; Bouzelmat, H.; Chaib, A.; Benyass, A.; Moustaghfir, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background In patients with heart failure, left bundle branch block (LBBB) seems to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Purpose The purpose of this study is to determine the in-hospital outcome of congestive heart failure patients with LBBB versus those without. Methods We conducted a prospective observational study at the Department of Intensive Care and Rhythmology at the Mohammed V Military Hospital of Rabat, where 330 patients were admitted for heart failure between January 2008 and September 2012. Screening out patients with missing data yielded a cohort of 274 patients. Among the 274 patients, only 110 had LBBB and a left ventricular ejection fraction lower than 50%. We randomly selected a subset of 110 patients diagnosed as non-LBBB to ensure a significant statistical comparison between LBBB and non-LBBB patients. We therefore considered two groups in our analysis: 110 heart failure (HF) patients with LBBB and 110 HF patients without LBBB. Patients with incomplete records were excluded. Results Male gender was dominant in both groups (82.7% vs. 66.7%, p = 0.005). Patients with LBBB had a higher prevalence of idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (39.1% vs. 4.8%, p < 0.001); and a higher prevalence of previous hospitalization for heart failure (64.5% vs. 23.3%, p < 0.001). The left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly lower in the group with LBBB (25.49% vs. 39.53%, p < 0.001). Age, cardiovascular risk factors, rhythmic and thromboembolic complications did not significantly differ. In patients with LBBB, 61.8% received cardiac resynchronization therapy performed both during the index hospital stay (50.9%) and previously (10.9%). Hospital outcome was marked by 20 in-hospital deaths in the group with LBBB and eight deaths in the group without LBBB (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our analysis emphasizes increased in-hospital mortality and higher disease severity, over a short period of stay, in heart failure patients with

  13. Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007638.htm Medial epicondylitis - golfer's elbow To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Medial epicondylitis is soreness or pain on the inside of ...

  14. Assessing coronary artery disease in patients with anginal chest pain and left bundle branch block: an emerging role for a new parameter of cardiopulmonary exercise testing.

    PubMed

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Gomez, Maria Angeles; Garcia-Baute, Maria del Carmen; Arroyo-Ucar, Eduardo; Avanzas, Pablo; Lara-Padron, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is used in cardiology to grade the severity of heart failure and to assess its prognosis. However, it is unknown whether CPET may be a useful technique to rule out coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with anginal chest pain and left bundle branch block (LBBB). The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CPET to identify CAD in these patients. A cohort of 90 patients with anginal chest pain, 45 with LBBB (group A) and 45 non-LBBB (group B), were studied with CPET and a single-photon emission computed tomographic myocardial perfusion study during the same period. The following variables of CPET were analyzed: peak oxygen uptake (VO2), VO2 at anaerobic threshold, and time to reach the anaerobic threshold (TAT). Group A values were lower compared with group B in peak VO2 (23 ± 6.2 vs. 28 ± 7.6 mLO2 · kg · min; P = 0.002), VO2 at anaerobic threshold (16.1 ± 3.6 vs. 18.9 ± 4.1 mLO2 · kg · min; P =0.001), and TAT (2.7 ± 0.96 vs. 4.4 ± 2.1 min; P < 0.001). Group A showed higher perfusion abnormalities in myocardial perfusion study than group B [27 (60%) vs. 12 (26.7%); P = 0.003]. Multivariate analysis showed that TAT (odds ratio = 1.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.39; P = 0.02) was the only independent predictor of CAD, after controlling for other factors. Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.78 for TAT (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.86; P < 0.0001). In conclusion, our findings suggest that a new functional parameter such as TAT significantly predicts CAD in patients with anginal chest pain and LBBB.

  15. Septal and anterior reverse mismatch of myocardial perfusion and metabolism in patients with coronary artery disease and left bundle branch block.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Guang; Fang, Wei; Yang, Min-Fu; Tian, Yue-Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Shen, Rui; Sun, Xiao-Xin; Guo, Feng; Wang, Dao-Yu; He, Zuo-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    The effects of left bundle branch block (LBBB) on left ventricular myocardial metabolism have not been well investigated. This study evaluated these effects in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).Sixty-five CAD patients with complete LBBB (mean age, 61.8 ± 9.7 years) and 65 without LBBB (mean age, 59.9 ± 8.4 years) underwent single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and contrast coronary angiography. The relationship between myocardial perfusion and metabolism and reverse mismatch score, and that between QRS length and reverse mismatch score and wall motion score were evaluated.The incidence of left ventricular septum and anterior wall reverse mismatching between the two groups was significantly different (P < 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively). The incidences of normal myocardial perfusion and metabolism in the left ventricular lateral and inferior walls were also significantly different between the two groups (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). The incidence of septal reverse mismatching in patients with mild to moderate perfusion was significantly higher among those with LBBB than among those without LBBB (P < 0.001). In CAD patients with LBBB, septal reverse mismatching was significantly more common among those with mild to moderate perfusion than among those with severe perfusion defects (P = 0.002). The correlation between the septal reverse mismatch score and QRS length was significant (P = 0.026).In patients with CAD and LBBB, septal and anterior reverse mismatching of myocardial perfusion and metabolism was frequently present; the septal reverse mismatch score negatively correlated with the QRS interval.

  16. The medial sural artery perforator free flap.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, P C; Sanz-Giménez-Rico, J R; Gutierrez-de la Cámara, A; Navarro-Monzonís, A; Soler-Nomdedeu, S; Martínez-Soriano, F

    2001-11-01

    The medial sural artery supplies the medial gastrocnemius muscle and sends perforating branches to the skin. The possible use of these musculocutaneous perforators as the source of a perforator-based free flap was investigated in cadavers. Ten legs were dissected, and the topography of significant perforating musculocutaneous vessels on both the medial and the lateral gastrocnemius muscles was recorded. A mean of 2.2 perforators (range, 1 to 4) was noted over the medial gastrocnemius muscle, whereas in only 20 percent of the specimens was a perforator of moderate size noted over the lateral gastrocnemius muscle. The perforating vessels from the medial sural artery clustered about 9 to 18 cm from the popliteal crease. When two perforators were present (the most frequent case), the perforators were located at a mean of 11.8 cm (range, 8.5 to 15 cm) and 17 cm (range, 15 to 19 cm) from the popliteal crease. A series of six successful clinical cases is reported, including five free flaps and one pedicled flap for ipsilateral lower-leg and foot reconstruction. The dissection is somewhat tedious, but the vascular pedicle can be considerably long and of suitable caliber. Donor-site morbidity was minimal because the muscle was not included in the flap. Although the present series is short, it seems that the medial sural artery perforator flap can be a useful flap for free and pedicled transfer in lower-limb reconstruction.

  17. Dilated cardiomyopathy and left bundle branch block associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver is reversed by British antiLewisite and vitamin E: the potential toxicity of metals used as health supplements.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen Lawrence

    2008-05-01

    A case of left bundle branch block and a dilated, nonhypertrophic cardiomyopathy associated with ingestion of colloidal gold and silver as an 'energy tonic' is described. The cardiac disease was reversed within two months by a course of dimercaprol (Akorn Inc, USA) (British antiLewisite) and vitamin E. This is the first case of gold and silver cardiomyopathy in humans, and highlights the risks of these colloidal metal 'health supplements'.

  18. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries KidsHealth > For Teens > Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries ... Treatment Coping With an MCL Injury About MCL Injuries A torn medial collateral ligament (MCL) is a ...

  19. Surgical anatomy of the pudendal nerve and its branches in South Africans.

    PubMed

    van der Walt, S; Oettlé, A C; Patel, H R H

    2015-07-01

    Dissection of the pudendal nerve (PN) and its branches in 71 cadavers revealed anatomic variations not previously described. Knowledge of this variation is necessary to prevent nerve injury resulting in sexual of sensory dysfunction. Because descriptions vary, this study re-evaluated the anatomy of the PN as implicated in perineal procedures in South Africans. The course of the PN from the gluteal region into the perineum was dissected in an adult sample of both sexes and of African and European ancestry. Distances between PN and branches to applicable landmarks were measured. Basic descriptive statistics and comparisons were carried out between groups. In 5/13 African females, the inferior rectal nerve (IRN) entered the gluteal region separately and in 12/13 cases it passed medial to the ischial spine with the PN. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris or penis (DNC/DNP) was closer to the bony frame in those of European ancestry. The IRN branches were more superficial in females, but deeper in males of European ancestry. In African females, a PN block and Richter stitch should be placed more medial. Outside-in transobturator tape procedures might endanger the DNC/DNP in obese individuals. In females of European ancestry the IRN branches are compromised during ischioanal abscess drainage. In males of European ancestry, the dorsal penile nerve block might be less effective. Predictions should be verified clinically.

  20. Medial canthal support structures: the medial retinaculum: a review.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyera; Takahashi, Yasuhiro; Nakano, Takashi; Asamoto, Ken; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kakizaki, Hirohiko

    2015-04-01

    The medial canthus is supported by several structures with a complicated 3-dimensional arrangement in a narrow space. Although the medial canthal tendon occupies a major portion of the area, the medial canthal support structures include the following entities: Horner's muscle, the medial rectus capsulopalpebral fascia including the medial check ligament, the medial horn of the levator aponeurosis, the medial horn supporting ligament, the medial horn of the lower eyelid retractors, the preseptal part of the orbicularis oculi muscle, and 3 variations of the Lockwood's ligament. We named the composite of these structures the "medial retinaculum," which is similar to the "lateral retinaculum" of the lateral canthus. Profound comprehension and consideration of the medial retinaculum warrants safe and effective surgery in the medial canthal region.

  1. Carbamate-linked lactose: design of clusters and evidence for selectivity to block binding of human lectins to (neo)glycoproteins with increasing degree of branching and to tumor cells.

    PubMed

    André, Sabine; Specker, Daniel; Bovin, Nicolai V; Lensch, Martin; Kaltner, Herbert; Gabius, Hans-Joachim; Wittmann, Valentin

    2009-09-01

    Various pathogenic processes are driven by protein(lectin)-glycan interactions, especially involving beta-galactosides at branch ends of cellular glycans. These emerging insights fuel the interest to design potent inhibitors to block lectins. As a step toward this aim, we prepared a series of ten mono- to tetravalent glycocompounds with lactose as a common headgroup. To obtain activated carbonate for ensuing carbamate formation, conditions for the facile synthesis of pure isomers from anomerically unprotected lactose were identified. To probe for the often encountered intrafamily diversity of human lectins, we selected representative members from the three subgroups of adhesion/growth-regulatory galectins as receptors. Diversity of the glycan display was accounted for by using four (neo)glycoproteins with different degrees of glycan branching as matrices in solid-phase assays. Cases of increased inhibitory potency of lactose clusters compared to free lactose were revealed. Extent of relative inhibition was not directly associated with valency in the glycocompound and depended on the lectin type. Of note for screening protocols, efficacy of blocking appeared to decrease with increased degree of glycan branching in matrix glycoproteins. Binding to tumor cells was impaired with selectivity for galectins-3 and -4. Representative compounds did not impair growth of carcinoma cells up to a concentration of 5 mM of lactose moieties (valence-corrected value) per assay. The reported bioactivity and the delineation of its modulation by structural parameters of lectins and glycans set instructive examples for the further design of selective inhibitors and assay procedures.

  2. Chuave Medial Verbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Robert C.

    1975-01-01

    This article discusses two syntactic processes known as chaining and linkage, insofar as they are relevant to Chuave, a Papuan language spoken in the East New Guinea Highlands. These processes are discussed in relation to Chuave medial verbs. (CLK)

  3. Clinical considerations of the glandular branch of the lacrimal artery.

    PubMed

    Kluckman, Matthew; Fan, Jerry; Balsiger, Heather; Scott, Gabriel; Gest, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The lacrimal artery is classically described as a branch of the ophthalmic artery supplied by the internal carotid. In this study, 25 orbits were dissected to identify variations in glandular branching and to compare them to previously published accounts. The glandular branching patterns of the lacrimal artery fall into two categories, those that branch (56%) and those that do not branch (44%). We found the medial and lateral glandular branches to be equal in diameter with a divergence of 2.67-40.58 mm proximal to the gland parenchyma. The long glandular branches run alongside the superolateral aspect of the orbit. The lateral branch runs lateral to the lateral rectus muscle. The medial branch runs superomedial to the lateral rectus muscle and lateral to the superior rectus muscle. In relation to the lacrimal gland, the medial branch enters the superior aspect of the gland parenchyma and the lateral branch enters its inferior aspect. The average branch lengths were 17.88 mm (medial) and 13.51 mm (lateral) as measured with a Mitutoyo Absolute 1/100 mm caliper. We could not confirm the existence of a third branch supplying the lacrimal gland, as posited by other authors. The key finding in this study is that the lacrimal gland is predominantly supplied by two significant arterial branches, both of which must be identified during procedures involving the lateral orbit.

  4. [Anatomical variants of the medial calcaneal nerve and the Baxter nerve in the tarsal tunnel].

    PubMed

    Martín-Oliva, X; Elgueta-Grillo, J; Veliz-Ayta, P; Orosco-Villaseñor, S; Elgueta-Grillo, M; Viladot-Perice, R

    2013-01-01

    The tarsal tunnel is composed of the posterior border of the medial malleoulus, the posterior aspect of the talus and the medial aspect of the calcaneus. The medial calcaneal nerve emerges from the posterior aspect of the posterior tibial nerve in 75% of cases and from the lateral plantar nerve in the remaining 25%. Finally, the medial calcaneal nerve ends as a single terminal branch in 79% of cases and in numerous terminal branches in the remaining 21%. To describe the anatomical variants of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches. To describe the steps for tarsal tunnel release. To describe Baxter nerve release. The anatomical variants of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches within the tarsal tunnel were studied. Then the Lam technique was performed; it consists of: 1) opening of the laciniate ligament, 2) opening of the fascia over the abductor hallucis muscle, 3) exoneurolysis of the posterior tibial nerve and its terminal branches, identifying the emergence and pathway of the medial calcaneal branch, the lateral plantar nerve and its Baxter nerve branch and the medial plantar nerve. Baxter nerve was found in 100% of cases. In 100% of cases in our series the nerve going to the abductor digiti minimi muscle of the foot was found; 87.5% of cases had two terminal branches. The dissections proved that a crucial step was the release of the distal tarsal tunnel.

  5. Application of Linear and Branched Poly(Ethylene Glycol)-Poly(Lactide) Block Copolymers for the Preparation of Films and Solution Electrospun Meshes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Martina; Groll, Juergen; Tessmar, Joerg

    2016-03-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PEG-PLA) block copolymers are processed to solvent cast films and solution electrospun meshes. The effect of polymer composition, architecture, and number of anchoring points for the plasticizer on swelling, degradation, and mechanical properties of these films and meshes is investigated as potential barrier device for the prevention of peritoneal adhesions. As a result, adequate properties are achieved for the massive films with a longer retention of the plasticizer PEG for star-shaped block copolymers than for the linear triblock copolymers and consequently more endurable mechanical properties during degradation. For electrospun meshes fabricated using the same polymers, similar trends are observed, but with an earlier start of fragmentation and lower tensile strengths. To overcome the poor mechanical strengths and an occurring shrinkage during incubation, which may impair the coverage of the wound, further adaptions of the meshes and the fabrication process are necessary.

  6. Medial plica syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sznajderman, Tal; Smorgick, Yossi; Lindner, Dror; Beer, Yiftah; Agar, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    Synovial plicae are membranous inward folds of the synovial lining of the knee joint capsula. Such folds are regularly found in the human knee, but most are asymptomatic and of little clinical consequence. However, they can become symptomatic and cause knee pain. In this review, we will discuss medial plica syndrome. Medial plica irritation of the knee is a common source of anterior knee pain. The main complaint is an intermittent, dull, aching pain in the area medial to the patella above the joint line and in the supramedial patellar area. Pain increases with activity, especially when knee flexion and extension are required. Treatment includes physiotherapy, reducing activity, and rest. In cases that do not respond initially to an exercise program, corticosteroid injections and non-steroidal antiinflammatory medication are given. Results of conservative treatment seem to be more appropriate in young patients with a short duration of symptoms. If conservative treatment fails, surgical treatment using arthroscopy is appropriate. During arthroscopy, excision of the whole plica should be achieved.

  7. Anterior Approach Total Ankle Arthroplasty: Superficial Peroneal Nerve Branches at Risk.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Jeffrey E; DeMill, Shyler L; Hyer, Christopher F; Berlet, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    In ankle arthroplasty, little attention has been given to intraoperative nerve injury and its postoperative sequelae. The aim of the present anatomic study was to determine the relationship of the superficial peroneal nerve to the standard anterior approach for total ankle arthroplasty. The superficial peroneal nerve was dissected in 10 below-the-knee cadaver specimens. The medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were identified. A needle was placed at the ankle joint. The following measurements were recorded: bifurcation into the medial and intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches, reference needle to the branches of the medial and intermediate superficial peroneal nerve, and the crossing branches of the medial dorsal cutaneous nerve. Two specimens (20%) had a medial dorsal cutaneous branch cross from medially to laterally. Eight specimens (80%) had a crossing branch of the medial dorsal cutaneous branch within 5 cm of the incision. No intermediate dorsal cutaneous branches were within the incision. The results from the present cadaver study suggest that during an anterior ankle approach, aberrant branches of the superficial peroneal nerve could require transection in 20% of patients at the joint level and ≤80% of patients with distal extension >35 mm from the ankle joint. The risk of injury to branches of the superficial peroneal nerve is substantial. The risk of nerve injury can be decreased with meticulous operative technique, smaller incisions, and the avoidance of aggressive retraction.

  8. Comparison of baroreceptive to other afferent synaptic transmission to the medial solitary tract nucleus.

    PubMed

    Andresen, Michael C; Peters, James H

    2008-11-01

    Cranial nerve visceral afferents enter the brain stem to synapse on neurons within the solitary tract nucleus (NTS). The broad heterogeneity of both visceral afferents and NTS neurons makes understanding afferent synaptic transmission particularly challenging. To study a specific subgroup of second-order neurons in medial NTS, we anterogradely labeled arterial baroreceptor afferents of the aortic depressor nerve (ADN) with lipophilic fluorescent tracer (i.e., ADN+) and measured synaptic responses to solitary tract (ST) activation recorded from dye-identified neurons in medial NTS in horizontal brain stem slices. Every ADN+ NTS neuron received constant-latency ST-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) (jitter < 192 micros, SD of latency). Stimulus-recruitment profiles showed single thresholds and no suprathreshold recruitment, findings consistent with EPSCs arising from a single, branched afferent axon. Frequency-dependent depression of ADN+ EPSCs averaged approximately 70% for five shocks at 50 Hz, but single-shock failure rates did not exceed 4%. Whether adjacent ADN- or those from unlabeled animals, other second-order NTS neurons (jitters < 200 micros) had ST transmission properties indistinguishable from ADN+. Capsaicin (CAP; 100 nM) blocked ST transmission in some neurons. CAP-sensitive ST-EPSCs were smaller and failed over five times more frequently than CAP-resistant responses, whether ADN+ or from unlabeled animals. Variance-mean analysis of ST-EPSCs suggested uniformly high probabilities for quantal glutamate release across second-order neurons. While amplitude differences may reflect different numbers of contacts, higher frequency-dependent failure rates in CAP-sensitive ST-EPSCs may arise from subtype-specific differences in afferent axon properties. Thus afferent transmission within medial NTS differed by axon class (e.g., CAP sensitive) but was indistinguishable by source of axon (e.g., baroreceptor vs. nonbaroreceptor).

  9. Branching Morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Arie; Simons, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Tubular structures are a fundamental anatomical theme recurring in a wide range of animal species. In mammals, tubulogenesis underscores the development of several systems and organs, including the vascular system, the lungs, and the kidneys. All tubular systems are hierarchical, branching into segments of gradually diminishing diameter. There are only two cell types that form the lumen of tubular systems – either endothelial cells in the vascular system, or epithelial cells in all other organs. The most important feature in determining the morphology of the tubular systems is the frequency and geometry of branching. Hence, deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the sprouting of new branches from pre-existing ones is the key to understanding the formation of tubular systems. The morphological similarity between the various tubular systems is underscored by similarities between the signaling pathways which control their branching. A prominent feature common to these pathways is their duality – an agonist counterbalanced by an inhibitor. The formation of the tracheal system in Drosophila melanogaster is driven by fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and inhibited by Sprouty/Notch. In vertebrates, the analogous pathways are FGF and transforming growth factor β in epithelial tubular systems, or vascular endothelial growth factor and Notch in the vascular system. PMID:19179661

  10. Prognosis assessment of persistent left bundle branch block after TAVI by an electrophysiological and remote monitoring risk-adapted algorithm: rationale and design of the multicentre LBBB–TAVI Study

    PubMed Central

    Massoullié, Grégoire; Bordachar, Pierre; Irles, Didier; Caussin, Christophe; Da Costa, Antoine; Defaye, Pascal; Jean, Frédéric; Mechulan, Alexis; Mondoly, Pierre; Souteyrand, Géraud; Pereira, Bruno; Ploux, Sylvain; Eschalier, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Percutaneous aortic valve replacement (transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI)) notably increases the likelihood of the appearance of a complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) by direct lesion of the LBB of His. This block can lead to high-grade atrioventricular conduction disturbances responsible for a poorer prognosis. The management of this complication remains controversial. Method and analysis The screening of LBBB after TAVI persisting for more than 24 hours will be conducted by surface ECG. Stratification will be performed by post-TAVI intracardiac electrophysiological study. Patients at high risk of conduction disturbances (≥70 ms His–ventricle interval (HV) or presence of infra-Hisian block) will be implanted with a pacemaker enabling the recording of disturbance episodes. Those at lower risk (HV <70 ms) will be implanted with a loop recorder device with remote monitoring of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Clinical, ECG and implanted device follow-up will also be performed at 3, 6 and 12 months. The primary objective is to assess the efficacy and safety of a decisional algorithm based on electrophysiological study and remote monitoring of CIEDs in the prediction of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI. The primary end point is to compare the incidence (rate and time to onset) of high-grade conduction disturbances in patients with LBBB after TAVI between the two groups at 12 months. Given the proportion of high-grade conduction disturbances (20–40%), a sample of 200 subjects will allow a margin of error of 6–7%. The LBBB–TAVI Study has been in an active recruiting phase since September 2015 (21 patients already included). Ethics and dissemination Local ethics committee authorisation was obtained in May 2015. We will publish findings from this study in a peer-reviewed scientific journal and present results at national and international conferences. Trial

  11. Congenital dystrophic medial rectus muscles

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Ramesh

    2017-01-01

    We report two patients, one with congenital dystrophic medial rectus muscles and one with absence of the medial rectus muscles; in addition, one of them had absence of the lateral rectus muscles. While absence of the superior oblique and superior rectus has been more commonly reported in literature, especially with craniofacial syndromes, our patients were nonsyndromic. Considering the risk of anterior segment ischemia, correction of the large-angle exotropia was performed by horizontal rectus muscle surgery where possible, along with transfer of the superior oblique tendon to the superior part of the normal medial rectus muscle insertion area to create a tethering effect with a good outcome. PMID:28300745

  12. An unusually medial axillary arch muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Dharap, A

    1994-01-01

    In the left upper limb of an adult male cadaver a triangular muscular slip, 3.5 cm long and 2.5 cm wide, arose from the lower border of latissimus dorsi just proximal to its tendon of insertion. It was inserted by a slender 6 cm long tendon mainly into the coracoid process of the scapula. Three short fibrous strands radiated from this slender tendon to gain attachments to pectoralis minor and the common tendon of origin of the short head of biceps brachii and coracobrachialis. In addition 2 flat tendinous bands attached the margin of this muscular slip to teres major. The thoracodorsal nerve entered the main bulk of latissimus dorsi close to the muscular slip but did not supply a separate branch to the latter. This is an axillary arch muscle in an unusually medial location. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7928652

  13. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, Jose Antonio; Yacuzzi, Carlos; Oñativia, Jose I.; Zicaro, Juan Pablo; Costa-Paz, Matias

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Recurrent patellofemoral dislocation is usually a multifactorial pathology. Different surgical techniques have been described according to the etiology of dislocation. In absence of a severe malalignment or an anatomical patellofemoral dysplasia, reconstruction of Medial Patello-femoral Ligament (MPFL) can restore the normal tracking of the patella, avoiding lateral excursion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical results and complications in patients who underwent a MPFL reconstruction. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated 19 patients who underwent an anatomic MPFL reconstruction using autologous semitendinosus graft between 2007 and 2012. Exclusion criteria were patients with less than three years of follow-up and those with an associated procedure such as distal realignment or trochleoplasty. Clinical outcomes were measured using Kujala score and return to sport rate. We registered the postoperative complications and recurrence rate. Results: Nine patients were men and 10 women with a mean age of 25 years. Average follow-up was 5.8 years. Nine patients (47.4%) returned to their previous sport level, 8 (42.1%) changed to another sport or decreased their level and 2 (10.5%) were unable to practice any sports at all. Kujala score improvement was from 62.8 preoperative to 88.8 postoperative. One patient decreased the Kujala score. Eighty-nine percent of patients were satisfied with their outcome. One patient had a patellar fracture and four developed an arthrofibrosis and required mobilization under anesthesia. No recurrences were registered. Conclusion: Isolated MPFL reconstruction for recurrent patellofemoral dislocation is an effective alternative in absence of severe malalignment or anatomical dysplasia. Although no recurrences where registered at minimum 3-year follow-up, almost half of the patients were not able to return to their previous sport level.

  14. Combining living anionic polymerization with branching reactions in an iterative fashion to design branched polymers.

    PubMed

    Higashihara, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yoo, Hee-Soo; Hayashi, Mayumi; Hirao, Akira

    2010-06-16

    This paper reviews the precise synthesis of many-armed and multi-compositional star-branched polymers, exact graft (co)polymers, and structurally well-defined dendrimer-like star-branched polymers, which are synthetically difficult, by a commonly-featured iterative methodology combining living anionic polymerization with branched reactions to design branched polymers. The methodology basically involves only two synthetic steps; (a) preparation of a polymeric building block corresponding to each branched polymer and (b) connection of the resulting building unit to another unit. The synthetic steps were repeated in a stepwise fashion several times to successively synthesize a series of well-defined target branched polymers.

  15. In Heart Failure Patients with Left Bundle Branch Block Single Lead MultiSpot Left Ventricular Pacing Does Not Improve Acute Hemodynamic Response To Conventional Biventricular Pacing. A Multicenter Prospective, Interventional, Non-Randomized Study

    PubMed Central

    Sterliński, Maciej; Sokal, Adam; Lenarczyk, Radosław; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic; Rinaldi, C. Aldo; Vanderheyden, Marc; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Francis, Darrel; Heynens, Joeri; Stegemann, Berthold; Cornelussen, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recent efforts to increase CRT response by multiSPOT pacing (MSP) from multiple bipols on the same left ventricular lead are still inconclusive. Aim The Left Ventricular (LV) MultiSPOTpacing for CRT (iSPOT) study compared the acute hemodynamic response of MSP pacing by using 3 electrodes on a quadripolar lead compared with conventional biventricular pacing (BiV). Methods Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) underwent an acute hemodynamic study to determine the %change in LV+dP/dtmax from baseline atrial pacing compared to the following configurations: BiV pacing with the LV lead in a one of lateral veins, while pacing from the distal, mid, or proximal electrode and all 3 electrodes together (i.e. MSP). All measurements were repeated 4 times at 5 different atrioventricular delays. We also measured QRS-width and individual Q-LV durations. Results Protocol was completed in 24 patients, all with LBBB (QRS width 171±20 ms) and 58% ischemic aetiology. The percentage change in LV+dP/dtmax for MSP pacing was 31.0±3.3% (Mean±SE), which was not significantly superior to any BiV pacing configuration: 28.9±3.2% (LV-distal), 28.3±2.7% (LV-mid), and 29.5±3.0% (LV-prox), respectively. Correlation between LV+dP/dtmax and either QRS-width or Q-LV ratio was poor. Conclusions In patients with LBBB MultiSPOT LV pacing demonstrated comparable improvement in contractility to best conventional BiV pacing. Optimization of atrioventricular delay is important for the best performance for both BiV and MultiSPOT pacing configurations. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NTC01883141 PMID:27124724

  16. Fault Branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Poliakov, A. N.

    2001-12-01

    Theoretical stress analysis for a propagating shear rupture suggests that the propensity of the rupture path to branch is determined by rupture speed and by the preexisting stress state. See Poliakov, Dmowska and Rice (JGR, submitted April 2001, URL below). Deviatoric stresses near a mode II rupture tip are found to be much higher to both sides of the fault plane than directly ahead, when rupture speed becomes close to the Rayleigh speed. However, the actual pattern of predicted Coulomb failure on secondary faults is strongly dependent on the angle between the fault and the direction of maximum compression Smax in the pre-stress field. Steep Smax angles lead to more extensive failure on the extensional side, whereas shallow angles give comparable failure regions on both. Here we test such concepts against natural examples. For crustal thrust faults we may assume that Smax is horizontal. Thus nucleation on a steeply dipping plane, like the 53 ° dip for the 1971 San Fernando earthquake, is consistent with rupture path kinking to the extensional side, as inferred. Nucleation on a shallow dip, like for the 12 ° -18 ° of the 1985 Kettleman Hills event, should activate both sides, as seems consistent with aftershock patterns. Similarly, in a strike slip example, Smax is inferred to be at approximately 60 ° with the Johnson Valley fault where it branched to the extensional side onto the Landers-Kickapoo fault in the 1992 event, and this too is consistent. Further, geological examination of the activation of secondary fault features along the Johnson Valley fault and the Homestead Valley fault consistently shows that most activity occurs on the extensional side. Another strike-slip example is the Imperial Valley 1979 earthquake. The approximate Smax direction is north-south, at around 35 ° with the main fault, where it branched, on the extensional side, onto Brawley fault, again interpretable with the concepts developed.

  17. Effect of conduction block at axon bifurcations on synaptic transmission to different postsynaptic neurones in the leech.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, X N

    1991-01-01

    1. The cutaneous receptive field of the medial pressure (mP) sensory neurone in the leech has been examined. The cell has one major receptive field and an anterior and a posterior minor receptive field, principally on lateral and dorsal skin. The two minor receptive fields are contiguous with the major receptive field and are innervated by fine anterior and posterior axons, but there is no overlap between major and minor receptive fields. 2. At low frequencies of stimulation of the minor receptive fields, conduction block takes place in the mP cell at the central branch point within the leech ganglion. 3. The mP cell synapses directly with many other cells in the leech ganglion, including the anterior pagoda (AP) cell, longitudinal (L) motoneurone and the annulus erector (AE) motoneurone, which were studied as a group of postsynaptic neurones. Conduction block in the mP cell affects its synaptic transmission to all three postsynaptic neurones, but the effect can be different in different postsynaptic neurones. Block at the central branch point for an impulse travelling along the anterior axon reduces transmission to the AE cell much more than to the AP or L cells, while block at the central branch for an impulse travelling along the posterior axon has the reverse effect. 4. The distribution of functional connections of the branches of the mP cell with each postsynaptic cell was studied. For this analysis, branches of the mP cell were selectively silenced either during conduction block or by laser microsurgery. Generally, nearly all of the functional connections with the L and AP cell are made by anterior branches of the mP cell while the connection with the AE cell was primarily made by posterior branches of the mP cell. 5. The possible sites of contact between the mP cell and postsynaptic cells were determined by injecting separate markers into the mP cell and a postsynaptic cell. In confirmation of physiology, the mP cell's posterior branches had few, if any

  18. The perforator-based conjoint (chimeric) medial Sural(MEDIAL GASTROCNEMIUS) free flap.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kazufumi; Hallock, Geoffrey G; Hamazaki, Masahiro; Daicyo, Yoshihiro

    2004-12-01

    The prototypical conjoint or so-called "chimeric" free flap heretofore has been composed of several large independent flaps, each supplied by a separate major branch, that ultimately arise from a common source vessel. The perforator-based type of chimeric flap is a relatively new concept, usually involving multiple muscle perforator flaps each based on a solitary musculocutaneous perforator, but still arising from the same "mother" vessel. This principle of split cutaneous perforator flaps has been now successfully adapted to the medial suralMEDIAL GASTROCNEMIUS perforator free flap on 2 separate occasions. As a chimeric flap, there was greater flexibility in insetting, and overall flap width may be larger but still narrow enough to allow primary donor site closure; and yet, by definition, only a single recipient site was needed for any microanastomoses. This is further proof that the perforator-based chimeric free flap may be an option for any muscle perforator flap donor site, so that potential donor territories for conjoint flaps have become virtually unlimited.

  19. Ulnar entrapment neuropathy along the medial intermuscular septum in the midarm.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Masashi; Ono, Nobuko; Kojima, Tomoko; Kusunose, Koichi

    2009-05-01

    We report a patient with primary ulnar entrapment neuropathy in the midarm. Stimulation of multiple sites along the ulnar nerve showed a motor conduction block at a distance of 7.5-10 cm proximal to the medial epicondyle, where the nerve was compressed by the medial intermuscular septum. Anatomically, the possibility of ulnar nerve entrapment in this segment has long been suggested, and stimulation at least 10 cm above the medial epicondyle may reveal the entrapment. Muscle Nerve 39: 707-710, 2009.

  20. Assessment of medial and lateral neurovascular structures after percutaneous posterior calcaneal displacement osteotomy: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Didomenico, Lawrence A; Anain, Joseph; Wargo-Dorsey, Mari

    2011-01-01

    A prospective investigation of the effects on the medial and lateral neurovascular structures of the rearfoot after percutaneous posterior calcaneal displacement osteotomy was performed using 20 below the knee fresh frozen cadaver specimens. This anatomic study aimed to examine the medial and lateral neurovascular structures to determine whether they were jeopardized during execution of the osteotomy. After completion of the osteotomy, the medial plantar, lateral plantar, medial calcaneal, sural, and posterior tibial neurovascular structures, along with their respective branches, were inspected for iatrogenic injury. Our findings demonstrated that the percutaneous, subperiosteal osteotomy minimized trauma to the local soft tissue envelope and protected the adjacent neurovascular structures. Because no iatrogenic injury was observed in the cadaveric specimens, we postulated that percutaneous calcaneal displacement osteotomy is a safe, predictable, and advantageous alternative compared with open techniques for osteotomy and could result in reduced postoperative complications. The results of this investigation remain to be confirmed in the clinical setting.

  1. New branches of massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comelli, D.; Crisostomi, M.; Koyama, K.; Pilo, L.; Tasinato, G.

    2015-06-01

    The basic building block for Lorentz-invariant and ghost-free massive gravity is the square root of the combination g-1η , where g-1 is the inverse of the physical metric and η is a reference metric. Since the square root of a matrix is not uniquely defined, it is possible to have physically inequivalent potentials corresponding to different branches. We show that around the Minkowski background, the only perturbatively well-defined branch is the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley. On the other hand, if Lorentz symmetry is broken spontaneously, other potentials exist with a standard perturbative expansion. We show this explicitly building new Lorentz-invariant, ghost-free massive gravity potentials for theories that in the background preserve rotational invariance but break Lorentz boosts.

  2. Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... not used to treat first-degree heart block. All types of heart block may increase your risk for other arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fih-brih-LA-shun). Talk with your doctor ...

  3. Population Blocks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  4. The snapping medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve.

    PubMed

    Cesmebasi, Alper; O'driscoll, Shawn W; Smith, Jay; Skinner, John A; Spinner, Robert J

    2015-10-01

    Snapping elbow is a well-known condition where elbow flexion and extension elicits a painful, popping sensation. The most frequent etiology is anterior dislocation of the ulnar nerve over the medial epicondyle. Four patients (3 females and 1 male) presented with complaints of a popping sensation in the elbow, pain over the medial aspect of the forearm, and ulnar neuritis. All patients underwent preoperative dynamic ultrasound and surgical exploration of the medial elbow. Intraoperatively, snapping of the MABC over the medial epicondyle was discovered in all four patients. In three patients, there was abnormal displacement of the medial triceps and ulnar nerve: in two of these, both structures dislocated over the medial epicondyle and in one patient both structures subluxated. In each case, the MABC was decompressed (n = 1) and transposed (n = 3), and in three cases, the medial triceps and ulnar nerve were addressed as well. Symptomatic improvement was achieved in all cases. Retrospective review of the ultrasound revealed the snapping MABC, though it was less effective prospectively in the cases when snapping MABC was not suspected. In conclusion, snapping of the MABC broadens the spectrum of disorders that results in snapping elbow. To our knowledge, we are unaware of prior reports of this entity.

  5. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  6. Medial medullary infarction: abnormal ocular motor findings.

    PubMed

    Kim, J Soo; Choi, K-D; Oh, S-Y; Park, S-H; Han, M-K; Yoon, B-W; Roh, J-K

    2005-10-25

    In 20 consecutive patients with isolated medial medullary infarction, abnormal ocular motor findings included nystagmus (n = 8), ocular contrapulsion (n = 5), and contralesional ocular tilt reaction (n = 2). The nystagmus was ipsilesional (n = 4), gaze-evoked (n = 5), upbeating (n = 4), and hemiseesaw (n = 1). The ocular motor abnormalities may be explained by involvements of the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi, medial longitudinal fasciculus or efferent fibers from the vestibular nuclei, climbing fibers, and cells of the paramedian tracts.

  7. Ionic Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevcik, Richard S.; Gamble, Rex; Martinez, Elizabet; Schultz, Linda D.; Alexander, Susan V.

    2008-01-01

    "Ionic Blocks" is a teaching tool designed to help middle school students visualize the concepts of ions, ionic compounds, and stoichiometry. It can also assist high school students in reviewing their subject mastery. Three dimensional blocks are used to represent cations and anions, with color indicating charge (positive or negative) and size…

  8. Melons are Branched Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurau, Razvan; Ryan, James P.

    2014-11-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  9. TopMaker: Technique Developed for Automatic Multiblock Topology Generation Using the Medial Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The TopMaker technique was developed in an effort to reduce the time required for grid generation in complex numerical studies. Topology generation accounts for much of the man-hours required for structured multiblock grids. With regard to structured multiblock grids, topology refers to how the blocks are arranged and connected. A two-dimensional multiblock topology generation technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Very general configurations can be addressed by the technique. A configuration is defined by a collection of non-intersecting closed curves, which will be referred to as loops. More than a single loop implies that holes exist in the domain, which poses no problem. This technique requires only the medial vertices and the touch points that define each vertex. From the information about the medial vertices, the connectivity between medial vertices is generated. The physical shape of the medial edge is not required. By applying a few simple rules to each medial edge, a multiblock topology can be generated without user intervention. The resulting topologies contain only the level of complexity dictated by the configurations. Grid lines remain attached to the boundary except at sharp concave turns, where a change in index family is introduced as would be desired. Keeping grid lines attached to the boundary is especially important in computational fluid dynamics, where highly clustered grids are used near no-slip boundaries. This technique is simple and robust and can easily be incorporated into the overall grid-generation process.

  10. Materials Test Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Gail

    2012-01-01

    The Materials Test Branch resides at Marshall Space Flight Center's Materials and Processing laboratory and has a long history of supporting NASA programs from Mercury to the recently retired Space Shuttle. The Materials Test Branch supports its customers by supplying materials testing expertise in a wide range of applications. The Materials Test Branch is divided into three Teams, The Chemistry Team, The Tribology Team and the Mechanical Test Team. Our mission and goal is to provide world-class engineering excellence in materials testing with a special emphasis on customer service.

  11. Lipids in biocalcification: contrasts and similarities between intimal and medial vascular calcification and bone by NMR.

    PubMed

    Reid, David G; Shanahan, Catherine M; Duer, Melinda J; Arroyo, Luis G; Schoppet, Michael; Brooks, Roger A; Murray, Rachel C

    2012-08-01

    Pathomechanisms underlying vascular calcification biogenesis are still incompletely understood. Biomineral from human atherosclerotic intimal plaques; human, equine, and bovine medial vascular calcifications; and human and equine bone was released from collagenous organic matrix by sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite digestion. Solid-state (13)C NMR of intimal plaque mineral shows signals from cholesterol/cholesteryl esters and fatty acids. In contrast, in mineral from pure medial calcifications and bone mineral, fatty acid signals predominate. Refluxing (chloroform/methanol) intimal plaque calcifications removes the cholesterylic but not the fatty acyl signals. The lipid composition of this refluxed mineral now closely resembles that of the medial and bone mineral, which is unchanged by reflux. Thus, intimal and medial vascular calcifications and bone mineral have in common a pool of occluded mineral-entrained fatty acyl-rich lipids. This population of fatty acid may contain methyl-branched fatty acids, possibly representing lipoprotein particle remnants. Cell signaling and mechanistic parallels between physiological (orthotopic) and pathological (ectopic) calcification are also reflected thus in the NMR spectroscopic fingerprints of mineral-associated and mineral-entrained lipids. Additionally the atherosclerotic plaque mineral alone shows a significant independent pool of cholesterylic lipids. Colocalization of mineral and lipid may be coincidental, but it could also reflect an essential mechanistic component of biomineralization.

  12. On Minkowskian branching structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroński, Leszek; Placek, Tomasz

    In Belnap's [Branching space-time. Synthese, 92, 385-434. 'Postprint' archived at http://philsci-archive.pitt.edu/archive/00001003] theory of branching space-times (BST) Our World's possible histories are thought of as space-times, yet the theory has models in which histories do not resemble relativistic space-times or any other physical space-times. The aim of this paper is to define a certain class of BST models, called 'Minkowskian Branching Structures' (MBSs), in which histories are isomorphic to Minkowski space-time. By focusing on these models rather than on general BST models, we hope that one may be able to improve on earlier BST analyses of physical phenomena. Also, introducing MBSs sets the stage for recent discussions about whether or not branching is physically feasible.

