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Sample records for medial longitudinal fasciculus

  1. [Medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome in a patient with giant cell arteritis].

    PubMed

    Uenaka, Takeshi; Hamaguchi, Hirotoshi; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Kowa, Hisatomo; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2015-01-01

    A 76-year-old female was referred to our department because of diplopia for two months and intermittent claudication for five months. She showed medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome. Brain MRI (T2WI) showed multiple infarctions in the right pontine tegmentum and left paramedian midbrain. A biopsy of superficial temporal artery showed the characteristic findings of glanulomatous inflammation indicative of giant cell arteritis. We thought the mechanism of this cerebral infarction as artery to artery embolization or intracranial arteritis. Treatment with oral prednisolone (1 mg/kg/day) improved her limb claudication and normalized serum C-reactive protein level.

  2. Does the Left Inferior Longitudinal Fasciculus Play a Role in Language? A Brain Stimulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Nouet, Aurelien; Gatignol, Peggy; Capelle, Laurent; Duffau, Hugues

    2007-01-01

    Although advances in diffusion tensor imaging have enabled us to better study the anatomy of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), its function remains poorly understood. Recently, it was suggested that the subcortical network subserving the language semantics could be constituted, in parallel with the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus, by…

  3. Distinct contributions of the fornix and inferior longitudinal fasciculus to episodic and semantic autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Postans, Mark; Warne, Naomi; Varnava, Alice; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S

    2017-09-01

    Autobiographical memory (AM) is multifaceted, incorporating the vivid retrieval of contextual detail (episodic AM), together with semantic knowledge that infuses meaning and coherence into past events (semantic AM). While neuropsychological evidence highlights a role for the hippocampus and anterior temporal lobe (ATL) in episodic and semantic AM, respectively, it is unclear whether these constitute dissociable large-scale AM networks. We used high angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and constrained spherical deconvolution-based tractography to assess white matter microstructure in 27 healthy young adult participants who were asked to recall past experiences using word cues. Inter-individual variation in the microstructure of the fornix (the main hippocampal input/output pathway) related to the amount of episodic, but not semantic, detail in AMs - independent of memory age. Conversely, microstructure of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, linking occipitotemporal regions with ATL, correlated with semantic, but not episodic, AMs. Further, these significant correlations remained when controlling for hippocampal and ATL grey matter volume, respectively. This striking correlational double dissociation supports the view that distinct, large-scale distributed brain circuits underpin context and concepts in AM. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Individual differences in children's global motion sensitivity correlate with TBSS-based measures of the superior longitudinal fasciculus.

    PubMed

    Braddick, Oliver; Atkinson, Janette; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Newman, Erik; Curley, Lauren B; Gonzalez, Marybel Robledo; Brown, Timothy; Dale, Anders; Jernigan, Terry

    2017-12-01

    Reduced global motion sensitivity, relative to global static form sensitivity, has been found in children with many neurodevelopmental disorders, leading to the "dorsal stream vulnerability" hypothesis (Braddick et al., 2003). Individual differences in typically developing children's global motion thresholds have been shown to be associated with variations in specific parietal cortical areas (Braddick et al., 2016). Here, in 125 children aged 5-12years, we relate individual differences in global motion and form coherence thresholds to fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), a major fibre tract communicating between parietal lobe and anterior cortical areas. We find a positive correlation between FA of the right SLF and individual children's sensitivity to global motion coherence, while FA of the left SLF shows a negative correlation. Further analysis of parietal cortical area data shows that this is also asymmetrical, showing a stronger association with global motion sensitivity in the left hemisphere. None of these associations hold for an analogous measure of global form sensitivity. We conclude that a complex pattern of structural asymmetry, including the parietal lobe and the superior longitudinal fasciculus, is specifically linked to the development of sensitivity to global visual motion. This pattern suggests that individual differences in motion sensitivity are primarily linked to parietal brain areas interacting with frontal systems in making decisions on integrated motion signals, rather than in the extra-striate visual areas that perform the initial integration. The basis of motion processing deficits in neurodevelopmental disorders may depend on these same structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Language, aging, and cognition: frontal aslant tract and superior longitudinal fasciculus contribute toward working memory performance in older adults.

    PubMed

    Rizio, Avery A; Diaz, Michele T

    2016-06-15

    Previous research has documented change in white matter tract integrity with increasing age. Both interhemispheric and intrahemispheric tracts that underlie language processing are susceptible to these age-related changes. The aim of the current study was to explore age and white matter integrity in language-related tracts as predictors of cognitive task performance in younger and older adults. To this end, we carried out principal component analyses of white matter tracts and confirmatory factor analysis of neuropsychological measures. We next carried out a series of regression analyses that used white matter components to predict scores on each of the neuropsychological components. For both younger and older adults, age was a significant predictor of processing speed and working memory. However, white matter integrity did not contribute independently toward these models. In older adults only, both age and a white matter component that included the bilateral frontal aslant tract and left superior longitudinal fasciculus were significant predictors of working memory. Taken together, these results extend our understanding of the contributions of language-related white matter structure to cognitive processing and highlight the effects of age-related differences in both frontal and dorsal tracts.

  6. The Plasticity of the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus as a Function of Musical Expertise: A Diffusion Tensor Imaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Oechslin, Mathias S.; Imfeld, Adrian; Loenneker, Thomas; Meyer, Martin; Jäncke, Lutz

    2009-01-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that musical expertise leads to functional alterations in language processing. We utilized diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate white matter plasticity in musicians with absolute pitch (AP), relative pitch and non-musicians. Using DTI, we analysed the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), which is considered the most primary pathway for processing and production of speech and music. In association with different levels of musical expertise, we found that AP is characterized by a greater left than right asymmetry of FA in core fibres of the SLF. A voxel-based analysis revealed three clusters within the left hemisphere SLF that showed significant positive correlations with error rates only for AP-musicians in an AP-test, but not for musicians without AP. We therefore conclude that the SLF architecture in AP musicians is related to AP acuity. In order to reconcile our observations with general aspects of development of fibre bundles, we introduce the Pioneer Axon Thesis, a theoretical approach to formalize axonal arrangements of major white matter pathways. PMID:20161812

  7. Abnormal fronto-parietal white matter organisation in the superior longitudinal fasciculus branches in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Jacqueline; Leemans, Alexander; Kehoe, Elizabeth; O'Hanlon, Erik; Gallagher, Louise; McGrath, Jane

    2018-03-01

    Core features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be underpinned by disrupted functional and structural neural connectivity. Abnormal fronto-parietal functional connectivity has been widely reported in the literature; this may be underpinned by disrupted microstructural organisation of white matter. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a major fronto-parietal white matter tract, the structure of which has been little studied in ASD. The fronto-parietal projections of this tract (SLF I, II and III) are thought to play an important role in a number of cognitive functions including attention and visuospatial processing. To date, the isolation of the fronto-parietal branches of the SLF has been hampered by limitations of traditional tractography approaches. Constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)-based tractography is an advanced approach that allows valid isolation of the fronto-parietal branches of the SLF. Diffusion MRI data were acquired from 45 participants with ASD and 45 age- and IQ-matched controls. The SLF I, II and III branches were isolated using CSD-based tractography in ExploreDTI. Significantly greater fractional anisotropy (FA) was observed in the right SLF II relative to controls. The ASD group also showed greater linear diffusion coefficient in the left SLF I and the right SLF II. In the SLF II, the ASD group had significantly greater right lateralisation of FA in comparison with the control group. The clinical and functional implications of increased FA in white matter are poorly understood; however, it is possible that this increased white matter organisation in the SLF in ASD may contribute to relative processing advantages in the condition. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Alterations in the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in autism and associations with visual processing: a diffusion-weighted MRI study.

    PubMed

    Boets, Bart; Van Eylen, Lien; Sitek, Kevin; Moors, Pieter; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Sunaert, Stefan; Wagemans, Johan

    2018-01-01

    One of the most reported neural features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is the alteration of multiple long-range white matter fiber tracts, as assessed by diffusion-weighted imaging and indexed by reduced fractional anisotropy (FA). Recent methodological advances, however, have shown that this same pattern of reduced FA may be an artifact resulting from excessive head motion and poorer data quality and that aberrant structural connectivity in children with ASD is confined to the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF). This study aimed at replicating the observation of reduced FA along the right ILF in ASD, while controlling for group differences in head motion and data quality. In addition, we explored associations between reduced FA in the right ILF and quantitative ASD characteristics, and the involvement of the right ILF in visual processing, which is known to be altered in ASD. Global probabilistic tractography was performed on diffusion-weighted imaging data of 17 adolescent boys with ASD and 17 typically developing boys, matched for age, performance IQ, handedness, and data quality. Four tasks were administered to measure various aspects of visual information processing, together with questionnaires assessing ASD characteristics. Group differences were examined and the neural data were integrated with previously published findings using Bayesian statistics to quantify evidence for replication and to pool data and thus increase statistical power. (Partial) correlations were calculated to investigate associations between measures. The ASD group showed consistently reduced FA only in the right ILF and slower performance on the visual search task. Bayesian statistics pooling data across studies confirmed that group differences in FA were confined to the right ILF only, with the evidence for altered FA in the left ILF being indecisive. Lower FA in the right ILF tended to covary with slower visual search and a more fragmented part-oriented processing style

  9. Lower white matter microstructure in the superior longitudinal fasciculus is associated with increased response time variability in adults with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Wolfers, Thomas; Onnink, A Marten H; Zwiers, Marcel P; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C; Kan, Cornelis C; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K; Franke, Barbara

    2015-09-01

    Response time variability (RTV) is consistently increased in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A right-hemispheric frontoparietal attention network model has been implicated in these patients. The 3 main connecting fibre tracts in this network, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the cingulum bundle (CB), show microstructural abnormalities in patients with ADHD. We hypothesized that the microstructural integrity of the 3 white matter tracts of this network are associated with ADHD and RTV. We examined RTV in adults with ADHD by modelling the reaction time distribution as an exponentially modified Gaussian (ex-Gaussian) function with the parameters μ, σ and τ, the latter of which has been attributed to lapses of attention. We assessed adults with ADHD and healthy controls using a sustained attention task. Diffusion tensor imaging-derived fractional anisotropy (FA) values were determined to quantify bilateral microstructural integrity of the tracts of interest. We included 100 adults with ADHD and 96 controls in our study. Increased τ was associated with ADHD diagnosis and was linked to symptoms of inattention. An inverse correlation of τ with mean FA was seen in the right SLF of patients with ADHD, but no direct association between the mean FA of the 6 regions of interest with ADHD could be observed. Regions of interest were defined a priori based on the attentional network model for ADHD and thus we might have missed effects in other networks. This study suggests that reduced microstructural integrity of the right SLF is associated with elevated τ in patients with ADHD.

  10. Lower white matter microstructure in the superior longitudinal fasciculus is associated with increased response time variability in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    PubMed Central

    Wolfers, Thomas; Onnink, A. Marten H.; Zwiers, Marcel P.; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Hoogman, Martine; Mostert, Jeanette C.; Kan, Cornelis C.; Slaats-Willemse, Dorine; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Franke, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Background Response time variability (RTV) is consistently increased in patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A right-hemispheric frontoparietal attention network model has been implicated in these patients. The 3 main connecting fibre tracts in this network, the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and the cingulum bundle (CB), show microstructural abnormalities in patients with ADHD. We hypothesized that the microstructural integrity of the 3 white matter tracts of this network are associated with ADHD and RTV. Methods We examined RTV in adults with ADHD by modelling the reaction time distribution as an exponentially modified Gaussian (ex-Gaussian) function with the parameters μ, σ and τ, the latter of which has been attributed to lapses of attention. We assessed adults with ADHD and healthy controls using a sustained attention task. Diffusion tensor imaging–derived fractional anisotropy (FA) values were determined to quantify bilateral microstructural integrity of the tracts of interest. Results We included 100 adults with ADHD and 96 controls in our study. Increased τ was associated with ADHD diagnosis and was linked to symptoms of inattention. An inverse correlation of τ with mean FA was seen in the right SLF of patients with ADHD, but no direct association between the mean FA of the 6 regions of interest with ADHD could be observed. Limitations Regions of interest were defined a priori based on the attentional network model for ADHD and thus we might have missed effects in other networks. Conclusion This study suggests that reduced microstructural integrity of the right SLF is associated with elevated τ in patients with ADHD. PMID:26079698

  11. [SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF "RIPPLE SIGN" OF MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLE UNDER ARTHROSCOPE IN MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL MENISCAL TEARS].

    PubMed

    Ren Shiyou; Sun, Limang; Chen, Guofei; Jiang, Changqing; Zhang, Xintao; Zhang Wentao

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of the "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle in the diagnosis of medial longitudinal meniscal tears under arthroscope. Between June 2013 and June 2014, 56 patients with knee injuries were included. There were 35 males and 21 females with an average age of 22.2 years (range, 12-38 years). The causes of injury were sports in 40 cases, falling in 10 cases, and traffic accident in 6 cases. The injury was located at the left knee in 22 cases and at the right knee in 34 cases. The disease duration was 10-40 days (mean, 20.2 days). Of 56 patients, 15 cases had simple medial meniscal injury; 41 cases had combined injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury in 38 cases, posterior cruciate ligament injury in 2 cases, and patellar dislocation in 1 case. The "ripple sign" was observed under arthroscope before operation. Repair of medial meniscal injury and reconstruction of cruciate ligament were performed. The positive "ripple sign" was seen under arthroscope in all patients, who were diagnosed to have longitudinal meniscal tears, including 23 cases of mild "ripple sign" , 28 cases of moderate "ripple sign", and 5 cases of severe "ripple sign". The "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle is a reliable diagnostic evidence of medial longitudinal meniscal tears.

  12. White matter microstructure within the superior longitudinal fasciculus modulates the degree of response conflict indexed by N2 in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shudan; Liu, Peng; Guo, Jialu; Zhu, Yuanqiang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Jinbo; Yang, Xuejuan; Qin, Wei

    2017-12-01

    Response conflict can be induced by priming multiple responses competing for control of action in trials. The N2 is one functionally-related cognitive control index for response conflict. And yet the underlying whiter matter neural substrates of inter-individual difference in conflict N2 remain unclear. So the aim of present study was to address the white matter microstructure of the N2 responsible for conflict by directly relating the amplitude cost of the event-related potential (ERP) N2 component to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices in healthy subjects. Thirty healthy subjects underwent DTI scanning and electrophysiology recording during a modified Flanker task. N2 was a stimulus-locked negative ERP component. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was calculated based on DTI measures and was assumed to reflect the integrity of myelinate fiber bundles. Therefore, we tested the relationship between N2 amplitude and FA in brain white matter. Results showed that FA, an index for white matter characteristics, in the right superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) was significantly positively associated with N2 amplitude cost. The N2 amplitude cost also predicted response time (RT) cost in the Flanker task. Higher FA was associated with larger N2 amplitude cost, suggesting that changes in white matter integrity in the SLF may account for changes in efficient transmission of fronto-parietal modulatory conflict signals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Diffusion Tensor Fractional Anisotropy in the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Correlates with Functional Independence Measure Cognition Scores in Patients with Cerebral Infarction.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between fiber tract degeneration measured by diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and outcome of patients after cerebral infarction. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated by DTI in patients 14-21 days after the first infarction and were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Mean FA values within the corticospinal tract (CST) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) were extracted from individual TBSS data. Relationships between FA ratios (rFAs, lesioned to non-lesioned hemisphere) and outcomes assessed by Brunnstrom stage (BRS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor and cognition scores were examined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Forty patients (21 left and 19 right hemisphere lesions) were entered into an analytical database. BRS ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 5) for shoulder, elbow, or forearm; from 2 to 6 (median, 4.5) for hand or finger; and from 3 to 6 (median, 5) for lower extremity. FIM motor ranged from 51 to 91 (median, 79.5), and FIM cognition ranged from 16 to 35 (median, 29). rFA values in the CST ranged from .692 to 1.053 (median, .933), and those in the SLF ranged from .778 to 1.076 (median, .965). Mann-Whitney U test (P <.05) revealed no significant differences between the left and the right hemisphere lesion groups. Individual rFA values in the CST correlated with BRS scores (r = .585-0.654), whereas those in the SLF correlated with FIM cognition scores (r = .409, P <.05). DTI-FA values in the SLF and CST may be useful for outcome prediction of cognitive function and extremity function, respectively. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of human right inferior frontoparietal network connected by inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus tract in corporeal awareness of kinesthetic illusory movement.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Kaoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    It is generally believed that the human right cerebral hemisphere plays a dominant role in corporeal awareness, which is highly associated with conscious experience of the physical self. Prompted by our previous findings, we examined whether the right frontoparietal activations often observed when people experience kinesthetic illusory limb movement are supported by a large-scale brain network connected by a specific branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus fiber tracts (SLF I, II, and III). We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while nineteen blindfolded healthy volunteers experienced illusory movement of the right stationary hand elicited by tendon vibration, which was replicated after the scanning. We also scanned brain activity when they executed and imagined right hand movement, and identified the active brain regions during illusion, execution, and imagery in relation to the SLF fiber tracts. We found that illusion predominantly activated the right inferior frontoparietal regions connected by SLF III, which were not substantially recruited during execution and imagery. Among these regions, activities in the right inferior parietal cortices and inferior frontal cortices showed right-side dominance and correlated well with the amount of illusion (kinesthetic illusory awareness) experienced by the participants. The results illustrated the predominant involvement of the right inferior frontoparietal network connected by SLF III when people recognize postural changes of their limb. We assume that the network bears a series of functions, specifically, monitoring the current status of the musculoskeletal system, and building-up and updating our postural model (body schema), which could be a basis for the conscious experience of the physical self. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Fiber Tracts of the Medial and Inferior Surfaces of the Cerebrum.

    PubMed

    Baydin, Serhat; Gungor, Abuzer; Tanriover, Necmettin; Baran, Oguz; Middlebrooks, Erik H; Rhoton, Albert L

    2017-02-01

    Fiber dissection studies of the cerebrum have focused on the lateral surface. No comparable detailed studies have been done on the medial and inferior surfaces. The object of this study was to examine the fiber tracts, cortical, and subcortical structures of the medial and inferior aspects of the brain important in planning operative approaches along the interhemispheric fissure, parafalcine area, and basal surfaces of the cerebrum. Twenty formalin-fixed human hemispheres (10 brains) were examined by fiber dissection technique under ×6-×40 magnifications. The superior longitudinal fasciculus I, cingulum, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, uncinate fasciculus, optic radiations, tapetum, and callosal fibers were dissected step by step from medial to lateral, exposing the nucleus accumbens, subthalamic nucleus, red nucleus, and central midline structures (fornix, stria medullaris, and stria terminalis). Finally, the central core structures were dissected from medial to lateral. Understanding the fiber network underlying the medial and inferior aspects of the brain is important in surgical planning for approaches along the interhemispheric fissure, parafalcine area, and basal surfaces of the cerebrum. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Rearfoot alignment and medial longitudinal arch configurations of runners with symptoms and histories of plantar fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Trombini-Souza, Francis; Tessutti, Vitor; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel; João, Sílvia Maria Amado

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare rearfoot alignment and medial longitudinal arch index during static postures in runners, with and without symptoms and histories of plantar fasciitis (PF). INTRODUCTION: PF is the third most common injury in runners but, so far, its etiology remains unclear. In the literature, rearfoot misalignment and conformations of the longitudinal plantar arch have been described as risk factors for the development of PF. However, in most of the investigated literature, the results are still controversial, mainly regarding athletic individuals and the effects of pain associated with these injuries. METHODS: Forty-five runners with plantar fasciitis (30 symptomatic and 15 with previous histories of injuries) and 60 controls were evaluated. Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale. The assessment of rearfoot alignment and the calculations of the arch index were performed by digital photographic images. RESULTS: There were observed similarities between the three groups regarding the misalignments of the rearfoot valgus. The medial longitudinal arches were more elevated in the group with symptoms and histories of PF, compared to the control runners. CONCLUSIONS: Runners with symptoms or histories of PF did not differ in rearfoot valgus misalignments, but showed increases in the longitudinal plantar arch during bipedal static stance, regardless of the presence of pain symptoms. PMID:21808870

  18. Subject-specific longitudinal shape analysis by coupling spatiotemporal shape modeling with medial analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sungmin; Fishbaugh, James; Rezanejad, Morteza; Siddiqi, Kaleem; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane; Kim, Eun Young; Gerig, Guido

    2017-02-01

    Modeling subject-specific shape change is one of the most important challenges in longitudinal shape analysis of disease progression. Whereas anatomical change over time can be a function of normal aging, anatomy can also be impacted by disease related degeneration. Anatomical shape change may also be affected by structural changes from neighboring shapes, which may cause non-linear variations in pose. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze disease related shape changes by coupling extrinsic modeling of the ambient anatomical space via spatiotemporal deformations with intrinsic shape properties from medial surface analysis. We compare intrinsic shape properties of a subject-specific shape trajectory to a normative 4D shape atlas representing normal aging to isolate shape changes related to disease. The spatiotemporal shape modeling establishes inter/intra subject anatomical correspondence, which in turn enables comparisons between subjects and the 4D shape atlas, and also quantitative analysis of disease related shape change. The medial surface analysis captures intrinsic shape properties related to local patterns of deformation. The proposed framework jointly models extrinsic longitudinal shape changes in the ambient anatomical space, as well as intrinsic shape properties to give localized measurements of degeneration. Six high risk subjects and six controls are randomly sampled from a Huntington's disease image database for qualitative and quantitative comparison.

  19. Longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Bae, Tae Soo; Kang, Ki-Ser; Kang, Soo Yong; Lee, Sang Hak

    2011-10-01

    Longitudinal tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn (MMPH) are commonly associated with a chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the medial meniscus in terms of limiting the amount of anterior-posterior tibial translation in response to anterior tibial loads in ACL-deficient knees. An MMPH tear in an ACL-deficient knee increases the anterior-posterior tibial translation and rotatory instability. In addition, MMPH repair will restore the tibial translation to the level before the tear. Controlled laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested sequentially using a custom testing system under 5 conditions: intact, ACL deficient, ACL deficient with an MMPH peripheral longitudinal tear, ACL deficient with an MMPH repair, and ACL deficient with a total medial meniscectomy. The knee kinematics were measured at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion in response to a 134-N anterior and 200-N axial compressive tibial load. The rotatory kinematics were also measured at 15° and 30° of flexion in a combined rotatory load of 5 N·m of internal tibial torque and 10 N·m of valgus torque. Medial meniscus posterior horn longitudinal tears in ACL-deficient knees resulted in a significant increase in anterior-posterior tibial translation at all flexion angles except 90° (P < .05). An MMPH repair in an ACL-deficient knee showed a significant decrease in anterior-posterior tibial translation at all flexion angles except 60° compared with the ACL-deficient/MMPH tear state (P < .05). The total anterior-posterior translation of the ACL-deficient/MMPH repaired knee was not significantly increased compared with the ACL (only)-deficient knee but was increased compared with the ACL-intact knee (P > .05). A total medial meniscectomy in an ACL-deficient knee did not increase the anterior-posterior tibial translation significantly compared with MMPH tears in ACL-deficient knees at all flexion angles (P > .05

  20. Medial Longitudinal Arch Angle Presents Significant Differences Between Foot Types: A Biplane Fluoroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Balsdon, Megan E R; Bushey, Kristen M; Dombroski, Colin E; LeBel, Marie-Eve; Jenkyn, Thomas R

    2016-10-01

    The structure of the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) affects the foot's overall function and its ability to dissipate plantar pressure forces. Previous research on the MLA includes measuring the calcaneal-first metatarsal angle using a static sagittal plane radiograph, a dynamic height-to-length ratio using marker clusters with a multisegment foot model, and a contained angle using single point markers with a multisegment foot model. The objective of this study was to use biplane fluoroscopy to measure a contained MLA angle between foot types: pes planus (low arch), pes cavus (high arch), and normal arch. Fifteen participants completed the study, five from each foot type. Markerless fluoroscopic radiostereometric analysis (fRSA) was used with a three-dimensional model of the foot bones and manually matching those bones to a pair of two-dimensional radiographic images during midstance of gait. Statistically significant differences were found between barefoot arch angles of the normal and pes cavus foot types (p = 0.036), as well as between the pes cavus and pes planus foot types (p = 0.004). Dynamic walking also resulted in a statistically significant finding compared to the static standing trials (p = 0.014). These results support the classification of individuals following a physical assessment by a foot specialist for those with pes cavus and planus foot types. The differences between static and dynamic kinematic measurements were also supported using this novel method.

  1. Longitudinal Effects of Ketamine on Dendritic Architecture In Vivo in the Mouse Medial Frontal Cortex123

    PubMed Central

    Phoumthipphavong, Victoria; Barthas, Florent; Hassett, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A single subanesthetic dose of ketamine, an NMDA receptor antagonist, leads to fast-acting antidepressant effects. In rodent models, systemic ketamine is associated with higher dendritic spine density in the prefrontal cortex, reflecting structural remodeling that may underlie the behavioral changes. However, turnover of dendritic spines is a dynamic process in vivo, and the longitudinal effects of ketamine on structural plasticity remain unclear. The purpose of the current study is to use subcellular resolution optical imaging to determine the time course of dendritic alterations in vivo following systemic ketamine administration in mice. We used two-photon microscopy to visualize repeatedly the same set of dendritic branches in the mouse medial frontal cortex (MFC) before and after a single injection of ketamine or saline. Compared to controls, ketamine-injected mice had higher dendritic spine density in MFC for up to 2 weeks. This prolonged increase in spine density was driven by an elevated spine formation rate, and not by changes in the spine elimination rate. A fraction of the new spines following ketamine injection was persistent, which is indicative of functional synapses. In a few cases, we also observed retraction of distal apical tuft branches on the day immediately after ketamine administration. These results indicate that following systemic ketamine administration, certain dendritic inputs in MFC are removed immediately, while others are added gradually. These dynamic structural modifications are consistent with a model of ketamine action in which the net effect is a rebalancing of synaptic inputs received by frontal cortical neurons. PMID:27066532

  2. Effect of plantar intrinsic muscle training on medial longitudinal arch morphology and dynamic function.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Cook, Patrick G

    2013-10-01

    A specific training program emphasizing the neuromuscular recruitment of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, colloquially referred to as "short foot" exercise (SFE) training, has been suggested as a means to dynamically support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) during functional tasks. A single-group repeated measures pre- and post-intervention study design was utilized to determine if a 4-week intrinsic foot muscle training program would impact the amount of navicular drop (ND), increase the arch height index (AHI), improve performance during a unilateral functional reaching maneuver, or the qualitative assessment of the ability to hold the arch position in single limb stance position in an asymptomatic cohort. 21 asymptomatic subjects (42 feet) completed the 4-week SFE training program. Subject ND decreased by a mean of 1.8 mm at 4 weeks and 2.2 mm at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). AHI increased from 28 to 29% (p < 0.05). Intrinsic foot muscle performance during a static unilateral balancing activity improved from a grade of fair to good (p < 0.001) and subjects experienced a significant improvement during a functional balance and reach task in all directions with the exception of an anterior reach (p < 0.05). This study offers preliminary evidence to suggest that SFE training may have value in statically and dynamically supporting the MLA. Further research regarding the value of this exercise intervention in foot posture type or pathology specific patient populations is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Body weight and the medial longitudinal foot arch: high-arched foot, a hidden problem?

    PubMed

    Woźniacka, R; Bac, A; Matusik, S; Szczygieł, E; Ciszek, E

    2013-05-01

    This study had two objectives. First, to determine the prevalence of hollow (high-arched) and flat foot among primary school children in Cracow (Poland). Second, to evaluate the relationship between the type of medial longitudinal arch (MLA; determined by the Clarke's angle) and degree of fatness. The prevalence of underweight, overweight, and obesity was determined by means of IOTF cut-offs with respect to age and gender. A sample of 1,115 children (564 boys and 551 girls) aged between 3 and 13 years was analyzed. In all age groups, regardless of gender, high-arched foot was diagnosed in the majority of children. A distinct increase in the number of children with high-arched foot was observed between 7- and 8-year olds. Regardless of the gender, high-arched foot was more common among underweight children. In the group of obese children, the biggest differences were attributed to gender. High-arched foot was the most frequently observed among boys. In all gender and obesity level groups, the flat foot was more common among boys than among girls. High-arched foot is the most common foot defect among children 3-13 years old regardless of gender. Flat foot is least frequently observed in children 3-13 years old. A statistic correlation between MLA and adiposity is observed. Stronger correlation is observed among girls.

  4. Effects of ballet training of children in Turkey on foot anthropometric measurements and medial longitudinal arc development.

    PubMed

    Ozdinc, Sevgi Anar; Turan, Fatma Nesrin

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of ballet training on foot structure and the formation of the medial longitudinal arc in childhood, and the association of body mass index with structural change secondary to ballet training. This study was conducted at Öykü Ballet and Dance School and Trakya University, Edirne, Turkey, from September 2007 to November 2008, and comprised girl students who were taking ballet classes, and a group of those who were not taking such who acted as the controls. Static footprints of both feet of all participants were taken with an ink paedogram. Parameters evaluated from footprints included foot length, metatarsal width, heel width and medial longitudinal arch. The relationship between the parameters, the ballet starting age, training duration and body mass index was investigated. Of the 67 participants, there were 36(53.7%) in the experimental group and 31(48.3%) in the control group. The difference between age, height, weight and body mass index between the two groups was insignificant (p>0.05). The average ballet starting age was 6.47±1.55 years and duration was 4.36±2.002 years. Positive correlations were found between body mass index and foot length, metatarsal width, heel width, medial longitudinal arch contact width and halluxvalgus angle; between ballet starting age and metatarsal width, heel width; between duration of training and foot length, metatarsal width and hallux valgus angle (p?0.05 each). Evidence supporting the education in children on foot anthropometric measurements and medial longitudinal arc development could not be found.

  5. Classification of the height and flexibility of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Mette Kjærgaard; Friis, Rikke; Michaelsen, Maria Skjoldahl; Jakobsen, Patrick Abildgaard; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2012-02-17

    The risk of developing injuries during standing work may vary between persons with different foot types. High arched and low arched feet, as well as rigid and flexible feet, are considered to have different injury profiles, while those with normal arches may sustain fewer injuries. However, the cut-off values for maximum values (subtalar position during weight-bearing) and range of motion (ROM) values (difference between subtalar neutral and subtalar resting position in a weight-bearing condition) for the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify cut-off values for maximum values and ROM of the MLA of the foot during static tests and to identify factors influencing foot posture. The participants consisted of 254 volunteers from Central and Northern Denmark (198 m/56 f; age 39.0 ± 11.7 years; BMI 27.3 ± 4.7 kg/m2). Navicular height (NH), longitudinal arch angle (LAA) and Feiss line (FL) were measured for either the left or the right foot in a subtalar neutral position and subtalar resting position. Maximum values and ROM were calculated for each test. The 95% and 68% prediction intervals were used as cut-off limits. Multiple regression analysis was used to detect influencing factors on foot posture. The 68% cut-off values for maximum MLA values and MLA ROM for NH were 3.6 to 5.5 cm and 0.6 to 1.8 cm, respectively, without taking into account the influence of other variables. Normal maximum LAA values were between 131 and 152° and normal LAA ROM was between -1 and 13°. Normal maximum FL values were between -2.6 and -1.2 cm and normal FL ROM was between -0.1 and 0.9 cm. Results from the multivariate linear regression revealed an association between foot size with FL, LAA, and navicular drop. The cut-off values presented in this study can be used to categorize people performing standing work into groups of different foot arch types. The results of this study are important for investigating a possible link between

  6. Chronic spatial working memory deficit associated with the superior longitudinal fasciculus: a study using voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping and intraoperative direct stimulation in right prefrontal glioma surgery.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Masashi; Nakajima, Riho; Shinohara, Harumichi; Miyashita, Katsuyoshi; Tanaka, Shingo; Okita, Hirokazu; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hayashi, Yutaka

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE Although the right prefrontal region is regarded as a silent area, chronic deficits of the executive function, including working memory (WM), could occur after resection of a right prefrontal glioma. This may be overlooked by postoperative standard examinations, and the disabilities could affect the patient's professional life. The right prefrontal region is a part of the frontoparietal network and is subserved by the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF); however, the role of the SLF in spatial WM is unclear. This study investigated a persistent spatial WM deficit in patients who underwent right prefrontal glioma resection, and evaluated the relationship between the spatial WM deficit and the SLF. METHODS Spatial WM was examined in 24 patients who underwent prefrontal glioma resection (right, n = 14; left, n = 10) and in 14 healthy volunteers using a spatial 2-back task during the long-term postoperative period. The neural correlates of spatial WM were evaluated using lesion mapping and voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. In addition, the spatial 2-back task was performed during surgery under direct subcortical electrical stimulation in 2 patients with right prefrontal gliomas. RESULTS Patients with a right prefrontal lesion had a significant chronic spatial WM deficit. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping analysis revealed a significant correlation between spatial WM deficit and the region that overlapped the first and second segments of the SLF (SLF I and SLF II). Two patients underwent awake surgery and had difficulties providing the correct responses in the spatial 2-back task with direct subcortical electrical stimulation on the SLF I, which was preserved and confirmed by postoperative diffusion tensor imaging tractography. These patients exhibited no spatial WM deficits during the postoperative immediate and long-term periods. CONCLUSIONS Spatial WM deficits may persist in patients who undergo resection of the tumor located in the right prefrontal

  7. Longitudinal evaluation of T1ρ and T2 spatial distribution in osteoarthritic and healthy medial knee cartilage.

    PubMed

    Schooler, J; Kumar, D; Nardo, L; McCulloch, C; Li, X; Link, T M; Majumdar, S

    2014-01-01

    To investigate longitudinal changes in laminar and spatial distribution of knee articular cartilage magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T1ρ and T2 relaxation times, in individuals with and without medial compartment cartilage defects. All subjects (at baseline n = 88, >18 years old) underwent 3-Tesla knee MRI at baseline and annually thereafter for 3 years. The MR studies were evaluated for presence of cartilage defects (modified Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring - mWORMS), and quantitative T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps. Subjects were segregated into those with (mWORMS ≥2) and without (mWORMS ≤1) cartilage lesions at the medial tibia (MT) or medial femur (MF) at each time point. Laminar (bone and articular layer) and spatial (gray level co-occurrence matrix - GLCM) distribution of the T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps were calculated. Linear regression models (cross-sectional) and Generalized Estimating Equations (GEEs) (longitudinal) were used. Global T1ρ, global T2 and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MF, and global and articular layer T2 relaxation times at the MT, were higher in subjects with cartilage lesions compared to those without lesions. At the MT global T1ρ relaxation times were higher at each time point in subjects with lesions. MT T1ρ and T2 became progressively more heterogeneous than control compartments over the course of the study. Spatial distribution of T1ρ and T2 relaxation time maps in medial knee OA using GLCM technique may be a sensitive indicator of cartilage deterioration, in addition to whole-compartment relaxation time data. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Medial vestibulospinal tract lesions impair sacculo-collic reflexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonhye; Lee, Hak-Seung; Kim, Ji Soo

    2010-05-01

    The medial vestibulospinal tract (VST) is known to mediate the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in the contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). To determine whether disruption of the medial VST in the medulla impairs formation of VEMP, we measured VEMP in 14 patients with medial medullary infarction (MMI). VEMP was induced by a short tone burst and was recorded in contracting SCM while patients turned their heads forcefully to the contralateral side against resistance. Normative data were obtained from 47 healthy volunteers. Seven patients (50%) had abnormal VEMP in the side of the MMI lesion, absent in two, decreased in four, and delayed in two. One patient showed both decreased and delayed response. Of the seven patients with abnormal VEMP, five had the lesions that extended to the dorsal tegmentum while five of the seven patients with normal VEMP showed restricted anteromedial lesions mainly involving the pyramids. Spontaneous nystagmus (4/7, 57%), gaze-evoked nystagmus (6/7, 86%), and ocular tilt reaction/tilt of the subjective visual vertical (4/7, 57%) were frequently observed in the patients with abnormal VEMP. The abnormal VEMP in patients with infarctions involving the medullary tegmentum supports that VEMP is mediated by the medial VST descending within the medial longitudinal fasciculus.

  9. Effect of impeded medial longitudinal arch drop on vertical ground reaction force and center of pressure during static loading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shing-Jye; Gielo-Perczak, Krystyna

    2011-01-01

    Arch supports commonly used to alleviate foot pain can impede the normal drop of medial longitudinal arch (MLA) thereby altering its function. The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of using arch supports on vertical ground reaction force (GRF) and center of pressure (COP) during simulated midstance while the foot was statically loaded. Ten healthy young subjects were recruited. Two dimensional (2D) analysis of the MLA was captured for both barefoot (BF) and arch support conditions before and after loading via a custom made weight loading apparatus. The foot was loaded and positioned to simulate the midstance phase of walking. Two-dimensional reflective markers demarcated the MLA and captured with the loaded foot on a force platform. The impeded MLA drop was compared between the unloaded BF, loaded BF and loaded arch support conditions. The vertical GRF, the anterior-posterior and the medial-lateral COP displacements were also measured in response to the impeded MLA by the arch supports. The arch supports impeded the MLA drop (p<0.05) and shifted the COP toward the medial side (p<0.05), specifically for the rearfoot (calcaneal segment region), but no changes were determined for the vertical GRF (p>0.05). The impedance of MLA drop by the arch support altered the pattern of the ML COP shift in the rearfoot region. The use of arch supports may not relieve painful foot conditions that are associated with excessive calcaneal eversion indicated by altering COP shifts in localized foot regions.

  10. Increased medial longitudinal arch mobility, lower extremity kinematics, and ground reaction forces in high-arched runners.

    PubMed

    Williams, D S Blaise; Tierney, Robin N; Butler, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Runners with high medial longitudinal arch structure demonstrate unique kinematics and kinetics that may lead to running injuries. The mobility of the midfoot as measured by the change in arch height is also suspected to play a role in lower extremity function during running. The effect of arch mobility in high-arched runners is an important factor in prescribing footwear, training, and rehabilitating the running athlete after injury. To examine the effect of medial longitudinal arch mobility on running kinematics, ground reaction forces, and loading rates in high-arched runners. Cross-sectional study. Human movement research laboratory. A total of 104 runners were screened for arch height. Runners were then identified as having high arches if the arch height index was greater than 0.5 SD above the mean. Of the runners with high arches, 11 rigid runners with the lowest arch mobility (R) were compared with 8 mobile runners with the highest arch mobility (M). Arch mobility was determined by calculating the left arch height index in all runners. Three-dimensional motion analysis of running over ground. Rearfoot and tibial angular excursions, eversion-to-tibial internal-rotation ratio, vertical ground reaction forces, and the associated loading rates. Runners with mobile arches exhibited decreased tibial internal-rotation excursion (mobile: 5.6° ± 2.3° versus rigid: 8.0° ± 3.0°), greater eversion-to-tibial internal-rotation ratio (mobile: 2.1 ± 0.8 versus rigid: 1.5 ± 0.5), decreased second peak vertical ground reaction force values (mobile: 2.3 ± 0.2 × body weight versus rigid: 2.4 ± 0.1 × body weight), and decreased vertical loading rate values (mobile: 55.7 ± 14.1 × body weight/s versus rigid: 65.9 ± 11.4 × body weight/s). Based on the results of this study, it appears that runners with high arch structure but differing arch mobility exhibited differences in select lower extremity movement patterns and forces. Future authors should investigate the

  11. A longitudinal study on deep brain stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle for treatment-resistant depression.

    PubMed

    Fenoy, Albert J; Schulz, Paul E; Selvaraj, Sudhakar; Burrows, Christina L; Zunta-Soares, Giovanna; Durkin, Kathryn; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Quevedo, Joao; Soares, Jair C

    2018-06-04

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) to the superolateral branch of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) has been reported to lead to rapid antidepressant effects. In this longitudinal study, we expand upon the initial results we reported at 26 weeks (Fenoy et al., 2016), showing sustained antidepressant effects of MFB DBS on six patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) over 1 year. The Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) was used as the primary assessment tool. Deterministic fiber tracking was used to individually map the target area; analysis was performed to compare modulated fiber tracts between patients. Intraoperatively, upon stimulation at target, responders reported immediate increases in energy and motivation. An insertional effect was seen during the 4-week sham stimulation phase from baseline (28% mean MADRS reduction, p = 0.02). However, after 1 week of initiating stimulation, three of six patients had a > 50% decrease in MADRS scores relative to baseline (43% mean MADRS reduction, p = 0.005). One patient withdrew from study participation. At 52 weeks, four of remaining five patients have > 70% decrease in MADRS scores relative to baseline (73% mean MADRS reduction, p = 0.007). Evaluation of modulated fiber tracts reveals significant common orbitofrontal connectivity to the target region in all responders. Neuropsychological testing and 18 F-fluoro-deoxyglucose-positron emission tomography cerebral metabolism evaluations performed at baseline and at 52 weeks showed minimal changes and verified safety. This longitudinal evaluation of MFB DBS demonstrated rapid antidepressant effects, as initially reported by Schlaepfer et al. (2013), and supports the use of DBS for TRD.

  12. Do corrective shoes improve the development of the medial longitudinal arch in children with flexible flat feet?

    PubMed

    Kanatlı, Ulunay; Aktas, Erdem; Yetkin, Haluk

    2016-09-01

    Flexible flatfoot, as the most prevalent foot deformity in pediatric population still has no standardized strategy for its management hence some orthopedic surgeons have the tendency to use orthotic devices. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether orthotic shoes effect the natural course of the developing medial longitudinal arch in children diagnosed with moderate flexible flatfoot. Fourty-five children (33 boys and 12 girls) with moderate flexible flatfoot were enrolled in this study. They were followed up for 34.6 ± 10.9 months (24-57 months). Patients in group 1 were treated with corrective shoes whereas group 2 was left untreated. Patients were evaluated according to; general joint laxity, arch index, lateral talo-first metatarsal (TM), talo-horizontal (TH), calcaneal pitch (CP), lateral and anterior talocalcaneal (TC) angles. Although there was a significant decrease in general laxity in both groups, decrease of laxity percentage was not significant between groups (p = 0.812). TM, TH and anterior TC angles were found to be decreased in groups whereas there was no difference between group 1 and 2. The arch index was found to be correlated with TM and TH angles in both groups (p = 0.004, p = 0.013). Corrective shoes for flexible flatfoot was found not effective on development of foot arches. Therefore, they should be limited only for selected cases. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A radiographic and anthropometric study of the effect of a contoured sandal and foot orthosis on supporting the medial longitudinal arch.