  13. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  14. Medial Canthoplasty Combined with Conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy for the Treatment of Delayed Medial Telecanthal Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hua; Li, Yang; Huang, Qian; Ding, Jing-Wen; Hou, Zhi-Jia; Li, Dong-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rupture of the medial canthal ligament can be caused by many events. It remains a challenge to rebuild the drainage system and restore the function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of medial canthoplasty combined with conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy (CDCR) in patients with medial telecanthal deformities and lacrimal drainage system damage. Methods: Twenty-two patients (22 eyes) treated with medial canthoplasty and CDCR during June 2012 to June 2014 were included in this retrospective study. For all patients, a self-tapping, titanium, low-profile head microscrew was drilled into the solid bone on the posterior aspect of the anterior lacrimal crest at the attachment position of the medial canthal ligament. Medpor-coated tear drainage tubes were applied. Distance of patient's lateral displacement before and after operation was recorded and compared. The complications of CDCR were described. Results: Before the surgery, distance of patient's canthal displacement was 4–6 mm. The canthal distance between two eyes of patients with surgery was 1 mm or less. Among patients with CDCR, four patients had proximal obstruction and two patients had distal obstruction. Five patients had tube malposition, for example, tube extrusion 1–3 months after surgery. Conclusions: Medial canthoplasty combined with CDCR is an effective surgical method for treatment of patients with medial telecanthal deformity and lacrimal drainage system obstruction. The study indicates that medial canthoplasty combined with CDCR surgery rebuilds normal appearance of eyelid and contour of the medial canthus and successfully repairs the function of the lacrimal drainage system. PMID:28303853

  15. Proximal Scaphoid Arthroplasty Using the Medial Femoral Trochlea Flap

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, James P.; Burger, Heinze K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The medial trochlea of the femur (medial femoral trochlea, MFT) provides a source of convex osteocartilaginous vascularized bone that has been demonstrated to have a similar contour to the proximal scaphoid. This provides a potential solution for difficult recalcitrant proximal pole scaphoid nonunions. Materials and Methods Sixteen consecutive patients who underwent MFT proximal scaphoid arthroplasty were reviewed. Follow-up data were recorded at a minimum of 6 months, with an average of 14 months. The results of this cohort were previously reported in detail but are summarized herein. Description of Technique The ability to reconstruct both bone and cartilage of the nonunion enables the surgeon to resect the nonunited proximal pole to prepare for scaphoid reconstruction. A segment of osteocartilaginous MFT is harvested in dimensions required by the scaphoid defect. The MFT segment is harvested on the transverse branch of the descending geniculate vessels. Fixation may be achieved with ease due to the size of the reconstructed segment. Results Computed tomography imaging demonstrated 15 of 16 reconstructed scaphoids achieving osseous union. Follow-up range of motion (ROM) of the wrist averaged 46.0° extension (range 28-80°) and 43.8° flexion (range 10-80°), which was similar to preoperative (average 45.7° extension and 43.0° flexion). Scapholunate angles remained unaffected (51.6° preoperatively and 48.6° postoperatively), indicating preservation of carpal relationships. Conclusions Vascularized MFT flaps provide a useful tool in the treatment of difficult proximal pole scaphoid nonunions. Early follow-up demonstrates high rate of achieving union with acceptable ROM and good pain relief. PMID:24436821

  16. Neuromuscular block

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them especially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are especially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of especial interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors. PMID:16402115

  17. Neuromuscular block.

    PubMed

    Bowman, W C

    2006-01-01

    Descriptions of the South American arrow poisons known as curares were reported by explorers in the 16th century, and their site of action in producing neuromuscular block was determined by Claude Bernard in the mid-19th century. Tubocurarine, the most important curare alkaloid, played a large part in experiments to determine the role of acetylcholine in neuromuscular transmission, but it was not until after 1943 that neuromuscular blocking drugs became established as muscle relaxants for use during surgical anaesthesia. Tubocurarine causes a number of unwanted effects, and there have been many attempts to replace it. The available drugs fall into two main categories: the depolarising blocking drugs and the nondepolarising blocking drugs. The former act by complex mixed actions and are now obsolete with the exception of suxamethonium, the rapid onset and brief duration of action of which remain useful for intubation at the start of surgical anaesthesia. The nondepolarising blocking drugs are reversible acetylcholine receptor antagonists. The main ones are the atracurium group, which possess a built-in self-destruct mechanism that makes them specially useful in kidney or liver failure, and the vecuronium group, which are specially free from unwanted side effects. Of this latter group, the compound rocuronium is of special interest because its rapid onset of action allows it to be used for intubation, and there is promise that its duration of action may be rapidly terminated by a novel antagonist, a particular cyclodextrin, that chelates the drug, thereby removing it from the acetylcholine receptors.

  18. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery: a new design for repairing composite tissue defects in anterior knee.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guangfeng; Nie, Kaiyu; Jin, Wenhu; Wei, Zairong; Qi, Jianping; Wang, Dali

    2015-01-01

    So far it has been difficult to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. Saphenous artery flap has been widely used to repair complex wounds, but the design and clinical application of composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery were not reported. In this research, we design a new composite tissue flap by carrying fascial flap in the medial gastrocnemius muscle with perforators flap in saphenous artery to repair and reconstruct the composite tissue defects in knee. By anatomic observation and analysis, we find that there exists blood-supply in netty form among saphenous arteries, medial artery below the knee, intermuscular branch in high-order position of posterior tibial artery and perforating branch in medial artery of calf. We chose saphenous artery as blood-supplying artery; utilized the netty blood-supplying mode in middle-up and medial part of shank; cut the composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle; reconstructed the ligamentum patellae using medial head of gastrocnemius muscle and Achilles's tendon; and covered the wounds at front side of knee with flap. Composite tissues were survived completely, free from infection at wounds and exosmosis of joint fluid. Motion function of knee-joint proved satisfactory, and ambulatory function was recovered. There was no complication in donor site. Composite tissue flap at perforating branches of saphenous artery with fascial flap carried in the medial gastrocnemius muscle is one of the most ideal solutions for repairing the composite tissue defects at front side of knee joint.

  19. Affective Aprosodia from a Medial Frontal Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Kenneth M.; Leon, Susan A.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectives: Whereas injury to the left hemisphere induces aphasia, injury to the right hemisphere's perisylvian region induces an impairment of emotional speech prosody (affective aprosodia). Left-sided medial frontal lesions are associated with reduced verbal fluency with relatively intact comprehension and repetition…

  20. [A case of medial medullary infarction with persistent primitive hypoglossal artery].

    PubMed

    Jin, Kazutaka; Aihara, Naoto; Tsukamoto, Tetsuro

    2002-04-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of vomiting, dizziness and vertigo. Neurological examination on admission revealed only upbeat nystagmus without cranial nerve symptoms, paresis, cerebellar signs or sensory disturbances. Magnetic resonance(MR) images demonstrated a new T 2 high intensity and T 1 iso-intensity signal lesion in the right upper medial medulla. This medial medullary infarction caused central vestibular dysfunction. MR angiography and digital subtraction angiography demonstrated a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA) originating from the right internal carotid artery to the vertebrobasilar artery associated with the stenosis of the right internal carotid artery at the level of the cervical bifurcation. This is the first report of medullary infarction with persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis. We suspected this medullary infarction was caused by artery to artery embolism in the branch of the right vertebral artery through the PPHA distal originated from the stenosis of the right internal carotid artery.

  1. Importance of anatomically locating the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve in reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament using flexor tendons☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Gali, Julio Cesar; Resina, André França; Pedro, Gabriel; Neto, Ildefonso Angelo Mora; Almagro, Marco Antonio Pires; da Silva, Phelipe Augusto Cintra; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the path of the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve (IBSN) using the medial joint line, anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT), tibial collateral ligament and a horizontal line parallel to the medial joint line that passes over the ATT, as reference points, in order to help surgeons to diminish the likelihood of injuring this nerve branch during reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) using flexor tendons. Methods Ten frozen knees that originated from amputations were examined. Through anatomical dissection performed with the specimens flexed, we sought to find the IBSN, from its most medial and proximal portion to its most lateral and distal portion. Following this, the anatomical specimens were photographed and, using the ImageJ software, we determined the distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line and to a lower horizontal line going through the ATT and parallel to the first line. We also measured the angle of the direction of the path of the nerve branch in relation to this lower line. Results The mean angle of the path of the nerve branch in relation to the lower horizontal line was 17.50 ± 6.17°. The mean distance from the IBSN to the medial joint line was 2.61 ± 0.59 cm and from the IBSN to the lower horizontal line, 1.44 ± 0.51 cm. Conclusion The IBSN was found in all the knees studied. In three knees, we found a second branch proximal to the first one. The direction of its path was always from proximal and medial to distal and lateral. The IBSN was always proximal and medial to the ATT and distal to the medial joint line. The medial angle between its direction and a horizontal line going through the ATT was 17.50 ± 6.17°. PMID:26229872

  2. Role of the medial septum cholinoceptors in anxiogenic-like effects of nicotine.

    PubMed

    Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Tajik, Rohjan; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Nasehi, Mohammad; Rezayof, Ameneh

    2013-07-02

    The medial septum which is extensively connected to the hippocampus is involved in cholinergic theta oscillation control as well as the anxiety related disorders. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the possible involvement of the medial septum cholinoceptors in the nicotine-induced anxiogenic-like behaviors in rats, using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. Intraperitoneal administration of nicotine at 0.6 and 0.8 mg/kg, decreased the open-arms time percentage (%OAT) and open-arms entries percentage (%OAE); indicating an anxiogenic-like response. Intra-medial septum microinjection of mecamylamine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) antagonist at the doses of 1-4 μg/rat, increased %OAT (4 μg/rat), suggesting an anxiolytic-like effect. This however, did not alter the anxiogenic-like response induced by the effective dose of nicotine (0.6 mg/kg). Moreover, co-administration of the subthreshold dose of mecamylamine (2 μg/rat) plus nicotine at the dose of 0.5 or 0.6 mg/kg, increased or decreased the anxiolytic-like behaviors, respectively. On the other hand, sole intra-medial septum infusion of atropine, a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) antagonist, induced an anxiolytic (0.05 μg/rat) and anxiogenic (0.25 μg/rat)-like effects, respectively. The dose of 0.05 μg/rat however, blocked the nicotine response. Furthermore, intra-medial septum microinjection of the highest dose of mecamylamine (4 μg/rat) plus nicotine (0.6 mg/kg) decreased the locomotor activity, while other treatments had no effect on this parameter. Our results suggested that, nicotine-induced anxiogenic-like behaviors may be mediated via the activation of cholinoceptors and possibly other receptor mechanism(s) in the medial septum.

  3. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  4. Pen Branch delta expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.A.; Christensen, E.J.; Mackey, H.E.; Sharitz, R.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Hodgson, M.E.

    1984-02-01

    Since 1954, cooling water discharges from K Reactor ({anti X} = 370 cfs {at} 59 C) to Pen Branch have altered vegetation and deposited sediment in the Savannah River Swamp forming the Pen Branch delta. Currently, the delta covers over 300 acres and continues to expand at a rate of about 16 acres/yr. Examination of delta expansion can provide important information on environmental impacts to wetlands exposed to elevated temperature and flow conditions. To assess the current status and predict future expansion of the Pen Branch delta, historic aerial photographs were analyzed using both basic photo interpretation and computer techniques to provide the following information: (1) past and current expansion rates; (2) location and changes of impacted areas; (3) total acreage presently affected. Delta acreage changes were then compared to historic reactor discharge temperature and flow data to see if expansion rate variations could be related to reactor operations.

  5. Unusual and Unique Variant Branches of Lateral Cord of Brachial Plexus and its Clinical Implications- A Cadaveric Study

    PubMed Central

    Padur, Ashwini Aithal; Shanthakumar, Swamy Ravindra; Shetty, Surekha Devadas; Prabhu, Gayathri Sharath; Patil, Jyothsna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Adequate knowledge on variant morphology of brachial plexus and its branches are important in clinical applications pertaining to trauma and surgical procedures of the upper extremity. Aim Current study was aimed to report variations of the branches of the lateral cord of brachial plexus in the axilla and their possible clinical complications. Materials and Methods Total number of 82 upper limbs from 41 formalin embalmed cadavers was dissected. Careful observation was made to note the formation and branching pattern of lateral cord. Meticulous inspection for absence of branches, presence of additional or variant branches and presence of abnormal communications between its branches or with branches of other cords was carried out. Results In the present study, we noted varied branching pattern of lateral cord in 6 out of 82 limbs (7%). In one of the limb, the median nerve was formed by three roots; two from lateral cord and one from medial cord. Two limbs had absence of lateral pectoral nerve supplemented by medial pectoral nerves. One of which had an atypical ansa pectoralis. In 2 upper limbs, musculocutaneous nerve was absent and in both cases it was supplemented by median nerve. In one of the limb, coracobrachialis had dual nerve supply by musculocutaneous nerve and by an additional branch from the lateral cord. Conclusion Variations of brachial plexus and its branches could pose both intraoperative and postoperative complications which eventually affect the normal sensory and motor functions of the upper limb. PMID:27190783

  6. Anatomy of the medial femoral circumflex artery with respect to the vascularity of the femoral head.

    PubMed

    Zlotorowicz, M; Szczodry, M; Czubak, J; Ciszek, B

    2011-11-01

    We performed a series of 16 anatomical dissections on Caucasian cadaver material to determine the surgical anatomy of the medial femoral circumflex artery (MFCA) and its anastomoses. These confirmed that the femoral head receives its blood supply primarily from the MFCA via a group of posterior superior nutrient arteries and the posterior inferior nutrient artery. In terms of anastomoses that may also contribute to the blood supply, the anastomosis with the inferior gluteal artery, via the piriformis branch, is the most important. These dissections provide a base of knowledge for further radiological studies on the vascularity of the normal femoral head and its vascularity after dislocation of the hip.

  7. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  8. Front Range Branch Officers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Front Range Branch of AGU has installed officers for 1990: Ray Noble, National Center for Atmospheric Research, chair; Sherry Oaks, U.S. Geological Survey, chair-elect; Howard Garcia, NOAA, treasurer; Catharine Skokan, Colorado School of Mines, secretary. JoAnn Joselyn of NOAA is past chair. Members at large are Wallace Campbell, NOAA; William Neff, USGS; and Stephen Schneider, NCAR.

  9. Branching space-times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placek, Tomasz; Müller, Thomas

    The five papers presented below have been selected from among the fourteen read at the European Science Foundation workshop Branching Space-Times (BST), held at the Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, in October 2005. This event gathered for the first time leading researchers working on this subject.

  10. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique.

  11. Medial Cochlear Efferent Function: A Theoretical Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mountain, David C.

    2011-11-01

    Since the discovery of the cochlear efferent system, many hypotheses have been put forth for its function. These hypotheses for its function range from protecting the cochlea from over stimulation to improving the detection of sounds in noise. It is known that the medial efferent system innervates the outer hair cells and that stimulation of this system reduces basilar membrane and auditory nerve sensitivity which suggests that this system acts to decrease the gain of the cochlear amplifier. Here I present modeling results as well as analysis of published experimental data that suggest that the function of the medial efferent reflex is to decrease the cochlear amplifier gain by just the right amount so that the nonlinearity in the basilar membrane response lines up perfectly with the inner hair cell nonlinear transduction process to produce a hair cell receptor potential that is proportional to the logarithm of the sound pressure level.

  12. Masseter and medial pterygoid muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Guruprasad, R; Rishi, Sudhirkumar; Nair, Preeti P; Thomas, Shaji

    2011-09-26

    Hypertrophy refers to an enlargement caused by an increase in the size but not in the number of cells. Generalised masticatory muscle hypertrophy may affect the temporalis muscle, masseters and medial pterygoids in a variety of combinations. Masseteric hypertrophy may present as either unilateral or bilateral painless swelling of unknown origin in the region of angle of mandible. It is a relatively rare condition and presents a diagnostic dilemma. While the history and clinical examination are important in differentiating this benign condition from parotid or dental pathology, they cannot necessarily exclude rare malignant lesion within the muscle. Advanced imaging modalities like CT and MRI are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Here the authors are reporting a unique case of masseter muscle hypertrophy along with medial pterygoid hypertrophy which was missed clinically but confirmed using CT and MRI.

  13. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M

    2015-12-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis.

  14. Medial septal lesion enhances general anesthesia response.

    PubMed

    Leung, L Stan; Ma, Jingyi; Shen, Bixia; Nachim, Ilan; Luo, Tao

    2013-09-01

    Electrolytic lesion of the medial septum, a basal forebrain nucleus that projects to the hippocampus, prolonged the emergence from general anesthesia in rats. Septal lesioned rats required a longer time to recover from a loss of righting reflex (LORR) and a loss of tail-pinch response after injectable (20 mg/kg i.p. pentobarbital, 5mg/kg i.v. propofol) or volatile (1.5% halothane, 2% isoflurane) anesthetic. When incremental doses of propofol were given i.p., septal lesioned rats as compared to control rats showed LORR at a lower dose of propofol. Similarly, when the rats were exposed to increasing concentrations of isoflurane, the percent of rats showing LORR was leftward shifted for lesioned rats as compared to control rats. Septal lesioned rats as compared to control rats showed decreased locomotor activity when exposed to 1.5% halothane. Lesion of the medial septum was confirmed by thionin-stained histological sections as well as loss of acetylcholinesterase (AchE) staining in the hippocampus, indicating a depletion of septohippocampal cholinergic afferents. Medial septal lesion resulted in a near complete loss of hippocampal theta rhythm during walking and a general decrease in power of the hippocampal EEG at all frequencies (0-100 Hz), during walking or immobility. It is concluded that lesion of medial septum, in part through a loss of septohippocampal cholinergic afferents, increased the anesthesia response to volatile and injectable general anesthetics, during both induction and emergence. It is suggested that the septohippocampal system participates in many components of general anesthesia including hypnosis, immobility, and analgesia.

  15. Posterior sternoclavicular Salter-Harris fracture-dislocation in a patient with unossified medial clavicle epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Beckmann, Nicholas; Crawford, Lindsay

    2016-08-01

    Sternoclavicular injuries are relatively rare, composing less than 1 % of all musculoskeletal fractures or dislocations. When sternoclavicular injuries do occur, they typically present as an isolated dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint without associated fracture of the clavicle or manubrium. However, in patients with unfused medial clavicle physis, sternoclavicular joint injuries can present as a fracture-dislocation through the unfused physis. These physeal injuries are important to recognize as the displaced epiphysis can block reduction of the sternoclavicular joint. We present a case of a 15-year-old female basketball player presenting with suspected sternoclavicular joint injury after sustaining a direct blow to the left shoulder. An initial shoulder CT confirmed the presence of the clinically suspected posterior sternoclavicular dislocation without fracture identified. An MRI of the left sternoclavicular joint was then performed for suspected physeal fracture, which confirmed the presence of a fracture through the medial clavicle physis with anterior displacement of the unossified epiphysis, blocking reduction of the metaphysis. Given the findings on MRI, the pediatric orthropedic surgeon was able to counsel the family of the high likelihood of failed closed reduction of the sternoclavicular joint requiring conversion to open reduction and internal fixation. The patient underwent successful open reduction and internal fixation of the medial clavical physeal fracture after an initial gentle attempt at closed reduction was unsuccessful.

  16. Variations in the origin of the medial calcaneal nerve.

    PubMed

    Dellon, A Lee; Kim, Jaesuk; Spaulding, Cecily M

    2002-02-01

    Previous anatomic studies of the medial heel region were done on embalmed human cadavers. Here, the innervation of the medial heel region was studied by dissecting living tissue with the use of 3.5-power loupe magnification during decompression of the medial ankle for tarsal tunnel syndrome in 85 feet. The medial heel was found to be innervated by just one medial calcaneal nerve in 37% of the feet, by two medial calcaneal nerves in 41%, by three medial calcaneal nerves in 19%, and by four medial calcaneal nerves in 3%. An origin for a medial calcaneal nerve from the medial plantar nerve was found in 46% of the feet. This nerve most often innervates the skin of the posteromedial arch, where it is at risk for injury during calcaneal spur removal or plantar fasciotomy. Knowledge of the variations in location of the medial calcaneal nerves may prevent neuroma formation during surgery and provide insight into the variability of heel symptoms associated with tarsal tunnel syndrome.

  17. Percutaneous Partial Medial Collateral Ligament Release (PPMCLR) Does Not Result in Residual Medial Collateral Laxity (MCL)

    PubMed Central

    Hinton, M. Alan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The intra-articular posterior medial knee can be difficult to approach during arthroscopy. This is especially true for medial meniscal tears, medial meniscal repairs or medial meniscal transplantation. Various methods and instruments have been proposed to help with this approach. PPMCLR is one of these methods. This study found that this is a safe technique and does not result in measurable laxity of the MCL. Methods: 50 consecutive patients took part in the study. The patients were then randomized into a control or partial percutaneous release group (25 in each group). Prior to arthroscopy each patient had standardized 30 degree valgus stress radiograph performed. The MCL was stressed with the Telos Stress Device GA/III at 30 degrees of flexion; utilizing 150 Newton's of stress. The stress radiographs were measured independently for the maximal separation at the medial compartment. At six weeks the stress radiographs were repeated and the results again recorded. The postoperative care for each group was the same. Results: The results were then statistically evaluated using the, finding no radiographic evidence of residual laxity P<.005. There was also no difference in the control and PPMCLR group p<.0005. No patient complained of residual laxity. Patient follow up will be discussed. Conclusion: PPMCLR is an effective and safe method to reach the intra-articular posterior aspect of the knee during arthroscopy. PPMCLR does not result in measurable laxity of the MCL.

  18. Glutamatergic synaptic depression by synthetic amyloid beta-peptide in the medial septum.

    PubMed

    Santos-Torres, Julio; Fuente, Antonio; Criado, Jose Maria; Riolobos, Adelaida Sanchez; Heredia, Margarita; Yajeya, Javier

    2007-02-15

    The medial septum/diagonal band region, which participates in learning and memory processes via its cholinergic and GABAergic projection to the hippocampus, is one of the structures affected by beta amyloid (betaA) deposition in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The acute effects of betaA (25-35 and 1-40) on action potential generation and glutamatergic synaptic transmission in slices of the medial septal area of the rat brain were studied using current and patch-clamp techniques. The betaA mechanism of action through M1 muscarinic receptors and voltage-dependent calcium channels was also addressed. Excitatory evoked responses decreased (30-60%) in amplitude after betaA (2 microM) perfusion in 70% of recorded cells. However, the firing properties were unaltered at the same concentration. This depression was irreversible in most cases, and was not prevented or reversed by nicotine (5 microM). In addition, the results obtained using a paired-pulse protocol support pre- and postsynaptic actions of the peptide. The betaA effect was blocked by calcicludine (50 nM), a selective antagonist of L-type calcium channels, and also by blocking muscarinic receptors with atropine (5 muM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), a more specific M1-receptor blocker. We show that in the medial septal area this oligomeric peptide acts through calcium channels and muscarinic receptors. As blocking any of these pathways blocks the betaA effects, we propose a joint action through both mechanisms. These results may contribute to a better understanding of the pathophysiology at the onset of AD. This understanding will be required for the development of new therapeutic agents.

  19. Branching structure and strain hardening of branched metallocene polyethylenes

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Enrique; Li, Si-Wan; Costeux, Stéphane; Dealy, John M.

    2015-09-15

    There have been a number of studies of a series of branched metallocene polyethylenes (BMPs) made in a solution, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) polymerization. The materials studied vary in branching level in a systematic way, and the most highly branched members of the series exhibit mild strain hardening. An outstanding question is which types of branched molecules are responsible for strain hardening in extension. This question is explored here by use of polymerization and rheological models along with new data on the extensional flow behavior of the most highly branched members of the set. After reviewing all that is known about the effects of various branching structures in homogeneous polymers and comparing this with the structures predicted to be present in BMPs, it is concluded that in spite of their very low concentration, treelike molecules with branch-on-branch structure provide a large number of deeply buried inner segments that are essential for strain hardening in these polymers.

  20. 19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL, METAL LIGHT STANDARD, AT NORTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM WEST, SHOWING SIMPLE ORNAMENTATION OF BASE OF STANDARD, WITH 'UNION METAL' IMPRINT - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  1. Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Jan; Sullivan, Shannon; Chung, Jeffrey M; Ross, Ian B; Mamelak, Adam N; Rutishauser, Ueli

    2017-04-01

    Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors and was predictive of memory content. Medial frontal cortex persistent activity, on the other hand, was modulated by memory load and task set but was not stimulus-specific. Trial-by-trial variability in persistent activity in both areas was related to memory strength, because it predicted the speed and accuracy by which stimuli were remembered. This work reveals, in humans, direct evidence for a distributed network of persistently active neurons supporting working memory maintenance.

  2. Management of medial-sided knee injuries, part 1: medial collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Milford H; Tibor, Lisa M; Sekiya, Jon K; Hardaker, William T; Garrett, William E; Taylor, Dean C

    2011-05-01

    The medial collateral ligament complex is a primary stabilizer that combines static and dynamic resistance to direct valgus stress while contributing significant restraints to rotatory motion and anterior-posterior translation. Varying opinions exist among investigators regarding injury classification and treatment algorithms. Whereas most agree that the majority of isolated medial collateral ligament complex injuries can be treated nonoperatively, isolated injuries with chronic instability and multiligament injuries may require operative intervention. Substantial confounding factors are present within published reports, making comparative analyses and systematic review challenging. This review focuses on the anatomy and biomechanics of the medial structures of the knee; it discusses the clinical evaluation of complex injuries; and it reviews nonoperative and operative treatment methods.

  3. Post-ablative reconstruction of the medial canthus and medial orbital wall using conchal cartilage graft with three illustrative cases.

    PubMed

    Dagregorio, G; Darsonval, V

    2005-12-01

    When the medial third of the upper or lower eyelid has to be reconstructed after full-thickness tumour excision, we usually use Hübner tarsomarginal grafts, but when medial canthal lesions spread to the medial orbital wall without invading the orbital margin, conchal graft becomes our first surgical option. Previously reported solutions to this difficult problem are few and concern more directly medial orbital wall fractures. We found no article dealing specifically with the use of conchal graft in post-ablative reconstruction of the medial orbital wall. Nevertheless the concha presents great advantages over bone grafting or rib cartilage, because it is more flexible and malleable. And it is less prone to extrusion or infection as may be allografts implants. It is a very effective way to repair medial orbital defects, but graft reorientation must be perfect to match exactly the medial orbital wall concavity.

  4. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Gaschen, Lorrie; Angelette, Nik; Stout, Rhett

    2010-01-01

    Herein, we describe the normal contrast-enhanced harmonic, color, and power Doppler ultrasonographic characteristics of the medial iliac lymph nodes in healthy dogs. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes was performed on 14 healthy dogs after intravenous administration of the lipoprotein-bound inert gas-filled microbubble contrast media Definity. Time-pixel intensity curves were generated for 1-min postinjection. Quantification of these curves was performed using Philips QLab software. Non-contrast-enhanced power and color Doppler examinations were performed in each node to assess vascular patterns subjectively. Normal lymph nodes exhibited a mean contrast wash-in phase beginning at 6.3 s from the time of injection with mean peak pixel intensity at 12.1s. Angioarchitecture was best visualized with contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasound compared with power and color Doppler. Normal lymph nodes in dogs have a central artery with a centrifugal and uniform branching pattern. Contrast-enhanced harmonic ultrasonography is a noninvasive examination that demonstrates improved visibility of the intranodal architecture of healthy medial iliac lymph nodes in dogs compared with conventional, non-contrast-enhanced Doppler methods that may have future clinical applications.

  5. The lateral column lengthening and medial column stabilization procedures.

    PubMed

    Chi, T D; Toolan, B C; Sangeorzan, B J; Hansen, S T

    1999-08-01

    The results of medial column stabilization, lateral column lengthening, and combined medial and lateral procedures were reviewed in the treatment of adult acquired flatfoot secondary to posterior tibialis tendon insufficiency. All bony procedures were accompanied by transfer of the flexor digitorum longus tendon to the medial cuneiform or stump of the posterior tibialis tendon and tendoachilles lengthening or gastrocnemius recession. Medial column fusion was performed for naviculocuneiform and cuneiform first metatarsal sag; lateral column lengthening was performed for calcaneovalgus deformity with a flat pitch angle; and combined procedures were performed for complex combined deformities. At 1 to 4 year followup of 65 feet, 88% of the feet that had lateral column lengthening, 80% that had medial column stabilization, and 88% of the feet that had medial and lateral procedures had a decrease in pain or were pain free. The lateral talar first metatarsal angle improved by 16 degrees in the patients in the lateral column lengthening group, 20 degrees in the patients in the medial column stabilization group, and 24 degrees in the patients in the combined medial and lateral procedures group. The anteroposterior talonavicular coverage angle improved by 14 degrees in the patients in the lateral column lengthening group, 10 degrees in the patients in the medial column stabilization group, and 14 degrees in the patients in the combined medial and lateral procedures group. These techniques effectively correct deformity without disrupting the essential joints of the hindfoot and midfoot.

  6. Applied anatomy of the fasciocutaneous branch of the third perforator artery of the deep femoral artery

    PubMed Central

    de Araujo Netto, Belmino Corrêa; Ferreira, Lydia Masako; de Oliveira Santos, Ivan Dunshee Abranches

    2003-01-01

    A study of the anatomy of the fasciocutaneous branch of the third perforator artery of the deep femoral artery was performed to help the elaboration of a fasciocutaneous flap for the reconstruction of skin and subcutaneous and deep fascia of the knee and popliteal region. Forty thighs in 27 fresh cadavers were dissected. In all of the thighs, the third perforator artery was found to arise from the deep femoral artery and reach the posterior aspect of the thigh after perforating the adductor magnus muscle. At that point it was also found that the third perforator artery gives off a branch that emerges through the intermuscular septum between the vast lateral muscle and the long head of the biceps femoral muscle, then crosses the posterior cutaneous nerve and moves directly on to perforate the deep fascia and then to bifurcate into two other branches: one ascending and one descending. The cutaneous area of the flap of the thigh’s posterior region, nourished by the fasciocutaneous branch, was evaluated through the injection of dye. Dying of the upper medial, middle medial, lower medial and lower lateral areas of the flap was not successful in all of the dissected thighs. Nevertheless, the upper lateral and the middle lateral areas were dyed successfully in all 40 dissected thighs of the 27 cadavers. PMID:24115846

  7. Medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty: technical pearls

    PubMed Central

    BONIFORTI, FILIPPO

    2015-01-01

    Unicondylar knee arthroplasty implantation is extremely demanding as the prosthesis needs to be integrated in the natural anatomy of the knee. It ensures the integrity of the natural knee kinematic. Some studies and registries data have shown lower success rate in comparison with total knee arthroplasty, and patient-related factors may have an impact on outcome. While, better results have been published by high volume centres. The indications for surgery should be reconsidered critically, even if medial osteoarthritis of the knee remains the most common. This article sets out the diagnostic, and surgical steps in order to fine tuning the unicompartmental replacement of the knee. PMID:26605256

  8. Anterior medial prefrontal cortex implements social priming of mimicry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yin; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2015-04-01

    The neural and cognitive mechanisms by which primed constructs can impact on social behavior are poorly understood. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to explore how scrambled sentence priming can impact on mimicry behavior. Sentences involving pro/antisocial events from a first/third-person point of view were presented in short blocks, followed by a reaction-time assessment of mimicry. Behavioral results showed that both prosociality and viewpoint impact on mimicry, and fMRI analysis showed this effect is implemented by anterior medial prefrontal cortex (amPFC). We suggest that social primes may subtly modulate processing in amPFC in a manner linked to the later behavior, and that this same region also implements the top-down control of mimicry responses. This priming may be linked to processing of self-schemas in amPFC. Our findings demonstrate how social priming can be studied with fMRI, and have important implications for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of prime-to-behavior effects as well as for current theories in social psychology.

  9. Medial knee joint loading increases in those who respond to hyaluronan injection for medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Briem, Kristin; Axe, Michael J; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2009-11-01

    Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is a cause of decline in function and the medial compartment is often affected. Intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA) is indicated as a symptom modifying treatment with at least 6 months passing between consecutive injection series. The effects of HA injection on gait variables have not been extensively examined. Therefore, our objective was to investigate the effects of HA injection on gait in people with medial knee OA. Twenty-seven subjects were included; each was tested prior to treatment (baseline), no later than 3 weeks following the last injection (post-HA), and again 5 months after treatment ended (follow-up). Responder criteria were defined to identify responders and non-responders. Subjects underwent 3D gait analysis, muscle activity was sampled, and co-contraction indices were calculated. Responders experienced increased peak knee adduction moments post-HA, whereas non-responders did not. Improved self-report scores were associated with increased knee adduction moments and increased medial co-contraction. Pain relief may result in higher loading onto the already vulnerable medial compartment due to changes in lower limb mechanics and muscle activation patterns. Eventually this may result in a more rapid progression of joint deterioration.

  10. Thermal Energy Conversion Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bielozer, Matthew C.; Schreiber, Jeffrey, G.; Wilson, Scott D.

    2004-01-01

    The Thermal Energy Conversion Branch (5490) leads the way in designing, conducting, and implementing research for the newest thermal systems used in space applications at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Specifically some of the most advanced technologies developed in this branch can be broken down into four main areas: Dynamic Power Systems, Primary Solar Concentrators, Secondary Solar Concentrators, and Thermal Management. Work was performed in the Dynamic Power Systems area, specifically the Stirling Engine subdivision. Today, the main focus of the 5490 branch is free-piston Stirling cycle converters, Brayton cycle nuclear reactors, and heat rejection systems for long duration mission spacecraft. All space exploring devices need electricity to operate. In most space applications, heat energy from radioisotopes is converted to electrical power. The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) already supplies electricity for missions such as the Cassini Spacecraft. The focus of today's Stirling research at GRC is aimed at creating an engine that can replace the RTG. The primary appeal of the Stirling engine is its high system efficiency. Because it is so efficient, the Stirling engine will significantly reduce the plutonium fuel mission requirements compared to the RTG. Stirling is also being considered for missions such as the lunar/Mars bases and rovers. This project has focused largely on Stirling Engines of all types, particularly the fluidyne liquid piston engine. The fluidyne was developed by Colin D. West. This engine uses the same concepts found in any type of Stirling engine, with the exception of missing mechanical components. All the working components are fluid. One goal was to develop and demonstrate a working Stirling Fluidyne Engine at the 2nd Annual International Energy Conversion Engineering Conference in Providence, Rhode Island.

  11. Combustion Branch Website Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  12. Medial subluxation of the patella without previous lateral retinacular release.

    PubMed

    Richman, N M; Scheller, A D

    1998-07-01

    This case presented a 17-year-old patient with persistent complaints localized to the right patellofemoral joint. Clinical examination demonstrated increased medial translation of the patella on manual stress. In contrast to previous published reports on medial patellar subluxation, this patient had not undergone prior lateral retinacular release. Arthroscopic examination documented medial tracking of the patella as well as excess medial translation. Imbrication of the patient's lateral patellar retinaculum centralized patella tracking and diminished medial translation on stress testing as observed arthroscopically and clinically. This case illustrates that medial patellar subluxation is a subtle problem that may be overlooked in the patient presenting with patellofemoral complaints and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  13. Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengle, Tom; Flores-Amaya, Felipe

    2000-01-01

    This report summarizes the major activities and accomplishments carried out by the Flight Dynamics Analysis Branch (FDAB), Code 572, in support of flight projects and technology development initiatives in fiscal year 2000. The report is intended to serve as a summary of the type of support carried out by the FDAB, as well as a concise reference of key accomplishments and mission experience derived from the various mission support roles. The primary focus of the FDAB is to provide expertise in the disciplines of flight dynamics, spacecraft trajectory, attitude analysis, and attitude determination and control. The FDAB currently provides support for missions and technology development projects involving NASA, government, university, and private industry.

  14. [Medial epicondylitis. Etiology, diagnosis, therapeutic modalities].

    PubMed

    Tschantz, P; Meine, J

    1993-01-01

    Medial epicondylitis is rather uncommon, less frequent than external epicondylitis. For this reason, the diagnosis is thought of rather late. While taking the history, one should try to find out the possible causative effects. Symptoms of irritation of the cubital nerve, which are present in one out of five cases should be looked for. Several sports such as baseball, javelin or weight throwing, volleyball, climbing, tennis, golf, which need a strong flexion of the hand and fingers can induce this condition. However, in more than half of our patients, sports or professional activities were not in cause. The majority were housewives and do-it-yourself enthusiasts. Among our 55 operated cases, out of which few had professional or sports activities, we did not encounter during the operation the macroscopic tendinous lesions that are sometimes described by some authors. The treatment should be conservative in all cases. This includes rest, anti-inflammatory drugs, physiotherapy, muscular stretching, immobilisation in a cast, steroid infiltrations. One patient out of ten will have to be operated on. The operative techniques differ on some details, but they all include the desinsertion of the flexor muscles on the medial epicondyle. When there are clinical signs of irritation of the cubital nerve, it should be transposed anteriorly. The result of these operations is good in more than 90 per cent of the cases. However, a come back to professional sport can take as long as 8 months.

  15. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  16. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Amit Kanta, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis. PMID:28070434

  17. Medial Prefrontal-Medial Temporal Theta Phase Coupling in Dynamic Spatial Imagery.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Raphael; Bush, Daniel; Bisby, James A; Horner, Aidan J; Meyer, Sofie S; Burgess, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Hippocampal-medial prefrontal interactions are thought to play a crucial role in mental simulation. Notably, the frontal midline/medial pFC (mPFC) theta rhythm in humans has been linked to introspective thought and working memory. In parallel, theta rhythms have been proposed to coordinate processing in the medial temporal cortex, retrosplenial cortex (RSc), and parietal cortex during the movement of viewpoint in imagery, extending their association with physical movement in rodent models. Here, we used noninvasive whole-head MEG to investigate theta oscillatory power and phase-locking during the 18-sec postencoding delay period of a spatial working memory task, in which participants imagined previously learned object sequences either on a blank background (object maintenance), from a first-person viewpoint in a scene (static imagery), or moving along a path past the objects (dynamic imagery). We found increases in 4- to 7-Hz theta power in mPFC when comparing the delay period with a preencoding baseline. We then examined whether the mPFC theta rhythm was phase-coupled with ongoing theta oscillations elsewhere in the brain. The same mPFC region showed significantly higher theta phase coupling with the posterior medial temporal lobe/RSc for dynamic imagery versus either object maintenance or static imagery. mPFC theta phase coupling was not observed with any other brain region. These results implicate oscillatory coupling between mPFC and medial temporal lobe/RSc theta rhythms in the dynamic mental exploration of imagined scenes.

  18. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Roldan, Victoria; Fermas, Soraya; Brewer, Philip B; Puech-Pagès, Virginie; Dun, Elizabeth A; Pillot, Jean-Paul; Letisse, Fabien; Matusova, Radoslava; Danoun, Saida; Portais, Jean-Charles; Bouwmeester, Harro; Bécard, Guillaume; Beveridge, Christine A; Rameau, Catherine; Rochange, Soizic F

    2008-09-11

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence that carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase 8 shoot branching mutants of pea are strigolactone deficient and that strigolactone application restores the wild-type branching phenotype to ccd8 mutants. Moreover, we show that other branching mutants previously characterized as lacking a response to the branching inhibition signal also lack strigolactone response, and are not deficient in strigolactones. These responses are conserved in Arabidopsis. In agreement with the expected properties of the hormonal signal, exogenous strigolactone can be transported in shoots and act at low concentrations. We suggest that endogenous strigolactones or related compounds inhibit shoot branching in plants. Furthermore, ccd8 mutants demonstrate the diverse effects of strigolactones in shoot branching, mycorrhizal symbiosis and parasitic weed interaction.

  19. Topographical anatomy of the radial nerve and its muscular branches related to surface landmarks.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyejin; Lee, Hye-Yeon; Gil, Young-Chun; Choi, Yun-Rak; Yang, Hee-Jun

    2013-10-01

    Understanding of the anatomy of the radial nerve and its branches is vital to the treatment of humeral fracture or the restoration of upper extremity function. In this study, we dissected 40 upper extremities from adult cadavers to locate the course of the radial nerve and the origins and insertions of the branches of the radial nerve using surface landmarks. The radial nerve reached and left the radial groove and pierced the lateral intermuscular septum, at the levels of 46.7, 60.5, and 66.8% from the acromion to the transepicondylar line, respectively. Branches to the long head of the triceps brachii originated in the axilla, and branches to the medial and lateral heads originated in the axilla or in the arm. The muscular attachments to the long, medial, and lateral heads were on average 34.0 mm proximal, 16.4 mm distal, and 19.3 mm proximal to the level of inferior end of the deltoid muscle, respectively. The radial nerve innervated 65.0% of the brachialis muscles. Branches to the brachioradialis and those to the extensor carpi radialis longus arose from the radial nerve above the transepicondylar line. Branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis usually arose from the deep branch of radial nerve (67.5%); however, in some cases, branches to the extensor carpi radialis brevis arose from either the radial nerve (20.0%) or the superficial branch of the radial nerve (12.5%). Using these data, the course of the radial nerve can be estimated by observing the surface of the arm.

  20. Medial and Lateral Discoid Menisci of Both Knees

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Minami, Ginjiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both the medial and lateral sides are rare, and there are very few reports on cases involving both sides. We report a case of a 52-year-old female with medial and lateral discoid menisci in both knees. Arthroscopy revealed the lateral menisci of both knees were complete discoid menisci, and partial meniscectomy was performed. The medial menisci were incomplete discoid menisci, but there were no findings of abnormal mobility or injury; therefore, the medial menisci were observed without treatment. At six months postoperatively, her pain and range of motion restrictions disappeared. PMID:27894182

  1. Branching toughens fibrous networks.

    PubMed

    Koh, C T; Oyen, M L

    2012-08-01

    Fibrous collagenous networks are not only stiff but also tough, due to their complex microstructures. This stiff yet tough behavior is desirable for both medical and military applications but it is difficult to reproduce in engineering materials. While the nonlinear hyperelastic behavior of fibrous networks has been extensively studied, the understanding of toughness is still incomplete. Here, we identify a microstructure mimicking the branched bundles of a natural type I collagen network, in which partially cross-linked long fibers give rise to novel combinations of stiffness and toughness. Finite element analysis shows that the stiffness of fully cross-linked fibrous networks is amplified by increasing the fibril length and cross-link density. However, a trade-off of such stiff networks is reduced toughness. By having partially cross-linked networks with long fibrils, the networks have comparable stiffness and improved toughness as compared to the fully cross-linked networks. Further, the partially cross-linked networks avoid the formation of kinks, which cause fibril rupture during deformation. As a result, the branching allows the networks to have stiff yet tough behavior.

  2. Pen Branch Fault Program

    SciTech Connect

    Price, V.; Stieve, A.L.; Aadland, R.

    1990-09-28

    Evidence from subsurface mapping and seismic reflection surveys at Savannah River Site (SRS) suggests the presence of a fault which displaces Cretaceous through Tertiary (90--35 million years ago) sediments. This feature has been described and named the Pen Branch fault (PBF) in a recent Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) paper (DP-MS-88-219). Because the fault is located near operating nuclear facilities, public perception and federal regulations require a thorough investigation of the fault to determine whether any seismic hazard exists. A phased program with various elements has been established to investigate the PBF to address the Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guidelines represented in 10 CFR 100 Appendix A. The objective of the PBF program is to fully characterize the nature of the PBF (ESS-SRL-89-395). This report briefly presents current understanding of the Pen Branch fault based on shallow drilling activities completed the fall of 1989 (PBF well series) and subsequent core analyses (SRL-ESS-90-145). The results are preliminary and ongoing: however, investigations indicate that the fault is not capable. In conjunction with the shallow drilling, other activities are planned or in progress. 7 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Cellular components of the human medial amygdaloid nucleus.

    PubMed

    Dall'Oglio, Aline; Xavier, Léder L; Hilbig, Arlete; Ferme, Denise; Moreira, Jorge E; Achaval, Matilde; Rasia-Filho, Alberto A

    2013-02-15

    The medial nucleus (Me) is a superficial component of the amygdaloid complex. Here we assessed the density and morphology of the neurons and glial cells, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunoreactivity, and the ultrastructure of the synaptic sites in the human Me. The optical fractionator method was applied. The Me presented an estimated mean neuronal density of 1.53 × 10⁵ neurons/mm³ (greater in the left hemisphere), more glia (72% of all cells) than neurons, and a nonneuronal:neuronal ratio of 2.7. Golgi-impregnated neurons had round or ovoid, fusiform, angular, and polygonal cell bodies (10-30 μm in diameter). The length of the dendrites varied, and pleomorphic spines were found in sparsely spiny or densely spiny cells (1.5-5.2 spines/dendritic μm). The axons in the Me neuropil were fine or coarsely beaded, and fibers showed simple or notably complex collateral terminations. The protoplasmic astrocytes were either isolated or formed small clusters and showed GFAP-immunoreactive cell bodies and multiple branches. Furthermore, we identified both asymmetrical (with various small, clear, round, electron-lucent vesicles and, occasionally, large, dense-core vesicles) and symmetrical (with small, flattened vesicles) axodendritic contacts, also including multisynaptic spines. The astrocytes surround and may compose tripartite or tetrapartite synapses, the latter including the extracellular matrix between the pre- and the postsynaptic elements. Interestingly, the terminal axons exhibited a glomerular-like structure with various asymmetrical contacts. These new morphological data on the cellular population and synaptic complexity of the human Me can contribute to our knowledge of its role in health and pathological conditions.

  4. Synthesis of branched polysaccharides with tunable degree of branching.

    PubMed

    Ciric, Jelena; Loos, Katja

    2013-03-01

    An in vitro enzyme-catalyzed tandem reaction using the enzymes phosphorylase b from rabbit muscle and Deinococcus geothermalis glycogen branching enzyme (Dg GBE) to obtain branched polyglucans with tunable degree of branching (2% ÷ 13%) is presented. The tunable degree of branching is obtained by varying the reaction conditions such as pH value, the choice of reducing agent and its concentration and reaction time. Linear amylose is formed by the phosphorylase-catalyzed propagation of glucose-1-phosphate while Dg GBE introduces branching points on the α-(1→6) position by relocating short oligosaccharide chains. Our results show that the best way to obtain different degrees of branching with this set of enzymes is by regulation of the reaction time.

  5. Lipids in biocalcification: contrasts and similarities between intimal and medial vascular calcification and bone by NMR[S

    PubMed Central

    Reid, David G.; Shanahan, Catherine M.; Duer, Melinda J.; Arroyo, Luis G.; Schoppet, Michael; Brooks, Roger A.; Murray, Rachel C.

    2012-01-01

    Pathomechanisms underlying vascular calcification biogenesis are still incompletely understood. Biomineral from human atherosclerotic intimal plaques; human, equine, and bovine medial vascular calcifications; and human and equine bone was released from collagenous organic matrix by sodium hydroxide/sodium hypochlorite digestion. Solid-state 13C NMR of intimal plaque mineral shows signals from cholesterol/cholesteryl esters and fatty acids. In contrast, in mineral from pure medial calcifications and bone mineral, fatty acid signals predominate. Refluxing (chloroform/methanol) intimal plaque calcifications removes the cholesterylic but not the fatty acyl signals. The lipid composition of this refluxed mineral now closely resembles that of the medial and bone mineral, which is unchanged by reflux. Thus, intimal and medial vascular calcifications and bone mineral have in common a pool of occluded mineral-entrained fatty acyl-rich lipids. This population of fatty acid may contain methyl-branched fatty acids, possibly representing lipoprotein particle remnants. Cell signaling and mechanistic parallels between physiological (orthotopic) and pathological (ectopic) calcification are also reflected thus in the NMR spectroscopic fingerprints of mineral-associated and mineral-entrained lipids. Additionally the atherosclerotic plaque mineral alone shows a significant independent pool of cholesterylic lipids. Colocalization of mineral and lipid may be coincidental, but it could also reflect an essential mechanistic component of biomineralization. PMID:22651923

  6. The Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Regulates Sensitivity to Outcome Value

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Kelsey S.; Allen, Amanda G.; Taylor, Jane R.

    2016-01-01

    An essential component of goal-directed decision-making is the ability to maintain flexible responding based on the value of a given reward, or “reinforcer.” The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC), a subregion of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, is uniquely positioned to regulate this process. We trained mice to nose poke for food reinforcers and then stimulated this region using CaMKII-driven Gs-coupled designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs). In other mice, we silenced the neuroplasticity-associated neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Activation of Gs-DREADDs increased behavioral sensitivity to reinforcer devaluation, whereas Bdnf knockdown blocked sensitivity. These changes were accompanied by modifications in breakpoint ratios in a progressive ratio task, and they were recapitulated in Bdnf+/− mice. Replacement of BDNF selectively in the mOFC in Bdnf+/− mice rescued behavioral deficiencies, as well as phosphorylation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Thus, BDNF expression in the mOFC is both necessary and sufficient for the expression of typical effort allocation relative to an anticipated reinforcer. Additional experiments indicated that expression of the immediate-early gene c-fos was aberrantly elevated in the Bdnf+/− dorsal striatum, and BDNF replacement in the mOFC normalized expression. Also, systemic administration of an MAP kinase kinase inhibitor increased breakpoint ratios, whereas the addition of discrete cues bridging the response–outcome contingency rescued breakpoints in Bdnf+/− mice. We argue that BDNF–ERK1/2 in the mOFC is a key regulator of “online” goal-directed action selection. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Goal-directed response selection often involves predicting the consequences of one's actions and the value of potential payoffs. Lesions or chemogenetic inactivation of the medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) in rats induces failures in retrieving outcome

  7. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects.

    PubMed

    Kivisaari, Sasa L; Tyler, Lorraine K; Monsch, Andreas U; Taylor, Kirsten I

    2012-12-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer's disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  8. Neurilemmoma of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve causing tarsal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Ka Bon; Lui, Tun Hing; Lo, Wing Nin

    2009-12-01

    In this article, the authors report a case of tarsal tunnel syndrome caused by neurilemmoma of the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve, with symptom resolved after excision. A 42-year-old man presented with left medial heel pain radiating to the lateral sole for 6 months. On examination, there was positive Tinel sign over the medial heel with pain radiating to the lateral sole. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the presence of a 1-cm neurogenic tumor inside the tarsal tunnel. Intraoperatively, a 1-cm neurilemmoma was found at the first branch of the lateral plantar nerve inside the tarsal tunnel. The lesion was excised completely with preservation of its fascicle. The symptom resolved completely after the operation.

  9. Consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala on social recognition memory performance in mice

    PubMed Central

    Noack, Julia; Murau, Rita; Engelmann, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Different lines of investigation suggest that the medial amygdala is causally involved in the processing of information linked to social behavior in rodents. Here we investigated the consequences of temporary inhibition of the medial amygdala by bilateral injections of lidocaine on long-term social recognition memory as tested in the social discrimination task. Lidocaine or control NaCl solution was infused immediately before learning or before retrieval. Our data show that lidocaine infusion immediately before learning did not affect long-term memory retrieval. However, intra-amygdalar lidocaine infusions immediately before choice interfered with correct memory retrieval. Analysis of the aggressive behavior measured simultaneously during all sessions in the social recognition memory task support the impression that the lidocaine dosage used here was effective as it—at least partially—reduced the aggressive behavior shown by the experimental subjects toward the juveniles. Surprisingly, also infusions of NaCl solution blocked recognition memory at both injection time points. The results are interpreted in the context of the importance of the medial amygdala for the processing of non-volatile odors as a major contributor to the olfactory signature for social recognition memory. PMID:25972782

  10. Motor unit organization of human medial gastrocnemius.

    PubMed Central

    Garnett, R A; O'Donovan, M J; Stephens, J A; Taylor, A

    1979-01-01

    1. The properties of fifty-seven motor units in human medial gastrocnemius have been studied using controlled intramuscular microstimulation, glycogen depletion and muscle biopsy. 2. Motor units could be divided into three classes on the basis of their mechanical properties. Type S units were slow, small and fatigue resistant. Type FR units were fast, intermediate in size, and fatigue resistant. Type FF units were fast, large and fatigable. 3. Glycogen depletion of a number of type S and FF units revealed them to be composed of type 1 and type 2b muscle fibres respectively. 4. The results suggest that during slowly increasing voluntary contractions where units are recruited in order of size, type 1 and 2a muscle fibres would be employed at low force levels followed by type 2b muscle fibres in stronger contractions. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:430414

  11. Motor unit organization of human medial gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Garnett, R A; O'Donovan, M J; Stephens, J A; Taylor, A

    1979-02-01

    1. The properties of fifty-seven motor units in human medial gastrocnemius have been studied using controlled intramuscular microstimulation, glycogen depletion and muscle biopsy. 2. Motor units could be divided into three classes on the basis of their mechanical properties. Type S units were slow, small and fatigue resistant. Type FR units were fast, intermediate in size, and fatigue resistant. Type FF units were fast, large and fatigable. 3. Glycogen depletion of a number of type S and FF units revealed them to be composed of type 1 and type 2b muscle fibres respectively. 4. The results suggest that during slowly increasing voluntary contractions where units are recruited in order of size, type 1 and 2a muscle fibres would be employed at low force levels followed by type 2b muscle fibres in stronger contractions.

  12. Medial septum regulates the hippocampal spatial representation

    PubMed Central

    Mamad, Omar; McNamara, Harold M.; Reilly, Richard B.; Tsanov, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal circuitry undergoes attentional modulation by the cholinergic medial septum. However, it is unclear how septal activation regulates the spatial properties of hippocampal neurons. We investigated here what is the functional effect of selective-cholinergic and non-selective septal stimulation on septo-hippocampal system. We show for the first time selective activation of cholinergic cells and their differential network effect in medial septum of freely-behaving transgenic rats. Our data show that depolarization of cholinergic septal neurons evokes frequency-dependent response from the non-cholinergic septal neurons and hippocampal interneurons. Our findings provide vital evidence that cholinergic effect on septo-hippocampal axis is behavior-dependent. During the active behavioral state the activation of septal cholinergic projections is insufficient to evoke significant change in the spiking of the hippocampal neurons. The efficiency of septo-hippocampal processing during active exploration relates to the firing patterns of the non-cholinergic theta-bursting cells. Non-selective septal theta-burst stimulation resets the spiking of hippocampal theta cells, increases theta synchronization, entrains the spiking of hippocampal place cells, and tunes the spatial properties in a timing-dependent manner. The spatial properties are augmented only when the stimulation is applied in the periphery of the place field or 400–650 ms before the animals approached the center of the field. In summary, our data show that selective cholinergic activation triggers a robust network effect in the septo-hippocampal system during inactive behavioral state, whereas the non-cholinergic septal activation regulates hippocampal functional properties during explorative behavior. Together, our findings uncover fast septal modulation on hippocampal network and reveal how septal inputs up-regulate and down-regulate the encoding of spatial representation. PMID:26175674

  13. Medial septum regulates the hippocampal spatial representation.

    PubMed

    Mamad, Omar; McNamara, Harold M; Reilly, Richard B; Tsanov, Marian

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal circuitry undergoes attentional modulation by the cholinergic medial septum. However, it is unclear how septal activation regulates the spatial properties of hippocampal neurons. We investigated here what is the functional effect of selective-cholinergic and non-selective septal stimulation on septo-hippocampal system. We show for the first time selective activation of cholinergic cells and their differential network effect in medial septum of freely-behaving transgenic rats. Our data show that depolarization of cholinergic septal neurons evokes frequency-dependent response from the non-cholinergic septal neurons and hippocampal interneurons. Our findings provide vital evidence that cholinergic effect on septo-hippocampal axis is behavior-dependent. During the active behavioral state the activation of septal cholinergic projections is insufficient to evoke significant change in the spiking of the hippocampal neurons. The efficiency of septo-hippocampal processing during active exploration relates to the firing patterns of the non-cholinergic theta-bursting cells. Non-selective septal theta-burst stimulation resets the spiking of hippocampal theta cells, increases theta synchronization, entrains the spiking of hippocampal place cells, and tunes the spatial properties in a timing-dependent manner. The spatial properties are augmented only when the stimulation is applied in the periphery of the place field or 400-650 ms before the animals approached the center of the field. In summary, our data show that selective cholinergic activation triggers a robust network effect in the septo-hippocampal system during inactive behavioral state, whereas the non-cholinergic septal activation regulates hippocampal functional properties during explorative behavior. Together, our findings uncover fast septal modulation on hippocampal network and reveal how septal inputs up-regulate and down-regulate the encoding of spatial representation.

  14. Supravital morphology of small branches of lateral striate arteries as observed with Nomarski optics.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, C J

    1996-01-01

    Lateral striate arteries were dissected from the fixed brains of 6 patients of increasing age. Small branches of arteries were observed--unprocessed and unstained--by Nomarski optics. Among the findings there was fibrous intimal proliferation, replacement of medial muscle by collagen, tortuosity, twisting or coiling. The severity of changes seemed to progress with aging. The advantages of the used methodology that aims at avoiding artifacts of processing are discussed briefly.

  15. An anatomical evaluation of the serratus anterior plane block.

    PubMed

    Mayes, J; Davison, E; Panahi, P; Patten, D; Eljelani, F; Womack, J; Varma, M

    2016-09-01

    The serratus anterior plane block has been described for analgesia of the hemithorax. This study was conducted to determine the spread of injectate and investigate the anatomical basis of the block. Ultrasound-guided serratus anterior plane block was performed on six soft-fix embalmed cadavers. All cadavers received bilateral injections, on one side performed with 20 ml latex and on the other with 20 ml methylene blue. Subsequent dissection explored the extent of spread and nerve involvement. Photographs were taken throughout dissection. The intercostal nerves were involved on three occasions with dye, but not with latex. The lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerve contained dye and latex on all occasions. The serratus plane block appears to be mediated through blockade of the lateral cutaneous branches of the intercostal nerves. Anatomically, serratus plane block does not appear to be equivalent to paravertebral block for rib fracture analgesia.

  16. Medial pivot knee in primary total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Atzori, Francesco; Salama, Wael; Sabatini, Luigi; Mousa, Shazly; Khalefa, Abdelrahman

    2016-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a medial pivot design was developed in order to mimic normal knee kinematics; the highly congruent medial compartment implant should improve clinical results and decrease contact stresses. Clinical and radiographic mid-term outcomes are satisfactory, but we need other studies to evaluate long-term results and indications for unusual cases.

  17. Preoperative color Doppler ultrasound assessment of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap and its branching pattern.

    PubMed

    Tashiro, Kensuke; Harima, Mitsunobu; Mito, Daisuke; Shibata, Takashi; Furuya, Megumi; Kato, Motoi; Yamamoto, Takumi; Yamashita, Shuji; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Iida, Takuya; Koshima, Isao

    2015-06-01

    The anatomy of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap remains controversial, but this region is extremely useful as a reconstructive donor site. In this report, we describe the usefulness of the preoperative color Doppler ultrasound evaluation for the harvesting of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap, and we clarify its branching pattern. Twenty-seven patients underwent the preoperative color Doppler ultrasound assessment before perforator flaps were harvested. We evaluated the branching pattern and the diameter of the flaps by direct observation. All flaps were successfully transferred, and it was found that the branching pattern of the lateral thoracic perforator is divided into three groups: the superficial branch, the medial branch, and the deep branch. Their appearance ratios were 48.1% (13/27), 14.8% (4/27), and 81.5% (22/27), respectively. The lateral thoracic artery perforator flap has a great deal of anatomical variation, and vessels with relatively small diameters compared to those of other flaps. This is why flaps from this region are not currently popular. This study revealed the superiority of the color Doppler ultrasound for preoperative planning of the lateral thoracic artery perforator flap elevation. Furthermore, the branching pattern and the diameters of the different branches were specified.

  18. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  19. Branches in the Everett interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Arthur J.

    2014-05-01

    Hugh Everett III describes a quantum measurement as resulting in the "branching" of the quantum state of observer and measured system, with all possible measurement outcomes represented by the ensuing branches of the total quantum state. But Everett does not specify a general rule for decomposing a quantum state into branches, and commentators have long puzzled over how, and even whether, to regard Everett's notion of branching states as physically meaningful. It is common today to appeal to decoherence considerations as a way of giving physical content to the Everettian notion of branches, but these appeals to decoherence are often regarded as considerations foreign to Everett's own approach. This paper contends that this assessment is only half right: though he does not invoke environmental decoherence, Everett does appeal to decoherence considerations, broadly understood, in his treatment of measurement. Careful consideration of his idealized models of measurement, and of the significance he ascribes to the branching of states corresponding to definite measurement outcomes, reveals that his notion of branching refers to a special physical characteristic of elements of a particular decomposition, namely the absence of interference between these component states as a result of the particular dynamics governing the evolution of the system. Characterizations of branching that appeal to the results of modern decoherence theory should therefore be regarded as a natural development of Everett's own physically meaningful conception of branching.

  20. The electrocardiographic diagnosis of intraventricular blocks coexisting with ventricular preexcitation.

    PubMed

    Chiale, Pablo A; Elizari, Marcelo V

    2012-09-01

    The electrocardiographic diagnosis of intraventricular conduction disturbances may be hindered by the coexistence of ventricular preexcitation. In fact, the premature depolarization of ventricular myocardium through an accessory pathway tends to conceal any electrocardiographic manifestation of a bundle-branch block. However, there are several conditions favoring the diagnosis of bundle-branch block associated with ventricular preexcitation: intermittency of ventricular preexcitation and/or bundle-branch block, fast atrioventricular (AV) nodal impulse propagation, slow conduction over the accessory pathway or between its ventricular insertion site and the remaining myocardium, and presence of atrioventricular junctional ectopic beats exposing the intraventricular conduction disturbance. This article reexamines the available data on preexcitation in patients with intraventricular blocks and presents clinical examples to emphasize the importance of a thorough examination of the electrocardiogram to attain the correct diagnosis of this association.

  1. Modeling branching in cereals.

    PubMed

    Evers, Jochem B; Vos, Jan

    2013-10-10

    Cereals and grasses adapt their structural development to environmental conditions and the resources available. The primary adaptive response is a variable degree of branching, called tillering in cereals. Especially for heterogeneous plant configurations the degree of tillering varies per plant. Functional-structural plant modeling (FSPM) is a modeling approach allowing simulation of the architectural development of individual plants, culminating in the emergent behavior at the canopy level. This paper introduces the principles of modeling tillering in FSPM, using (I) a probability approach, forcing the dynamics of tillering to correspond to measured probabilities. Such models are particularly suitable to evaluate the effect structural variables on system performance. (II) Dose-response curves, representing a measured or assumed response of tillering to an environmental cue. (III) Mechanistic approaches to tillering including control by carbohydrates, hormones, and nutrients. Tiller senescence is equally important for the structural development of cereals as tiller appearance. Little study has been made of tiller senescence, though similar concepts seem to apply as for tiller appearance.

  2. A Branch Meeting in Avon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Kathryn; Coles, Alf

    2011-01-01

    The Association of Teachers of Mathematics (ATM) exists for, and is run by, its members. Branch meetings are so much more than the "grass roots" of the association--it can be a powerhouse of inspiration and creativity. In this article, the authors provide commentaries on a recent branch meeting.

  3. A positive approach to branching.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Bart J; Drummond, Revel S M; Ledger, Susan E; Snowden, Kimberley C

    2010-04-01

    Plants regulate the development of branches in response to environmental and developmental signals in order to maximize reproductive success. A number of hormone signals are involved in the regulation of branching and both their production and transmission affect axillary meristem outgrowth. With the identification of strigolactones as root-derived branch inhibitors it seems likely that a biochemical pathway starting from a carotenoid and resulting in production of a strigolactone hormone is present in most plants. Our observation that loss of CCD7 or CCD8 also results in production of a promoter of branching from roots shows the branching pathway has multiple levels of control which allows a high degree of sensitivity to subtle differences in environmental and developmental signals.

  4. The medial scaffold of 3D unorganized point clouds.

    PubMed

    Leymarie, Frederic F; Kimia, Benjamin B

    2007-02-01

    We introduce the notion of the medial scaffold, a hierarchical organization of the medial axis of a 3D shape in the form of a graph constructed from special medial curves connecting special medial points. A key advantage of the scaffold is that it captures the qualitative aspects of shape in a hierarchical and tightly condensed representation. We propose an efficient and exact method for computing the medial scaffold based on a notion of propagation along the scaffold itself, starting from initial sources of the flow and constructing the scaffold during the propagation. We examine this method specifically in the context of an unorganized cloud of points in 3D, e.g., as obtained from laser range finders, which typically involve hundreds of thousands of points, but the ideas are generalizable to data arising from geometrically described surface patches. The computational bottleneck in the propagation-based scheme is in finding the initial sources of the flow. We thus present several ideas to avoid the unnecessary consideration of pairs of points which cannot possibly form a medial point source, such as the "visibility" of a point from another given a third point and the interaction of clusters of points. An application of using the medial scaffold for the representation of point samplings of real-life objects is also illustrated.

  5. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Riga, Danai; Matos, Mariana R.; Glas, Annet; Smit, August B.; Spijker, Sabine; Van den Oever, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus), the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25538574

  6. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  7. A dysexecutive syndrome of the medial thalamus.

    PubMed

    Liebermann, Daniela; Ploner, Christoph J; Kraft, Antje; Kopp, Ute A; Ostendorf, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Thalamic stroke is associated with neurological and cognitive sequelae. Resulting neuropsychological deficits vary with the vascular territory involved. Whereas sensory, motor and memory deficits following thalamic stroke are comparatively well characterized, the exact relationship between executive dysfunction and thalamic damage remains more ambiguous. To assess the pattern of executive-cognitive deficits following thalamic stroke and its possible association with distinct thalamic nuclei, 19 patients with focal thalamic lesions were examined with high-resolution structural imaging and neuropsychological testing. Twenty healthy individuals served as controls. Patient MRIs were co-registered to an atlas of the human thalamus. Lesion overlap and subtraction analyses were used for lesion-to-symptom mapping. In eight patients (42.1%), neuropsychological assessment demonstrated a disproportionate deficit in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), while other executive and memory functions were much less affected. Subtraction analysis revealed an area in the left medial thalamus, mainly consisting of the centromedian and parafascicular nuclei (CM-Pf complex) that was damaged in these patients and spared in patients with normal WCST performance. Thus, damage to the CM-Pf complex may yield a distinct dysexecutive syndrome in which deficient maintenance and shifting between cognitive sets predominates. We hypothesize that the CM-Pf complex may contribute to maintenance and shifting of cognitive sets by virtue of its dense connections with the striatum. The pattern of executive dysfunction following thalamic stroke may vary considerably with lesion location.

  8. Localized Disruption of Narp in Medial Prefrontal Cortex Blocks Reinforcer Devaluation Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Alexander W.; Han, Sungho; Blouin, Ashley M.; Saini, Jasjit; Worley, Paul F.; During, Matthew J.; Holland, Peter C.; Baraban, Jay M.; Reti, Irving M.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal activity regulated pentraxin (Narp) is a secreted protein that regulates [alpha]-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPAR) aggregation and synaptogenesis. Mapping of Narp-positive neurons in brain has revealed it is prominently expressed in several limbic system projection pathways. Consistent with this…

  9. LayTracks3D: A new approach for meshing general solids using medial axis transform

    SciTech Connect

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2015-08-22

    This study presents an extension of the all-quad meshing algorithm called LayTracks to generate high quality hex-dominant meshes of general solids. LayTracks3D uses the mapping between the Medial Axis (MA) and the boundary of the 3D domain to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler domains called Tracks. Tracks in 3D have no branches and are symmetric, non-intersecting, orthogonal to the boundary, and the shortest path from the MA to the boundary. These properties of tracks result in desired meshes with near cube shape elements at the boundary, structured mesh along the boundary normal with any irregular nodes restricted to the MA, and sharp boundary feature preservation. The algorithm has been tested on a few industrial CAD models and hex-dominant meshes are shown in the Results section. Work is underway to extend LayTracks3D to generate all-hex meshes.

  10. Treatment of a Femur Nonunion with Microsurgical Corticoperiosteal Pedicled Flap from the Medial Femoral Condyle

    PubMed Central

    Guzzini, Matteo; Guidi, Marco; Civitenga, Carolina; Ferri, Germano; Ferretti, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The vascularized corticoperiosteal flap is harvested from the medial femoral condyle and it is nourished by the articular branch of the descending genicular artery and the superomedial genicular artery. This flap is usually harvested as a free flap for the reconstruction of bone defects at forearm, distal radius, carpus, hand, and recently at lower limb too. Case Report. A 50-year-old Caucasian man referred to our department for hypertrophic nonunion of the distal femur, refractory to the conservative treatments. The first surgical choice was the revision of the nail and the bone reconstruction with a corticoperiosteal pedicled flap from the medial femoral condyle. We considered union to have occurred 3.5 months after surgery when radiographs showed bridging of at least three of the four bony cortices and clinically the patient was able to walk with full weight bearing without any pain. At the last follow-up (25 months), the patient was completely satisfied with the procedure. Discussion. The corticoperiosteal flap allows a faster healing of fractures with a minimal morbidity at the donor site. We suggest that the corticoperiosteal pedicled flap graft is a reliable and effective treatment for distal femur nonunion. PMID:27064589

  11. Variants of the popliteal artery terminal branches as detected by multidetector ct angiography

    PubMed Central

    Oztekin, Pelin Seher; Ergun, Elif; Cıvgın, Esra; Yigit, Hasan; Kosar, Pınar Nercis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate variants of the popliteal artery (PA) terminal branches with 64-multidetector computed tomographic angiography (64-MD CTA). Materials and Methods A total of 495 extremities (251 right, 244 left) of 253 patients undergoing a 64-MD CTA examination were included in the study. Of these, 242 extremities were evaluated bilaterally, whereas 11 were evaluated unilaterally. The terminal branching pattern of the PA was classified according to the classification scheme proposed by Kim; the distance between the medial tibial plateau and the origin of the anterior tibial artery (A) and the length of the tibioperoneal trunk (B) have been measured and recorded. Results In 459 cases (92.7%) branching of PA occurred distal to the knee joint (Type I); in 18 cases (2.8%) PA branching was superior to the knee joint (Type II); and hypoplasia of the PA branches was found in 27 cases (5.5%) (Type III). Among these types the most frequent branching patterns were Type IA (87.5%), Type IIIA (3.9%), and Type IB (3.8%). The ranges of A and B mean distances were 47.6 mm and 29.6 mm, respectively Conclusion Variations in popliteal artery terminal branching pattern occurred in 7.4% to 17.6% of patients. Pre-surgical detection of these variations with MD CTA may help to reduce the risk of iatrogenic arterial injury by enabling a better surgical treatment plan. PMID:28352741

  12. Coulomb branch Hilbert series and three dimensional Sicilian theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremonesi, Stefano; Hanany, Amihay; Mekareeya, Noppadol; Zaffaroni, Alberto

    2014-09-01

    We evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of mirrors of three dimensional Sicilian theories, which arise from compactifying the 6 d (2 , 0) theory with symmetry G on a circle times a Riemann surface with punctures. We obtain our result by gluing together the Hilbert series for building blocks T ρ ( G), where ρ is a certain partition related to the dual group of G, which we evaluated in a previous paper. The result is expressed in terms of a class of symmetric functions, the Hall-Littlewood polynomials. As expected from mirror symmetry, our results agree at genus zero with the superconformal index prediction for the Higgs branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theories and extend it to higher genus. In the A 1 case at genus zero, we also evaluate the Coulomb branch Hilbert series of the Sicilian theory itself, showing that it only depends on the number of external legs.

  13. Efficient learning mechanisms hold in the social domain and are implemented in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Seid-Fatemi, Azade; Tobler, Philippe N

    2015-05-01

    When we are learning to associate novel cues with outcomes, learning is more efficient if we take advantage of previously learned associations and thereby avoid redundant learning. The blocking effect represents this sort of efficiency mechanism and refers to the phenomenon in which a novel stimulus is blocked from learning when it is associated with a fully predicted outcome. Although there is sufficient evidence that this effect manifests itself when individuals learn about their own rewards, it remains unclear whether it also does when they learn about others' rewards. We employed behavioral and neuroimaging methods to address this question. We demonstrate that blocking does indeed occur in the social domain and it does so to a similar degree as observed in the individual domain. On the neural level, activations in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) show a specific contribution to blocking and learning-related prediction errors in the social domain. These findings suggest that the efficiency principle that applies to reward learning in the individual domain also applies to that in the social domain, with the mPFC playing a central role in implementing it.

  14. Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medial Center Real Property ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph in Fitzsimons Army Medial Center Real Property Book (green cloth cover), south and west sides. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers Quarters, Northeast Corner of West Harlow Avenue & North Seventh Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  16. GABAergic Projections from the Medial Septum Selectively Inhibit Interneurons in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Parthier, Daniel; Candela, Antonio; McClure, Christina; Pastoll, Hugh; Garden, Derek; Sürmeli, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25–60 Hz) and high (60–180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits. PMID:25505326

  17. GABAergic projections from the medial septum selectively inhibit interneurons in the medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Parthier, Daniel; Candela, Antonio; McClure, Christina; Pastoll, Hugh; Garden, Derek; Sürmeli, Gülşen; Nolan, Matthew F

    2014-12-10

    The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25-60 Hz) and high (60-180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits.

  18. Medial entorhinal cortex and medial septum contribute to self-motion-based linear distance estimation.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Pierre-Yves; Gordillo-Salas, Marta; Facchini, Justine; Poucet, Bruno; Save, Etienne; Sargolini, Francesca

    2017-02-04

    Path integration is a navigation strategy that requires animals to integrate self-movements during exploration to determine their position in space. The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) has been suggested to play a pivotal role in this process. Grid cells, head-direction cells, border cells as well as speed cells within the MEC collectively provide a dynamic representation of the animal position in space based on the integration of self-movements. All these cells are strongly modulated by theta oscillations, thus suggesting that theta rhythmicity in the MEC may be essential for integrating and coordinating self-movement information during navigation. In this study, we first show that excitotoxic MEC lesions, but not dorsal hippocampal lesions, impair the ability of rats to estimate linear distances based on self-movement information. Next, we report similar deficits following medial septum inactivation, which strongly impairs theta oscillations in the entorhinal-hippocampal circuits. Taken together, these findings demonstrate a major role of the MEC and MS in estimating distances to be traveled, and point to theta oscillations within the MEC as a neural mechanism responsible for the integration of information generated by linear self-displacements.

  19. Medial rectus muscle anchoring in complete oculomotor nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Hyung; Chang, Jee Ho

    2015-10-01

    The management of exotropia resulting from complete oculomotor nerve palsy is challenging. Conventional therapeutic interventions, including supramaximal resection and recession, superior oblique tendon resection and transposition, and several ocular anchoring procedures have yielded less-than-adequate results. Here we describe a novel surgical technique of anchoring the medial rectus muscle to the medial orbital wall in combination with lateral rectus disinsertion and reattachment to the lateral orbital wall.

  20. Fault branching and rupture directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliss, Sonia; Bhat, Harsha S.; Dmowska, Renata; Rice, James R.

    2005-06-01

    Could the directivity of a complex earthquake be inferred from the ruptured fault branches it created? Typically, branches develop in forward orientation, making acute angles relative to the propagation direction. Direct backward branching of the same style as the main rupture (e.g., both right lateral) is disallowed by the stress field at the rupture front. Here we propose another mechanism of backward branching. In that mechanism, rupture stops along one fault strand, radiates stress to a neighboring strand, nucleates there, and develops bilaterally, generating a backward branch. Such makes diagnosing directivity of a past earthquake difficult without detailed knowledge of the branching process. As a field example, in the Landers 1992 earthquake, rupture stopped at the northern end of the Kickapoo fault, jumped onto the Homestead Valley fault, and developed bilaterally there, NNW to continue the main rupture but also SSE for 4 km forming a backward branch. We develop theoretical principles underlying such rupture transitions, partly from elastostatic stress analysis, and then simulate the Landers example numerically using a two-dimensional elastodynamic boundary integral equation formulation incorporating slip-weakening rupture. This reproduces the proposed backward branching mechanism based on realistic if simplified fault geometries, prestress orientation corresponding to the region, standard lab friction values for peak strength, and fracture energies characteristic of the Landers event. We also show that the seismic S ratio controls the jumpable distance and that curving of a fault toward its compressional side, like locally along the southeastern Homestead Valley fault, induces near-tip increase of compressive normal stress that slows rupture propagation.

  1. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  2. Delay and block of cardiac impulse caused by enhanced phase-4 depolarization in the His-Purkinje system.

    PubMed Central

    Kretz, A; Da Rous, H O; Palumbo, J R

    1975-01-01

    The underlying mechanism of bradycardia-dependent bundle-branch and paroxysmal atrioventricular block appears to be enhancement of phase-4 depolarization in a branch or in a natural or acquired monofascicular pathway. Clinical records of these forms of impaired conduction occurring in the bundle-branches, with either longer or shorter cardiac cycle lengths, are presented and analysed. These also include the combination of Mobitz typw I atrioventricular block with variable degrees of bundle-branch block, as a representative example of narrow ventricular escape beats firing in the zone where prominent diastolic depolarization is present. PMID:123463

  3. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  4. Tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with a perforating branch from posterior tibial artery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Luenam, Suriya; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-03-01

    Tarsal tunnel syndrome, a compressive neuropathy of the tibial nerve or its branches with in the tarsal tunnel, is an uncommon condition. Various etiologies of the syndrome have been described. We report a rare case of tarsal tunnel syndrome associated with a perforating branch from the posterior tibial artery. A 56-year-old woman presented with 1-year history of paresthesia and hypoesthesia in the medial and lateral plantar area of the left foot. Tinel's sign was elicited at the tarsal tunnel. Electrodiagnostic studies confirmed the diagnosis of left tarsal tunnel syndrome. Intraoperatively, the perforating branch from posterior tibial artery which traveled through a split in the tibial nerve was encountered. The patient's symptom improved significantly at 2 years after tarsal tunnel release and vascular ligation. Only a minor degree of paresthesia remains in the forefoot.

  5. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  6. The medial geniculate body afferents from the cerebellum in the rabbit as studied with the method of orthograde degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zimny, R; Sobusiak, T; Kotecki, A; Deja, A

    1981-01-01

    The brain stems of 10 rabbits subject to operation of several lesions of cerebellar cortex and nuclei were examined. Survival time was 4 to 10 days. The course and termination of degenerating nerve fibres into the medial geniculate nuclei (MGN) of both sides were analyzed in frozen sections of the cerebellum and the brain stem impregnated according to various modifications of Nauta method. Degenerated nerve fibres in the MGN were found only when the fastigial nucleus of heterolateral side, or fibres originating in this nucleus were damaged. Cerebellofugal fibres run in two bundles to their termination spot in the magnocellular part of the medial geniculate nucleus. The first bundle separates from the main trunk of the uncinate fascicle, and running medially to the vestibular nuclei, terminates in the MGN after passing through the lateral lemniscus and the ventral lemniscal nucleus. The second bundle separates from the ascending branch of the uncinate fascicle and after passing through the dorsal lemniscal nucleus, also in composition of the lateral lemniscus, it terminates in the same region of the MGN.

  7. Quantitative macroinvertebrate survey of Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    A total of 80 species were collected at all sites on Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch during the 28 day period for colonization of the multiplate artificial substrate samplers. The two upstream sites demonstrated the highest species richness. During the sampling interval a release of significant proportion entered Indian Grave Branch, affecting all downstream sites. This effect was most severe at sites 3, 4, and 7, apparently resulting in heavy scouring of the multiplate samplers. Nevertheless, much colonization did occur at sites 3 and 4, with hydropsychid caddisflies, blackflies and midges predominant. At sites 5 and 6 a greater degree of recovery was noted, due to the lessened scouring in the broad floodplain. These downstream sites had significant numbers of mayflies along with the numerous midges. Considered overall, colonization during the period since the K Reactor has ceased releasing thermal effluent into Pen Branch and Indian Grave Branch has been substantial, introducing a substantial proportion of the species known from other nearby streams. 29 tabs.

  8. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction Femoral Tunnel Accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Hiemstra, Laurie A.; Kerslake, Sarah; Lafave, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is a procedure aimed to reestablish the checkrein to lateral patellar translation in patients with symptomatic patellofemoral instability. Correct femoral tunnel position is thought to be crucial to successful MPFL reconstruction, but the accuracy of this statement in terms of patient outcomes has not been tested. Purpose: To assess the accuracy of femoral tunnel placement in an MPFL reconstruction cohort and to determine the correlation between tunnel accuracy and a validated disease-specific, patient-reported quality-of-life outcome measure. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Between June 2008 and February 2014, a total of 206 subjects underwent an MPFL reconstruction. Lateral radiographs were measured to determine the accuracy of the femoral tunnel by measuring the distance from the center of the femoral tunnel to the Schöttle point. Banff Patella Instability Instrument (BPII) scores were collected a mean 24 months postoperatively. Results: A total of 155 (79.5%) subjects had adequate postoperative lateral radiographs and complete BPII scores. The mean duration of follow-up (±SD) was 24.4 ± 8.2 months (range, 12-74 months). Measurement from the center of the femoral tunnel to the Schöttle point resulted in 143 (92.3%) tunnels being categorized as “good” or “ideal.” There were 8 failures in the cohort, none of which occurred in malpositioned tunnels. The mean distance from the center of the MPFL tunnel to the center of the Schöttle point was 5.9 ± 4.2 mm (range, 0.5-25.9 mm). The mean postoperative BPII score was 65.2 ± 22.5 (range, 9.2-100). Pearson r correlation demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between accuracy of femoral tunnel position and BPII score (r = –0.08; 95% CI, –0.24 to 0.08). Conclusion: There was no evidence of a correlation between the accuracy of MPFL reconstruction femoral tunnel in relation to the Schöttle point and

  9. Knee stabilization in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lewek, Michael D.; Ramsey, Dan K.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn; Rudolph, Katherine S.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Individuals with medial knee osteoarthritis (MKOA) experience knee laxity and instability. Muscle stabilization strategies may influence the long term integrity of the joint. In this study we determined how individuals with medial knee OA respond to a rapid valgus knee movement to investigate the relationship between muscle stabilization strategies and knee instability. METHODS Twenty one subjects with MKOA and genu varum, and 19 control subjects were tested. Subjects stood with the test limb on a moveable platform that translated laterally to rapidly stress the knee’s medial periarticular structures and create a potentially destabilizing feeling at the knee joint. Knee motion and muscle responses were recorded. Subjects rated their knee instability with a self-report questionnaire about knee instability during daily activities. RESULTS Prior to plate movement the OA subjects demonstrated more medial muscle co-contraction (p=0.014). Following plate movement the OA subjects shifted less weight off the test limb (p = 0.013) and had more medial co-contraction (p=0.037). Those without instability had higher VMMH co-contraction than those who reported more instability (p=0.038). Knee stability correlated positively with VMMH co-contraction prior to plate movement (r = 0.459; p = 0.042). CONCLUSION This study demonstrates that individuals with MKOA attempt to stabilize the knee with greater medial muscle co-contraction in response to laxity that appears on only the medial side of the joint. This strategy presumably contributes to higher joint compression and could exacerbate joint destruction and needs to be altered to slow or stop the progression of the OA disease process. PMID:16142714

  10. Relationship between foot function and medial knee joint loading in people with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic joint loading, particularly the external knee adduction moment (KAM), is an important surrogate measure for the medio-lateral distribution of force across the knee joint in people with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Foot motion may alter the load on the medial tibiofemoral joint and hence affect the KAM. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between tibia, rearfoot and forefoot motion in the frontal and transverse planes and the KAM in people with medial compartment knee OA. Method Motion of the knee, tibia, rearfoot and forefoot and knee moments were evaluated in 32 patients with clinically and radiographically-confirmed OA, predominantly in the medial compartment. Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used to investigate the association between peak values of tibia, rearfoot and forefoot motion in the frontal and transverse planes and 1st peak KAM, 2nd peak KAM, and the knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI). Results Lateral tilt of the tibia was significantly associated with increased 1st peak KAM (r = 0.60, p < 0.001), 2nd peak KAM (r = 0.67, p = 0.001) and KAAI (r = 0.82, p = 0.001). Increased peak rearfoot eversion was significantly correlated with decreased 2nd peak KAM (r = 0.59, p < 0.001) and KAAI (r = 0.50, p = 0.004). Decreased rearfoot internal rotation was significantly associated with increased 2nd peak KAM (r = −0.44, p = 0.01) and KAAI (r = −0.38, p = 0.02), while decreased rearfoot internal rotation relative to the tibia was significantly associated with increased 2nd peak KAM (r = 0.43, p = 0.01). Significant negative correlations were found between peak forefoot eversion relative to the rearfoot and 2nd peak KAM (r = −0.53, p = 0.002) and KAAI (r = −0.51, p = 0.003) and between peak forefoot inversion and 2nd peak KAM (r = −0.54, p = 0.001) and KAAI (r = −0.48, p = 0.005). Conclusion Increased rearfoot

  11. Longitudinal Effects of Ketamine on Dendritic Architecture In Vivo in the Mouse Medial Frontal Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Phoumthipphavong, Victoria; Barthas, Florent; Hassett, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, leads to fast-acting antidepressant effects. In rodent models, systemic ketamine is associated with higher dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex, reflecting structural remodeling that may underlie the behavioral changes. However, turnover of dendritic spines is a dynamic process in vivo, and the longitudinal effects of ketamine on structural plasticity remain unclear. The purpose of the current study is to use subcellular resolution optical imaging to determine the time course of dendritic alterations in vivo following systemic ketamine administration in mice. We used two-photon microscopy to visualize repeatedly the same set of dendritic branches in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC) before and after a single injection of ketamine or saline. Compared to controls, ketamine-injected mice had higher dendritic spine density in MFC for up to 2 weeks. This prolonged increase in spine density was driven by an elevated spine formation rate, and not by changes in the spine elimination rate. A fraction of the new spines following ketamine injection was persistent, which is indicative of functional synapses. In a few cases, we also observed retraction of distal apical tuft branches on the day immediately after ketamine administration. These results indicate that following systemic ketamine administration, certain dendritic inputs in MFC are removed immediately, while others are added gradually. These dynamic structural modifications are consistent with a model of ketamine action in which the net effect is a rebalancing of synaptic inputs received by frontal cortical neurons. PMID:27066532

  12. Kisspeptin in the medial amygdala and sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gresham, Rebecca; Li, Shengyun; Adekunbi, Daniel A; Hu, Minghan; Li, Xiao Feng; O'Byrne, Kevin T

    2016-08-03

    The medial amygdala (MeA) is crucial for sexual behavior; kisspeptin (Kiss1) also plays a role in sexual function. Kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r) knockout mice display no sexual behavior. Recently Kiss1 and Kiss1r have been discovered in the posterodorsal subnucleus of the medial amygdala (MePD). We hypothesised that Kiss1 in the MePD may have an influence on male sexual behavior. To test this we bilaterally cannulated the MePD and infused kisspeptin-10 in male rats. This caused the rats to have multiple erections, an effect specific to Kiss1 receptor activation, because Kiss1r antagonism blocked the erectile response. When Kiss1 was infused into the lateral cerebroventricle, there were no observed erections. We also measured the plasma levels of LH when Kiss1 is infused into the MePD or lateral cerebroventricle; Kiss1 increased plasma LH to comparable levels when infused into both sites. We conclude that Kiss1 has a role in male sexual behavior, which is specific to the MePD.