    PubMed

    Escalona-Marfil, Carles; McPoil, Thomas G; Mellor, Rebecca; Vicenzino, Bill

    2014-01-01

    In-shoe foot orthoses improve conditions such as plantar heel pain (fasciitis), probably due to their ability to raise the medial longitudinal arch of the foot and lower the stress on the plantar tissues. Increasingly the arch-profile form of the in-shoe foot orthosis is being incorporated into sandal footwear, providing an alternative footwear option for those who require an orthosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if a sandal that incorporates the arch-profile of an in-shoe foot orthosis does indeed raise the medial longitudinal arch. Three commercially available non-medical devices (contoured and flat sandal, prefabricated in-shoe orthosis) worn by healthy individuals were studied in two independent experiments, one using radiographic measurements in Australia (n = 11, 6 female, age 26.1 ± 4.3 yrs, BMI 22.0 ± 2.4 kg/m(2)) and the other utilising anthropometric measures in the USA (n = 10, 6 female, age 26.3 ± 3.8 yrs, BMI 23.5 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)). A barefoot condition was also measured. Dorsal arch height was measured in both experiments, as well as in subtalar neutral in the anthropometric experiment. One way repeated measures ANOVA with follow up Bonferroni-corrected pairwise comparisons were used to test differences between the conditions (contoured and flat sandal, orthosis, barefoot). Mean difference and 95% confidence intervals (CI) and standardised mean differences (SMD) were also calculated. The contoured sandal significantly increased dorsal arch height compared to barefoot and flat sandal in both the anthropometric and radiographic experiments with SMD ranging from 0.95 (mean difference 5.1 mm (CI: 0.3, 1.6)) to 1.8 (4.3 mm (1.9, 6.6)). There were small differences between the contoured sandal and orthosis of 1.9 mm (0.6, 3.3) in the radiographic experiment and 1.2 mm (-0.4, 0.9) in the anthropometric experiment. The contoured sandal approximated the subtalar neutral position (0.4 mm (-0.5, 0.7)). Medial

  14. Effect of therapeutic insoles on the medial longitudinal arch in patients with flatfoot deformity: a three-dimensional loading computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Kido, Masamitsu; Ikoma, Kazuya; Hara, Yusuke; Imai, Kan; Maki, Masahiro; Ikeda, Takumi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Tokunaga, Daisaku; Inoue, Nozomu; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2014-12-01

    Insoles are frequently used in orthotic therapy as the standard conservative treatment for symptomatic flatfoot deformity to rebuild the arch and stabilize the foot. However, the effectiveness of therapeutic insoles remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of therapeutic insoles for flatfoot deformity using subject-based three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) models by evaluating the load responses of the bones in the medial longitudinal arch in vivo in 3D. We studied eight individuals (16 feet) with mild flatfoot deformity. CT scans were performed on both feet under non-loaded and full-body-loaded conditions, first with accessory insoles and then with therapeutic insoles under the same conditions. Three-dimensional CT models were constructed for the tibia and the tarsal and metatarsal bones of the medial longitudinal arch (i.e., first metatarsal bone, cuneiforms, navicular, talus, and calcaneus). The rotational angles between the tarsal bones were calculated under loading with accessory insoles or therapeutic insoles and compared. Compared with the accessory insoles, the therapeutic insoles significantly suppressed the eversion of the talocalcaneal joint. This is the first study to precisely verify the usefulness of therapeutic insoles (arch support and inner wedges) in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bidirectional iterative parcellation of diffusion weighted imaging data: Separating cortical regions connected by the arcuate fasciculus and extreme capsule

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Dianne K.; Van Petten, Cyma; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Plante, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a Bidirectional Iterative Parcellation (BIP) procedure designed to identify the location and size of connected cortical regions (parcellations) at both ends of a white matter tract in diffusion weighted images. The procedure applies the FSL option “probabilistic tracking with classification targets” in a bidirectional and iterative manner. To assess the utility of BIP, we applied the procedure to the problem of parcellating a limited set of well-established gray matter seed regions associated with the dorsal (arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus) and ventral (extreme capsule fiber system) white matter tracts in the language networks of 97 participants. These left hemisphere seed regions and the two white matter tracts, along with their right hemisphere homologues, provided an excellent test case for BIP because the resulting parcellations overlap and their connectivity via the arcuate fasciculi and extreme capsule fiber systems are well studied. The procedure yielded both confirmatory and novel findings. Specifically, BIP confirmed that each tract connects within the seed regions in unique, but expected ways. Novel findings included increasingly left-lateralized parcellations associated with the arcuate fasciculus/superior longitudinal fasciculus as a function of age and education. These results demonstrate that BIP is an easily implemented technique that successfully confirmed cortical connectivity patterns predicted in the literature, and has the potential to provide new insights regarding the architecture of the brain. PMID:25173414

  16. Vocabulary growth rate from preschool to school-age years is reflected in the connectivity of the arcuate fasciculus in 14-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Su, Mengmeng; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Zhao, Jingjing; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Gaolang; McBride, Catherine; Ramus, Franck; Shu, Hua

    2018-02-06

    The acquisition of language involves the functional specialization of several cortical regions. Connectivity between these brain regions may also change with the development of language. Various studies have demonstrated that the arcuate fasciculus was essential for language function. Vocabulary learning is one of the most important skills in language acquisition. In the present longitudinal study, we explored the influence of vocabulary development on the anatomical properties of the arcuate fasciculus. Seventy-nine Chinese children participated in this study. Between age 4 and age 10, they were administered the same vocabulary task repeatedly. Following a previous study, children's vocabulary developmental trajectories were clustered into three subgroups (consistently good, catch-up, consistently poor). At age 14, diffusion tensor imaging data were collected. Using ROI-based tractography, the anterior, posterior and direct segments of the bilateral arcuate fasciculus were delineated in each child's native space. Group comparisons showed a significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the left arcuate fasciculus of children in the consistently poor group, in particular in the posterior and direct segments of the arcuate fasciculus. No group differences were observed in the right hemisphere, nor in the left anterior segment. Further regression analyses showed that the rate of vocabulary development, rather than the initial vocabulary size, was a specific predictor of the left arcuate fasciculus connectivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Right arcuate fasciculus abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zeineh, Michael M; Kang, James; Atlas, Scott W; Raman, Mira M; Reiss, Allan L; Norris, Jane L; Valencia, Ian; Montoya, Jose G

    2015-02-01

    To identify whether patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have differences in gross brain structure, microscopic structure, or brain perfusion that may explain their symptoms. Fifteen patients with CFS were identified by means of retrospective review with an institutional review board-approved waiver of consent and waiver of authorization. Fourteen age- and sex-matched control subjects provided informed consent in accordance with the institutional review board and HIPAA. All subjects underwent 3.0-T volumetric T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with two diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) acquisitions and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Open source software was used to segment supratentorial gray and white matter and cerebrospinal fluid to compare gray and white matter volumes and cortical thickness. DTI data were processed with automated fiber quantification, which was used to compare piecewise fractional anisotropy (FA) along 20 tracks. For the volumetric analysis, a regression was performed to account for differences in age, handedness, and total intracranial volume, and for the DTI, FA was compared piecewise along tracks by using an unpaired t test. The open source software segmentation was used to compare cerebral blood flow as measured with ASL. In the CFS population, FA was increased in the right arcuate fasciculus (P = .0015), and in right-handers, FA was also increased in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) (P = .0008). In patients with CFS, right anterior arcuate FA increased with disease severity (r = 0.649, P = .026). Bilateral white matter volumes were reduced in CFS (mean ± standard deviation, 467 581 mm(3) ± 47 610 for patients vs 504 864 mm(3) ± 68 126 for control subjects, P = .0026), and cortical thickness increased in both right arcuate end points, the middle temporal (T = 4.25) and precentral (T = 6.47) gyri, and one right ILF end point, the occipital lobe (T = 5.36). ASL showed no significant differences. Bilateral

  18. [Risk factors associated with the conformation of the medial longitudinal arch and the symptomatic flat foot in a metropolitan school population in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Rivera-Saldívar, G; Torres-González, R; Franco-Valencia, M; Ríos-Monroy, R; Martínez-Ramírez, F; Pérez-Hernández, E; Duarte-Dagnino, D

    2012-01-01

    The investigation on the medial longitudinal arch is aimed at addressing the diagnostic problems of flat foot. The diagnosis is currently based on clinical tests and the appropriate identification of both postural and gait abnormalities. Risk factors are associated with pre-school ages, but there is no adequate analysis of such factors during school ages, when the longitudinal arch reaches its conformational maturity. Probabilistic methods were used to obtain a sample of 476 patients from elementary schools in the Federal District and the state of Puebla. Once the approval of the research committee was obtained, an analytical, prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted. Anthropometric measurements were performed, together with anamnesis, physical exam of the students, and conventional wet footprint analysis in a standardized and duplicate way. Of the 476 patients, 101 had flat foot (21.2%) and 49 of them had pain symptoms in the feet, knees or both (48.5%), accounting for 10.2% of the patients examined. Forefoot pronation and valgus hindfoot resulted in an increased risk of symptomatic flat foot in the school population in the study. In cases of flat or cavus foot, the presence of foot and/or knee pain symptoms in the school population was associated in a statistically significant way with one or more of the factors analyzed (overweight, genu valgus, valgus hindfoot, forefoot pronation and claw toes). Girls with such factors had a 3-7 higher chance of having symptomatic flat foot.

  19. The 5-HTTLPR and BDNF polymorphisms moderate the association between uncinate fasciculus connectivity and antidepressants treatment response in major depression.

    PubMed

    Tatham, Erica L; Hall, Geoff B C; Clark, Darren; Foster, Jane; Ramasubbu, Rajamannar

    2017-03-01

    Symptom improvement in depression due to antidepressant treatment is highly variable and clinically unpredictable. Linking neuronal connectivity and genetic risk factors in predicting antidepressant response has clinical implications. Our investigation assessed whether indices of white matter integrity, serotonin transporter-linked polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism predicted magnitude of depression symptom change following antidepressant treatment. Fractional anisotropy (FA) was used as an indicator of white matter integrity and was assessed in the uncinate fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and probabilistic tractography. Forty-six medication-free patients with major depressive disorder participated in a diffusion tensor imaging scan prior to completing an 8-week treatment regime with citalopram or quetiapine XR. Indexed improvements in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score from baseline to 8-week endpoint were used as an indicator of depression improvement. Carriers of the BDNF met allele exhibited lower FA values in the left uncinate fasciculus relative to val/val individuals [F(1, 40) = 7.314, p = 0.009]. Probabilistic tractography identified that higher FA in the left uncinate fasciculus predicted percent change in depression severity, with BDNF moderating this association [F(3, 30) = 3.923, p = 0.018]. An interaction between FA in the right uncinate fasciculus and 5-HTTLPR also predicted percent change in depression severity [F(5, 25) = 5.315, p = 0.002]. Uncorrected TBSS results revealed significantly higher FA in hippocampal portions of the cingulum bundle in responders compared to non-responders (p = 0.016). The predictive value of prefrontal and amygdala/hippocampal WM connectivity on antidepressant treatment response may be influenced by 5-HTTLPR and BDNF polymorphisms in MDD.

  20. Medial gastrocnemius muscle growth during adolescence is mediated by increased fascicle diameter rather than by longitudinal fascicle growth

    PubMed Central

    Weide, Guido; Huijing, Peter A; Maas, Josina C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; Jaspers, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional design, the purpose of this study was to determine how pennate gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle geometry changes as a function of adolescent age. Sixteen healthy adolescent males (aged 10–19 years) participated in this study. GM muscle geometry was measured within the mid-longitudinal plane obtained from a 3D voxel-array composed of transverse ultrasound images. Images were taken at footplate angles corresponding to standardised externally applied footplate moments (between 4 Nm plantar flexion and 6 Nm dorsal flexion). Muscle activity was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG), expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). To minimise the effects of muscle excitation, EMG inclusion criteria were set at < 10% of MVC. In practice, however, normalised EMG levels were much lower. For adolescent subjects with increasing ages, GM muscle (belly) length increased due to an increase in the length component of the physiological cross-sectional area measured within the mid-longitudinal plane. No difference was found between fascicles at different ages, but the aponeurosis length and pennation angle increased by 0.5 cm year−1 and 0.5 ° per year, respectively. Footplate angles corresponding to externally applied 0 and 4 Nm plantarflexion moments were not associated with different adolescent ages. In contrast, footplate angles corresponding to externally applied 4 and 6 Nm dorsal flexion moments decreased by 10 ° between 10 and 19 years. In conclusion, we found that in adolescents' pennate GM muscles, longitudinal muscle growth is mediated predominantly by increased muscle fascicle diameter. PMID:25879671

  1. The Role of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Conduction Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Byron; Ardila, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    In aphasia literature, it has been considered that a speech repetition defect represents the main constituent of conduction aphasia. Conduction aphasia has frequently been interpreted as a language impairment due to lesions of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) that disconnect receptive language areas from expressive ones. Modern neuroradiological…

  2. Decreased uncinate fasciculus tract integrity in male and female patients with PTSD: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Saskia B.J.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L.; Veltman, Dick J.; Olff, Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Background Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has been associated with lower white matter integrity of tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex with limbic regions. However, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings have been inconsistent, showing high variability in the exact location and direction of effects. Methods We performed probabilistic tractography of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (both temporal and parietal projections) in male and female police officers with and without PTSD. Results We included 38 (21 men) police officers with and 39 (20 men) without PTSD in our analyses. Compared with trauma-exposed controls, patients with PTSD showed significantly higher mean diffusivity of the right uncinate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting the amygdala to the prefrontal cortex (p = 0.012). No other significant between-group or group × sex differences were observed. Mean diffusivity of the right uncinate fasciculus was positively associated with anxiety symptoms (r = 0.410, p = 0.013) in patients with PTSD as well as with amygdala activity (r = 0.247, p = 0.038) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity (r = 0.283, p = 0.016) in all participants in response to happy and neutral faces. Limitations Our specific sample of trauma-exposed police officers limits the generalizability of our findings to other PTSD patient groups (e.g., civilian trauma). Conclusion Patients with PTSD showed diminished structural connectivity between the amygdala and vmPFC, which was correlated with higher anxiety symptoms and increased functional activity of these brain regions. Our findings provide additional evidence for the prevailing neurocircuitry model of PTSD, postulating that ineffective communication between the amygdala and vmPFC underlies decreased top–down control over fear responses. PMID:28452713

  3. Decreased uncinate fasciculus tract integrity in male and female patients with PTSD: a diffusion tensor imaging study.

    PubMed

    Koch, Saskia B J; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Nawijn, Laura; Frijling, Jessie L; Veltman, Dick J; Olff, Miranda

    2017-09-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a disabling psychiatric disorder that has been associated with lower white matter integrity of tracts connecting the prefrontal cortex with limbic regions. However, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) findings have been inconsistent, showing high variability in the exact location and direction of effects. We performed probabilistic tractography of the bilateral uncinate fasciculus, cingulum and superior longitudinal fasciculus (both temporal and parietal projections) in male and female police officers with and without PTSD. We included 38 (21 men) police officers with and 39 (20 men) without PTSD in our analyses. Compared with trauma-exposed controls, patients with PTSD showed significantly higher mean diffusivity of the right uncinate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting the amygdala to the prefrontal cortex ( p = 0.012). No other significant between-group or group × sex differences were observed. Mean diffusivity of the right uncinate fasciculus was positively associated with anxiety symptoms ( r = 0.410, p = 0.013) in patients with PTSD as well as with amygdala activity ( r = 0.247, p = 0.038) and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) activity ( r = 0.283, p = 0.016) in all participants in response to happy and neutral faces. Our specific sample of trauma-exposed police officers limits the generalizability of our findings to other PTSD patient groups (e.g., civilian trauma). Patients with PTSD showed diminished structural connectivity between the amygdala and vmPFC, which was correlated with higher anxiety symptoms and increased functional activity of these brain regions. Our findings provide additional evidence for the prevailing neurocircuitry model of PTSD, postulating that ineffective communication between the amygdala and vmPFC underlies decreased top-down control over fear responses.

  4. [Tractography of the uncinate fasciculus and the posterior cingulate fasciculus in patients with mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease].

    PubMed

    Larroza, A; Moratal, D; D'ocón Alcañiz, V; Arana, E

    2014-01-01

    Brain tractography is a non-invasive medical imaging technique which enables in vivo visualisation and various types of quantitative studies of white matter fibre tracts connecting different parts of the brain. We completed a quantitative study using brain tractography with diffusion tensor imaging in patients with mild cognitive impairment, patients with Alzheimer disease, and normal controls, in order to analyse the reproducibility and validity of the results. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were measured across the uncinate fasciculus and the posterior cingulate fasciculus in images, obtained from a database and a research centre, representing 52 subjects distributed among the 3 study groups. Two observers took the measurements twice in order to evaluate intra- and inter-observer reproducibility. Measurements of FA and MD of the uncinate fasciculus delivered an intraclass correlation coefficient above 0.9; ICC was above 0.68 for the posterior cingulate fasciculus. Patients with Alzheimer disease showed lower values of FA and higher MD values in the right uncinate fasciculus in images from the research centre. A comparison of the measurements from the 2 centres revealed significant differences. We established a reproducible methodology for performing tractography of the tracts in question. FA and MD indexes may serve as early indicators of Alzheimer disease. The type of equipment and the method used to acquire images must be considered because they may alter results as shown by comparing the 2 data sets in this study. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Longitudinal analysis of MR spin-spin relaxation times (T2) in medial femorotibial cartilage of adolescent vs mature athletes: dependence of deep and superficial zone properties on sex and age.

    PubMed

    Wirth, W; Eckstein, F; Boeth, H; Diederichs, G; Hudelmaier, M; Duda, G N

    2014-10-01

    Cartilage spin-spin magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxation time (T2) represents a promising imaging biomarker of "early" osteoarthritis (OA) known to be associated with cartilage composition (collagen integrity, orientation, and hydration). However, no longitudinal imaging studies have been conducted to examine cartilage maturation in healthy subjects thus far. Therefore, we explore T2 change in the deep and superficial cartilage layers at the end of adolescence. Twenty adolescent and 20 mature volleyball athletes were studied (each 10 men and 10 women). Multi-echo spin-echo (MESE) images were acquired at baseline and 2-year follow-up. After segmentation, cartilage T2 was calculated in the deep and superficial cartilage layers of the medial tibial (MT) and the central, weight-bearing part of the medial femoral condyle (cMF), using five echoes (TE 19.4-58.2 ms). 16 adolescent (6 men, 10 women, baseline age 15.8 ± 0.5 years) and 17 mature (nine men, eight women, age 46.5 ± 5.2 years) athletes had complete baseline and follow-up images of sufficient quality to compute T2. In adolescents, a longitudinal decrease in T2 was observed in the deep layers of MT (-2.0 ms; 95% confidence interval (CI): [-3.4, -0.6] ms; P < 0.01) and cMF (-1.3 ms; [-2.4, -0.3] ms; P < 0.05), without obvious differences between males and females. No significant change was observed in the superficial layers, or in the deep or superficial layers of the mature athletes. In this first pilot study on quantitative imaging of cartilage maturation in healthy, athletic subjects, we find evidence of cartilage compositional change in deep cartilage layers of the medial femorotibial compartment in adolescents, most likely related to organizational changes in the collagen matrix. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Asymmetries of the arcuate fasciculus in monozygotic twins: genetic and nongenetic influences.

    PubMed

    Häberling, Isabelle S; Badzakova-Trajkov, Gjurgjica; Corballis, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    We assessed cerebral asymmetry for language in 35 monozygotic twin pairs. Using DTI, we reconstructed the arcuate fasciculus in each twin. Among the male twins, right-handed pairs showed greater left-sided asymmetry of connectivity in the arcuate fasciculus than did those with discordant handedness, and within the discordant group the right-handers had greater left-sided volume asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus than did their left-handed co-twins. There were no such effects in the female twins. Cerebral asymmetry for language showed more consistent results, with the more left-cerebrally dominant twins also showing more leftward asymmetry of high anisotropic fibers in the arcuate fasciculus, a result applying equally to female as to male twins. Reversals of arcuate fasciculus asymmetry were restricted to pairs discordant for language dominance, with the left-cerebrally dominant twins showing leftward and the right-cerebrally dominant twins rightward asymmetry of anisotropic diffusion in the arcuate fasciculus. Because monozygotic twin pairs share the same genotype, our results indicate a strong nongenetic component in arcuate fasciculus asymmetry, particularly in those discordant for cerebral asymmetry.

  7. Correlation between language function and the left arcuate fasciculus detected by diffusion tensor imaging tractography after brain tumor surgery.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Masashi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Disturbance of the arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere is thought to be associated with language-processing disorders, including conduction aphasia. Although the arcuate fasciculus can be visualized in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, its involvement in functional processes associated with language has not been shown dynamically using DTI tractography. In the present study, to clarify the participation of the arcuate fasciculus in language functions, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography were evaluated chronologically in relation to postoperative changes in language function after brain tumor surgery. Preoperative and postoperative arcuate fasciculus area and language function were examined in 7 right-handed patients with a brain tumor in the left hemisphere located in proximity to part of the arcuate fasciculus. The arcuate fasciculus was depicted, and its area was calculated using DTI tractography. Language functions were measured using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). After tumor resection, visualization of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in 5 of the 7 patients, and the total WAB score improved in 6 of the 7 patients. The relative ratio of postoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus to preoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in association with an improvement in postoperative language function (p = 0.0039). The role of the left arcuate fasciculus in language functions can be evaluated chronologically in vivo by DTI tractography after brain tumor surgery. Because increased postoperative visualization of the fasciculus was significantly associated with postoperative improvement in language functions, the arcuate fasciculus may play an important role in language function, as previously thought. In addition, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography could represent a predicting factor for postoperative language

  8. Reduced integrity of the uncinate fasciculus and cingulum in depression: A stem-by-stem analysis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Kartik D; Henderson, Luke A; Hsu, Eugene; Yim, Mark

    2018-08-01

    The subgenual cingulate gyrus (Brodmann's Area 25: BA25) is hypermetabolic in depression and has been targeted successfully with deep brain stimulation. Two of the white matter tracts that play a role in treatment response are the uncinate fasciculus (UF) and the cingulum bundle. The UF has three prefrontal stems, the most medial of which extends from BA25 (which deals with mood regulation) and the most lateral of which extends from the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (concerned with executive function). The cingulum bundle has numerous fibers connecting the lobes of the cerebrum, with the longest fibers extending from BA25 to the amygdala. We hypothesize that there is reduced integrity in the UF, specific to the medial prefrontal stems, as well as in the subgenual and amygdaloid fibers of the cingulum bundle. Our secondary hypothesis is that these changes are present from the early stages of depression. Compare the white matter integrity of stems of the UF and components of the cingulum bundle in first-onset depressed, recurrent/chronic depressed, and non-depressed control subjects. Depressed patients (n = 103, first-onset = 57, chronic = 46) and non-depressed control subjects (n = 74) underwent MRI with 32-directional DTI sequences. The uncinate fasciculi and cingulum bundles were seeded, and the fractional anisotropy (FA) measured in each of the three prefrontal stems and the body of the UF, as well as the subgenual, body, and amygdaloid fiber components of the cingulum bundle. FA measurements were compared between groups using ANOVA testing with post-hoc Tukey analysis. There were significant reductions in FA in the subgenual and polar stems of the UF bilaterally, as well as the subgenual and amygdaloid fibers of the cingulum bundle, in depressed patients compared with controls (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference seen in the lateral UF stem or the main body of the cingulum. No significant difference was demonstrated in any of

  9. Impairment of speech production predicted by lesion load of the left arcuate fasciculus.

    PubMed

    Marchina, Sarah; Zhu, Lin L; Norton, Andrea; Zipse, Lauryn; Wan, Catherine Y; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that patients' potential for poststroke language recovery is related to lesion size; however, lesion location may also be of importance, particularly when fiber tracts that are critical to the sensorimotor mapping of sounds for articulation (eg, the arcuate fasciculus) have been damaged. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lesion loads of the arcuate fasciculus (ie, volume of arcuate fasciculus that is affected by a patient's lesion) and of 2 other tracts involved in language processing (the extreme capsule and the uncinate fasciculus) are inversely related to the severity of speech production impairments in patients with stroke with aphasia. Thirty patients with chronic stroke with residual impairments in speech production underwent high-resolution anatomic MRI and a battery of cognitive and language tests. Impairment was assessed using 3 functional measures of spontaneous speech (eg, rate, informativeness, and overall efficiency) as well as naming ability. To quantitatively analyze the relationship between impairment scores and lesion load along the 3 fiber tracts, we calculated tract-lesion overlap volumes for each patient using probabilistic maps of the tracts derived from diffusion tensor images of 10 age-matched healthy subjects. Regression analyses showed that arcuate fasciculus lesion load, but not extreme capsule or uncinate fasciculus lesion load or overall lesion size, significantly predicted rate, informativeness, and overall efficiency of speech as well as naming ability. A new variable, arcuate fasciculus lesion load, complements established voxel-based lesion mapping techniques and, in the future, may potentially be used to estimate impairment and recovery potential after stroke and refine inclusion criteria for experimental rehabilitation programs.

  10. Relation between aphasia and arcuate fasciculus in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the dominant hemisphere in stroke patients with aphasia has not been clearly elucidated. We investigated the relation between language function and diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) findings for the left AF in chronic stroke patients with aphasia. Method Twenty five consecutive right-handed stroke patients with aphasia following lesions in the left hemisphere were recruited for this study. The aphasia quotient (AQ) of Korean-Western Aphasia Battery was used for assessment of language function. We measured values of fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), voxel number of the left AF. We classified patients into three groups: type A - the left AF was not reconstructed, type B - the left AF was discontinued between Wernicke’s and Broca’s areas, and type C – the left AF was preserved around the stroke lesion. Results Moderate positive correlation was observed between AQ and voxel number of the left AF (r = 0.471, p < 0.05). However, no correlation was observed between AQ and FA (r = 0.275, p > 0.05) and ADC values (r = -0.286, p > 0.05). Significant differences in AQ scores were observed between the three types (p < 0.05); the AQ score of type C was higher than those of type A and B, and that of type B was also higher than that of type A (p < 0.05). Conclusion According to our findings, the remaining volume of the left AF, irrespective of directionality and diffusivity, showed moderate positive correlation with language function in chronic stroke patients with aphasia. Discontinuation or non-construction of the left AF was also an important factor for language function. PMID:24607148

  11. Uncinate fasciculus fractional anisotropy correlates with typical use of reappraisal in women but not men.

    PubMed

    Zuurbier, Lisette A; Nikolova, Yuliya S; Ahs, Fredrik; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-06-01

    Emotion regulation refers to strategies through which individuals influence their experience and expression of emotions. Two typical strategies are reappraisal, a cognitive strategy for reframing the context of an emotional experience, and suppression, a behavioral strategy for inhibiting emotional responses. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate amygdala reactivity during both strategies, but relatively greater downregulation of the amygdala occurs during reappraisal. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that engagement of this modulatory circuitry varies as a function of gender. The uncinate fasciculus is a major structural pathway connecting regions of the anterior temporal lobe, including the amygdala to inferior frontal regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The objective of the current study was to map variability in the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus onto individual differences in self-reported typical use of reappraisal and suppression. Diffusion tensor imaging was used in 194 young adults to derive regional fractional anisotropy values for the right and left uncinate fasciculus. All participants also completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. In women but not men, self-reported typical reappraisal use was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in a region of the left uncinate fasciculus within the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, typical use of suppression was not significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy in any region of the uncinate fasciculus in either men or women. Our data suggest that in women typical reappraisal use is specifically related to the integrity of white matter pathways linking the amygdala and prefrontal cortex.

  12. UNCINATE FASCICULUS FRACTIONAL ANISOTROPY CORRELATES WITH TYPICAL USE OF REAPPRAISAL IN WOMEN BUT NOT MEN

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Lisette A.; Nikolova, Yuliya S.; Ahs, Fredrik; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation refers to strategies through which individuals influence their experience and expression of emotions. Two typical strategies are reappraisal, a cognitive strategy for reframing the context of an emotional experience, and suppression, a behavioral strategy for inhibiting emotional responses. Functional neuroimaging studies have revealed that regions of the prefrontal cortex modulate amygdala reactivity during both strategies, but relatively greater down-regulation of the amygdala occurs during reappraisal. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that engagement of this modulatory circuitry varies as a function of gender. The uncinate fasciculus is a major structural pathway connecting regions of the anterior temporal lobe, including the amygdala, to inferior frontal regions, especially the orbitofrontal cortex. The objective of the current study was to map variability in the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus onto individual differences in self-reported typical use of reappraisal and suppression. Diffusion tensor imaging was used in 194 young adults to derive regional fractional anisotropy values for the right and left uncinate fasciculus. All participants also completed the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. In women but not men, self-reported typical reappraisal use was positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in a region of the left uncinate fasciculus within the orbitofrontal cortex. In contrast, typical use of suppression was not significantly correlated with fractional anisotropy in any region of the uncinate fasciculus in either men or women. Our data suggest that in women typical reappraisal use is specifically related to the integrity of white matter pathways linking the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. PMID:23398586

  13. Interpersonal traits of psychopathy linked to reduced integrity of the uncinate fasciculus

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Richard C.; Pujara, Maia S.; Motzkin, Julian C.; Newman, Joseph P.; Kiehl, Kent A.; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S.; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Here we performed the largest diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of incarcerated criminal offenders to date (N = 147) to determine whether psychopathy severity is linked to the microstructural integrity of major white matter tracts in the brain. Consistent with the results of previous studies in smaller samples, we found that psychopathy was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus (the major white matter tract connecting ventral frontal and anterior temporal cortices). We found no such association in the left uncinate fasciculus or in adjacent frontal or temporal white matter tracts. Moreover, the right uncinate fasciculus finding was specifically related to the interpersonal features of psychopathy (glib superficial charm, grandiose sense of self-worth, pathological lying, manipulativeness), rather than the affective, antisocial, or lifestyle features. These results indicate a neural marker for this key dimension of psychopathic symptomatology. PMID:26219745

  14. The effect of exercise and time on the height and width of the medial longitudinal arch following the modified reverse-6 and the modified augmented low-dye taping procedures.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Mark W; McPoil, Thomas G; Fair, Austin

    2014-10-01

    No evidence exits regarding the magnitude of the change in foot posture following the "modified reverse-6" (MR6) taping procedure, either alone or in combination with the "low-dye" (LD) taping technique. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in the height and width of the midfoot after application of the MR6 and the MR6 plus the LD (MR6+LD) taping technique and determine how long those changes last. Eleven individuals (2 female and 9 male) were recruited for this study and were tested under each of two experimental conditions, the MR6 and the MR6+LD taping technique. The order of testing for the two conditions was randomly determined. For each condition, the height and width of the midfoot at 50% of each subject's foot length was initially measured and then again immediately following the application of the tape. These measurements were repeated four hours later immediately prior to running two miles on a treadmill, again immediately after running, and finally after another four hours. The dorsal arch height increased significantly with both the MR6 and MR6+LD taping, but only the MR6+LD remained statistically greater after four hours, a bout of exercise and again at the end of the day. The mean width of the midfoot significantly decreased with both taping procedures. The change in the width of the midfoot remained significantly decreased in both taping conditions after exercise and throughout the day. Both taping procedures are able to significantly change the height and width of the medial longitudinal arch of the foot, but the change lasted longer when the two taping procedures were combined. Level 3, Prospective Cohort Study.

  15. Medial elbow pain

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Medial elbow pain is uncommon when compared with lateral elbow pain. Medial epicondylitis is an uncommon diagnosis and can be confused with other sources of pain. Overhead throwers and workers lifting heavy objects are at increased risk of medial elbow pain. Differential diagnosis includes ulnar nerve disorders, cervical radiculopathy, injured ulnar collateral ligament, altered distal triceps anatomy or joint disorders. Children with medial elbow pain have to be assessed for ‘Little League elbow’ and fractures of the medial epicondyle following a traumatic event. This paper is primarily focused on the differential diagnosis of medial elbow pain with basic recommendations on treatment strategies. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:362-371. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160006 PMID:28932488

  16. Anatomical Properties of the Arcuate Fasciculus Predict Phonological and Reading Skills in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena; Sherbondy, Anthony J.; Deutsch, Gayle K.; Wandell, Brian A.; Ben-Shachar, Michal

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, neurologists have hypothesized that the arcuate fasciculus carries signals that are essential for language function; however, the relevance of the pathway for particular behaviors is highly controversial. The primary objective of this study was to use diffusion tensor imaging to examine the relationship between individual…

  17. Aging-Resilient Associations between the Arcuate Fasciculus and Vocabulary Knowledge: Microstructure or Morphology?

    PubMed Central

    Vaden, Kenneth I.; Cute, Stephanie L.; Yeatman, Jason D.; Dougherty, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary knowledge is one of the few cognitive functions that is relatively preserved in older adults, but the reasons for this relative preservation have not been well delineated. We tested the hypothesis that individual differences in vocabulary knowledge are influenced by arcuate fasciculus macrostructure (i.e., shape and volume) properties that remain stable during the aging process, rather than white matter microstructure that demonstrates age-related declines. Vocabulary was not associated with age compared to pronounced age-related declines in cognitive processing speed across 106 healthy adults (19.92–88.29 years) who participated in this neuroimaging experiment. Fractional anisotropy in the left arcuate fasciculus was significantly related to individual variability in vocabulary. This effect was present despite marked age-related differences in a T1-weighted/T2-weighted ratio (T1w/T2w) estimate of myelin that were observed throughout the left arcuate fasciculus and associated with age-related differences in cognitive processing speed. However, atypical patterns of arcuate fasciculus morphology or macrostructure were associated with decreased vocabulary knowledge. These results suggest that deterioration of tissue in the arcuate fasciculus occurs with normal aging, while having limited impact on tract organization that underlies individual differences in the acquisition and retrieval of lexical and semantic information. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Vocabulary knowledge is resilient to widespread age-related declines in brain structure that limit other cognitive functions. We tested the hypothesis that arcuate fasciculus morphology, which supports the development of reading skills that bolster vocabulary, could explain this relative preservation. We disentangled (1) the effects of age-related declines in arcuate microstructure (mean diffusivity; myelin content estimate) that predicted cognitive processing speed but not vocabulary, from (2) relatively stable

  18. White Matter Microstructure in Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Associated with Spatial Working Memory Performance in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vestergaard, Martin; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Baare, William F. C.; Skimminge, Arnold; Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Ramsoy, Thomas Z.; Gerlach, Christian; Akeson, Per; Paulson, Olaf B.; Jernigan, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    During childhood and adolescence, ongoing white matter maturation in the fronto-parietal cortices and connecting fiber tracts is measurable with diffusion-weighted imaging. Important questions remain, however, about the links between these changes and developing cognitive functions. Spatial working memory (SWM) performance improves significantly…

  19. A combinatorial optogenetic approach to medial habenula function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Eric E.; Hsu, Yun-Wei; Wang, Si; Morton, Glenn; Zeng, Hongkui

    2013-03-01

    The habenula is a brain region found in all vertebrate species. It consists of medial and lateral subnuclei which make complex descending connections to the brainstem. Although the medial habenula (MHb) and its projection, the fasciculus retroflexus (FR), have been recognized for decades, their function remains obscure. The small size of the MHb in rodents, and the cellular and molecular complexity of this region, have made it difficult to study the function of this region with high specificity. Here we describe a Cre-mediated genetic system for expressing the microbial opsin channelrhodopsin (ChR2) specifically in the dorsal (dMHb) and ventral (vMHb) medial habenula. Genetically targeted expression of ChR2 allows MHb neurons to be selectively activated with light in acute brain slices with electrophysiological readouts, and in vivo by means of custom-built fiber optic cannulas. These tools will allow highly specific studies of MHb circuitry and the role of the MHb in behaviors related to addiction and mood regulation.

  20. Medial Meniscal Extrusion Relates to Cartilage Loss in Specific Femorotibial Subregions- Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bloecker, K.; Wirth, W.; Guermazi, A.; Hunter, DJ; Resch, H.; Hochreiter, J.; Eckstein, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medial meniscal extrusion is known to be related to structural progression of knee OA. However, it is unclear whether medial meniscal extrusion is more strongly associated with cartilage loss in certain medial femorotibial subregions than to others. Methods Segmentation of the medial tibial and femoral cartilage (baseline; 1-year follow-up) and the medial meniscus (baseline) was performed in 60 participants with frequent knee pain (age 61.3±9.2y, BMI 31.3±3.9 kg/m2) and with unilateral medial radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) grade 1–3, using double echo steady state MR-images. Medial meniscal extrusion distance and extrusion area (%) between the external meniscal and tibial margin at baseline, and longitudinal medial cartilage loss in eight anatomical subregions were determined. Results A significant association (Pearson correlation coefficient) was seen between medial meniscus extrusion area in JSN knees and cartilage loss over one year throughout the entire medial femorotibial compartment. The strongest correlation was with cartilage loss in the external medial tibia (r=−0.34 [p<0.01] in JSN, and r=−0.30 [p=0.02] in noJSN knees). Conclusion Medial meniscus extrusion was associated with subsequent medial cartilage loss. The external medial tibial cartilage may be particularly vulnerable to thinning once the meniscus extrudes and its surface is “exposed” to direct, non-physiological, cartilage-cartilage contact. PMID:25988986

  1. Medial prefrontal aberrations in major depressive disorder revealed by cytoarchitectonically informed voxel-based morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Bludau, Sebastian; Bzdok, Danilo; Gruber, Oliver; Kohn, Nils; Riedl, Valentin; Sorg, Christian; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Müller, Veronika I.; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Amunts, Katrin; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The heterogeneous human frontal pole has been identified as a node in the dysfunctional network of major depressive disorder. The contribution of the medial (socio-affective) versus lateral (cognitive) frontal pole to major depression pathogenesis is currently unclear. The present study performs morphometric comparison of the microstructurally informed subdivisions of human frontal pole between depressed patients and controls using both uni- and multivariate statistics. Methods Multi-site voxel- and region-based morphometric MRI analysis of 73 depressed patients and 73 matched controls without psychiatric history. Frontal pole volume was first compared between depressed patients and controls by subdivision-wise classical morphometric analysis. In a second approach, frontal pole volume was compared by subdivision-naive multivariate searchlight analysis based on support vector machines. Results Subdivision-wise morphometric analysis found a significantly smaller medial frontal pole in depressed patients with a negative correlation of disease severity and duration. Histologically uninformed multivariate voxel-wise statistics provided converging evidence for structural aberrations specific to the microstructurally defined medial area of the frontal pole in depressed patients. Conclusions Across disparate methods, we demonstrated subregion specificity in the left medial frontal pole volume in depressed patients. Indeed, the frontal pole was shown to structurally and functionally connect to other key regions in major depression pathology like the anterior cingulate cortex and the amygdala via the uncinate fasciculus. Present and previous findings consolidate the left medial portion of the frontal pole as particularly altered in major depression. PMID:26621569

  2. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    PubMed Central

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial and lateral discoid meniscus. In magnetic resonance imaging, although the lateral discoid meniscus had no tear, the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. Arthroscopic examination of his right knee similarly revealed that the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. In addition, the discoid medial meniscus also had an anomalous insertion to the anterior cruciate ligament, and there was also mild fibrillation of the medial tibial cartilage surface. We performed arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for the torn medial discoid meniscus but not for the asymptomatic lateral discoid meniscus. The latest follow-up at 18 months indicated satisfactory results. Conclusion: We report a rare case of ipsilateral medial and lateral discoid meniscus with medial meniscus tear. The medial discoid meniscus with tear was treated with partial meniscectomy, whereas the lateral discoid meniscus without tear was only followed up. PMID:28164045

  3. Longitudinal changes in microstructural white matter metrics in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mayo, Chantel D; Mazerolle, Erin L; Ritchie, Lesley; Fisk, John D; Gawryluk, Jodie R

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. Current avenues of AD research focus on pre-symptomatic biomarkers that will assist with early diagnosis of AD. The majority of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based biomarker research to date has focused on neuronal loss in grey matter and there is a paucity of research on white matter. Longitudinal DTI data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 2 database were used to examine 1) the within-group microstructural white matter changes in individuals with AD and healthy controls at baseline and year one; and 2) the between-group microstructural differences in individuals with AD and healthy controls at both time points. 1) Within-group: longitudinal Tract-Based Spatial Statistics revealed that individuals with AD and healthy controls both had widespread reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD) with changes in the hippocampal cingulum exclusive to the AD group. 2) Between-group: relative to healthy controls, individuals with AD had lower FA and higher MD in the hippocampal cingulum, as well as the corpus callosum, internal and external capsule; corona radiata; posterior thalamic radiation; superior and inferior longitudinal fasciculus; fronto-occipital fasciculus; cingulate gyri; fornix; uncinate fasciculus; and tapetum. The current results indicate that sensitivity to white matter microstructure is a promising avenue for AD biomarker research. Additional longitudinal studies on both white and grey matter are warranted to further evaluate potential clinical utility.

  4. Pathways of the inferior frontal occipital fasciculus in overt speech and reading.

    PubMed

    Rollans, Claire; Cheema, Kulpreet; Georgiou, George K; Cummine, Jacqueline

    2017-11-19

    In this study, we examined the relationship between tractography-based measures of white matter integrity (ex. fractional anisotropy [FA]) from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and five reading-related tasks, including rapid automatized naming (RAN) of letters, digits, and objects, and reading of real words and nonwords. Twenty university students with no reported history of reading difficulties were tested on all five tasks and their performance was correlated with diffusion measures extracted through DTI tractography. A secondary analysis using whole-brain Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) was also used to find clusters showing significant negative correlations between reaction time and FA. Results showed a significant relationship between the left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus FA and performance on the RAN of objects task, as well as a strong relationship to nonword reading, which suggests a role for this tract in slower, non-automatic and/or resource-demanding speech tasks. There were no significant relationships between FA and the faster, more automatic speech tasks (RAN of letters and digits, and real word reading). These findings provide evidence for the role of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in tasks that are highly demanding of orthography-phonology translation (e.g., nonword reading) and semantic processing (e.g., RAN object). This demonstrates the importance of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in basic naming and suggests that this tract may be a sensitive predictor of rapid naming performance within the typical population. We discuss the findings in the context of current models of reading and speech production to further characterize the white matter pathways associated with basic reading processes. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

    2013-11-01

    Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca's area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca's and global aphasia

  6. Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca’s area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca’s and global aphasia

  7. 'For the benefit of the people': the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae, Antwerp 1512.

    PubMed

    Coppens, Christian

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with the Dutch translation of the Fasciculus medicinae based on the Latin edition, Venice 1495, with the famous woodcuts created in 1494 for the Italian translation of the original Latin edition of 1491. The woodcuts are compared with the Venetian model. New features in the Antwerp edition include the Skeleton and the Zodiac Man, bot originally based on German models. The text also deals with other woodcuts in the Low Countries based on these Venetian illustrations. The Appendices provide a short title catalog of all the editions and translations based on the Venetian edition and a stemma.

  8. A Combined fMRI and DTI Examination of Functional Language Lateralization and Arcuate Fasciculus Structure: Effects of Degree versus Direction of Hand Preference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propper, Ruthe E.; O'Donnell, Lauren J.; Whalen, Stephen; Tie, Yanmei; Norton, Isaiah H.; Suarez, Ralph O.; Zollei, Lilla; Radmanesh, Alireza; Golby, Alexandra J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between hand preference degree and direction, functional language lateralization in Broca's and Wernicke's areas, and structural measures of the arcuate fasciculus. Results revealed an effect of degree of hand preference on arcuate fasciculus structure, such that consistently-handed individuals,…

  9. The medial patellofemoral complex.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Alexander E; Tanaka, Miho J

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of the medial patellofemoral complex, including recent anatomic advances, evaluation of indications for reconstruction with concomitant pathology, and surgical reconstruction techniques. Recent advances in our understanding of MPFC anatomy have found that there are fibers that insert onto the deep quadriceps tendon as well as the patella, thus earning the name "medial patellofemoral complex" to allow for the variability in its anatomy. In MPFC reconstruction, anatomic origin and insertion points and appropriate graft length are critical to prevent overconstraint of the patellofemoral joint. The MPFC is a crucial soft tissue checkrein to lateral patellar translation, and its repair or reconstruction results in good restoration of patellofemoral stability. As our understanding of MPFC anatomy evolves, further studies are needed to apply its relevance in kinematics and surgical applications to its role in maintaining patellar stability.

  10. Preliminary Evidence of White Matter Abnormality in the Uncinate Fasciculus in Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Phan, K. Luan; Orlichenko, Anton; Boyd, Erin; Angstadt, Mike; Coccaro, Emil F.; Liberzon, Israel; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2009-01-01

    Background Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) exhibit exaggerated amygdala reactivity to aversive social stimuli. These findings could be explained by microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM) tracts that connect the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, which is known to modulate the amygdala’s response to threat. The goal of this study was to investigate brain frontal WM abnormalities by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with social anxiety disorder. Method A Turboprop DTI sequence was used to acquire diffusion tensor images in thirty patients with GSAD and thirty matched healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy, an index of axonal organization, within WM was quantified in individual subjects and an automated voxel-based, whole-brain method was used to analyze group differences. Results Compared to healthy controls, patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy localized to the right uncinate fasciculus WM near the orbitofrontal cortex. There were no areas of higher fractional anisotropy in patients than controls. Conclusions These findings point to an abnormality in the uncinate fasciculus, the major WM tract connecting the frontal cortex to the amygdala and other limbic temporal regions, in GSAD which could underlie the aberrant amygdala-prefrontal interactions resulting in dysfunctional social threat processing in this illness. PMID:19362707

  11. Preliminary evidence of white matter abnormality in the uncinate fasciculus in generalized social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Phan, K Luan; Orlichenko, Anton; Boyd, Erin; Angstadt, Mike; Coccaro, Emil F; Liberzon, Israel; Arfanakis, Konstantinos

    2009-10-01

    Individuals with generalized social anxiety disorder (GSAD) exhibit exaggerated amygdala reactivity to aversive social stimuli. These findings could be explained by microstructural abnormalities in white matter (WM) tracts that connect the amygdala and prefrontal cortex, which is known to modulate the amygdala's response to threat. The goal of this study was to investigate brain frontal WM abnormalities using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with social anxiety disorder. A Turboprop DTI sequence was used to acquire diffusion tensor images in 30 patients with GSAD and 30 matched healthy control subjects. Fractional anisotropy, an index of axonal organization, within WM was quantified in individual subjects, and an automated voxel-based, whole-brain method was used to analyze group differences. Compared with healthy control subjects, patients had significantly lower fractional anisotropy localized to the right uncinate fasciculus WM near the orbitofrontal cortex. There were no areas of higher fractional anisotropy in patients than controls. These findings point to an abnormality in the uncinate fasciculus, the major WM tract connecting the frontal cortex to the amygdala and other limbic temporal regions, in GSAD, which could underlie the aberrant amygdala-prefrontal interactions resulting in dysfunctional social threat processing in this illness.

  12. Pediatric traumatic brain injury: language outcomes and their relationship to the arcuate fasciculus.

    PubMed

    Liégeois, Frédérique J; Mahony, Kate; Connelly, Alan; Pigdon, Lauren; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Morgan, Angela T

    2013-12-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in long-lasting language impairments alongside dysarthria, a motor-speech disorder. Whether this co-morbidity is due to the functional links between speech and language networks, or to widespread damage affecting both motor and language tracts, remains unknown. Here we investigated language function and diffusion metrics (using diffusion-weighted tractography) within the arcuate fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the corpus callosum in 32 young people after TBI (approximately half with dysarthria) and age-matched healthy controls (n=17). Only participants with dysarthria showed impairments in language, affecting sentence formulation and semantic association. In the whole TBI group, sentence formulation was best predicted by combined corpus callosum and left arcuate volumes, suggesting this "dual blow" seriously reduces the potential for functional reorganisation. Word comprehension was predicted by fractional anisotropy in the right arcuate. The co-morbidity between dysarthria and language deficits therefore seems to be the consequence of multiple tract damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diffusion tensor tractography of the arcuate fasciculus in patients with brain tumors: Comparison between deterministic and probabilistic models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhixi; Peck, Kyung K.; Brennan, Nicole P.; Jenabi, Mehrnaz; Hsu, Meier; Zhang, Zhigang; Holodny, Andrei I.; Young, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare the deterministic and probabilistic tracking methods of diffusion tensor white matter fiber tractography in patients with brain tumors. Materials and Methods We identified 29 patients with left brain tumors <2 cm from the arcuate fasciculus who underwent pre-operative language fMRI and DTI. The arcuate fasciculus was reconstructed using a deterministic Fiber Assignment by Continuous Tracking (FACT) algorithm and a probabilistic method based on an extended Monte Carlo Random Walk algorithm. Tracking was controlled using two ROIs corresponding to Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. Tracts in tumoraffected hemispheres were examined for extension between Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, anterior-posterior length and volume, and compared with the normal contralateral tracts. Results Probabilistic tracts displayed more complete anterior extension to Broca’s area than did FACT tracts on the tumor-affected and normal sides (p < 0.0001). The median length ratio for tumor: normal sides was greater for probabilistic tracts than FACT tracts (p < 0.0001). The median tract volume ratio for tumor: normal sides was also greater for probabilistic tracts than FACT tracts (p = 0.01). Conclusion Probabilistic tractography reconstructs the arcuate fasciculus more completely and performs better through areas of tumor and/or edema. The FACT algorithm tends to underestimate the anterior-most fibers of the arcuate fasciculus, which are crossed by primary motor fibers. PMID:25328583

  14. The arcuate fasciculus and the disconnection theme in language and aphasia: History and current state

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel

    2009-01-01

    Few themes have been more central to neurological models of aphasia than the disconnection paradigm and the role of the arcuate fasciculus. Introduced by luminaries of 19th Century neurology and resurrected by the charismatic work of Norman Geschwind, the disconnection theme has triggered spectacular advances of modern understanding of language and aphasia. But the disconnection paradigm had alternate fortunes, ranging from irrational exuberance to benign neglect, and its followers have not always shared the same view on its functional consequences and anatomical correlates. Our goal in this paper is, first, to survey the 19th Century roots of the connectionist approach to aphasia and, second, to describe emerging imaging technologies based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that promise to consolidate and expand the disconnection approach to language and its disorders. PMID:18614162

  15. The arcuate fasciculus and the disconnection theme in language and aphasia: history and current state.

    PubMed

    Catani, Marco; Mesulam, Marsel

    2008-09-01

    Few themes have been more central to neurological models of aphasia than the disconnection paradigm and the role of the arcuate fasciculus. Introduced by luminaries of 19th Century neurology and resurrected by the charismatic work of Norman Geschwind, the disconnection theme has triggered spectacular advances of modern understanding of language and aphasia. But the disconnection paradigm had alternate fortunes, ranging from irrational exuberance to benign neglect, and its followers have not always shared the same view on its functional consequences and anatomical correlates. Our goal in this paper is, first, to survey the 19th Century roots of the connectionist approach to aphasia and, second, to describe emerging imaging technologies based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) that promise to consolidate and expand the disconnection approach to language and its disorders.