  13. Fault Branching and Rupture Directivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmowska, R.; Rice, J. R.; Kame, N.

    2002-12-01

    Can the rupture directivity of past earthquakes be inferred from fault geometry? Nakata et al. [J. Geogr., 1998] propose to relate the observed surface branching of fault systems with directivity. Their work assumes that all branches are through acute angles in the direction of rupture propagation. However, in some observed cases rupture paths seem to branch through highly obtuse angles, as if to propagate ``backwards". Field examples of that are as follows: (1) Landers 1992. When crossing from the Johnson Valley to the Homestead Valley (HV) fault via the Kickapoo (Kp) fault, the rupture from Kp progressed not just forward onto the northern stretch of the HV fault, but also backwards, i.e., SSE along the HV [Sowers et al., 1994, Spotila and Sieh, 1995, Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995, Rockwell et al., 2000]. Measurements of surface slip along that backward branch, a prominent feature of 4 km length, show right-lateral slip, decreasing towards the SSE. (2) At a similar crossing from the HV to the Emerson (Em) fault, the rupture progressed backwards along different SSE splays of the Em fault [Zachariasen and Sieh, 1995]. (3). In crossing from the Em to Camp Rock (CR) fault, again, rupture went SSE on the CR fault. (4). Hector Mine 1999. The rupture originated on a buried fault without surface trace [Li et al., 2002; Hauksson et al., 2002] and progressed bilaterally south and north. In the south it met the Lavic Lake (LL) fault and progressed south on it, but also progressed backward, i.e. NNW, along the northern stretch of the LL fault. The angle between the buried fault and the northern LL fault is around -160o, and that NNW stretch extends around 15 km. The field examples with highly obtuse branch angles suggest that there may be no simple correlation between fault geometry and rupture directivity. We propose that an important distinction is whether those obtuse branches actually involved a rupture path which directly turned through the obtuse angle (while continuing

  14. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages. Patients and methods The medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age<18 years, n=10) and adult groups (age >18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin. Results Varying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (P<0.05). Conclusion Younger patients with intermittent exotropia show stronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood. PMID:26514242

  15. Symptomatic Trifascicular Block in Steinert's Disease: Is It Too Soon for a Pacemaker?

    PubMed Central

    Roberti, Roberto; LaCapra, Gina; Ramirez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 62-year-old male with Steinert's disease who presented with progressive intermittent episodes of lightheadedness five years after he was diagnosed with the disease. On evaluation, he developed a new onset trifascicular block (first degree atrioventricular block, new onset right bundle branch block, and left anterior fascicular block). A dual chamber pacemaker was inserted and lightheadedness improved significantly. PMID:27022487

  16. Block That Pain!

    MedlinePlus

    ... 314. This combination produces a unique effect, blocking pain-sensing neurons without impairing signals from other cells. In contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in ...

  17. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  19. 17 CFR 166.4 - Branch offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Branch offices. 166.4 Section... RULES § 166.4 Branch offices. Each branch office of each Commission registrant must use the name of the.... The act, omission or failure of any person acting for the branch office, within the scope of...

  20. Double-branched vortex generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, E. R.; Westphal, R. V.; Mehta, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the suitability of using a double branched vortex generator in parametric studies involving vortex interactions, an experimental study of the main vortex and secondary flows produced by a double branched vortex generator was conducted in a 20-by-40 cm indraft wind tunnel. Measurements of the cross flow velocities were made with a five hole pressure probe from which vorticity contours and vortex parameters were derived. The results showed that the optimum configuration consisted of chord extensions with the absence of a centerbody.

  1. Blocked Tear Duct

    MedlinePlus

    Blocked tear duct Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff When you have a blocked tear duct, your tears can't drain normally, leaving you ... in the tear drainage system. A blocked tear duct is common in newborns. The condition usually gets ...

  2. A pseudo-iatrogenic case of medial clavicular fracture

    PubMed Central

    Staal, Heleen Muriel; Willems, Willem Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Medial fractures are the least common type of clavicular fracture (2–10%). The patient is a 29-year-old gynaecology resident with hyper-laxity and sternoclavicular instability. The latter had been surgically stabilized with Dacron® tape, which eroded the bone causing an usura. Acute right shoulder pain occurred 10 years later. CT revealed medial clavicular stress fracture. After 4 weeks of conservative management, internal fixation followed. Five months postoperatively the patient performed all activities without pain. In this patient the weakened medial clavicle due to usura clearly played a role in both the site and nature of the fracture. Furthermore, CT is essential in arriving at the correct diagnosis. PMID:18427920

  3. A pseudo-iatrogenic case of medial clavicular fracture.

    PubMed

    Poelmann, Tibor Antonius Johannes; Staal, Heleen Muriel; Willems, Willem Jacob

    2008-04-01

    Medial fractures are the least common type of clavicular fracture (2-10%). The patient is a 29-year-old gynaecology resident with hyper-laxity and sternoclavicular instability. The latter had been surgically stabilized with Dacron((R)) tape, which eroded the bone causing an usura. Acute right shoulder pain occurred 10 years later. CT revealed medial clavicular stress fracture. After 4 weeks of conservative management, internal fixation followed. Five months postoperatively the patient performed all activities without pain. In this patient the weakened medial clavicle due to usura clearly played a role in both the site and nature of the fracture. Furthermore, CT is essential in arriving at the correct diagnosis.

  4. Traumatic fragmented medial coronoid process in a Chihuahua.

    PubMed

    Hadley, H S; Wheeler, J L; Manley, P A

    2009-01-01

    Fragmented medial coronoid process (FMCP) is a disease process that has not previously been reported in toy-breed dogs. This report describes a presumptive case of FMCP in a 14-month-old Chihuahua that was presented for evaluation approximately four weeks following acute onset of moderate lameness in the left forelimb. Definitive diagnosis of a fragmented medial coronoid process was based upon computed tomography (CT) scan. A CT scan also demonstrated moderate joint incongruity in the affected elbow. Surgical removal of the fragment and subtotal coronoidectomy were performed via a medial arthrotomy. An ulnar ostectomy was also performed to address joint incongruity. Histology of specimens removed at surgery did not demonstrate evidence of microdamage as characteristic of FMCP in large breed dogs, and instead, suggested that the fracture was acute and traumatic in nature. Rapid return to function was observed following surgery.

  5. Medial collateral ligament reconstruction in the baseball Pitcher's elbow.

    PubMed

    Erne, Holger C; Zouzias, Ioannis C; Rosenwasser, Melvin P

    2009-08-01

    Pitchers are prone to elbow injuries because of high and repetitive valgus stresses on the elbow. The anterior bundle of the medial ulnar collateral ligament (MCL) of the elbow is the primary restraint and is often attenuated with time, leading to functional incompetence and ultimate failure. Pitchers with a history of medial elbow pain, reduced velocity, and loss of command may have an MCL injury in evolution. Physical examination and imaging can confirm the diagnosis. Treatment begins with rest and activity modification. All medial elbow pain is not MCL injury. Surgery is considered only for talented athletes who wish to return to competitive play and may include elite scholastic and other collegiates and professionals. The technique for MCL reconstruction was first described in 1986. Many variations have been offered since then, which can result in predictable outcomes, allowing many to return to the same level of competitive play.

  6. Branched Projections in the Auditory Thalamocortical and Corticocortical Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kishan, Amar U.; Lee, Charles C.; Winer, Jeffery A.

    2008-01-01

    Branched axons (BAs) projecting to different areas of the brain can create multiple feature-specific maps or synchronize processing in remote targets. We examined the organization of BAs in the cat auditory forebrain using two sensitive retrograde tracers. In one set of experiments (n=4), the tracers were injected into different frequency-matched loci in the primary auditory area (AI) and the anterior auditory field (AAF). In the other set (n=4), we injected primary, non-primary, or limbic cortical areas. After mapped injections, percentages of double labeled cells (PDLs) in the medial geniculate body (MGB) ranged from 1.4% (ventral division) to 2.8% (rostral pole). In both ipsilateral and contralateral areas AI and AAF, the average PDLs were <1%. In the unmapped cases, the MGB PDLs ranged from 0.6% (ventral division) after insular cortex injections to 6.7% (dorsal division) after temporal cortex injections. Cortical PDLs ranged from 0.1% (ipsilateral AI injections) to 3.7% AII (contralateral AII injections). PDLs within the smaller (minority) projection population were significantly higher than those in the overall population. About 2% of auditory forebrain projection cells have BAs and such cells are organized differently than those in the subcortical auditory system, where BAs can be far more numerous. Forebrain branched projections follow different organizational rules than their unbranched counterparts. Finally, the relatively larger proportion of visual and somatic sensory forebrain BAs suggests modality specific rules for BA organization. PMID:18294776

  7. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block

    PubMed Central

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur

    2014-01-01

    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB. PMID:27366387

  8. Progressive Familial Heart Block Type I in a Korean Patient

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang Kun; Jang, Jin Kun; Jang, Kyeong-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyoung; Cheong, Sang-Sig; Yoo, Sang-Yong

    2011-01-01

    A 29-year-old man was referred to the emergency department with a complaint of abdominal pain and dizziness. He had experienced two previous syncopal episodes. His family history revealed that his mother and his two uncles had received permanent pacemaker implantation. His initial heart rate was 49 beats per minute. The electrocardiography (ECG) showed atrial flutter and right bundle branch block (RBBB) with left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). On admission, 24-hour Holter showed ventricular pause up to 16 seconds during syncope. Radio frequency catheter ablation (RFCA) of atrial flutter was performed. The ECG revealed bifascicular block (RBBB and LAFB) and first-degree atrioventricular block. He received a permanent pacemaker implantation. His brother's and his sister's ECGs also showed trifascicular block and the pedigree showed autosomal dominant inheritance. This patient was diagnosed with a progressive familial heart block (PFHB) type I. This would be the first report of a PFHB type I case documented in Korea. PMID:21731570

  9. The Space Block

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Ciba-Geigy Corporation's "Space Block," technically known as TDT-177-51 Ren Shape epoxy model block, is a two-foot by two-foot by five- inch plastic block from which master models of the Space Shuttle protective tiles are cut by NC machines. Space Block is made of epoxy resin with low viscosity and slow curing time, enabling the large block to cure uniformly without cracking. Rockwell International uses master models of Shuttle tiles to check accuracy of NC machines accurately by comparing model dimensions with specifications. New epoxy resins are attracting broad interest as a replacement for traditional materials used in modeling auto, aerospace or other parts.

  10. Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [D-FL-20

    2009-06-17

    10/01/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-68. (PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Wasserman Schultz, Debbie [D-FL-20

    2009-06-17

    10/01/2009 Became Public Law No: 111-68. (TXT | PDF) (All Actions) Notes: Division A is the Legislative Branch Appropriations Act, 2010. Division B is the Continuing Appropriations Resolution, 2010. Tracker: This bill has the status Became LawHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    PubMed

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  13. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  14. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Cancer.gov

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRP) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  15. Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.

  16. 76 FR 13272 - Branch Offices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Branch Offices AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS), Treasury. ACTION... 1995, 44 U.S.C. 3507. The Office of Thrift Supervision within the Department of the Treasury...

  17. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    PubMed Central

    Rameau, Catherine; Bertheloot, Jessica; Leduc, Nathalie; Andrieu, Bruno; Foucher, Fabrice; Sakr, Soulaiman

    2015-01-01

    Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIDEA, PCF transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply. PMID:25628627

  18. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  19. Medial Meniscal Extrusion Relates to Cartilage Loss in Specific Femorotibial Subregions- Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bloecker, K.; Wirth, W.; Guermazi, A.; Hunter, DJ; Resch, H.; Hochreiter, J.; Eckstein, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medial meniscal extrusion is known to be related to structural progression of knee OA. However, it is unclear whether medial meniscal extrusion is more strongly associated with cartilage loss in certain medial femorotibial subregions than to others. Methods Segmentation of the medial tibial and femoral cartilage (baseline; 1-year follow-up) and the medial meniscus (baseline) was performed in 60 participants with frequent knee pain (age 61.3±9.2y, BMI 31.3±3.9 kg/m2) and with unilateral medial radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) grade 1–3, using double echo steady state MR-images. Medial meniscal extrusion distance and extrusion area (%) between the external meniscal and tibial margin at baseline, and longitudinal medial cartilage loss in eight anatomical subregions were determined. Results A significant association (Pearson correlation coefficient) was seen between medial meniscus extrusion area in JSN knees and cartilage loss over one year throughout the entire medial femorotibial compartment. The strongest correlation was with cartilage loss in the external medial tibia (r=−0.34 [p<0.01] in JSN, and r=−0.30 [p=0.02] in noJSN knees). Conclusion Medial meniscus extrusion was associated with subsequent medial cartilage loss. The external medial tibial cartilage may be particularly vulnerable to thinning once the meniscus extrudes and its surface is “exposed” to direct, non-physiological, cartilage-cartilage contact. PMID:25988986

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Axonal Branch Dynamics in the Developing Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Ethan K.; Goodhill, Geoffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Branching is an important mechanism by which axons navigate to their targets during neural development. For instance, in the developing zebrafish retinotectal system, selective branching plays a critical role during both initial pathfinding and subsequent arborisation once the target zone has been reached. Here we show how quantitative methods can help extract new information from time-lapse imaging about the nature of the underlying branch dynamics. First, we introduce Dynamic Time Warping to this domain as a method for automatically matching branches between frames, replacing the effort required for manual matching. Second, we model branch dynamics as a birth-death process, i.e. a special case of a continuous-time Markov process. This reveals that the birth rate for branches from zebrafish retinotectal axons, as they navigate across the tectum, increased over time. We observed no significant change in the death rate for branches over this time period. However, blocking neuronal activity with TTX slightly increased the death rate, without a detectable change in the birth rate. Third, we show how the extraction of these rates allows computational simulations of branch dynamics whose statistics closely match the data. Together these results reveal new aspects of the biology of retinotectal pathfinding, and introduce computational techniques which are applicable to the study of axon branching more generally. PMID:26998842

  1. Congenital complete heart block.

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, B.; Sheikh, Z.; Cibils, L. A.

    1996-01-01

    Congenital complete heart block in utero has become diagnosed more frequently with the clinical use of fetal echocardiography. The fetus with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic or may develop congestive heart failure. Congenital complete heart block is more frequently seen in infants of mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus, both clinically manifested and subclinical systemic lupus erythematosus with positive antibodies (SS-A and SS-B antibodies). At birth, the neonate with complete heart block may remain asymptomatic and may not require a pacemaker to increase the heart rate. The indications for a pacemaker in neonates with complete heart block have been discussed. Both in-utero and neonatal management of congenital complete heart block are discussed to manage congestive heart failure in a fetus. Four patients with congenital complete heart block are presented covering a broad spectrum of clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management both in the fetal and neonatal period. Images Figure 1 PMID:8961692

  2. Neuropilin-2 promotes branching morphogenesis in the mouse mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Goel, Hira Lal; Bae, Donggoo; Pursell, Bryan; Gouvin, Lindsey M; Lu, Shaolei; Mercurio, Arthur M

    2011-07-01

    Although the neuropilins were characterized as semaphorin receptors that regulate axon guidance, they also function as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors and contribute to the development of other tissues. Here, we assessed the role of NRP2 in mouse mammary gland development based on our observation that NRP2 is expressed preferentially in the terminal end buds of developing glands. A floxed NRP2 mouse was bred with an MMTV-Cre strain to generate a mammary gland-specific knockout of NRP2. MMTV-Cre;NRP2(loxP/loxP) mice exhibited significant defects in branching morphogenesis and ductal outgrowth compared with either littermate MMTV-Cre;NRP2(+/loxP) or MMTV-Cre mice. Mechanistic insight into this morphological defect was obtained from a mouse mammary cell line in which we observed that VEGF(165), an NRP2 ligand, induces branching morphogenesis in 3D cultures and that branching is dependent upon NRP2 as shown using shRNAs and a function-blocking antibody. Epithelial cells in the mouse mammary gland express VEGF, supporting the hypothesis that this NRP2 ligand contributes to mammary gland morphogenesis. Importantly, we demonstrate that VEGF and NRP2 activate focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and promote FAK-dependent branching morphogenesis in vitro. The significance of this mechanism is substantiated by our finding that FAK activation is diminished significantly in developing MMTV-Cre;NRP2(loxP/loxP) mammary glands compared with control glands. Together, our data reveal a VEGF/NRP2/FAK signaling axis that is important for branching morphogenesis and mammary gland development. In a broader context, our data support an emerging hypothesis that directional outgrowth and branching morphogenesis in a variety of tissues are influenced by signals that were identified initially for their role in axon guidance.

  3. 4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL OF STONE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION AND IRON HARDWARE (Original Fabric) - Bald Eagle Cross-Cut Canal Lock, North of Water Street along West Branch of Susquehanna River South bank, 500 feet East of Jay Street Bridge, Lock Haven, Clinton County, PA

  4. Breaking the Block: Basic Writers in the Electronic Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kish, Judith Mara

    2000-01-01

    Fuses theories about Basic Writers and writer's block. Addresses, through the use of hypertext, how computers can help Basic Writers who experience this writing difficulty. Discusses the two main branches of students' difficulties (problems with genre and problems with the linearity of texts) which may be partially alleviated through the…

  5. 20. DETAIL, METAL BRIDGE PLATE, AT SOUTH END BLOCK OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, METAL BRIDGE PLATE, AT SOUTH END BLOCK OF EAST PARAPET, FROM SOUTH, RECORDING 1933 CONSTRUCTION OF FIFTH STREET VIADUCT BY RICHMOND BRIDGE CORPORATION IN COOPERATION WITH THE CITY OF RICHMOND - Fifth Street Viaduct, Spanning Bacon's Quarter Branch Valley on Fifth Street, Richmond, Independent City, VA

  6. Sp4-dependent repression of Neurotrophin-3 limits dendritic branching

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Belén; Valín, Alvaro; Sun, Xinxin; Gill, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Regulation of neuronal gene expression is critical to establish functional connections in the mammalian nervous system. The transcription factor Sp4 regulates dendritic patterning during cerebellar granule neuron development by limiting branching and promoting activity-dependent pruning. Here, we investigate neurotrophin-3 (NT3) as a target gene important for Sp4-dependent dendritic morphogenesis. We found that Sp4 overexpression reduced NT3 promoter activity whereas knockdown of Sp4 increased NT3 promoter activity and mRNA. Moreover, Sp4 bound to the NT3 promoter in vivo, supporting a direct role for Sp4 as a repressor of NT3 expression. Addition of exogenous NT3 promoted dendritic branching in cerebellar granule neurons. Furthermore, sequestering NT3 blocked the continued addition of dendritic branches observed upon Sp4 knockdown, but had no effect on dendrite pruning. These findings demonstrate that, during cerebellar granule neuron development, Sp4-dependent repression of neurotrophin-3 is required to limit dendritic branching and thereby promote acquisition of the mature dendritic pattern. PMID:19555762

  7. To branch or not to branch: Numerical modeling of dynamically branching faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedontney, N. L.; Templeton Barrett, E. L.; Rice, J. R.; Dmowska, R.

    2009-12-01

    Branched fault geometries, and branched rupture paths, occur in strike-slip as well as dip-slip settings [e.g., Poliakov et al., JGR, 2002; Kame et al., JGR, 2003]. The Wenchuan earthquake illustrates such a branched geometry [Hubbard and Shaw, 2009] in a fold and thrust belt, and surface ruptures provide constraints on which faults were activated co-seismically. Additionally, a branched structure, the Central Basin Decollement [Shaw & Suppe, 1996], underlies the Los Angeles Basin. By simulating the dynamic rupture path selection, using explicit finite element methods here, we are able to estimate which faults should be activated under given conditions. Factors that influence coseismic branch activation have been extensively studied [Poliakov et al.; Kame et al.; Oglesby et al., 2003, 2004; Bhat et al., 2004, 2007]. The results show that the rupture velocity, pre-stress orientation and fault geometry influence rupture path selection. We show further that the ratio of σ1/σ3 (equivalently, the seismic S ratio) and the relative frictional fault strength also play a significant role in determining which faults are activated. Our methodology has recently included the use of a regularized friction routine [Ranjith & Rice, 2001; Cochard & Rice, 2000] which reduces the growth of numerical noise throughout the simulations. A difficulty arises in the treatment of surface interactions at the branch junction. When local opening does not occur there, slip on the branch fault must vanish at the junction, a constraint that we impose on the FE model. However, the FE contact routine used demands that slip always be constrained to zero on one or the other fault at such a junction, which is problematic when opening occurs. There is then no fundamental basis for constraining slip at the junction to zero on either fault, and the choice made affects the slip distributions and rupture path selection. Many analyses that we perform are elastic and the same material is used on both sides

  8. Branching processes in disease epidemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sarabjeet

    Branching processes have served as a model for chemical reactions, biological growth processes and contagion (of disease, information or fads). Through this connection, these seemingly different physical processes share some common universalities that can be elucidated by analyzing the underlying branching process. In this thesis, we focus on branching processes as a model for infectious diseases spreading between individuals belonging to different populations. The distinction between populations can arise from species separation (as in the case of diseases which jump across species) or spatial separation (as in the case of disease spreading between farms, cities, urban centers, etc). A prominent example of the former is zoonoses -- infectious diseases that spill from animals to humans -- whose specific examples include Nipah virus, monkeypox, HIV and avian influenza. A prominent example of the latter is infectious diseases of animals such as foot and mouth disease and bovine tuberculosis that spread between farms or cattle herds. Another example of the latter is infectious diseases of humans such as H1N1 that spread from one city to another through migration of infectious hosts. This thesis consists of three main chapters, an introduction and an appendix. The introduction gives a brief history of mathematics in modeling the spread of infectious diseases along with a detailed description of the most commonly used disease model -- the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. The introduction also describes how the stochastic formulation of the model reduces to a branching process in the limit of large population which is analyzed in detail. The second chapter describes a two species model of zoonoses with coupled SIR processes and proceeds into the calculation of statistics pertinent to cross species infection using multitype branching processes. The third chapter describes an SIR process driven by a Poisson process of infection spillovers. This is posed as a

  9. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    PubMed

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-03-02

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT2AR activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT2AR blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection.

  10. Arthroscopic Treatment of Medial Femoral Condylar Coronal Fractures and Nonunions

    PubMed Central

    Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, M. Gokhan; Basaran, S. Hakan; Baca, Emre; Kural, Cemal; Avkan, M. Cevdet

    2013-01-01

    Nonunion of medial femoral condylar coronal fractures are uncommon. In neglected Hoffa fractures despite nonunion, there is a risk of missing accompanying ligamentous and intra-articular injuries. Neither preoperative clinical examination nor magnetic resonance imaging showed these injuries before arthroscopy. Arthroscopy before internal fixation gives additional information and changes the surgical protocol for these fractures and nonunions. PMID:24400191

  11. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in a Below-Knee Amputee.

    PubMed

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Elfons Tawafig, Marian; Miles, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common finding in patients with below-knee amputation and yet management options are not commonly described in the literature. We describe the first reported case of a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using allograft in a patient with a below-knee amputation. Clinical outcome at two-year follow-up remains very good.

  12. Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in a Below-Knee Amputee

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Sherif; Elfons Tawafig, Marian; Miles, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common finding in patients with below-knee amputation and yet management options are not commonly described in the literature. We describe the first reported case of a medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using allograft in a patient with a below-knee amputation. Clinical outcome at two-year follow-up remains very good. PMID:26579321

  13. Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  14. Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Contribute to On-Line Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David

    2009-01-01

    For the last five decades, the medial temporal lobes have been generally understood to facilitate enduring representation of certain kinds of information. In particular, knowledge about the relations among items and concepts appears to rely on that region of the brain. Recent results suggest that those same structures also play a subtle role in…

  15. Theta Synchronizes the Activity of Medial Prefrontal Neurons during Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Rony; Bauer, Elizabeth P.; Pare, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Memory consolidation is thought to involve the gradual transfer of transient hippocampal-dependent traces to distributed neocortical sites via the rhinal cortices. Recently, medial prefrontal (mPFC) neurons were shown to facilitate this process when their activity becomes synchronized. However, the mechanisms underlying this enhanced synchrony…

  16. Medial temporal lobe volume predicts elders' everyday memory.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Zacks, Jeffrey M; Hambrick, David Z; Zacks, Rose T; Head, Denise; Kurby, Christopher A; Sargent, Jesse Q

    2013-07-01

    Deficits in memory for everyday activities are common complaints among healthy and demented older adults. The medial temporal lobes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are both affected by aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease, and are known to influence performance on laboratory memory tasks. We investigated whether the volume of these structures predicts everyday memory. Cognitively healthy older adults and older adults with mild Alzheimer's-type dementia watched movies of everyday activities and completed memory tests on the activities. Structural MRI was used to measure brain volume. Medial temporal but not prefrontal volume strongly predicted subsequent memory. Everyday memory depends on segmenting activity into discrete events during perception, and medial temporal volume partially accounted for the relationship between performance on the memory tests and performance on an event-segmentation task. The everyday-memory measures used in this study involve retrieval of episodic and semantic information as well as working memory updating. Thus, the current findings suggest that during perception, the medial temporal lobes support the construction of event representations that determine subsequent memory.

  17. Medial Temporal Lobe Volume Predicts Elders' Everyday Memory

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.; Hambrick, David Z.; Zacks, Rose T.; Head, Denise; Kurby, Christopher A.; Sargent, Jesse Q.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in memory for everyday activities are common complaints among healthy and demented older adults. The medial temporal lobes and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex are both affected by aging and early-stage Alzheimer's disease, and are known to influence performance on laboratory memory tasks. We investigated whether the volume of these structures predicts everyday memory. Cognitively healthy older adults and older adults with mild Alzheimer's-type dementia watched movies of everyday activities and completed memory tests on the activities. Structural MRI was used to measure brain volume. Medial temporal but not prefrontal volume strongly predicted subsequent memory. Everyday memory depends on segmenting activity into discrete events during perception, and medial temporal volume partially accounted for the relationship between performance on the memory tests and performance on an event-segmentation task. The everyday-memory measures used in this study involve retrieval of episodic and semantic information as well as working memory updating. Thus, the current findings suggest that during perception, the medial temporal lobes support the construction of event representations that determine subsequent memory. PMID:23630222

  18. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Lesions Abolish Contextual Control of Competing Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddon, J. E.; Killcross, A. S.

    2005-01-01

    There is much debate as to the extent and nature of functional specialization within the different subregions of the prefrontal cortex. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of damage to medial prefrontal cortex subregions in the rat. Rats were trained on two biconditional discrimination tasks, one auditory and one visual, in…

  19. Human medial forebrain bundle (MFB) and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR): imaging of two major subcortical pathways and the dynamic balance of opposite affects in understanding depression.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Volker A; Panksepp, Jaak; Hurwitz, Trevor A; Urbach, Horst; Mädler, Burkhard

    2012-01-01

    The medial forebrain bundle (MFB), a key structure of reward-seeking circuitry, remains inadequately characterized in humans despite its vast importance for emotional processing and development of addictions and depression. Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging Fiber Tracking (DTI FT) the authors describe potential converging ascending and descending MFB and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) that may mediate major brain reward-seeking and punishment functions. Authors highlight novel connectivity, such as supero-lateral-branch MFB and ATR convergence, caudally as well as rostrally, in the anterior limb of the internal capsule and medial prefrontal cortex. These anatomical convergences may sustain a dynamic equilibrium between positive and negative affective states in human mood-regulation and its various disorders, especially evident in addictions and depression.

  20. Neurokinin2-R in medial septum regulate hippocampal and amygdalar ACh release induced by intraseptal application of neurokinins A and B.

    PubMed

    Schäble, Sandra; Huston, Joseph P; Silva, Maria A de Souza

    2012-05-01

    The neurokinin receptors (NK-R), NK(2)- and NK(3)-R, have been implicated in behavioral processes, but apparently in opposite ways: while NK(2)-R agonism disrupts memory and has anxiogenic-like action, NK(3) -R agonists facilitate memory and display anxiolytic-like effects. Systemic application of NK(2)-R antagonists block the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in the hippocampus, which is induced by intraseptal administration of the NK(2)-R ligand, neurokinin A (NKA). We investigated the effects of medial septal injection of NKA and a preferred ligand of NK(3)-R, neurokinin B (NKB), on the activity of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and assessed the role of the medial septal NK(2)-R in the control of extracellular ACh levels in cholinergic projection areas. ACh was dialysed in the frontal cortex, amygdala and hippocampus of anesthetized animals and was analysed by HPLC-EC. ACh levels in hippocampus and amygdala, but not in frontal cortex were increased after intraseptal injection of either NKA or NKB (0.1, 1, 10 μM). Application of the nonpeptidic NK(2)-R antagonist, saredutant SR48968 (1, 10, 100 pM), followed by NKA (1 μM) or NKB (10 μM) injection into the medial septum, blocked the ACh increase in hippocampus and amygdala. These results indicate that medial septal NK(2)-R have an important role in mediating ACh release, for one, via the septal-hippocampal cholinergic projection and, secondly, via direct or indirect route to the amygdala, but not frontal cortex. They also support the hypothesis that hippocampal cholinergic neurotransmission controls amygdala function suggesting that this interaction is regulated via NK(2)-R in the medial septum.

  1. Design of branched and chiral solvatochromic probes: toward quantifying polarity gradients in dendritic macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Milosevic, Petar; Hecht, Stefan

    2005-10-27

    [reaction: see text] A pair of chiral, branched monomer building blocks, consisting of a solvatochromic probe and a spectroscopically inactive volume dummy, has been developed. The probe can selectively be excited, and its fluorescence characteristics provide information about local polarity. Incorporation of these monomers into high-generation polyester dendrimers should enable a detailed investigation of the polarity/density profile in dendritic architectures and ultimately allow for the realization of energy gradients from one chromophore building block only.

  2. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    Functional imaging studies in human reliably identify a trio of scene-selective regions, one on each of the lateral [occipital place area (OPA)], ventral [parahippocampal place area (PPA)], and medial [retrosplenial complex (RSC)] cortical surfaces. Recently, we demonstrated differential retinotopic biases for the contralateral lower and upper visual fields within OPA and PPA, respectively. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we combine detailed mapping of both population receptive fields (pRF) and category-selectivity, with independently acquired resting-state functional connectivity analyses, to examine scene and retinotopic processing within medial parietal cortex. We identified a medial scene-selective region, which was contained largely within the posterior and ventral bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus (POS). While this region is typically referred to as RSC, the spatial extent of our scene-selective region typically did not extend into retrosplenial cortex, and thus we adopt the term medial place area (MPA) to refer to this visually defined scene-selective region. Intriguingly MPA co-localized with a region identified solely on the basis of retinotopic sensitivity using pRF analyses. We found that MPA demonstrates a significant contralateral visual field bias, coupled with large pRF sizes. Unlike OPA and PPA, MPA did not show a consistent bias to a single visual quadrant. MPA also co-localized with a region identified by strong differential functional connectivity with PPA and the human face-selective fusiform face area (FFA), commensurate with its functional selectivity. Functional connectivity with OPA was much weaker than with PPA, and similar to that with face-selective occipital face area (OFA), suggesting a closer link with ventral than lateral cortex. Consistent with prior research, we also observed differential functional connectivity in medial parietal cortex for anterior over posterior PPA, as well as a region on the lateral

  3. Rod-Coil Block Polyimide Copolymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meador, Mary Ann B. (Inventor); Kinder, James D. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    This invention is a series of rod-coil block polyimide copolymers that are easy to fabricate into mechanically resilient films with acceptable ionic or protonic conductivity at a variety of temperatures. The copolymers consist of short-rigid polyimide rod segments alternating with polyether coil segments. The rods and coil segments can be linear, branched or mixtures of linear and branched segments. The highly incompatible rods and coil segments phase separate, providing nanoscale channels for ion conduction. The polyimide segments provide dimensional and mechanical stability and can be functionalized in a number of ways to provide specialized functions for a given application. These rod-coil black polyimide copolymers are particularly useful in the preparation of ion conductive membranes for use in the manufacture of fuel cells and lithium based polymer batteries.

  4. Ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block vs continuous fascia iliaca compartment block for hip replacement in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bin; He, Miao; Cai, Guang-Yu; Zou, Tian-Xiao; Zhang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block are 2 traditional anesthesia methods in orthopedic surgeries, but it is controversial which method is better. The objective of this study was to compare the practicality, efficacy, and complications of the 2 modalities in hip replacement surgery in the elderly and to assess the utility of a novel cannula-over-needle set. Methods: In this prospective, randomized controlled clinical investigation, 60 elderly patients undergoing hip replacement were randomly assigned to receive either continuous femoral nerve block or continuous fascia iliaca compartment block. After ultrasound-guided nerve block, all patients received general anesthesia for surgery and postoperative analgesia through an indwelling cannula. Single-factor analysis of variance was used to compare the outcome variables between the 2 groups. Results: There was a significant difference between the 2 groups in the mean visual analog scale scores (at rest) at 6 hours after surgery: 1.0 ± 1.3 in the femoral nerve block group vs 0.5 ± 0.8 in the fascia iliaca compartment block group (P < 0.05). The femoral nerve block group had better postoperative analgesia on the medial aspect of the thigh, whereas the fascia iliaca compartment block group had better analgesia on the lateral aspect of the thigh. There were no other significant differences between the groups. Conclusions: Both ultrasound-guided continuous femoral nerve block and fascia iliaca compartment block with the novel cannula-over-needle provide effective anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for elderly hip replacement patients. PMID:27759633

  5. Geodynamics Branch research report, 1982

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    The research program of the Geodynamics Branch is summarized. The research activities cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX) and Geopotential Research Mission. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  6. Horizontal-branch stellar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweigart, Allen V.

    1990-01-01

    The results of canonical theory for the evolution of horizontal-branch (HB) stars are examined. Particular attention is given to how an HB star maintains the appropriate composition distribution within the semiconvective zone and how this composition is affected by the finite time-dependence with which convective boundaries actually move. Newly developed models based on time-dependent overshooting are presented for both the core-helium-exhaustion and main HB phases.

  7. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  8. A Finite Element Analysis of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    DeVries Watson, Nicole A.; Duchman, Kyle R.; Bollier, Matthew J.; Grosland, Nicole M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The medial patellofemoral ligament is the primary soft-tissue restraint to lateral patella translation. Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction has become a viable surgical option to provide patellar stability in patients with recurrent instability. The primary goal of this study was to determine the effect of medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction on the lateral force-displacement behavior of the patella using finite element analyses. Methods A finite element model of the knee was created using cadaveric image data. Experimental testing was performed to validate the computational model. After validation, the model was modified to study the effect of various medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction insertion sites, allowing comparison of patellofemoral contact force and pressure. Results For the intact anatomic model, the lateral restraining force was 80.0 N with a corresponding patellar contact area of 54.97 mm2. For the anatomic reconstructed medial patellofemoral ligament model, the lateral restraining force increased to 148.9 N with a contact area of 71.78 mm2. This compared favorably to the corresponding experimental study. The force required to laterally displace the patella increased when the femoral insertion site was moved anteriorly or distally. The lateral restraining force decreased when the femoral insertion site moved proximally and the patellar insertion site moved either proximal or distal by 5 mm. Conclusion The line of action was altered with insertion site position, which in turn changed the amount of force it took to displace the patella laterally. Considering the model constraints, an anterior femoral attachment may over constrain the patella and increase cartilage wear due to increase contact area and restraining force. Clinical Relevance A malpositioned femoral tunnel in MPFL reconstruction could increase restraining forces and PF contact pressure, thus it is suggested to use intra-operative fluoroscopy to confirm

  9. Walker Branch Watershed Ecosystems Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Walker Branch Watershed is located on the U. S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge Reservation near Oak Ridge, in Anderson County, Tennessee. The Walker Branch Watershed Project began in 1967 under sponsorship of the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission (now the U. S. Department of Energy). Initially, the project centered primarily on the geologic and hydrologic processes that control the amounts and chemistry of water moving through the watershed. Past projects have included: • U. S. Department of Energy funded studies of watershed hydrology and forest nutrient dynamics • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration funded studies of forest micrometeorology • Studies of atmospheric deposition under the National Atmospheric Deposition Program • The International Biological Program Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project • National Science Foundation sponsored studies of trace element cycling and stream nutrient spiraling • Electric Power Research Institute funded studies of the effects of acidic deposition on canopy processes and soil chemistry. These projects have all contributed to a more complete understanding of how forest watersheds function and have provided insights into the solution of energy-related problems associated with air pollution, contaminant transport, and forest nutrient dynamics. This is one of a few sites in the world characterized by long-term, intensive environmental studies. The Walker Branch Watershed website at http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ provides maps, photographs, and data on climate, precipitation, atmospheric deposition, stream discharge and runoff, stream chemistry, and vegetation. [Taken from http://walkerbranch.ornl.gov/ABOUTAAA.HTM

  10. Protein based Block Copolymers

    PubMed Central

    Rabotyagova, Olena S.; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in genetic engineering have led to the synthesis of protein-based block copolymers with control of chemistry and molecular weight, resulting in unique physical and biological properties. The benefits from incorporating peptide blocks into copolymer designs arise from the fundamental properties of proteins to adopt ordered conformations and to undergo self-assembly, providing control over structure formation at various length scales when compared to conventional block copolymers. This review covers the synthesis, structure, assembly, properties, and applications of protein-based block copolymers. PMID:21235251

  11. Synthesis of Biomimetic Branched Polymer Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciel, Amanda; Mai, Danielle; Schroeder, Charles

    2014-03-01

    Development of sequence-defined or structurally-precise polymers as high-performance materials is a major challenge in materials science. In this work, we report a facile synthesis platform to produce monodisperse and stereochemically precise nucleotidomimetic polymers. Based on a top-down approach, we are able to precisely incorporate a wide-variety of functional group modifications in a simple two-step process. First, we utilize the natural ability of DNA polymerase to enzymatically incorporate chemically-modified monomers (e.g., C5-dibenzocyclooctyl dUTP) in a template-directed fashion. Second, we employ copper-free click chemistry to integrate the desired chemical functionality at precise locations along the polymer chain. In this way, we produced a variety of branched DNA homopolymer architectures including 3-arm star, symmetric H, and block-brush. Overall, this synthetic strategy allows for the systematic variation of oligomer length, stoichiometry, concentration, and environmental conditions to rapidly explore nucleotidomimetic polymer phase behavior for materials discovery.

  12. Managing occurrence branching in qualitative simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Tokuda, L.

    1996-12-31

    Qualitative simulators can produce common sense abstractions of complex behaviors given only partial knowledge about a system. One of the problems which limits the applicability of qualitative simulators is the intractable branching of successor states encountered with model of even modest size. Some branches may be unavoidable due to the complex nature of a system. Other branches may be accidental results of the model chosen. A common source of intractability is occurrence branching. Occurrence branching occurs when the state transitions of two variables are unordered with respect to each other. This paper extends the QSIM model to distinguish between interesting occurrence branching and uninteresting occurrence branching. A representation, algorithm, and simulator for efficiently handling uninteresting branching is presented.

  13. Early memory formation disrupted by atypical PKC inhibitor ZIP in the medial prefrontal cortex but not hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Evuarherhe, Obaro; Barker, Gareth R I; Savalli, Giorgia; Warburton, Elizabeth C; Brown, Malcolm W

    2014-08-01

    Atypical isoforms of protein kinase C (aPKCs; particularly protein kinase M zeta: PKMζ) have been hypothesized to be necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term memory by maintaining postsynaptic AMPA receptors via the GluA2 subunit. A myristoylated PKMζ pseudosubstrate peptide (ZIP) blocks PKMζ activity. We examined the actions of ZIP in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus in associative recognition memory in rats during early memory formation and memory maintenance. ZIP infusion in either hippocampus or mPFC impaired memory maintenance. However, early memory formation was impaired by ZIP in mPFC but not hippocampus; and blocking GluA2-dependent removal of AMPA receptors did not affect this impairment caused by ZIP in the mPFC. The findings indicate: (i) a difference in the actions of ZIP in hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex, and (ii) a GluA2-independent target of ZIP (possibly PKCλ) in the mPFC during early memory formation.