  16. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Studies on Arcuate Fasciculus in Stroke Patients: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common and devastating sequelae of stroke. The arcuate fasciculus (AF), an important neural tract for language function, connects Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas. In this review article, previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies on the AF in stroke patients were reviewed with regard to the usefulness for diagnosis (seven studies), prediction of prognosis (two studies), and recovery of aphasia (three studies). Although scant studies on this topic have been conducted in stroke patients, DTI for the AF appears to provide useful information on the presence or severity of injury of the AF, prognosis prediction of aphasia, and recovery mechanisms of aphasia in stroke patients. Therefore, further DTI studies on these topics should be encouraged, especially studies on prognosis prediction and recovery mechanisms of aphasia. In addition, research on other neural tracts known to be involved in aphasia as well as the AF in both hemispheres should be encouraged. PMID:24198780

  17. Is the term "fasciculus opticus cerebralis" more justifiable than the term "optic nerve"?

    PubMed

    Vojniković, Bojo; Bajek, Snjezana; Bajek, Goran; Strenja-Linić, Ines; Grubesić, Aron

    2013-04-01

    The terminology of the optic nerve had already been changed three times, since 1895 until 1955 when the term "nervus opticus" was introduced in the "Terminologia Anatomica". Following our study we claim that, from the aspect of phylogenetic evolution of binocular vision development as well as optical embryogenesis where opticus is evidently presented as a product of diencephalic structures, the addition of the term "nervus" to opticus is not adequate and justified. From the clinical aspect the term "nervus opticus" is also inadequate, both as a "nerve" that has no functional regenerative properties, unlike other cranial nerves, as well as from a pedagogical and didactical aspect of educating future physicians. We suggest that the term "Fasciculus Opticus Cerebralis" should be used as it much better explains the origin as well as its affiliation to the central nervous system.

  18. Psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of right uncinate fasciculus in a community population.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Mona; Baker, Laura; Martins, Bradford; Tuvblad, Catherine; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with psychopathy possess emotional and behavioral abnormalities. Two neural regions, involved in behavioral control and emotion regulation, are often implicated: amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). Recently, in studies using adult criminal populations, reductions in microstructural integrity of the white matter connections (i.e., uncinate fasciculus (UF)) between these two neural regions have been discovered in criminals with psychopathy, supporting the notion of neural dysfunction in the amygdala-VMPFC circuit. Here, a young adult, community sample is used to assess whether psychopathic traits modulate microstructural integrity of UF, and whether this relationship is dependent upon levels of trait anxiety, which is sometimes used to distinguish subtypes of psychopathy. Results reveal a negative association between psychopathic traits and microstructural integrity of UF, supporting previous findings. However, no moderation of the relationship by trait anxiety was discovered. Findings provide further support for the notion of altered amygdala-VMPFC connectivity in association with higher psychopathic traits.

  19. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Lim, Kelvin O.; Muetzel, R.L.; Luciana, M.

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18-20 years old at baseline) regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment. PMID:26602958

  20. Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.

    PubMed

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphometry of medial gaps of human brain artery branches.

    PubMed

    Canham, Peter B; Finlay, Helen M

    2004-05-01

    The bifurcation regions of the major human cerebral arteries are vulnerable to the formation of saccular aneurysms. A consistent feature of these bifurcations is a discontinuity of the tunica media at the apex of the flow divider. The objective was to measure the 3-dimensional geometry of these medial gaps or "medial defects." Nineteen bifurcations and 2 junctions of human cerebral arteries branches (from 4 male and 2 female subjects) were formalin-fixed at physiological pressure and processed for longitudinal serial sectioning. The apex and adjacent regions were examined and measurements were made from high-magnification photomicrographs, or projection microscope images, of the gap dimensions at multiple levels through the bifurcation. Plots were made of the width of the media as a function of distance from the apex. The media at each edge of the medial gap widened over a short distance, reaching the full width of the media of the contiguous daughter vessel. Medial gap dimensions were compared with the planar angle of the bifurcation, and a strong negative correlation was found, ie, the acute angled branches have the more prominent medial gaps. A discontinuity of the media at the apex was seen in all the bifurcations examined and was also found in the junction regions of brain arteries. We determined that the gap width is continuous with well-defined dimensions throughout its length and average length-to-width ratio of 6.9. The gaps were generally centered on the prominence of the apical ridge.

  2. Recovery of injured arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere in a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Jang, Sung Ho; Lee, Han Do

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on a patient with an intracerebral hemorrhage who showed recovery of an injured arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the dominant hemisphere, using follow-up diffusion tensor tractography. A 43-year-old right-handed man presented with severe aphasia and hemiparesis resulting from a spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parietotemporal lobes. The patient showed severe aphasia at 1 month after onset, with an aphasia quotient of 5% on the Korean-Western Aphasia Battery. He underwent comprehensive rehabilitative therapy until 22 months after onset and his aphasia showed improvement, with an aphasia quotient of 58% on the Korean-Western Aphasia Battery. On 1-month diffusion tensor tractography, only the thin ascending part of the left AF from the Wernicke area remained. In contrast, on 16-month diffusion tensor tractography, the injured left AF was thickened and elongated to around the left Broca area; however, discontinuation of the left AF was observed around the left Broca area, and this continuation was elongated to the left Broca area on 22-month diffusion tensor tractography. This study reports on a patient who showed recovery from injury of the left AF along with improvement of aphasia. Recovery of the injured AF in the dominant hemisphere appears to be one of the mechanisms for recovery from aphasia.

  3. Development of the uncinate fasciculus: Implications for theory and developmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ingrid R; Von Der Heide, Rebecca J; Alm, Kylie H; Vyas, Govinda

    2015-08-01

    The uncinate fasciculus (UF) is a long-range white matter tract that connects limbic regions in the temporal lobe to the frontal lobe. The UF is one of the latest developing tracts, and continues maturing into the third decade of life. As such, individual differences in the maturational profile of the UF may serve to explain differences in behavior. Indeed, atypical macrostructure and microstructure of the UF have been reported in numerous studies of individuals with developmental and psychiatric disorders such as social deprivation and maltreatment, autism spectrum disorders, conduct disorder, risk taking, and substance abuse. The present review evaluates what we currently know about the UF's developmental trajectory and reviews the literature relating UF abnormalities to specific disorders. Additionally, we take a dimensional approach and critically examine symptoms and behavioral impairments that have been demonstrated to cluster with UF aberrations, in an effort to relate these impairments to our speculations regarding the functionality of the UF. We suggest that developmental disorders with core problems relating to memory retrieval, reward and valuation computation, and impulsive decision making may be linked to aberrations in uncinate microstructure. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The vertical occipital fasciculus: a century of controversy resolved by in vivo measurements.

    PubMed

    Yeatman, Jason D; Weiner, Kevin S; Pestilli, Franco; Rokem, Ariel; Mezer, Aviv; Wandell, Brian A

    2014-12-02

    The vertical occipital fasciculus (VOF) is the only major fiber bundle connecting dorsolateral and ventrolateral visual cortex. Only a handful of studies have examined the anatomy of the VOF or its role in cognition in the living human brain. Here, we trace the contentious history of the VOF, beginning with its original discovery in monkey by Wernicke (1881) and in human by Obersteiner (1888), to its disappearance from the literature, and recent reemergence a century later. We introduce an algorithm to identify the VOF in vivo using diffusion-weighted imaging and tractography, and show that the VOF can be found in every hemisphere (n = 74). Quantitative T1 measurements demonstrate that tissue properties, such as myelination, in the VOF differ from neighboring white-matter tracts. The terminations of the VOF are in consistent positions relative to cortical folding patterns in the dorsal and ventral visual streams. Recent findings demonstrate that these same anatomical locations also mark cytoarchitectonic and functional transitions in dorsal and ventral visual cortex. We conclude that the VOF is likely to serve a unique role in the communication of signals between regions on the ventral surface that are important for the perception of visual categories (e.g., words, faces, bodies, etc.) and regions on the dorsal surface involved in the control of eye movements, attention, and motion perception.

  5. White matter tracts in first-episode psychosis: A DTI tractography study of the uncinate fasciculus

    PubMed Central

    Price, Gary; Cercignani, Mara; Parker, Geoffrey J.M.; Altmann, Daniel R.; Barnes, Thomas R.E.; Barker, Gareth J.; Joyce, Eileen M.; Ron, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    A model of disconnectivity involving abnormalities in the cortex and connecting white matter pathways may explain the symptoms and cognitive abnormalities of schizophrenia. Recently, diffusion imaging tractography has made it possible to study white matter pathways in detail, and we present here a study of patients with first-episode psychosis using this technique. We studied the uncinate fasciculus (UF), the largest white matter tract that connects the frontal and temporal lobes, two brain regions significantly implicated in schizophrenia. Nineteen patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 23 controls were studied using a probabilistic tractography algorithm (PICo). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and probability of connection were obtained for every voxel in the tract, and the group means and distributions of these variables were compared. The spread of the FA distribution in the upper tail, as measured by the squared coefficient of variance (SCV), was reduced in the left UF in the patient group, indicating that the number of voxels with high FA values was reduced in the core of the tract and suggesting the presence of changes in fibre alignment and tract coherence in the patient group. The SCV of FA was lower in females across both groups and there was no correlation between the SCV of FA and clinical ratings. PMID:17988894

  6. Effects of sensitivity to life stress on uncinate fasciculus segments in early adolescence

    PubMed Central

    King, Lucy S.; Leong, Josiah K.; Colich, Natalie L.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Ordaz, Sarah J.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Previous research suggests that exposure to early life stress (ELS) affects the structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus (UF), a frontolimbic white matter tract that undergoes protracted development throughout adolescence. Adolescence is an important transitional period characterized by the emergence of internalizing psychopathology such as anxiety, particularly in individuals with high levels of stress sensitivity. We examined the relations among sensitivity to ELS, structural integrity of the UF, and anxiety symptoms in 104 early adolescents. We conducted structured interviews to assess exposure to ELS and obtained subjective and objective ratings of stress severity, from which we derived an index of ELS sensitivity. We also acquired diffusion MRI and conducted deterministic tractography to visualize UF trajectories and to compute measures of structural integrity from three distinct segments of the UF: frontal, insular, temporal. We found that higher sensitivity to ELS predicted both reduced fractional anisotropy in right frontal UF and higher levels of anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest that fibers in frontal UF, which are still developing throughout adolescence, are most vulnerable to the effects of heightened sensitivity to ELS, and that reduced structural integrity of frontal UF may underlie the relation between early stress and subsequent internalizing psychopathology. PMID:28460088

  7. Interpersonal traits of psychopathy linked to reduced integrity of the uncinate fasciculus.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Richard C; Pujara, Maia S; Motzkin, Julian C; Newman, Joseph P; Kiehl, Kent A; Decety, Jean; Kosson, David S; Koenigs, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Psychopathy is a personality disorder characterized by callous lack of empathy, impulsive antisocial behavior, and criminal recidivism. Here, we performed the largest diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study of incarcerated criminal offenders to date (N = 147) to determine whether psychopathy severity is linked to the microstructural integrity of major white matter tracts in the brain. Consistent with the results of previous studies in smaller samples, we found that psychopathy was associated with reduced fractional anisotropy in the right uncinate fasciculus (UF; the major white matter tract connecting ventral frontal and anterior temporal cortices). We found no such association in the left UF or in adjacent frontal or temporal white matter tracts. Moreover, the right UF finding was specifically related to the interpersonal features of psychopathy (glib superficial charm, grandiose sense of self-worth, pathological lying, manipulativeness), rather than the affective, antisocial, or lifestyle features. These results indicate a neural marker for this key dimension of psychopathic symptomatology. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Diffusion tensor imaging--arcuate fasciculus and the importance for the neurosurgeon.

    PubMed

    Hana, Ardian; Dooms, Georges; Boecher-Schwarz, Hans; Hertel, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Tumors in eloquent areas of the brain like Broca or Wernicke might have disastrous consequences for patients. We intended to visualize the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and to demonstrate his relation with the corticospinal tract and the visual pathway using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We depicted between 2012 and 2014 the AF in 71 patients. Men and women of all ages were included. Eleven patients had postoperative controls also. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI-sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 × 200 mm(2), slice thickness 2mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 × 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 × 2 × 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI) and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-Value was 800 s/mm(2). Additional scanning time was less than 9 min. AF was portrayed in 63 patients bilaterally. In one glioblastoma patient it was impossible to visualize the left AF and in seven other patients we could not portray the right one. The lesions affected AF by disrupting or displacing the fibers. DTI might be a useful tool to portray AF. It is time-saving and can be used to preserve morbidity in patients with lesions in eloquent brain areas. It might give deeper insights of the white matter and the reorganization of AF-fibers postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reduced integrity of the left arcuate fasciculus is specifically associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Oestreich, Lena K L; Whitford, Thomas J

    2015-03-01

    Schizophrenia patients with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have reduced structural integrity in the left arcuate fasciculus (AFL) compared to healthy controls. However, it is neither known whether these changes are specific to AVH, as opposed to hallucinations or schizophrenia per se, nor how radial and/or axial diffusivity are altered. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that reductions to the structural integrity of the AFL are specifically associated with AVH in schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging scans and clinical data were obtained from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank for 39 schizophrenia patients with lifetime AVH (18 current, 21 remitted), 74 schizophrenia patients with no lifetime AVH (40 with lifetime hallucinations in other modalities, 34 no lifetime hallucinations) and 40 healthy controls. Fractional anisotropy was significantly reduced in the AFL of patients with lifetime AVH compared to both healthy controls (Cohen's d=1.24) and patients without lifetime AVH (d=.72), including compared to the specific subsets of patients without AVH who either had hallucinations in other modalities (d=.69) or no history of any hallucinations (d=.73). Radial, but not axial, diffusivity was significantly increased in patients with lifetime AVH compared to both healthy controls (d=.89) and patients without lifetime AVH (d=.39). Evidence was found for a non-linear relation between fractional anisotropy in the AFL and state AVH. Reduced integrity of the AFL is specifically associated with AVH, as opposed to schizophrenia in general or hallucinations in other modalities. Increased radial diffusivity suggests dysmyelination or demyelination of the AFL may play a role in AVH. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced Volume of the Arcuate Fasciculus in Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Correia, Marta M.; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Shtyrov, Yury; Pulvermüller, Friedemann; Mohr, Bettina

    2016-01-01

    Atypical language is a fundamental feature of autism spectrum conditions (ASC), but few studies have examined the structural integrity of the arcuate fasciculus, the major white matter tract connecting frontal and temporal language regions, which is usually implicated as the main transfer route used in processing linguistic information by the brain. Abnormalities in the arcuate have been reported in young children with ASC, mostly in low-functioning or non-verbal individuals, but little is known regarding the structural properties of the arcuate in adults with ASC or, in particular, in individuals with ASC who have intact language, such as those with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome. We used probabilistic tractography of diffusion-weighted imaging to isolate and scrutinize the arcuate in a mixed-gender sample of 18 high-functioning adults with ASC (17 Asperger syndrome) and 14 age- and IQ-matched typically developing controls. Arcuate volume was significantly reduced bilaterally with clearest differences in the right hemisphere. This finding remained significant in an analysis of all male participants alone. Volumetric reduction in the arcuate was significantly correlated with the severity of autistic symptoms as measured by the Autism-Spectrum Quotient. These data reveal that structural differences are present even in high-functioning adults with ASC, who presented with no clinically manifest language deficits and had no reported developmental language delay. Arcuate structural integrity may be useful as an index of ASC severity and thus as a predictor and biomarker for ASC. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:27242478

  11. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: comparing singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians.

    PubMed

    Halwani, Gus F; Loui, Psyche; Rüber, Theodor; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Structure and function of the human brain are affected by training in both linguistic and musical domains. Individuals with intensive vocal musical training provide a useful model for investigating neural adaptations of learning in the vocal-motor domain and can be compared with learning in a more general musical domain. Here we confirm general differences in macrostructure (tract volume) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy, FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), a prominent white-matter tract connecting temporal and frontal brain regions, between singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians. Both groups of musicians differed from non-musicians in having larger tract volume and higher FA values of the right and left AF. The AF was then subdivided in a dorsal (superior) branch connecting the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (STG ↔ IFG), and ventral (inferior) branch connecting the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (MTG ↔ IFG). Relative to instrumental musicians, singers had a larger tract volume but lower FA values in the left dorsal AF (STG ↔ IFG), and a similar trend in the left ventral AF (MTG ↔ IFG). This between-group comparison controls for the general effects of musical training, although FA was still higher in singers compared to non-musicians. Both musician groups had higher tract volumes in the right dorsal and ventral tracts compared to non-musicians, but did not show a significant difference between each other. Furthermore, in the singers' group, FA in the left dorsal branch of the AF was inversely correlated with the number of years of participants' vocal training. Our findings suggest that long-term vocal-motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity of specific white-matter tracts connecting regions that are fundamental to sound perception, production, and its feedforward and feedback control which can be differentiated from a more general musician

  12. Medial meniscus posterior horn avulsion.

    PubMed

    Marzo, John M

    2009-05-01

    Avulsion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can occur from acute trauma or chronic degeneration, leading to meniscus extrusion, articular cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and medial joint space narrowing. With meniscus extrusion, the meniscus is unable to resist hoop stresses and cannot shield the adjacent articular cartilage from excessive axial load. Over time, this can lead to symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Patients typically report pain, swelling, mechanical symptoms, and general functional loss. Although nonsurgical care may relieve symptoms, it is unlikely to alter either the natural history of meniscal loss or the fate of the medial compartment. Surgical repair of posterior horn meniscal avulsion is done in an attempt to restore the anatomy and biomechanical function of the meniscus, and to slow or prevent degenerative joint disease. Meniscal transplantation is reserved for salvage situations.

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging depicting damage to the arcuate fasciculus in patients with conduction aphasia: a study of the Wernicke-Geschwind model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Chen, Hongyan; Han, Zaizhu; Wang, Yongjun

    2010-09-01

    In contrast with disorders of comprehension and spontaneous expression, conduction aphasia is characterized by poor repetition, which is a hallmark of the syndrome. There are many theories on the repetition impairment of conduction aphasia. The disconnection theory suggests that a damaged in the arcuate fasciculus, which connects Broca's and Wernicke's area, is the cause of conduction aphasia. In this study, we examined the disconnection theory. We enrolled ten individuals with conduction aphasia and ten volunteers, and analysed their arcuate fasciculus using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Then, the results of the left hemisphere were compared with those of the right hemisphere, and the results of the conduction aphasia cases were compared with those of the volunteers. There were significant differences in the FA values between the left and right hemispheres of volunteers and conduction cases. In volunteers, there was an increase in fiber in the left hemisphere compared with the right hemisphere, whereas there was an increase in fiber in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere in conduction aphasia patients. The results of diffusion tensor tractography suggested that the configuration of the arcuate fasciculus was different between conduction aphasia patients and volunteers, suggesting that there was damage to the arcuate fasciculus of conduction aphasia cases. The damage seen in the arcuate fasciculus of conduction aphasia cases in this study supports the Wernicke-Geschwind disconnection theory. A disconnection between Broca's area and Wernicke's area is likely to be one mechanism of conduction aphasia repetition impairment.

  14. [Medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction using quadriceps tendon].

    PubMed

    Lenschow, S; Herbort, M; Fink, C

    2015-12-01

    Stabilization of the patella by medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Recurrent lateral patella instability with chronic weakening of the MPFL. Femoropatellar cartilage defects ICRS grade 3° or higher. Tuberositas Tibiae Trochlear Groove Index (TTTG) >20 mm. Lateral hypercompression of the patella without instability. A 3 cm transverse skin incision at the superomedial edge of the patella in 90° of flexion. Longitudinal incision of the prepatellar bursa and exposure of the quadriceps tendon. Preparation of a flat tendon strip with a length of 8 cm, a width of 10 mm, and a thickness of 3 mm, leaving the attachment at the patella intact. Flipping of the tendon strip and passing of the graft through a tunnel underneath the prepatellar tissue at the medial edge of the patella. Passing of the graft in layer two of the medial joint capsule just below the fascia (layer 1) and the vastus medialis. Fixation of the graft in a bone tunnel, drilled in the femoral insertion site of the native MPFL using a biodegradable interference screw. Patella centralizing brace for 4 weeks with range of motion (ROM) 0/0/90°, 20 kg of partial weight bearing for 3 weeks. Full weight-bearing according to pain starting from week 4 postoperatively. ROM up to 90° of flexion directly postoperatively. Free ROM starting from week 6 postoperatively. Stationary cycling 6 weeks postoperatively. Swimming and running after 10 months. Return to pivoting sports after 4-5 months. A total of 17 patients (7 men and 10 women; average age 21.5 years ±3.9 years, average BMI 22.6 ±3.9) were treated using this technique between March 2011 and November 2012. Only patients with at least one recurrent patella dislocation following conservative treatment were included. Patient satisfaction 12 months postoperatively was very high. Overall, 94.1 % would undergo the procedure again and 94.1 % were very satisfied with the cosmetic result. Significant improvement in Lysholm score 6, 12, and 24

  15. Bilateral discoid medial menisci: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Puspak; Bhagwat, Kishan; Panigrahi, Tapas; Gopinathan, Nirmalraj

    2014-01-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a relatively rare pathology of the knee joint, with bilateral cases even rarer. Herein, we report the case of a 25-year-old man diagnosed with discoid medial meniscus in the right knee with a horizontal tear. Increased cupping of the medial condyle of the tibia, widening of the medial joint space and the presence of discoid meniscus in the right knee prompted investigation of the asymptomatic left knee with magnetic resonance imaging. The contralateral asymptomatic knee also showed evidence of discoid medial meniscus. The symptomatic knee was successfully treated by arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, with excellent functional outcome. PMID:25273941

  16. Resection of Grade III cranial horn tears of the equine medial meniscus alter the contact forces on medial tibial condyle at full extension: an in-vitro cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Fowlie, Jennifer; Arnoczky, Steven; Lavagnino, Michael; Maerz, Tristan; Stick, John

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the magnitude and distribution of joint contact pressure on the medial tibial condyle after grade III cranial horn tears of the medial meniscus. Experimental study. Cadaveric equine stifles (n = 6). Cadaveric stifles were mounted in a materials testing system and electronic pressure sensors were placed between the medial tibial condyle and medial meniscus. Specimens were loaded parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tibia to 1800 N at 130°, 140°, 150°, and 160° stifle angle. Peak pressure and contact area were recorded from the contact maps. Testing was repeated after surgical creation of a grade III cranial horn tear of the medial meniscus, and after resection of the simulated tear. In the intact specimens, a significantly smaller contact area was observed at 160° compared with the other angles (P < .05). Creation of a grade III cranial horn tear in the medial meniscus did not significantly alter the pressure or contact area measurements at any stifle angle compared with intact specimens (P > .05). Resection of the tear resulted in significantly higher peak pressures in the central region of the medial tibial condyle at a stifle angle of 160° relative to the intact (P = .026) and torn (P = .012) specimens. Resection of grade III cranial horn tears in the medial meniscus resulted in a central focal region of increased pressure on the medial tibial condyle at 160° stifle angle. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  17. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    PubMed

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm(3)) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm(3)) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  18. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  19. Chevron-type medial malleolar osteotomy: a functional, radiographic and quantitative T2-mapping MRI analysis.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Joshua; Murawski, Christopher D; Deyer, Timothy W; Kennedy, John G

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrospectively evaluate a large series of patients for functional, radiographic and MRI outcomes after a Chevron-type medial malleolar osteotomy. Sixty-two patients underwent a Chevron-type medial malleolar osteotomy with a median follow-up of 34.5 months. Standard digital radiographs were used to determine bony union and the angle of the osteotomy relative to the longitudinal axis of the tibia. Morphologic and quantitative T2-mapping MRI was also analysed in 32 patients. Fifty-eight patients (94 %) reported being asymptomatic at the site of the medial malleolar osteotomy. The median time to healing on standard radiograph was 6 weeks (range, 4-6 weeks) with an angle of 31.7° ± 6.9°. Quantitative T2-mapping MRI analysis demonstrated that the deep half of interface repair tissue had relaxation times that were not significantly different from normal tibial cartilage. In contrast, interface repair tissue in the superficial half demonstrated significant prolongation from normal relaxation time values, indicating a more fibrocartilaginous repair. Four patients (6 %) reported pain post-operatively. A Chevron-type medial malleolar osteotomy demonstrates satisfactory healing and fixation, with fibrocartilaginous tissue evident superficially at the osteotomy interface. Further investigation is warranted in the form of longitudinal study to assess the long-term outcomes of medial malleolar osteotomy.

  20. The Anatomy of the Medial Patellofemoral Complex.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho J

    2017-06-01

    The term "medial patellofemoral complex" (MPFC) was proposed to describe the static medial stabilizer of the patella, typically referred to as the medial patellofemoral ligament. In light of our increasing understanding of the attachment of its fibers to the quadriceps tendon in addition to the patella, the term MPFC is used in this article. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss the anatomy of the MPFC.

  1. Longitudinal changes in white matter integrity among adolescent substance users.

    PubMed

    Bava, Sunita; Jacobus, Joanna; Thayer, Rachel E; Tapert, Susan F

    2013-01-01

    The influence of repeated substance use during adolescent neurodevelopment remains unclear as there have been few prospective investigations. The aims of this study were to identify longitudinal changes in fiber tract integrity associated with alcohol- and marijuana-use severity over the course of 1.5 years. Adolescents with extensive marijuana- and alcohol-use histories by mid-adolescence (n = 41) and youth with consistently minimal if any substance use (n = 51) were followed over 18 months. Teens received diffusion tensor imaging and detailed substance-use assessments with toxicology screening at baseline and 18-month follow-ups (i.e., 182 scans in all), as well as interim substance-use interviews each 6 months. At an 18-month follow-up, substance users showed poorer white matter integrity in 7 tracts: (i) right superior longitudinal fasciculus, (ii) left superior longitudinal fasciculus, (iii) right posterior thalamic radiations, (iv) right prefrontal thalamic fibers, (v) right superior temporal gyrus white matter, (vi) right inferior longitudinal fasciculus, and (vii) left posterior corona radiata (ps < 0.01). More alcohol use during the interscan interval predicted higher mean diffusivity (i.e., worsened integrity) in right (p < 0.05) and left (p = 0.06) superior longitudinal fasciculi, above and beyond baseline values in these bundles. Marijuana use during the interscan interval did not predict change over time. More externalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted lower fractional anisotropy and higher radial diffusivity (i.e., poorer integrity) of the right prefrontal thalamic fibers (p < 0.025). Findings add to previous cross-sectional studies reporting white matter disadvantages in youth with substance-use histories. In particular, alcohol use during adolescent neurodevelopment may be linked to reductions in white matter quality in association fiber tracts with frontal connections. In contrast, youth who engage in a variety of risk-taking behaviors may have

  2. Development of white matter microstructure in relation to verbal and visuospatial working memory—A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Fjell, Anders M.; Tamnes, Christian K.; Grydeland, Håkon; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Bjørnerud, Atle; Sampaio-Baptista, Cassandra; Andersson, Jesper; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Walhovd, Kristine B.

    2018-01-01

    Working memory capacity is pivotal for a broad specter of cognitive tasks and develops throughout childhood. This must in part rely on development of neural connections and white matter microstructure maturation, but there is scarce knowledge of specific relations between this and different aspects of working memory. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables us to study development of brain white matter microstructure. In a longitudinal DTI study of 148 healthy children between 4 and 11 years scanned twice with an on average 1.6 years interval, we characterized change in fractional anisotropy (FA), mean (MD), radial (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD) in 10 major white matter tracts hypothesized to be of importance for working memory. The results showed relationships between change in several tracts and change in visuospatial working memory. Specifically, improvement in visuospatial working memory capacity was significantly associated with decreased MD, RD and AD in inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF), inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) in the right hemisphere, as well as forceps major (FMaj). No significant relationships were found between change in DTI metrics and change in verbal working memory capacity. These findings yield new knowledge about brain development and corresponding working memory improvements in childhood. PMID:29689058

  3. Classification and Surgical Repair of Ramp Lesions of the Medial Meniscus.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Fayard, Jean Marie; Guimaraes, Tales M; Jan, Nicolas; Murphy, Colin G; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2016-08-01

    Ramp lesions of the medial meniscus are commonly associated with anterior cruciate ligament ruptures and consist of longitudinal peripheral tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Given the frequency of partial-thickness tears, they can be difficult to diagnose arthroscopically from the anterior compartment. We describe a classification of the different types of ramp lesions depending on both tear pattern (partial- or full-thickness tear) and associated meniscotibial ligament disruption. An original technique of arthroscopic suture placement through a single posteromedial portal with a 25° curved suture hook device is described.

  4. Gender moderates the association between dorsal medial prefrontal cortex volume and depressive symptoms in a subclinical sample.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Joshua M; Depetro, Emily; Maxwell, Joshua; Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-30

    Major depressive disorder is associated with lower medial prefrontal cortex volumes. The role that gender might play in moderating this relationship and what particular medial prefrontal cortex subregion(s) might be implicated is unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess dorsal, ventral, and anterior cingulate regions of the medial prefrontal cortex in a normative sample of male and female adults. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS) was used to measure these three variables. Voxel-based morphometry was used to test for correlations between medial prefrontal gray matter volume and depressive traits. The dorsal medial frontal cortex was correlated with greater levels of depression, but not anxiety and stress. Gender moderates this effect: in males greater levels of depression were associated with lower dorsal medial prefrontal volumes, but in females no relationship was observed. The results indicate that even within a non-clinical sample, male participants with higher levels of depressive traits tend to have lower levels of gray matter volume in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex. Our finding is consistent with low dorsal medial prefrontal volume contributing to the development of depression in males. Future longitudinal work is needed to substantiate this possibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improved arthroscopic one-piece excision technique for the treatment of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-De; Li, Tong; Gao, Shi-Jun

    2017-10-30

    Discoid medial meniscus is an extremely rare abnormality of the knee. During arthroscopic meniscectomy for symptomatic discoid medial meniscus, it is difficult to remove the posterior portion of the meniscus because of the confined working space within the compartment and the obstruction caused by the anterior cruciate ligament and the tibial intercondylar eminence. To overcome these problems, we describe an improved arthroscopic technique for one-piece excision of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus through three unique portals. Three improved portals were made in the injured knee: a standard anteromedial portal, a central transpatellar tendon portal, and a high anterolateral portal. The anterior side of the discoid medial meniscus was cut 7 mm from the periphery of the meniscus. Next, the anterior portion of the free discoid meniscus fragment was pulled in the anterolateral direction with tension. A curve-shaped cut was made along the longitudinal tear to the posterior horn using basket forceps through the standard anteromedial portal. Then, the anterior portion of the free discoid meniscus was pulled in the anteromedial direction. Pulling the fragment under tension made it easier to cut the posterior side of the discoid meniscus. The posterior side of the discoid meniscus was cut 7 mm from the periphery of the meniscus with straight scissors or basket forceps through the central transpatellar tendon portal. This technique resulted in satisfactory results. Excellent visualization of the posterior part of the discoid medial meniscus was gained during the procedure, and it was easy to cut the posterior part of the discoid medial meniscus. No recurrent symptoms were found. This improved arthroscopic one-piece excision technique for the treatment of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus enables the posterior part of the meniscus to be cut satisfactorily. Moreover, compared with previous techniques, this novel technique causes less formation of foreign bodies and less

  6. Outside-In Deep Medial Collateral Ligament Release During Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel

    2016-08-01

    Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is a very common orthopaedic procedure performed for symptomatic, irreparable meniscus tears. It is usually associated with a very good outcome and minimal complications. In some patients with tight medial compartment, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can be difficult to visualize, and access in this area with instruments may be challenging. To increase the opening of the medial compartment, after valgus-extension stress position of the knee, different techniques of deep medial collateral ligament release have been described. The outside-in pie-crusting technique shown in this technical note has documented effectiveness and good outcomes with minimal or no morbidity.

  7. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and patellofemoral stabilizing brace, is often unsuccessful. Primary surgical options include lateral retinacular repair/imbrication or lateral reconstruction. Prevention is key to avoid medial patella subluxation. When considering patellofemoral surgery, important factors include appropriate lateral release indications, consideration of lateral retinacular lengthening vs release, correct MPFL graft placement and tension, and avoiding excessive medialization during tubercle transfer. This review article will analyze patient symptoms, diagnostic exam findings and appropriate treatment options, as well as pearls to avoid this painful clinical entity. PMID:26361441

  8. Altered integrity of the right arcuate fasciculus as a trait marker of schizophrenia: a sibling study using tractography-based analysis of the whole brain.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Hao; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yun-Chin; Lo, Yu-Chun; Liu, Chih-Min; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hsieh, Ming H; Chien, Yi Ling; Chen, Chung-Ming; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-03-01

    Trait markers of schizophrenia aid the dissection of the heterogeneous phenotypes into distinct subtypes and facilitate the genetic underpinning of the disease. The microstructural integrity of the white matter tracts could serve as a trait marker of schizophrenia, and tractography-based analysis (TBA) is the current method of choice. Manual tractography is time-consuming and limits the analysis to preselected fiber tracts. Here, we sought to identify a trait marker of schizophrenia from among 74 fiber tracts across the whole brain using a novel automatic TBA method. Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia, 31 unaffected siblings and 31 healthy controls were recruited to undergo diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), an index reflecting tract integrity, was computed for each tract and compared among the three groups. Ten tracts were found to exhibit significant differences between the groups with a linear, stepwise order from controls to siblings to patients; they included the right arcuate fasciculus, bilateral fornices, bilateral auditory tracts, left optic radiation, the genu of the corpus callosum, and the corpus callosum to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, bilateral temporal poles, and bilateral hippocampi. Posthoc between-group analyses revealed that the GFA of the right arcuate fasciculus was significantly decreased in both the patients and unaffected siblings compared to the controls. Furthermore, the GFA of the right arcuate fasciculus exhibited a trend toward positive symptom scores. In conclusion, the right arcuate fasciculus may be a candidate trait marker and deserves further study to verify any genetic association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Decreased white matter integrity in fronto-occipital fasciculus bundles: relation to visual information processing in alcohol-dependent subjects.

    PubMed

    Bagga, Deepika; Sharma, Aakansha; Kumari, Archana; Kaur, Prabhjot; Bhattacharya, Debajyoti; Garg, Mohan Lal; Khushu, Subash; Singh, Namita

    2014-02-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is characterized by impaired cognitive abilities with a more severe deficit in visual than in verbal functions. Neuropathologically, it is associated with widespread brain structural compromise marked by gray matter shrinkage, ventricular enlargement, and white matter degradation. The present study sought to increase current understanding of the impairment of visual processing abilities in alcohol-dependent subjects, and its correlation with white matter microstructural alterations, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). To that end, a DTI study was carried out on 35 alcohol-dependent subjects and 30 healthy male control subjects. Neuropsychological tests were assessed for visual processing skills and deficits were reported as raw dysfunction scores (rDyS). Reduced FA (fractional anisotropy) and increased MD (mean diffusivity) were observed bilaterally in inferior and superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (FOF) fiber bundles. A significant inverse correlation in rDyS and FA values was observed in these fiber tracts whereas a positive correlation of these scores was found with the MD values. Our results suggest that FOF fiber bundles linking the frontal lobe to occipital lobe might be related to visual processing skills. This is the first report of an alteration of the white matter microstructure of FOF fiber bundles that might have functional consequences for visual processing in alcohol-dependent subjects who exhibit no neurological complications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and aging of the healthy human brain uncinate fasciculus across the lifespan using diffusion tensor tractography.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Khader M; Iftikhar, Amal; Kamali, Arash; Kramer, Larry A; Ashtari, Manzar; Cirino, Paul T; Papanicolaou, Andrew C; Fletcher, Jack M; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda

    2009-06-18

    The human brain uncinate fasciculus (UF) is an important cortico-cortical white matter pathway that directly connects the frontal and temporal lobes, although there is a lack of conclusive support for its exact functional role. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we extracted the UF, calculated its volume and normalized it with respect to each subject's intracranial volume (ICV) and analyzed its corresponding DTI metrics bilaterally on a cohort of 108 right-handed children and adults aged 7-68 years. Results showed inverted U-shaped curves for fractional anisotropy (FA) with advancing age and U-shaped curves for radial and axial diffusivities reflecting white matter progressive and regressive myelination and coherence dynamics that continue into young adulthood. The mean FA values of the UF were significantly larger on the left side in children (p=0.05), adults (p=0.0012) and the entire sample (p=0.0002). The FA leftward asymmetry (Left>Right) is shown to be due to increased leftward asymmetry in the axial diffusivity (p<0.0001) and a lack of asymmetry (p>0.23) for the radial diffusivity. This is the first study to provide baseline normative macro and microstructural age trajectories of the human UF across the lifespan. Results of this study may lend themselves to better understanding of UF role in future behavioral and clinical studies.

  11. The lateralized arcuate fasciculus in developmental pitch disorders among mandarin amusics: left for speech and right for music.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xizhuo; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Li, Jiaqi; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics. Compared to age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls, amusics demonstrated increased connectivity as reflected by the increased fractional anisotropy in the right posterior AF but decreased connectivity as reflected by the decreased volume in the right anterior AF. Moreover, greater fractional anisotropy in the left direct AF was correlated with worse performance in speech tone perception among amusics. This study is the first to examine the neural connectivity of AF in the neurodevelopmental condition of amusia as a result of disrupted music pitch and speech tone processing. We found abnormal white matter structural connectivity in the right AF for the amusic individuals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the white matter microstructural properties of the left direct AF is modulated by lexical tone deficits among the amusic individuals. These data support the notion of distinctive pitch processing systems between music and speech.

  12. Words are not enough: nonword repetition as an indicator of arcuate fasciculus integrity during brain tumor resection.

    PubMed

    Sierpowska, Joanna; Gabarrós, Andreu; Fernandez-Coello, Alejandro; Camins, Àngels; Castañer, Sara; Juncadella, Montserrat; Morís, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Subcortical electrical stimulation during brain surgery may allow localization of functionally crucial white matter fibers and thus tailoring of the tumor resection according to its functional limits. The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter bundle connecting frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical areas that is often disrupted by left brain lesions. It plays a critical role in several cognitive functions related to phonological processing, but current intraoperative monitoring methods do not yet allow mapping of this tract with sufficient precision. In the present study the authors aimed to test a new paradigm for the intraoperative monitoring of the AF. METHODS In this report, the authors studied 12 patients undergoing awake brain surgery for tumor resection with a related risk of AF damage. To preserve AF integrity and the cognitive processes sustained by this tract in the intraoperative context, the authors used real word repetition (WR) and nonword repetition (NWR) tasks as complements to standard picture naming. RESULTS Compared with the errors identified by WR or picture naming, the NWR task allowed the detection of subtle errors possibly related to AF alterations. Moreover, only 3 patients demonstrated phonological paraphasias in standard picture naming, and in 2 of these patients the paraphasias co-occurred with the total loss of WR and NWR ability. Before surgery, lesion volume predicted a patient's NWR performance. CONCLUSIONS The authors suggest that monitoring NWR intraoperatively may complement the standard naming tasks and could permit better preservation of the important language production functions subserved by the AF.

  13. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy breaking new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.

  14. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  15. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  16. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Tufts Univ., Medford, MA

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that themore » left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. As a result, the unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.« less

  17. Revisiting the human uncinate fasciculus, its subcomponents and asymmetries with stem-based tractography and microdissection validation.

    PubMed

    Hau, Janice; Sarubbo, Silvio; Houde, Jean Christophe; Corsini, Francesco; Girard, Gabriel; Deledalle, Charles; Crivello, Fabrice; Zago, Laure; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Descoteaux, Maxime; Petit, Laurent

    2017-05-01

    Despite its significant functional and clinical interest, the anatomy of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) has received little attention. It is known as a 'hook-shaped' fascicle connecting the frontal and anterior temporal lobes and is believed to consist of multiple subcomponents. However, the knowledge of its precise connectional anatomy in humans is lacking, and its subcomponent divisions are unclear. In the present study, we evaluate the anatomy of the UF and provide its detailed normative description in 30 healthy subjects with advanced particle-filtering tractography with anatomical priors and robustness to crossing fibers with constrained spherical deconvolution. We extracted the UF by defining its stem encompassing all streamlines that converge into a compact bundle, which consisted not only of the classic hook-shaped fibers, but also of straight horizontally oriented. We applied an automatic-clustering method to subdivide the UF bundle and revealed five subcomponents in each hemisphere with distinct connectivity profiles, including different asymmetries. A layer-by-layer microdissection of the ventral part of the external and extreme capsules using Klingler's preparation also demonstrated five types of uncinate fibers that, according to their pattern, depth, and cortical terminations, were consistent with the diffusion-based UF subcomponents. The present results shed new light on the UF cortical terminations and its multicomponent internal organization with extended cortical connections within the frontal and temporal cortices. The different lateralization patterns we report within the UF subcomponents reconcile the conflicting asymmetry findings of the literature. Such results clarifying the UF structural anatomy lay the groundwork for more targeted investigations of its functional role, especially in semantic language processing.

  18. Direct evidence for the contributive role of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in non-verbal semantic cognition.

    PubMed

    Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2017-05-01

    The neural foundations underlying semantic processing have been extensively investigated, highlighting a pivotal role of the ventral stream. However, although studies concerning the involvement of the left ventral route in verbal semantics are proficient, the potential implication of the right ventral pathway in non-verbal semantics has been to date unexplored. To gain insights on this matter, we used an intraoperative direct electrostimulation to map the structures mediating the non-verbal semantic system in the right hemisphere. Thirteen patients presenting with a right low-grade glioma located within or close to the ventral stream were included. During the 'awake' procedure, patients performed both a visual non-verbal semantic task and a verbal (control) task. At the cortical level, in the right hemisphere, we found non-verbal semantic-related sites (n = 7 in 6 patients) in structures commonly associated with verbal semantic processes in the left hemisphere, including the superior temporal gyrus, the pars triangularis, and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. At the subcortical level, we found non-verbal semantic-related sites in all but one patient (n = 15 sites in 12 patients). Importantly, all these responsive stimulation points were located on the spatial course of the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF). These findings provide direct support for a critical role of the right IFOF in non-verbal semantic processing. Based upon these original data, and in connection with previous findings showing the involvement of the left IFOF in non-verbal semantic processing, we hypothesize the existence of a bilateral network underpinning the non-verbal semantic system, with a homotopic connectional architecture.

  19. Subcomponents and Connectivity of the Inferior Fronto-Occipital Fasciculus Revealed by Diffusion Spectrum Imaging Fiber Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yupeng; Sun, Dandan; Wang, Yong; Wang, Yibao

    2016-01-01

    The definitive structure and functional role of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) are still controversial. In this study, we aimed to investigate the connectivity, asymmetry, and segmentation patterns of this bundle. High angular diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) analysis was performed on 10 healthy adults and a 90-subject DSI template (NTU-90 Atlas). In addition, a new tractography approach based on the anatomic subregions and two regions of interest (ROI) was evaluated for the fiber reconstructions. More widespread anterior-posterior connections than previous “standard” definition of the IFOF were found. This distinct pathway demonstrated a greater inter-subjects connective variability with a maximum of 40% overlap in its central part. The statistical results revealed no asymmetry between the left and right hemispheres and no significant differences existed in distributions of the IFOF according to sex. In addition, five subcomponents within the IFOF were identified according to the frontal areas of originations. As the subcomponents passed through the anterior floor of the external capsule, the fibers radiated to the posterior terminations. The most common connection patterns of the subcomponents were as follows: IFOF-I, from frontal polar cortex to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe, and pericalcarine; IFOF-II, from orbito-frontal cortex to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe, and pericalcarine; IFOF-III, from inferior frontal gyrus to inferior occipital lobe, middle occipital lobe, superior occipital lobe, occipital pole, and pericalcarine; IFOF-IV, from middle frontal gyrus to occipital pole, and inferior occipital lobe; IFOF-V, from superior frontal gyrus to occipital pole, inferior occipital lobe, and middle occipital lobe. Our work demonstrates the feasibility of high resolution diffusion tensor tractography with sufficient sensitivity

  20. Verbal Memory Performance and Reduced Cortical Thickness of Brain Regions Along the Uncinate Fasciculus in Young Adult Cannabis Users

    PubMed Central

    Levar, Nina; Francis, Alan N.; Smith, Matthew J.; Ho, Wilson C.; Gilman, Jodi M.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Memory impairment is one of the most commonly reported effects of cannabis use, especially among those who initiate use earlier, perhaps due to the effects of delta-9- tetrahydrocannabinol on cannabinoid (CB1) receptors in the brain. Studies have increasingly investigated whether cannabis use is associated with impairments in verbal memory, and with alterations in brain structures underlying verbal memory. The uncinate fasciculus (UF), a long-range white matter tract, connects regions with densely localized CB1 receptors that are important in verbal memory. This study investigated the impact of cannabis use on UF structures and its association with memory performance in young adult cannabis users (CU) and non-using controls (CON). Materials and Methods: Nineteen CU and 22 CON completed a verbal memory task and a neuroimaging protocol, in which diffusion tensor imaging and structural scans were collected. We compared memory performance, diffusion and tractography measures of the UF, and cortical thickness of regions connected by the UF, between CU and CON. In regions showing a significant group effect, we also examined associations between verbal memory performance, cortical thickness, and age of onset of cannabis use. Results: Compared to non-users, CU had worse memory performance, decreased fiber bundle length in the UF, and decreased cortical thickness of brain regions along the UF such as the entorhinal cortex and fusiform gyrus. Verbal memory performance was significantly associated with age of onset of cannabis use, indicating that those who initiated cannabis use at an earlier age performed worse. Cortical thickness of the entorhinal cortex was significantly correlated with age of first use and memory performance. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that cannabis use, especially when initiated at a young age, may be associated with worse verbal memory and altered neural development along the UF. Reductions in cortical thickness in

  1. Asymmetric projections of the arcuate fasciculus to the temporal cortex underlie lateralized language function in the human brain

    DOE PAGES

    Takaya, Shigetoshi; Kuperberg, Gina R.; Tufts Univ., Medford, MA; ...