  14. Guide to the Seattle Archives Branch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Richard, Comp.

    The guide presents an overview of the textual and microfilmed records located at the Seattle Branch of the National Archives of the United States. Established in 1969, the Seattle Archives Branch is one of 11 branches which preserve and make available for research those U.S. Government records of permanent value created and maintained by Federal…

  15. Introduction of Branching Degrees of Octane Isomers.

    PubMed

    Perdih, Anton

    2016-01-01

    The concept of branching degrees is introduced. In the case of octane isomers it is derived from the values of a set of their physicochemical properties, calculating for each isomer the average of the normalized values and these averages are defined as branching degrees of octane isomers. The sequence of these branching degrees of octane isomers does not differ much from the »regular« one defined earlier. 2,2-Dimethylhexane appears to be less branched than 3,4-dimethylhexane and 3-ethyl, 2-methylpentane, whereas 2,3,4-trimethylpentane appears to be less branched than 3-ethyl, 3-methylpentane. While the increasing number of branches gives rise to increasing branching degrees, the peripheral position of branches and the separation between branches decreases the value of the branching degree. The central position of branches increases it. A bigger branch increases it more than a smaller one. The quantification of these structural features and their correlations with few indices is given as well.

  16. Structural dynamics branch research and accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Summaries are presented of fiscal year 1989 research highlights from the Structural Dynamics Branch at NASA Lewis Research Center. Highlights from the branch's major work areas include aeroelasticity, vibration control, dynamic systems, and computation structural methods. A listing of the fiscal year 1989 branch publications is given.

  17. Thermally actuated wedge block

    DOEpatents

    Queen, Jr., Charles C.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an automatically-operating wedge block for maintaining intimate structural contact over wide temperature ranges, including cryogenic use. The wedging action depends on the relative thermal expansion of two materials having very different coefficients of thermal expansion. The wedge block expands in thickness when cooled to cryogenic temperatures and contracts in thickness when returned to room temperature.

  18. Medial Auditory Thalamus Inactivation Prevents Acquisition and Retention of Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) pathway that is necessary for delay eyeblink conditioning was investigated using reversible inactivation of the medial auditory thalamic nuclei (MATN) consisting of the medial division of the medial geniculate (MGm), suprageniculate (SG), and posterior intralaminar nucleus (PIN). Rats were given saline or…

  19. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum during Place Reversal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when task contingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did…

  20. Effects of stimulation of glutamate receptors in medial septum on some immune responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Goutam; Raj Goswami, Ananda; Ghosh, Tusharkanti

    2013-11-13

    The immunomodulatory role of medial septum (MS) has been explored so far only in MS lesioned rats. But in MS lesioned rats, all the nerve cells and fibres of the lesioned area are damaged and the specific role of the neural circuits of MS on immunomodulation cannot be assessed from the lesion of MS. Considering the presence of a large number of glutamate receptors in MS, the specific role of glutamate receptors stimulation on some immune responses has been investigated in the present study. Hyperreactive behaviour, TC and DC of WBC, phagocytic activity of peripheral leukocytes, adhesibility and cytotoxicity of splenic mononuclear cells (MNC), delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) responses and the serum corticosterone (CORT) were measured after microinfusion of glutamate into MS of rats. To ascertain the specific role of those glutamate receptors, the parameters were also measured after microinfusion of glutamate receptor blocker 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione (DNQX). The hyperreactive behaviour, TC and DC of WBC remained unaltered after stimulation or blocking of glutamate receptors. The phagocytic activity, adhesibility and cytotoxicity of splenic MNC, and DTH responses were increased after infusion of 0.25 and 0.5µM glutamate. But after infusion of higher dose of glutamate (1µM), the phagocytic activity and the adhesibility of splenic MNC were decreased and other parameters remained unaltered in that condition. After infusion of 4 and 8mM DNQX all the observed immunological parameters were decreased. The CORT concentration was decreased after infusion of 0.25 and 0.5µM of glutamate but it was increased after infusion of 1µM glutamate or 4 and 8mM DNQX. Results indicate that the medial septal glutamate receptors play an important role in the modulation of some immune responses.

  1. S-branch CARS applicability to thermometry

    SciTech Connect

    Akihama, K.; Asai, T. )

    1990-07-20

    The pressure and temperature dependence of background-free {ital S}-branch CARS spectra of N{sub 2} are investigated in the temperature range of 300--700 K for pressures of 1--20 atm. Collisional narrowing for {ital S}-branch CARS spectra is proved to be negligible. Individual {ital S}-branch lines are clearly resolved in the entire range, enabling unequivocal determination of temperatures by their peak ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry are discussed on the basis of experimental results. The dual narrowband Stokes CARS technique is also discussed as a practical method of {ital S}-branch CARS thermometry.

  2. S-branch CARS applicability to thermometry.

    PubMed

    Akihama, K; Asai, T

    1990-07-20

    The pressure and temperature dependence of background-free S-branch CARS spectra of N(2) are investigated in the temperature range of 300-700 K for pressures of 1-20 atm. Collisional narrowing for S-branch CARS spectra is proved to be negligible. Individual S-branch lines are clearly resolved in the entire range, enabling unequivocal determination of temperatures by their peak ratios. Advantages and disadvantages of S-branch CARS thermometry are discussed on the basis of experimental results. The dual narrowband Stokes CARS technique is also discussed as a practical method of S-branch CARS thermometry.

  3. Medial prefrontal D1 dopamine neurons control food intake

    PubMed Central

    Land, Benjamin B; Narayanan, Nandakumar S; Liu, Rong-Jian; Gianessi, Carol A; Brayton, Catherine E; Grimaldi, David; Sarhan, Maysa; Guarnieri, Douglas J; Deisseroth, Karl; Aghajanian, George K; Dileone, Ralph J

    2014-01-01

    Although the prefrontal cortex influences motivated behavior, its role in food intake remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate a role for D1-type dopamine receptor-expressing neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the regulation of feeding. Food intake increases activity in D1 neurons of the mPFC in mice, and optogenetic photostimulation of D1 neurons increases feeding. Conversely, inhibition of D1 neurons decreases intake. Stimulation-based mapping of prefrontal D1 neuron projections implicates the medial basolateral amygdala (mBLA) as a downstream target of these afferents. mBLA neurons activated by prefrontal D1 stimulation are CaMKII positive and closely juxtaposed to prefrontal D1 axon terminals. Finally, photostimulating these axons in the mBLA is sufficient to increase feeding, recapitulating the effects of mPFC D1 stimulation. These data describe a new circuit for top-down control of food intake. PMID:24441680

  4. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    PubMed

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  5. Cochlear shape description and analyzing via medial models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaa, Johannes; Kahrs, Lüder A.; Müller, Samuel; Majdani, Omid; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Planning and analyzing of surgical interventions are often based on computer models derived from computed tomography images of the patient. In the field of cochlear implant insertion the modeling of several structures of the inner ear is needed. One structure is the overall helical shape of the cochlea itself. In this paper we analyze the cochlea by applying statistical shape models with medial representation. The cochlea is considered as tubular structure. A model representing the skeleton of training data and an atomic composition of the structure is built. We reduce the representation to a linear chain of atoms. As result a compact discrete model is possible. It is demonstrated how to place the atoms and build up their correspondence through a population of training data. The outcome of the applied representation is discussed in terms of impact on automated segmentation algorithms and known advantages of medial models are revisited.

  6. Taiwanese life scientists less "medialized" than their Western colleagues.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yin-Yueh; Peters, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results from surveys of life scientists in Taiwan (n=270) and in Germany (n=326). Fewer Taiwanese than German researchers have frequent contact with the media and they rate their experiences with journalists less positively. Furthermore, they are less prepared to adapt to journalistic expectations and to a greater extent than German researchers they expect journalists to consider scientific criteria in their reporting. These findings are interpreted in Weingart's "medialization of science" framework as indicators of lower medialization of science in Taiwan than in Germany. However, Taiwanese scientists are more willing than German scientists to accept journalistic simplification at the expense of accuracy. This is explained as an adaptation to the media system and to the perceived scientific literacy of the media audience. We hypothesize that cultural differences regarding the relative priority of relational vs. rational communication goals may also contribute to more tolerance of journalistic simplification in Taiwan.

  7. Internal organization of medial rectus and inferior rectus muscle neurons in the C group of the oculomotor nucleus in monkey.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaofang; Büttner-Ennever, Jean A; Mustari, Michael J; Horn, Anja K E

    2015-08-15

    Mammalian extraocular muscles contain singly innervated twitch muscle fibers (SIF) and multiply innervated nontwitch muscle fibers (MIF). In monkey, MIF motoneurons lie around the periphery of oculomotor nuclei and have premotor inputs different from those of the motoneurons inside the nuclei. The most prominent MIF motoneuron group is the C group, which innervates the medial rectus (MR) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle. To explore the organization of both cell groups within the C group, we performed small injections of choleratoxin subunit B into the myotendinous junction of MR or IR in monkeys. In three animals the IR and MR myotendinous junction of one eye was injected simultaneously with different tracers (choleratoxin subunit B and wheat germ agglutinin). This revealed that both muscles were supplied by two different, nonoverlapping populations in the C group. The IR neurons lie adjacent to the dorsomedial border of the oculomotor nucleus, whereas MR neurons are located farther medially. A striking feature was the differing pattern of dendrite distribution of both cell groups. Whereas the dendrites of IR neurons spread into the supraoculomotor area bilaterally, those of the MR neurons were restricted to the ipsilateral side and sent a focused bundle dorsally to the preganglionic neurons of the Edinger-Westphal nucleus, which are involved in the "near response." In conclusion, MR and IR are innervated by independent neuron populations from the C group. Their dendritic branching pattern within the supraoculomotor area indicates a participation in the near response providing vergence but also reflects their differing functional roles.

  8. Evolutionary branching under slow directional evolution.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroshi C; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2014-11-07

    Evolutionary branching is the process by which ecological interactions induce evolutionary diversification. In asexual populations with sufficiently rare mutations, evolutionary branching occurs through trait-substitution sequences caused by the sequential invasion of successful mutants. A necessary and sufficient condition for evolutionary branching of univariate traits is the existence of a convergence stable trait value at which selection is locally disruptive. Real populations, however, undergo simultaneous evolution in multiple traits. Here we extend conditions for evolutionary branching to bivariate trait spaces in which the response to disruptive selection on one trait can be suppressed by directional selection on another trait. To obtain analytical results, we study trait-substitution sequences formed by invasions that possess maximum likelihood. By deriving a sufficient condition for evolutionary branching of bivariate traits along such maximum-likelihood-invasion paths (MLIPs), we demonstrate the existence of a threshold ratio specifying how much disruptive selection in one trait direction is needed to overcome the obstruction of evolutionary branching caused by directional selection in the other trait direction. Generalizing this finding, we show that evolutionary branching of bivariate traits can occur along evolutionary-branching lines on which residual directional selection is sufficiently weak. We then present numerical analyses showing that our generalized condition for evolutionary branching is a good indicator of branching likelihood even when trait-substitution sequences do not follow MLIPs and when mutations are not rare. Finally, we extend the derived conditions for evolutionary branching to multivariate trait spaces.

  9. Growth of branched actin networks against obstacles.

    PubMed Central

    Carlsson, A E

    2001-01-01

    A method for simulating the growth of branched actin networks against obstacles has been developed. The method is based on simple stochastic events, including addition or removal of monomers at filament ends, capping of filament ends, nucleation of branches from existing filaments, and detachment of branches; the network structure for several different models of the branching process has also been studied. The models differ with regard to their inclusion of effects such as preferred branch orientations, filament uncapping at the obstacle, and preferential branching at filament ends. The actin ultrastructure near the membrane in lamellipodia is reasonably well produced if preferential branching in the direction of the obstacle or barbed-end uncapping effects are included. Uncapping effects cause the structures to have a few very long filaments that are similar to those seen in pathogen-induced "actin tails." The dependence of the growth velocity, branch spacing, and network density on the rate parameters for the various processes is quite different among the branching models. An analytic theory of the growth velocity and branch spacing of the network is described. Experiments are suggested that could distinguish among some of the branching models. PMID:11566765

  10. LayTracks3D: A new approach for meshing general solids using medial axis transform

    DOE PAGES

    Quadros, William Roshan

    2015-08-22

    This study presents an extension of the all-quad meshing algorithm called LayTracks to generate high quality hex-dominant meshes of general solids. LayTracks3D uses the mapping between the Medial Axis (MA) and the boundary of the 3D domain to decompose complex 3D domains into simpler domains called Tracks. Tracks in 3D have no branches and are symmetric, non-intersecting, orthogonal to the boundary, and the shortest path from the MA to the boundary. These properties of tracks result in desired meshes with near cube shape elements at the boundary, structured mesh along the boundary normal with any irregular nodes restricted to themore » MA, and sharp boundary feature preservation. The algorithm has been tested on a few industrial CAD models and hex-dominant meshes are shown in the Results section. Work is underway to extend LayTracks3D to generate all-hex meshes.« less

  11. Free medial thigh perforator-based flaps: new definition of the pedicle vessels and versatile application.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Hosoda, M; Inagawa, K; Moriguchi, T; Orita, Y

    1996-11-01

    The medial thigh flap is a perforator-based flap nourished with septocutaneous or muscle perforators originating from the femoral vessels. To date, 8 patients have been repaired with this flap and extended or connected flaps including this flap: 4 patients with lower leg defects and 4 patients with intraoral and neck defects. The advantages of this flap are (1) several pedicle perforators exist for this flap, which makes possible duplicated vascular anastomoses to establish reliable circulation of the transferred flap; (2) the flap can be extended or connected to other neighboring flaps in the anterior thigh, so that extensively wide defects can be closed in one stage; (3) the great saphenous vein can be simultaneously used as a vein graft or for venous drainage for the flap; (4) the anterior branch of the femoral nerve can be used for sensory potential; and (5) there is minimum morbidity of the donor defect and a large dominant vessel for the leg can be preserved. The suitable indications for this flap are defects after removal of skin cancer in the foot or lower leg and wide defects after resection of head and neck cancer, which can be reconstructed with the flap connected to neighboring skin flaps. The disadvantages of this flap are that it has a small, short vascular pedicle and the bulkiness of the flap's fatty tissue often requires thinning.

  12. Fluoroscopically guided extraforaminal cervical nerve root blocks: analysis of epidural flow of the injectate with respect to needle tip position.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Kyle; Riew, K Daniel; Gilula, Louis A

    2014-02-01

    Study Design Retrospective evaluation of consecutively performed fluoroscopically guided cervical nerve root blocks. Objective To describe the incidence of injectate central epidural flow with respect to needle tip position during fluoroscopically guided extraforaminal cervical nerve root blocks (ECNRBs). Methods Between February 19, 2003 and June 11, 2003, 132 consecutive fluoroscopically guided ECNRBs performed with contrast media in the final injected material (injectate) were reviewed on 95 patients with average of 1.3 injections per patient. Fluoroscopic spot images documenting the procedure were obtained as part of standard quality assurance. An independent observer not directly involved in the procedures retrospectively reviewed the images, and the data were placed into a database. Image review was performed to determine optimal needle tip positioning for injectate epidural flow. Results Central epidural injectate flow was obtained in only 28.9% of injections with the needle tip lateral to midline of the lateral mass (zone 2). 83.8% of injectate went into epidural space when the needle tip was medial to midline of the lateral mass (zone 3). 100% of injectate flowed epidurally when the needle tip was medial to or at the medial cortex of the lateral mass (zone 4). There was no statistically significant difference with regards to central epidural flow and the needle tip position on lateral view. Conclusion To ensure central epidural flow with ECNRBs one must be prepared to pass the needle tip medial to midplane of the lateral mass or to medial cortex of the lateral mass. Approximately 16% of ECNRBs with needle tip medial to midline of the lateral mass did not flow into epidural space. One cannot claim a nerve block is an epidural block unless epidural flow of injectate is observed.

  13. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  14. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration.

  15. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding

    PubMed Central

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers’ dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the “medial amygdala network”) that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers’ behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother’s infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted. PMID:28193868

  16. A combinatorial optogenetic approach to medial habenula function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Eric E.; Hsu, Yun-Wei; Wang, Si; Morton, Glenn; Zeng, Hongkui

    2013-03-01

    The habenula is a brain region found in all vertebrate species. It consists of medial and lateral subnuclei which make complex descending connections to the brainstem. Although the medial habenula (MHb) and its projection, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR), have been recognized for decades, their function remains obscure. The small size of the MHb in rodents, and the cellular and molecular complexity of this region, have made it difficult to study the function of this region with high specificity. Here we describe a Cre-mediated genetic system for expressing the microbial opsin channelrhodopsin (ChR2) specifically in the dorsal (dMHb) and ventral (vMHb) medial habenula. Genetically targeted expression of ChR2 allows MHb neurons to be selectively activated with light in acute brain slices with electrophysiological readouts, and in vivo by means of custom-built fiber optic cannulas. These tools will allow highly specific studies of MHb circuitry and the role of the MHb in behaviors related to addiction and mood regulation.

  17. Medial Gastrocnemius Myoelectric Control of a Robotic Ankle Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Kinnaird, Catherine R.; Ferris, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that when soleus electromyography was used to control the amount of plantar flexion assistance from a robotic ankle exoskeleton, subjects significantly reduced their soleus activity to quickly return to normal gait kinematics. We speculated that subjects were primarily responding to the local mechanical assistance of the exoskeleton rather than directly attempting to reduce exoskeleton mechanical power via decreases in soleus activity. To test this observation we studied ten healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at 1.25 m/s while wearing a robotic exoskeleton proportionally controlled by medial gastrocnemius activation. We hypothesized that subjects would primarily decrease soleus activity due to its synergistic mechanics with the exoskeleton. Subjects decreased medial gastrocnemius recruitment by 12% (p<0.05) but decreased soleus recruitment by 27% (p<0.05). In agreement with our hypothesis, the primary reduction in muscle activity was not for the control muscle (medial gastrocnemius) but for the anatomical synergist to the exoskeleton (soleus). These findings indicate that anatomical morphology needs to be considered carefully when designing software and hardware for robotic exoskeletons. PMID:19211321

  18. Arthroscopic Removal of Shotgun Pellet From Within the Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Kyle; Cooke, Chris; Cooke, Pat; Tonnos, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Arthroscopic techniques are effective for the removal of intra-articular bullet and metal fragments after gunshot wounds to the shoulder, hip, knee, and sacroiliac joints. Surgical removal of bullets retained within the synovial joints is indicated; lead is dissolved by synovial fluid over time, leading to proliferative synovitis, lead arthropathy, elevated serum lead levels, and lead toxicity. We present an arthroscopic technique for removal of a shotgun pellet retained within the medial meniscus. In this technique, diagnostic knee arthroscopy is initially performed, which allows for localization of the pellet within the medial meniscus. An up-biter is used to resect the inner rim of meniscus surrounding the pellet, and the pellet is removed with a grasper. This arthroscopic approach is advantageous because it allows for efficient visualization of the pellet within the meniscus, thorough visualization of all compartments of the knee, a reduction in blood loss, and a decrease in surgical morbidity to the surrounding cartilaginous, neurovascular, and soft-tissue structures. This technique may therefore be one option to address bullet fragments or shotgun pellets that are retained within the medial meniscus. PMID:27073774

  19. Glutamate receptor antagonist infusions into the basolateral and medial amygdala reveal differential contributions to olfactory vs. context fear conditioning and expression

    PubMed Central

    Walker, David L.; Paschall, Gayla Y.; Davis, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The basolateral amygdala's involvement in fear acquisition and expression to visual and auditory stimuli is well known. The involvement of the basolateral and other amygdala areas in fear acquisition and expression to stimuli of other modalities is less certain. We evaluated the contribution of the basolateral and medial amygdala to olfactory and to context fear and fear conditioning by infusing into these areas the NMDA receptor antagonist AP5, the AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX, or vehicle prior to either odor-shock pairings or fear-potentiated startle testing. Pre-training AP5 infusions into the basolateral amygdala disrupted fear conditioning to the odor but not the context conditioned stimulus (CS). Pre-test NBQX infusions disrupted fear-potentiated startle to the odor but not context CS. Neither compound blocked fear conditioning when infused into the medial amygdala prior to training, but pre-test NBQX infusions did block fear-potentiated startle. The results confirm and extend recent findings suggesting a role for the basolateral amygdala in olfactory fear and fear conditioning, reveal an unexpected dissociation of the basolateral amygdala's involvement in discrete cue versus context fear and fear conditioning, and implicate for the first time the medial amygdala in fear-potentiated startle. PMID:15774945

  20. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    PubMed

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  1. Arthroscopic trans-portal deep medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    PubMed

    Atoun, Ehud; Debbi, Ronen; Lubovsky, Omri; Weiler, Andreas; Debbi, Eytan; Rath, Ehud

    2013-02-01

    Arthroscopic treatments of meniscal injuries of the knee are among the most common orthopaedic procedures performed. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus might be challenging, especially in patients with tight medial compartments. In these cases instrument manipulation in an attempt to reach the posterior horn of the meniscus can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury because of the narrow medial joint space. A transcutaneous medial collateral ligament (MCL) pie-crusting release facilitates expansion of the medial joint space in a case of a tight medial compartment. Nevertheless, it might cause injury to the superficial MCL, infection, and pain and injury to the saphenous nerve because of multiple needle punctures of the skin. We describe an inside-out, arthroscopic deep MCL pie-crusting release, which allows access to the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  2. Types of Heart Block

    MedlinePlus

    ... is less serious than Mobitz type II. The animation below shows how your heart's electrical system works. ... block. Click the "start" button to play the animation. Written and spoken explanations are provided with each ...

  3. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.

    2004-01-01

    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  4. What Causes Heart Block?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of congenital heart block occurs in babies whose mothers have autoimmune diseases, such as lupus. People who have these diseases make proteins called antibodies that attack and damage the body's tissues or ...

  5. Blocked tear duct

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby may have an eye infection called conjunctivitis . ... increase the chance of other infections, such as conjunctivitis. ... be prevented. Proper treatment of nasal infections and conjunctivitis may reduce the risk of having a blocked ...

  6. Resolving writer's block.

    PubMed Central

    Huston, P.

    1998-01-01

    PROBLEM BEING ADDRESSED: Writer's block, or a distinctly uncomfortable inability to write, can interfere with professional productivity. OBJECTIVE OF PROGRAM: To identify writer's block and to outline suggestions for its early diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. MAIN COMPONENTS OF PROGRAM: Once the diagnosis has been established, a stepwise approach to care is recommended. Mild blockage can be resolved by evaluating and revising expectations, conducting a task analysis, and giving oneself positive feedback. Moderate blockage can be addressed by creative exercises, such as brainstorming and role-playing. Recalcitrant blockage can be resolved with therapy. Writer's block can be prevented by taking opportunities to write at the beginning of projects, working with a supportive group of people, and cultivating an ongoing interest in writing. CONCLUSIONS: Writer's block is a highly treatable condition. A systematic approach can help to alleviate anxiety, build confidence, and give people the information they need to work productively. PMID:9481467

  7. Mid-Career Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Richard A.

    1984-01-01

    Considers typical reactions of midcareer employees to blocked opportunity; reasons for correcting these attitudes; ways of motivating these employees; methods of rekindling midcareer employees' interest in their jobs; encouraging competition; job switching; self-development programs; and supervisory attitudes. (CT)

  8. Block copolymer battery separator

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  9. View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of cell block eight (left), cell block seven, and southwest guard tower, looking from cell block eight roof - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cell block eleven (left) and cell block fifteen, looking from cell block two into the "Death Row" exercise yard - Eastern State Penitentiary, 2125 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. The effect of different depths of medial heel skive on plantar pressures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Foot orthoses are often used to treat lower limb injuries associated with excessive pronation. There are many orthotic modifications available for this purpose, with one being the medial heel skive. However, empirical evidence for the mechanical effects of the medial heel skive modification is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the effect that different depths of medial heel skive have on plantar pressures. Methods Thirty healthy adults (mean age 24 years, range 18–46) with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture and no current foot pain or deformity participated in this study. Using the in-shoe pedar-X® system, plantar pressure data were collected for the rearfoot, midfoot and forefoot while participants walked along an 8 metre walkway wearing a standardised shoe. Experimental conditions included a customised foot orthosis with the following 4 orthotic modifications: (i) no medial heel skive, (ii) a 2 mm medial heel skive, (iii) a 4 mm medial heel skive and (iv) a 6 mm medial heel skive. Results Compared to the foot orthosis with no medial heel skive, statistically significant increases in peak pressure were observed at the medial rearfoot – there was a 15% increase (p = 0.001) with the 4 mm skive and a 29% increase (p < 0.001) with the 6 mm skive. No significant change was observed with the 2 mm medial heel skive. With respect to the midfoot and forefoot, there were no significant differences between the orthoses. Conclusions This study found that a medial heel skive of 4 mm or 6 mm increases peak pressure under the medial rearfoot in asymptomatic adults with a flat-arched or pronated foot posture. Plantar pressures at the midfoot and forefoot were not altered by a medial heel skive of 2, 4 or 6 mm. These findings provide some evidence for the effects of the medial heel skive orthotic modification. PMID:22889267

  12. Multimodal intervention in older adults improves resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Zhu, Xinyi; Yin, Shufei; Niu, Yanan; Zheng, Zhiwei; Huang, Xin; Wang, Baoxi; Li, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe are particularly vulnerable to the effects of aging. The disconnection between them is suggested to be an important cause of cognitive decline in normal aging. Here, using multimodal intervention training, we investigated the functional plasticity in resting-state connectivity of these two regions in older adults. The multimodal intervention, comprised of cognitive training, Tai Chi exercise, and group counseling, was conducted to explore the regional connectivity changes in the default-mode network, as well as changes in prefrontal-based voxel-wise connectivity in the whole brain. Results showed that the intervention selectively affected resting-state functional connectivity between the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Moreover, the strength of resting-state functional connectivity between these regions correlated with individual cognitive performance. Our results suggest that multimodal intervention could postpone the effects of aging and improve the function of the regions that are most heavily influenced by aging, as well as play an important role in preserving the brain and cognition during old age.

  13. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whittenberger, J. D.; Nathal, M. V.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kraus, D. L.

    2003-01-01

    In their simplest form, lattice block panels are produced by direct casting and result in lightweight, fully triangulated truss-like configurations which provide strength and stiffness [2]. The earliest realizations of lattice block were made from A1 and steels, primarily under funding from the US Navy [3]. This work also showed that the mechanical efficiency (eg., specific stiffness) of lattice block structures approached that of honeycomb structures [2]. The lattice architectures are also less anisotropic, and the investment casting route should provide a large advantage in cost and temperature capability over honeycombs which are limited to alloys that can be processed into foils. Based on this early work, a program was initiated to determine the feasibility of extending the high temperature superalloy lattice block [3]. The objective of this effort was to provide an alternative to intermetallics and composites in achieving a lightweight high temperature structure without sacrificing the damage tolerance and moderate cost inherent in superalloys. To establish the feasibility of the superalloy lattice block concept, work was performed in conjunction with JAMCORP, Inc. Billerica, MA, to produce a number of lattice block panels from both IN71 8 and Mar-M247.

  14. Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolcar, Matthew; Smith, J. Scott; Aronstein, David

    2012-01-01

    This innovation is a variation of a simulated-annealing optimization algorithm that uses a recursive-branching structure to parallelize the search of a parameter space for the globally optimal solution to an objective. The algorithm has been demonstrated to be more effective at searching a parameter space than traditional simulated-annealing methods for a particular problem of interest, and it can readily be applied to a wide variety of optimization problems, including those with a parameter space having both discrete-value parameters (combinatorial) and continuous-variable parameters. It can take the place of a conventional simulated- annealing, Monte-Carlo, or random- walk algorithm. In a conventional simulated-annealing (SA) algorithm, a starting configuration is randomly selected within the parameter space. The algorithm randomly selects another configuration from the parameter space and evaluates the objective function for that configuration. If the objective function value is better than the previous value, the new configuration is adopted as the new point of interest in the parameter space. If the objective function value is worse than the previous value, the new configuration may be adopted, with a probability determined by a temperature parameter, used in analogy to annealing in metals. As the optimization continues, the region of the parameter space from which new configurations can be selected shrinks, and in conjunction with lowering the annealing temperature (and thus lowering the probability for adopting configurations in parameter space with worse objective functions), the algorithm can converge on the globally optimal configuration. The Recursive Branching Simulated Annealing (RBSA) algorithm shares some features with the SA algorithm, notably including the basic principles that a starting configuration is randomly selected from within the parameter space, the algorithm tests other configurations with the goal of finding the globally optimal

  15. Competitor suppresses neuronal representation of food reward in the nucleus accumbens/medial striatum of domestic chicks.

    PubMed

    Amita, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Toshiya

    2014-07-15

    To investigate the role of social contexts in controlling the neuronal representation of food reward, we recorded single neuron activity in the medial striatum/nucleus accumbens of domestic chicks and examined whether activities differed between two blocks with different contexts. Chicks were trained in an operant task to associate light-emitting diode color cues with three trial types that differed in the type of food reward: no reward (S-), a small reward/short-delay option (SS), and a large reward/long-delay alternative (LL). Amount and duration of reward were set such that both of SS and LL were chosen roughly equally. Neurons showing distinct cue-period activity in rewarding trials (SS and LL) were identified during an isolation block, and activity patterns were compared with those recorded from the same neuron during a subsequent pseudo-competition block in which another chick was allowed to forage in the same area, but was separated by a transparent window. In some neurons, cue-period activity was lower in the pseudo-competition block, and the difference was not ascribed to the number of repeated trials. Comparison at neuronal population level revealed statistically significant suppression in the pseudo-competition block in both SS and LL trials, suggesting that perceived competition generally suppressed the representation of cue-associated food reward. The delay- and reward-period activities, however, did not significantly different between blocks. These results demonstrate that visual perception of a competitive forager per se weakens the neuronal representation of predicted food reward. Possible functional links to impulse control are discussed.

  16. A Novel Medial Soft Tissue Release Method for Varus Deformity during Total Knee Arthroplasty: Femoral Origin Release of the Medial Collateral Ligament

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Yang, Jae-Hyuk; Lee, Yong-In

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Numerous methods of medial soft tissue release for severe varus deformity during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) have been reported. These include tibial stripping of the superficial medial collateral ligament (MCL), pie-crusting technique, and medial epicondylar osteotomy. However, there are inherent disadvantages in these techniques. Authors hereby present a novel quantitative method: femoral origin release of the medial collateral ligament (FORM). Surgical Technique For medial tightness remaining even after the release of the deep MCL and semimembranosus, the FORM is initiated with identification of the femoral insertion area of the MCL with the knee in flexion. Starting from the most posterior part of the femoral insertion, one third of the MCL femoral insertion is released from its attachment. If necessary, further sequential medial release is performed. Materials and Methods Seventeen knees that underwent the FORM were evaluated for radiological and clinical outcomes. Results Regardless of the extent of the FORM, no knees showed residual valgus instability at 24 weeks after surgery. Conclusions As the FORM is performed in a stepwise manner, fine adjustment during medial release might be beneficial to prevent inadvertent over-release of the medial structures of the knee. PMID:27274473

  17. Blocking of the Lymphatic Vessel in Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Mihara, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In this case report, we present a case wherein we observed a blocking of lymphatic vessels in indocyanine green lymphography and found a shrunken lymphatic vessel intraoperatively. Methods: We performed indocyanine green lymphography and lymphaticovenous anastomosis on a 77-year-old woman. She had previously undergone right mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection accompanied by radiotherapy and chemotherapy for right breast cancer. She noticed swelling in the right upper limb 22 years after the surgery and consulted our hospital. Although she started wearing elastic sleeve, there was still stiffness in the right upper limb, and we decided to perform lymphaticovenous anastomosis 5 months after the first consultation. Results: In the preoperative indocyanine green lymphography, we observed a linear pattern in the medial side of the right forearm, which suddenly blocked in the middle of the forearm. At that point, we observed dilated lymphatic vessels that were suddenly shrunken at the proximal side intraoperatively. We performed lymphaticovenous anastomosis with the dilated part of this lymphatic vessel. We also performed 4 additional lymphaticovenous anastomoses. The operation time was 2 hours 10 minutes, and the amount of bleeding was minimal. The right upper limb of the patient got softer, and she was satisfied with the result 3 months after the operation. The average circumference change at the 5 points in the right upper limb was −1.26 cm (range, −2.3 to −0.3 cm). Conclusions: There was a possibility that the blocking of the lymphatic vessels was a cause of lymphedema in the upper extremity.

  18. Sieving di-branched from mono-branched and linear alkanes using ZIF-8: experimental proof and theoretical explanation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Alexandre F P; Mittelmeijer-Hazeleger, Marjo C; Granato, Miguel Angelo; Martins, Vanessa F Duarte; Rodrigues, Alírio E; Rothenberg, Gadi

    2013-06-14

    We study the adsorption equilibrium isotherms and differential heats of adsorption of hexane isomers on the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-8. The studies are carried out at 373 K using a manometric set-up combined with a micro-calorimeter. We see that the Langmuir model describes well the isotherms for all four isomers (n-hexane, 2-methylpentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane). The linear and mono-branched isomers adsorb well, but 2,2-dimethylbutane is totally excluded. Plotting the differential heat of adsorption against the loading shows an initial plateau for n-hexane and 2-methylpentane. This is followed by a slow rise, indicating adsorbate-adsorbate interactions. For the di-branched isomers the differential heat of adsorption decreases with loading. To gain further insight, we ran molecular simulations using the grand-canonical Monte Carlo approach. Comparing the simulation and the experimental results shows that the ZIF framework model requires blocking of the cages, since 2,2-dimethylbutane cannot fit through the sodalite-type windows. Practically speaking, this means that ZIF-8 is a highly promising candidate for enhancing gasoline octane numbers at 373 K, as it can separate 2,2-dimethylbutane and 2,3-dimethylbutane from 2-methylpentane. Our results prove the potential of ZIF-8 as a new adsorbent that can be employed in the upgrade of the Total Isomerization Process for the production of high octane number gasoline, by blending di-branched alkanes in the gasoline.

  19. Psoas compartment block.

    PubMed

    Brooks, D M

    2000-05-01

    The psoas compartment acts as a conduit for the nerve roots of the lumbar plexus. Originating at approximately the 12th thoracic vertebrae, this potential compartment continues on caudally, bordered posterolaterally by fascia of the quadratus lumborum and iliacus muscles, medially by the fascia of the psoas major muscle, and anteriorly by the transversalis fascia. This natural "gutter" acts as a repository for local anesthetic agents and provides an excellent method of unilateral anterior lower extremity anesthesia. After elicitation of a motor evoked response in the muscles of the anterior thigh, 30 to 40 milliliters of local anesthetic is incrementally injected into the compartment. Spread of the anesthetic to all roots of the plexus occurs in 15 to 20 minutes. Profound sensory and motor blockade can be achieved providing surgical anesthesia as well as long duration postoperative pain relief.

  20. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  1. Research program of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor); Boccucci, B. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    This report is the Fourth Annual Summary of the Research Program of the Geodynamics Branch. The branch is located within the Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics of the Space and Earth Sciences Directorate of the Goddard Space Flight Center. The research activities of the branch staff cover a broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including: tectonophysics, space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, and dynamic oceanography. The NASA programs which are supported by the work described in this document include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project and the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX). The reports highlight the investigations conducted by the Geodynamics Branch staff during calendar year 1985. The individual papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements and Solid Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Modeling and Sensing Techniques, and Sea Surface Topography. Further information on the activities of the branch or the particular research efforts described herein can be obtained through the branch office or from individual staff members.

  2. A building block approach towards novel nonlinear optical materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskar, Ajit

    The purpose of the present research is to develop and apply a building block approach towards the design of novel nonlinear optical (NLO) materials, capable of exhibiting enhanced Two-Photon Absorption (TPA) behavior. These materials have potential applications in biological imaging, microfabrication, sensing, photodynamic cancer therapy, optical limiting and ultrafast switching. Electronic structure, symmetry and intermolecular forces are vital for designing the right building block. The next step is to connect them to form macromolecules. However, besides covalent bonding, aggregation and self assembly of building blocks can also be utilized, which renders the strategies for materials design less reliant on chemical synthesis. The application of building block approach was illustrated using several examples, including rigid, two-dimensional architectures. These enabled the investigation of macrostructures that were synthetically inaccessible as well as demonstrated the influence of symmetry on TPA behavior. Electronic coupling between building blocks and excited state dynamics were the observed reasons for enhanced TPA. In an attempt to investigate strong coupling that would extend over the entire chromophore, novel "endless" nano-cavities were examined for their TPA behavior. Using the tools of ultrafast spectroscopy, complete delocalization was proved in these materials. Similar enhancement in giant porphyrin macrocycles, which mimic natural light harvesting systems, was observed. Another approach to harness the coupling between small building blocks in a synergistic fashion is to arrange them into branched architectures. The influence of pi-character of branching units on the charge transfer character, which in turn influences the TPA behavior, was examined. Using excited state studies, not only was it observed that alkene pi-bridging resulted in enhancement of TPA behavior over alkyne pi-bridging, but also the mechanism for cooperative enhancement upon

  3. Deformable modeling using a 3D boundary representation with quadratic constraints on the branching structure of the Blum skeleton.

    PubMed

    Yushkevich, Paul A; Zhang, Hui Gary

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new approach for statistical shape analysis of 3D anatomical objects based on features extracted from skeletons. Like prior work on medial representations, the approach involves deforming a template to target shapes in a way that preserves the branching structure of the skeleton and provides intersubject correspondence. However, unlike medial representations, which parameterize the skeleton surfaces explicitly, our representation is boundary-centric, and the skeleton is implicit. Similar to prior constrained modeling methods developed 2D objects or tube-like 3D objects, we impose symmetry constraints on tuples of boundary points in a way that guarantees the preservation of the skeleton's topology under deformation. Once discretized, the problem of deforming a template to a target shape is formulated as a quadratically constrained quadratic programming problem. The new technique is evaluated in terms of its ability to capture the shape of the corpus callosum tract extracted from diffusion-weighted MRI.

  4. Mechanical Components Branch Test Facilities and Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.

    2004-01-01

    The Mechanical Components Branch at NASA Glenn Research Center formulates, conducts, and manages research focused on propulsion systems for both present and advanced aeronautical and space vehicles. The branch is comprised of research teams that perform basic research in three areas: mechanical drives, aerospace seals, and space mechanisms. Each team has unique facilities for testing aerospace hardware and concepts. This report presents an overview of the Mechanical Components Branch test facilities.

  5. Toward improved branch prediction through data mining.

    SciTech Connect

    Hemmert, K. Scott; Johnson, D. Eric

    2009-09-01

    Data mining and machine learning techniques can be applied to computer system design to aid in optimizing design decisions, improving system runtime performance. Data mining techniques have been investigated in the context of branch prediction. Specifically, a comparison of traditional branch predictor performance has been made to data mining algorithms. Additionally, the possiblity of whether additional features available within the architectural state might serve to further improve branch prediction has been evaluated. Results show that data mining techniques indicate potential for improved branch prediction, especially when register file contents are included as a feature set.

  6. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  7. Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch (CTEB)

    Cancer.gov

    The Clinical and Translational Epidemiology Branch focuses on factors that influence cancer progression, recurrence, survival, and other treatment outcomes, and factors associated with cancer development.

  8. Stochastic model for supersymmetric particle branching process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Chan, Aik Hui; Oh, Choo Hiap

    2017-01-01

    We develop a stochastic branching model to describe the jet evolution of supersymmetric (SUSY) particles. This model is a modified two-phase branching process, or more precisely, a two-phase simple birth process plus Poisson process. Both pure SUSY partons initiated jets and SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets scenarios are considered. The stochastic branching equations are established and the Multiplicity Distributions (MDs) are derived for these two scenarios. We also fit the distribution of the general case (SUSY plus ordinary partons initiated jets) with experimental data. The fitting shows the SUSY particles have not participated in branching at current collision energy yet.

  9. Arthroscopic decompressive medial release of the varus arthritic knee: Expanding the functional envelope.

    PubMed

    Leon, H O; Blanco, C E; Guthrie, T B

    2001-05-01

    We present the rationale and technique for treating medial knee osteoarthritis by dynamically unloading the medial compartment of the knee. Recent advances in kinematic studies indicate a dynamic linkage between differing degrees of freedom in the knee joint. Both the adduction moment and the foot progression angle are important determinants of medial compartment loading. The medially osteoarthritic knee has progressive compromise of free motion in more than 1 plane. Arthroscopic decompressive medial release unloads the medial compartment by release of the medial capsule and medial collateral ligament in the presence of intact cruciate ligaments, which may allow a decreased adduction moment and decrease of the external rotation restraint in extension found in more severely osteoarthritic knees. A case series of 38 patients with medial gonarthrosis was treated by this technique at the Hermanos Ameijeiras Hospital in Havana, Cuba. All patients had good results without postoperative valgus instability or significant complications. We feel that this technique warrants further clinical and biomechanical study for its use in isolation or in combination with high tibial osteotomy or minimally invasive selective osteotomy for the treatment of medial gonarthrosis of the knee. A minimally invasive, selective approach to biomechanical factors in osteoarthritis may be combined with other modulating techniques in efforts to forestall or prevent the need for total joint replacement.

  10. Impression block with orientator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilin, V. I.; Ulyanova, O. S.

    2015-02-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object.

  11. Anatomic, intrinsic, and synaptic properties of dorsal and ventral division neurons in rat medial geniculate body.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, E L; Smith, P H

    1999-05-01

    Anatomic, intrinsic, and synaptic properties of dorsal and ventral division neurons in rat medial geniculate body. Presently little is known about what basic synaptic and cellular mechanisms are employed by thalamocortical neurons in the two main divisions of the auditory thalamus to elicit their distinct responses to sound. Using intracellular recording and labeling methods, we characterized anatomic features, membrane properties, and synaptic inputs of thalamocortical neurons in the dorsal (MGD) and ventral (MGV) divisions in brain slices of rat medial geniculate body. Quantitative analysis of dendritic morphology demonstrated that tufted neurons in both divisions had shorter dendrites, smaller dendritic tree areas, more profuse branching, and a greater dendritic polarization compared with stellate neurons, which were only found in MGD. Tufted neuron dendritic polarization was not as strong or consistent as earlier Golgi studies suggested. MGV and MGD cells had similar intrinsic properties except for an increased prevalence of a depolarizing sag potential in MGV neurons. The sag was the only intrinsic property correlated with cell morphology, seen only in tufted neurons in either division. Many MGV and MGD neurons received excitatory and inhibitory inferior colliculus (IC) inputs (designated IN/EX or EX/IN depending on excitation/inhibition sequence). However, a significant number only received excitatory inputs (EX/O) and a few only inhibitory (IN/O). Both MGV and MGD cells displayed similar proportions of response combinations, but suprathreshold EX/O responses only were observed in tufted neurons. Excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs and IPSPs) had multiple distinguishable amplitude levels implying convergence. Excitatory inputs activated alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors the relative contributions of which were variable. For IN/EX cells with suprathreshold inputs

  12. Distribution of branches in whole starches from maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fan; Bertoft, Eric; Seetharaman, Koushik

    2014-05-21

    An earlier study explored the possibility of analyzing the distribution of branches directly in native, whole starch without isolating the amylopectin component. The aim of this study was to explore if this approach can be extended to include starch mutants. Whole starches from du1 maize mutants deficient in starch synthase III (SSIII) with amylose content of ∼30-40% were characterized and compared with the wild type of the common genetic background W64A. Clusters were produced from whole starch by hydrolysis with α-amylase of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. Their compositions of building blocks and chains were analyzed further by complete α-amylolysis and by debranching, respectively, whereafter the products were subjected to gel permeation and anion exchange chromatography. The size and structure of the clusters were compared with those of their isolated amylopectin component. Whereas the whole starch of the wild type sample had a branched structure similar to that of its amylopectin component, the results showed that the du1 mutation resulted in more singly branched building blocks in the whole starch compared to the isolated amylopectin. This suggested that amylose and/or intermediate materials in whole du1 starches likely contributed to the composition of branches. This study explored an alternative procedure to characterize the composition of branches in the whole starch without fractionating the components.

  13. CycloBranch: De Novo Sequencing of Nonribosomal Peptides from Accurate Product Ion Mass Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Jiří; Lemr, Karel; Schug, Kevin A.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2015-07-01

    Nonribosomal peptides have a wide range of biological and medical applications. Their identification by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenging task. A new open-source de novo peptide identification engine CycloBranch was developed and successfully applied in identification or detailed characterization of 11 linear, cyclic, branched, and branch-cyclic peptides. CycloBranch is based on annotated building block databases the size of which is defined by the user according to ribosomal or nonribosomal peptide origin. The current number of involved nonisobaric and isobaric building blocks is 287 and 521, respectively. Contrary to all other peptide sequencing tools utilizing either peptide libraries or peptide fragment libraries, CycloBranch represents a true de novo sequencing engine developed for accurate mass spectrometric data. It is a stand-alone and cross-platform application with a graphical and user-friendly interface; it supports mzML, mzXML, mgf, txt, and baf file formats and can be run in parallel on multiple threads. It can be downloaded for free from http://ms.biomed.cas.cz/cyclobranch/, where the User's manual and video tutorials can be found.

  14. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  15. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  16. Medial prefrontal cortical integration of psychological stress in rats.

    PubMed

    McDougall, S J; Widdop, Robert E; Lawrence, Andrew J

    2004-11-01

    The present study aimed to determine whether the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) (prelimbic and infralimbic regions) is implicated in the integration of a stress response. Sprague-Dawely rats were implanted with telemetry probes and guide cannulae so that either muscimol or vehicle could be administered locally within the mPFC or dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). The heart rate and blood pressure of rats was continuously recorded as either muscimol or vehicle was administered centrally and rats were either exposed to restraint stress or left alone in their home cages. After the stress challenge, or equivalent period, rats that had received intra-mPFC injections were processed for immunohistochemical detection of Fos throughout the neuraxis. Bilateral microinjection of muscimol into the mPFC had no effect upon either baseline cardiovascular parameters or restraint stress-induced tachycardia or pressor responses whereas, in the DMH, pretreatment with muscimol attenuated the cardiovascular stress response. Analysis of Fos expression throughout the CNS of nonstressed rats showed no effect of muscimol injections into the mPFC on baseline expression in the nuclei examined. In contrast, rats that had received muscimol injections into their mPFC and were subsequently restrained exhibited an increase in the number of Fos-positive cells in the DMH, medial amygdala, and medial nucleus tractus solitarius as compared to vehicle-injected rats that experienced restraint stress. These results indicate that, during acute psychological stress, the mPFC does not modulate the cardiovascular system in rats but does inhibit specific subcortical nuclei to exert control over aspects of an integrated response to a stressor.

  17. His bundle recordings in bradycardia-dependent AV block induced by premature beats.

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, A; Khuddus, S A; Sommer, L S; Sung, R J; Myerburg, R J

    1975-01-01

    Symptomatic bradycardia-independent atrioventricular block occurred in a patient with right bundle-branch block, left anterior hemiblock, and prolonged HV interval. The arrhythmia, triggered by a spontaneous or induced premature beats, appeared when the post-extrasystolic PP and HH intervals increased to a critical value. Reinitiation of atrioventricular conduction required the presence of ventricular escapes. Bradycardia-dependent atrioventricular block was related to either an enhanced or slightly rising slope of diastolic depolarization, or to a decrease in membrane responsiveness. The patient also, most probably, had tachycardia-dependent atrioventricular block. Both types of conduction disturbance occurred in the same part of the intraventricular conducting system, either in the low His bundle or left bundle-branch or its posteroinferior division. It is suggested that the electrophysiological study of cases with prolonged HV intervals should include procedures which can expose bradycardia-dependent atrioventricular block. PMID:1148054

  18. The Efferent Medial Olivocochlear-Hair Cell Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Elgoyhen, Ana Belén; Katz, Eleonora

    2011-01-01

    Amplification of incoming sounds in the inner ear is modulated by an efferent pathway which travels back from the brain all the way to the cochlea. The medial olivocochlear system makes synaptic contacts with hair cells, where the neurotransmitter acetylcholine is released. Synaptic transmission is mediated by a unique nicotinic cholinergic receptor composed of α9 and α10 subunits, which is highly Ca2+ permeable and is coupled to a Ca2+-activated SK potassium channel. Thus, hyperpolarization of hair cells follows efferent fiber activation. In this work we review the literature that has enlightened our knowledge concerning the intimacies of this synapse. PMID:21762779

  19. Considerations for the Management of Medial Orbital Wall Blowout Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Park, Youngsoo; Chung, Kyu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Recently, diagnoses of and operations for medial orbital blowout fracture have increased because of the development of imaging technology. In this article, the authors review the literature, and overview the accumulated knowledge about the orbital anatomy, fracture mechanisms, surgical approaches, reconstruction materials, and surgical methods. In terms of surgical approaches, transcaruncular, transcutaneous, and transnasal endoscopic approaches are discussed. Reconstruction methods including onlay covering, inlay implantation, and repositioning methods are also discussed. Consideration and understanding of these should lead to more optimal outcomes. PMID:27218019

  20. Snapping knee caused by the thickening of the medial hamstrings.

    PubMed

    de la Hera Cremades, B; Escribano Rueda, L; Lara Rubio, A

    2016-11-17

    We report a case of symptomatic subluxation of the semitendinosus and gracilis over the medial condyle of the tibia caused by the thickening of its tendons. Snapping was reproduced on active extension. Clinical examination and, above all, dynamic ultrasound were the key for the diagnosis because other imaging tests were normal. Due to failure of conservative treatment with physiotherapy and infiltrations, surgery was undertaken, involving desinsertion and excision of distal 8cm segment of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. At the present time (6 months postoperatively), the patient is symptom-free and has returned to the previous normal life activities.

  1. The medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve: antidromic and orthodromic conduction studies.

    PubMed

    Seror, Paul

    2002-09-01

    Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MABCN) conduction studies were performed antidromically and orthodromically in 70 control subjects to determine normal values and define the lower limits of normality. The mean sensory action potential (SAP) amplitudes were 17.7 and 17.5 microV and the sensory conduction velocities were 60 and 61 m/s, respectively, with the antidromic and orthodromic techniques. With both techniques, no SAP amplitude was lower than 6 microV. The lower limits of normal of the interside amplitude ratio were 1.66 when both techniques were used and 2.0 when only one was used.

  2. Medial ectropion repair of lower eyelids with a cicatricial component.

    PubMed

    Hesse, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    A new technique for the management of medial ectropion with a mild to moderate cicatricial component is presented that avoids the necessity for skin grafting. A subciliary incision is made inferior to the punctum and extending laterally, followed by preseptal dissection to the orbital rim. A base-up triangle of the posterior lamella is then excised lateral to the punctum. This is closed with a marginal mattress suture. Tightening of the posterior lamella in this fashion produces laxity in the anterior lamella, which can then be closed without tension, eliminating the need for skin grafting.

  3. Iatrogenic Transient Complete Heart Block in a Preexisting LBBB

    PubMed Central

    Kalamkar, Prachi; Bonnet, Christopher A.; Bajwa, Omer A.

    2016-01-01

    Catheter induced cardiac arrhythmia is a well-known complication encountered during pulmonary artery or cardiac catheterization. Injury to the cardiac conducting system often involves the right bundle branch which in a patient with preexisting left bundle branch block can lead to fatal arrhythmia including asystole. Such a complication during central venous cannulation is rare as it usually does not enter the heart. The guide wire or the cannula itself can cause such an injury during central venous cannulation. The length of the guide wire, its rigidity, and lack of set guidelines for its insertion make it theoretically more prone to cause such an injury. We report a case of LBBB that went into transient complete heart block following guide wire insertion during a central venous cannulation procedure. PMID:27478653

  4. Noradrenaline induces IPSCs in rat medial septal/diagonal band neurons: involvement of septohippocampal GABAergic neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Alreja, M; Liu, W

    1996-01-01

    1. The physiological and pharmacological actions of noradrenaline (NA) on neurons of the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca (MSDB) were examined using extracellular, intracellular and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in an in vitro rat brain slice preparation. 2. In current- and voltage-clamp recordings with KCl- or potassium gluconate-containing electrodes, bath-applied NA increased the number of tetrodoxin- and bicuculline-sensitive synaptic events in > 80% of cholinergic- and GABA-type neurons tested. The NA-induced synaptic activity originated from GABAergic neurons located within the MSDB itself, as a similar effect occurred in brain slices in which the MSDB had been surgically isolated from neighbouring structures. 3. In antidromic studies, NA dose-dependently increased firing in a subpopulation of septohippocampal neurons with fast conducting fibres (mean conduction velocity, 1.78 +/- 0.10 m s-1; presumably GABAergic). The NA excitation was mimicked by the alpha 1-agonist phenylephrine (PE) and blocked by the alpha 1-antagonists prazosin and WB-4101, suggesting the presence of alpha 1-receptors on septohippocampal GABAergic neurons. 4. Similarly, in whole-cell recordings in both cholinergic- and non-cholinergic-type MSDB neurons, prazosin blocked the effects of NA and PE mimicked the effects of NA by inducing IPSCs with a similar amplitude distribution. 5. Consistent with the above findings, GABA-type neurons that responded directly to NA and PE with a prazosin-sensitive inward current were found within the MSDB. 6. In conclusion, NA, via alpha 1-adrenoceptors, excites MSDB septohippocampal GABAergic neurons and influences both septal and septohippocampal circuitry. Images Figure 1 PMID:8814616

  5. Direct muscarinic and nicotinic receptor-mediated excitation of rat medial vestibular nucleus neurons in vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phelan, K. D.; Gallagher, J. P.

    1992-01-01

    We have utilized intracellular recording techniques to investigate the cholinoceptivity of rat medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons in a submerged brain slice preparation. Exogenous application of the mixed cholinergic agonists, acetylcholine (ACh) or carbachol (CCh), produced predominantly membrane depolarization, induction of action potential firing, and decreased input resistance. Application of the selective muscarinic receptor agonist muscarine (MUSC), or the selective nicotinic receptor agonists nicotine (NIC) or 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium (DMPP) also produced membrane depolarizations. The MUSC-induced depolarization was accompanied by decreased conductance, while an increase in conductance appeared to underlie the NIC- and DMPP-induced depolarizations. The muscarinic and nicotinic receptor mediated depolarizations persisted in tetrodotoxin and/or low Ca2+/high Mg2+ containing media, suggesting direct postsynaptic receptor activation. The MUSC-induced depolarization could be reversibly blocked by the selective muscarinic-receptor antagonist, atropine, while the DMPP-induced depolarization could be reversibly suppressed by the selective ganglionic nicotinic-receptor antagonist, mecamylamine. Some neurons exhibited a transient membrane hyperpolarization during the depolarizing response to CCh or MUSC application. This transient inhibition could be reversibly blocked by the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist, bicuculline, suggesting that the underlying hyperpolarization results indirectly from the endogenous release of GABA acting at GABA receptors. This study confirms the cholinoceptivity of MVN neurons and establishes that individual MVN cells possess muscarinic as well as nicotinic receptors. The data provide support for a prominent role of cholinergic mechanisms in the direct and indirect regulation of the excitability of MVN neurons.

  6. Asymptotics of Simple Branching Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry; Kłopotowski, Andrzej; Porzio, Anna

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we study a simple deterministic tree structure: an initial individual generates a finite number of offspring, each of which has given integer valued lifetime, iterating the same procedure when dying. Three asymptotic distributions of this asynchronous deterministic branching procedure are considered: the generation distribution, the ability of individuals to generate offspring and the age distribution. Thermodynamic formalism is then developped to reveal the multifractal nature of the mass splitting associated to our process. On considère l'itération d'une structure déterministe arborescente selon laquelle un ancêtre engendre un nombre fini de descendants dont la durée de vie (à valeurs entières) est donnée. Dans un premier temps on s'intéresse aux trois distributions asymptotiques suivantes : répartition des générations, aptitude à engendrer des descendants et répartition selon l'âge. Ensuite nous développons le formalisme thermodynamique pour mettre en évidence le caractère multifractal de la scission d'une masse unitaire associée à cette arborescence.

  7. Cortical Dependence of Whisker Responses in Posterior Medial Thalamus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mease, Rebecca A.; Sumser, Anton; Sakmann, Bert; Groh, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Cortical layer 5B (L5B) thick-tufted pyramidal neurons have reliable responses to whisker stimulation in anesthetized rodents. These cells drive a corticothalamic pathway that evokes spikes in thalamic posterior medial nucleus (POm). While a subset of POm has been shown to integrate both cortical L5B and paralemniscal signals, the majority of POm neurons are suggested to receive driving input from L5B only. Here, we test this possibility by investigating the origin of whisker-evoked responses in POm and specifically the contribution of the L5B-POm pathway. We compare L5B spiking with POm spiking and subthreshold responses to whisker deflections in urethane anesthetized mice. We find that a subset of recorded POm neurons shows early (<50 ms) spike responses and early large EPSPs. In these neurons, the early large EPSPs matched L5B input criteria, were blocked by cortical inhibition, and also interacted with spontaneous Up state coupled large EPSPs. This result supports the view of POm subdivisions, one of which receives whisker signals predominantly via L5B neurons. PMID:27230219

  8. 18-Methoxycoronaridine acts in the medial habenula to attenuate behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine.

    PubMed

    Eggan, Branden L; McCallum, Sarah E

    2016-07-01

    Systemic 18-methoxycoronaridine, an alpha3beta4 nicotinic antagonist, slows the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine (Glick et al., 1996; 2011). The primary mechanism of action of 18-MC is believed to be the inhibition of α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors which are densely expressed in the medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus (Pace et al., 2004; Glick et al., 2012). Recently, these habenular nicotinic receptors and their multiple roles in nicotine aversion and withdrawal have been increasingly emphasized (Antolin-Fontes et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of 18-MC on both behavioral and neurochemical sensitization to nicotine. Daily systemic administration of 18-MC slowed the rate of induction of behavioral sensitization to nicotine but failed to block the expression of a sensitized locomotor response when absent. In contrast, in nicotine sensitized animals, systemic 18-MC significantly reduced the expression of behavioral sensitization. Results from intra-habenular administration of 18-MC paralleled these findings in that the expression of behavioral sensitization was also reduced in sensitized animals. Consistent with its effects on behavioral sensitization, intra-MHb treatment with 18-MC completely abolished sensitized dopamine responses in the nucleus accumbens in nicotine sensitized animals. These results show that α3β4 nicotinic receptors in the MHb contribute to nicotine sensitization, a phenomenon associated with drug craving and relapse.

  9. Sensory responses in the medial prefrontal cortex of anesthetized rats. Implications for sensory processing.

    PubMed

    Martin-Cortecero, Jesus; Nuñez, Angel

    2016-12-17

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in higher functions such as memory and attention. In order to demonstrate sensory responses in the mPFC, we used electrophysiological recordings of urethane-anesthetized rats to record somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) or auditory-evoked potentials (AEPs) elicited by whisker deflections and click stimulation, respectively. Contralateral whisker stimulation or auditory stimuli were also applied to study sensory interference in the mPFC. Interference with other sensory stimuli or recent stimulation history reduced whisker responses in the infralimbic and prelimbic cortices of the ventral mPFC. This effect could be mediated by activation of parvalbumin (PV) interneurons since the effect was blocked by the P/Q calcium channel antagonist ω-agatoxin. In contrast, sensory interference or the recent stimulation history was not detected by the dorsal mPFC or the primary somatosensory cortex. Results obtained from retrograde tracer injections in the dorsal and ventral regions of the mPFC indicated that somatosensory and auditory sensory inputs may arrive at the dorsal mPFC through secondary sensory cortical areas, and through the insular and temporal cortical areas. The ventral mPFC may receive sensory information through the strong anatomical connections between the dorsal and ventral mPFC areas. In conclusion, results suggest mPFC plays an important role in sensory processing, which may have important implications in attentional and memory processes.

  10. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Kwapis, Janine L; Jarome, Timothy J; Helmstetter, Fred J

    2014-01-01

    The extinction of delay fear conditioning relies on a neural circuit that has received much attention and is relatively well defined. Whether this established circuit also supports the extinction of more complex associations, however, is unclear. Trace fear conditioning is a better model of complex relational learning, yet the circuit that supports extinction of this memory has received very little attention. Recent research has indicated that trace fear extinction requires a different neural circuit than delay extinction; trace extinction requires the participation of the retrosplenial cortex, but not the amygdala, as noted in a previous study. Here, we tested the roles of the prelimbic and infralimbic regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in trace and delay fear extinction by blocking NMDA receptors during extinction learning. We found that the prelimbic cortex is necessary for trace, but not for delay fear extinction, whereas the infralimbic cortex is involved in both types of extinction. These results are consistent with the idea that trace fear associations require plasticity in multiple cortical areas for successful extinction. Further, the infralimbic cortex appears to play a role in extinction regardless of whether the animal was initially trained in trace or delay conditioning. Together, our results provide new information about how the neural circuits supporting trace and delay fear extinction differ.

  11. A geometric morphometric analysis of the medial tibial condyle of African hominids.

    PubMed

    Sylvester, Adam D

    2013-10-01

    Although the hominid knee has been heavily scrutinized, shape variation of the medial tibial condyle has yet to be described. Humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas differ in the shape of their medial femoral condyles and in their capacity for external and internal rotation of the tibia relative to the femur. I hypothesize that these differences should be reflected in the shape of the medial tibial condyle of these hominids. Here I use geometric morphometric techniques to uncover shape differences between the medial tibial condyles of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. Humans are distinguished from the other two species by having a much more oval-shaped medial tibial condyle, while those of chimpanzees and gorillas are more triangular in outline. Gorillas (especially males) are distinguished by having more concavely-curved condyles (mediolateral direction), which is interpreted as an effect of heavy loading through the medial compartment of the knee in conjunction with differences in the degree of arboreality.

  12. Joint space narrowing after partial medial meniscectomy in the anterior cruciate ligament-intact knee.

    PubMed

    Shelbourne, K Donald; Dickens, Jonathan F

    2007-09-01

    Osteoarthritis of the knee is common after total medial meniscectomy. In anterior cruciate ligament-intact knees, the reported outcomes of partial medial meniscectomy are variable. Radiographic assessment using a posteroanterior weight-bearing view is a reliable tool for detecting minor medial joint space narrowing, which may be an early sign of osteoarthritis. Studies that assessed the effect of partial medial meniscectomy found a low percentage of patients with >50% joint narrowing at 10 to 15 years after surgery. Digital radiography, using a posteroanterior weight-bearing view, is a highly sensitive method for observing minor joint space narrowing in the involved knee. A recent study showed that 88% of patients who underwent partial medial meniscectomy had joint space narrowing of <2 mm, and none had narrowing >or=2 mm, at a mean follow-up of 12 years. Subjective results after partial medial meniscectomy are favorable, with 88% to 95% of patients reporting good to excellent results.

  13. Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch: Research Overview

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coastal Ecology Branch, Newport, Oregon is part of the Western Ecology Division of the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory of the U.S. EPA. The Branch conducts research and provides scientific technical support to Headquarters and Regional O...

  14. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  15. On an Integral with Two Branch Points

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, E. Capelas; Chiacchio, Ary O.

    2006-01-01

    The paper considers a class of real integrals performed by using a convenient integral in the complex plane. A complex integral containing a multi-valued function with two branch points is transformed into another integral containing a pole and a unique branch point. As a by-product we obtain a new class of integrals which can be calculated in a…

  16. Anaphora and Branching Direction in Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Grady, William; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This paper constitutes a response to Lust and Mazuka's (1989) defense of the Principal Branching parameter and their critique of O'Grady, Suzuki-Wei, and Cho's (1986) experiment, which purported to show that even children learning left-branching languages exhibit a preference for forward patterns of anaphora. (Contains 16 references.) (JL)

  17. Suppression of branches in Eucalyptus trees.

    PubMed

    Senthalir, P; Sharanya, S; Paramathma, M

    2004-06-01

    The effect of neem oil, which acts as a suckericide in tobacco, on branch suppression in Eucalyptus tereticornis was assessed to help maximize stem biomass. Lateral branches of selected trees were pruned, and neem oil solutions at concentrations of either 80%, 40%, 20%, 10%, or 0% (untreated control) were applied to leaf axils of the pruned branches. Regeneration of branches was suppressed, and the magnitude of suppression was proportional to the concentration of neem oil. Compared to the control, the percentage reduction in branching at 80% neem oil was 41.6%. When regenerated branches were repruned and neem oil applied at either 100%, 80%, or 0% (control), the regenerating ability of these branches was severely repressed by 78% at 100% neem oil relative to the control. Apical shoots were also topped and treated at either 100% or 0% (control) neem oil to identify the principal suppressive component in neem oil. The principal component azadirachtin was tested at 375, 750, 1500, 3125, 6250, 12 500, 25 000, 50 000, and 100 000 ppm and 0 ppm as the control. Reduction in the coppicing shoot was as high as 85%. Azadirachtin was responsible for the suppression. By pruning the lateral branches with neem oil, wasteful consumption of photosynthates can be precluded and the stem biomass maximized.

  18. Branching out Has So Much to Offer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Joe

    2012-01-01

    In 1989 there were thirty ATM branches nationally. In January 2012 there were just twelve ATM branches with another three "proposed". How can that happen? How did it happen? Maybe the most pertinent question is: Why did it happen? There is no single answer to the last question, but perhaps it was something to do with the changes that…

  19. Lung epithelial branching program antagonizes alveolar differentiation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Daniel R; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Miller, Rachel K; Ji, Hong; Akiyama, Haruhiko; McCrea, Pierre D; Chen, Jichao

    2013-11-05

    Mammalian organs, including the lung and kidney, often adopt a branched structure to achieve high efficiency and capacity of their physiological functions. Formation of a functional lung requires two developmental processes: branching morphogenesis, which builds a tree-like tubular network, and alveolar differentiation, which generates specialized epithelial cells for gas exchange. Much progress has been made to understand each of the two processes individually; however, it is not clear whether the two processes are coordinated and how they are deployed at the correct time and location. Here we show that an epithelial branching morphogenesis program antagonizes alveolar differentiation in the mouse lung. We find a negative correlation between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation temporally, spatially, and evolutionarily. Gain-of-function experiments show that hyperactive small GTPase Kras expands the branching program and also suppresses molecular and cellular differentiation of alveolar cells. Loss-of-function experiments show that SRY-box containing gene 9 (Sox9) functions downstream of Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)/Kras to promote branching and also suppresses premature initiation of alveolar differentiation. We thus propose that lung epithelial progenitors continuously balance between branching morphogenesis and alveolar differentiation, and such a balance is mediated by dual-function regulators, including Kras and Sox9. The resulting temporal delay of differentiation by the branching program may provide new insights to lung immaturity in preterm neonates and the increase in organ complexity during evolution.

  20. Polyphyly of true branching cyanobacteria (Stigonematales).

    PubMed

    Gugger, Muriel F; Hoffmann, Lucien

    2004-03-01

    Cyanobacteria with true branching are classified in Subsection V (formerly order Stigonematales) in the phylum CYANOBACTERIA: They exhibit a high degree of morphological complexity and are known from particular biotopes. Only a few stigonematalean morphotypes have been cultured, and therefore the high variability of morphotypes found in nature is under-represented in culture. Axenic cultures of Chlorogloeopsis and Fischerella sensu Rippka et al. were, to date, the only representatives of this Subsection in phylogenetic studies. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis data in this report confirm that heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria are a monophyletic group. However, unlike previous studies have suggested, these 16S rDNA data on new Stigonematales strains show that the true branching cyanobacteria are polyphyletic and can be separated into at least two major groups defined by their branching type, the first group being characterized by T-branching and the second group by Y-branching. Cyanobacteria with intercalary heterocysts and either no branching or false-branching also formed separate clusters. In consequence, our phylogenetic data do not correlate with the bacteriological and traditional classifications, which distinguish filamentous heterocystous cyanobacteria with or without true branching (Nostocales/Stigonematales).

  1. Phytochrome regulation of branching in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Finlayson, Scott A; Krishnareddy, Srirama R; Kebrom, Tesfamichael H; Casal, Jorge J

    2010-04-01

    The red light:far-red light ratio perceived by phytochromes controls plastic traits of plant architecture, including branching. Despite the significance of branching for plant fitness and productivity, there is little quantitative and mechanistic information concerning phytochrome control of branching responses in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Here, we show that in Arabidopsis, the negative effects of the phytochrome B mutation and of low red light:far-red light ratio on branching were largely due to reduced bud outgrowth capacity and an increased degree of correlative inhibition acting on the buds rather than due to a reduced number of leaves and buds available for branching. Phytochrome effects on the degree of correlative inhibition required functional BRANCHED1 (BRC1), BRC2, AXR1, MORE AXILLARY GROWTH2 (MAX2), and MAX4. The analysis of gene expression in selected buds indicated that BRC1 and BRC2 are part of different gene networks. The BRC1 network is linked to the growth capacity of specific buds, while the BRC2 network is associated with coordination of growth among branches. We conclude that the branching integrators BRC1 and BRC2 are necessary for responses to phytochrome, but they contribute differentially to these responses, likely acting through divergent pathways.

  2. Reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament using quadriceps tendon combined with reconstruction of medial patellotibial ligament using patellar tendon: initial experience☆

    PubMed Central

    Hinckel, Betina Bremer; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Pécora, José Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe a surgical technique for anatomical reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament using the quadriceps tendon, combined with reconstruction of the medial patellotibial ligament using the patellar tendon; and to present the initial results from a case series. Method The proposed technique was used on a series of cases of patients with diagnoses of patellofemoral instability and indications for surgical treatment, who were attended by the Knee Group of HC-IOT, University of São Paulo. The following were evaluated before and after the operation: range of motion (ROM), apprehension test, lateral translation test, patellar inclination test, inverted J sign, subluxation upon extension, pain from compression of the patella and pain from contraction of the quadriceps. After the operation, the patients were asked whether any new episode of dislocation had occurred, what their degree of satisfaction with the surgery was (on a scale from 0 to 10) and whether they would be prepared to go through this operation again. Results Seven knees were operated, in seven patients, with a mean follow-up of 5.46 months (±2.07). Four patients who presented apprehension before the operation did not show this after the operation. The lateral translation test became normal for all the patients, while the patellar inclination test remained positive for two patients. The patients with an inverted J sign continued to be positive for this sign. Five patients were positive for subluxation upon extension before the operation, but all patients were negative for this after the operation. None of the patients presented any new episode of dislocation of the patella. All of them stated that they were satisfied: five gave a satisfaction score of 9 and two, a score of 10. All of them said that they would undergo the operation again. Only one patient presented a postoperative complication: dehiscence of the wound. Conclusion Reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament

  3. A Place for Block Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  4. Medial cortex strain distribution during noncemented total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Elias, J J; Nagao, M; Chu, Y H; Carbone, J J; Lennox, D W; Chao, E Y

    2000-01-01

    Intraoperative proximal femur fractures are a significant concern during noncemented total hip arthroplasty. The current study was performed to investigate the hypothesis that broaching the femur and inserting the stem without using mallet applied impact loads will reduce the risk of intraoperative fracture. Rosette strain gauges were applied to the medial and anteromedial cortex of six human anatomic specimen femurs to compare the strain distribution for broaching and stem insertion. Eight additional femurs were used to compare the strain distribution for stem insertion using impact loading and constant rate stem insertion. For the impact loading stem insertions, the soft tissues surrounding the femur were modeled. Constant rate stem insertions were performed using a mechanical testing machine. The largest strains measured at the medial and anteromedial sites primarily were aligned with the femur hoop axis. The largest strain magnitude, orientation, and sign (tensile or compressive) varied widely among femurs. The stem insertion strains were significantly larger than the broaching strains (two-way analysis of variance with replication). The impact stem insertion strains were not significantly different from the constant rate stem insertion strains. The results indicate that the femur geometry and material properties have a greater influence on the strain distribution than does the implantation technique.

  5. Perineoscrotal reconstruction using a medial circumflex femoral artery perforator flap.

    PubMed

    Karsidag, Semra; Akcal, Arzu; Sirvan, Selami Serhat; Guney, Soner; Ugurlu, Kemal

    2011-02-01

    Major scrotal defects may result from infection due to Fournier's gangrene, excision of scrotal skin diseases, traumatic avulsion of scrotal and penile skin, and genital burns. The wide spectrum of bacterial flora of the perineum, difficulty in providing immobilisation, and obtaining a natural contour of the testes make testicular cover very difficult. Various methods have been reported to cover the penoscrotal area, including skin grafting, transposing them to medial thigh skin, and use of local fasciocutaneous or musculocutaneous flaps. In this report, reconstruction using six local medial circumflex femoral artery perforator (MCFAP) flaps was undertaken in five male patients (mean age, 47 years) with complex penoscrotal or perineal wounds. The cause of the wounds in four patients was Fournier's gangrene, and was a wide papillomateous lesion in the other patient. Flap width was 6-10 cm and flap length was 10-18 cm. The results showed that a MCFAP flap provided the testes with a pliable local flap without being bulky and also protected the testicle without increasing the temperature. The other advantage of the MCFAP flap was that the donor-site scar could be concealed in the gluteal crease. Our results demonstrated that the MCFAP flap is an ideal local flap for covering penoscrotal defects.

  6. Medial prefrontal cortex role in recognition memory in rodents.

    PubMed

    Morici, Juan Facundo; Bekinschtein, Pedro; Weisstaub, Noelia V

    2015-10-01

    The study of the neurobiology of recognition memory, defined by the integration of the different components of experiences that support recollection of past experiences have been a challenge for memory researches for many years. In the last twenty years, with the development of the spontaneous novel object recognition task and all its variants this has started to change. The features of recognition memory include a particular object or person ("what"), the context in which the experience took place, which can be the arena itself or the location within a particular arena ("where") and the particular time at which the event occurred ("when"). This definition instead of the historical anthropocentric one allows the study of this type of episodic memory in animal models. Some forms of recognition memory that require integration of different features recruit the medial prefrontal cortex. Focusing on findings from spontaneous recognition memory tasks performed by rodents, this review concentrates on the description of previous works that have examined the role that the medial prefrontal cortex has on the different steps of recognition memory. We conclude that this structure, independently of the task used, is required at different memory stages when the task cannot be solved by a single item strategy.

  7. Clinical results in reconstruction of medial patellofemoral ligament

    PubMed Central

    Irigoitia, Nicolas Alejandro; Catan, Agustín Felipe; Arroquy, Damián; Guiñazu, Jorge; Vilaseca, Tomas; Nazur, Gabriel; Bisso, Martín Carboni

    2017-01-01

    Background: The reconstruction of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is the most suitable treatment for the patellar instability at the present in patients with two or more episodes of dislocation or only one with condral lesion. This is because it is the principal medial stabilizer of the patella. This process could be supplemented with an osseous correction as tibial tuberosity transference. Objectives: assess the clinical results of the reconstruction of the MPLF in patients with patellar instability. Study Design: Case series, level of evidence IV. Methods: We enroll all patients with this procedure between form April 2011 to February 2015, the sample has 27 reconstruction in 25 patients, who has two or more episodes of patellar dislocation. The graft used was gracilis tendon, set with suture anchor, and tibial tuberosity transfer in 9 patients who need an osseous procedure. Results: The average Kujala score was 90,1 points ( 64-100). Was necessary tibial tuberosity transference in one third of se sample. And in those patients there no difference compared with the isolated reconstruction.There was no episode of patellar dislocation or a second surgical time in the sample. Conclusion: The reconstruction of MPLF show excellent clinical outcomes in a short and medium terms , with 0% of dislocation and no second surgical time, in this kind of patients.

  8. The medial gastrocnemius muscle attenuates force fluctuations during plantar flexion.

    PubMed

    Shinohara, Minoru; Yoshitake, Yasuhide; Kouzaki, Motoki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2006-02-01

    Force fluctuations during steady contractions of multiple agonist muscles may be influenced by the relative contribution of force by each muscle. The purpose of the study was to compare force fluctuations during steady contractions performed with the plantar flexor muscles in different knee positions. Nine men (25.8+/-5.1 years) performed steady contractions of the plantar flexor muscles in the knee-flexed and knee-extended (greater involvement of the gastrocnemii muscles) positions. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force was 32% greater in the knee-extended position compared with the knee-flexed position. The target forces were 2.5-10% MVC force in the respective position. The amplitude of electromyogram in the medial gastrocnemius muscle was greater in the knee-extended position (10.50+/-9.80%) compared with the knee-flexed position (1.26+/-1.15%, P<0.01). The amplitude of electromyogram in the soleus muscle was not influenced by the knee position. The amplitude of electromyogram in the lateral gastrocnemius and tibialis anterior muscles was marginal and unaltered with knee position. At the same force (in Newtons), the standard deviation of force was lower in the knee-extended position compared with the knee-flexed position. These results indicate that force fluctuations during plantar flexion are attenuated with greater involvement of the medial gastrocnemius muscle.

  9. Function of the medial meniscus in force transmission and stability.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter S; Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher; Salvadore, Gaia; Borukhov, Ilya; Oh, Cheongeun

    2015-06-01

    We studied the combined role of the medial meniscus in distributing load and providing stability. Ten normal knees were loaded in combinations of compressive and shear loading as the knee was flexed over a full range. A digital camera tracked the motion, from which femoral-tibial contacts were determined by computer modelling. Load transmission was determined from the Tekscan for the anterior horn, central body, posterior horn, and the uncovered cartilage in the centre of the meniscus. For the three types of loading; compression only, compression and anterior shear, compression and posterior shear; between 40% and 80% of the total load was transmitted through the meniscus. The overall average was 58%, the remaining 42% being transmitted through the uncovered cartilage. The anterior horn was loaded only up to 30 degrees flexion, but played a role in controlling anterior femoral displacement. The central body was loaded 10-20% which would provide some restraint to medial femoral subluxation. Overall the posterior horn carried the highest percentage of the shear load, especially after 30 degrees flexion when a posterior shear force was applied, where the meniscus was estimated to carry 50% of the shear force. This study added new insights into meniscal function during weight bearing conditions, particularly its role in early flexion, and in transmitting shear forces.

  10. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy for zygomatic implant salvage

    PubMed Central

    Tajudeen, Bobby A.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Methods: We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. Results: The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. Conclusion: We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant. PMID:28107147

  11. Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    margin of the mass anteriorly) was split and the pronator teres was released from the medial epicondyle and reflected off the anterior elbow capsule and...ORIGINAL ARTICLE Medial Elbow Exposure for Coronoid Fractures: FCU-Split Versus Over-the-Top Jeannie Huh, MD,* Chad A. Krueger, MD,* Michael J...fractures is unknown. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively compare the osseous and ligamentous exposure of the medial elbow using the flexor

  12. The Mechanical Benefit of Medial Support Screws in Locking Plating of Proximal Humerus Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanjie; Pan, Yao; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Changqing; Zeng, Bingfang; Chen, Yunfeng

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical advantages of medial support screws (MSSs) in the locking proximal humeral plate for treating proximal humerus fractures. Methods Thirty synthetic left humeri were randomly divided into 3 subgroups to establish two-part surgical neck fracture models of proximal humerus. All fractures were fixed with a locking proximal humerus plate. Group A was fixed with medial cortical support and no MSSs; Group B was fixed with 3 MSSs but without medial cortical support; Group C was fixed with neither medial cortical support nor MSSs. Axial compression, torsional stiffness, shear stiffness, and failure tests were performed. Results Constructs with medial support from cortical bone showed statistically higher axial and shear stiffness than other subgroups examined (P<0.0001). When the proximal humerus was not supported by medial cortical bone, locking plating with medial support screws exhibited higher axial and torsional stiffness than locking plating without medial support screws (P≤0.0207). Specimens with medial cortical bone failed primarily by fracture of the humeral shaft or humeral head. Specimens without medial cortical bone support failed primarily by significant plate bending at the fracture site followed by humeral head collapse or humeral head fracture. Conclusions Anatomic reduction with medial cortical support was the stiffest construct after a simulated two-part fracture. Significant biomechanical benefits of MSSs in locking plating of proximal humerus fractures were identified. The reconstruction of the medial column support for proximal humerus fractures helps to enhance mechanical stability of the humeral head and prevent implant failure. PMID:25084520

  13. Flattening basic blocks.

    SciTech Connect

    Utke, J.; Mathematics and Computer Science

    2006-01-01

    The application of cross country elimination strategies requires access to the computational graph or at least subgraphs for certain scopes, e.g. a basic block. Under the presence of aliased variables the construction of these (sub)graphs encounters ambiguities. We propose an algorithm to construct ambiguity free subgraphs.

  14. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  15. Ischemic Nerve Block.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Ian D.

    This experiment investigated the capability for movement and muscle spindle function at successive stages during the development of ischemic nerve block (INB) by pressure cuff. Two male subjects were observed under six randomly ordered conditions. The duration of index finger oscillation to exhaustion, paced at 1.2Hz., was observed on separate…

  16. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Tiger line files are the source of the geometry representing the Census blocks. Attributes include total population counts, racial/ethnic, and poverty/income information. Racial/ethnic classifications are represented in units of blocks, blockgroups and tracts. Poverty and income data are represented in units of blockgroups and tracts. Percentages of each racial/ethnic group have been calculated from the population counts. Total Minority counts and percentages were compiled from each racial/ethnic non-white category. Categories compiled to create the Total Minority count includes the following: African American, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, White Hispanic, Other and all mixed race categories. The percentage poverty attribute represents the percent of the population living at or below poverty level. The per capita income attribute represents the sum of all income within the geographic entity, divided by the total population of that entity. Special fields designed to be used for EJ analysis have been derived from the PL data and include the following: Percentage difference of block, blockgroup and total minority from the state and county averages, percentile rank for each percent total minority within state and county entitie

  17. Concrete Block Pavements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  18. Signal Unification Block,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A multichannel device is described for unifying the signals of thermocouples, tachometer generators and tensometers used in conducting tests on...various machines and mechanisms. The device is built on semiconductor instruments and has a block construction, permitting the easy alteration of the number of varieties of the signals being unified.

  19. Toward an understanding of fibrin branching structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fogelson, Aaron L.; Keener, James P.

    2010-05-01

    The blood clotting enzyme thrombin converts fibrinogen molecules into fibrin monomers which polymerize to form a fibrous three-dimensional gel. The concentration of thrombin affects the architecture of the resulting gel, in particular, a higher concentration of thrombin produces a gel with more branch points per unit volume and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. We propose a mechanism by which fibrin branching can occur and show that this mechanism can lead to dependence of the gel’s structure (at the time of gelation) on the rate at which monomer is supplied. A higher rate of monomer supply leads to a gel with a higher branch concentration and with shorter fiber segments between branch points. The origin of this dependence is explained.

  20. Using branching simulations in treatment fidelity plans.

    PubMed

    Kovach, Christine R; Rababa, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a new approach to treatment fidelity using branching simulations. Branching simulations are case scenarios that require the user to generate a series of step-by-step decisions and actions. The user is given immediate feedback on the consequences of his or her decisions and actions. Branching simulations may be a particularly useful fidelity strategy for interventions that require clinical decision making represented in terms of a flow of critical thinking and action steps. Results of fidelity testing in the current study using branching simulations revealed that 15 (22%) of 67 interventionists scored below the study's a priori 80% criterion for full retraining and retesting. Thirty (45%) interventionists needed partial retraining in using specific components of the intervention. Potential threats to internal validity posed by inadequate or erroneous adherence to multicomponent intervention protocols can be decreased through treatment fidelity using branching simulations.

  1. Root branching: mechanisms, robustness, and plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dastidar, Mouli Ghosh; Jouannet, Virginie; Maizel, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that must efficiently exploit their habitat for water and nutrients. The degree of root branching impacts the efficiency of water uptake, acquisition of nutrients, and anchorage. The root system of plants is a dynamic structure whose architecture is determined by modulation of primary root growth and root branching. This plasticity relies on the continuous integration of environmental inputs and endogenous developmental programs controlling root branching. This review focuses on the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of lateral root distribution, initiation, and organogenesis with the main focus on the root system of Arabidopsis thaliana. We also examine the mechanisms linking environmental changes to the developmental pathways controlling root branching. Recent progress that emphasizes the parallels to the formation of root branches in other species is discussed.