    2015-09-15

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) in the human brain has asymmetric structural properties. However, the topographic organization of the asymmetric AF projections to the cortex and its relevance to cortical function remain unclear. Here we mapped the posterior projections of the human AF in the inferior parietal and lateral temporal cortices using surface-based structural connectivity analysis based on diffusion MRI and investigated their hemispheric differences. We then performed the cross-modal comparison with functional connectivity based on resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) and task-related cortical activation based on fMRI using a semantic classification task of single words. Structural connectivity analysis showed that themore » left AF connecting to Broca's area predominantly projected in the lateral temporal cortex extending from the posterior superior temporal gyrus to the mid part of the superior temporal sulcus and the middle temporal gyrus, whereas the right AF connecting to the right homolog of Broca's area predominantly projected to the inferior parietal cortex extending from the mid part of the supramarginal gyrus to the anterior part of the angular gyrus. The left-lateralized projection regions of the AF in the left temporal cortex had asymmetric functional connectivity with Broca's area, indicating structure-function concordance through the AF. During the language task, left-lateralized cortical activation was observed. Among them, the brain responses in the temporal cortex and Broca's area that were connected through the left-lateralized AF pathway were specifically correlated across subjects. These results suggest that the human left AF, which structurally and functionally connects the mid temporal cortex and Broca's area in asymmetrical fashion, coordinates the cortical activity in these remote cortices during a semantic decision task. As a result, the unique feature of the left AF is discussed in the context of the human capacity for language.« less

  2. Posterior medial meniscus detachment: a unique type of medial meniscal tear.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Richard A; DeHaan, Alex; Baldwin, James L

    2009-10-01

    Patients with posterior medial meniscal detachment, as determined at knee arthroscopy, were evaluated retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years for 8 men and 20 women (30 knees; mean age, 57 years). Most patients had acute onset of pain with a minor specific incident. Seventeen patients were obese, 9 were overweight, and 2 were normal. Eleven of 22 magnetic resonance imaging evaluations detected a tear at the site of the posterior medial meniscus root. Nine of 16 bone scan evaluations showed moderate uptake medially. Arthroscopic treatment included partial medial meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Twelve knees (40%) showed significant progression of arthritis. Of the 7 patients with severe arthritic knees, 5 have subsequently undergone total knee arthroplasty, 1 is considering total knee arthroplasty, and the other has minimal symptoms. Patients should be counseled about the clinical course of posterior medial meniscus detachment and its potential for progressive arthritis in the joint.

  3. Dendrites of medial olivocochlear neurons in mouse.

    PubMed

    Brown, M C; Levine, J L

    2008-06-12

    Stains for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and retrograde labeling with Fluorogold (FG) were used to study olivocochlear neurons and their dendritic patterns in mice. The two methods gave similar results for location and number of somata. The total number of medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) is about 170 per side. An additional dozen large olivocochlear neurons are located in the dorsal periolivary nucleus (DPO). Dendrites of all of these neurons are long and extend in all directions from the cell bodies, a pattern that contrasts with the sharp frequency tuning of their responses. For VNTB neurons, there were greater numbers of dendrites directed medially than laterally and those directed medially were longer (on average, 25-50% longer). Dendrite extensions were most pronounced for neurons located in the rostral portion of the VNTB. When each dendrite from a single neuron was represented as a vector, and all the vectors summed, the result was also skewed toward the medial direction. DPO neurons, however, had more symmetric dendrites that projected into more dorsal parts of the trapezoid body, suggesting that this small group of olivocochlear neurons has very different physiological properties. Dendrites of both types of neurons were somewhat elongated rostrally, about 20% longer than those directed caudally. These results can be interpreted as extensions of dendrites of olivocochlear neurons toward their synaptic inputs: medially to meet crossing fibers from the cochlear nucleus that are part of the MOC reflex pathway, and rostrally to meet descending inputs from higher centers.

  4. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  5. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Results Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. Conclusions We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear. PMID:29333118

  6. GABA content within medial prefrontal cortex predicts the variability of fronto-limbic effective connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Pizzi, Stefano Delli; Chiacchieretta, Piero; Mantini, Dante; Bubbico, Giovanna; Edden, Richard A.; Onofrj, Marco; Ferretti, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    The amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit plays a key role in social behavior. The amygdala and mPFC are bidirectionally connected, functionally and anatomically, via the uncinate fasciculus. Recent evidence suggests that GABA-ergic neurotransmission within the mPFC could be central to the regulation of amygdala activity related to emotions and anxiety processing. However, the functional and neurochemical interactions within amygdala-mPFC circuits are unclear. In the current study, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging techniques were combined to investigate effective connectivity within the amygdala-mPFC network and its relationship with mPFC neurotransmission in 22 healthy subjects aged between 41 and 88 years. Effective connectivity in the amygdala-mPFC circuit was assessed on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data using spectral dynamic causal modelling. State and trait anxiety were also assessed. The mPFC was shown to be the target of incoming outputs from the amygdalae and the source of exciting inputs to the limbic system. The amygdalae were reciprocally connected by excitatory projections. About half of the variance relating to the strength of top–down endogenous connection between right amygdala and mPFC was explained by mPFC GABA levels. State anxiety was correlated with the strength of the endogenous connections between right amygdala and mPFC. We suggest that mPFC GABA content predicts variability in the effective connectivity within the mPFC-amygdala circuit, providing new insights on emotional physiology and the underlying functional and neurochemical interactions. PMID:28386778

  7. Medial-to-lateral Ratio of Tibiofemoral Subchondral Bone Area is Adapted to Alignment and Mechanical Load

    PubMed Central

    Eckstein, Felix; Hudelmaier, Martin; Cahue, September; Marshall, Meredith; Sharma, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Malalignment is known to impact the medial-to-lateral load distribution in the tibiofemoral joint. In this longitudinal study, we test the hypothesis that subchondral bone surface areas functionally adapt to the load distribution in malaligned knees. Alignment (hip-knee-ankle angle) was measured from full limb films in 174 participants with knee osteoarthritis. Coronal MR images were acquired at baseline and 26.6±5.4 months later. The subchondral bone surface area of the weight-bearing tibiofemoral cartilages was segmented, with readers blinded to the order of acquisition. The size of the subchondral bone surface areas was computed after triangulation using proprietary software. The hip-knee-ankle angle showed a significant correlation with the tibial (r2=0.25, p<0.0001) and femoral (r2=0.07, p<0.001) ratio of medial-to-lateral subchondral bone surface area. In the tibia, the ratio was significantly different between varus (1.28:1), neutral (1.18:1) and valgus (1.13:1) knees (ANOVA; p<0.00001). Similar observations were made in the weight-bearing femur (0.94:1 in neutral, 0.97.1 in varus, 0.91:1 in valgus knees; ANOVA p=0.018). The annualized longitudinal increase in subchondral bone surface area was significant (p<0.05) in the medial tibia (+0.13%), medial femur (+0.26%) and lateral tibia (+0.19%). In the medial femur, the change between baseline and follow-up was significantly different (ANOVA; p=0.020) between neutral, varus and valgus knees, the increase in surface area being significantly greater (p=0.019) in varus than in neutral knees. Tibiofemoral subchondral bone surface areas are shown to be functionally adapted to the medial-to-lateral load distribution. The longitudinal findings indicate that this adaptational process may continue to take place at advanced age. PMID:19148562

  8. Decreased integrity of the fronto-temporal fibers of the left inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus associated with auditory verbal hallucinations in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Oestreich, Lena K L; McCarthy-Jones, Simon; Whitford, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have been proposed to result from altered connectivity between frontal speech production regions and temporal speech perception regions. Whilst the dorsal language pathway, serviced by the arcuate fasciculus, has been extensively studied in relation to AVH, the ventral language pathway, serviced by the inferior occipito-frontal fasciculus (IOFF) has been rarely studied in relation to AVH. This study examined whether structural changes in anatomically defined subregions of the IOFF were associated with AVH in patients with schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging scans and clinical data were obtained from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank for 113 schizophrenia patients, of whom 39 had lifetime experience of AVH (18 had current AVH, 21 had remitted AVH), 74 had no lifetime experience of AVH, and 40 healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with a lifetime experience of AVH exhibited reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the fronto-temporal fibers of the left IOFF compared to both healthy controls and schizophrenia patients without AVH. In contrast, structural abnormalities in the temporal and occipital regions of the IOFF were observed bilaterally in both patient groups, relative to the healthy controls. These results suggest that while changes in the structural integrity of the bilateral IOFF are associated with schizophrenia per se, integrity reductions in the fronto-temporal fibers of the left IOFF may be specifically associated with AVH.

  9. Medial elbow injury in young throwing athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Bonnie; Nyland, John

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report reviews the anatomy, overhead throwing biomechanics, injury mechanism and incidence, physical examination and diagnosis, diagnostic imaging and conservative treatment of medial elbow injuries in young throwing athletes. Based on the information a clinical management decision-making algorithm is presented. PMID:23888291

  10. Affective Aprosodia from a Medial Frontal Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Kenneth M.; Leon, Susan A.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectives: Whereas injury to the left hemisphere induces aphasia, injury to the right hemisphere's perisylvian region induces an impairment of emotional speech prosody (affective aprosodia). Left-sided medial frontal lesions are associated with reduced verbal fluency with relatively intact comprehension and repetition…

  11. Larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may trigger posterior root tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Young; Song, Hyung Keun; Jung, Myung Kuk; Oh, Hyeong Tak; Kim, Joon Ho; Yoon, Ji-Sang; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The major meniscal functions are load bearing, load distribution, and shock absorption by increasing the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact area and dissipating axial loads by conversion into hoop stresses. The increased hoop strain stretches the meniscus in outward direction towards radius, causing extrusion, which is associated with the root tear and resultant degenerative osteoarthritis. Since the larger contact area of medial TFJ may increase the hoop stresses, we hypothesized that the larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension would contribute to the development of medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between MMPRT and medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension. A case-control study was conducted to compare medial femoral to tibial condylar dimensions of patients with complete MMPRT (n = 59) with those of demography-matched controls (n = 59) during the period from 2010 to 2013. In each patient, MRIs were reviewed and several parameters were measured including articulation width of medial femoral condyle (MFC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, medial tibial condyle (MTC) width, degree of meniscal extrusion, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio (MFC/MTC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. Demographic and radiographic data were assessed. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension was associated with MMPRT at 0° and 30° knee angles. Patients with MFC/MTC greater than 0.9 at 0° also showed about 2.5-fold increase in the chance of MMPRT. Those with meniscal extrusion greater than 3 mm also had about 17.1 times greater chance for the presence of MMPRT accordingly. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may be considered as one of the regional contributors to the outbreak of MMPRT, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio greater than 0.9 at 0° knee angle may be considered as a significant risk factor for MMPRT. III.

  12. Stimulation of the medial amygdala enhances medial preoptic dopamine release: implications for male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, J M; Hull, E M

    2001-11-02

    Increased dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) facilitates male sexual behavior. A major source of innervation to the MPOA is the medial amygdala (MeA). We now report that chemical stimulation of the MeA enhanced levels of extracellular MPOA DA in anesthetized male rats. These results suggest that DA activity in the MPOA can be regulated by input from the MeA to the MPOA.

  13. Lateral Meniscal Allograft Transplant via a Medial Approach Leads to Less Extrusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Choi, Jeong-Ki; Yang, Bong-Seok; Lee, Doe-Hyun; Victoroff, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    Accurate positioning of the bony bridge is crucial to prevent extrusion of meniscal allografts after transplant. However, oblique or lateralized placement of the bony bridge of the lateral meniscal allograft may occur due to technical error or a limited visual field. The patellar tendon may be an obstacle to approaching the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus, resulting in a laterally placed allograft. Therefore, lateral meniscal transplant through a medial arthrotomy would be an alternative approach. However, no report exists regarding allograft extrusion when comparing medial and lateral arthrotomy techniques in lateral meniscal transplants. Extrusion of the midbody of the allograft is less severe and the rotation of the bony bridge is less oblique in lateral meniscal allograft transplants through the medial parapatellar approach than those through the lateral approach. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A bony bridge was used to perform 55 lateral meniscal transplants through either a medial or a lateral arthrotomy. Thirty-two allografts were transplanted through a medial arthrotomy and 23 were transplanted through a lateral arthrotomy, not randomly. Because correct positioning of the bony trough through the medial arthrotomy was easier than that through the lateral arthrotomy, the method of the arthrotomy was changed for the latter. The procedure for both groups was identical except for the arthrotomy technique, and rehabilitation was identical for both groups. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging was conducted for all patients to measure the postoperative extrusion and obliquity of the bony bridge of the allograft. On the coronal view, extrusion was measured as the distance between the outer edge of the articular cartilage of the lateral tibial plateau and the outer edge of the meniscal allograft. On the axial view, a line (line B) was drawn along the longitudinal axis of the bony bridge. The posterior tibial condylar tangential line was drawn between the

  14. Correlation between hindfoot joint three-dimensional kinematics and the changes of the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Jun; Xu, Jian; Wang, Yue; Lin, Xiang-Jin; Ma, Xin

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the correlation between the kinematics of the hindfoot joint and the medial arch angle change in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot three-dimensionally under loading. Computed tomography (CT) scans of 12 healthy feet and 12 feet with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot were taken both in non- and full-body-weight-bearing condition. The CT images of the hindfoot bones were reconstructed into three-dimensional models with Mimics and Geomagic reverse engineering software. The three-dimensional changes of the hindfoot joint were calculated to determine their correlation to the medial longitudinal arch angle. The medial arch angle change was larger in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot compared to that in healthy foot under loading. The rotation and translation of the talocalcaneal joint, the talonavicular joint and the calcanocuboid joint had little influence on the change of the medial arch angle in healthy foot. However, the eversion of the talocalcaneal joint, the proximal translation of the calcaneus relative to the talus and the dorsiflexion of talonavicular joint could increase the medial arch angle in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Joint instability occurred in patients with stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot under loading. Limitation of over movement of the talocalcaneal joint and the talonavicular joint may help correct the medial longitudinal arch in stage II posterior tibial tendon dysfunction flatfoot. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural history of medial clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Salipas, Andrew; Kimmel, Lara A; Edwards, Elton R; Rakhra, Sandeep; Moaveni, Afshin Kamali

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the medial third of the clavicle comprise less than 3% of all clavicle fractures. The natural history and optimal management of these rare injuries are unknown. The aim of our study is to describe the demographics, management and outcomes of patients with medial clavicle fractures treated at a Level 1 Trauma Centre. A retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting to our institution between January 2008 and March 2013 with a medial third clavicle fracture. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded including mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and displacement, associated injuries, management and complications. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) scores from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). Shoulder outcomes were assessed using two patient reported outcomes scores, the American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score (ASES) and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Sixty eight medial clavicle fractures in 68 patients were evaluated. The majority of patients were male (n=53), with a median age of 53.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 37.5-74.5 years). The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (n=28). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.4%. The fracture pattern was almost equally distributed between extra articular (n=35) and intra-articular (n=33). Fifty-five fractures (80.9%) had minimal or no displacement. Associated injuries were predominantly thoracic (n=31). All fractures were initially managed non-operatively, with a broad arm sling. Delayed operative fixation was performed for painful atrophic delayed union in two patients (2.9%). Both patients were under 65 years of age and had a severely displaced fracture of the medial clavicle. One intra-operative vascular complication was seen, with no adverse long-term outcome. Follow-up was obtained in 85.0% of the surviving cohort at an average of three years post injury (range 1-6 years). The mean ASES

  16. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Pediatric Glial Heterotopia in the Medial Canthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel Kofi; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Lee, Suk Keun

    2017-11-01

    Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, and nonteratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may be confused as encephalocele or dermoid cysts and are mostly present in the nose.An 8-month-old African female child presented with a slow growing paranasal mass. The mass had been present at the left upper medial canthus since birth and had slowly and progressively enlarged. There was no communication between the mass and the cranial cavity during the operational procedure. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein as well as for glial fibrillary acidic protein, but negative for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. This suggested that the mass was composed of benign glial tissues with many astrocytes.The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the first patient with pediatric glial heterotopic tissue in the medial canthus and to report the clinical importance of its immunohistochemical findings.

  18. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Helene; Gour, Anjali; Straehle, Jakob; Boergens, Kevin M.; Brecht, Michael; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2017-09-01

    Research on neuronal connectivity in the cerebral cortex has focused on the existence and strength of synapses between neurons, and their location on the cell bodies and dendrites of postsynaptic neurons. The synaptic architecture of individual presynaptic axonal trees, however, remains largely unknown. Here we used dense reconstructions from three-dimensional electron microscopy in rats to study the synaptic organization of local presynaptic axons in layer 2 of the medial entorhinal cortex, the site of grid-like spatial representations. We observe path-length-dependent axonal synapse sorting, such that axons of excitatory neurons sequentially target inhibitory neurons followed by excitatory neurons. Connectivity analysis revealed a cellular feedforward inhibition circuit involving wide, myelinated inhibitory axons and dendritic synapse clustering. Simulations show that this high-precision circuit can control the propagation of synchronized activity in the medial entorhinal cortex, which is known for temporally precise discharges.

  19. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform.

    PubMed

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-09-02

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  20. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M

    2015-12-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis.

  1. Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kamiński, J; Sullivan, S; Chung, JM; Ross, IB; Mamelak, AN; Rutishauser, U

    2017-01-01

    Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors, and was predictive of memory content. Medial frontal cortex persistent activity, on the other hand, was modulated by memory load and task set but was not stimulus-specific. Trial-by-trial variability in persistent activity in both areas was related to memory strength, because it predicted the speed and accuracy by which stimuli were remembered. This work reveals, in humans, direct evidence for a distributed network of persistently active neurons supporting working memory maintenance. PMID:28218914

  2. Relationship between knee joint contact forces and external knee joint moments in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis: effects of gait modifications.

    PubMed

    Richards, R E; Andersen, M S; Harlaar, J; van den Noort, J C

    2018-04-30

    To evaluate 1) the relationship between the knee contact force (KCF) and knee adduction and flexion moments (KAM and KFM) during normal gait in people with medial knee osteoarthritis (KOA), 2) the effects on the KCF of walking with a modified gait pattern and 3) the relationship between changes in the KCF and changes in the knee moments. We modeled the gait biomechanics of thirty-five patients with medial KOA using the AnyBody Modeling System during normal gait and two modified gait patterns. We calculated the internal KCF and evaluated the external joint moments (KAM and KFM) against it using linear regression analyses. First peak medial KCF was associated with first peak KAM (R 2  = 0.60) and with KAM and KFM (R 2  = 0.73). Walking with both modified gait patterns reduced KAM (P = 0.002) and the medial to total KCF ratio (P < 0.001) at the first peak. Changes in KAM during modified gait were moderately associated with changes in the medial KCF at the first peak (R 2  = 0.54 and 0.53). At the first peak, KAM is a reasonable substitute for the medial contact force, but not at the second peak. First peak KFM is also a significant contributor to the medial KCF. At the first peak, walking with a modified gait reduced the ratio of the medial to total KCF but not the medial KCF itself. To determine the effects of gait modifications on cartilage loading and disease progression, longitudinal studies and individualized modeling, accounting for motion control, would be required. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. An attachment-based description of the medial collateral and spring ligament complexes.

    PubMed

    Cromeens, Barrett P; Kirchhoff, Claire A; Patterson, Rita M; Motley, Travis; Stewart, Donald; Fisher, Cara; Reeves, Rustin E

    2015-06-01

    Anatomy of the medial collateral and spring ligament complexes has been the cause of confusion. The anatomic description is highly dependent on the source studied and little agreement exists between texts. In addition, inconsistent nomenclature has been used to describe the components. This study attempted to clarify confusion through the creation of a 3D ligament map using attachment-based dissection. Nine fresh foot and ankle specimens were observed. The medial collateral ligament and spring ligament complexes were dissected using their attachment sites as a guide to define individual components. Each component's perimeter and thickness was measured and each bony attachment was mapped using a microscribe 3D digitizer. Five components were identified contributing to the ligament complexes of interest: the tibiocalcaneonavicular, superficial posterior tibiotalar, deep posterior tibiotalar, deep anterior tibiotalar, and inferoplantar longitudinal ligaments. The largest component by total attachment area was the tibiocalcaneonavicular ligament followed by the deep posterior tibiotalar ligament. The largest ligament surface area of attachment to the tibia and talus was the deep posterior tibiotalar ligament. The largest attachment to the navicular and calcaneus was the tibiocalcaneonavicular ligament, which appeared to function in holding these bones in proximity while supporting the head of the talus. By defining complex components by their attachment sites, a novel, more functional and reproducible description of the medial collateral and spring ligament complexes was created. The linear measurements and 3D maps may prove useful when attempting more anatomically accurate reconstructions. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Direct measurement of hoop strains in the intact and torn human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Jones, R Spencer; Keene, G C R; Learmonth, D J A; Bickerstaff, D; Nawana, N S; Costi, J J; Pearcy, M J

    1996-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the circumferential or hoop strains generated in the medial meniscus during loading of the knee joint and to examine the effect of longitudinal and radial tears in the meniscus on these strain values. DESIGN: An in vitro investigation measuring the circumferential strains in the medial menisci of cadaveric human knees as they were loaded in a materials testing machine. BACKGROUND: The menisci transmit approximately 50% of the load through the knee, the rest being transmitted by direct contact of the articular cartilage. Damage to the menisci will alter the pattern of load transmission as will meniscectomy. This study examined the changes in the mechanics of the meniscus in situ as a result of simulated tears to assess the effect of its load carrying capacity and the implications of surgery to remove part or all of a damaged meniscus. METHODS: Nineteen human cadaveric knees were tested. Windows were made in the joint capsule and strain gauges inserted into the anterior, middle and posterior sections of the medial meniscus. The knees were then loaded to three times body weight at speeds of 50 and 500 mm/min, with the knee joint at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion. The tests were repeated following the creation of a longitudinal or a radial tear in the meniscus. RESULTS: The intact menisci showed significantly less strain in the posterior section compared to the anterior and middle sections (P < 0.003, with strains of 1.54%, 2.86% and 2.65% respectively). With a longitudinal tear this pattern changed with strains decreasing anteriorly and increasing posteriorly. There were also significant differences at different angles of knee joint flexion not seen in the intact meniscus. 50% radial tears reduced the strains anteriorly whilst a complete radial tear completely defunctioned the meniscus. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that there are significantly different hoop strains produced in different sections of the medial meniscus under load and

  5. Persistent medial foot pain in an adolescent athlete.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Craig P; Reischl, Stephen F

    2013-03-01

    The patient was a 15-year-old adolescent male who was referred to a physical therapist for a chief complaint of worsening right medial foot pain. Given the worsening nature of the patient's right medial foot pain, palpatory findings, and a prior recommendation for computed tomography from a radiologist, the patient was referred to his physician. Subsequent computed tomography imaging of the right foot revealed a nondisplaced fracture through the dorsal-medial aspect of the navicular.

  6. Isolated medial medullary infarction due to vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Wakita, M; Matsuoka, H; Hamada, R; Kasuya, J; Osame, M

    2003-12-01

    A 54-year-old man developed left hemiparesis and tactile and deep sensory disturbance following onset of rightside cervical pain. These symptoms resulted from an isolated infarct in the right medial area of the upper medulla oblongata and intracranial vertebral artery (VA) dissection. Atherosclerotic disease of the VA is the most common cause of medial medullary infarction. In past reports of isolated medial medullary infarction, only a few cases involved VA dissection.

  7. Cartilage Delamination Flap Mimicking a Torn Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Bin Abd Razak, Hamid Rahmatullah; Amit Kanta, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a chondral delamination lesion due to medial parapatellar plica friction syndrome involving the medial femoral condyle. This mimicked a torn medial meniscus in clinical and radiological presentation. Arthroscopy revealed a chondral delamination flap, which was debrided. Diagnosis of chondral lesions in the knee can be challenging. Clinical examination and MRI have good accuracy for diagnosis and should be used in tandem. Early diagnosis and treatment of chondral lesions are important to prevent progression to early osteoarthritis. PMID:28070434

  8. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  9. Medial and Lateral Discoid Menisci of Both Knees

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Minami, Ginjiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both the medial and lateral sides are rare, and there are very few reports on cases involving both sides. We report a case of a 52-year-old female with medial and lateral discoid menisci in both knees. Arthroscopy revealed the lateral menisci of both knees were complete discoid menisci, and partial meniscectomy was performed. The medial menisci were incomplete discoid menisci, but there were no findings of abnormal mobility or injury; therefore, the medial menisci were observed without treatment. At six months postoperatively, her pain and range of motion restrictions disappeared. PMID:27894182

  10. Medial perirhinal cortex disambiguates confusable objects

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Lorraine K.; Monsch, Andreas U.; Taylor, Kirsten I.

    2012-01-01

    Our brain disambiguates the objects in our cluttered visual world seemingly effortlessly, enabling us to understand their significance and to act appropriately. The role of anteromedial temporal structures in this process, particularly the perirhinal cortex, is highly controversial. In some accounts, the perirhinal cortex is necessary for differentiating between perceptually and semantically confusable objects. Other models claim that the perirhinal cortex neither disambiguates perceptually confusable objects nor plays a unique role in semantic processing. One major hurdle to resolving this central debate is the fact that brain damage in human patients typically encompasses large portions of the anteromedial temporal lobe, such that the identification of individual substructures and precise neuroanatomical locus of the functional impairments has been difficult. We tested these competing accounts in patients with Alzheimer’s disease with varying degrees of atrophy in anteromedial structures, including the perirhinal cortex. To assess the functional contribution of each anteromedial temporal region separately, we used a detailed region of interest approach. From each participant, we obtained magnetic resonance imaging scans and behavioural data from a picture naming task that contrasted naming performance with living and non-living things as a way of manipulating perceptual and semantic confusability; living things are more similar to one another than non-living things, which have more distinctive features. We manually traced neuroanatomical regions of interest on native-space cortical surface reconstructions to obtain mean thickness estimates for the lateral and medial perirhinal cortex and entorhinal cortex. Mean cortical thickness in each region of interest, and hippocampal volume, were submitted to regression analyses predicting naming performance. Importantly, atrophy of the medial perirhinal cortex, but not lateral perirhinal cortex, entorhinal cortex or

  11. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Quadriceps Tendon Autograft Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Fink, Christian; Steensen, Robert; Gföller, Peter; Lawton, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Critically evaluate the published literature related to quadriceps tendon (QT) medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Hamstring tendon (HT) MPFL reconstruction techniques have been shown to successfully restore patella stability, but complications including patella fracture are reported. Quadriceps tendon (QT) reconstruction techniques with an intact graft pedicle on the patella side have the advantage that patella bone tunnel drilling and fixation are no longer needed, reducing risk of patella fracture. Several QT MPFL reconstruction techniques, including minimally invasive surgical (MIS) approaches, have been published with promising clinical results and fewer complications than with HT techniques. Parallel laboratory studies have shown macroscopic anatomy and biomechanical properties of QT are more similar to native MPFL than hamstring (HS) HT, suggesting QT may more accurately restore native joint kinematics. Quadriceps tendon MPFL reconstruction, via both open and MIS techniques, have promising clinical results and offer valuable alternatives to HS grafts for primary and revision MPFL reconstruction in both children and adults.

  13. The Anatomy of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Thai Q; Ferrel, Jason R; Bentley, Jared C; Steensen, Robert N

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent patellar dislocation is observed in many patients treated nonoperatively following primary dislocation. Injury to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is reported in the majority of patients following dislocation. There is an increased interest in repair or reconstruction of the MPFL for patients experiencing recurrent instability. The femoral attachment of the MPFL is critical in determining graft behavior following reconstruction. The femoral attachment can be determined by referencing local anatomy, fluoroscopic imaging or on the basis of desired graft-length changes. This article reviews the anatomy of the MPFL, with a focus on its femoral insertion site as it pertains to anatomic, isometric, and anisometric reconstruction. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e583-e588.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  15. Bilateral medial medullary infarction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pongmoragot, Jitphapa; Parthasarathy, Sujatha; Selchen, Daniel; Saposnik, Gustavo

    2013-08-01

    Bilateral infarction of the medial medulla (MMI) is rare. Limited information is available on clinical characteristics, etiology, and prognosis. High-resolution neuroimaging has a major role in elucidating the underlying stroke mechanism. The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the clinical presentations, stroke mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with bilateral MMI. We performed a systematic review of the literature from 1992-2011 that reported on clinical presentations, stroke mechanism, and/or outcomes in patients with magnetic resonance imaging-proven bilateral MMI. Medline, EMBASE, and Web of Science Scholars Portal were searched without language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed identified studies to determine eligibility, validity, and quality. The primary outcome was inpatient mortality; a secondary outcome was case fatality at 12 months. We identified 138 articles from Medline, EMBASE, and Scholars Portal including the MeSH terms "brainstem infarction," "medulla," and "bilateral." Twenty-nine articles met our inclusion criteria, including a total of 38 cases with bilateral MMI, and included in our study. These 38 patients had a mean age of 62.2 years and were predominately male (74.2%). The most common clinical presentations were motor weakness in 78.4%, dysarthria in 48.6%, and hypoglossal palsy in 40.5%. The most common vascular pathology was vertebral artery atherosclerosis, in 38.5%. The clinical outcome was poor (mortality, 23.8%; dependency, 61.9%). Bilateral medial medullary infarction is a rare stroke syndrome. Clinical presentations were mostly rostral medullary lesions. Large-artery atherosclerosis and branch disease were the most common stroke mechanisms. The clinical outcome was usually poor. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  17. Double PCL sign does not always indicate a bucket-handle tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Zheng, Hua Yong; Huang, Yan; Li, Hai Peng; Wu, Han; Sun, Tian Sheng; Yao, Jian Hua

    2016-09-01

    The discoid medial meniscus is an extremely rare anomaly. Bilateral discoid medial menisci are much more rare but intermittently reported. We report the first case of bilateral discoid medial menisci with positive double PCL sign, which typically indicates a bucket-handle tear of medial meniscus. A literature review was also conducted on bilateral discoid medial menisci.

  18. Is latero-medial patellar mobility related to the range of motion of the knee joint after total knee arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Ota, Susumu; Nakashima, Takeshi; Morisaka, Ayako; Omachi, Takaaki; Ida, Kunio; Kawamura, Morio

    2010-12-01

    Diminished range of motion (ROM) of the knee joint after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is thought to be related to reduced patellar mobility. This has not been confirmed clinically due to a lack of quantitative methods adequate for measuring patellar mobility. We investigated the relationship between patellar mobility by a reported quantitative method and knee joint ROM after TKA. Forty-nine patients [osteoarthritis--OA: 29 knees; rheumatoid arthritis--RA: 20 knees] were examined after TKA. Respective medial and lateral patellar mobility was measured 1 and 6 months postoperatively using a patellofemoral arthrometer (PFA). Knee joint ROM was also measured in each of those 2 sessions. Although the flexion and extension of the knee joints improved significantly from 1 to 6 months after TKA, the medial and lateral patellar displacements (LPDs) failed to improve during that same period. Moreover, only the changes in knee flexion and medial patellar displacement (MPD) between the two sessions were positively correlated (r = 0.31, p < 0.05). However, our findings demonstrated that medial and lateral patellar mobility had no sufficient longitudinal relationship with knee ROM after TKA. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Traumatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in patients with severe medial instability of the knee.

    PubMed

    Ra, Ho Jong; Ha, Jeong Ku; Jang, Ho Su; Kim, Jin Goo

    2015-10-01

    To examine the incidence and diagnostic rate of traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear associated with severe medial instability and to evaluate the effectiveness of pullout repair. From 2007 to 2011, 51 patients who underwent operation due to multiple ligament injuries including medial collateral ligament rupture were reviewed retrospectively. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm score were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and if indicated, a second-look arthroscopic examination was conducted. Fourteen out of 51 patients were associated with severe medial instability. Seven patients were diagnosed with traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear and underwent arthroscopic pullout repair. Five of them were missed at initial diagnosis using MRI. In seven patients, the mean Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores improved from 74.6 ± 10.3 and 47.6 ± 7.3 to 93.0 ± 3.7 and 91.6 ± 2.6, respectively. All showed complete healing of meniscus root on follow-up MRI and second-look arthroscopy. Medial meniscus posterior root tear may occur in severe medial instability from trauma. It is a common mistake that surgeons may not notice on the diagnosis of those injuries using MRI. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of medial meniscus posterior root tear in this type of injuries. The traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear could be healed successfully using arthroscopic pullout repair technique. The possibility of the medial meniscus posterior root tear should be considered in severe medial instability and arthroscopic pullout repair can be an effective option for treatment. Case series with no comparison group, Level IV.

  20. Proximal Tibia Medial Biplanar Retrotubercle Open Wedge Osteotomy for Varus Knees with Medial Gonarthrosis

    PubMed Central

    Türkmen, İsmail; Esenkaya, İrfan; Ünay, Koray; Türkmensoy, Fatih; Özkut, Afşar Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the early results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for varus gonarthrosis and compare the results with the literatüre. Methods: The results of proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy for 23 knees of 22 patients with medial gonarthrosis were evaluated clinically and radiologically. Results: Twenty of the patients were female and two were male. Mean age of the patients was 56.24; mean boy mass index was 31.95 and preoperative HSS (Hospital for Special Surgery) score was 68.7. Mean tibiofemoral axis was 186.39° and mean Insall-Salvatti index value was 1.04 preoperatively. Mean follow up period was 30.19 months. Mean HSS score was 86.48, femorotibial anatomic axis angle was 175° and Insall-Salvati index value 1.06 during the last follow-up. The improvement of the HSS score and the femorotibial anatomic axis angle was statistically significant. However, the change in Insall Salvati index values was statistically insignificant. Nonfatal pulmonary embolus in 1 patient, and deep vein thrombosis that occured one year after the procedure in 1 patient, rhabdomyolysis in 1 patient and loss of correction (relapse) in 1 patient were encountered as complications. Conclusion: Our results show that proximal tibia medial biplanar retrotubercle open wedge osteotomy improves the frontal and sagittal plane deformities without changing the patellar tendon length. Hence, possible patellofemoral problems are prevented and the clinical results are improved.

  1. Lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus and its differential correlation with reading ability between young learners and experienced readers: a diffusion tensor tractography study in a Chinese cohort.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Deqiang; Tan, Li-Hai; Siok, Wai-Ting; Zhou, Ke; Khong, Pek-Lan

    2011-12-01

    As Chinese reading engages a different neural network from alphabetic language reading, we investigate whether leftward lateralization of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), as observed in the Western population, is also present in the Chinese population and if it does, whether it is associated with better reading ability. Diffusion tensor tractography analysis on 75 Chinese subjects of three age groups (first graders, fourth graders, and college students) showed that 70-83% of them had leftward lateralization of the AF. The pattern of lateralization did not differ significantly among the three groups, suggesting that lateralization of the AF is formed at an early age and before one enters first grade. Among the first graders, who had just started to learn to read, subjects with strongly leftward lateralized AF scored significantly higher than those with other defined lateralization patterns in Chinese (P = 0.001) and English (P = 0.036) reading tasks. This association was not observed among the fourth graders and college students who were experienced Chinese readers. Among the fourth graders, females were found to obtain significantly higher Chinese (P = 0.033) and English reading scores than males (P = 0.002). Our study suggests a differential effect of leftward lateralization of the AF on reading ability at different stages of reading development in the Chinese population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anatomical medial surfaces with efficient resolution of branches singularities.

    PubMed

    Gil, Debora; Vera, Sergio; Borràs, Agnés; Andaluz, Albert; González Ballester, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Medial surfaces are powerful tools for shape description, but their use has been limited due to the sensibility of existing methods to branching artifacts. Medial branching artifacts are associated to perturbations of the object boundary rather than to geometric features. Such instability is a main obstacle for a confident application in shape recognition and description. Medial branches correspond to singularities of the medial surface and, thus, they are problematic for existing morphological and energy-based algorithms. In this paper, we use algebraic geometry concepts in an energy-based approach to compute a medial surface presenting a stable branching topology. We also present an efficient GPU-CPU implementation using standard image processing tools. We show the method computational efficiency and quality on a custom made synthetic database. Finally, we present some results on a medical imaging application for localization of abdominal pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Alpine Cliff Backwearing Rates Derived From Cosmogenic 10-Be in Active Medial Moraines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. J.; Anderson, R. S.

    2008-12-01

    We use cosmogenic 10Be concentrations in rock samples from an active, ice-cored medial moraine to constrain glacial valley sidewall backwearing rates in the Kichatna Mountains, Alaska Range, Alaska. Kilometer-tall granite walls that tower over active glaciers are some of the most dramatic landscape features of the Alaska Range. The sheer scale of the relief speaks to the relative rates of valley incision by glaciers and rockwall retreat, but these rates are difficult to determine independently of one another. We present a method that uses cosmogenic nuclides to measure rockwall backwearing rates in glaciated settings on timescales of 103 yr, with a straightforward sampling strategy that exploits active medial moraines. Ablation-dominated medial moraines form by exhumation of debris-rich ice in the ablation zone of a glacier. Exhumed debris insulates the underlying ice and reduces its ablation rate relative to bare ice, promoting formation of a ridge-like, ice cored moraine. The rock debris is primarily derived from supraglacial rockfalls, which become incorporated in the ice along the glacier margins in the accumulation area. These lateral bands of debris-rich ice merge to form a medial debris band when glacial tributaries converge. The debris is minimally mixed until it is exhumed on the moraine crest. In the simplest case, such a system serves as a conveyor belt, bringing material from a specific part of the ablation zone valley wall to a specific point on a medial moraine in the ablation zone. We collected 5 grab samples, each consisting of ~30 2-10 cm rock fragments of the same lithology, from a 4.5 km longitudinal transect on the crest of the medial moraine of the Shadows glacier. We sampled the crest to minimize the amount of post-exhumation transport and mixing that may have occurred; each sample probably contains rocks from only one to a few rockfall events. Measured 10Be concentrations range from 1.5x104 to 3x104 at/g-qtz and are higher downvalley. First

  4. Categorization of biologically relevant chemical signals in the medial amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsen, Chad L.; Meredith, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Many species employ chemical signals to convey messages between members of the same species (conspecific), but chemosignals may also provide information to another species (heterospecific). Here, we found that conspecific chemosignals (male, female mouse urine) increased immediate early gene-protein (IEG) expression in both anterior and posterior medial amygdala of male mice, whereas most heterospecific chemosignals (e.g.: hamster vaginal fluid, steer urine) increased expression only in anterior medial amygdala. This categorization of responses in medial amygdala conforms to our previously reported findings in male hamsters. The same characteristic pattern of IEG expression appears in the medial amygdala of each species in response to conspecific stimuli for that species. These results suggest that the amygdala categorizes stimuli according to the biological relevance for the tested species. Thus, a heterospecific predator (cat collar) stimulus, which elicited behavioral avoidance in mice, increased IEG expression in mouse posterior medial amygdala (like conspecific stimuli). Further analysis suggests reproduction related and potentially threatening stimuli produce increased IEG expression in different sub-regions of posterior medial amygdala (dorsal and ventral, respectively). These patterns of IEG expression in medial amygdala may provide glimpses of a tertiary sorting of chemosensory signals beyond the primary-level selectivity of chemosensory neurons and the secondary sorting in main and accessory olfactory bulbs. PMID:19368822

  5. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression

    PubMed Central

    Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J.; Levin, Yael

    2009-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so. PMID:19620180

  6. Medial cortex activity, self-reflection and depression.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marcia K; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Mitchell, Karen J; Levin, Yael

    2009-12-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated neural activity associated with self-reflection in depressed [current major depressive episode (MDE)] and healthy control participants, focusing on medial cortex areas previously shown to be associated with self-reflection. Both the MDE and healthy control groups showed greater activity in anterior medial cortex (medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus) when cued to think about hopes and aspirations compared with duties and obligations, and greater activity in posterior medial cortex (precuneus, posterior cingulate) when cued to think about duties and obligations (Experiment 1). However, the MDE group showed less activity than controls in the same area of medial frontal cortex when self-referential cues were more ambiguous with respect to valence (Experiment 2), and less deactivation in a non-self-referential condition in both experiments. Furthermore, individual differences in rumination were positively correlated with activity in both anterior and posterior medial cortex during non-self-referential conditions. These results provide converging evidence for a dissociation of anterior and posterior medial cortex depending on the focus of self-relevant thought. They also provide neural evidence consistent with behavioral findings that depression is associated with disruption of positively valenced thoughts in response to ambiguous cues, and difficulty disengaging from self-reflection when it is appropriate to do so.

  7. Episodic reinstatement in the medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Staresina, Bernhard P; Henson, Richard N A; Kriegeskorte, Nikolaus; Alink, Arjen

    2012-12-12

    The essence of episodic memory is our ability to reexperience past events in great detail, even in the absence of external stimulus cues. Does the phenomenological reinstatement of past experiences go along with reinstating unique neural representations in the brain? And if so, how is this accomplished by the medial temporal lobe (MTL), a brain region intimately linked to episodic memory? Computational models suggest that such reinstatement (also termed "pattern completion") in cortical regions is mediated by the hippocampus, a key region of the MTL. Although recent functional magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated reinstatement of coarse item properties like stimulus category or task context across different brain regions, it has not yet been shown whether reinstatement can be observed at the level of individual, discrete events-arguably the defining feature of episodic memory-nor whether MTL structures like the hippocampus support this "true episodic" reinstatement. Here we show that neural activity patterns for unique word-scene combinations encountered during encoding are reinstated in human parahippocampal cortex (PhC) during retrieval. Critically, this reinstatement occurs when word-scene combinations are successfully recollected (even though the original scene is not visually presented) and does not encompass other stimulus domains (such as word-color associations). Finally, the degree of PhC reinstatement across retrieval events correlated with hippocampal activity, consistent with a role of the hippocampus in coordinating pattern completion in cortical regions.

  8. The Medial Temporal Lobe and Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Eichenbaum, H.; Yonelinas, A.R.; Ranganath, C.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to recognize a previously experienced stimulus is supported by two processes: recollection of the stimulus in the context of other information associated with the experience, and a sense of familiarity with the features of the stimulus. Although familiarity and recollection are functionally distinct, there is considerable debate about how these kinds of memory are supported by regions in the medial temporal lobes (MTL). Here, we review evidence for the distinction between recollection and familiarity and then consider the evidence regarding the neural mechanisms of these processes. Evidence from neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and neurophysiological studies of humans, monkeys, and rats indicates that different subregions of the MTL make distinct contributions to recollection and familiarity. The data suggest that the hippocampus is critical for recollection but not familiarity. The parahippocampal cortex also contributes to recollection, possibly via the representation and retrieval of contextual (especially spatial) information, whereas perirhinal cortex contributes to and is necessary for familiarity-based recognition. The findings are consistent with an anatomically guided hypothesis about the functional organization of the MTL and suggest mechanisms by which the anatomical components of the MTL interact to support of the phenomenology of recollection and familiarity. PMID:17417939

  9. Chronic medial instability of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Savoie, Felix H.; O’Brien, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Damage to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow from an instability episode usually heals with non-operative treatment. In some cases, residual instability may occur, leading to functional impairment.Non-operative management can be successful when bracing, taping and therapy are used to stabilise the elbow.A recent report detailing the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in effectively treating ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in throwers has shown promise. However, there remain specific groups that should be considered for repair or reconstruction. These may include throwing athletes, wrestlers and some individuals involved in highly active physical activity which demands stability of the elbow.The results of surgical repair and reconstruction allowing a return to sports are quite good, ranging from 84% to 94%. Complications are generally low and mostly centred on ulnar nerve injuries.This report represents a review of the literature concerning valgus instability over the past five years, supplemented by selective older articles where relevant. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:1-6. DOI:10.1302/2058-5241.2.160037. PMID:28607764

  10. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Riga, Danai; Matos, Mariana R.; Glas, Annet; Smit, August B.; Spijker, Sabine; Van den Oever, Michel C.

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus), the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders. PMID:25538574

  11. Optogenetic dissection of medial prefrontal cortex circuitry.

    PubMed

    Riga, Danai; Matos, Mariana R; Glas, Annet; Smit, August B; Spijker, Sabine; Van den Oever, Michel C

    2014-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is critically involved in numerous cognitive functions, including attention, inhibitory control, habit formation, working memory and long-term memory. Moreover, through its dense interconnectivity with subcortical regions (e.g., thalamus, striatum, amygdala and hippocampus), the mPFC is thought to exert top-down executive control over the processing of aversive and appetitive stimuli. Because the mPFC has been implicated in the processing of a wide range of cognitive and emotional stimuli, it is thought to function as a central hub in the brain circuitry mediating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. New optogenetics technology enables anatomical and functional dissection of mPFC circuitry with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution. This provides important novel insights in the contribution of specific neuronal subpopulations and their connectivity to mPFC function in health and disease states. In this review, we present the current knowledge obtained with optogenetic methods concerning mPFC function and dysfunction and integrate this with findings from traditional intervention approaches used to investigate the mPFC circuitry in animal models of cognitive processing and psychiatric disorders.

  12. Subspecialization in the human posterior medial cortex

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Heeger, Adrian; Langner, Robert; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Palomero-Gallagher, Nicola; Vogt, Brent A.; Zilles, Karl; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2014-01-01

    The posterior medial cortex (PMC) is particularly poorly understood. Its neural activity changes have been related to highly disparate mental processes. We therefore investigated PMC properties with a data-driven exploratory approach. First, we subdivided the PMC by whole-brain coactivation profiles. Second, functional connectivity of the ensuing PMC regions was compared by task-constrained meta-analytic coactivation mapping (MACM) and task-unconstrained resting-state correlations (RSFC). Third, PMC regions were functionally described by forward/reverse functional inference. A precuneal cluster was mostly connected to the intraparietal sulcus, frontal eye fields, and right temporo-parietal junction; associated with attention and motor tasks. A ventral posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) cluster was mostly connected to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and middle left inferior parietal cortex (IPC); associated with facial appraisal and language tasks. A dorsal PCC cluster was mostly connected to the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior IPC, posterior midcingulate cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex; associated with delay discounting. A cluster in the retrosplenial cortex was mostly connected to the anterior thalamus and hippocampus. Furthermore, all PMC clusters were congruently coupled with the default mode network according to task-constrained but not task-unconstrained connectivity. We thus identified distinct regions in the PMC and characterized their neural networks and functional implications. PMID:25462801

  13. Pattern of structural brain changes in social anxiety disorder after cognitive behavioral group therapy: a longitudinal multimodal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Steiger, V R; Brühl, A B; Weidt, S; Delsignore, A; Rufer, M; Jäncke, L; Herwig, U; Hänggi, J

    2017-08-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by fears of social and performance situations. Cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) has in general positive effects on symptoms, distress and avoidance in SAD. Prior studies found increased cortical volumes and decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) in SAD compared with healthy controls (HCs). Thirty-three participants diagnosed with SAD attended in a 10-week CBGT and were scanned before and after therapy. We applied three neuroimaging methods-surface-based morphometry, diffusion tensor imaging and network-based statistics-each with specific longitudinal processing protocols, to investigate CBGT-induced structural brain alterations of the gray and white matter (WM). Surface-based morphometry revealed a significant cortical volume reduction (pre- to post-treatment) in the left inferior parietal cortex, as well as a positive partial correlation between treatment success (indexed by reductions in Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale) and reductions in cortical volume in bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Diffusion tensor imaging analysis revealed a significant increase in FA in bilateral uncinate fasciculus and right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Network-based statistics revealed a significant increase of structural connectivity in a frontolimbic network. No partial correlations with treatment success have been found in WM analyses. For, we believe, the first time, we present a distinctive pattern of longitudinal structural brain changes after CBGT measured with three established magnetic resonance imaging analyzing techniques. Our findings are in line with previous cross-sectional, unimodal SAD studies and extent them by highlighting anatomical brain alterations that point toward the level of HCs in parallel with a reduction in SAD symptomatology.

  14. Bilateral medial medullary infarction due to bilateral vertebral artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Masafumi; Aiba, Toyotaka; Takahashi, Sho

    2004-03-01

    We describe a 52-year-old woman who experienced transient motor weakness and numbness of the left extremities and presented 2 days later with severe hemiparesis and sensory impairment of the right extremities and right lingual palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed bilateral upper medial medullary infarction, primarily in the left ventral portion. The findings of both three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic and conventional angiography suggested dissection of both intracranial vertebral arteries (VAs). Medial medullary infarction is generally caused by atherosclerosis within a VA or anterior spinal artery. This is the first report of bilateral medial medullary infarction due to dissection of both intracranial VAs.

  15. Dysphagia in a patient with bilateral medial medullary infarcts.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Vimal K; Kalita, Jayanti; Misra, Usha K

    2009-09-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarct is a rare stroke syndrome and only a handful of cases have been described. Dysphagia as a manifestation of medullary infarcts is well recognized but often associated with lateral medullary infarct. Bilateral medial medullary infarcts are commonly associated with severe dysphagia in addition to a number of other signs and symptoms. We describe a patient who had bilateral medial medullary infarct with severe dysphagia in addition to quadriplegia and respiratory difficulty, and analyze infarct topography with respect to dysphagia, risk factors, vascular territories involved, and prognosis in view of previously reported cases.

  16. Medial meniscus anatomy-from basic science to treatment.

    PubMed

    Śmigielski, Robert; Becker, Roland; Zdanowicz, Urszula; Ciszek, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the anatomical attachment of the medial meniscus. Detailed anatomical dissections have been performed and illustrated. Five zones can be distinguished in regard to the meniscus attachments anatomy: zone 1 (of the anterior root), zone 2 (anteromedial zone), zone 3 (the medial zone), zone 4 (the posterior zone) and the zone 5 (of the posterior root). The understanding of the meniscal anatomy is especially crucial for meniscus repair but also for correct fixation of the anterior and posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

  17. Modified tension band wiring of medial malleolar ankle fractures.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, G M; White, D B

    1995-02-01

    Twenty-two displaced medial malleolar ankle fractures that were treated surgically using the modified tension band method of Cleak and Dawson were retrospectively reviewed at an average follow-up of 25 months. The technique involves the use of a screw to anchor a figure-of-eight wire. There were no malreductions and all fractures healed. Problems with the technique included technical errors with hardware placement, medial ankle pain, and asymptomatic wire migration. Despite this, modified tension band wiring remains an acceptable method for fixation of selected displaced medial malleolar fractures. It is especially suited for small fracture fragments and osteoporotic bone.

  18. Posterior horn medial meniscal root repair with cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament combined injuries.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brian F; Johnson, Darren L

    2011-12-01

    Many meniscal root tears remain unrepaired, potentially due to under-recognition and the technical challenge of repairing them. A great effort is made to preserve the native meniscus and restore the circumferential fibers for hoop stress resistance. It has been well demonstrated in the literature that failure to repair this will lead to increased contact pressures in the medial compartment and early degenerative changes in the articular cartilage. Our technique is one that allows the meniscus to resume its important role of knee stability. A thorough understanding of meniscal root anatomy, as well as repair techniques, is important for the cruciate ligament surgeon. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Reconstruction of the arcuate fasciculus for surgical planning in the setting of peritumoral edema using two-tensor unscented Kalman filter tractography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenrui; Tie, Yanmei; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Rigolo, Laura; Mehrtash, Alireza; Norton, Isaiah; Pasternak, Ofer; Rathi, Yogesh; Golby, Alexandra J; O'Donnell, Lauren J

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion imaging tractography is increasingly used to trace critical fiber tracts in brain tumor patients to reduce the risk of post-operative neurological deficit. However, the effects of peritumoral edema pose a challenge to conventional tractography using the standard diffusion tensor model. The aim of this study was to present a novel technique using a two-tensor unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm to track the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in brain tumor patients with peritumoral edema. Ten right-handed patients with left-sided brain tumors in the vicinity of language-related cortex and evidence of significant peritumoral edema were retrospectively selected for the study. All patients underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a diffusion-weighted dataset with 31 directions. Fiber tractography was performed using both single-tensor streamline and two-tensor UKF tractography. A two-regions-of-interest approach was applied to perform the delineation of the AF. Results from the two different tractography algorithms were compared visually and quantitatively. Using single-tensor streamline tractography, the AF appeared disrupted in four patients and contained few fibers in the remaining six patients. Two-tensor UKF tractography delineated an AF that traversed edematous brain areas in all patients. The volume of the AF was significantly larger on two-tensor UKF than on single-tensor streamline tractography (p < 0.01). Two-tensor UKF tractography provides the ability to trace a larger volume AF than single-tensor streamline tractography in the setting of peritumoral edema in brain tumor patients.

  20. Comparison of complete distal release of the medial collateral ligament and medial epicondylar osteotomy during ligament balancing in varus knee total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jae Ang; Lee, Yong Seuk; Kwak, Ji Hoon; Yang, Sang Hoon; Kim, Kwang Hui; Lee, Beom Koo

    2013-12-01

    During ligament balancing for severe medial contracture in varus knee total knee arthroplasty (TKA), complete distal release of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) or a medial epicondylar osteotomy can be necessary if a large amount of correction is needed. This study retrospectively reviewed 9 cases of complete distal release of the MCL and 11 cases of medial epicondylar osteotomy which were used to correct severe medial contracture. The mean follow-up periods were 46.5 months (range, 36 to 78 months) and 39.8 months (range, 32 to 65 months), respectively. There were no significant differences in the clinical results between the two groups. However, the valgus stress radiograph revealed significant differences in medial instability. In complete distal release of the MCL, some stability was obtained by repair and bracing but the medial instability could not be removed completely. Medial epicondylar osteotomy for a varus deformity in TKA could provide constant medial stability and be a useful ligament balancing technique.

  1. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  2. Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus of three dogs.

    PubMed

    Davidson, H J; Blanchard, G L

    1991-01-15

    Periorbital epidermoid cyst in the medial canthus was identified ultrasonographically and confirmed histologically in 3 dogs. Surgical resection of the cysts, with reconstruction of the lacrimal canaliculi, was curative in all 3 cases.

  3. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  4. Insulin Resistance Predicts Medial Temporal Hypermetabolism in Mild Cognitive Impairment Conversion to Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Willette, Auriel A.; Modanlo, Nina

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by progressive hypometabolism on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans. Peripheral insulin resistance (IR) increases AD risk. No studies have examined associations between FDG metabolism and IR in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD, as well as MCI conversion to AD. We studied 26 cognitively normal (CN), 194 MCI (39 MCI-progressors, 148 MCI-stable, 2 years after baseline), and 60 AD subjects with baseline FDG-PET from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. Mean FDG metabolism was derived for AD-vulnerable regions of interest (ROIs), including lateral parietal and posteromedial cortices, medial temporal lobe (MTL), hippocampus, and ventral prefrontal cortices (vPFC), as well as postcentral gyrus and global cerebrum control regions. The homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) was used to measure IR. For AD, higher HOMA-IR predicted lower FDG in all ROIs. For MCI-progressors, higher HOMA-IR predicted higher FDG in the MTL and hippocampus. Control regions showed no associations. Higher HOMA-IR predicted hypermetabolism in MCI-progressors and hypometabolism in AD in medial temporal regions. Future longitudinal studies should examine the pathophysiologic significance of the shift from MTL hyper- to hypometabolism associated with IR. PMID:25576061

  5. GABAergic Projections from the Medial Septum Selectively Inhibit Interneurons in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Sulser, Alfredo; Parthier, Daniel; Candela, Antonio; McClure, Christina; Pastoll, Hugh; Garden, Derek; Sürmeli, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    The medial septum (MS) is required for theta rhythmic oscillations and grid cell firing in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC). While GABAergic, glutamatergic, and cholinergic neurons project from the MS to the MEC, their synaptic targets are unknown. To investigate whether MS neurons innervate specific layers and cell types in the MEC, we expressed channelrhodopsin-2 in mouse MS neurons and used patch-clamp recording in brain slices to determine the response to light activation of identified cells in the MEC. Following activation of MS axons, we observed fast monosynaptic GABAergic IPSPs in the majority (>60%) of fast-spiking (FS) and low-threshold-spiking (LTS) interneurons in all layers of the MEC, but in only 1.5% of nonstellate principal cells (NSPCs) and in no stellate cells. We also observed fast glutamatergic responses to MS activation in a minority (<5%) of NSPCs, FS, and LTS interneurons. During stimulation of MS inputs at theta frequency (10 Hz), the amplitude of GABAergic IPSPs was maintained, and spike output from LTS and FS interneurons was entrained at low (25–60 Hz) and high (60–180 Hz) gamma frequencies, respectively. By demonstrating cell type-specific targeting of the GABAergic projection from the MS to the MEC, our results support the idea that the MS controls theta frequency activity in the MEC through coordination of inhibitory circuits. PMID:25505326

  6. Comparative techniques of medial rectus muscle retraction for endoscopic exposure of the medial intraconal space.

    PubMed

    Lin, Giant C; Freitag, Suzanne K; Kocharyan, Armine; Yoon, Michael K; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Bleier, Benjamin S

    2016-05-01

    The medial rectus muscle (MRM) is the medial boundary to the intraconal space of the orbit, and retraction of the MRM is oftentimes necessary for endoscopic removal of intraconal tumors, e.g., orbital hemangioma. We evaluated each of the reported methods of MRM retraction for endoscopic orbital surgery and quantified the degree of intraconal exposure conferred by each method. Eight orbits from four cadaver heads were dissected. In each orbit, medial orbital decompression was performed and the MRM was retracted by using four previously described techniques: (1) external MRM retraction at the globe insertion point by using vessel loop (external group), (2) transseptal MRM retraction by using vessel loop (transseptal group), (3) transchoanal retraction of the MRM by using vessel loop (choanal group), and (4) transseptal four-handed technique by using double ball retraction by a second surgeon (transseptal double ball group). The length, height, and area of exposure of the medial intraconal space were quantified and compared. The average ± standard deviation (SD) anterior-posterior exposures for the external group, transseptal group, and transseptal double ball group were 17.51 ± 3.39 mm, 16.59 ± 4.16 mm, and 18.0 ± 15.25 mm, respectively. The choanal group provided significantly less exposure (12.39 ± 3.44 mm, p = 0.049) than the other groups. The average ± SD vertical exposures for the transseptal group, choanal group, and transseptal double ball group were 12.53 ± 4.38 mm, 13.05 ± 5.86 mm, and 13.57 ± 3.74 mm, respectively. The external group provided significantly less exposure (4.51 ± 1.56 mm, p = 0.0072) than the other groups. The transseptal and transseptal double ball groups provided the greatest total access by surface area (58.88 ± 26.96 mm(2) and 62.94 ± 34.74 mm(2), respectively) compared with the external and choanal groups (34.82 ± 23.37 mm(2) and 43.10 ± 23.68 mm(2), respectively). Although the transseptal trajectory of MRM retraction was

  7. The "safe zone" in medial percutaneous calcaneal pin placement.

    PubMed

    Gamie, Zakareya; Donnelly, Leo; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2009-05-01

    Percutaneous pin insertion into the medial calcaneus places a number of structures at risk. Evidence suggests that the greatest risk is to the medial calcaneal nerve (MCN). The medial calcaneal region of 24 cadavers was dissected to determine the major structures at risk. By using four palpable anatomical landmarks, the inferior tip of the medial malleolus (point A), the posterior superior portion of the calcaneal tuberosity (point B), the navicular tuberosity (point C), and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity (point D), we attempted to define the safe zone taking into account all possible variables in our dissections including ankle position, side, gender, and possible anatomical variations of the MCN. The commonest arrangement of the MCN was two MCNs that arose independently, one arising before the bifurcation of the tibial nerve and the other arising from the medial plantar nerve. A zone could be defined posterior to 75% of the distance along the lines AB, CD, AD, and CB which would avoid most structures. The posterior branches of the MCN, however, would still be at risk and placing the pin too far posteriorly risks an avulsion fracture. This is the first study to employ four palpable anatomical landmarks to identify a zone to minimize damage to neurovascular structures. It may not be possible, however, to avoid injury of the MCN and consequent sensory loss to the sole of the foot.

  8. Medial orbital wall reconstruction with flexible Ethisorb patches.

    PubMed

    Pohlenz, P; Adler, W; Li, L; Schmelzle, R; Klatt, J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the long-term result after reconstruction of the medial orbital wall with a flexible, biodegradable material (Ethisorb). During a period of almost 8 years, 31 patients with a medial orbital wall fracture were analysed retrospectively. Inclusion criteria were patients with a maximum size fracture of the orbital medial wall measuring 1.5-2 cm(2). Exophthalmos, enophthalmos, bulbus motility, diplopia and skin sensation were investigated over a period of 6 months. In all patients, the medial orbital wall was reconstructed with Ethisorb patches. No significant intraoperative complications were detected. No postoperative infection, abscess or seroma was found in any of the patients receiving an Ethisorb patch. The advantage of the semiflexibility of the Ethisorb patch is that it supplies an anatomically correct fit to the orbital medial wall but does not require fixation by screws or the use of sutures. The low rate of reported bulbus motility disturbance, diplopia, exophthalmos and enophthalmos demonstrates acceptable results after medial orbital wall reconstruction using the Ethisorb patch.

  9. Longitudinal joint study.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2001-09-01

    In previous years there has been a problem with longitudinal joint : deterioration, due in part to poor construction techniques. : The degradation of the longitudinal joints has increased the cost of : maintaining these projects and caused unnecessar...

  10. Medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty: a cost minimization analysis.

    PubMed

    Tam, Samantha; Sun, Hongmei; Sarma, Sisira; Siu, Jennifer; Fung, Kevin; Sowerby, Leigh

    2017-02-20

    Medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty are widely accepted treatment options for unilateral vocal fold paralysis. Although both procedures result in similar clinical outcomes, little is known about the corresponding medical care costs. Medialization thyroplasty requires expensive operating room resources while injection laryngoplasty utilizes outpatient resources but may require repeated procedures. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to quantify the cost differences in adult patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis undergoing medialization thyroplasty versus injection laryngoplasty. Cost minimization analysis conducted using a decision tree model. A decision tree model was constructed to capture clinical scenarios for medialization thyroplasty and injection laryngoplasty. Probabilities for various events were obtained from a retrospective cohort from the London Health Sciences Centre, Canada. Costs were derived from the published literature and the London Health Science Centre. All costs were reported in 2014 Canadian dollars. Time horizon was 5 years. The study was conducted from an academic hospital perspective in Canada. Various sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess differences in procedure-specific costs and probabilities of key events. Sixty-three patients underwent medialization thyroplasty and 41 underwent injection laryngoplasty. Cost of medialization thyroplasty was C$2499.10 per patient whereas those treated with injection laryngoplasty cost C$943.19. Results showed that cost savings with IL were C$1555.91. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses suggested cost savings ranged from C$596 to C$3626. Treatment with injection laryngoplasty results in cost savings of C$1555.91 per patient. Our extensive sensitivity analyses suggest that switching from medialization thyroplasty to injection laryngoplasty will lead to a minimum cost savings of C$596 per patient. Considering the significant cost savings and similar

  11. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Individuals Displaying Excessive Medial Knee Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; Bell, David R.; Clark, Micheal A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Knee-valgus motion is a potential risk factor for certain lower extremity injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain. Identifying neuromuscular characteristics associated with knee-valgus motion, such as hip and lower leg muscle activation, may improve our ability to prevent lower extremity injuries. Objective We hypothesized that hip and lower leg muscle-activation amplitude would differ among individuals displaying knee valgus (medial knee displacement) during a double-legged squat compared with those who did not display knee valgus. We further suggested that the use of a heel lift would alter lower leg muscle activation and frontal-plane knee motion in those demonstrating medial knee displacement. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 37 healthy participants were assigned to the control (n = 19) or medial-knee-displacement (n = 18) group based on their double-legged squat performance. Main Outcome Measure(s) Muscle-activation amplitude for the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was measured during 2 double-legged squat tasks. The first task consisted of performing a double-legged squat without a heel lift; the second consisted of performing a double-legged squat task with a 2-in (5.08-cm) lift under the heels. Results Muscle-activation amplitude for the hip adductor, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was greater in those who displayed knee valgus than in those who did not (P < .05). Also, use of heel lifts resulted in decreased activation of the gluteus maximus, hip adductor, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles (P < .05). Use of heel lifts also eliminated medially directed frontal-plane knee motion in those displaying medial knee displacement. Conclusions Medial knee displacement during squatting tasks appears to be associated with increased hip-adductor activation and

  12. Distribution of Longitudinal Wave Velocities in Bovine Cortical Bone in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Yu; Kataoka, Hideo; Matsukawa, Mami; Yamazaki, Kaoru; Otani, Takahiko; Nagano, Akira

    2005-06-01

    The distribution of longitudinal wave velocities and longitudinal moduli in a bovine femoral cortical bone was experimentally investigated. In all parts of the long cylindrical bone, the velocities and longitudinal moduli in the axial direction were the highest. In the anterior (A) part, the velocities in the axial direction were high and almost constant, whereas the velocities in the proximal postero medial (PM) and distal postero lateral (PL) parts markedly decreased. Classifying the cortical bone into three structures (plexiform, Haversian, and porotic), we clarify the velocity distributions in the bone with discussion from an anatomical point of view.

  13. Medial meniscus extrusion correlates with disease duration of the sudden symptomatic medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, T; Kamatsuki, Y; Fujii, M; Kodama, Y; Okazaki, Y; Masuda, S; Ozaki, T

    2017-12-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) leads to abnormal biomechanics of the knee by inducing the medial meniscus extrusion (MME). However, a time-dependent increase of the MME is not fully elucidated in patients suffering from the acute MMPRT. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among disease duration of the MMPRT and severity of the MME. We hypothesized that MME measurement correlates with disease duration after a sudden onset of the minor traumatic MMPRT during the short-term follow-up period. Forty-six patients who had an accurate episode of the posteromedial painful popping were investigated. All the patients were diagnosed having a symptomatic MMPRT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Absolute MME was measured using MRI scans within 12 months after painful popping events. A correlation coefficient between duration from injury to MRI examination and absolute MME was evaluated. Mean absolute MME was 4.5±1.6mm (range, 1.1-8.8mm) on MRI measurements. A good correlation was observed between MME measurement and duration from injury to MRI examination (R 2 =0.612). The best-fit equation for predicting each value was: MME=0.014×disease duration+3.288mm. This study demonstrated that absolute MME increases progressively within the short duration after the onset of symptomatic MMPRT. Our results suggest that preoperative MME assessment may be important in determining disease duration and treatment strategy of the MMPRT. Retrospective cohort study level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages.PATIENTS AND METHODS The medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age<18 years, n=10) and adult groups (age >18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin.RESULTS Varying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION Younger patients with intermittent exotropia show stronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood.

  15. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S

    2017-11-10

    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. An in vitro analysis of medial structures and a medial soft tissue reconstruction in a constrained condylar total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Athwal, Kiron K; El Daou, Hadi; Inderhaug, Eivind; Manning, William; Davies, Andrew J; Deehan, David J; Amis, Andrew A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the medial soft tissue contributions to stability following constrained condylar (CC) total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and determine whether a medial reconstruction could restore stability to a soft tissue-deficient, CC-TKA knee. Eight cadaveric knees were mounted in a robotic system and tested at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion with ±50 N anterior-posterior force, ±8 Nm varus-valgus, and ±5 Nm internal-external torque. The deep and superficial medial collateral ligaments (dMCL, sMCL) and posteromedial capsule (PMC) were transected and their relative contributions to stabilising the applied loads were quantified. After complete medial soft tissue transection, a reconstruction using a semitendinosus tendon graft was performed, and the effect on kinematic behaviour under equivocal conditions was measured. In the CC-TKA knee, the sMCL was the major medial restraint in anterior drawer, internal-external, and valgus rotation. No significant differences were found between the rotational laxities of the reconstructed knee to the pre-deficient state for the arc of motion examined. The relative contribution of the reconstruction was higher in valgus rotation at 60° than the sMCL; otherwise, the contribution of the reconstruction was similar to that of the sMCL. There is contention whether a CC-TKA can function with medial deficiency or more constraint is required. This work has shown that a CC-TKA may not provide enough stability with an absent sMCL. However, in such cases, combining the CC-TKA with a medial soft tissue reconstruction may be considered as an alternative to a hinged implant.

  17. Medial extrusion of the posterior segment of medial meniscus is a sensitive sign for posterior horn tears.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Banno, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Yuta; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate medial extrusion of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus in posterior horn tears. This study enrolled 72 patients without medial meniscal tears (group N), 72 patients with medial meniscal tears without posterior horn tears (group PH-), 44 patients with posterior horn tears of the medial meniscus (group PH+). All meniscal tears were confirmed by arthroscopy. Medial extrusion of the middle segment and the posterior segment was measured on coronal MRIs. Extrusions of both middle and posterior segments in groups PH- and PH+ (middle segment; 2.94±1.51 mm for group PH- and 3.75±1.69 mm for group PH+, posterior segment; 1.85±1.82 mm for group PH- and 4.59±2.74 mm for group PH+) were significantly larger than those in group N (middle segment; 2.04±1.20, posterior segment; 1.21±1.86). Both indicators of extrusion in group PH+ were larger than those in group PH-. In the early OA category, neither middle nor posterior segment in group PH- extruded more than in group N. However, only the posterior segment in group PH+ extruded significantly more than in group N. Multiple lineal regression analyses revealed that posterior segment extrusion was strongly correlated with the posterior horn tears (p<0.001) among groups PH- and PH+. The newly presented indicator for extrusion of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus is associated with posterior horn tears in comparison with the extrusion of the middle segment, especially in the early stages of osteoarthritis. Level II--Diagnostic Study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Selective Medial Release Technique Using the Pie-Crusting Method for Medial Tightness During Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chul-Won; Park, Yong-Beom; Lee, Choong-Hee; Awe, Soo-Ik; Park, Yong-Geun

    2016-05-01

    The pie-crusting method is popular in releasing lateral tightness during primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) but is not well described for medial release. We established a selective medial release technique using the pie-crusting technique and investigated the effectiveness and safety of the technique during primary TKA. We retrospectively reviewed 729 primary TKAs with varus deformity between October 2009 and June 2012. Medial tightness in flexion was released by traditional subperiosteal stripping for the anterior portion of the medial collateral ligament (aMCL). Medial tightness in extension was released by the pie crusting for the tight fibers in the posterior portion of the MCL and/or posteromedial corner structures (pMCL/PMCS). Clinical outcomes were evaluated by Knee Society (KS) scores and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index. Any complications, including late medial instability that may be related to our surgical technique, were carefully inspected. Among the 729 knees, 170 (23.3%) required subperiosteal stripping for balancing in flexion only, 186 (25.5%) required the pie-crusting for balancing in extension only and 142 (19.5%) required subperiosteal stripping and the pie-crusting for balancing in flexion and extension. The KS knee score was improved from 52.5 to 83.4, KS function score from 58.2 to 91.9, and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index from 42.7 to 21.8 (P < .001, all). No specific complications related to our technique were identified. The selective medial release technique appears to be an effective and safe method to obtain a balanced mediolateral gap in primary TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Temporal characteristics of Punjabi word-medial singletons and geminates.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Qandeel

    2015-10-01

    Many studies have investigated the temporal characteristics of the word-medial singletons and geminates in Indo-Aryan languages. However, little is known about the acoustic cues distinguishing between the word-medial singletons and geminates of Punjabi. The present study examines the temporal characteristics of Punjabi word-medial singleton and geminate stops in a C1V1C2V2 template. The results from five Punjabi speakers showed that, unlike previous studies of Indo-Aryan languages, the durations of C2 and V2 are the most important acoustic correlates of singleton and geminate stops in Punjabi. These findings therefore point towards the cross-linguistic differences in the acoustic correlates of singletons and geminates.

  20. Results of step-cut medial malleolar osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Thordarson, David B; Kaku, Shawn K

    2006-12-01

    Treatment of certain complex ankle pathology, such as a talar body fracture or osteochondral lesion requiring grafting, can necessitate medial malleolar osteotomy for adequate operative exposure. This paper evaluates the step-cut medial malleolar osteotomy for exposure of the ankle joint. Fourteen patients with intra-articular pathology, including talar body fractures or osteochondral lesions necessitating extensive intra-articular exposure had step-cut malleolar osteotomy. The average age of the patients was 37 (range 20-90) years, and the average followup was 8 months. All 14 patients had an uncomplicated intraoperative course, with excellent exposure of the ankle joint. All patients had prompt healing of the osteotomy by 6 weeks after surgery without loss of reduction. None of the patients had pain at the osteotomy site. Step-cut medial malleolar osteotomy is an excellent, reproducible method for extensive exposure of the talar dome.

  1. Changes in articular cartilage following arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Eichinger, Martin; Schocke, Michael; Hoser, Christian; Fink, Christian; Mayr, Raul; Rosenberger, Ralf E

    2016-05-01

    To examine degenerative changes in all cartilage surfaces of the knee following arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy. For this prospective cohort study, 14 patients (five female) with a mean age of 47.9 ± 12.9 years who had undergone isolated arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy were evaluated. Cartilage-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were acquired from the operated knees before the index operations, as well as at 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery. The MRI scans were assessed for the prevalence, severity, and size of cartilage degenerations. The clinical outcome was assessed using the SF-36 physical and mental component score and the International Knee Documentation Committee Knee Evaluation Form and was correlated with radiological findings. There was a significant increase in the severity of cartilage lesions in the medial tibial plateau (P = 0.019), as well as a trend towards an increase in the lateral tibial plateau. The size of the cartilage lesions increased significantly in the medial femoral condyle (P = 0.005) and lateral femoral condyle (P = 0.029), as well as in the patella (P = 0.019). Functional outcome scores improved significantly throughout the follow-up period. There was no correlation between cartilage wear and functional outcome. Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is associated with adverse effects on articular cartilage and may lead to an increase in the severity and size of cartilage lesions. Post-operative cartilage wear predominantly affected the medial compartment and also affected the other compartments of the knee. Strategies to reduce subsequent osteoarthritic changes need to involve all compartments of the knee. IV.

  2. Bilateral medial medullary syndrome secondary to Takayasu arteritis.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Anirudda; Chandran, Vijay; Pai, Aparna; Rao, Suryanarayana; Shetty, Ranjan

    2013-08-13

    Medial medullary syndrome (MMS) is a rare type of stroke which results due to occlusion of the anterior spinal artery or vertebral artery or its branches. In this case report we present a patient who developed MMS secondary to Takayasu arteritis (TA). TA is a chronic inflammatory arteritis primarily involving the arch of aorta and its branches, which in our patient resulted in occlusion of subclavian arteries as well as infarction of the medial medulla bilaterally. To our knowledge this is the first time that MMS has been found to occur secondary to TA.

  3. The measurement of medial knee gap width using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Slane, Laura C; Slane, Josh A; Scheys, Lennart

    2017-08-01

    Medial knee instability is a key clinical parameter for assessing ligament injury and arthroplasty success, but current methods for measuring stability are typically either qualitative or involve ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary analysis of whether ultrasound (US) could be used as an alternate approach for quantifying medial instability by comparing an US method with an approach mimicking the current gold standard fluoroscopy method. US data from the medial knee were collected, while cadaveric lower limbs (n = 8) were loaded in valgus (10 Nm). During post-processing, the US gap width was measured by identifying the medial edges of the femur and tibia and computing the gap width between these points. For comparison, mimicked fluoroscopy (mFluoro) images were created from specimen-specific bone models, developed from segmented CT scans, and from kinematic data collected during testing. Then, gap width was measured in the mFluoro images based on two different published approaches with gap width measured either at the most medial or at the most distal aspect of the femur. Gap width increased significantly with loading (p < 0.001), and there were no significant differences between the US method (unloaded: 8.7 ± 2.4 mm, loaded: 10.7 ± 2.2 mm) and the mFluoro method that measured gap width at the medial femur. In terms of the change in gap width with load, no correlation with the change in abduction angle was observed, with no correlation between the various methods. Inter-rater reliability for the US method was high (0.899-0.952). Ultrasound shows promise as a suitable alternative for quantifying medial instability without radiation exposure. However, the outstanding limitations of existing approaches and lack of true ground-truth data require that further validation work is necessary to better understand the clinical viability of an US approach for measuring medial knee gap width.

  4. Inter-Individual Variation in Fronto-Temporal Connectivity Predicts the Ability to Learn Different Types of Associations

    PubMed Central

    Alm, Kylie H.; Rolheiser, Tyler; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2016-01-01

    The uncinate fasciculus connects portions of the anterior and medial temporal lobes to the lateral orbitofrontal cortex, so it has long been thought that this limbic fiber pathway plays an important role in episodic memory. Some types of episodic memory are impaired after damage to the uncinate, while others remain intact. Because of this, the specific role played by the uncinate fasciculus in episodic memory remains undetermined. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the uncinate fasciculus is involved in episodic memory tasks that have high competition between representations at retrieval. To test this hypothesis, healthy young adults performed three tasks: Experiment 1 in which they learned to associate names with faces through feedback provided at the end of each trial; Experiment 2 in which they learned to associate fractals with cued locations through feedback provided at the end of each trial; and Experiment 3 in which unique faces were remembered in a paradigm with low retrieval competition. Diffusion tensor imaging and deterministic tractography methods were used to extract measures of uncinate fasciculus microstructure. Results revealed that microstructural properties of the uncinate, but not a control tract, the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, significantly predicted individual differences in performance on the face-name and fractal-location tasks. However, no relationship was observed for simple face memory (Experiment 3). These findings suggest that the uncinate fasciculus may be important for adjudicating between competing memory representations at the time of episodic retrieval. PMID:26908315

  5. Restoration of longitudinal images.

    PubMed

    Hu, Y; Frieden, B R

    1988-01-15

    In this paper, a method of restoring longitudinal images is developed. By using the transfer function for longitudinal objects, and inverse filtering, a longitudinal image may be restored. The Fourier theory and sampling theorems for transverse images cannot be used directly in the longitudinal case. A modification and reasonable approximation are introduced. We have numerically established a necessary relationship between just-resolved longitudinal separation (after inverse filtering), noise level, and the taking conditions of object distance and lens diameter. An empirical formula is also found to well-fit the computed results. This formula may be of use for designing optical systems which are to image longitudinal details, such as in robotics or microscopy.

  6. Medial Temporal Lobe Memory in Childhood: Developmental Transitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Elise L.; Richmond, Jenny L.; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa K.; Thomas, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobes (MTL) support declarative memory and mature structurally and functionally during the postnatal years in humans. Although recent work has addressed the development of declarative memory in early childhood, less is known about continued development beyond this period of time. The purpose of this investigation was to explore…

  7. Temporary Medial Upper Eyelid Lagophthalmos after External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Haefliger, I O; Meienberg, O; Pimentel de Figueiredo, A R

    2016-04-01

    Background. Report of three cases of medial upper eyelid lagophthalmos as complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy. History and Signs. Shortly after dacryocystorhinostomy (skin incision on the side of the nose), three of ten consecutive patients (28 ± 4 years; mean ± standard deviation), presented with an ipsilateral lagophthalmos of 4 ± 1 mm in voluntary eyelid closure and 6 ± 1 mm in spontaneous blink. The lagophthalmos was due to a selective paresis of the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the upper eyelid. Patient 1 complained bitterly of dry eye symptoms and of her lagophthalmos. Patient 2 had mild symptoms but became very concerned after peers made her aware of her asymmetric blink. Patient 3 was asymptomatic and did not notice anything particular. Therapy and Outcome. Lagophthalmos resolved spontaneously within three months after surgery, first by improvement of voluntary eyelid closure and then of spontaneous blinking. Conclusions. Temporary lagophthalmos can occur as a complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy, most likely due to damage of the (only recently described) superficial buccal and/or zygomatic branches of the facial nerve that run upward to cross over the medial ligament and innervate the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Medial malleolar stress fracture secondary to chronic ankle impingement.

    PubMed

    Jowett, Andrew J L; Birks, Christopher L; Blackney, Mark C

    2008-07-01

    Medial malleolar stress fractures are uncommon even in the sporting population. We believe that stress fractures of the medial malleolus may be the end stage of chronic anteromedial ankle impingement in elite running and jumping athletes. We present five cases of elite athletes who presented to our institution with stress fractures of the medial malleolus over a 3-year period (2004 to 2007). In each case preoperative imaging revealed an anteromedial bony spur on the tibia. All fractures were internally fixed and at the same sitting had arthroscopic debridement of the bony spur. All fractures united without further intervention, average time to union was 10.2 (range, 6 to 16) weeks. At most recent review (average, 18 months; range, 8 to 37 months), all patients had resumed sporting activity to their previous level. No patient had suffered a recurrent fracture of the medial malleolus. We believe this region of impingement to be important in the development of the stress fracture and should be addressed at the time of fracture fixation.

  9. Medial Temporal Lobe Structures Contribute to On-Line Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, David

    2009-01-01

    For the last five decades, the medial temporal lobes have been generally understood to facilitate enduring representation of certain kinds of information. In particular, knowledge about the relations among items and concepts appears to rely on that region of the brain. Recent results suggest that those same structures also play a subtle role in…

  10. Transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy in recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Reda H; Abdel Fattah, Ahmed F; Awad, Ayman G

    2014-12-01

    Maxillary sinus inverted papilloma entails medial maxillectomy and is associated with high incidence of recurrence. To study the impact of prior surgery on recurrence rate after transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Eighteen patients with primary and 33 with recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma underwent transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Caldwell-Luc operation was the primary surgery in 12 patients, transnasal endoscopic resection in 20, and midfacial degloving technique in one. The follow-up period ranged between 2 to 19.5 years with an average of 8.8 years. Recurrence was detected in 8/51 maxillary sinus inverted papilloma patients (15.7 %), 1/18 of primary cases (5.5 %), 7/33 of recurrent cases (21.2 %); 3/20 of the transnasal endoscopic resection group (15%) and 4/12 of the Caldwell-Luc group (33.3%). Redo transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy was followed by a single recurrence in the Caldwell-Luc group (25%), and no recurrence in the other groups. Recurrence is more common in recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma than primary lesions. Recurrent maxillary sinus inverted papilloma after Caldwell-Luc operation has higher incidence of recurrence than after transnasal endoscopic resection.

  11. Theta Synchronizes the Activity of Medial Prefrontal Neurons during Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paz, Rony; Bauer, Elizabeth P.; Pare, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Memory consolidation is thought to involve the gradual transfer of transient hippocampal-dependent traces to distributed neocortical sites via the rhinal cortices. Recently, medial prefrontal (mPFC) neurons were shown to facilitate this process when their activity becomes synchronized. However, the mechanisms underlying this enhanced synchrony…

  12. Ecological divergence and medial cuneiform morphology in gorillas.

    PubMed

    Tocheri, Matthew W; Solhan, Christyna R; Orr, Caley M; Femiani, John; Frohlich, Bruno; Groves, Colin P; Harcourt-Smith, William E; Richmond, Brian G; Shoelson, Brett; Jungers, William L

    2011-02-01

    Gorillas are more closely related to each other than to any other extant primate and are all terrestrial knuckle-walkers, but taxa differ along a gradient of dietary strategies and the frequency of arboreality in their behavioral repertoire. In this study, we test the hypothesis that medial cuneiform morphology falls on a morphocline in gorillas that tracks function related to hallucial abduction ability and relative frequency of arboreality. This morphocline predicts that western gorillas, being the most arboreal, should display a medial cuneiform anatomy that reflects the greatest hallucial abduction ability, followed by grauer gorillas, and then by mountain gorillas. Using a three-dimensional methodology to measure angles between articular surfaces, relative articular and nonarticular areas, and the curvatures of the hallucial articular surface, the functional predictions are partially confirmed in separating western gorillas from both eastern gorillas. Western gorillas are characterized by a more medially oriented, proportionately larger, and more mediolaterally curved hallucial facet than are eastern gorillas. These characteristics follow the predictions for a more prehensile hallux in western gorillas relative to a more stable, plantigrade hallux in eastern gorillas. The characteristics that distinguish eastern gorilla taxa from one another appear unrelated to hallucial abduction ability or frequency of arboreality. In total, this reexamination of medial cuneiform morphology suggests differentiation between eastern and western gorillas due to a longstanding ecological divergence and more recent and possibly non-adaptive differences between eastern taxa. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. TCDD alters medial epithelial cell differentiation during palatogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, B.D.; Birnbaum, L.S.

    1989-06-15

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is a widely distributed, persistent environmental contaminant that is teratogenic in mice, where it induces hydronephrosis and cleft palate. The incidence of clefting has been shown to be dose dependent after exposure on either gestation Day (GD) 10 or 12, although the embryo is more susceptible on GD 12. TCDD-exposed palatal shelves meet but do not fuse, and programmed cell death of the medial epithelial cells is inhibited. The mechanism of action through which TCDD alters the program of medial cell development has not been examined in earlier studies, and it is not known whether the mechanism ismore » the same regardless of the dose or developmental stage of exposure. In this study, C57BL/6N mice, a strain sensitive to TCDD, were dosed orally on GD 10 or 12 with 0, 6, 12, 24, or 30 micrograms/kg body wt, in 10 ml corn oil/kg. Embryonic palatal shelves were examined on GD 14, 15, or 16. The degree of palatal closure, epithelial surface morphology, and cellular ultrastructure, the incorporation of (3H)TdR, the expression of EGF receptors, and the binding of 125I-EGF were assessed. After exposure on GD 10 or 12, TCDD altered the differentiation pathway of the medial epithelial cells. The palatal shelves were of normal size and overall morphology, but fusion of the medial epithelia of the opposing shelves did not occur. TCDD prevented programmed cell death of the medial peridermal cells. The expression of EGF receptors by medial cells continued through Day 16 and the receptors were able to bind ligand. The medial cells differentiated into a stratified, squamous, keratinizing epithelium. The shift in phenotype to an oral-like epithelium occurred after exposure on either GD 10 or 12. At the lower dose (6 micrograms/kg), fewer cleft palates were produced, but those shelves which did respond had a fully expressed shift in differentiation.« less

  14. Illness Progression, Recent Stress and Morphometry of Hippocampal Subfields and Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Major Depression

    PubMed Central

    Treadway, Michael T.; Waskom, Michael L.; Dillon, Daniel G.; Holmes, Avram J.; Park, Min Tae M.; Chakravarty, M. Mallar; Dutra, Sunny J.; Polli, Frida E.; Iosifescu, Dan V.; Fava, Maurizio; Gabrieli, John D.E.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies of illness progression in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) indicate that the onset of subsequent depressive episodes becomes increasingly decoupled from external stressors. A possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon is that multiple episodes induce long-lasting neurobiological changes that confer increased risk for recurrence. Prior morphometric studies have frequently reported volumetric reductions in MDD—especially in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus— but few studies have investigated whether these changes are exacerbated by prior episodes. Methods We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) to examine relationships between number of prior episodes, current stress, and brain volume and cortical thickness in a sample of 103 medication-free depressed patients and never-depressed controls. Volumetric analyses of the hippocampus were performed using a recently-validated subfield segmentation approach, while cortical thickness estimates were obtained using Vertex-Based Cortical Thickness (VBCT). Participants were grouped on the basis of the number of prior depressive episodes as well as current depressive state. Results Number of prior episodes was associated with both lower reported stress levels as well as reduced volume in the dentate gyrus. Cortical thinning of the left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was associated with a greater number of prior depressive episodes, but not current depressive state. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with preclinical models suggesting that the dentate gyrus and mPFC are especially vulnerable to stress exposure, and provide evidence for morphometric changes that are consistent with stress-sensitization models of recurrence in MDD. PMID:25109665

  15. Subregional laminar cartilage MR spin-spin relaxation times (T2) in osteoarthritic knees with and without medial femorotibial cartilage loss - data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI).

    PubMed

    Wirth, W; Maschek, S; Beringer, P; Eckstein, F

    2017-08-01

    To explore whether subregional laminar femorotibial cartilage spin-spin relaxation time (T2) is associated with subsequent radiographic progression and cartilage loss and/or whether one-year change in subregional laminar femorotibial cartilage T2 is associated with concurrent progression in knees with established radiographic OA (ROA). In this case-control study, Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) knees with medial femorotibial progression were selected based on one-year loss in both quantitative cartilage thickness Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and radiographic joint space width (JSW). Non-progressor knees were matched by sex, Body mass index (BMI), baseline Kellgren-Lawrence-grade (2/3), and pain. Baseline and one-year follow-up superficial and deep cartilage T2 was analyzed in 16 femorotibial subregions using multi-echo spin-echo MRI. 37 knees showed medial femorotibial progression whereas 37 matched controls had no medial or lateral compartment progression. No statistically significant baseline differences between progressor and non-progressor knees in medial femorotibial cartilage T2 were observed in the superficial (48.9 ± 3.0 ms; 95% CI: [47.9, 49.9] vs 47.8 ± 3.6 ms; 95% CI: [46.6, 49.0], P = 0.07) or deep cartilage layer (40.8 ± 3.6 ms; 95% CI: [39.5, 42.0] vs 40.1 ± 4.7 ms; 95% CI: [38.5, 41.6], P = 0.29). Concurrent T2 change was more pronounced in the deep than the superficial cartilage layer. In the medial femorotibial compartment (MFTC), longitudinal change was greater in the deep layer of progressor than non-progressor knees (1.8 ± 4.5 ms; 95% CI: [0.3, 3.3] vs -0.2 ± 1.9 ms; 95% CI: [-0.8, 0.5], P = 0.02), whereas no difference was observed in the superficial layer. Medial compartment cartilage T2 did not appear to be a strong prognostic factor for subsequent structural progression in the same compartment of knees with established ROA, when appropriately controlling for covariates. Yet, deep layer T2 change in the

  16. Complications in posteromedial arthroscopic suture of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Jan, N; Sonnery-Cottet, B; Fayard, J-M; Kajetanek, C; Thaunat, M

    2016-12-01

    All-inside posteromedial suture for lesions of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair provides effective freshening and good healing. The posteromedial portal provides satisfactory healing rates without increasing morbidity or complications rates. Intra- and postoperative complications were collected for a consecutive single-center series of 132 patients undergoing posteromedial hook suture of the medial meniscus in ACL repair. Meniscal healing was assessed as the rate of recurrence of symptomatic medial meniscus lesions (Barret criteria) and on revision surgery, if any, in terms of the aspect and extent of the iterative lesion. The severity of any sensory disorder was assessed by questionnaire. The intraoperative complications rate was 1.5% (2 saphenous vein punctures). At a mean 31months (range, 28-35months), there was no loss to follow-up. Twelve patients (9%) showed symptomatic recurrence of the medial meniscus lesion, requiring 10 repeat surgeries. In 6 cases (4.5%), the iterative lesion involved a smaller, more central part of the meniscus anterior to the sutures, of "postage-stamp" effect, possibly implicating the suture hook and/or non-absorbable sutures. There were no cases of infection or fistula. Postoperative hematoma occurred in 7% of patients. In total, 1.8% reported dysesthesia areas equal to or greater than the size of a credit card (45cm 2 ). Some retears, or "partial failures", may implicate a new lesion caused by the suture hook and possibly prolonged by non-resorbable sutures. Hematoma and sensory disorder rates were comparable to those reported in isolated ACL repair without posteromedial portal. The present results show that posteromedial arthroscopic hook suture in posterior medial meniscus tear provides good healing rates without increased morbidity due to the supplementary portal. IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Meniscus delivery: a maneuver for easy arthroscopic access to the posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Said, Hatem Galal; Goyal, Saumitra; Fetih, Tarek Nabil

    2016-03-16

    Pathology of posterior horn of medial meniscus is common and often presents a difficult approach during arthroscopy for various reasons. We describe an easy maneuver to facilitate "delivery of the medial meniscus" during arthroscopy.