  2. Inactivation of the dorsal hippocampus or the medial prefrontal cortex impairs retrieval but has differential effect on spatial memory reconsolidation.

    PubMed

    Rossato, Janine I; Köhler, Cristiano A; Radiske, Andressa; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Cammarota, Martín

    2015-11-01

    Active memories can incorporate new information through reconsolidation. However, the notion that memory retrieval is necessary for reconsolidation has been recently challenged. Non-reinforced retrieval induces hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)-dependent reconsolidation of spatial memory in the Morris water maze (MWM). We found that the effect of protein synthesis inhibition on this process is abolished when retrieval of the learned spatial preference is hindered through mPFC inactivation but not when it is blocked by deactivation of dorsal CA1. Our results do not fully agree with the hypothesis that retrieval is unneeded for reconsolidation. Instead, they support the idea that a hierarchic interaction between the hippocampus and the mPFC controls spatial memory in the MWM, and indicate that this cortex is sufficient to retrieve the information essential to reconsolidate the spatial memory trace, even when the hippocampus is inactivated.

  3. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  4. The significance of medial sural artery integrity in popliteal artery trauma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tzilalis, V D; Georgiadis, G S; Papas, T T; Arvanitis, D P; Lazarides, M K

    2005-12-01

    Two patients with popliteal artery trauma who underwent secondary amputations due to refractory calf sepsis despite a patent arterial repair are presented in this case report. The medial sural artery, the main arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius, was surgically severed in both patients owing to the use of a continuous medial incision from the supra level to infragenicular level. The compromised arterial supply of the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscle may have contributed to the devitalization of the muscle and the subsequent calf sepsis, and it is speculated that this was related to the unfavorable outcome.

  5. The medial malleolus osteoligamentous complex and its role in ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Davidovitch, Roy I; Egol, Kenneth A

    2009-01-01

    Ankle stability in ankle fractures is dependent on multiple factors. The medial malleolus and the associated deltoid ligament provide for ankle stability on the medial side. Over the years, the relative importance of this medial malleolar osteoligamentous complex (MMOLC) has been debated. This review will describe the evolution of ankle fracture surgery from the perspective of the contribution of the MMOLC to re-establishing ankle stability. Also discussed are the surgical and nonsurgical treatment options, various presentations of medial sided injuries in ankle fractures, and, finally, current recommendations for fixation.

  6. A cadaveric study showing the anatomical variations in the branches of the dorsalis pedis artery at the level of the ankle joint and its clinical implication in ankle arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Parikh, S; Dawe, E; Lee, C; Whitehead-Clarke, T; Smith, C; Bendall, S

    2016-09-23

    Introduction Pseudoaneurysm formation following ankle arthroscopy is a rare but potentially catastrophic complication. The placement of anterior ankle portals carries inherent risk to the superficial and deep peroneal nerves, as well as to the dorsalis pedis artery. Anatomical variations in the dorsalis pedis and the presence of branches at the joint line may increase the risk of vascular injury and pseudoaneurysm formation during arthroscopy. There is limited anatomical evidence available regarding the branches of the dorsalis pedis artery, which occur at the point at which they cross the ankle joint. Objectives The objective of the study was to describe the frequency and direction of branches of the dorsalis pedis crossing the ankle joint. Materials and Methods Nineteen cadaveric feet were carefully dissected to explore the course of the dorsalis pedis artery, noting in particular the branching pattern at the joint line. Results Eleven of the nineteen feet had a branch of the dorsalis pedis artery that crossed the level of the ankle joint. Out of these, six were lateral, four medial and one bilateral. Eight of the eleven specimens had one branch at, or just before, the level of the joint. Two specimens had two branches and one had three branches crossing the ankle, which were all in the same direction, crossing laterally to the main trunk of the dorsalis pedis. Conclusions Our study demonstrated high rates of branching of the dorsalis pedis artery at the level of the ankle joint. The role of these branches in pseudoaneurysm formation during anterior hindfoot surgery remains unclear.

  7. A Case of Spontaneous Osteonecrosis of the Knee with Early and Simultaneous Involvement of the Medial Femoral Condyle and Medial Tibial Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Shinya; Arai, Yuji; Honjo, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Shuji; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SPONK) usually involves a single condyle, most often the medial femoral condyle (MFC). Involvement of the medial tibial plateau (MTP) is less common, occurring in about 2% of knees with SPONK. Early onset SPONK on the ipsilateral side of the medial compartment is very rare, with, to our knowledge, only four cases reported to date. We describe a very rare case of SPONK with early simultaneous development in the MFC and MTP. Serial plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging showed that SPONK in both condyles followed a similar progressive course. The pathological findings in these lesions were similar to those observed in subchondral insufficiency fractures. PMID:27242941

  8. Template-directed synthesis of structurally-defined branched polymer architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciel, Amanda

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we describe a hybrid synthetic strategy to produce structurally-defined branched polymer architectures based on chemically-modified DNA. Overall, this approach enables precise control over branch placement, grafting density, and chemical identity of side branches. We utilize a two-step scheme based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for site-specific incorporation of non-natural nucleotides, followed by copper-free click chemistry for grafting side branches at specific locations along the main polymer backbone. Linear DNA backbones are first synthesized via PCR utilizing the promiscuity of a high yield thermophilic DNA polymerase to incorporate nucleotides containing bioorthogonal dibenzocyclooctyne functional groups at precise locations along one strand of a double stranded DNA backbone. Following PCR, copper-free click chemistry is used to attach synthetic polymer branches or oligonucleotide branches to the DNA backbone, thereby allowing for the design and synthesis of a variety of precise polymer architectures, including three-arm stars, H-polymers, and graft block copolymers.

  9. Controlled synthesis of hyper-branched inorganic nanocrystals withrich three-dimensional structures

    SciTech Connect

    Kanaras, Antonios G.; Sonnichsen, Carsten; Liu, Haitao; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2005-07-27

    Studies of crystal growth kinetics are tightly integrated with advances in the creation of new nanoscale inorganic building blocks and their functional assemblies 1-11. Recent examples include the development of semiconductor nanorods which have potential uses in solar cells 12-17, and the discovery of a light driven process to create noble metal particles with sharp corners that can be used in plasmonics 18,19. In the course of studying basic crystal growth kinetics we developed a process for preparing branched semiconductor nanocrystals such as tetrapods and inorganic dendrimers of precisely controlled generation 20,21. Here we report the discovery of a crystal growth kinetics regime in which a new class of hyper-branched nanocrystals are formed. The shapes range from 'thorny balls', to tree-like ramified structures, to delicate 'spider net'-like particles. These intricate shapes depend crucially on a delicate balance of branching and extension. The multitudes of resulting shapes recall the diverse shapes of snowflakes 22.The three dimensional nature of the branch points here, however, lead to even more complex arrangements than the two dimensionally branched structures observed in ice. These hyper-branched particles not only extend the available three-dimensional shapes in nanoparticle synthesis ,but also provide a tool to study growth kinetics by carefully observing and modeling particle morphology.

  10. Rational growth of branched nanowire heterostructures with synthetically encoded properties and function

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaocheng; Tian, Bozhi; Xiang, Jie; Qian, Fang; Zheng, Gengfeng; Wang, Hongtao; Mai, Liqiang; Lieber, Charles M.

    2011-01-01

    Branched nanostructures represent unique, 3D building blocks for the “bottom-up” paradigm of nanoscale science and technology. Here, we report a rational, multistep approach toward the general synthesis of 3D branched nanowire (NW) heterostructures. Single-crystalline semiconductor, including groups IV, III–V, and II–VI, and metal branches have been selectively grown on core or core/shell NW backbones, with the composition, morphology, and doping of core (core/shell) NWs and branch NWs well controlled during synthesis. Measurements made on the different composition branched NW structures demonstrate encoding of functional p-type/n-type diodes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) as well as field effect transistors with device function localized at the branch/backbone NW junctions. In addition, multibranch/backbone NW structures were synthesized and used to demonstrate capability to create addressable nanoscale LED arrays, logic circuits, and biological sensors. Our work demonstrates a previously undescribed level of structural and functional complexity in NW materials, and more generally, highlights the potential of bottom-up synthesis to yield increasingly complex functional systems in the future. PMID:21730174

  11. Nerve fibre tracing of branches to the coracobrachialis muscle in a Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Kawashima, T; Yoshitomi, S; Sasaki, H

    2007-02-01

    A detailed anatomical analysis of the left brachial plexus, composed of the fourth cervical to first thoracic spinal nerve roots, was performed in an adult male orangutan obtained from the Osaka Museum of Natural History. Although the medial and posterior cords fused into a common trunk, a nerve fibre analysis revealed that the cords were not actually connected. A superficial branch (Rs) running ventral to the musculocutaneous nerve (MC) and a deep branch (Rp) running dorsal to the MC innervated the coracobrachialis muscle, which was also innervated by coracobrachialis branches (Rmc) from the MC. Koizumi (1989: Acta Anat. Nippon, 64, 18) reported that the Rmc and Rs innervated the superficial region of the coracobrachialis muscle corresponding to superficial coracobrachialis muscle in prosimians, whereas the Rp innervated the deep region. However, the detailed innervation of the coracobrachialis muscle in orangutans was not included in Koizumi and Sakai's (1995: J. Anat. 186, 395) report. Our observations in an orangutan did not seem to support generalisation, because the common trunk of the Rp and Rmc appeared to innervate both the superficial and deep regions of the coracobrachialis muscle. Therefore, a nerve fibre analysis of the common trunk was performed as a detailed examination. The analysis confirmed that the Rp in the orangutan only innervated the deep region of the coracobrachialis muscle, similar to the innervation pattern seen in other apes and humans.

  12. Reduced neuronal size and dendritic length in the medial superior olivary nucleus of albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Conlee, J W; Parks, T N; Creel, D J

    1986-01-15

    We have previously demonstrated that circumscribed structural and functional abnormalities exist in the brainstem auditory system of albino cats. Anomalies in the auditory brainstem evoked response of albino cats were correlated with anatomical defects in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO) of the same animals. To examine whether a similar syndrome is present in other albino mammals, we studied the MSO of albino and pigmented rabbits using both Nissl-stained and Golgi-impregnated material. Neurons in the MSO of the albinos were significantly smaller (24%) than those in the pigmented rabbits and there was no overlap in the size distributions between the two groups. Neurons in the abducens nucleus of the albinos were also 14% smaller than in the pigmented rabbits, but this difference was not statistically reliable. The broad overlap in the distributions of neuronal size in the abducens nucleus between groups indicated that not all cells in the albino brainstem are significantly smaller than normal. In the Golgi-impregnated material, the mean total dendritic length for the 'marginal' cell type in the MSO was 39% shorter in albinos than in the pigmented animals. The branching density of dendrites was also significantly reduced in the albinos. Mean total dendritic length for cerebellar granule cells was a statistically insignificant 6% longer in the albinos, demonstrating that dendritic structure is not uniformly affected in all regions of the albino brain. The demonstration of similar anatomical differences in albino rabbits and cats indicates that whatever process produces these effects is not species-specific and may be common to the albinos of other mammalian species. The evidence that the amount of cochlear melanin may be related to differences in auditory function further suggests that the differences in the MSO of the albinos may ultimately be related to absence of inner ear pigmentation and not to other gene effects.

  13. Dissection of the Golgi complex. I. Monensin inhibits the transport of viral membrane proteins from medial to trans Golgi cisternae in baby hamster kidney cells infected with Semliki Forest virus

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    Baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells were infected with Semliki Forest virus (SFV) and, 2 h later, were treated for 4 h with 10 microM monensin. Each of the four to six flattened cisternae in the Golgi stack became swollen and separated from the others. Intracellular transport of the viral membrane proteins was almost completely inhibited, but their synthesis continued and they accumulated in the swollen Golgi cisternae before the monensin block. In consequence, these cisternae bound large numbers of viral nucleocapsids and were easily distinguished from other swollen cisternae such as those after the block. These intracellular capsid-binding membranes (ICBMs) were not stained by cytochemical markers for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (glucose-6-phosphatase) or trans Golgi cisternae (thiamine pyrophosphatase, acid phosphatase) but were labeled by Ricinus communis agglutinin I (RCA) in thin, frozen sections. Since this lectin labels only Golgi cisternae in the middle and on the trans side of the stack (Griffiths, G., R. Brands, B. Burke, D. Louvard, and G. Warren, 1982, J. Cell Biol., 95:781-792), we conclude that ICBMs are derived from Golgi cisternae in the middle of the stack, which we term medial cisternae. The overall movement of viral membrane proteins appears to be from cis to trans Golgi cisternae (see reference above), so monensin would block movement from medial to the trans cisternae. It also blocked the trimming of the high-mannose oligosaccharides bound to the viral membrane proteins and their conversion to complex oligosaccharides. These functions presumably reside in trans Golgi cisternae. This is supported by data in the accompanying paper, in which we also show that fatty acids are covalently attached to the viral membrane proteins in the cis or medial cisternae. We suggest that the Golgi stack can be divided into three functionally distinct compartments, each comprising one or two cisternae. The viral membrane proteins, after leaving the ER, would all pass

  14. Trifascicular block progressing to complete AV block on exercise: a rare presentation demonstrating the usefulness of exercise testing

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Ranjan K; Agarwal, Sumit; Ganiga Sanjeeva, Naveen Chandra; Rao, M Sudhakar

    2015-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with dyspnoea and giddiness on exertion for the last 1 month. A resting ECG during showed trifascicular block with complete right bundle branch block, left anterior fascicular block and a prolonged PR interval of >0.24 s. His echocardiography showed no evidence of wall motion abnormality. He was subjected to a treadmill test for exercise-induced ischaemia, which showed complete atrioventricular (AV) block during first stage of Bruce protocol. His symptoms of dyspnoea and giddiness were also reproduced. The test was terminated and ECG returned to trifascicular block, similar to that at his baseline ECG during recovery. Coronary angiogram (CAG) was performed to rule out any ischaemic cause for this exercise-induced AV block, which was normal. In view of his reproducible symptoms and demonstration of complete AV block on exercise, a dual-chamber pacemaker (DDD) was implanted. His symptoms disappeared and he remained asymptomatic on follow-up. PMID:25819829

  15. Effects of paired-pulse and repetitive stimulation on neurons in the rat medial geniculate body.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, E L; Smith, P H

    2002-01-01

    Many behaviorally relevant sounds, including language, are composed of brief, rapid, repetitive acoustic features. Recent studies suggest that abnormalities in producing and understanding spoken language are correlated with abnormal neural responsiveness to such auditory stimuli at higher auditory levels [Tallal et al., Science 271 (1996) 81-84; Wright et al., Nature 387 (1997) 176-178; Nagarajan et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96 (1999) 6483-6488] and with abnormal anatomical features in the auditory thalamus [Galaburda et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91 (1994) 8010-8013]. To begin to understand potential mechanisms for normal and abnormal transfer of sensory information to the cortex, we recorded the intracellular responses of medial geniculate body thalamocortical neurons in a rat brain slice preparation. Inferior colliculus or corticothalamic axons were excited by pairs or trains of electrical stimuli. Neurons receiving only excitatory collicular input had tufted dendritic morphology and displayed strong paired-pulse depression of their large, short-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials. In contrast, geniculate neurons receiving excitatory and inhibitory collicular inputs could have stellate or tufted morphology and displayed much weaker depression or even paired-pulse facilitation of their smaller, longer-latency excitatory postsynaptic potentials. Depression was not blocked by ionotropic glutamate, GABA(A) or GABA(B) receptor antagonists. Facilitation was unaffected by GABA(A) receptor antagonists but was diminished by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade. Similar stimulation of the corticothalamic input always elicited paired-pulse facilitation. The NMDA-independent facilitation of the second cortical excitatory postsynaptic potential lasted longer and was more pronounced than that seen for the excitatory collicular inputs. Paired-pulse stimulation of isolated collicular inhibitory postsynaptic potentials generated little change in the

  16. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years) and 30 years (range: 14-62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is common in

  17. Branch architecture, light interception and crown development in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tropical tree, Polyalthia jenkinsii (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Osada, Noriyuki; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    To investigate crown development patterns, branch architecture, branch-level light interception, and leaf and branch dynamics were studied in saplings of a plagiotropically branching tree species, Polyalthia jenkinsii Hk. f. & Thoms. (Annonaceae) in a Malaysian rain forest. Lengths of branches and parts of the branches lacking leaves ('bare' branches) were smaller in upper branches than in lower branches within crowns, whereas lengths of 'leafy' parts and the number of leaves per branch were larger in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. Maximum diffuse light absorption (DLA) of individual leaves was not related to sapling height or branch position within crowns, whereas minimum DLA was lower in tall saplings. Accordingly, branch-level light interception was higher in intermediate than in upper and lower branches. The leaf production rate was higher and leaf loss rate was smaller in upper than in intermediate and lower branches. Moreover, the branch production rate of new first-order branches was larger in the upper crowns. Thus, leaf and branch dynamics do not correspond to branch-level light interception in the different canopy zones. As a result of architectural constraints, branches at different vertical positions experience predictable light microenvironments in plagiotropic species. Accordingly, this pattern of carbon allocation among branches might be particularly important for growth and crown development in plagiotropic species.

  18. Feature-accelerated block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Bo; Orchard, Michael T.

    1998-01-01

    We study the relationship between local features and block matching in this paper. We show that the use of many features can greatly improve the block matching results by introducing several fast block matching algorithms. The first algorithm is pixel decimation-based. We show that pixels with larger gradient magnitude have larger motion compensation error. Therefore for pixel decimation-based fast block matching, it benefits to subsample the block by selecting pixels with the largest gradient magnitude. Such a gradient-assisted adaptive pixel selection strategy greatly outperforms two other subsampling procedures proposed in previous literature. Fast block matching can achieve the optimal performance obtained using full search. We present a family of such fast block matching algorithm using various local features, such as block mean and variance. Our algorithm reduces more than 80 percent computation, while achieving the same performance as the full search. This present a brand new approach toward fast block matching algorithm design.

  19. Recovery from blocking between outcomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R

    2005-10-01

    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.

  20. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

  1. Thermal blocking of preheating

    SciTech Connect

    Lerner, Rose; Tranberg, Anders E-mail: anders.tranberg@uis.no

    2015-04-01

    The parametric resonance responsible for preheating after inflation will end when self-interactions of the resonating field and interactions of this field with secondary degrees of freedom become important. In many cases, the effect may be quantified in terms of an effective mass and the resulting shifting out of the spectrum of the strongest resonance band. In certain curvaton models, such thermal blocking can even occur before preheating has begun, delaying or even preventing the decay of the curvaton. We investigate numerically to what extent this thermal blocking is realised in a specific scenario, and whether the effective mass is well approximated by the perturbative leading order thermal mass. We find that the qualitative behaviour is well reproduced in this approximation, and that the end of preheating can be confidently estimated.

  2. Radiological analysis of the medial epicondyle in the adolescent throwing athlete

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wuey Min; Chan, Chee Ken; Takahashi, Norimasa; Kawai, Nobuaki; Teh, Kok Kheng; Saravana, R; Sugaya, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Injuries to the medial structures of the elbow due to overhead throwing games are well documented. However, variations of medial epicondyles are not well described, especially in athletes with fused medial epicondyles. In this study, we evaluated variations in the medial epicondyle of baseball players who were aged 15–17 years and had fused epicondyles. METHODS In this cross-sectional observational study, 155 skeletally mature baseball players with unilateral medial elbow pain and 310 elbow radiographs were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The medial epicondyles were categorised into three groups: normal, elongated or separated. RESULTS Among the 155 patients, 65 (41.9%) had normal epicondyles, 41 (26.5%) had elongated epicondyles and 49 (31.6%) had separated epicondyles. The medial epicondyle was larger on the dominant arm for 125 (80.6%) patients; the mean surface area on the dominant arm was 222.50 ± 45.77 mm2, while that of the non-dominant arm was 189.14 ± 39.56 mm2 (p < 0.01). Among the three categories of medial epicondyles, separated epicondyles had the largest surface area, followed by elongated and normal epicondyles. CONCLUSION Medial epicondyles in adolescent throwing athletes can be categorised into three different groups according to their shape (normal, elongated and separated). We observed a correlation between the shape and the surface area of the medial epicondyle in adolescent throwing athletes, with separated medial epicondyles having the largest surface area. Further studies and follow-up are needed to determine the prognostic value and clinical significance of these morphological variations. PMID:26976222

  3. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOEpatents

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  4. Controlling branching structure formation of the salivary gland by the degree of chitosan deacetylation.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Ya-Chuan; Chen, Chun-Nan; Chen, You-Tzung; Yang, Tsung-Lin

    2013-09-01

    The salivary gland is characterized by ramified epithelial branches, a specific tissue structure responsible for saliva production and regulation. To regenerate the salivary gland function, it is important to establish the tissue structure. Chitosan is a deacetylated derivative of chitin with wide biomedical applications. Because of its deacetylated nature, chitosan has different properties when prepared with different degrees of deacetylation (DDA). However, the impact of chitosan DDA on the effect of regulating tissue structure formation remains unexplored. In this study, the embryonic murine submandibular gland (SMG) was used as a model to investigate the role of chitosan DDA in regulating tissue structure formation of the salivary gland. When chitin substrates with different DDA were used, the branching numbers of cultured SMG explants changed. Similar effects were observed in the culture with chitosan prepared using different degrees of acetylation. The mRNA expressions of type I and type III collagen were elevated in SMG explants with enhanced branching morphogenesis, as was the protein level. In addition to the amounts of collagen, type I and type III collagen fibers were spatially present in the epithelial-mesenchymal junction of developing branches in the culture with chitosan of a specific range of DDA. The branch-promoting effect of chitosan DDA was abolished when SMG explants were treated with collagenase, both early in the stage of branch initiation and with the establishment of the branching structure. The branch-promoting effect of chitosan DDA disappeared when antisense oligonucleotides were applied to specifically block type III collagen. This study demonstrates for the first time that DDA of chitosan affects tissue structure formation. The different proportions of side-chain components of chitin derivatives regulate structural formation of cultured SMG, indicating that DDA is an important parameter using chitosan as a biomaterial for tissue

  5. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  6. Disassortativity of random critical branching trees.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S; Kahng, B; Kim, D

    2009-06-01

    Random critical branching trees (CBTs) are generated by the multiplicative branching process, where the branching number is determined stochastically, independent of the degree of their ancestor. Here we show analytically that despite this stochastic independence, there exists the degree-degree correlation (DDC) in the CBT and it is disassortative. Moreover, the skeletons of fractal networks, the maximum spanning trees formed by the edge betweenness centrality, behave similarly to the CBT in the DDC. This analytic solution and observation support the argument that the fractal scaling in complex networks originates from the disassortativity in the DDC.

  7. Q-branch Raman scattering and modern kinetic thoery

    SciTech Connect

    Monchick, L.

    1993-12-01

    The program is an extension of previous APL work whose general aim was to calculate line shapes of nearly resonant isolated line transitions with solutions of a popular quantum kinetic equation-the Waldmann-Snider equation-using well known advanced solution techniques developed for the classical Boltzmann equation. The advanced techniques explored have been a BGK type approximation, which is termed the Generalized Hess Method (GHM), and conversion of the collision operator to a block diagonal matrix of symmetric collision kernels which then can be approximated by discrete ordinate methods. The latter method, which is termed the Collision Kernel method (CC), is capable of the highest accuracy and has been used quite successfully for Q-branch Raman scattering. The GHM method, not quite as accurate, is applicable over a wider range of pressures and has proven quite useful.

  8. Intraocular radiation blocking

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, P.T.; Ho, T.K.; Fastenberg, D.M.; Hyman, R.A.; Stroh, E.M.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Iodine-based liquid radiographic contrast agents were placed in normal and tumor-bearing (Greene strain) rabbit eyes to evaluate their ability to block iodine-125 radiation. This experiment required the procedures of tumor implantation, vitrectomy, air-fluid exchange, and 125I plaque and thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) chip implantation. The authors quantified the amount of radiation attenuation provided by intraocularly placed contrast agents with in vivo dosimetry. After intraocular insertion of a blocking agent or sham blocker (saline) insertion, episcleral 125I plaques were placed across the eye from episcleral TLD dosimeters. This showed that radiation attenuation occurred after blocker insertion compared with the saline controls. Then computed tomographic imaging techniques were used to describe the relatively rapid transit time of the aqueous-based iohexol compared with the slow transit time of the oil-like iophendylate. Lastly, seven nontumor-bearing eyes were primarily examined for blocking agent-related ocular toxicity. Although it was noted that iophendylate induced intraocular inflammation and retinal degeneration, all iohexol-treated eyes were similar to the control eyes at 7 and 31 days of follow-up. Although our study suggests that intraocular radiopaque materials can be used to shield normal ocular structures during 125I plaque irradiation, a mechanism to keep these materials from exiting the eye must be devised before clinical application.

  9. Sports injury to a bipartite medial cuneiform in a child.

    PubMed

    Eves, Timothy B; Ahmad, Mudussar A; Oddy, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of an 11-year-old boy who had sustained a soccer injury to his mid-foot. Plain radiography did not reveal any fracture to account for the severity of his symptoms or his inability to bear weight. Magnetic resonance imaging was undertaken and demonstrated the medial cuneiform to be a bipartite bone consisting of 2 ossicles connected by a synchondrosis. No acute fracture or diastasis of the bipartite bone was demonstrated; however, significant bone marrow edema was noted, corresponding to the site of the injury and his clinical point bony tenderness. This anatomic variant should be considered as a rare differential diagnosis in the skeletally immature foot. The injury was treated nonoperatively with a non-weightbearing cast and pneumatic walker immobilization, with successful resolution of his symptoms and a return to sports activity by 4 months after injury.

  10. The Vascularized Medial Femoral Corticoperiosteal Flap for Thumb Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kavit; Darhouse, Nagham; Sivakumar, Bran; Floyd, David

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We present an interesting method of shaping a vascularized medial femoral condyle (MFC) flap into a “neophalanx” for phalangeal reconstruction. Our patient presented with limited strength and function secondary to fracture nonunion of the proximal phalanx of the dominant thumb. Following excision of the pseudarthrosis, an MFC corticoperiosteal flap was harvested, sculpted into a prism shape and inset. The superomedial genicular pedicle was anastomosed to the princeps pollicis artery and a cephalic tributary. On follow-up, new bone growth was seen on radiographs and the patient had substantially improved function, with full metacarpophalangeal extension, a Kapandji score of 9, and a markedly reduced Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score of 2.68. The MFC flap is useful for reconstruction of bony defects, with minimal donor morbidity. This versatile vascularized flap can be crafted to requisite shapes and is useful for small defects in the hand, including phalangeal reconstruction. PMID:26495205

  11. Medial temporal lobe memory in childhood: Developmental transitions

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore MTL-dependent memory across middle childhood. Children (6 – 10 years old) and adults completed two computerized tasks, place learning (PL) and transitive inference (TI), that each examined relational memory, as well as the flexible use of relational learning. Findings suggest that the development of relational memory precedes the development of the ability to use relational knowledge flexibly in novel situations. Implications for the development of underlying brain areas and ideas for future neuroimaging investigations are discussed. PMID:20712740

  12. Failed medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Causes and surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristina; Leal-Blanquet, Joan; Gelber, Pablo E; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common clinical problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons specializing in the knee. For patients with chronic lateral patellar instability, the standard surgical approach is to stabilize the patella through a medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Foreseeably, an increasing number of revision surgeries of the reconstructed MPFL will be seen in upcoming years. In this paper, the causes of failed MPFL reconstruction are analyzed: (1) incorrect surgical indication or inappropriate surgical technique/patient selection; (2) a technical error; and (3) an incorrect assessment of the concomitant risk factors for instability. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the MPFL and cautiousness with the imaging techniques while favoring clinical over radiological findings and the use of common sense to determine the adequate surgical technique for each particular case, are critical to minimizing MPFL surgery failure. Additionally, our approach to dealing with failure after primary MPFL reconstruction is also presented. PMID:28251062

  13. Medial prefrontal cortex predicts internally driven strategy shifts

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Nicolas W.; Gaschler, Robert; Wenke, Dorit; Heinzle, Jakob; Frensch, Peter A.; Haynes, John-Dylan; Reverberi, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Summary Many daily behaviors require us to actively focus on the current task and ignore all other distractions. Yet, ignoring everything else might hinder the ability to discover new ways to achieve the same goal. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms that support the spontaneous change to better strategies while an established strategy is executed. Multivariate neuroimaging analysis showed that before the spontaneous change to an alternative strategy, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) encoded information that was irrelevant for the current strategy but necessary for the later strategy. Importantly, this neural effect was related to future behavioral changes: information encoding in MPFC was changed only in participants who eventually switched their strategy and started before the actual strategy change. This allowed us to predict spontaneous strategy shifts ahead of time. These findings suggest that MPFC might internally simulate alternative strategies and sheds new light on the organization of PFC. PMID:25819613

  14. The topology of dermatomal projection in the medial lemniscal system

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Gerhard; Whitsel, Barry L.

    1967-01-01

    1. The topographic organization of first order afferent fibres in the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal dorsal roots, and in the fasciculus gracilis was studied in squirrel monkeys. 2. At the entry zone, progressing from caudal to rostral, dorsal root filaments receive fibres from tail and hind-limb receptive fields which serially overlap and describe a spiral-shaped trajectory. The latter starts with tail, progresses post-axially towards the foot, crosses the foot from lateral to medial, and ascends the preaxial leg. 3. In the fasciculus gracilis, this arrangement of fibres at the dorsal root entry zone is preserved in its entirety. It assumes the form of a fibre lamination, with the most caudal dorsal root fibres occupying a dorso-medial location; further rostral dorsal root fibres come to lie more ventrolaterally. 4. Dorsum and sole of foot project in an overlapping and interdigitating manner to the fibre lamina of the 7th lumber dermatome in the fasciculus gracilis. Thereby, dorsum and sole of foot behave in the projection as if they were one and the same surface. 5. The argument is presented that the foot and its projection on to the cross-sectional plane of the dorsal funiculus are topologically equivalent and that the hind-limb as a whole and its projection are not. On the other hand, homotopic mapping of the foot together with the sequential fibre organization in the dorsal funiculus enable many more types of closed curves on the body surface to remain arc-wise connected in the projection than would otherwise be possible. ImagesPlate 1 PMID:4963874

  15. Medialized Versus Lateralized Center of Rotation in Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Streit, Jonathan J; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben

    2015-12-01

    Reverse shoulder arthroplasty may be performed using components that medialize or lateralize the center of rotation. The purpose of this prospective study was to directly compare 2 reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs. Two treatment groups and 1 control group were identified. Group I comprised 9 patients using a medialized Grammont-style (GRM) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 155°. Group II comprised 9 patients using a lateralized (LAT) prosthesis with a neck-shaft angle of 135°. Pre- and postoperative assessment of range of motion, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, and visual analog scale pain score were performed. Radiographic measurements of lateral humeral offset and acromiohumeral distance were compared. The GRM prosthesis achieved greater forward flexion (143.9° vs 115.6°; P=.05), whereas the LAT achieved greater external rotation (35.0° vs 28.3°; P=.07). The lateral humeral offset was greater for the LAT prosthesis compared with the GRM prosthesis, but this distance was not significantly different from that found in the control group. The acromiohumeral distance was significantly greater in the GRM prosthesis group compared with both the LAT and the control groups. The results of this study confirm that different reverse shoulder arthroplasty designs produce radiographically different anatomy. Whereas the GRM prosthesis significantly alters the anatomy of the shoulder, the LAT design can preserve some anatomic relationships found in the normal shoulder. The clinical outcomes indicate that this may have an effect on range of motion, with traditional designs achieving greater forward flexion and lateralized designs achieving greater external rotation.

  16. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain.

  17. Local plate/rod descriptors of 3D trabecular bone micro-CT images from medial axis topologic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peyrin, Francoise; Attali, Dominique; Chappard, Christine; Benhamou, Claude Laurent

    2010-08-15

    Purpose: Trabecular bone microarchitecture is made of a complex network of plate and rod structures evolving with age and disease. The purpose of this article is to propose a new 3D local analysis method for the quantitative assessment of parameters related to the geometry of trabecular bone microarchitecture. Methods: The method is based on the topologic classification of the medial axis of the 3D image into branches, rods, and plates. Thanks to the reversibility of the medial axis, the classification is next extended to the whole 3D image. Finally, the percentages of rods and plates as well as their mean thicknesses are calculated. The method was applied both to simulated test images and 3D micro-CT images of human trabecular bone. Results: The classification of simulated phantoms made of plates and rods shows that the maximum error in the quantitative percentages of plate and rods is less than 6% and smaller than with the structure model index (SMI). Micro-CT images of human femoral bone taken in osteoporosis and early or advanced osteoarthritis were analyzed. Despite the large physiological variability, the present method avoids the underestimation of rods observed with other local methods. The relative percentages of rods and plates were not significantly different between osteoarthritis and osteoporotic groups, whereas their absolute percentages were in relation to an increase of rod and plate thicknesses in advanced osteoarthritis with also higher relative and absolute number of nodes. Conclusions: The proposed method is model-independent, robust to surface irregularities, and enables geometrical characterization of not only skeletal structures but entire 3D images. Its application provided more accurate results than the standard SMI on simple simulated phantoms, but the discrepancy observed on the advanced osteoarthritis group raises questions that will require further investigations. The systematic use of such a local method in the characterization of

  18. Building block organisation of clusters in amylopectin from different structural types.

    PubMed

    Bertoft, Eric; Koch, Kristine; Aman, Per

    2012-06-01

    Clusters of chains consisting of tightly branched units of building blocks were isolated from 10 amylopectin samples possessing the 4 types of amylopectin with different internal unit chain profiles previously described. It was shown that clusters in types 1 and 2 amylopectins are larger than in types 3 and 4, but the average cluster size did not correspond to the ratio of short to long chains of the amylopectins. The size-distribution of the building blocks, having one or several branches, possessed generally only small differences between samples. However, the length of the interblock segments followed the type of amylopectin structure, so that type 1 amylopectins had shortest and type 4 the longest segments. The chains in the clusters were divided into characteristic groups probably being involved in the interconnection of two, three, and four - or more - building blocks. Long chains were typically found in high amounts in clusters from type 4 amylopectins, however, all cluster samples contained long chains. The results are discussed in terms of the building block structure of amylopectin, in which the blocks together with the interblock segments participate in a branched backbone building up the amorphous lamellae inside growth rings of the starch granules. In such a model, amylopectins with proportionally less long chains (types 1 and 2) possess a more extensively branched backbone compared to those with more long chains (types 3 and 4).

  19. Situational Restriction of Elevation in Adduction Relieved by Faden on the Medial Rectus

    PubMed Central

    Muralidhar, R.; Vijayalakshmi, P.; Sujatha, K.; Shetty, Shashikanth; Malay, K.; Rosenberg, Steve

    2016-01-01

    We describe a patient with situational restriction of elevation in adduction in his left eye. Clinical examination pointed to instability of the left medial rectus pulley. This was corrected by Faden on the medial rectus. The importance of this relatively new concept in identifying and treating orbital pulley instability is discussed. PMID:27162460

  20. Left medial orbitofrontal cortex volume correlates with skydive-elicited euphoric experience.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joshua M; Cha, Jiook; Fekete, Tomer; Greenberg, Tsafrir; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R

    2016-11-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex has been linked to the experience of positive affect. Greater medial orbitofrontal cortex volume is associated with greater expression of positive affect and reduced medial orbital frontal cortex volume is associated with blunted positive affect. However, little is known about the experience of euphoria, or extreme joy, and how this state may relate to variability in medial orbitofrontal cortex structure. To test the hypothesis that variability in euphoric experience correlates with the volume of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, we measured individuals' (N = 31) level of self-reported euphoria in response to a highly anticipated first time skydive and measured orbitofrontal cortical volumes with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Skydiving elicited a large increase in self-reported euphoria. Participants' euphoric experience was predicted by the volume of their left medial orbitofrontal cortex such that, the greater the volume, the greater the euphoria. Further analyses indicated that the left medial orbitofrontal cortex and amygdalo-hippocampal complex independently explain variability in euphoric experience and that medial orbitofrontal cortex volume, in conjunction with other structures within the mOFC-centered corticolimbic circuit, can be used to predict individuals' euphoric experience.

  1. Anterolateral Versus Medial Plating of Distal Extra-articular Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Pirolo, Joseph M; Behn, Anthony W; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-09-01

    Both medial and anterolateral plate applications have been described for the treatment of distal tibia fractures, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and anterolateral plating constructs used to stabilize simulated varus and valgus fracture patterns of the distal tibia. In 16 synthetic tibia models, a 45° oblique cut was made to model an Orthopedic Trauma Association type 43-A1.2 distal tibia fracture in either a varus or valgus injury pattern. Each fracture was then reduced and plated with a precontoured medial or anterolateral distal tibia plate. The specimens were biomechanically tested in axial and torsional loading, cyclic axial loading, and load to failure. For the varus fracture pattern, medial plating showed less fracture site displacement and rotation and was stiffer in both axial and torsional loading (P<.05). For the valgus fracture pattern, there was no statistically significant difference between medial and anterolateral plating. There were no significant differences between the 2 constructs for either fracture pattern with respect to ultimate load, displacement, or energy absorption in load to failure testing. When used to stabilize varus fracture patterns, medial plates showed superior biomechanical performance compared with anterolateral plates. In this application, the medial plates functioned in anti-glide mode. For valgus fracture patterns, no biomechanical differences between anterolateral and medial plating were observed. In clinical practice, surgeons should take this biomechanical evidence into account when devising a treatment strategy for fixation of distal tibia fractures.

  2. View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast of caps for blocks for JFK; blocks are used to support ship when it is repositioned to paint inaccessible areas masked by original support blocks. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Carpentry Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Kirk, Benjamin S.

    2014-01-01

    The principal mission of NASA Johnson Space Center is Human Spaceflight. In support of the mission the Applied Aeroscience and CFD Branch has several technical competencies that include aerodynamic characterization, aerothermodynamic heating, rarefied gas dynamics, and decelerator (parachute) systems.

  4. Sharing Fiscal Information: A Legislative Branch View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivlin, Alice M.

    1978-01-01

    Decisions regarding budget matters are complex; therefore, information sharing between the executive and legislative branches is helpful and necessary. Budget reforms have been initiated, but future trends indicate the need for flexibility and revision of information pathways. (MBR)

  5. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C.

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  6. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  7. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  8. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  9. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    SciTech Connect

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  10. Supplemental branched-chain amino acids improve performance and immune response of newly-received feedlot calves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Supplemental branched-chain AA (BCAA) improved N balance of steers during a simulated pathogen challenge. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of supplemental BCAA on growth and health of newly-received feedlot steers. Steers (n = 120; initial BW = 376 ± 5 kg) were blocked by BW a...

  11. Reverse Evans peroneus brevis medial ankle stabilization for balancing valgus ankle contracture during total ankle replacement.

    PubMed

    Roukis, Thomas S; Prissel, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Medial ankle instability secondary to deltoid ligament insufficiency is frequently encountered when performing total ankle replacement and remains a challenge. In the present techniques report, we describe a "reverse" Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction for medial ankle stabilization harvested through limited incisions using simple topographic anatomic landmarks. The harvested peroneus brevis tendon is brought through a drill hole in the talus from laterally to medially, aiming for the junction of the talar neck and body plantar to the midline. The tendon is the brought superiorly and obliquely to the anterior medial aspect of the distal tibia where it is secured under a plate and screw construct. This modified Evans peroneus brevis tendon nonanatomic deltoid ligament reconstruction is useful in providing medial ankle stability during or after primary and revision total ankle replacement.

  12. Ear - blocked at high altitudes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and blocked ears; Flying and blocked ears; Eustachian tube dysfunction - high altitude ... The eustachian tube is a connection between the middle ear (the space deep to the eardrum) and the back of the ...

  13. The composition of trigeminal nerve branches in normal adult chickens and after debeaking at different ages.

    PubMed

    Dubbeldam, J L; De Bakker, M A; Bout, R G

    1995-06-01

    The long term effects of amputation of the tip of the beak were studied in adult hens that were debeaked on the day of hatching, at the age of 8 d and at 6 wk, by EM analysis of fibre spectra of the medial branch of the ophthalmic nerve and of the intramandibular nerve. Three categories of fibre were distinguished for further analysis, i.e. unmyelinated axons, small myelinated fibres and large myelinated fibres. In normal birds the ophthalmic nerve contains relatively more large fibres than the intramandibular nerve. Amputation consistently results in a reduction of the number of large fibres and a substantial increase in the number of small myelinated fibres. The proportion of unmyelinated axons is rather variable, but is not affected by beak trimming. Age at debeaking has no effect. The observations are inconclusive concerning the possibility of heightened nociception.

  14. The medial septum acts through the medial preoptic area for thermoregulation and works with it for sleep regulation.

    PubMed

    Srividya, Rajagopalan; Mallick, Hruda Nanda; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan

    2007-01-01

    The chronic changes in sleep-wakefulness (S-W), body temperature (Tb), locomotor activity (LMA) and thermal preference were studied in male Wistar rats after the destruction of neurons in both the medial preoptic area (mPOA) and the medial septum (MS) by intracerebral injection of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid. An increase in the Tb, and a preference for higher ambient temperature (Tamb) of 30 degrees C were observed after the combined lesion of the mPOA and the MS. Similar changes were reported to occur after the lesion that was restricted to the mPOA. But these alterations were in contrast to the decrease in Tb and preference for lower Tamb, observed after the MS lesion. The thermostat of the brain would have been reset at a higher level after the combined lesion, as there was an increase in Tb, along with a preference for a higher Tamb, and an increase in LMA. There was a reduction in the frequency and the duration of the slow wave sleep (SWS) episodes, and a reduction in the frequency of the paradoxical sleep (PS) episodes after the combined lesion. The destruction of the MS neurons was probably responsible for the reduction in the frequency of SWS, whereas the loss of mPOA neurons was responsible for the decrease in the duration of SWS and frequency of PS. It can be suggested that the MS exerts its influence on thermoregulation through the mPOA. However, the MS and the mPOA seem to play independent, but complementary roles in sleep promotion.