  18. Longitudinal Multistage Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Steffi

    2013-01-01

    This article introduces longitudinal multistage testing (lMST), a special form of multistage testing (MST), as a method for adaptive testing in longitudinal large-scale studies. In lMST designs, test forms of different difficulty levels are used, whereas the values on a pretest determine the routing to these test forms. Since lMST allows for…

  19. Clinical study of medial area infarction in the region of posterior inferior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Katsuhiko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Oishi, Minoru; Kamei, Satoshi; Shigihara, Shuntaro; Nomura, Yasuyuki

    2013-05-01

    Our objective is to study the neurological characteristics of medial area infarction in the caudal cerebellum. Medial area of the caudal cerebellum is supplied with 2 branches of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). The medial hemispheric branch of the PICA distributes to the medial area of the caudal cerebellar hemisphere. The medial branch of the PICA (mPICA) distributes to the inferior vermis. We studied the neurological characteristics of 18 patients with medial area infarction of the caudal cerebellum. The infarction was located in the medial area of the cerebellar hemisphere and vermis (medial ch/vermis) in 11 patients and in the medial area of the cerebellar hemisphere (medial ch) in 7 patients. All the 18 patients showed acute vertigo and disturbance of standing and gait at onset. On admission, the lateropulsion and wide-based gait were present in 13 patients, respectively. Mild ataxia of the extremities was shown in 7 patients. Acute vertigo and unsteadiness were prominent at onset in the 18 patients, although their ataxia of the extremities was mild or none. This result was consistent with the characteristics of medial area infarction of the caudal cerebellum. Comparing the neurological symptoms between the medial ch/vermis group and medial ch group, both lateropulsion and wide-based gait were significantly infrequent in medial ch group. This result indicated that the vermis was spared because the mPICA was not involved in the medial ch group. It is necessary to make a careful diagnosis when we encounter patients who present acute vertigo because truncal and gait ataxia are unremarkable on admission in patients with the medial area infarction of the caudal cerebellum without vermis involvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Medial Auditory Thalamus Inactivation Prevents Acquisition and Retention of Eyeblink Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halverson, Hunter E.; Poremba, Amy; Freeman, John H.

    2008-01-01

    The auditory conditioned stimulus (CS) pathway that is necessary for delay eyeblink conditioning was investigated using reversible inactivation of the medial auditory thalamic nuclei (MATN) consisting of the medial division of the medial geniculate (MGm), suprageniculate (SG), and posterior intralaminar nucleus (PIN). Rats were given saline or…

  1. Dynamic Changes in Acetylcholine Output in the Medial Striatum during Place Reversal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragozzino, Michael E.; Choi, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The present studies explored the role of the medial striatum in learning when task contingencies change. Experiment 1 examined whether the medial striatum is involved in place reversal learning. Testing occurred in a modified cross-maze across two consecutive sessions. Injections of the local anesthetic, bupivacaine, into the medial striatum, did…

  2. Variation Among Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons When Treating Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Meghan; Dua, Karan; O'Hara, Nathan N; Brighton, Brian K; Ganley, Theodore J; Hennrikus, William L; Herman, Martin J; Hyman, Joshua E; Lawrence, J Todd; Mehlman, Charles T; Noonan, Kenneth J; Otsuka, Norman Y; Schwend, Richard M; Shrader, M Wade; Smith, Brian G; Sponseller, Paul D; Abzug, Joshua M

    2017-10-18

    Medial epicondyle fractures are a common pediatric and adolescent injury accounting for 11% to 20% of elbow fractures in this population. This purpose of this study was to determine the variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine which patient and injury attributes influence the management of medial epicondyle fractures by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. A convenience sample of 13 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 60 case vignettes of medial epicondyle fractures that included elbow radiographs and patient/injury characteristics. Displacement was incorporated into the study model as a fixed effect. Surgeons were queried if they would treat the injury with immobilization alone or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect regression model. In addition, surgeons filled out a demographic questionnaire and a risk assessment to determine if these factors affected clinical decision-making. Elbow dislocation and fracture displacement were the only attributes that significantly influenced surgeons to perform surgery (P<0.05). The presence of an elbow dislocation had the largest impact on surgeons when choosing operative care (β=-0.14; P=0.02). In addition, for every 1 mm increase in displacement, surgeons tended to favor ORIF by a factor of 0.09 (P<0.01). Sex, mechanism of injury, and sport participation did not influence decision-making. In total, 54% of the surgeons demonstrated a preference for ORIF for the included scenarios. On the basis of the personality Likert scale, participants were neither high-risk takers nor extremely risk adverse with an average-risk score of 2.24. Participant demographics did not influence decision-making. There is substantial variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating medial epicondyle fractures. The decision to operate is significantly based on

  3. The dorsal tectal longitudinal column (TLCd): a second longitudinal column in the paramedian region of the midbrain tectum.

    PubMed

    Aparicio, M-Auxiliadora; Saldaña, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    The tectal longitudinal column (TLC) is a longitudinally oriented, long and narrow nucleus that spans the paramedian region of the midbrain tectum of a large variety of mammals (Saldaña et al. in J Neurosci 27:13108-13116, 2007). Recent analysis of the organization of this region revealed another novel nucleus located immediately dorsal, and parallel, to the TLC. Because the name "tectal longitudinal column" also seems appropriate for this novel nucleus, we suggest the TLC described in 2007 be renamed the "ventral tectal longitudinal column (TLCv)", and the newly discovered nucleus termed the "dorsal tectal longitudinal column (TLCd)". This work represents the first characterization of the rat TLCd. A constellation of anatomical techniques was used to demonstrate that the TLCd differs from its surrounding structures (TLCv and superior colliculus) cytoarchitecturally, myeloarchitecturally, neurochemically and hodologically. The distinct expression of vesicular amino acid transporters suggests that TLCd neurons are GABAergic. The TLCd receives major projections from various areas of the cerebral cortex (secondary visual mediomedial area, and granular and dysgranular retrosplenial cortices) and from the medial pretectal nucleus. It densely innervates the ipsilateral lateral posterior and laterodorsal nuclei of the thalamus. Thus, the TLCd is connected with vision-related neural centers. The TLCd may be unique as it constitutes the only known nucleus made of GABAergic neurons dedicated to providing massive inhibition to higher order thalamic nuclei of a specific sensory modality.

  4. White matter lesional predictors of chronic visual neglect: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lunven, Marine; Thiebaut De Schotten, Michel; Bourlon, Clémence; Duret, Christophe; Migliaccio, Raffaella; Rode, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Chronic visual neglect prevents brain-damaged patients from returning to an independent and active life. Detecting predictors of persistent neglect as early as possible after the stroke is therefore crucial to plan the relevant interventions. Neglect signs do not only depend on focal brain lesions, but also on dysfunction of large-scale brain networks connected by white matter bundles. We explored the relationship between markers of axonal degeneration occurring after the stroke and visual neglect chronicity. A group of 45 patients with unilateral strokes in the right hemisphere underwent cognitive testing for neglect twice, first at the subacute phase (<3 months after onset) and then at the chronic phase (>1 year). For each patient, magnetic resonance imaging including diffusion sequences was performed at least 4 months after the stroke. After masking each patient’s lesion, we used tract-based spatial statistics to obtain a voxel-wise statistical analysis of the fractional anisotropy data. Twenty-seven patients had signs of visual neglect at initial testing. Only 10 of these patients had recovered from neglect at follow-up. When compared with patients without neglect, the group including all subacute neglect patients had decreased fractional anisotropy in the second (II) and third (III) branches of the right superior longitudinal fasciculus, as well as in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The subgroup of chronic patients showed reduced fractional anisotropy in a portion the splenium, the forceps major, which provides interhemispheric communication between regions of the occipital lobe and of the superior parietal lobules. The severity of neglect correlated with fractional anisotropy values in superior longitudinal fasciculus II/III for subacute patients and in its caudal portion for chronic patients. Our results confirm a key role of fronto-parietal disconnection in the emergence and chronic persistence of neglect, and demonstrate an implication of caudal

  5. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy for odontogenic cysts and tumours.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Tsugihama; Otori, Nobuyoshi; Asaka, Daiya; Okushi, Tetsushi; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    Odontogenic maxillary cysts and tumours originate from the tooth root and have traditionally been treated through an intraoral approach. Here, we report the efficacy and utility of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for the treatment of odontogenic maxillary cysts and a tumour. We undertook EMMM under general anaesthesia in six patients: four had radicular cysts, one had a dentigerous cyst, and one had a keratocystic odontogenic tumour. The cysts and tumours were completely excised and the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct were preserved in all patients. There were no peri- or postoperative complications, and no incidences of recurrence. Endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy appears to be an effective and safe technique for treating odontogenic cysts and tumours.

  6. Multiple running speed signals in medial entorhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hinman, James R.; Brandon, Mark P.; Climer, Jason R.; Chapman, G. William; Hasselmo, Michael E.

    2016-01-01

    Grid cells in medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) can be modeled using oscillatory interference or attractor dynamic mechanisms that perform path integration, a computation requiring information about running direction and speed. The two classes of computational models often use either an oscillatory frequency or a firing rate that increases as a function of running speed. Yet it is currently not known whether these are two manifestations of the same speed signal or dissociable signals with potentially different anatomical substrates. We examined coding of running speed in MEC and identified these two speed signals to be independent of each other within individual neurons. The medial septum (MS) is strongly linked to locomotor behavior and removal of MS input resulted in strengthening of the firing rate speed signal, while decreasing the strength of the oscillatory speed signal. Thus two speed signals are present in MEC that are differentially affected by disrupted MS input. PMID:27427460

  7. Downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex prevents social conformity.

    PubMed

    Klucharev, Vasily; Munneke, Moniek A M; Smidts, Ale; Fernández, Guillén

    2011-08-17

    We often change our behavior to conform to real or imagined group pressure. Social influence on our behavior has been extensively studied in social psychology, but its neural mechanisms have remained largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the transient downregulation of the posterior medial frontal cortex by theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation reduces conformity, as indicated by reduced conformal adjustments in line with group opinion. Both the extent and probability of conformal behavioral adjustments decreased significantly relative to a sham and a control stimulation over another brain area. The posterior part of the medial frontal cortex has previously been implicated in behavioral and attitudinal adjustments. Here, we provide the first interventional evidence of its critical role in social influence on human behavior.

  8. Repair of the posterior root of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher; Reddy, Sudheer; Ma, C Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Tears of the posterior root of the medial meniscus are becoming increasingly recognized. Early identification and treatment of these tears help halt the progression of cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis of the knee. Repair of these tears is essential for recreating the hoop stress of the medial meniscus. In this note, we describe a successful arthroscopic technique to repair this lesion. A posteromedial portal is established by which two 2-0 PDS sutures are placed through the meniscus root and pulled down through a trans-tibial tunnel and fixed using an EndoButton distally along the anterolateral cortex of the tibia. This has been performed successfully in five patients with no complications.

  9. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy for zygomatic implant salvage.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Joseph S; Tajudeen, Bobby A; Adappa, Nithin D; Palmer, James N

    2016-01-01

    Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant.

  10. Taiwanese life scientists less "medialized" than their Western colleagues.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yin-Yueh; Peters, Hans Peter

    2015-01-01

    The article presents results from surveys of life scientists in Taiwan (n=270) and in Germany (n=326). Fewer Taiwanese than German researchers have frequent contact with the media and they rate their experiences with journalists less positively. Furthermore, they are less prepared to adapt to journalistic expectations and to a greater extent than German researchers they expect journalists to consider scientific criteria in their reporting. These findings are interpreted in Weingart's "medialization of science" framework as indicators of lower medialization of science in Taiwan than in Germany. However, Taiwanese scientists are more willing than German scientists to accept journalistic simplification at the expense of accuracy. This is explained as an adaptation to the media system and to the perceived scientific literacy of the media audience. We hypothesize that cultural differences regarding the relative priority of relational vs. rational communication goals may also contribute to more tolerance of journalistic simplification in Taiwan. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. REHABILITATION FOLLOWING MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION FOR PATELLAR INSTABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common problem seen by physical therapists, athletic trainers and orthopedic surgeons. Although following an acute dislocation, conservative rehabilitation is usually the first line of defense; refractory cases exist that may require surgical intervention. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and its role as the primary stabilizer to lateral patellar displacement. Medial patellofemoral ligament disruption is now considered to be the essential lesion following acute patellar dislocation due to significantly high numbers of ruptures following this injury. Evidence is now mounting that demonstrates the benefits of early reconstruction with a variety of techniques. Recently rehabilitation has become more robust and progressive due to our better understanding of soft tissue reconstruction and repair techniques. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the etiology of patellar instability, the anatomy and biomechanics and examination of patellofemoral instability, and to describe surgical intervention and rehabilitation following MPFL rupture. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:28593102

  12. Medial unicondylar knee arthroplasty combined to anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alberto; Legnani, Claudio; Terzaghi, Clara; Iori, Stefano; Borgo, Enrico

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the outcomes of patients who underwent combined medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The hypothesis was that this procedure would lead to a high success rate in patients affected by isolated medial unicompartmental osteoarthritis and concomitant ACL deficiency. Fourteen patients with primary ACL lesion and concomitant medial compartment symptomatic osteoarthritis treated from 2006 to 2010 were followed up for an average time of 26.7 months (SD 4.2). Assessment included KOOS score, Oxford Knee score, American Knee Society scores, WOMAC index of osteoarthritis, Tegner activity level and objective examination including instrumented laxity test with KT-1000 arthrometer. Radiological assessment was done with standard simple radiographs in order to get information about any presence of loosening of the components. KOOS score, OKS, WOMAC index and the AKSS improved significantly after surgery (p < 0.001). Regarding AKSS, improvement was noted both in the objective score and in the functional one (p < 0.001). There was no clinical evidence of instability in any of the knees as evaluated with clinical laxity testing. No pathologic radiolucent lines were observed around the components. In one patient signs of osteoarthritis in the lateral compartment were observed 28 months after surgery. UKA combined with ACL reconstruction is a valid therapeutic option for the treatment of combined medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis and ACL deficiency in young and active patients and confirms subjective and objective clinical improvement 2 years after surgery. The use of a fixed-bearing prosthesis represents a reliable feature as it allows to overcome problems of improper ligament tensioning during the implantation of the components. IV.

  13. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-02-17

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  14. Why Do Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasties Fail Today?

    PubMed

    van der List, Jelle P; Zuiderbaan, Hendrik A; Pearle, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    Failure rates are higher in medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) than total knee arthroplasty. To improve these failure rates, it is important to understand why medial UKA fail. Because individual studies lack power to show failure modes, a systematic review was performed to assess medial UKA failure modes. Furthermore, we compared cohort studies with registry-based studies, early with midterm and late failures and fixed-bearing with mobile-bearing implants. Databases of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane and annual registries were searched for medial UKA failures. Studies were included when they reported >25 failures or when they reported early (<5 years), midterm (5-10 years), or late failures (>10 years). Thirty-seven cohort studies (4 level II studies and 33 level III studies) and 2 registry-based studies were included. A total of 3967 overall failures, 388 time-dependent failures, and 1305 implant design failures were identified. Aseptic loosening (36%) and osteoarthritis (OA) progression (20%) were the most common failure modes. Aseptic loosening (26%) was most common early failure mode, whereas OA progression was more commonly seen in midterm and late failures (38% and 40%, respectively). Polyethylene wear (12%) and instability (12%) were more common in fixed-bearing implants, whereas pain (14%) and bearing dislocation (11%) were more common in mobile-bearing implants. This level III systematic review identified aseptic loosening and OA progression as the major failure modes. Aseptic loosening was the main failure mode in early years and mobile-bearing implants, whereas OA progression caused most failures in late years and fixed-bearing implants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The operative outcomes of displaced medial-end clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Verinder S; Hermans, Deborah; Duckworth, David G

    2015-11-01

    Nonoperative treatment of displaced medial clavicle fractures often leads to poor functional outcomes and painful nonunions. This study investigates the functional outcomes of patients undergoing operative fixation of these fractures. We investigated 27 patients undergoing operative fixation of a medial clavicle fracture; 24 had an acute, displaced fracture and 3 had fixation for nonunions. Preoperative radiographs or computed tomography scans were obtained, and data collected included age, sex, mechanism of injury, and fixation method. Follow-up included physical examination and radiographs for assessment of union; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores at 12 months; and the recording of complications. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range, 17-47 years). There were 26 male patients and one female patient included, with 7 physeal injuries and 20 adult injuries. The most common mechanism of fracture was vehicular accident (n = 15). Three patients had operations for nonunions and 2 for a periprosthetic fracture medial to an existing plate. The fracture was fixed with plate and screws in 19 cases and with transosseous sutures in 8 cases. The median Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score at 12 months was 0.4 (interquartile range, 0-5.0), with a union rate of 100% at 12 months. All patients had full shoulder range of motion at final follow-up and were able to return to preinjury occupational activities. There were no significant complications. Operative fixation of displaced medial clavicle fractures results in anatomic reconstruction and excellent functional outcomes, even in the setting of fixation performed for symptomatic nonunion. Early intervention can minimize the risk of painful nonunion. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  17. Medial malleolar fractures: a biomechanical study of fixation techniques.

    PubMed

    Fowler, T Ty; Pugh, Kevin J; Litsky, Alan S; Taylor, Benjamin C; French, Bruce G

    2011-08-08

    Fracture fixation of the medial malleolus in rotationally unstable ankle fractures typically results in healing with current fixation methods. However, when failure occurs, pullout of the screws from tension, compression, and rotational forces is predictable. We sought to biomechanically test a relatively new technique of bicortical screw fixation for medial malleoli fractures. Also, the AO group recommends tension-band fixation of small avulsion type fractures of the medial malleolus that are unacceptable for screw fixation. A well-documented complication of this technique is prominent symptomatic implants and secondary surgery for implant removal. Replacing stainless steel 18-gauge wire with FiberWire suture could theoretically decrease symptomatic implants. Therefore, a second goal was to biomechanically compare these 2 tension-band constructs. Using a tibial Sawbones model, 2 bicortical screws were compared with 2 unicortical cancellous screws on a servohydraulic test frame in offset axial, transverse, and tension loading. Second, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was compared with FiberWire under tensile loads. Bicortical screw fixation was statistically the stiffest construct under tension loading conditions compared to unicortical screw fixation and tension-band techniques with FiberWire or stainless steel wire. In fact, unicortical screw fixation had only 10% of the stiffness as demonstrated in the bicortical technique. In a direct comparison, tension-band fixation using stainless steel wire was statistically stiffer than the FiberWire construct. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Medial gastrocnemius myoelectric control of a robotic ankle exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-02-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that when soleus electromyography was used to control the amount of plantar flexion assistance from a robotic ankle exoskeleton, subjects significantly reduced their soleus activity to quickly return to normal gait kinematics. We speculated that subjects were primarily responding to the local mechanical assistance of the exoskeleton rather than directly attempting to reduce exoskeleton mechanical power via decreases in soleus activity. To test this observation we studied ten healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at 1.25 m/s while wearing a robotic exoskeleton proportionally controlled by medial gastrocnemius activation. We hypothesized that subjects would primarily decrease soleus activity due to its synergistic mechanics with the exoskeleton. Subjects decreased medial gastrocnemius recruitment by 12% ( p < 0.05 ) but decreased soleus recruitment by 27% ( p < 0.05). In agreement with our hypothesis, the primary reduction in muscle activity was not for the control muscle (medial gastrocnemius) but for the anatomical synergist to the exoskeleton (soleus). These findings indicate that anatomical morphology needs to be considered carefully when designing software and hardware for robotic exoskeletons.

  19. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding.

    PubMed

    Atzil, Shir; Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M; Dickerson, Bradford C; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-02-28

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers' dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the "medial amygdala network") that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers' behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother's infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted.

  20. Analysis of 3D strain in the human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kolaczek, S; Hewison, C; Caterine, S; Ragbar, M X; Getgood, A; Gordon, K D

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a method to evaluate three-dimensional strain in meniscal tissue using medical imaging. Strain is calculated by tracking small teflon markers implanted within the meniscal tissue using computed tomography imaging. The results are presented for strains in the middle and posterior third of the medial menisci of 10 human cadaveric knees, under simulated physiologically relevant loading. In the middle position, an average compressive strain of 3.4% was found in the medial-lateral direction, and average tensile strains of 1.4% and 3.5% were found in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions respectively at 5° of knee flexion with an applied load of 1× body weight. In the posterior position, under the same conditions, average compressive strains of 2.2% and 6.3% were found in the medial-lateral and superior-inferior directions respectively, and an average tensile strain of 3.8% was found in the anterior-posterior direction. No statistically significant difference between strain in the middle or posterior of the meniscus or between the global strains is uncovered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dopamine in the medial amygdala network mediates human bonding

    PubMed Central

    Touroutoglou, Alexandra; Rudy, Tali; Salcedo, Stephanie; Feldman, Ruth; Hooker, Jacob M.; Dickerson, Bradford C.; Catana, Ciprian; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2017-01-01

    Research in humans and nonhuman animals indicates that social affiliation, and particularly maternal bonding, depends on reward circuitry. Although numerous mechanistic studies in rodents demonstrated that maternal bonding depends on striatal dopamine transmission, the neurochemistry supporting maternal behavior in humans has not been described so far. In this study, we tested the role of central dopamine in human bonding. We applied a combined functional MRI-PET scanner to simultaneously probe mothers’ dopamine responses to their infants and the connectivity between the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), the amygdala, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), which form an intrinsic network (referred to as the “medial amygdala network”) that supports social functioning. We also measured the mothers’ behavioral synchrony with their infants and plasma oxytocin. The results of this study suggest that synchronous maternal behavior is associated with increased dopamine responses to the mother’s infant and stronger intrinsic connectivity within the medial amygdala network. Moreover, stronger network connectivity is associated with increased dopamine responses within the network and decreased plasma oxytocin. Together, these data indicate that dopamine is involved in human bonding. Compared with other mammals, humans have an unusually complex social life. The complexity of human bonding cannot be fully captured in nonhuman animal models, particularly in pathological bonding, such as that in autistic spectrum disorder or postpartum depression. Thus, investigations of the neurochemistry of social bonding in humans, for which this study provides initial evidence, are warranted. PMID:28193868

  2. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Volition and conflict in human medial frontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rees, Geraint; Parton, Andrew; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud

    2009-01-01

    Summary Controversy surrounds the role of human medial frontal cortex in controlling actions[1-5]. Although damage to this area leads to severe difficulties in spontaneously initiating actions[6], the precise mechanisms underlying such ‘volitional’ deficits remain to be established. Previous studies have implicated the medial frontal cortex in conflict monitoring[7-10] and the control of voluntary action[11, 12], suggesting that these key processes are functionally related or share neural substrates. Here we combine a novel behavioural paradigm with functional imaging of the oculomotor system to reveal for the first time a functional subdivision of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) into anatomically distinct areas responding exclusively to volition or to conflict. We also demonstrate that activity in the supplementary eye field (SEF) distinguishes between success and failure in changing voluntary action plans during conflict, suggesting a role for the SEF in implementing the resolution of conflicting actions. We propose a functional architecture of human medial frontal cortex that incorporates the generation of action plans and the resolution of conflict. PMID:15668167

  4. Aging, self-referencing, and medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Gutchess, Angela H; Kensinger, Elizabeth A; Schacter, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    The lateral prefrontal cortex undergoes both structural and functional changes with healthy aging. In contrast, there is little structural change in the medial prefrontal cortex, but relatively little is known about the functional changes to this region with age. Using an event-related fMRI design, we investigated the response of medial prefrontal cortex during self-referencing in order to compare age groups on a task that young and elderly perform similarly and that is known to actively engage the region in young adults. Nineteen young (M age = 23) and seventeen elderly (M age = 72) judged whether adjectives described themselves, another person, or were presented in upper case. We assessed the overlap in activations between young and elderly for the self-reference effect (self vs. other person), and found that both groups engage medial prefrontal cortex and mid-cingulate during self-referencing. The only cerebral differences between the groups in self versus other personality assessment were found in somatosensory and motor-related areas. In contrast, age-related modulations were found in the cerebral network recruited for emotional valence processing. Elderly (but not young) showed increased activity in the dorsal prefrontal cortex for positive relative to negative items, which could reflect an increase in controlled processing of positive information for elderly adults.

  5. Medial maxillectomy in recalcitrant sinusitis: when, why and how?

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Iordanis; Constantinidis, Jannis

    2014-02-01

    We reviewed all journal articles relevant to endoscopic medial maxillectomy in patients with recalcitrant chronic maxillary sinusitis in order to present all indications, the underlying pathophysiology and the developed surgical techniques. Despite the high success rate of middle meatal antrostomy, cases with persistent maxillary sinus disease exist and often need a more extended endoscopic procedure for the better control of the disease. Such surgical option uses gravity for better sinus drainage and offers better saline irrigation, local application of medications and follow-up inspection. An endoscopic medial maxillectomy and its modified forms offer a wider surgical field and access to all 'difficult' areas of the maxillary sinus. Patients with previous limited endoscopic sinus surgery or extended open surgery, cystic fibrosis, extensive mucoceles, allergic fungal sinusitis, odontogenic infections, foreign bodies and so on may suffer from recurrent disease requiring an endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Depending on the disease, various modifications of the procedure can be performed preserving the anterior buttress, nasolacrimal duct and inferior turbinate if possible.

  6. Case report: comprehensive management of medial tibial stress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Krenner, Bernard John

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Activity or exercise-induced leg pain is a common complication among competitive and “weekend warrior” athletes. Shin splints is a term that has been used to describe all lower leg pain as a result of activity. There are many different causes of “shin splints,” one of which is medial tibial stress syndrome, and the treating clinician must be aware of potentially serious causes of activity related leg pain. Restoring proper biomechanics to the entire kinetic chain and rehabilitation of the injured area should be the primary aim of treatment to optimize shock absorption. The role inflammation plays in medial tibial stress syndrome is controversial, but in this case, seemed to be a causative factor as symptomatology was dramatically decreased with the addition of proteolytic enzymes. Medial tibial stress syndrome can be quite difficult to treat and keeping athletes away from activities that will slow healing or aggravate the condition can be challenging. “Active” rest is the best way in which to allow proper healing while allowing the athlete to maintain their fitness. PMID:19674573

  7. Volition and conflict in human medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nachev, Parashkev; Rees, Geraint; Parton, Andrew; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud

    2005-01-26

    Controversy surrounds the role of human medial frontal cortex in controlling actions. Although damage to this area leads to severe difficulties in spontaneously initiating actions, the precise mechanisms underlying such "volitional" deficits remain to be established. Previous studies have implicated the medial frontal cortex in conflict monitoring and the control of voluntary action, suggesting that these key processes are functionally related or share neural substrates. Here, we combine a novel behavioral paradigm with functional imaging of the oculomotor system to reveal, for the first time, a functional subdivision of the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) into anatomically distinct areas that respond exclusively to either volition or conflict. We also demonstrate that activity in the supplementary eye field (SEF) distinguishes between success and failure in changing voluntary action plans during conflict, suggesting a role for the SEF in implementing the resolution of conflicting actions. We propose a functional architecture of human medial frontal cortex that incorporates the generation of action plans and the resolution of conflict.

  8. Longitudinal change in quantitative meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis--data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Bloecker, Katja; Wirth, W; Guermazi, A; Hitzl, W; Hunter, D J; Eckstein, F

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to apply 3D MRI-based measurement technology to studying 2-year change in quantitative measurements of meniscus size and position. Forty-seven knees from the Osteoarthritis Initiative with medial radiographic joint space narrowing had baseline and 2-year follow-up MRIs. Quantitative measures were obtained from manual segmentation of the menisci and tibia using coronal DESSwe images. The standardized response mean (SRM = mean/SD change) was used as measure of sensitivity to longitudinal change. Medial tibial plateau coverage decreased from 34.8% to 29.9% (SRM -0.82; p < 0.001). Change in medial meniscus extrusion in a central image (SRM 0.18) and in the central five slices (SRM 0.22) did not reach significance, but change in extrusion across the entire meniscus (SRM 0.32; p = 0.03) and in the relative area of meniscus extrusion (SRM 0.56; p < 0.001) did. There was a reduction in medial meniscus volume (10%; p < 0.001), width (7%; p < 0.001), and height (2%; p = 0.08); meniscus substance loss was strongest in the posterior (SRM -0.51; p = 0.001) and weakest in the anterior horn (SRM -0.15; p = 0.31). This pilot study reports, for the first time, longitudinal change in quantitative 3D meniscus measurements in knee osteoarthritis. It provides evidence of improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis. • First longitudinal MRI-based measurements of change of meniscus position and size. • Quantitative longitudinal evaluation of meniscus change in knee osteoarthritis. • Improved sensitivity to change of 3D measurements compared with single slice analysis.

  9. Anatomical analysis of medial branches of dorsal rami of cervical nerves for radiofrequency thermocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Tae Dong; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Hye Yeon; Kim, Myung Hwa; Lee, Youn-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Cervical medial branch blocks are used to treat patients with chronic neck pain. The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomical aspects of the cervical medial branches to improve the accuracy and safety of radiofrequency denervation. Twenty cervical specimens were harvested from 20 adult cadavers. The anatomical parameters of the C4-C7 cervical medial branches were measured. The 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images of the bone were also analyzed. Based on cadaveric analysis, most of the cervical dorsal rami gave off 1 medial branch; however, the cervical dorsal rami gave off 2 medial branches in 27%, 15%, 2%, and 0% at the vertebral level C4, C5, C6, and C7, respectively. The diameters of the medial branches varied from 1.0 to 1.2 mm, and the average distance from the notch of inferior articular process to the medial branches was about 2 mm. Most of the bifurcation sites were located at the medial side of the posterior tubercle of the transverse process. On the analysis of 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstruction images, cervical medial branches (C4 to C6) passed through the upper 49% to 53% of a line between the tips of 2 consecutive superior articular processes (anterior line). Also, cervical medial branches passed through the upper 28% to 35% of a line between the midpoints of 2 consecutive facet joints (midline). The present anatomical study may help improve accuracy and safety during radiofrequency denervation of the cervical medial branches.

  10. Episodic snapping of the medial head of the triceps due to weightlifting.

    PubMed

    Spinner, R J; Wenger, D E; Barry, C J; Goldner, R D

    1999-01-01

    We describe two patients who had episodic elbow snapping and ulnar nerve dysesthesias only after weightlifting. These symptoms would disappear soon afterward. The episodic nature of their complaints and findings led to misdiagnosis. We documented by repeated clinical examinations and magnetic resonance imaging that the presence of these symptoms correlated directly with the finding of intermittent, activity-related snapping of the medial triceps. In both patients, the symptoms disappeared when the medial portion of the triceps migrated medially but did not dislocate over the medial epicondyle with elbow flexion. Thus, a minor change in the configuration of the medial portion of the triceps (fluid accumulation) in the same individual at different times can cause intermittent dislocation of the medial triceps. Previous papers dealing with patients with snapping of the medial triceps describe symptoms exacerbated by athletic activities, but the constant finding of snapping on sequential examinations.

  11. Medial joint space widening of the ankle in displaced Tillaux and Triplane fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Gourineni, Prasad; Gupta, Asheesh

    2011-10-01

    Tillaux and Triplane fractures occur in children predominantly from external rotation mechanism. We hypothesized that in displaced fractures, the talus would shift laterally along with the distal fibula and the distal tibial epiphyseal fragment increasing the medial joint space. Consecutive cases evaluated retrospectively. Level I and Level II centers. Twenty-two skeletally immature patients with 14 displaced Triplane fractures and eight displaced Tillaux fractures were evaluated for medial joint space widening. Measurement of fracture displacement and medial joint space widening before and after intervention. Thirteen Triplane and six Tillaux fractures (86%) showed medial space widening of 1 to 9 mm and equal to the amount of fracture displacement. Reduction of the fracture reduced the medial space to normal. There were no known complications. Medial space widening of the ankle may be a sign of ankle fracture displacement. Anatomic reduction of the fracture reduces the medial space and may improve the results in Tillaux and Triplane fractures.

  12. The benefit of therapeutic medial branch blocks after cervical operations.

    PubMed

    Klessinger, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    Persistent neck pain is a common problem after surgery of the cervical spine. No therapy recommendation exists for these patients. The objective of this study was to determine if a therapeutic medial branch block is a rational treatment for patients with postoperative neck pain after cervical spine operations. Retrospective practice audit. Review of charts of all patients who underwent cervical spine operations for degenerative reasons during a time period of 3 years. Patients with persistent postsurgical pain were treated with therapeutic medial branch blocks (local anesthetic and steroid). A positive treatment response was defined if at least 80% reduction of pain could be achieved or if the patient was sufficiently satisfied with the relief. All patients with a minimum follow up time of 6 months were included. Of the 312 operations performed, 128 were artificial disc operations, 125 were stand alone cages, and 59 were fusions with cage and plate. Persistent neck pain occurred in 33.3% of the patients. There was no difference between the patients with neck pain and the whole group of patients. More than half of the patients with neck pain--52.9%--were treated successfully with therapeutic medial branch blocks. Since no further treatment was necessary, the initial treatment was considered successful. Nearly a third--32.2%--of the patients were initially treated successfully, but their pain recurred and further diagnostics and treatments were necessary. In this group of patients, significantly more with double level operations were found (P = 0.003). Patients not responding to the medial branch block were 14.9%. This audit is retrospective and observational, and therefore does not represent a high level of evidence. However, to our knowledge, since this information has not been previously reported and no recommendation for the treatment of post-operative zygapophysial joint pain exists, it appears to be the best available research upon which to recommend treatment

  13. Longitudinal joint treatment.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2006-03-01

    Maine highways have been showing signs of longitudinal joint failure for a number of years. In an effort : to reduce the amount of joint failures the Maine Department of Transportation (MDOT) is currently : evaluating two projects. One project is mon...

  14. Cognitive impairment and medial temporal lobe structure in young adults with a depressive episode.

    PubMed

    Donix, Markus; Haussmann, Robert; Helling, Franziska; Zweiniger, Anne; Lange, Jan; Werner, Annett; Donix, Katharina L; Brandt, Moritz D; Linn, Jennifer; Bauer, Michael; Buthut, Maria

    2018-09-01

    Cognitive deficits are common in patients with a depressive episode although the predictors for their development and severity remain elusive. We investigated whether subjective and objective cognitive impairment in young depressed adults would be associated with cortical thinning in medial temporal subregions. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, cortical unfolding data analysis, and comprehensive assessments of subjective and objective cognitive abilities were performed on 27 young patients with a depressive episode (mean age: 29.0 ± 5.8 years) and 23 older participants without a history of a depressive disorder but amnestic mild cognitive impairment (68.5 ± 6.6 years) or normal cognition (65.2 ± 8.7 years). Thickness reductions in parahippocampal, perirhinal and fusiform cortices were associated with subjective memory deficits only among young patients with a depressive episode and a measurable cognitive impairment. Long-term longitudinal data would be desirable to determine the trajectories of cognitive impairment associated with depression in patients with or without cortical structure changes. The presence of clinically significant cognitive deficits in young people with a depressive episode may identify a patient population with extrahippocampal cortical thinning. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Postero-medial approach for complex tibial plateau injuries with a postero-medial or postero-lateral shear fragment.

    PubMed

    Berber, Reshid; Lewis, Charlotte P; Copas, David; Forward, Daren P; Moran, Christopher G

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of a modified postero-medial surgical approach to the knee in treating a series of patients with complex tibial plateau injuries with associated postero-medial and postero-lateral shear fractures. Posterior coronal shear fractures are underappreciated and their clinical relevance has recently been characterised. Less-invasive surgery and indirect reduction techniques are inadequate for treating these coronal plane fractures. Our approach includes an inverted 'L'-shaped incision situated within the posterior flexor knee crease, followed by the retraction or incision of the medial head of the gastrocnemius tendon, while protecting the neurovascular structures. This provides a more extensile exposure, as far as the postero-lateral corner, than previously described. Our case series included eight females and eight males. The average age was 53 years. The majority of these injuries were sustained through high-energy trauma. All patients' fractures were classified as Schatzker grade 4, or above, with a postero-medial split depression. Eight patients had associated postero-lateral corner fractures. Two were open, two had vascular compromise and one had neurological injury. The average time to surgery was 6.4 days (range 0-12), operative time 142 min (range 76-300) and length of stay 17 days (range 7-46). A total of 11 patients were treated using the postero-medial approach alone and in five the treatment was combined with an antero-lateral approach. Two patients suffered a reduced range of movement requiring manipulation and physiotherapy, and three patients had a 5-degree fixed flexion deformity. Two patients developed superficial wound infections treated with antibiotics alone. Anatomical reduction and fracture union was achieved in 15 patients. These are complex fractures to treat, and our modified posterior approach allows direct reduction and optimal positioning of plates to act as buttress devices. It can be extended across the

  16. Arthroscopic pullout repair of posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: the anterior approach using medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Sik; Moon, Hong-Kyo; Koh, Yong-Gon; Kim, Yong-Chan; Sim, Dong-Sik; Jo, Seung-Bae; Kwon, Se-Kwang

    2011-08-01

    Posterior root tears of the medial meniscus are frequently encountered and should be repaired if possible to prevent osteoarthritis of the medial compartment. Various surgical techniques have been proposed to repair posterior root tears. The anterior arthroscopic approach can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury due to the narrow medial joint space. The posterior approaches might be technically unfamiliar to many surgeons because they require the establishment of a posteromedial or trans-septal portal. This paper describes the medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release technique for arthroscopic double transosseous pullout repair of posterior root tears of the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide the good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  17. Effects of foot orthoses with medial arch support and lateral wedge on knee adduction moment in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Dessery, Yoann; Belzile, Étienne; Turmel, Sylvie; Corbeil, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    There is contradictory evidence regarding whether the addition of medial arch supports to laterally wedged insoles reduces knee adduction moment, improves comfort, and reduces knee pain during the late stance phase of gait. To verify if such effects occur in participants with medial knee osteoarthritis. Randomized single-blinded study. Gait analysis was performed on 18 patients affected by medial knee osteoarthritis. Pain and comfort scores, frontal plane kinematics and kinetics of ankle, knee, and hip were compared in four conditions: without foot orthosis, with foot orthoses, with medial arch support, and with foot orthoses with medial arch support and lateral wedge insoles with 6° and 10° inclination. Lower-extremity gait kinetics were characterized by a significant decrease, greater than 6%, in second peak knee adduction moment in laterally wedged insole conditions compared to the other conditions ( p < 0.001; effect size = 0.6). No significant difference in knee adduction moment was observed between laterally wedged insole conditions. In contrast, a significant increase of 7% in knee adduction moment during the loading response was observed in the customized foot orthoses without lateral inclination condition ( p < 0.001; effect size = 0.3). No difference was found in comfort or pain ratings between conditions. Our study suggests that customized foot orthoses with a medial arch support may only be suitable for the management of medial knee osteoarthritis when a lateral wedge is included. Clinical relevance Our data suggest that customized foot orthoses with medial arch support and a lateral wedge reduce knee loading in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We also found evidence that medial arch support may increase knee loading, which could potentially be detrimental in KOA patients.

  18. A Systematic Review of Clinical Functional Outcomes After Medial Stabilized Versus Non-Medial Stabilized Total Knee Joint Replacement.

    PubMed

    Young, Tony; Dowsey, Michelle M; Pandy, Marcus; Choong, Peter F

    2018-01-01

    Medial stabilized total knee joint replacement (TKJR) construct is designed to closely replicate the kinematics of the knee. Little is known regarding comparison of clinical functional outcomes of patients utilising validated patient reported outcome measures (PROM) after medial stabilized TKJR and other construct designs. To perform a systematic review of the available literature related to the assessment of clinical functional outcomes following a TKJR employing a medial stabilized construct design. The review was performed with a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) algorithm. The literature search was performed using variouscombinations of keywords. The statistical analysis was completed using Review Manager (RevMan), Version 5.3. In the nineteen unique studies identified, there were 2,448 medial stabilized TKJRs implanted in 2,195 participants, there were 1,777 TKJRs with non-medial stabilized design constructs implanted in 1,734 subjects. The final mean Knee Society Score (KSS) value in the medial stabilized group was 89.92 compared to 90.76 in the non-medial stabilized group, with the final KSS mean value difference between the two groups was statistically significant and favored the non-medial stabilized group (SMD 0.21; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.41; p = 004). The mean difference in the final WOMAC values between the two groups was also statistically significant and favored the medial stabilized group (SMD: -0.27; 95% CI: -0.47 to -0.07; p = 0.009). Moderate to high values ( I 2 ) of heterogeneity were observed during the statistical comparison of these functional outcomes. Based on the small number of studies with appropriate statistical analysis, we are unable to reach a clear conclusion in the clinical performance of medial stabilized knee replacement construct. Level II.

  19. Medial orbital wall landmarks in three different North American populations.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Milap P; Perry, Julian D

    2015-04-01

    We sought to measure the medial orbital wall foramina distances in two previously unstudied populations, to describe a new bony medial wall feature, and to validate the accuracy of a new coordinate measurement device within the orbit. Dried, well-preserved, complete human skulls without orbital defects were studied. Age, gender, birthplace, ethnicity, and laterality of the orbit were recorded for each skull. Supranumerary ethmoidal foramina were recorded, and the fronto-ethmoidal groove depth was measured. The distances between the anterior lacrimal crest (ALC) - anterior ethmoidal foramen (AEF), AEF - posterior ethmoidal foramen (PEF), and PEF - optic canal (OC) were measured first by surgical ruler and wire and then by the Microscribe coordinate measurement device. One hundred and forty-six orbits were studied. Fifty-seven orbits were of European or Caucasian descent, 68 orbits of African American descent, 2 orbits of West African descent, 11 orbits of Eskimo descent, and 8 orbits of unknown origin. No significant differences existed between the manual and Microscribe measurements for the ALC-AEF, AEF-PEF, and PEF-OF distances (p < 0.0001). A significant frontoethmoidal groove was observed in 27/146 (19%) orbits, in 6/57 (11%) Caucasian orbits, in 17/70 (24%) African American orbits, and in 4/11 (36%) Eskimo orbits. Supranumerary ethmoidal foramina were found in 50/146 orbits (34.2%) and in 17/27 (63%) orbits with a significant frontoethmoidal grooves. No significant differences in medial wall foramina distances exist between African American and Caucasian orbits; however, a frontoethmoidal groove occurs more commonly in African American orbits. This groove often occurs in the presence of supernumerary ethmoidal foramina. The Microscribe coordinate measurement system represents a valid tool to measure distances within the orbit.

  20. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  1. Medial tibial pain: a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, K T; Komu, M E; Dahlström, S; Koskinen, S K; Heikkilä, J

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivity of different magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences to depict periosteal edema in patients with medial tibial pain. Additionally, we evaluated the ability of dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging (DCES) to depict possible temporal alterations in muscular perfusion within compartments of the leg. Fifteen patients with medial tibial pain were examined with MRI. T1-, T2-weighted, proton density axial images and dynamic and static phase post-contrast images were compared in ability to depict periosteal edema. STIR was used in seven cases to depict bone marrow edema. Images were analyzed to detect signs of compartment edema. Region-of-interest measurements in compartments were performed during DCES and compared with controls. In detecting periosteal edema, post-contrast T1-weighted images were better than spin echo T2-weighted and proton density images or STIR images, but STIR depicted the bone marrow edema best. DCES best demonstrated the gradually enhancing periostitis. Four subjects with severe periosteal edema had visually detectable pathologic enhancement during DCES in the deep posterior compartment of the leg. Percentage enhancement in the deep posterior compartment of the leg was greater in patients than in controls. The fast enhancement phase in the deep posterior compartment began slightly slower in patients than in controls, but it continued longer. We believe that periosteal edema in bone stress reaction can cause impairment of venous flow in the deep posterior compartment. MRI can depict both these conditions. In patients with medial tibial pain, MR imaging protocol should include axial STIR images (to depict bone pathology) with T1-weighted axial pre and post-contrast images, and dynamic contrast enhanced imaging to show periosteal edema and abnormal contrast enhancement within a compartment.

  2. Posterior root tear of the medial and lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Wolf; Forkel, Philipp; Feucht, Matthias J; Zantop, Thore; Imhoff, Andreas B; Brucker, Peter U

    2014-02-01

    An avulsion of the tibial insertion of the meniscus or a radial tear close to the meniscal insertion is defined as a root tear. In clinical practice, the incidence of these lesions is often underestimated. However, several biomechanical studies have shown that the effect of a root tear is comparable to a total meniscectomy. Clinical studies documented progredient arthritic changes following root tears, thereby supporting basic science studies. The clinical diagnosis is limited by unspecific symptoms. In addition to the diagnostic arthroscopy, MRI is considered to be the gold standard of diagnosis of a meniscal root tear. Three different direct MRI signs for the diagnosis of a meniscus root tear have been described: Radial linear defect in the axial plane, vertical linear defect (truncation sign) in the coronal plane, and the so-called ghost meniscus sign in the sagittal plane. Meniscal extrusion is also considered to be an indirect sign of a root tear, but is less common in lateral root tears. During arthroscopy, the function of the meniscus root must be assessed by probing. However, visualization of the meniscal insertions is challenging. Refixation of the meniscal root can be performed using a transtibial pull-out suture, suture anchors, or side-to-side repair. Several short-term studies reported good clinical results after medial or lateral root repair. Nevertheless, MRI and second-look arthroscopy revealed high rates of incomplete or absent healing, especially for medial root tears. To date, most studies are case series with short-term follow-up and level IV evidence. Outerbridge grade 3 or 4 chondral lesions and varus malalignment of >5° were found to predict an inferior clinical outcome after medial meniscus root repair. Further research is needed to evaluate long-term results and to define evident criteria for meniscal root repair.