  15. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Iliesiu, Luca; Kos, Filip; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S.; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2016-04-13

    In this study, we compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermionfermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. In addition, conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  16. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    SciTech Connect

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  17. Connections of the medial telencephalic wall in the spotted African Lungfish.

    PubMed

    Northcutt, R Glenn; Westhoff, Guido

    2011-01-01

    The extent and boundaries of the roof, or pallium, of the telencephalon in lungfishes have been debated for over 30 years, and two hypotheses exist. Proponents of a restricted pallium claim that the medial border of the pallium occurs in a dorsal position and that the entire medial hemispheric wall is formed by the septal nuclei. Proponents of an extended pallium claim that the medial border of the pallium occurs in a more ventral position and that the medial hemispheric wall is divided into a dorsal medial pallium and ventral septal nuclei, as in amphibians. Immunohistochemical data have generally been interpreted to support the hypothesis of an extended pallium, but disagreement still exists. To clarify the extent of the pallium in lungfishes, the connections of the dorsal and ventral divisions of the medial hemispheric wall in the Spotted African Lungfish were examined using a number of neuronal tracers. In amphibians and other tetrapods, the afferent projections to the medial pallium and the septal nuclei differ extensively, as do the commissural routes taken by decussating interhemispheric connections. Although the descending projections of the medial pallium and septal nuclei are very similar to one another in amphibians and other tetrapods, they do differ in that the septal nuclei and the ventral thalamus are extensively interlinked, whereas the medial pallium lacks such connections. These differences also characterize the connections of the dorsal and ventral divisions of the medial hemispheric wall in the Spotted African Lungfish, which supports the hypothesis of an extended pallium. The telencephalic organization in lungfishes thus appears remarkably similar to that in amphibians and reflects a pattern that almost certainly existed in the last common ancestor of lungfishes and tetrapods.

  18. Transcaruncular Approach for Treatment of Medial Wall and Large Orbital Blowout Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Dennis C.; Shahzad, Farooq; Snyder-Warwick, Alison; Patel, Kamlesh B.; Woo, Albert S.

    2015-01-01

    We evaluate the safety and efficacy of the transcaruncular approach for reconstruction of medial orbital wall fractures and the combined transcaruncular–transconjunctival approach for reconstruction of large orbital defects involving the medial wall and floor. A retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic data of patients who underwent either a transcaruncular or a combined transcaruncular–transconjunctival approach by a single surgeon for orbital fractures between June 2007 and June 2013 was undertaken. Seven patients with isolated medial wall fractures underwent a transcaruncular approach, and nine patients with combined medial wall and floor fractures underwent a transcaruncular–transconjunctival approach with a lateral canthotomy. Reconstruction was performed using a porous polyethylene implant. All patients with isolated medial wall fractures presented with enophthalmos. In the combined medial wall and floor group, five out of eight patients had enophthalmos with two also demonstrating hypoglobus. The size of the medial wall defect on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 cm2; the defect size of combined medial wall and floor fractures was 4.5 to 12.7 cm2. Of the 11 patients in whom postoperative CT scans were obtained, all were noted to have acceptable placement of the implant. All patients had correction of enophthalmos and hypoglobus. One complication was noted, with a retrobulbar hematoma having developed 2 days postoperatively. The transcaruncular approach is a safe and effective method for reconstruction of medial orbital floor fractures. Even large fractures involving the orbital medial wall and floor can be adequately exposed and reconstructed with a combined transcaruncular–transconjunctival-lateral canthotomy approach. The level of evidence of this study is IV (case series with pre/posttest). PMID:26889348

  19. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    DOEpatents

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  20. The Contingency of Cocaine Administration Accounts for Structural and Functional Medial Prefrontal Deficits and Increased Adrenocortical Activation

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel M.; Cosme, Caitlin V.; Glanz, Ryan M.; Miller, Mary C.; Romig-Martin, Sara A.; LaLumiere, Ryan T.

    2015-01-01

    The prelimbic region (PL) of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in the relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Optimal mPFC functioning relies on synaptic connections involving dendritic spines in pyramidal neurons, whereas prefrontal dysfunction resulting from elevated glucocorticoids, stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased apical dendritic branching and spine density in pyramidal neurons in these cortical fields. The fact that cocaine use induces activation of the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis raises the possibility that cocaine-related impairments in mPFC functioning may be manifested by similar changes in neuronal architecture in mPFC. Nevertheless, previous studies have generally identified increases, rather than decreases, in structural plasticity in mPFC after cocaine self-administration. Here, we use 3D imaging and analysis of dendritic spine morphometry to show that chronic cocaine self-administration leads to mild decreases of apical dendritic branching, prominent dendritic spine attrition in PL pyramidal neurons, and working memory deficits. Importantly, these impairments were largely accounted for in groups of rats that self-administered cocaine compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched counterparts. Follow-up experiments failed to demonstrate any effects of either experimenter-administered cocaine or food self-administration on structural alterations in PL neurons. Finally, we verified that the cocaine self-administration group was distinguished by more protracted increases in adrenocortical activity compared with yoked-cocaine- and saline-matched controls. These studies suggest a mechanism whereby increased adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic cocaine self-administration may contribute to regressive prefrontal structural and functional plasticity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Stress, aging, and mental illness are each linked to decreased prefrontal plasticity. Here, we show that chronic

  1. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  2. Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Title Sheet, National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  3. Quantification of the three-dimensional morphology of coincidence detector neurons in the medial superior olive of gerbils during late postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Rautenberg, Philipp L; Grothe, Benedikt; Felmy, Felix

    2009-11-20

    In the mammalian medial superior olive (MSO), neurons compute the azimuthal location of sound sources by temporally precise coincidence detection. It is assumed that the dendritic morphology of MSO neurons plays a crucial role in this computational process. However, few quantitative data about the morphology of these neuronal coincidence detectors are available, limiting theoretical approaches. Such a quantitative morphological description of neurons of the mammalian MSO would also allow a comparative analysis with its avian analog, the nucleus laminaris. We used single-cell electroporation, microscopic reconstruction, and compartmentalization to extract anatomical parameters of MSO neurons and quantitatively describe their morphology and development between postnatal day 9 and 36. We found that developmental refinement occurs until P27, generating morphologically compact, cylinder-like cells with axons originating from the soma. The complexity of higher order dendrites decreases between postnatal days 9 and 21. This decrease in dendritic complexity is judged from counting and analyzing the location of dendritic branches and determining the distribution of the surface area and total length of neurons. During this developmental period, the average length of terminal branches increases about twofold, indicating an elimination of predominantly small branches. The cell volume increases more than 1.5-fold between P9 and P27, a change that can be attributed to an increase in dendritic diameter during this developmental period. The developmental profile of the morphology of MSO neurons obtained indicates that maturation is reached 2 weeks after hearing onset.

  4. Northwestern Branch of Mangala Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 12 June 2002) The Science One of the many branches of the Mangala Vallis channel system is seen in this image. The water that likely carved the channels emerged from a huge graben or fracture almost 1000 km to the south. The THEMIS image shows where one of the channels exits the cratered highlands terrain onto the lowland plains. A bright scarp marks the transition between the two terrain types and demonstrates that in this location the highlands terrain is being eroded back. Note how the floor of the main channel appears to be at the same level as the lowland terrain, suggestive of a base level where erosion is no longer effective. Most of the steep slope faces in the image display darker slope streaks that are thought to be dust avalanche scars and indicate that a relatively thick mantle of dust is present in this region. Wind-sculpted ridges known as yardangs cover many of the surfaces throughout the area as shown by images from the Mars Global Surveyor mission. Most of them are at the limit of resolution in the THEMIS image but some are evident on the floor of the main channel at the point at which a smaller side channel enters. In this location they appear to extend right up to the base of the channel wall, giving the appearance that they are emerging from underneath the thick pile of material into which the channel is eroded. This suggests a geologic history in which a preexisting landscape of eroded yardangs was covered over by a thick pile of younger material that is now eroding back down to the original level. Alternatively, it is possible that the yardangs formed more recently at the abrupt transition between the channel floor and wall. More analysis is necessary to sort out the story. The Story This channel system is named 'Mangala,' the word for Mars in Sanskrit, a language of the Hindus of India that goes back more than 4,000 years, with written literature almost as long. Great epic tales have been written in this language, and Odyssey is

  5. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; Wang, Junpu

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T] also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.

  6. Eikonalization of conformal blocks

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Walters, Matthew T.; ...

    2015-09-03

    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the t-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the 'eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator T appears in the OPE Ο(x)Ο(0), then the large spin Fock space states [TT···T]ℓ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an correlator build the classical 'T field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock spacemore » exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single T exchange in the 4-pt correlator of O. Our results should be useful for systematizing 1/ℓ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading log ℓ dependence of Fock space conformal block coefficients, and we directly compute the OPE coefficients of the simplest ‘triple-trace’ operators.« less

  7. Solar power building block

    SciTech Connect

    Charlton, W.T.

    1982-04-20

    A building unit for exterior walls and the like comprising a molded block of glass having a recess in the side face which is to face the exterior, the recess having a side wall and an open outer end on which a fresnel lens is disposed, the inner end of the recess having a solar cell disposed therein so that sunlight passing through the fresnel lens impinges on the solar cell for the generation of electric power together with a battery disposed within a cavity molded in the block connected by a circuit to the solar cell for storing the generated electric power for subsequent use as needed in a residence or the like. A further embodiment has attached to the interior wall a black painted duct containing vertical radiant fins. This unit contains a ''window'' through which the concentrated radiation is directed by the lens arrangement of the side walls and front lens to create a highly energetic radiant impingement upon the black duct heating it. Air flowing vertically in the duct is used for heating of interior air or removal of superheated interior air by using the force of the rising air for an '' air cooling'' effect.

  8. Characterizing Variation of Branch Angle and Genome-Wide Association Mapping in Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Wenxiang; Mei, Desheng; Wang, Hui; Fu, Li; Liu, Daoming; Li, Yunchang; Hu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the rapeseed branch angle alter plant architecture, allowing more efficient light capture as planting density increases. In this study, a natural population of rapeseed was grown in three environments and evaluated for branch angle trait to characterize their phenotypic patterns and genotype with a 60K Brassica Infinium SNP array. Significant phenotypic variation was observed from 20 to 70°. As a result, 25 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with branch angle were identified on chromosomes A2, A3, A7, C3, C5, and C7 by the MLM model in TASSEL 4.0. Orthologs of the functional candidate genes involved in branch angle were identified. Among the key QTL, the peak SNPs were close to the key orthologous genes BnaA.Lazy1 and BnaC.Lazy1 on A3 and C3 homologous genome blocks. With the exception of Lazy (LA) orthologous genes, SQUMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 14 (SPL14) and an auxin-responsive GRETCHEN HAGEN 3 (GH3) genes from Arabidopsis thaliana were identified close to two clusters of SNPs on the A7 and C7 chromosomes. These findings on multiple novel loci and candidate genes of branch angle will be useful for further understanding and genetic improvement of plant architecture in rapeseed. PMID:26870051

  9. Nerve blocks for chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Salim M; Shah, Atit

    2014-10-01

    Nerve blocks are often performed as therapeutic or palliative interventions for pain relief. However, they are often performed for diagnostic or prognostic purposes. When considering nerve blocks for chronic pain, clinicians must always consider the indications, risks, benefits, and proper technique. Nerve blocks encompass a wide variety of interventional procedures. The most common nerve blocks for chronic pain and that may be applicable to the neurosurgical patient population are reviewed in this article. This article is an introduction and brief synopsis of the different available blocks that can be offered to a patient.

  10. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi

    2007-12-01

    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  11. Changes in cochlear mechanics during vocalization: evidence for a phasic medial efferent effect.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, R L; Henson, O W

    1998-08-01

    The mustached bat, Pteronotus p. parnellii, has a finely tuned cochlea that rings at its resonant frequency in response to an acoustic tone pip. The decay time (DT) and frequency of these damped oscillations can be measured from the cochlear microphonic potential (CM) to study changes in cochlear mechanics. In this report, we describe phasic changes that occur in synchrony with communication sound vocalizations of the bat. Three animals with chronically implanted electrodes were studied. During the experiments, 1-2 ms tone pips were emitted from a speaker every 200 ms. This triggered a computer analysis of the resulting CM to determine the DT and cochlear resonance frequency (CRF) of the ringing. The time relative to vocalizations was determined by monitoring the output of a microphone placed near a bat's mouth. Similar results were obtained from all three bats tested. In a representative case, the average DT was 2.33 +/- 0.25 ms while the bat was quiet, but it decreased by 46% to 1.26 +/- 0.75 during vocalizations, which indicates a greater damping of the cochlear partition. Sometimes, DT started decreasing immediately before the bat vocalized. After the end of a vocalization, the return to baseline values varied from rapid (milliseconds) to gradual (1-2 seconds). The CRF also changed from baseline values during vocalization, although the amount and direction of change were not predictable. When gentamicin was administered to block the action of medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferents, DT reduction was still evident during vocalization but less pronounced. We conclude that phasic changes in damping occur in synchrony with vocalization, and that the MOC system plays a role in causing suppression. Since suppression can begin prior to vocalization, this may be a synkinetic effect, mediated by neural outflow to the ear in synchrony with neural outflow to the middle ear muscles and the muscles used for vocalization.

  12. Cannabinoid modulation of alpha2 adrenergic receptor function in rodent medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Cathel, Alessandra M.; Reyes, Beverly A. S.; Wang, Qin; Palma, Jonathan; Mackie, Kenneth; Bockstaele, Elisabeth J. Van; Kirby, Lynn G.

    2014-01-01

    Endocannabinoids acting at the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1R) are known to regulate attention, cognition and mood. Previous studies have shown that, in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CB1R agonists increase norepinephrine release, an effect that may be attributed, in part, to CB1Rs localized to noradrenergic axon terminals. The present study was aimed at further characterizing functional interactions between CB1R and adrenergic receptor (AR) systems in the mPFC using in-vitro intracellular electrophysiology and high-resolution neuroanatomical techniques. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of layer V/VI cortical pyramidal neurons in rats revealed that both acute and chronic treatment with the synthetic CB1R agonist WIN 55,212-2 blocked elevations in cortical pyramidal cell excitability and increases in input resistance evoked by the α2-adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonist clonidine, suggesting a desensitization of α2-ARs. These CB1R–α2-AR interactions were further shown to be both action potential- and gamma-aminobutyric acid-independent. To better define sites of cannabinoid–AR interactions, we localized α2A-ARs in a genetically modified mouse that expressed a hemoagglutinin (HA) tag downstream of the α2A-AR promoter. Light and electron microscopy indicated that HA-α2A-AR was distributed in axon terminals and somatodendritic processes especially in layer V of the mPFC. Triple-labeling immunocytochemistry revealed that α2A-AR and CB1R were localized to processes that contained dopamine-β-hydroxylase, a marker of norepinephrine. Furthermore, HA-α2A-AR was localized to processes that were directly apposed to CB1R. These findings suggest multiple sites of interaction between cortical cannabinoid–adrenergic systems that may contribute to understanding the effect of cannabinoids on executive functions and mood. PMID:25131562

  13. Effects of different medial arch support heights on rearfoot kinematics

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, Frank; Baur, Heiner

    2017-01-01

    Background Foot orthoses are usually assumed to be effective by optimizing mechanically dynamic rearfoot configuration. However, the effect from a foot orthosis on kinematics that has been demonstrated scientifically has only been marginal. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of different heights in medial arch-supported foot orthoses on rear foot motion during gait. Methods Nineteen asymptomatic runners (36±11years, 180±5cm, 79±10kg; 41±22km/week) participated in the study. Trials were recorded at 3.1 mph (5 km/h) on a treadmill. Athletes walked barefoot and with 4 different not customized medial arch-supported foot orthoses of various arch heights (N:0 mm, M:30 mm, H:35 mm, E:40mm). Six infrared cameras and the `Oxford Foot Model´ were used to capture motion. The average stride in each condition was calculated from 50 gait cycles per condition. Eversion excursion and internal tibia rotation were analyzed. Descriptive statistics included calculating the mean ± SD and 95% CIs. Group differences by condition were analyzed by one factor (foot orthoses) repeated measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). Results Eversion excursion revealed the lowest values for N and highest for H (B:4.6°±2.2°; 95% CI [3.1;6.2]/N:4.0°±1.7°; [2.9;5.2]/M:5.2°±2.6°; [3.6;6.8]/H:6.2°±3.3°; [4.0;8.5]/E:5.1°±3.5°; [2.8;7.5]) (p>0.05). Range of internal tibia rotation was lowest with orthosis H and highest with E (B:13.3°±3.2°; 95% CI [11.0;15.6]/N:14.5°±7.2°; [9.2;19.6]/M:13.8°±5.0°; [10.8;16.8]/H:12.3°±4.3°; [9.0;15.6]/E:14.9°±5.0°; [11.5;18.3]) (p>0.05). Differences between conditions were small and the intrasubject variation high. Conclusion Our results indicate that different arch support heights have no systematic effect on eversion excursion or the range of internal tibia rotation and therefore might not exert a crucial influence on rear foot alignment during gait. PMID:28257426

  14. Location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Nam, Yong Seok; Han, Seung Ho; Kim, Dae Joong

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the precise anatomic location and tension of the medial palpebral ligament (MPL). Eleven hemifaces of 10 fresh Korean adult cadavers were used in this study. Nine specimens were used for measurement of dissection and tension, and 2 were used for histologic study. Measurements of tensile strength of each part of the MPL and Horner muscle were performed using a force gauge.The MPL consisted of 2 layers in all specimens dissected. The superficial layer of the palpebral ligament (SMPL) was observed from the anterior lacrimal crest to the upper and lower tarsal plates. The deep layer of the palpebral ligament (DMPL) lay from the anterior lacrimal crest to the posterior lacrimal crest, covering the lacrimal sac. The Horner muscle was observed at the posterior lacrimal crest just lateral to the attachment of the DMPL and ran laterally to the tarsal plate deep to the SMPL. The SMPL began at 4.5 ± 2.3 mm lateral to the nasomaxillary suture line to the upper and lower tarsal plates. Its transverse length was 9.6 ± 1.5 mm, and vertical width was 2.4 ± 0.7 mm, and its thickness was 4.5 ± 2.3 mm. The transverse length of the DMPL was 3.7 ± 0.4 mm, and its vertical width was 2.9 ± 1.3 mm, with a thickness of 0.3 ± 0.1 mm. The transverse length of the Horner muscle was 7.6 ± 1.9 mm, and its vertical width was 4.06 ± 1.5 mm, with a thickness of 0.4 ± 0.1 mm. The tensile strength of the SMPL was 13.4 ± 3.2 N, that of the DMPL was 4.1 ± 1.7 N, and that for Horner muscle was 9.0 ± 3.1 N. The tensile strength of the SMPL was significantly higher than that of the DMPL (P = 0.003).We reconfirmed that the MPL consisted of 2 layers: superficial layer and deep layer. Our results might be of use in surgeries of the medial canthi.

  15. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  16. Block loss for ATM video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Sze K.; Leon-Garcia, Alberto

    1993-10-01

    In BISDN, the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) requires all information to be represented as a sequence of standard data units called cells. Cell los is inherent in ATM networks due to the cell header corruption and buffer overflow in the network. Several studies have shown that cell losses are bursty for an ATM network. In this work, we encoded real video sequences with a variable bit-rate (VBR) version of the H.261 video encoder in order for us to determine the relationship between blocks in a video frame and the number of ATM cells generated. We then considered the impact of bursty cell losses on image block loss probability. Block loss distributions are given at different codec and channel parameters. We also obtained block loss results using a cell loss correction scheme. Three sequences were analyzed to obtain the cumulative block loss probability distribution. Similar maximum and minimum block loss probability values were obtained for each sequence. The block loss probability distribution varies according to the amount and type of motion present in each sequence. We show that the block loss is confined to one group of blocks (GOB). The maximum block loss probability can be two orders of magnitude larger than the channel cell loss probability. By using the cell loss correction scheme, block loss was reduced to a level equivalent to reducing cell loss probability by five orders of magnitude.

  17. Metabolic Reprogramming by Hexosamine Biosynthetic and Golgi N-Glycan Branching Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Ryczko, Michael C.; Pawling, Judy; Chen, Rui; Abdel Rahman, Anas M.; Yau, Kevin; Copeland, Julia K.; Zhang, Cunjie; Surendra, Anu; Guttman, David S.; Figeys, Daniel; Dennis, James W.

    2016-01-01

    De novo uridine-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) biosynthesis requires glucose, glutamine, acetyl-CoA and uridine, however GlcNAc salvaged from glycoconjugate turnover and dietary sources also makes a significant contribution to the intracellular pool. Herein we ask whether dietary GlcNAc regulates nutrient transport and intermediate metabolism in C57BL/6 mice by increasing UDP-GlcNAc and in turn Golgi N-glycan branching. GlcNAc added to the drinking water showed a dose-dependent increase in growth of young mice, while in mature adult mice fat and body-weight increased without affecting calorie-intake, activity, energy expenditure, or the microbiome. Oral GlcNAc increased hepatic UDP-GlcNAc and N-glycan branching on hepatic glycoproteins. Glucose homeostasis, hepatic glycogen, lipid metabolism and response to fasting were altered with GlcNAc treatment. In cultured cells GlcNAc enhanced uptake of glucose, glutamine and fatty-acids, and enhanced lipid synthesis, while inhibition of Golgi N-glycan branching blocked GlcNAc-dependent lipid accumulation. The N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase enzymes of the N-glycan branching pathway (Mgat1,2,4,5) display multistep ultrasensitivity to UDP-GlcNAc, as well as branching-dependent compensation. Indeed, oral GlcNAc rescued fat accumulation in lean Mgat5−/− mice and in cultured Mgat5−/− hepatocytes, consistent with N-glycan branching compensation. Our results suggest GlcNAc reprograms cellular metabolism by enhancing nutrient uptake and lipid storage through the UDP-GlcNAc supply to N-glycan branching pathway. PMID:26972830

  18. Orbital hematoma caused by bleeding from orbital branch of the infraorbital artery after reconstruction of an orbital fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Joo Ho; Kang, Young Hye

    2014-03-01

    We experienced and report on a case of retrobulbar hematoma caused by bleeding from the orbital branch of the infraorbital artery after a medial orbital wall reconstruction.A healthy 28-year-old man struck his left eye while playing baseball before admission. A computed tomographic scan revealed an approximately 13 × 12-mm-sized fracture of the left orbit medial wall. The medial orbit wall was reconstructed through a subciliary approach on the 18th day after the injury. Approximately 15 hours after the orbit wall reconstruction, the patient complained of pain in the left orbital area, headache, and vomiting. Upon an examination, swelling and ecchymosis were observed on the left eye. His visual acuity was 0.8 (oculus dexter [OD])/0.4 (oculus sinister [OS]) and the intraocular pressure was 18 (OD)/24 (OS) mm Hg by a Goldmann applanation tonometry. A computed tomographic scan showed an intraorbital hematoma and proptosis on the left side. In an emergency operation, a hematoma with a volume of approximately 2 to 3 mL was evacuated and an active bleeding point was noted on the orbital floor, which was thought to be the orbital branch of the infraorbital nerve. The bleeding point was cauterized. After the operation, his visual acuity was 1.0 (OD)/0.8 (OS) and the ocular pressure normalized to 16 (OD)/16 (OS) mm Hg by a Goldmann applanation tonometry.Close observation and meticulous hemostasis along the infraorbital groove may be needed in an orbital floor exploration to prevent postoperative orbital hematoma.

  19. Editorial Commentary: Chondrocytes Trump Ligaments! Partial Release of the Medial Collateral Ligament During Knee Arthroscopy Protects Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Leland, J Martin

    2016-10-01

    With knee arthroscopy being the most common orthopaedic procedure performed in the United States, it is crucial to be able to access the entire knee without iatrogenic injury. Frequently orthopaedic surgeons encounter tight medial compartments, creating difficulty in accessing the posterior horn of the medial meniscus without damaging the articular cartilage. Partial release of the medial collateral ligament during knee arthroscopy protects chondrocytes.

  20. The effects of thermal capsulorrhaphy of medial parapatellar capsule on patellar lateral displacement

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Naiquan; Davis, Brent R; Andrews, James R

    2008-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of thermal shrinkage on the medial parapatellar capsule for treating recurrent patellar dislocation is controversial. One of reasons why it is still controversial is that the effectiveness is still qualitatively measured. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively determine the immediate effectiveness of the medial parapatellar capsule shrinkage as in clinical setting. Methods Nine cadaveric knees were used to collect lateral displacement data before and after medial shrinkage or open surgery. The force and displacement were recorded while a physician pressed the patella from the medial side to mimic the physical exam used in clinic. Ten healthy subjects were used to test the feasibility of the technique on patients and establish normal range of lateral displacement of the patella under a medial force. The force applied, the resulting displacement and the ratio of force over displacement were compared among four data groups (normal knees, cadaveric knees before medial shrinkage, after shrinkage and after open surgery). Results Displacements of the cadaveric knees both before and after thermal modification were similar to normal subjects, and the applied forces were significantly higher. No significant differences were found between before and after thermal modification groups. After open surgery, displacements were reduced significantly while applied forces were significantly higher. Conclusion No immediate difference was found after thermal shrinkage of the medial parapatellar capsule. Open surgery immediately improved of the lateral stiffness of the knee capsule. PMID:18826583

  1. Technical activities of the configuration aeroelasticity branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Stanley R. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    A number of recent technical activities of the Configuration Aeroelasticity Branch of the NASA Langley Research Center are discussed in detail. The information on the research branch is compiled in twelve separate papers. The first of these topics is a summary of the purpose of the branch, including a full description of the branch and its associated projects and program efforts. The next ten papers cover specific projects and are as follows: Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations; Aeroelastic effects of spoiler surfaces mounted on a low aspect ratio rectangular wing; Planform curvature effects on flutter of 56 degree swept wing determined in Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT); An introduction to rotorcraft testing in TDT; Rotorcraft vibration reduction research at the TDT; A preliminary study to determine the effects of tip geometry on the flutter of aft swept wings; Aeroelastic models program; NACA 0012 pressure model and test plan; Investigation of the use of extension twist coupling in composite rotor blades; and Improved finite element methods for rotorcraft structures. The final paper describes the primary facility operation by the branch, the Langley TDT.

  2. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees.

    PubMed

    Theckes, B; Langre, E de; Boutillon, X

    2011-12-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration due to their flexibility which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is identified here and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shaped branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being dissipated in one oscillation. This concept of damping-by-branching is of simple practical use in the design of very slender and flexible structures subjected to extreme dynamical loadings.

  3. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Graham J.; Parkes, Matthew J.; Forsythe, Laura.; Felson, David T.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three‐dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 33:1646–1654, 2015. PMID:25991385

  4. The effect of different types of insoles or shoe modifications on medial loading of the knee in persons with medial knee osteoarthritis: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Jones, Richard K; Chapman, Graham J; Parkes, Matthew J; Forsythe, Laura; Felson, David T

    2015-11-01

    Many conservative treatments exist for medial knee osteoarthritis (OA) which aims to reduce the external knee adduction moment (EKAM). The objective of this study was to determine the difference between different shoes and lateral wedge insoles on EKAM, knee adduction angular impulse (KAAI), external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort when walking in individuals with medial knee OA. Seventy individuals with medial knee OA underwent three-dimensional walking gait analysis in five conditions (barefoot, control shoe, typical wedge, supported wedge, and mobility shoe) with pain and comfort recorded concurrently. The change in EKAM, KAAI, external knee flexion moment, pain, and comfort were assessed using multiple linear regressions and pairwise comparisons. Compared with the control shoe, lateral wedge insoles and barefoot walking significantly reduced early stance EKAM and KAAI. The mobility shoe showed no effect. A significant reduction in latter stance EKAM was seen in the lateral wedge insoles compared to the other conditions, with only the barefoot condition reducing the external knee flexion moment. However, the mobility shoe showed significant immediate knee pain reduction and improved comfort scores. Different lateral wedge insoles show comparable reductions in medial knee loading and in our study, the mobility shoe did not affect medial loading.

  5. Radiation Blocking Lenses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Biomedical Optical Company of America's Eagle 475 lens absorbs 100 percent of all photowavelengths considered hazardous to eye tissue, including ultraviolet and blue light, which are considered contributors to cataract and age-related macular degeneration. The lens absorbs hazardous wavelengths, but allows a higher percentage of visually useful areas of the spectrum to pass through. Polarization blocks out irritating glint and glare and heightens visual acuity. The Eagle 475 sunglasses are the latest in a series of spinoffs that originated at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory where two scientists developed a protective, welding curtain that filtered out harmful irradiance. The result was a commercial curtain that absorbs filters and scatters light, providing protection for personnel in welding areas. Further research focused on protective industrial glasses and later on consumer products.

  6. Atomic Basic Blocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  7. Baroplastic Block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewlett, Sheldon A.

    2005-03-01

    Block copolymers with rubbery and glassy components have been observed to have pressure induced miscibility. These microphase-separated materials, termed baroplastics, were able to flow and be processed at temperatures below the Tg of the glassy component by simple compression molding and extrusion. Diblock and triblock copolymers of polystyrene and poly(butyl acrylate) or poly(2-ethyl hexyl acrylate) were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and processed at room temperature into well defined transparent objects. SAXS and SANS measurements demonstrated partial mixing between components as a result of pressure during processing. DSC results also show the presence of distinct domains even after several processing cycles. Their mechanical properties after processing were tested and compared with commercial thermoplastic elastomers.

  8. Correlation between the knee adduction torque and medial contact force for a variety of gait patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Banks, Scott A; Mitchell, Kim H; D'Lima, Darryl D; Colwell, Clifford W; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2007-06-01

    The external knee adduction torque has been proposed as a surrogate measure for medial compartment load during gait. However, a direct link between these two quantities has not been demonstrated using in vivo measurement of medial compartment load. This study uses in vivo data collected from a single subject with an instrumented knee implant to evaluate this link. The subject performed five different overground gait motions (normal, fast, slow, wide, and toe-out) with simultaneous collection of instrumented implant, video motion, and ground reaction data. For each trial, the knee adduction torque was measured externally while the total axial force applied to the tibial insert was measured internally. Based on data collected from the same subject performing treadmill gait under fluoroscopic motion analysis, a regression equation was developed to calculate medial contact force from the implant load cell measurements. Correlation analyses were performed for the stance phase and entire gait cycle to quantify the relationship between the knee adduction torque and both the medial contact force and the medial to total contact force ratio. When the entire gait cycle was analyzed, R(2) for medial contact force was 0.77 when all gait trials were analyzed together and between 0.69 and 0.93 when each gait trial was analyzed separately (p < 0.001 in all cases). For medial to total force ratio, R(2) was 0.69 for all trials together and between 0.54 and 0.90 for each trial separately (p < 0.001 in all cases). When only the stance phase was analyzed, R(2) values were slightly lower. These results support the hypothesis that the knee adduction torque is highly correlated with medial compartment contact force and medial to total force ratio during gait.

  9. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  10. The Necessity of the Medial Temporal Lobe for Statistical Learning

    PubMed Central

    Schapiro, Anna C.; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    The sensory input that we experience is highly patterned, and we are experts at detecting these regularities. Although the extraction of such regularities, or statistical learning (SL), is typically viewed as a cortical process, recent studies have implicated the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus. These studies have employed fMRI, leaving open the possibility that the MTL is involved but not necessary for SL. Here, we examined this issue in a case study of LSJ, a patient with complete bilateral hippocampal loss and broader MTL damage. In Experiments 1 and 2, LSJ and matched control participants were passively exposed to a continuous sequence of shapes, syllables, scenes, or tones containing temporal regularities in the co-occurrence of items. In a subsequent test phase, the control groups exhibited reliable SL in all conditions, successfully discriminating regularities from recombinations of the same items into novel foil sequences. LSJ, however, exhibited no SL, failing to discriminate regularities from foils. Experiment 3 ruled out more general explanations for this failure, such as inattention during exposure or difficulty following test instructions, by showing that LSJ could discriminate which individual items had been exposed. These findings provide converging support for the importance of the MTL in extracting temporal regularities. PMID:24456393

  11. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W; Woods, Adam J; Gajewski, Daniel A; Arthur, Joeanna C; Potolicchio, Samuel J; Levy, Lucien; Caputy, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere) walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  12. Medial efferent mechanisms in children with auditory processing disorders.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K

    2014-01-01

    Auditory processing disorder (APD) affects about 2-5% of children. However, the nature of this disorder is poorly understood. Children with APD typically have difficulties in complex listening situations. One mechanism thought to aid in listening-in-noise is the medial olivocochlear (MOC) inhibition. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze the published data on MOC inhibition in children with APD to determine whether the MOC efferents are involved in these individuals. The otoacoustic emission (OAE) methods used to assay MOC reflex were examined in the context of the current understanding of OAE generation mechanisms. Relevant literature suggests critical differences in the study population and OAE methods. Variables currently known to influence MOC reflex measurements, for example, middle-ear muscle reflexes or OAE signal-to-noise ratio, were not controlled in most studies. The use of potentially weaker OAE methods and the remarkable heterogeneity across studies does not allow for a definite conclusion whether or not the MOC reflex is altered in children with APD. Further carefully designed studies are needed to confirm the involvement of MOC efferents in APD. Knowledge of efferent functioning in children with APD would be mechanistically and clinically beneficial.

  13. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex in social categorization.

    PubMed

    Molenberghs, Pascal; Morrison, Samantha

    2014-03-01

    Group membership is an important aspect of our everyday behavior. Recently, we showed that existing relevant in-group labels increased activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) compared with out-group labels, suggesting a role of the MPFC in social categorization. However, the question still remains whether this increase in MPFC activation for in-group representation is solely related with previous experience with the in-group. To test this, we randomly assigned participants to a red or blue team and in a subsequent functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment they categorized red and blue team words as belonging to either the in-group or the out-group. Results showed that even under these minimal conditions increased activation was found in the MPFC when participants indicated that they belonged to a group, as compared with when they did not. This effect was found to be associated with the level of group identification. These results confirm the role of MPFC in social categorization.

  14. Decoding Representations of Scenes in the Medial Temporal Lobes

    PubMed Central

    Bonnici, Heidi M; Kumaran, Dharshan; Chadwick, Martin J; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Hassabis, Demis; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2012-01-01

    Recent theoretical perspectives have suggested that the function of the human hippocampus, like its rodent counterpart, may be best characterized in terms of its information processing capacities. In this study, we use a combination of high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging, multivariate pattern analysis, and a simple decision making task, to test specific hypotheses concerning the role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in scene processing. We observed that while information that enabled two highly similar scenes to be distinguished was widely distributed throughout the MTL, more distinct scene representations were present in the hippocampus, consistent with its role in performing pattern separation. As well as viewing the two similar scenes, during scanning participants also viewed morphed scenes that spanned a continuum between the original two scenes. We found that patterns of hippocampal activity during morph trials, even when perceptual inputs were held entirely constant (i.e., in 50% morph trials), showed a robust relationship with participants' choices in the decision task. Our findings provide evidence for a specific computational role for the hippocampus in sustaining detailed representations of complex scenes, and shed new light on how the information processing capacities of the hippocampus may influence the decision making process. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:21656874

  15. Medial temporal lobe damage impairs representation of simple stimuli.

    PubMed

    Warren, David E; Duff, Melissa C; Tranel, Daniel; Cohen, Neal J

    2010-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage in humans is typically thought to produce a circumscribed impairment in the acquisition of new enduring memories, but recent reports have documented deficits even in short-term maintenance. We examined possible maintenance deficits in a population of MTL amnesics, with the goal of characterizing their impairments as either representational drift or outright loss of representation over time. Patients and healthy comparisons performed a visual search task in which the similarity of various lures to a target was varied parametrically. Stimuli were simple shapes varying along one of several visual dimensions. The task was performed in two conditions, one presenting a sample target simultaneously with the search array and the other imposing a delay between sample and array. Eye-movement data collected during search revealed that the duration of fixations to items varied with lure-target similarity for all participants, i.e., fixations were longer for items more similar to the target. In the simultaneous condition, patients and comparisons exhibited an equivalent effect of similarity on fixation durations. However, imposing a delay modulated the effect differently for the two groups: in comparisons, fixation duration to similar items was exaggerated; in patients, the original effect was diminished. These findings indicate that MTL lesions subtly impair short-term maintenance of even simple stimuli, with performance reflecting not the complete loss of the maintained representation but rather a degradation or progressive drift of the representation over time.

  16. Structural development and dorsoventral maturation of the medial entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ray, Saikat; Brecht, Michael

    2016-04-02

    We investigated the structural development of superficial-layers of medial entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum in rats. The grid-layout and cholinergic-innervation of calbindin-positive pyramidal-cells in layer-2 emerged around birth while reelin-positive stellate-cells were scattered throughout development. Layer-3 and parasubiculum neurons had a transient calbindin-expression, which declined with age. Early postnatally, layer-2 pyramidal but not stellate-cells co-localized with doublecortin - a marker of immature neurons - suggesting delayed functional-maturation of pyramidal-cells. Three observations indicated a dorsal-to-ventral maturation of entorhinal cortex and parasubiculum: (i) calbindin-expression in layer-3 neurons decreased progressively from dorsal-to-ventral, (ii) doublecortin in layer-2 calbindin-positive-patches disappeared dorsally before ventrally, and (iii) wolframin-expression emerged earlier in dorsal than ventral parasubiculum. The early appearance of calbindin-pyramidal-grid-organization in layer-2 suggests that this pattern is instructed by genetic information rather than experience. Superficial-layer-microcircuits mature earlier in dorsal entorhinal cortex, where small spatial-scales are represented. Maturation of ventral-entorhinal-microcircuits - representing larger spatial-scales - follows later around the onset of exploratory behavior.

  17. Single-cell recordings in the human medial temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Hernan G; Ison, Matias J; Pedreira, Carlos; Valentin, Antonio; Alarcon, Gonzalo; Selway, Richard; Richardson, Mark P; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Recordings from individual neurons in patients who are implanted with depth electrodes for clinical reasons have opened the possibility to narrow down the gap between neurophysiological studies in animals and non-invasive (e.g. functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, magnetoencephalography) investigations in humans. Here we provide a description of the main procedures for electrode implantation and recordings, the experimental paradigms used and the main steps for processing the data. We also present key characteristics of the so-called ‘concept cells’, neurons in the human medial temporal lobe with selective and invariant responses that represent the meaning of the stimulus, and discuss their proposed role in declarative memory. Finally, we present novel results dealing with the stability of the representation given by these neurons, by studying the effect of stimulus repetition in the strength of the responses. In particular, we show that, after an initial decay, the response strength reaches an asymptotic value after approximately 15 presentations that remains above baseline for the whole duration of the experiment. PMID:25163775

  18. Basket-Weave Technique for Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kodkani, Pranjal S.

    2015-01-01

    The anatomy of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been well defined, with parts of its uppermost fibers having a soft-tissue insertion onto the vastus intermedius. Bone tunnels and implants on the patellar side therefore cannot replicate this anatomic construct precisely. Because of implants and tunnels, complications have been reported with bone tunnel fracture. Similarly, on the femoral side, rigid fixation with implants can result in over-constraint with compromised results. Moreover, bone tunnels cannot be used in skeletally immature cases. To overcome issues related to bone tunneling and implants, as well as to reconstruct the MPFL in a precise anatomic manner, an all–soft-tissue fixation technique was devised. Bony landmarks were used as reference points instead of radiologic markers to achieve a more precise construct and to eliminate intraoperative radiography. Hamstring graft was used to reconstruct the MPFL. Special suturing techniques were used to achieve optimal graft fixation with minimal suture knots. A special tissue elevator–suture passer device was designed to facilitate graft passage and ease in performing the procedure. This technique permits differential tensioning, and therefore one achieves stability throughout the range of motion. PMID:26258044

  19. Behavioral control, the medial prefrontal cortex, and resilience

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Steven F.; Amat, Jose; Baratta, Michael V.; Paul, Evan; Watkins, Linda R.

    2006-01-01

    The degree of control that an organism has over a stressor potently modulates the impact of the stressor, with uncontrollable stressors producing a constellation of outcomes that do not occur if the stressor is behaviorally controllable. It has generally been assumed that this occurs because uncontrollability actively potentiates the effects of stressors. Here it will be suggested that in addition, or instead, the presence of control actively inhibits the impact of stressors. At least in part this occurs because (i) the presence of control is detected by regions of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFCv); and (ii) detection of control activates mPFCv output to stress-responsive brain stem and limbic structures that actively inhibit stress-induced activation of these structures, Furthermore, an initial experience with control over stress alters the mPFCv response to subsequent stressors so that mPFCv output is activated even if the subsequent stressor is uncontrollable, thereby making the organism resilient. The general implications of these results for understanding resilience in the face of adversity are discussed. PMID:17290798

  20. Correlating Function and Imaging Measures of the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus

    PubMed Central

    Sakaie, Ken; Takahashi, Masaya; Remington, Gina; Wang, Xiaofeng; Conger, Amy; Conger, Darrel; Dimitrov, Ivan; Jones, Stephen; Frohman, Ashley; Frohman, Teresa; Sagiyama, Koji; Togao, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test the validity of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measures of tissue injury by examining such measures in a white matter structure with well-defined function, the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF). Injury to the MLF underlies internuclear ophthalmoparesis (INO). Methods 40 MS patients with chronic INO and 15 healthy controls were examined under an IRB-approved protocol. Tissue integrity of the MLF was characterized by DTI parameters: longitudinal diffusivity (LD), transverse diffusivity (TD), mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA). Severity of INO was quantified by infrared oculography to measure versional disconjugacy index (VDI). Results LD was significantly lower in patients than in controls in the medulla-pons region of the MLF (p < 0.03). FA was also lower in patients in the same region (p < 0.0004). LD of the medulla-pons region correlated with VDI (R = -0.28, p < 0.05) as did FA in the midbrain section (R = 0.31, p < 0.02). Conclusions This study demonstrates that DTI measures of brain tissue injury can detect injury to a functionally relevant white matter pathway, and that such measures correlate with clinically accepted evaluation indices for INO. The results validate DTI as a useful imaging measure of tissue integrity. PMID:26800522