  3. Bilateral Medial Medullary Infarction with Nondominant Vertebral Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Gui-lian; Du, Ju-mei; Ma, Zhu-lin

    2015-09-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare stroke subtype. Here, we report a case with bilateral MMI caused by nondominant vertebral artery occlusion confirmed by brain digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance imaging basi-parallel-anatomical-scanning. We highlight that anterior spinal arteries could originate from a unilateral vertebral artery (VA). Radiologists and neurologists should pay attention to the nondominant VA as bilateral MMI may be induced by occlusion of nondominant VA that supplies the bilateral anteromedial territories of the medulla. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear, with a Literature Review of Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Soo; Kim, Jun Bum; Lee, Jong Keun; Park, Byeong-Seop

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports our experience of treating four cases of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus, three of which were bilateral. We performed partial meniscectomy with a four-portal technique using a knife leaving a 6 mm peripheral margin after confirmation of magnetic resonance imaging findings. Clinical results were assessed at the end of 2-year follow-up using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and a visual analogue scale. We obtained satisfactory clinical results without recurrence of the symptoms in all cases. PMID:28854771

  5. A General Role for Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Event Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-11

    anterior cingulate cortex modulates attentional response: combined fMRI and ERP evidence. J. Cogn . Neurosci . 18, 766–780. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2006.18.5.766...losses in the anterior cingulate cortex. Cogn . Affect. Behav. Neurosci . 7, 327–336. doi: 10.3758/cabn.7.4.327 Shima, K., and Tanji, J. (1998). Role of...COMPUTATIONAL NEUROSCIENCE ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE published: 11 July 2014 doi: 10.3389/fncom.2014.00069 A general role for medial prefrontal

  6. Biomechanical consequences of a nonanatomic posterior medial meniscal root repair.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Christopher M; Foad, Abdullah; Smith, Sean D; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Dornan, Grant J; Engebretsen, Lars; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    Posterior medial meniscal root tears have been reported to extrude with the meniscus becoming adhered posteromedially along the posterior capsule. While anatomic repair has been reported to restore tibiofemoral contact mechanics, it is unknown whether nonanatomic positioning of a meniscal root repair to a posteromedial location would restore the loading profile of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to compare the tibiofemoral contact mechanics of a nonanatomic posterior medial meniscal tear with that of the intact knee or anatomic repair. It was hypothesized that a nonanatomic root repair would not restore the tibiofemoral contact pressures and areas to that of the intact or anatomic repair state. Controlled laboratory study. Tibiofemoral contact mechanics were recorded in 6 male human cadaveric knee specimens (average age, 45.8 years) using pressure sensors. Each knee underwent 5 testing conditions for the posterior medial meniscal root: (1) intact knee; (2) root tear; (3) anatomic transtibial pull-out repair; (4) nonanatomic transtibial pull-out repair, placed 5 mm posteromedially along the edge of the articular cartilage; and (5) root tear concomitant with an ACL tear. Knees were loaded with a 1000-N axial compressive force at 4 flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°), and contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were calculated. Contact area was significantly lower after nonanatomic repair than for the intact knee at all flexion angles (mean = 44% reduction) and significantly higher for anatomic versus nonanatomic repair at all flexion angles (mean = 27% increase). At 0° and 90°, and when averaged across flexion angles, the nonanatomic repair significantly increased mean contact pressures in comparison to the intact knee or anatomic repair. When averaged across flexion angles, the peak contact pressures after nonanatomic repair were significantly higher than the intact knee but not the anatomic repair. In contrast, when

  7. Bilateral Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy for Bilateral Inverted Papilloma

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Satoru; Kawano, Toshiaki; Suzuki, Masashi

    2012-01-01

    Inverted papilloma (IP) is a benign tumor of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses that is unilateral in most cases. Bilateral IP, involving both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, is extremely rare. This paper describes a large IP that filled in both sides of the nasal cavity and sinuses, mimicking association with malignancy. The tumor was successfully treated by bilateral endoscopic medial maxillectomy (EMM). The patient is without evidence of the disease 24 months after surgery. If preoperative diagnosis does not confirm the association with malignancy in IP, endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) should be selected, and ESS, including EMM, is a good first choice of the treatment for IP. PMID:22953103

  8. Does Medial Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With the Bone-Plug Technique Restore the Anatomic Location of the Native Medial Meniscus?

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Ki; Bin, Seong-Il; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Chang-Rack

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown the importance of restoring the normal structure of the native meniscus with meniscal allograft transplantation. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomic positions of the anterior horn and posterior horn between the preoperative medial meniscus and the postoperative meniscal allograft after medial meniscal allograft transplantation with the bone-plug technique. The hypothesis was that the bone-plug technique could restore the preoperative structure of the native medial meniscus. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between December 1999 and December 2013, a total of 59 patients (49 male, 10 female) underwent medial meniscal allograft transplantation by use of the bone-plug technique. The anatomic positions of both horns in the native medial meniscus and in the meniscal allograft were measured via MRI. The percentage reference method was used to measure the locations of both horns. On coronal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the posterior horn from the lateral border of the tibial plateau changed from 45.2 ± 3.3 to 48.1 ± 4.2 mm (P < .05), and the percentage distance of the posterior horn changed from 59.6% to 63.0% (P < .05). On sagittal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the posterior horn from the anterior reference point changed from 40.3 ± 3.0 to 42.0 ± 3.5 mm (P < .05), and the mean percentage distance of the posterior horn changed from 76.5% to 79.4% (P <.05). On coronal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the anterior horn from the lateral border of the tibial plateau changed from 41.3 ± 4.2 to 48.5 ± 5.6 mm (P < .05), and the mean percentage distance of the anterior horn changed from 54.5% to 63.8% (P < .05). On sagittal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the anterior horn from the anterior reference point changed from 5.5 ± 1.0 to 9.9 ± 2.9 mm (P < .05), and the mean percentage distance of the anterior horn changed from 10.6% to 19.0% (P < .05). Despite attempts to place the meniscal allograft in the same

  9. Epidural abscess treated with a medial supraorbital craniotomy through an incision in the eyebrow. Case report.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David S; Shafizadeh, Stephen; Baroody, Fuad M; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2008-02-01

    The authors describe a medial supraorbital craniotomy performed through a medial eyebrow skin incision to approach an epidural abscess located in the medial anterior fossa of the skull. An 8-year-old boy presented with fevers and facial swelling. Imaging demonstrated pansinusitis and an epidural fluid collection adjacent to the frontal sinus. A medial supraorbital craniotomy was performed to access and drain the epidural abscess. The supraorbital nerve laterally and the supratrochlear nerve medially were preserved by incising the frontalis muscle vertically, parallel to the course of the nerves, and dissecting the subperiosteal plane to mobilize the nerves. This approach may be a useful access corridor for other lesions located near the medial anterior fossa.

  10. Dissociable roles of medial and lateral PFC in rule learning.

    PubMed

    Cao, Bihua; Li, Wei; Li, Fuhong; Li, Hong

    2016-11-01

    Although the neural basis of rule learning is of great interest to cognitive neuroscientists, the pattern of transient brain activation during rule discovery remains to be investigated. In this study, we measured event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during distinct phases of rule learning. Twenty-one healthy human volunteers were presented with a series of cards, each containing a clock-like display of 12 circles numbered sequentially. Participants were instructed that a fictitious animal would move from one circle to another either in a regular pattern (according to a rule hidden in consecutive trials) or randomly. Participants were then asked to judge whether a given step followed a rule. While the rule-search phase evoked more activation in the posterior lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), the rule-following phase caused stronger activation in the anterior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). Importantly, the intermediate phase, the rule-discovery phase evoked more activations in MPFC and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) than rule search, and more activations in LPFC than rule following. Therefore, we can conclude that the medial and lateral PFC have dissociable contributions in rule learning.

  11. Ultrasonography of the medial iliac lymph nodes in the dog.

    PubMed

    Llabrés-Díaz, Francisco J

    2004-01-01

    Sixty-one medial iliac lymph nodes of 38 different dogs (eight with adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac, 13 with multicentric lymphoma, six with multicentric lymphoma but in clinical remission, and 11 control dogs) were evaluated to assess the ability of ultrasound to identify and interrogate these lymph nodes across the different groups and to differentiate these groups using different sonographic parameters. Ultrasound proved to be useful to assess canine medial iliac lymph nodes. An increase in size or number of detected lymph nodes or finding rounder or heterogeneous lymph nodes could differentiate lymph nodes of dogs of the control group from lymph nodes of dogs with lymphoma or an adenocarcinoma of the apocrine glands of the anal sac. Subcategories of malignancy could not be differentiated. More studies need to be performed, both with patients with reactive lymph nodes and also focusing on other canine superficial lymph nodes, before generalizing the results of this study to other areas or diseases.

  12. Working memory for conjunctions relies on the medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Olson, Ingrid R; Page, Katie; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Chatterjee, Anjan; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2006-04-26

    A prominent theory of hippocampal function proposes that the hippocampus is importantly involved in relating or binding together separate pieces of information to form an episodic representation. This hypothesis has only been applied to studies of long-term memory because the paradigmatic view of the hippocampus is that it is not critical for short-term forms of memory. However, relational processing is important in many working memory tasks, especially tasks using visual stimuli. Here, we test the hypothesis that the medial temporal lobes are important for relational memory even over short delays. The task required patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia and controls to remember three objects, locations, or object-location conjunctions over 1 or 8 s delays. The results show that working memory for objects and locations was at normal levels, but that memory for conjunctions was severely impaired at 8 s delays. Additional analyses suggest that the hippocampus per se is critical for accurate conjunction working memory. We propose that the hippocampus is critically involved in memory for conjunctions at both short and long delays.

  13. Working Memory for Conjunctions Relies on the Medial Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Ingrid R.; Page, Katie; Moore, Katherine Sledge; Chatterjee, Anjan; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2006-01-01

    A prominent theory of hippocampal function proposes that the hippocampus is importantly involved in relating or binding together separate pieces of information to form an episodic representation. This hypothesis has only been applied to studies of long-term memory because the paradigmatic view of the hippocampus is that it is not critical for short-term forms of memory. However, relational processing is important in many working memory tasks, especially tasks using visual stimuli. Here, we test the hypothesis that the medial temporal lobes are important for relational memory even over short delays. The task required patients with medial temporal lobe amnesia and controls to remember three objects, locations, or object-location conjunctions over 1 or 8 s delays. The results show that working memory for objects and locations was at normal levels, but that memory for conjunctions was severely impaired at 8 s delays. Additional analyses suggest that the hippocampus per se is critical for accurate conjunction working memory. We propose that the hippocampus is critically involved in memory for conjunctions at both short and long delays. PMID:16641239

  14. Function of the medial meniscus in force transmission and stability.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter S; Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher; Salvadore, Gaia; Borukhov, Ilya; Oh, Cheongeun

    2015-06-01

    We studied the combined role of the medial meniscus in distributing load and providing stability. Ten normal knees were loaded in combinations of compressive and shear loading as the knee was flexed over a full range. A digital camera tracked the motion, from which femoral-tibial contacts were determined by computer modelling. Load transmission was determined from the Tekscan for the anterior horn, central body, posterior horn, and the uncovered cartilage in the centre of the meniscus. For the three types of loading; compression only, compression and anterior shear, compression and posterior shear; between 40% and 80% of the total load was transmitted through the meniscus. The overall average was 58%, the remaining 42% being transmitted through the uncovered cartilage. The anterior horn was loaded only up to 30 degrees flexion, but played a role in controlling anterior femoral displacement. The central body was loaded 10-20% which would provide some restraint to medial femoral subluxation. Overall the posterior horn carried the highest percentage of the shear load, especially after 30 degrees flexion when a posterior shear force was applied, where the meniscus was estimated to carry 50% of the shear force. This study added new insights into meniscal function during weight bearing conditions, particularly its role in early flexion, and in transmitting shear forces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear: A Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dhong Won; Ha, Jeong Ku

    2014-01-01

    Damage to the medial meniscus root, for example by a complete radial tear, destroys the ability of the knee to withstand hoop strain, resulting in contact pressure increases and kinematic alterations. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed to repair the medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT), many of which have shown complete healing of the repaired MMPRT. However, efforts to standardize or optimize the treatment for MMPRT are much needed. When planning a surgical intervention for an MMPRT, strict surgical indications regarding the effect of pullout strength on the refixed root, bony degenerative changes, mechanical alignment, and the Kellgren-Lawrence grade should be considered. Although there are several treatment options and controversies, the current trend is to repair the MMPRT using various techniques including suture anchors and pullout sutures if the patient meets the indications. However, there are still debates on the restoration of hoop tension and prevention of arthritis after repair and further biomechanical and clinical studies should be conducted in the future. The aim of this article was to review and summarize the recent literature regarding various diagnosis and treatment strategies of MMPRT, especially focusing on conflict issues including whether repair techniques can restore the main function of normal meniscus and which is the best suture technique to repair the MMPRT. The authors attempted to provide a comprehensive review of previous studies ranging from basic science to current surgical techniques. PMID:25229041

  16. Medial meniscus posterior root tear: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dhong Won; Ha, Jeong Ku; Kim, Jin Goo

    2014-09-01

    Damage to the medial meniscus root, for example by a complete radial tear, destroys the ability of the knee to withstand hoop strain, resulting in contact pressure increases and kinematic alterations. For these reasons, several techniques have been developed to repair the medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT), many of which have shown complete healing of the repaired MMPRT. However, efforts to standardize or optimize the treatment for MMPRT are much needed. When planning a surgical intervention for an MMPRT, strict surgical indications regarding the effect of pullout strength on the refixed root, bony degenerative changes, mechanical alignment, and the Kellgren-Lawrence grade should be considered. Although there are several treatment options and controversies, the current trend is to repair the MMPRT using various techniques including suture anchors and pullout sutures if the patient meets the indications. However, there are still debates on the restoration of hoop tension and prevention of arthritis after repair and further biomechanical and clinical studies should be conducted in the future. The aim of this article was to review and summarize the recent literature regarding various diagnosis and treatment strategies of MMPRT, especially focusing on conflict issues including whether repair techniques can restore the main function of normal meniscus and which is the best suture technique to repair the MMPRT. The authors attempted to provide a comprehensive review of previous studies ranging from basic science to current surgical techniques.

  17. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy for zygomatic implant salvage

    PubMed Central

    Tajudeen, Bobby A.; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Odontogenic chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is an epidemiologically important disease process due, in part, to the increasingly commonplace use of dental restorative procedures such as zygomatic implantation. Traditional management of this clinical entity typically entails extraction of the infected hardware via an open or endoscopic approach. We describe a novel management strategy of odontogenic CRS following bilateral zygomatic implantation for oral rehabilitation that we surgically salvaged via a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy. Methods: We describe the presentation and management of a case of metachronous development of bilateral CRS subsequent to zygomatic implantation. Results: The patient's postoperative course was characterized by marked endoscopic, radiologic, and symptomatic improvement as measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test. Conclusion: We describe a novel treatment strategy for the management of odontogenic sinusitis resulting from erroneous zygomatic implant placement. Modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy in this clinical context facilitates mucosal normalization of the affected sinus, while permitting preservation of oral function through salvage of the displaced implant. PMID:28107147

  18. Medial-lateral organization of the orbitofrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rich, Erin L; Wallis, Jonathan D

    2014-07-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that specific cognitive functions localize to different subregions of OFC, but the nature of these functional distinctions remains unclear. One prominent theory, derived from human neuroimaging, proposes that different stimulus valences are processed in separate orbital regions, with medial and lateral OFC processing positive and negative stimuli, respectively. Thus far, neurophysiology data have not supported this theory. We attempted to reconcile these accounts by recording neural activity from the full medial-lateral extent of the orbital surface in monkeys receiving rewards and punishments via gain or loss of secondary reinforcement. We found no convincing evidence for valence selectivity in any orbital region. Instead, we report differences between neurons in central OFC and those on the inferior-lateral orbital convexity, in that they encoded different sources of value information provided by the behavioral task. Neurons in inferior convexity encoded the value of external stimuli, whereas those in OFC encoded value information derived from the structure of the behavioral task. We interpret these results in light of recent theories of OFC function and propose that these distinctions, not valence selectivity, may shed light on a fundamental organizing principle for value processing in orbital cortex.

  19. Medial capsular interpositional arthroplasty for severe hallux rigidus.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Michael Patrick; Gerhardt, Nels; Thordarson, David B

    2009-06-01

    Multiple surgical options have been described for severe hallux rigidus. One option is capsular interpositional arthroplasty. We report our initial results with a technique using the thicker medial capsule as our interpositional material instead of the dorsal capsule and extensor hallucis brevis (EHB). Twenty-two patients with grade IV hallux rigidus underwent minimal proximal phalanx resection (modified Keller) with preservation of the flexor hallucis brevis (FHB) insertion and medial capsular interpositional arthroplasty. Postoperative AOFAS hallux MTP-IP scores (mean 77.8), and SF-36 scores (mean 68.7 on physical function, 79.5 role limitations) demonstrated clinical improvement compared to historical controls. Alignment and stability were well maintained (mean preoperative HV angle of 11.8 degrees, mean postoperative HV angle of 13.0 degrees). Dorsiflexion/plantarflexion arc of motion showed sustained improvement (mean 38.4 degrees preoperative, mean 62.3 degrees postoperative). These results are comparable to other forms of interpositional arthroplasty and arthrodesis for end stage arthritis of the hallux MTPJ.

  20. Cognition and medial frontal cortex in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Nachev, Parashkev

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent work on the role of medial frontal cortex in cognition and its involvement in neurological disorders is critically reviewed. Recent findings The highly influential notion of conflict monitoring by the anterior cingulate has been called into question by monkey single-cell neurophysiology and lesion studies in monkeys and humans. An alternative role for this region in adapting behaviour in response to changing demands over time is gaining support. By contrast, the more dorsally placed pre-supplementary motor area and supplementary eye field have been implicated in direct executive control in situations of response conflict. Although more rostral medial areas have been linked to complex cognitive operations involving references to the self, conceptual obstacles make the evidence difficult to interpret. The role of orbitofrontal cortex in guiding action based on value has been reinforced. Summary This area continues to generate both interest and controversy. A few striking discrepancies between data from functional imaging and interventional techniques illustrate the hazards of drawing strong conclusions from merely correlative evidence. More broadly, a case can be made for tempering the empirical enthusiasm here with a little more theoretical restraint. PMID:17102698

  1. Pseudoaneurysm of the medial superior genicular artery after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kee Byoung; Song, Si Young; Kwon, Duck Joo; Shin, Jun; Paik, Sang Hoon

    2009-09-01

    We describe a case of 43-year-old man who had a pseudoaneurysm of the medial superior genicular artery after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy with standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals. Pseudoaneurysm of the medial superior genicular artery has been reported at the previous superomedial portal site after arthroscopy. Described herein is a unique case that involved the medial superior genicular artery at the previous anteromedial portal site after arthroscopy. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with transcatheter embolization.

  2. Pseudoaneurysm of the Medial Superior Genicular Artery after Arthroscopic Partial Meniscectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kee Byoung; Kwon, Duck Joo; Shin, Jun; Paik, Sang Hoon

    2009-01-01

    We describe a case of 43-year-old man who had a pseudoaneurysm of the medial superior genicular artery after arthroscopic partial meniscectomy with standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals. Pseudoaneurysm of the medial superior genicular artery has been reported at the previous superomedial portal site after arthroscopy. Described herein is a unique case that involved the medial superior genicular artery at the previous anteromedial portal site after arthroscopy. The pseudoaneurysm was successfully treated with transcatheter embolization. PMID:19885054

  3. Pullout failure strength of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with root ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Mo; Joo, Yong-Bum

    2013-07-01

    To evaluate the reparability of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with root ligament tear by measuring the actual pullout failure strength of a simple vertical suture of an arthroscopic subtotal meniscectomized posterior horn of the medial meniscus. From November 2009 to May 2010, nine posterior horns of the medial meniscus specimens were collected from arthroscopic subtotal meniscectomy performed as a treatment for root ligament rupture of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Simple vertical sutures were performed on the specimens, and pullout failure load was tested with a biaxial servohydraulic testing machine (Model 8874; Instron Corp., Norwood, MA, USA). The degree of degeneration, extrusion, and medial displacement of the medial meniscus were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The Kellgren-Lawrence classification was used in standing plain radiography, and mechanical alignment was measured using orthoroentgenography. Tear morphology was classified into ligament proper type or meniscoligamentous junctional type according to the site of the torn root ligament of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus during arthroscopy. The mean pullout failure strength of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was 71.6 ± 23.2 N (range, 41.4-107.7 N). The degree of degeneration of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus on MRI showed statistically significant correlation with pullout failure strength and Kellgren-Lawrence classification. Pullout failure strength showed correlation with mechanical alignment and Kellgren-Lawrence classification (P < 0.05). The measurement of pullout failure strength of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with root ligament tear showed a degree of repairability. The degree of degeneration of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus on MRI showed a significant correlation with the pullout failure strength. The pullout failure strength was also not only correlated with the degree of degeneration of the

  4. Medial tibial pain. A prospective study of its cause among military recruits.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Stein, M; Kashtan, H; Margulies, J; Chisin, R; Steinberg, R; Swissa, A; Aharonson, Z

    1986-12-01

    In a prospective study of 295 infantry recruits during 14 weeks of basic training, 41% had medial tibial pain. Routine scintigraphic evaluation in cases of medial tibial bone pain showed that 63% had abnormalities. A stress fracture was found in 46%. Only two patients had periostitis. None had ischemic medial compartment syndrome. Physical examination could not differentiate between cases with medial tibial bone pain secondary to stress fractures and those with scintigraphically normal tibias. When both pain and swelling were localized in the middle one-third of the tibia, the lesion most likely proved to be a stress fracture.

  5. A comparison of subtalar joint motion during anticipated medial cutting turns and level walking using a multi-segment foot model.

    PubMed

    Jenkyn, T R; Shultz, R; Giffin, J R; Birmingham, T B

    2010-02-01

    The weight-bearing in-vivo kinematics and kinetics of the talocrural joint, subtalar joint and joints of the foot were quantified using optical motion analysis. Twelve healthy subjects were studied during level walking and anticipated medial turns at self-selected pace. A multi-segment model of the foot using skin-mounted marker triads tracked four foot segments: the hindfoot, midfoot, lateral and medial forefoot. The lower leg and thigh were also tracked. Motion between each of the segments could occur in three degrees of rotational freedom, but only six inter-segmental motions were reported in this study: (1) talocrural dorsi-plantar-flexion, (2) subtalar inversion-eversion, (3) frontal plane hindfoot motion, (4) transverse plane hindfoot motion, (5) forefoot supination-pronation twisting and (6) the height-to-length ratio of the medial longitudinal arch. The motion at the subtalar joint during stance phase of walking (eversion then inversion) was reversed during a turning task (inversion then eversion). The external subtalar joint moment was also changed from a moderate eversion moment during walking to a larger inversion moment during the turn. The kinematics of the talocrural joint and the joints of the foot were similar between these two tasks. During a medial turn, the subtalar joint may act to maintain the motions in the foot and talocrural joint that occur during level walking. This is occurring despite the conspicuously different trajectory of the centre of mass of the body. This may allow the foot complex to maintain its function of energy absorption followed by energy return during stance phase that is best suited to level walking. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Longitudinal magnet forces?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graneau, P.

    1984-03-01

    The Ampere electrodynamics of metallic conductors and experiments supporting it predict that the interaction of a current-carrying wire with its own magnetic field should produce longitudinal mechanical forces in the conductor, existing in addition to the transverse Lorentz forces. The longitudinal forces should stretch the conductor and have been referred to as Ampere tension. In 1964 it was discovered that a current pulse would break a straight copper wire into many fragments without visible melting. A metallurgical examination of the pieces confirmed that the metal parted in the solid state. The same observation has now been made with aluminum wires. In the latest experiments the wire was bent into a semicircle and arc-connected to a capacitor discharge circuit. The arc connections ruled out rupture by Lorentz hoop tension and indicated the longitudinal forces may also arise in circular magnet windings. Explanations of wire fragmentation by thermal shock, longitudinal stress waves, Lorentz pinch-off, bending stresses, and material defects have been considered and found unconvincing. Computed Ampere tensions would be sufficient to fracture hot wires. The Ampere tension would double the hoop tension normally expected in dipole magnets. This should be borne in mind in the design of large dipole magnets contemplated for MHD power generators and railgun accelerators.

  7. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOEpatents

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  8. Longitudinal joint specifications and performance.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2012-08-01

    Deterioration of longitudinal joints is widely recognized as one of the major factors contributing to failure of asphalt pavements. Finding : ways to improve the durability of longitudinal joints will lead to improved service lives and lower life cyc...

  9. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years) and 30 years (range: 14-62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is common in

  10. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients’ ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29–71 years) and 30 years (range: 14–62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is

  11. [Dynamic retraction microneurosurgery for the treatment of medial tentorial meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Du, W; Zhong, D; Lü, D; Li, J; Huang, H Y; Yang, J; Wu, Y T; Xia, H J; Tang, W Y; Sun, X C

    2018-05-08

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and clinical significance of dynamic retraction microneurosurgery for the treatment of medial tentorial meningiomas. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2016, a cohort of 28 patients with medial tentorial meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Patients who treated intraoperatively with dynamic retraction surgery from January 2014 to December 2016 were assigned into dynamic retraction group, and those with fixed retractors intraoperatively from January 2011 to December 2013 were assigned into retractor group. The surgical approaches tailored in our patients were based on predominant direction of tumor extension. The extent of tumor resection was scored according to the Simpson's classification scale. Comparisons of tumor size, operation time, hospitalization time, retraction-related injury, tumor Simpson resection grade and Karnofsky Performance Scale(KPS) score six months after surgery were also made between two groups. Results: A total of 12 patients(retractor group) were treated with the use of self-retaining brain retractors intraoperatively and dynamic retraction surgical procedure was performed intraoperatively in 16 patients(dynamic retraction group). The difference between two groups with regard to sex, age, tumor size, operation time and tumor Simpson resection grade was not statistically significant(all P >0.05). The mean duration of hospital time was shorter in the dynamic retraction group than that in the retractor group(18.3 d±1.8 d vs 20.2 d±1.3 d, P =0.004). The dynamic retraction group had lower incidence of retraction-related injury compared with the retractor group(1/16 vs 6/12), P =0.022]. The dynamic retraction group had better neurological recovery rate with KPS >80 evaluated six months after surgery compared with the retractor group(14/16 vs 5/12, P =0.017). Conclusions: Dynamic retraction microneurosurgery for the treatment

  12. Experimental Demonstration of Longitudinal Magnification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpet, Nada; Susman, Katarina; Cepic, Mojca

    2009-01-01

    We describe an experiment which enables the observation of longitudinal magnification for the real image of a three-dimensional (3D) object formed by a converging lens. The experiment also shows the absence of longitudinal inversion. Possible reasons for misconceptions with respect to real images and longitudinal inversions are discussed and a…

  13. Isolation of a matrix that binds medial Golgi enzymes

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Rat liver Golgi stacks were extracted with Triton X-100 at neutral pH. After centrifugation the low speed pellet contained two medial-Golgi enzymes, N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I and mannosidase II, but no enzymes or markers from other parts of the Golgi apparatus. Both were present in the same structures which appeared, by electron microscopy, to be small remnants of cisternal membranes. The enzymes could be removed by treatment with low salt, leaving behind a salt pellet, which we term the matrix. Removal of salt caused specific re-binding of both enzymes to the matrix, with an apparent dissociation constant of 3 nM for mannosidase II. Re-binding was abolished by pretreatment of intact Golgi stacks with proteinase K, suggesting that the matrix was present between the cisternae. PMID:8106542

  14. Failed medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction: Causes and surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchis-Alfonso, Vicente; Montesinos-Berry, Erik; Ramirez-Fuentes, Cristina; Leal-Blanquet, Joan; Gelber, Pablo E; Monllau, Joan Carles

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common clinical problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons specializing in the knee. For patients with chronic lateral patellar instability, the standard surgical approach is to stabilize the patella through a medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. Foreseeably, an increasing number of revision surgeries of the reconstructed MPFL will be seen in upcoming years. In this paper, the causes of failed MPFL reconstruction are analyzed: (1) incorrect surgical indication or inappropriate surgical technique/patient selection; (2) a technical error; and (3) an incorrect assessment of the concomitant risk factors for instability. An understanding of the anatomy and biomechanics of the MPFL and cautiousness with the imaging techniques while favoring clinical over radiological findings and the use of common sense to determine the adequate surgical technique for each particular case, are critical to minimizing MPFL surgery failure. Additionally, our approach to dealing with failure after primary MPFL reconstruction is also presented. PMID:28251062

  15. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Repair Using a Transtibial Technique.

    PubMed

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Mohan, Rohith; Stuart, Michael J; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-06-01

    The meniscal roots are critical in maintaining the normal shock absorbing function of the meniscus. If a meniscal root tear is left untreated, meniscal extrusion can occur rendering the meniscus nonfunctional resulting in degenerative arthritis. Two main repair techniques are described: (1) suture anchors (direct fixation) and (2) sutures pulled through a tibial tunnel (indirect fixation). Meniscal root repair using a suture anchor technique is technically challenging requiring a posterior portal and a curved suture passing device that can be difficult to manipulate within the knee. We present a technique for posterior medial meniscus root repair using 3 sutures (1 leader, 2 cinch), standard arthroscopy portals, and transtibial fixation. Overall, this technique simplifies a challenging procedure and allows for familiarity and efficiency.

  16. Medial prefrontal cortex as an action-outcome predictor.

    PubMed

    Alexander, William H; Brown, Joshua W

    2011-09-18

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and especially anterior cingulate cortex is central to higher cognitive function and many clinical disorders, yet its basic function remains in dispute. Various competing theories of mPFC have treated effects of errors, conflict, error likelihood, volatility and reward, using findings from neuroimaging and neurophysiology in humans and monkeys. No single theory has been able to reconcile and account for the variety of findings. Here we show that a simple model based on standard learning rules can simulate and unify an unprecedented range of known effects in mPFC. The model reinterprets many known effects and suggests a new view of mPFC, as a region concerned with learning and predicting the likely outcomes of actions, whether good or bad. Cognitive control at the neural level is then seen as a result of evaluating the probable and actual outcomes of one's actions. © 2011 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medial prefrontal cortex as an action-outcome predictor

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, William H.; Brown, Joshua W.

    2011-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and especially anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is central to higher cognitive function and numerous clinical disorders, yet its basic function remains in dispute. Various competing theories of mPFC have treated effects of errors, conflict, error likelihood, volatility, and reward, based on findings from neuroimaging and neurophysiology in humans and monkeys. To date, no single theory has been able to reconcile and account for the variety of findings. Here we show that a simple model based on standard learning rules can simulate and unify an unprecedented range of known effects in mPFC. The model reinterprets many known effects and suggests a new view of mPFC, as a region concerned with learning and predicting the likely outcomes of actions, whether good or bad. Cognitive control at the neural level is then seen as a result of evaluating the probable and actual outcomes of one's actions. PMID:21926982

  18. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yo; Williams, Rhiannan H; Agostinelli, Lindsay; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Saper, Clifford B; Scammell, Thomas E

    2013-06-05

    Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy, episodes of profound muscle weakness that are often triggered by strong, positive emotions. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (also known as hypocretin) signaling, but almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy. Using orexin knock-out mice as a model of narcolepsy, we found that palatable foods, especially chocolate, markedly increased cataplexy and activated neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Reversible suppression of mPFC activity using an engineered chloride channel substantially reduced cataplexy induced by chocolate but did not affect spontaneous cataplexy. In addition, neurons in the mPFC innervated parts of the amygdala and lateral hypothalamus that contain neurons active during cataplexy and that innervate brainstem regions known to regulate motor tone. These observations indicate that the mPFC is a critical site through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy.

  19. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Yo; Williams, Rhiannan H.; Agostinelli, Lindsay; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Saper, Clifford B.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy - episodes of profound muscle weakness that are often triggered by strong, positive emotions. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (also known as hypocretin) signaling, but almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy. Using orexin knockout mice as a model of narcolepsy, we found that palatable foods, especially chocolate, markedly increased cataplexy and activated neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Reversible suppression of mPFC activity using an engineered chloride channel substantially reduced cataplexy induced by chocolate but did not affect spontaneous cataplexy. In addition, neurons in the mPFC innervated parts of the amygdala and lateral hypothalamus that contain neurons active during cataplexy, and that innervate brainstem regions known to regulate motor tone. These observations indicate that the mPFC is a critical site through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy. PMID:23739971

  20. Snapping knee caused by the thickening of the medial hamstrings.

    PubMed

    de la Hera Cremades, B; Escribano Rueda, L; Lara Rubio, A

    We report a case of symptomatic subluxation of the semitendinosus and gracilis over the medial condyle of the tibia caused by the thickening of its tendons. Snapping was reproduced on active extension. Clinical examination and, above all, dynamic ultrasound were the key for the diagnosis because other imaging tests were normal. Due to failure of conservative treatment with physiotherapy and infiltrations, surgery was undertaken, involving desinsertion and excision of distal 8cm segment of the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. At the present time (6 months postoperatively), the patient is symptom-free and has returned to the previous normal life activities. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Emotional processing in anterior cingulate and medial prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Etkin, Amit; Egner, Tobias; Kalisch, Raffael

    2010-01-01

    Negative emotional stimuli activate a broad network, including the medial prefrontal (mPFC) and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices. An early influential view dichotomized these regions into dorsal-caudal “cognitive” and ventral-rostral “affective” subdivisions. In this review, we examine a wealth of recent research on negative emotions in animals and humans, using the example of fear/anxiety, and conclude that, contrary to the traditional dichotomy, both subdivisions make key contributions to emotional processing. Specifically, dorsal-caudal regions of the ACC/mPFC are involved in appraisal and expression of negative emotion, while ventral-rostral portions of the ACC/mPFC have a regulatory role with respect to limbic regions involved in generating emotional responses. Moreover, this new framework is broadly consistent with emerging data on other negative and positive emotions. PMID:21167765

  2. Distinct white matter injury associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer's versus semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Bejanin, Alexandre; Desgranges, Béatrice; La Joie, Renaud; Landeau, Brigitte; Perrotin, Audrey; Mézenge, Florence; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at further understanding the distinct vulnerability of brain networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus semantic dementia (SD) investigating the white matter injury associated with medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in both conditions. Twenty-six AD patients, twenty-one SD patients, and thirty-nine controls underwent a high-resolution T1-MRI scan allowing to obtain maps of grey matter volume and white matter density. A statistical conjunction approach was used to identify MTL regions showing grey matter atrophy in both patient groups. The relationship between this common grey matter atrophy and white matter density maps was then assessed within each patient group. Patterns of grey matter atrophy were distinct in AD and SD but included a common region in the MTL, encompassing the hippocampus and amygdala. This common atrophy was associated with alterations in different white matter areas in AD versus SD, mainly including the cingulum and corpus callosum in AD, while restricted to the temporal lobe - essentially the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi - in SD. Complementary analyses revealed that these relationships remained significant when controlling for global atrophy or disease severity. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that atrophy of the same MTL region is related to damage in distinct white matter fibers in AD and SD. These different patterns emphasize the vulnerability of distinct brain networks related to the MTL in these two disorders, which might underlie the discrepancy in their symptoms. These results further suggest differences between AD and SD in the neuropathological processes occurring in the MTL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1791-1800, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Illness progression, recent stress, and morphometry of hippocampal subfields and medial prefrontal cortex in major depression.

    PubMed

    Treadway, Michael T; Waskom, Michael L; Dillon, Daniel G; Holmes, Avram J; Park, Min Tae M; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Dutra, Sunny J; Polli, Frida E; Iosifescu, Dan V; Fava, Maurizio; Gabrieli, John D E; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-02-01

    Longitudinal studies of illness progression in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) indicate that the onset of subsequent depressive episodes becomes increasingly decoupled from external stressors. A possible mechanism underlying this phenomenon is that multiple episodes induce long-lasting neurobiological changes that confer increased risk for recurrence. Prior morphometric studies have frequently reported volumetric reductions in patients with MDD--especially in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the hippocampus--but few studies have investigated whether these changes are exacerbated by prior episodes. In a sample of 103 medication-free patients with depression and control subjects with no history of depression, structural magnetic resonance imaging was performed to examine relationships between number of prior episodes, current stress, hippocampal subfield volume and cortical thickness. Volumetric analyses of the hippocampus were performed using a recently validated subfield segmentation approach, and cortical thickness estimates were obtained using vertex-based methods. Participants were grouped on the basis of the number of prior depressive episodes and current depressive diagnosis. Number of prior episodes was associated with both lower reported stress levels and reduced volume in the dentate gyrus. Cortical thinning of the left mPFC was associated with a greater number of prior depressive episodes but not current depressive diagnosis. Collectively, these findings are consistent with preclinical models suggesting that the dentate gyrus and mPFC are especially vulnerable to stress exposure and provide evidence for morphometric changes that are consistent with stress-sensitization models of recurrence in MDD. Copyright © 2015 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. On the weight-bearing function of the medial coronoid process in dogs.

    PubMed

    Breit, S; Künzel, W; Seiler, S

    2006-02-01

    The shape of and proportions between the surface areas of the medial coronoid process (MCP) and the fovea of the radial head were determined in 88 juvenile dogs and 146 adult dogs grouped as giant, large, mid-sized, chondrodystrophic, or small dogs. Thereby, the longitudinal (length) and transverse (width) extension of the MCP and fovea of the radial head have been measured. Original values were used to describe changes of the parameters attributed to growth. Normalized values (i.e. values expected in case of a width of the fovea of the radial head of 20 mm) were used to determine potential differences between constitutional types. All original values increased during growth (P < 0.05) except for the width and length of the MCP in chondrodystrophic and small breeds. Normalized values revealed a proportional decrease in width and length of the MCP during growth (P < 0.05) compared with the radial head. In adults, the normalized MCP was widest in giant dogs followed by large, mid-sized, small, and chondrodystrophic breeds. The MCP was also longest in giant dogs but shortest in large and chondrodystrophic dogs with those of large dogs being significantly (P < 0.05) shorter than those in giant, mid-sized and small dogs. Present results suggest that a deficiency in length-growth of the MCP--which has been present especially in large dogs--results in smaller humeral contact areas and decreased weight-bearing capacity of the MCP. Because loading forces acting on the MCP increase with body weight, the condition noted in large dogs might increase the risk of fragmentation of the MCP in these.

  5. [Dissociated nystagmus in side gaze. Major symptoms in the diagnosis of an internuclear ophthalmoplegia].

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, P; Neugebauer, A; Fricke, J; Michel, O

    2004-07-01

    A prerequisite for a qualified analysis of nystagmus is the recognition of uncommon forms of this condition. In internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO), a dissociated nystagmus in side gaze is typical. This is accompanied by limited medial excursion of the adducted eye together with a dissociated nystagmus, which is stronger in the abducting fellow eye. This motility disturbance stems from a lesion in the medial longitudinal fasciculus running in the brain stem between the sixth and the third nerve nuclei. The lesion is often due to multiple sclerosis, but can also be ischemic, traumatic, neoplastic or inflammatory (e.g. HIV infection).

  6. Perfusion network shift during seizures in medial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sequeira, Karen M; Tabesh, Ali; Sainju, Rup K; DeSantis, Stacia M; Naselaris, Thomas; Joseph, Jane E; Ahlman, Mark A; Spicer, Kenneth M; Glazier, Steve S; Edwards, Jonathan C; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is associated with limbic atrophy involving the hippocampus, peri-hippocampal and extra-temporal structures. While MTLE is related to static structural limbic compromise, it is unknown whether the limbic system undergoes dynamic regional perfusion network alterations during seizures. In this study, we aimed to investigate state specific (i.e. ictal versus interictal) perfusional limbic networks in patients with MTLE. We studied clinical information and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images obtained with intravenous infusion of the radioactive tracer Technetium- Tc 99 m Hexamethylpropyleneamine Oxime (Tc-99 m HMPAO) during ictal and interictal state confirmed by video-electroencephalography (VEEG) in 20 patients with unilateral MTLE (12 left and 8 right MTLE). Pair-wise voxel-based analyses were used to define global changes in tracer between states. Regional tracer uptake was calculated and state specific adjacency matrices were constructed based on regional correlation of uptake across subjects. Graph theoretical measures were applied to investigate global and regional state specific network reconfigurations. A significant increase in tracer uptake was observed during the ictal state in the medial temporal region, cerebellum, thalamus, insula and putamen. From network analyses, we observed a relative decreased correlation between the epileptogenic temporal region and remaining cortex during the interictal state, followed by a surge of cross-correlated perfusion in epileptogenic temporal-limbic structures during a seizure, corresponding to local network integration. These results suggest that MTLE is associated with a state specific perfusion and possibly functional organization consisting of a surge of limbic cross-correlated tracer uptake during a seizure, with a relative disconnection of the epileptogenic temporal lobe in the interictal period. This pattern of state specific shift in metabolic networks in

  7. Reversed Procrastination by Focal Disruption of Medial Frontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Jha, Ashwani; Diehl, Beate; Scott, Catherine; McEvoy, Andrew W; Nachev, Parashkev

    2016-11-07

    An enduring puzzle in the neuroscience of voluntary action is the origin of the remarkably wide dispersion of the reaction time distribution, an interval far greater than is explained by synaptic or signal transductive noise [1, 2]. That we are able to change our planned actions-a key criterion of volition [3]-so close to the time of their onset implies decision-making must reach deep into the execution of action itself [4-6]. It has been influentially suggested the reaction time distribution therefore reflects deliberate neural procrastination [7], giving alternative response tendencies sufficient time for fair competition in pursuing a decision threshold that determines which one is behaviorally manifest: a race model, where action selection and execution are closely interrelated [8-11]. Although the medial frontal cortex exhibits a sensitivity to reaction time on functional imaging that is consistent with such a mechanism [12-14], direct evidence from disruptive studies has hitherto been lacking. If movement-generating and movement-delaying neural substrates are closely co-localized here, a large-scale lesion will inevitably mask any acceleration, for the movement itself could be disrupted. Circumventing this problem, here we observed focal intracranial electrical disruption of the medial frontal wall in the context of the pre-surgical evaluation of two patients with epilepsy temporarily reversing such hypothesized procrastination. Effector-specific behavioral acceleration, time-locked to the period of electrical disruption, occurred exclusively at a specific locus at the ventral border of the pre-supplementary motor area. A cardinal prediction of race models of voluntary action is thereby substantiated in the human brain. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Sacral medial telangiectatic vascular nevus: a study of 43 children.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, A; Neri, I; Orlandi, C; Marini, R

    1996-01-01

    Medial telangiectatic vascular nevi are capillary vascular malformations frequently observed at birth occurring mostly on the face or on the nape as a single lesion or as multiple macules affecting more than one site simultaneously. In 1990, Metzker and Shamir reported a medial telangiectatic vascular nevus (MTVN) in the sacral region along the midline and called this particular variety of MTVN 'butterfly-shaped mark'. Our study was performed to investigate the morphology and localization of an MTVN in the sacral region (sMTVN) in a group of Caucasian children. We observed 43 children with sMTVN, ranging in age from 1 month to 12 years (mean 8 years), for a period of 6 years. sMTVN was found as a red-violet macular lesion of rhomboid or triangular shape in 16 patients and as a group of little red-violet macules in 10 patients. In 16 patients moreover the whole back was involved with many small red-violet spots on and around the spinal column, and in 1 patient with classic sMTVN satellite macules were also present over both buttocks. Four patients suffered from epilepsy with mental deficiency. In 6 patients, the family history showed sMTVN in one or more members of the family. No case presented an association with spina bifida. In our study, sMTVN shows a morphological polymorphism while Metzker and Shamir reported the same clinical aspect in all 25 of their patients. In accordance with these authors, we noted that sMTVN persist into childhood and adult life in the same way as occipital MTVN.

  9. Modified transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy through prelacrimal duct approach.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Motohiko; Nakamura, Yoshihisa; Yokota, Makoto; Ozaki, Shinya; Murakami, Shingo

    2017-10-01

    We previously reported a modified endoscopic medial maxillectomy (modified transnasal endoscopic medial maxillectomy through prelacrimal duct approach [MTEMMPDA]) to resect inverted papilloma (IP), for which the inferior turbinate (IT) and nasolacrimal duct (ND) can be preserved. MTEMMPDA is a safe and effective method to obtain wide, straight access to the maxillary sinus (MS). However, there are few reported cases of patients who underwent MTEMMPDA, and even fewer of patients who underwent partial osteotomy of the apertura piriformis and the anterior wall of the MS. In this study, we analyzed the outcomes of 51 patients who underwent MTEMMPDA. Retrospective review. All patients who underwent MTEMMPDA at our hospital between January 2004 and December 2015 were included in this study. Fifty-one patients with sinonasal IP in the MS underwent MTEMMPDA. Recurrence was seen in the MS of one patient (follow-up of 2-138 months). The IT remained unchanged in all 51 patients without atrophy. We have not observed epiphora, eye discharge, dry nose, or persistent crusting after this surgery. Although seven patients had numbness around the upper lip after surgery, this had disappeared by 1 year after surgery. Additional partial osteotomy of the apertura piriformis and the anterior wall of the MS were done in eight patients. Deformation of the external nose was not seen. This approach appears to be a safe and effective method to resect IP in the MS, even if there is additional partial osteotomy of the apertura piriformis and the anterior wall of the MS. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2205-2209, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  10. Effect of Medialization Thyroplasty on Glottic Airway Anatomy: Cadaver Model.

    PubMed

    Shinghal, Tulika; Anderson, Jennifer; Chung, Janet; Hong, Aaron; Bharatha, Aditya

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in airway dimensions after medialization thyroplasty (MT) using a cadaveric model. Helical computerized tomography (CT) was performed before and after placement of a silastic block in human larynges to investigate the effect on airway anatomy at the level of the glottis. Tissue density (TD) of the medialized vocal fold (VF) was documented to understand the effect on tissue displacement. This is a cadaveric study. Thirteen human cadaveric larynges underwent fine-cut CT scan before and after MT was performed using carved blocks in two sizes (small block and large block [LB]). Clientstream software was used to measure laryngeal dimensions: intraglottic volume (IGV), cross-sectional area (CSA), posterior-glottic diameter (PGD), VF density (in Hounsfield units [HUs]), and anterior-posterior diameter (APD). Eight sequential axial sections 0.625 mm cuts) at the level of the true VFs were analyzed. There was a significant decrease between the three conditions for IGV (P < 0.0001) and CSA (P < 0.0001). TD of the VF was increased after MT as indicated by HU increase (P = 0.0003). APD was not significantly changed. PGD was significantly different between the no block to LB placement (P = 0.0012). MT significantly changes the IGV and CSA at the level of the glottis. Density in the true VF was significantly increased. These findings have important implications for understanding volumetric effects of MT. Copyright © 2015 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered medial temporal activation related to local glutamate levels in subjects with prodromal signs of psychosis.

    PubMed

    Valli, Isabel; Stone, James; Mechelli, Andrea; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Fusar-Poli, Paolo; Lythgoe, David; O'Gorman, Ruth; Seal, Marc; McGuire, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Both medial temporal cortical dysfunction and perturbed glutamatergic neurotransmission are regarded as fundamental pathophysiological features of psychosis. However, although animal models of psychosis suggest that these two abnormalities are interrelated, their relationship in humans has yet to be investigated. We used a combination of functional magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the relationship between medial temporal activation during an episodic memory task and local glutamate levels in 22 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 14 healthy volunteers. We observed a significant between-group difference in the coupling of medial temporal activation with local glutamate levels. In control subjects, medial temporal activation during episodic encoding was positively associated with medial temporal glutamate. However, in the clinical population, medial temporal activation was reduced, and the relationship with glutamate was absent. In individuals at high risk of psychosis, medial temporal dysfunction seemed related to a loss of the normal relationship with local glutamate levels. This study provides the first evidence that links medial temporal dysfunction with the central glutamate system in humans and is consistent with evidence that drugs that modulate glutamatergic transmission might be useful in the treatment of psychosis. Copyright © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Technique for CT Fluoroscopy-Guided Lumbar Medial Branch Blocks and Radiofrequency Ablation.

    PubMed

    Amrhein, Timothy J; Joshi, Anand B; Kranz, Peter G

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the procedure for CT fluoroscopy-guided lumbar medial branch blocks and facet radiofrequency ablation. CT fluoroscopic guidance allows more-precise needle tip positioning and is an alternative method for performing medial branch blocks and facet radiofrequency ablation.

  13. Posterior medial meniscus root ligament lesions: MRI classification and associated findings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ja-Young; Chang, Eric Y; Cunha, Guilherme M; Tafur, Monica; Statum, Sheronda; Chung, Christine B

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of altered MRI appearances of "posterior medial meniscus root ligament (PMMRL)" lesions, introduce a classification of lesion types, and report associated findings. We retrospectively reviewed 419 knee MRI studies to identify the presence of PMMRL lesions. Classification was established on the basis of lesions encountered. The medial compartment was assessed for medial meniscal tears in the meniscus proper, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous changes, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture, and cruciate ligament abnormality. PMMRL abnormalities occurred in 28.6% (120/419) of the studies: degeneration, 14.3% (60/419) and tear, 14.3% (60/419). Our classification system included degeneration and tearing. Tearing was categorized as partial or complete with delineation of the point of failure as entheseal, midsubstance, or junction to meniscus. Of all tears, 93.3% (56/60) occurred at the meniscal junction. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the knees with and without PMMRL lesions in age, medial meniscal tear, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous change, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture (p=0.017), and cruciate ligament degeneration (p<0.001). PMMRL lesions are commonly detected in symptomatic patients. We have introduced an MRI classification system. PMMRL lesions are significantly associated with age, medial meniscal tears, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous change, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture, and cruciate ligament degeneration.

  14. Disruption of the Aortic Elastic Lamina and Medial Calcification Share Genetic Determinants in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Susanna S.; Martin, Lisa J.; Schadt, Eric E.; Meng, Haijin; Wang, Xuping; Zhao, Wei; Ingram-Drake, Leslie; Nebohacova, Martina; Mehrabian, Margarete; Drake, Thomas A.; Lusis, Aldons J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Disruption of the elastic lamina, as an early indicator of aneurysm formation, and vascular calcification frequently occur together in atherosclerotic lesions of humans. Methods and Results We now report evidence of shared genetic basis for disruption of the elastic lamina (medial disruption) and medial calcification in an F2 mouse intercross between C57BL/6J and C3H/HeJ on a hyperlipidemic apolipoprotein E (ApoE−/−) null background. We identified 3 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosomes 6, 13, and 18, which are common to both traits, and 2 additional QTLs for medial calcification on chromosomes 3 and 7. Medial disruption, including severe disruptions leading to aneurysm formation, and medial calcification were highly correlated and occurred concomitantly in the cross. The chromosome 18 locus showed a striking male sex-specificity for both traits. To identify candidate genes, we integrated data from microarray analysis, genetic segregation, and clinical traits. The chromosome 7 locus contains the Abcc6 gene, known to mediate myocardial calcification. Using transgenic complementation, we show that Abcc6 also contributes to aortic medial calcification. Conclusions Our data indicate that calcification, though possibly contributory, does not always lead to medial disruption and that in addition to aneurysm formation, medial disruption may be the precursor to calcification. PMID:20031637

  15. Medial Frontal Event-Related Potentials and Reward Prediction: Do Responses Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Laura E.; Potts, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    Medial frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) following rewarding feedback index outcome evaluation. The majority of studies examining the feedback related medial frontal negativity (MFN) employ active tasks during which participants' responses impact their feedback, however, the MFN has been elicited during passive tasks. Many of the studies…

  16. A Longitudinal Study on Resting State Functional Connectivity in Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Hafkemeijer, Anne; Möller, Christiane; Dopper, Elise G P; Jiskoot, Lize C; van den Berg-Huysmans, Annette A; van Swieten, John C; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Vrenken, Hugo; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Barkhof, Frederik; Scheltens, Philip; van der Grond, Jeroen; Rombouts, Serge A R B

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) are the most common types of early-onset dementia. We applied longitudinal resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to delineate functional brain connections relevant for disease progression and diagnostic accuracy. We used two-center resting state fMRI data of 20 AD patients (65.1±8.0 years), 12 bvFTD patients (64.7±5.4 years), and 22 control subjects (63.8±5.0 years) at baseline and 1.8-year follow-up. We used whole-network and voxel-based network-to-region analyses to study group differences in functional connectivity at baseline and follow-up, and longitudinal changes in connectivity within and between groups. At baseline, connectivity between paracingulate gyrus and executive control network, between cuneal cortex and medial visual network, and between paracingulate gyrus and salience network was higher in AD compared with controls. These differences were also present after 1.8 years. At follow-up, connectivity between angular gyrus and right frontoparietal network, and between paracingulate gyrus and default mode network was lower in bvFTD compared with controls, and lower compared with AD between anterior cingulate gyrus and executive control network, and between lateral occipital cortex and medial visual network. Over time, connectivity decreased in AD between precuneus and right frontoparietal network and in bvFTD between inferior frontal gyrus and left frontoparietal network. Longitudinal changes in connectivity between supramarginal gyrus and right frontoparietal network differ between both patient groups and controls. We found disease-specific brain regions with longitudinal connectivity changes. This suggests the potential of longitudinal resting state fMRI to delineate regions relevant for disease progression and for diagnostic accuracy, although no group differences in longitudinal changes in the direct comparison of AD and bvFTD were found.

  17. The potential effect of anatomic relationship between the femur and the tibia on medial meniscus tears.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat; Unlu, Serhan; Cay, Nurdan; Apaydin, Nihal; Dogan, Metin

    2014-10-01

    The anatomic and the kinematical relationships between the femur and the tibia have been previously examined in both normal and diseased knees. However, less attention has been directed to the effect of these relationships on the meniscal diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of femorotibial incongruence on both lateral and medial meniscal tears. A total of 100 images obtained from MRI of 100 patients (39 males and 61 females) were included in the study. Diameters of the medial and the lateral femoral condyles, thicknesses of the menisci, and diameters of the medial and the lateral tibial articular surfaces were measured. The medial meniscus tear was detected in 40 (40 %) patients. However, no lateral meniscus tear was found. Significant relationships were found between the diameters of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial superior articular surface and between the diameters of the posterior lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial superior articular surface. The mean values for the diameter of the medial condyle of the femur, the lateral condyle of the femur, the medial superior articular surface of the tibia, and the lateral superior articular surface of the tibia were found to be significantly higher in cases with meniscus tear compared to cases without meniscus tear. However, no significant difference was present regarding the thicknesses of the medial and the lateral menisci. A positive relationship between the diameter of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the tibial medial superior articular surface was found in cases with (n = 40) (r (2) = 0.208, p = 0.003) and without tear (n = 60) (r (2) = 0.182, p = 0.001). In addition, a significant positive relationship was found between the diameter of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial superior articular surface in cases with and without tear. The impact of femorotibial incongruence on the medial meniscus tear is important for

  18. Symptomatic Bilateral Torn Discoid Medial Meniscus Treated with Saucerization and Suture

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Discoid meniscus is an anatomical congenital anomaly more often found in the lateral meniscus. A discoid medial meniscus is a very rare anomaly, and even more rare is to diagnose a bilateral discoid medial meniscus although the real prevalence of this situation is unknown because not all the discoid medial menisci are symptomatic and if the contralateral knee is not symptomatic then it is not usually studied. The standard treatment of this kind of pathology is partial meniscectomy. Currently the tendency is to be very conservative so suture and saucerization of a torn discoid meniscus when possible are gaining support. We present the case of a 13-year-old patient who was diagnosed with symptomatic torn bilateral discoid medial meniscus treated by suturing the tear and saucerization. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case reported of bilateral torn discoid medial meniscus treated in this manner in the same patient. PMID:27656305

  19. Common medial frontal mechanisms of adaptive control in humans and rodents

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Michael J.; Laubach, Mark

    2013-01-01

    In this report, we describe how common brain networks within the medial frontal cortex facilitate adaptive behavioral control in rodents and humans. We demonstrate that low frequency oscillations below 12 Hz are dramatically modulated after errors in humans over mid-frontal cortex and in rats within prelimbic and anterior cingulate regions of medial frontal cortex. These oscillations were phase-locked between medial frontal cortex and motor areas in both rats and humans. In rats, single neurons that encoded prior behavioral outcomes were phase-coherent with low-frequency field oscillations particularly after errors. Inactivating medial frontal regions in rats led to impaired behavioral adjustments after errors, eliminated the differential expression of low frequency oscillations after errors, and increased low-frequency spike-field coupling within motor cortex. Our results describe a novel mechanism for behavioral adaptation via low-frequency oscillations and elucidate how medial frontal networks synchronize brain activity to guide performance. PMID:24141310

  20. Medial Meniscus Root Tear in the Middle Aged Patient: A Case Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Carreau, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Biomechanical studies have shown that medial meniscal root tears result in meniscal extrusion and increased tibiofemoral joint contact pressures, which can accelerate the progression of arthritis. Repair is generally recommended for acute injuries in the young, active patient population. The far more common presentation however, is a subacute root tear with medial meniscal extrusion in a middle aged patient. Coexisting arthritis is common in this population and complicates decision making. Treatment should be based on the severity of the underlying arthritis. In cases of early or minimal arthritis, root repair is ideal to improve symptoms and restore meniscal function. In patients with moderate or severe medial compartment arthritis, medial unloader bracing or injections can be tried initially. When non-operative treatment fails, high tibial osteotomy or arthroplasty is recommended. Long term clinical studies are needed to determine the natural history of medial meniscal root tears in middle aged patients and the best surgical option. PMID:28852346

  1. Phonatory Effects of Type I Thyroplasty Implant Shape and Depth of Medialization in Unilateral Vocal Fold Paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Orestes, Michael I.; Neubauer, Juergen; Sofer, Elazar; Salinas, Jonathon; Chhetri, Dinesh K.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Medialization thyroplasty (MT) is commonly used to treat glottic insufficiency. In this study, we investigated the phonatory effects of MT implant medialization depth and medial surface shape. Methods Recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) and vagal paralysis were simulated in an in vivo canine. A type 1 MT was performed using a silicone elastomer implant with variable medialization depths and medial surface shapes: rectangular, V-shaped, divergent, and convergent. The effects on phonation onset flow/pressure relationships and acoustics were measured. Results Increasing depth of medialization led to improvements in fundamental frequency (F0) range and normalization of the slope of pressure/flow relationship toward baseline activation conditions. The effects of implant medial shape also depended on depth of medialization. Outcome measures were similar among the implants at smaller medialization depths. With large medialization depths and vagal paralysis conditions, the divergent implant maintained pressure/flow relationship closer to baseline. The vagal paralysis conditions also demonstrated decreased fundamental frequency range and worse flow/pressure relationship compared to RLN paralysis. Conclusions The depth and medial shape of a medialization laryngoplasty (ML) implant significantly affect both the F0 range and aerodynamic power required for phonation. These effects become more notable with increasing depth of medialization. The study also illustrates that ML is less effective in vagal paralysis compared to RLN paralysis. PMID:25046146

  2. Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex Volumes Differ in Maltreated Youth with and without Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    PubMed

    Morey, Rajendra A; Haswell, Courtney C; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is considered a disorder of recovery where individuals fail to learn and retain extinction of the traumatic fear response. In maltreated youth, PTSD is common, chronic, and associated with comorbidity. Studies of extinction-related structural volumes (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)) and this stress diathesis, in maltreated youth were not previously investigated. In this cross-sectional study, neuroanatomical volumes associated with extinction in maltreated youth with PTSD (N=31), without PTSD (N=32), and in non-maltreated healthy volunteers (n=57) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Groups were sociodemographically similar. Participants underwent extensive assessments for strict inclusion/exclusion criteria and DSM-IV disorders. Maltreated youth with PTSD demonstrated decreased right vmPFC volumes compared with both maltreated youth without PTSD and non-maltreated controls. Maltreated youth without PTSD demonstrated larger left amygdala and right hippocampal volumes compared with maltreated youth with PTSD and non-maltreated control youth. PTSD symptoms inversely correlated with right and left hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Confirmatory masked voxel base morphometry analyses demonstrated greater medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter intensity in controls than maltreated youth with PTSD. Volumetric results were not influenced by psychopathology or maltreatment variables. We identified volumetric differences in extinction-related structures between maltreated youth with PTSD from those without PTSD. Alterations of the vmPFC may be one mechanism that mediates the pathway from PTSD to comorbidity. Further longitudinal work is needed to determine neurobiological factors related to chronic and persistent PTSD, and to PTSD resilience despite maltreatment.

  3. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda M.; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children. PMID:27861523

  4. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening.

    PubMed

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children.

  5. [Diagnostic significance of "bay sign" of medial meniscus under arthroscope in medial collateral ligament rupture of knee].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wentao; Zhang, Xintao; Huang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    When knee medial collateral ligament (MCL) rupture, the upper surface of medial meniscus is exposed totally, like the gulf panoramic, which is called "panoramic views of the bay sign" or the "bay sign". To investigate the reliability and significance of the "bay sign" in diagnosis of knee MCL rupture under arthroscope. Between March 2007 and March 2011, 127 patients with knees injuries were divided into the observation group (n = 59) and control group (n = 68) based on the MRI results. In the observation group, 59 patients had MCL rupture by MRI, including 12 cases of MCL injury alone, 16 cases of MCL injury with lateral meniscus torn, 27 cases of MCL injury with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, 3 cases of MCL injury with ACL and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury, and 1 case of MCL injury with patellar dislocation; there were 38 males and 21 females with an average age of 23.2 years (range, 16-39 years). In the control group, 68 patients had no MCL rupture by MRI, including 38 cases of ACL injury, 4 cases of ACL and PCL injury, and 26 cases of ACL and lateral meniscus injury; there were 45 males and 23 females with an average age of 31.8 years (range, 25-49 years). The "bay sign" was observed under arthroscope in 2 groups before and after operation. The positive "bay sign" was seen under arthroscope in the patients of the observation group before MCL repair; the "bay sign" disappeared after repair. No "bay sign" was seen in patients of the control group before and after ACL reconstruction. The "bay sign" is a reliable diagnostic evidence of MCL injury. It can be used as a basis to judge the success of MCL reconstruction during operation.

  6. Effect of total-contact orthosis on medial longitudinal arch and lower extremities in flexible flatfoot subjects during walking.

    PubMed

    Prachgosin, Tulaya; Leelasamran, Wipawan; Smithmaitrie, Pruittikorn; Chatpun, Surapong

    2017-12-01

    Total-contact orthosis (TCO) is one kind of foot orthosis (FO) that is used to adjust biomechanics in flexible flatfoot. To determine the effects of a TCO on the MLA moment, MLA deformation angle and lower limb biomechanics. Cross-sectional study. Seven-flatfoot and thirteen-normal foot subjects were recruited by footprint and radiographs. The biomechanics of subjects with normal foot (NF), flatfoot with shoe only (FWOT) and flatfoot with TCO (FWT) were collected in a 3D motion analysis laboratory and force plates. The MLA and lower limb biomechanics in each condition during specific sub-phases of stance were analyzed. The NF had larger MLA eversion moment after shod walking ( p = 0.001). The FWT condition compared with the FWOT condition had a significantly larger peak MLA upward moment ( p = 0.035) during pre-swing, larger peak knee external rotation angle ( p = 0.040) during mid stance, smaller peak knee extension moment during terminal stance ( p = 0.035) and a larger ground reaction force in the anterior-posterior direction during early stance ( p < 0.05). Our study found positive effects from the customized TCOs which included an increased TCO angle that led to a decreased peak MLA moment in the frontal plane in flexible flatfoot subjects during walking. Clinical relevance Lower limb biomechanics is different from normal in subjects with flexible flatfoot. The design of a TCO affects MLA, ankle and knee biomechanics and may be used to clinically correct biomechanical changes in flexible flatfoot.

  7. Characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus in male junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mikio; Takahara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Takagi, Michiaki

    2014-10-01

    Although medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus is a reported elbow injury in junior tennis players, there have been only a few studies on this entity, and none have investigated the characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Forty-one male junior tennis players, aged 11 to 14 years (mean, 13 years), underwent elbow examination by ultrasonography. Elbow re-examination was performed in subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation at an average of 20 months (12-30 months) after the initial examination. On examination, 9 subjects (22%) had elbow pain. Ultrasonography showed that 6 subjects (15%) had medial epicondylar fragmentation, all of whom had elbow pain. Medial epicondylar fragmentation was present in 5 (38%) of 13 subjects aged 11 to 12 years and in 1 (4%) of 28 aged 13 to 14 years. More subjects aged 11 to 12 years had medial epicondylar fragmentation (P = .0084). All 6 subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, although ultrasonography showed that 5 developed bone union and 1 had nonunion, 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Our results demonstrated that subjects aged 11 to 12 years had a high frequency (38%) of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Although medial epicondylar fragmentation was the main cause of elbow pain (67%) at the initial elbow examination, all 6 players with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, 5 subjects presented spontaneous bone union (83%), but 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Transcaruncular Approach for Treatment of Medial Wall and Large Orbital Blowout Fractures.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dennis C; Shahzad, Farooq; Snyder-Warwick, Alison; Patel, Kamlesh B; Woo, Albert S

    2016-03-01

    We evaluate the safety and efficacy of the transcaruncular approach for reconstruction of medial orbital wall fractures and the combined transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach for reconstruction of large orbital defects involving the medial wall and floor. A retrospective review of the clinical and radiographic data of patients who underwent either a transcaruncular or a combined transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach by a single surgeon for orbital fractures between June 2007 and June 2013 was undertaken. Seven patients with isolated medial wall fractures underwent a transcaruncular approach, and nine patients with combined medial wall and floor fractures underwent a transcaruncular-transconjunctival approach with a lateral canthotomy. Reconstruction was performed using a porous polyethylene implant. All patients with isolated medial wall fractures presented with enophthalmos. In the combined medial wall and floor group, five out of eight patients had enophthalmos with two also demonstrating hypoglobus. The size of the medial wall defect on preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan ranged from 2.6 to 4.6 cm(2); the defect size of combined medial wall and floor fractures was 4.5 to 12.7 cm(2). Of the 11 patients in whom postoperative CT scans were obtained, all were noted to have acceptable placement of the implant. All patients had correction of enophthalmos and hypoglobus. One complication was noted, with a retrobulbar hematoma having developed 2 days postoperatively. The transcaruncular approach is a safe and effective method for reconstruction of medial orbital floor fractures. Even large fractures involving the orbital medial wall and floor can be adequately exposed and reconstructed with a combined transcaruncular-transconjunctival-lateral canthotomy approach. The level of evidence of this study is IV (case series with pre/posttest).

  9. A Systematic Review of Clinical Functional Outcomes After Medial Stabilized Versus Non-Medial Stabilized Total Knee Joint Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Young, Tony; Dowsey, Michelle M.; Pandy, Marcus; Choong, Peter F.

    2018-01-01

    Background Medial stabilized total knee joint replacement (TKJR) construct is designed to closely replicate the kinematics of the knee. Little is known regarding comparison of clinical functional outcomes of patients utilising validated patient reported outcome measures (PROM) after medial stabilized TKJR and other construct designs. Purpose To perform a systematic review of the available literature related to the assessment of clinical functional outcomes following a TKJR employing a medial stabilized construct design. Methods The review was performed with a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) algorithm. The literature search was performed using variouscombinations of keywords. The statistical analysis was completed using Review Manager (RevMan), Version 5.3. Results In the nineteen unique studies identified, there were 2,448 medial stabilized TKJRs implanted in 2,195 participants, there were 1,777 TKJRs with non-medial stabilized design constructs implanted in 1,734 subjects. The final mean Knee Society Score (KSS) value in the medial stabilized group was 89.92 compared to 90.76 in the non-medial stabilized group, with the final KSS mean value difference between the two groups was statistically significant and favored the non-medial stabilized group (SMD 0.21; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.41; p = 004). The mean difference in the final WOMAC values between the two groups was also statistically significant and favored the medial stabilized group (SMD: −0.27; 95% CI: −0.47 to −0.07; p = 0.009). Moderate to high values (I2) of heterogeneity were observed during the statistical comparison of these functional outcomes. Conclusion Based on the small number of studies with appropriate statistical analysis, we are unable to reach a clear conclusion in the clinical performance of medial stabilized knee replacement construct. Level of Evidence Level II PMID:29696144

  10. Etiology and Treatment of Delayed-Onset Medial Malleolar Pain Following Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Gregory A; Dunaway, Linda J

    2016-08-01

    Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) has become a successful treatment for end-stage ankle arthritis. Some patients may still have pain or may present with new pain. Suggested sources of medial pain include tibialis posterior tendonitis, impingement, or medial malleolar stress fracture. Etiology and treatment remain unclear. The objective of our study was to evaluate patients with delayed-onset medial malleolar pain following TAA who underwent treatment with percutaneous medial malleolar screw placement and propose an etiology. Patients who had undergone TAA at our institution were reviewed and those with medial malleolar pain were identified. Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed pre- and postoperatively. Radiographs were compared with those from a cohort of controls without a history of medial pain. All affected patients failed conservative therapy and were treated with percutaneous placement of medial malleolar screws positioned from the malleolar tip and extending proximally beyond the tibial component. Postoperatively, patients were placed in an ace wrap and allowed to be weightbearing to tolerance, except for 1 patient initially restricted to partial weightbearing. Visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded. Seventy-four (74) patients underwent TAA by the corresponding author. All (100%) were female with an average age of 66 (range, 57-73) years. Average follow-up since screw placement was 21.4 (range, 10-41) months. Six (8.1%) underwent placement of 2 percutaneous medial malleolar screws. Patients presented with pain an average of 12 (range, 4-24) months postoperatively and underwent screw placement an average of 2.8 (range, 1-6) months after presentation. At the time of TAA, none had a coronal plane deformity and none underwent a deltoid ligament release as part of balancing. All (100%) patients had pain and swelling directly over the medial malleolus prior to screw placement. Postoperatively, 1 (17%) had mild pain clinically at this site and

  11. The percutaneous pie-crusting medial release during arthroscopic procedures of the medial meniscus does neither affect valgus laxity nor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang-Woo; Jung, Min; Chun, Yong-Min; Lee, Su-Keon; Jung, Woo Seok; Choi, Chong Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Jae; Kim, Sung-Hwan

    2017-12-28

    To analyze the effect of percutaneous pie-crusting medial release on valgus laxity before and after surgery and on clinical outcomes. Eight-hundred fourteen consecutive patients who underwent an arthroscopic procedure for the medial compartment of the knee were evaluated retrospectively. Sex, age, type of operation (meniscectomy, meniscal repair, and posterior root repair), type of accompanying surgery (none, cartilage procedure, ligament procedure and osteotomy) were documented. Sixty-four patients who underwent percutaneous pie-crusting medial release (release group) and 64 who did not undergo medial release (non-release group) were matched using the propensity score method. Each patient was evaluated for the following variables: degree of valgus laxity on stress radiographs, Lysholm knee score, visual analog scale score, and International Knee Documentation Committee knee score and grade. At the 24-month follow-up, no significant increase in side-to-side differences in the valgus gap was observed in comparison to the preoperative value in the release group [preoperative, - 0.1 ± 1.3 mm; follow-up, - 0.1 ± 1.4 mm; (n.s.)]. The follow-up Lysholm score, visual analog scale score and International Knee Documentation Committee knee score and grade were similar between the two groups. Percutaneous pie-crusting medial release is an additional procedure that can be performed during arthroscopic surgery for patients with a narrow medial joint space of the knee. Percutaneous pie-crusting medial release reduces iatrogenic injury to the cartilage and does not produce any residual valgus laxity of the knee. IV.

  12. Risk factors for medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byoung-Yoon; Kim, Sung-Jae; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Ha-Eun; Lee, Choon-Key; Hunter, David J; Jung, Kwang-Am

    2012-07-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT) have a different clinical effect from other types of meniscal tears. These tears are very common among Asian people and may be related to the frequent use of postures such as the lotus position or squatting. The present study was designed to identify the risk factors for MMPRT among an Asian sample. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. An observational study was performed of 476 consecutive patients undergoing an arthroscopic procedure on their medial meniscus from January 2010 to December 2010. One hundred four patients had MMPRT (group 1), and the other patients had other types of medial meniscal tears (group 2). Demographic characteristics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), radiographic features (mechanical axis angle, tibia vara angle, tibial slope angle, Kellgren-Lawrence grade [KLG]), and environmental factors (occupation, trauma history, sports activity level, table use or not, bed use or not-variables that are representative of the oriental lifestyle of lotus position and squatting) were surveyed. We assessed the relation of these risk factors to the type of meniscal tear (group 1 or 2). In group 1, there were 7 male and 97 female patients, with an average age of 58.2 years (range, 39-78 years) and BMI of 26.7 ± 3.4 kg/m2. In group 2, there were 136 male and 236 female patients (P < .01 compared with group 1), with an average age of 54.3 years (range, 17-77 years; P < .01) and a BMI of 24.9 ± 3.1 kg/m2 (P < .01). With regard to radiographic features, the mechanical axis angle demonstrated a significantly increased varus alignment in group 1 (4.5° ± 3.4°) compared with group 2 (2.4° ± 2.7°; P < .01), and the KLG was 1.4 ± 0.8 in group 1 and 0.9 ± 0.6 in group 2 (P < .01). Environmental factors showed no differences in occupation, table use or not, and bed use or not, except sports activity level. There were 41 patients (42.7%) in group 1 and 77 patients (20.6%) in group 2 who did not participate in any

  13. Does medial tenderness predict deep deltoid ligament incompetence in supination-external rotation type ankle fractures?

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Nicola A; Eskander, Mark S; French, Bruce G

    2007-04-01

    To identify whether medial tenderness is a predictor of deep deltoid ligament incompetence in supination-external rotation ankle fractures. All Weber B lateral malleolar fractures with normal medial clear space over a 9 month period were prospectively included in the study. Fracture patterns not consistent with a supination-external rotation mechanism were excluded. High-volume tertiary care referral center and Level I trauma center. Fifty-five skeletally mature patients with a Weber B lateral malleolar fracture and normal medial clear space presenting to our institution were included. All study patients had ankle anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise radiographs. Each patient was seen and evaluated by an orthopedic specialist and the mechanism of injury was recorded. Each patient was assessed for tenderness to palpation in the region of the deltoid ligament and then had an external rotation stress mortise radiograph. Correlating medial tenderness with deep deltoid competence as measured by stress radiographs. Thirteen patients (23.6%) were tender medially and had a positive external rotation stress radiograph. Thirteen patients (23.6%) were tender medially and had a negative external rotation stress radiograph. Nineteen patients (34.5%) were nontender medially and had a negative external rotation stress radiograph. Ten patients (18.2%) were nontender medially and had a positive external rotation stress radiograph. We calculated a chi statistic of 2.37 as well as the associated P value of 0.12. Medial tenderness as a measure of deep deltoid ligament incompetence had a sensitivity of 57%, a specificity of 59%, a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 66%, and an accuracy of 42%. There was no statistical significance between the presence of medial tenderness and deep deltoid ligament incompetence. There is a 25% chance of the fracture in question with medial tenderness having a positive external rotation stress and a 25% chance the fracture

  14. Lateral trunk lean and medializing the knee as gait strategies for knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gerbrands, T A; Pisters, M F; Theeven, P J R; Verschueren, S; Vanwanseele, B

    2017-01-01

    To determine (1) if Medial Thrust or Trunk Lean reduces the knee adduction moment (EKAM) the most during gait in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis, (2) if the best overall strategy is the most effective for each patient and (3) if these strategies affect ankle and hip kinetics. Thirty patients with symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis underwent 3-dimensional gait analysis. Participants received verbal instructions on two gait strategies (Trunk Lean and Medial Thrust) in randomized order after comfortable walking was recorded. The peaks and impulse of the EKAM and strategy-specific kinematic and kinetic variables were calculated for all conditions. Early stance EKAM peak was significantly reduced during Medial Thrust (-29%). During Trunk Lean, early and late stance EKAM peak and EKAM impulse reduced significantly (38%, 21% and -25%, respectively). In 79% of the subjects, the Trunk Lean condition was significantly more effective in reducing EKAM peak than Medial Thrust. Peak ankle dorsi and plantar flexion, knee flexion and hip extension and adduction moments were not significantly increased. Medial Thrust and Trunk Lean reduced the EKAM during gait in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Individual selection of the most effective gait modification strategy seems vital to optimally reduce dynamic knee loading during gait. No detrimental effects on external ankle and hip moments or knee flexion moments were found for these conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of the medial or basolateral amygdala upon social anxiety and social recognition in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhao, Shanshan; Liu, Xu; Fu, Qunying

    2014-01-01

    Though social anxiety and social recognition have been studied extensively, the roles of the medial or basolateral amygdala in the control of social anxiety and social recognition remain to be determined. This study investigated the effects of excitotoxic bilateral medial or basolateral amygdala lesions upon social anxiety and social recognition in-mice. Animals at 9 weeks of age were given bilateral medial or basolateral amygdala lesions via infusion of N-methyl- D-aspartate and then were used for behavioral tests: anxiety-related tests (including open-field test, light-dark test, and elevated-plus maze test), social behavior test in a novel environment, social recognition test, and flavor recognition test. Medial or basolateral amygdala-lesioned mice showed lower levels of anxiety and increased social behaviors in a novel environment. Destruction of the medial or basolateral amygdala neurons impaired social recognition but not flavor recognition. The medial or basolateral amygdala is involved in the control of anxiety-related behavior (social anxiety and social behaviors) in mice. Moreover, both the medial and the basolateral amygdala are essential for social recognition but not flavor recognition in mice.

  16. A clinical evaluation of alternative fixation techniques for medial malleolus fractures.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Hayley; Cannada, Lisa K; Watson, J Tracy

    2014-09-01

    Medial malleolus fractures have traditionally been managed using partially threaded screws and/or Kirschner wire fixation. Using these conventional techniques, a non-union rate of as high as 20% has been reported. In addition too many patients complaining of prominent hardware as a source of pain post-fixation. This study was designed to assess the outcomes of medial malleolar fixation using a headless compression screw in terms of union rate, the need for hardware removal, and pain over the hardware site. Saint Louis University and Mercy Medical Center, Level 1 Trauma Centers, St. Louis, MO. After IRB approval, we used billing records to identify all patients with ankle fractures involving the medial malleolus. Medical records and radiographs were reviewed to identify patients with medial malleolar fractures treated with headless compression screw fixation. Our inclusion criteria included follow-up until full weight bearing and a healed fracture. Follow-up clinical records and radiographs were reviewed to determine union, complication rate and perception of pain over the site of medial malleolus fixation. Sixty-four ankles were fixed via headless compression screws and 44 had adequate follow-up for additional evaluation. Seven patients had isolated medial malleolar fractures, 23 patients had bimalleolar fractures, and 14 patients had trimalleolar fractures. One patient (2%) required hardware removal due to cellulitis. One patient (2%) had a delayed union, which healed without additional intervention. Ten patients (23%) reported mild discomfort to palpation over the medial malleolus. The median follow-up was 35 weeks (range: 12-208 weeks). There were no screw removals for painful hardware and no cases of non-union. Headless compression screws provide effective compression of medial malleolus fractures and result in good clinical outcomes. The headless compression screw is a beneficial alternative to the conventional methods of medial malleolus fixation. Copyright

  17. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players.

    PubMed

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo'er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  18. The Role of Medial Frontal Cortex in Action Anticipation in Professional Badminton Players

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huan; Wang, Pin; Ye, Zhuo’er; Di, Xin; Xu, Guiping; Mo, Lei; Lin, Huiyan; Rao, Hengyi; Jin, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Some studies show that the medial frontal cortex is associated with more skilled action anticipation, while similar findings are not observed in some other studies, possibly due to the stimuli employed and the participants used as the control group. In addition, no studies have investigated whether there is any functional connectivity between the medial frontal cortex and other brain regions in more skilled action anticipation. Therefore, the present study aimed to re-investigate how the medial frontal cortex is involved in more skilled action anticipation by circumventing the limitations of previous research and to investigate that the medial frontal cortex functionally connected with other brain regions involved in action processing in more skilled action anticipation. To this end, professional badminton players and novices were asked to anticipate the landing position of the shuttlecock while watching badminton match videos or to judge the gender of the players in the matches. The video clips ended right at the point that the shuttlecock and the racket came into contact to reduce the effect of information about the trajectory of the shuttlecock. Novices who lacked training and watching experience were recruited for the control group to reduce the effect of sport-related experience on the medial frontal cortex. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed by means of functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to novices, badminton players exhibited stronger activation in the left medial frontal cortex during action anticipation and greater functional connectivity between left medial frontal cortex and some other brain regions (e.g., right posterior cingulate cortex). Therefore, the present study supports the position that the medial frontal cortex plays a role in more skilled action anticipation and that there is a specific brain network for more skilled action anticipation that involves right posterior cingulate cortex, right fusiform gyrus

  19. The "moving valgus stress test" for medial collateral ligament tears of the elbow.

    PubMed

    O'Driscoll, Shawn W M; Lawton, Richard L; Smith, Adam M

    2005-02-01

    The diagnosis of a painful partial tear of the medial collateral ligament in overhead-throwing athletes is challenging, even for experienced elbow surgeons and despite the use of sophisticated imaging techniques. The "moving valgus stress test" is an accurate physical examination technique for diagnosis of medial collateral ligament attenuation in the elbow. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Twenty-one patients underwent surgical intervention for medial elbow pain due to medial collateral ligament insufficiency or other abnormality of chronic valgus overload, and they were assessed preoperatively with an examination called the moving valgus stress test. To perform the moving valgus stress test, the examiner applies and maintains a constant moderate valgus torque to the fully flexed elbow and then quickly extends the elbow. The test is positive if the medial elbow pain is reproduced at the medial collateral ligament and is at maximum between 120 degrees and 70 degrees. The moving valgus stress test was highly sensitive (100%, 17 of 17 patients) and specific (75%, 3 of 4 patients) when compared to assessment of the medial collateral ligament by surgical exploration or arthroscopic valgus stress testing. The mean shear range (ie, the arc within which pain was produced with the moving valgus stress test) was 120 degrees to 70 degrees. The mean angle at which pain was at a maximum was 90 degrees of elbow flexion. The moving valgus stress test is an accurate physical examination technique that, when performed and interpreted correctly, is highly sensitive for medial elbow pain arising from the medial collateral ligament.

  20. Correlation between the knee adduction torque and medial contact force for a variety of gait patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong; Banks, Scott A; Mitchell, Kim H; D'Lima, Darryl D; Colwell, Clifford W; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2007-06-01

    The external knee adduction torque has been proposed as a surrogate measure for medial compartment load during gait. However, a direct link between these two quantities has not been demonstrated using in vivo measurement of medial compartment load. This study uses in vivo data collected from a single subject with an instrumented knee implant to evaluate this link. The subject performed five different overground gait motions (normal, fast, slow, wide, and toe-out) with simultaneous collection of instrumented implant, video motion, and ground reaction data. For each trial, the knee adduction torque was measured externally while the total axial force applied to the tibial insert was measured internally. Based on data collected from the same subject performing treadmill gait under fluoroscopic motion analysis, a regression equation was developed to calculate medial contact force from the implant load cell measurements. Correlation analyses were performed for the stance phase and entire gait cycle to quantify the relationship between the knee adduction torque and both the medial contact force and the medial to total contact force ratio. When the entire gait cycle was analyzed, R(2) for medial contact force was 0.77 when all gait trials were analyzed together and between 0.69 and 0.93 when each gait trial was analyzed separately (p < 0.001 in all cases). For medial to total force ratio, R(2) was 0.69 for all trials together and between 0.54 and 0.90 for each trial separately (p < 0.001 in all cases). When only the stance phase was analyzed, R(2) values were slightly lower. These results support the hypothesis that the knee adduction torque is highly correlated with medial compartment contact force and medial to total force ratio during gait. (c) 2007 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Decreased knee adduction moment does not guarantee decreased medial contact force during gait.

    PubMed

    Walter, Jonathan P; D'Lima, Darryl D; Colwell, Clifford W; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2010-10-01

    Excessive contact force is believed to contribute to the development of medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. The external knee adduction moment (KAM) has been identified as a surrogate measure for medial contact force during gait, with an abnormally large peak value being linked to increased pain and rate of disease progression. This study used in vivo gait data collected from a subject with a force-measuring knee implant to assess whether KAM decreases accurately predict corresponding decreases in medial contact force. Changes in both quantities generated via gait modification were analyzed statistically relative to the subject's normal gait. The two gait modifications were a "medial thrust" gait involving knee medialization during stance phase and a "walking pole" gait involving use of bilateral walking poles. Reductions in the first (largest) peak of the KAM (32-33%) did not correspond to reductions in the first peak of the medial contact force. In contrast, reductions in the second peak and angular impulse of the KAM (15-47%) corresponded to reductions in the second peak and impulse of the medial contact force (12-42%). Calculated reductions in both KAM peaks were highly sensitive to rotation of the shank reference frame about the superior-inferior axis of the shank. Both peaks of medial contact force were best predicted by a combination of peak values of the external KAM and peak absolute values of the external knee flexion moment (R(2) = 0.93). Future studies that evaluate the effectiveness of gait modifications for offloading the medial compartment of the knee should consider the combined effect of these two knee moments. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 28:1348-1354, 2010.

  2. Medial Prefrontal Cortex Reduces Memory Interference by Modifying Hippocampal Encoding

    PubMed Central

    Guise, Kevin G.; Shapiro, Matthew L.

    2017-01-01

    Summary The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is crucial for accurate memory performance when prior knowledge interferes with new learning, but the mechanisms that minimize proactive interference are unknown. To investigate these, we assessed the influence of medial PFC (mPFC) activity on spatial learning and hippocampal coding in a plus maze task that requires both structures. mPFC inactivation did not impair spatial learning or retrieval per se, but impaired the ability to follow changing spatial rules. mPFC and CA1 ensembles recorded simultaneously predicted goal choices and tracked changing rules; inactivating mPFC attenuated CA1 prospective coding. mPFC activity modified CA1 codes during learning, which in turn predicted how quickly rats adapted to subsequent rule changes. The results suggest that task rules signaled by the mPFC become incorporated into hippocampal representations and support prospective coding. By this mechanism, mPFC activity prevents interference by “teaching” the hippocampus to retrieve distinct representations of similar circumstances. PMID:28343868

  3. Theta synchronizes the activity of medial prefrontal neurons during learning

    PubMed Central

    Paz, Rony; Bauer, Elizabeth P.; Paré, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Memory consolidation is thought to involve the gradual transfer of transient hippocampal-dependent traces to distributed neocortical sites via the rhinal cortices. Recently, medial prefrontal (mPFC) neurons were shown to facilitate this process when their activity becomes synchronized. However, the mechanisms underlying this enhanced synchrony remain unclear. Because the hippocampus projects to the mPFC, we tested whether theta oscillations contribute to synchronize mPFC neurons during learning. Thus, we obtained field (LFP) and unit recordings from multiple mPFC sites during the acquisition of a trace-conditioning task, where a visual conditioned stimulus (CS) predicted reward delivery. In quiet waking, the activity of mPFC neurons was modulated by theta oscillations. During conditioning, CS presentation caused an increase in mPFC theta power that augmented as the CS gained predictive value for reward delivery. This increased theta power coincided with a transient theta phase locking at distributed mPFC sites, an effect that was also manifest in the timing of mPFC unit activity. Overall, these results show that theta oscillations contribute to synchronize neuronal activity at distributed mPFC sites, suggesting that the hippocampus, by generating a stronger theta source during learning, can synchronize mPFC activity, in turn facilitating rhinal transfer of its activity to the neocortex. PMID:18612069

  4. Outcomes of Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries during Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Marcelo B P; Haller, Kathryn; Mulder, Andrew; Goldblum, Andrew S; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative medial collateral ligament (MCL) disruption during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often managed with either primary repair or use of a constrained implant. A total of 23 patients with an MCL injury during TKA between 2003 and 2009 were compared with 92 matched controls. Of the 23 patients, 10 were treated with an unconstrained implant and primary MCL repair, 8 with constrained implants, 3 with constrained implants and MCL repair, and 2 with unconstrained implants and no MCL repair. After an average 5-year follow-up, patients had lower Knee Society Scores (KSS), 79 versus 87 (p = 0.03), but similar Knee Function Scores (KFS), 68 versus 72 (p = 0.35). The improvement between preoperative and postoperative KSS and KFS did not vary among the two groups (p = 0.88 and p = 0.77, respectively). Postoperative scores did not vary significantly among the four treatment modalities. Conservative treatment can provide satisfactory outcomes and avoid potential complications of increased constraint. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Intact implicit verbal relational memory in medial temporal lobe amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Verfaelllie, Mieke; LaRocque, Karen F.; Keane, Margaret M.

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the role of the hippocampus in unaware relational memory, the present study examined the performance of amnesic patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) lesions on a cued category-exemplar generation task. In contrast to a prior study in which amnesic patients showed impaired performance (Verfaellie et al., Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience, 2006, 6, 91–101), the current study employed a task that required active processing of the context word at test. In this version of the task, amnesic patients, like control participants, showed enhanced category exemplar priming when the context word associated with the target at study was reinstated at test. The finding of intact implicit memory for novel associations following hippocampal lesions in a task that requires flexible use of retrieval cues is inconsistent with a relational memory view that suggests that the hippocampus is critical for all forms of relational memory, regardless of awareness. Instead, it suggests that unaware memory for within-domain associations does not require MTL mediation. PMID:22609574

  6. Dopamine, the medial preoptic area, and male sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Juan M; Hull, Elaine M

    2005-10-15

    The medial preoptic area (MPOA), at the rostral end of the hypothalamus, is important for the regulation of male sexual behavior. Results showing that male sexual behavior is impaired following MPOA lesions and enhanced with MPOA stimulation support this conclusion. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) facilitates male sexual behavior in all studied species, including rodents and humans. Here, we review data indicating that the MPOA is one site where DA may act to regulate male sexual behavior. DA agonists microinjected into the MPOA facilitate sexual behavior, whereas DA antagonists impair copulation, genital reflexes, and sexual motivation. Moreover, microdialysis experiments showed increased release of DA in the MPOA as a result of precopulatory exposure to an estrous female and during copulation. DA may remove tonic inhibition in the MPOA, thereby enhancing sensorimotor integration, and also coordinate autonomic influences on genital reflexes. In addition to sensory stimulation, other factors influence the release of DA in the MPOA, including testosterone, nitric oxide, and glutamate. Here we summarize and interpret these data.

  7. Medial temporal lobe roles in human path integration.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W; Woods, Adam J; Gajewski, Daniel A; Arthur, Joeanna C; Potolicchio, Samuel J; Levy, Lucien; Caputy, Anthony J

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere) walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed.

  8. The medial olivocochlear reflex in children during active listening.

    PubMed

    Smith, Spencer B; Cone, Barbara

    2015-08-01

    To determine if active listening modulates the strength of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex in children. Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) were recorded from the right ear in quiet and in four test conditions: one with contralateral broadband noise (BBN) only, and three with active listening tasks wherein attention was directed to speech embedded in contralateral BBN. Fifteen typically-developing children (ranging in age from 8 to14 years) with normal hearing. CEOAE levels were reduced in every condition with contralateral acoustic stimulus (CAS) when compared to preceding quiet conditions. There was an additional systematic decrease in CEOAE level with increased listening task difficulty, although this effect was very small. These CEOAE level differences were most apparent in the 8-18 ms region after click onset. Active listening may change the strength of the MOC reflex in children, although the effects reported here are very subtle. Further studies are needed to verify that task difficulty modulates the activity of the MOC reflex in children.

  9. The medial olivocochlear reflex in children during active listening

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Spencer B.; Cone, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine if active listening modulates the strength of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) reflex in children. Design Click-evoked otoacoustic emissions (CEOAEs) were recorded from the right ear in quiet and in four test conditions: one with contralateral broadband noise (BBN) only, and three with active listening tasks wherein attention was directed to speech embedded in contralateral BBN. Study sample Fifteen typically-developing children (ranging in age from 8 to 14 years) with normal hearing. Results CEOAE levels were reduced in every condition with contralateral acoustic stimulus (CAS) when compared to preceding quiet conditions. There was an additional systematic decrease in CEOAE level with increased listening task difficulty, although this effect was very small. These CEOAE level differences were most apparent in the 8–18 ms region after click onset. Conclusions Active listening may change the strength of the MOC reflex in children, although the effects reported here are very subtle. Further studies are needed to verify that task difficulty modulates the activity of the MOC reflex in children. PMID:25735203

  10. Human Medial Frontal Cortex Mediates Unconscious Inhibition of Voluntary Action

    PubMed Central

    Sumner, Petroc; Nachev, Parashkev; Morris, Peter; Peters, Andrew M.; Jackson, Stephen R.; Kennard, Christopher; Husain, Masud

    2007-01-01

    Summary Within the medial frontal cortex, the supplementary eye field (SEF), supplementary motor area (SMA), and pre-SMA have been implicated in the control of voluntary action, especially during motor sequences or tasks involving rapid choices between competing response plans. However, the precise roles of these areas remain controversial. Here, we study two extremely rare patients with microlesions of the SEF and SMA to demonstrate that these areas are critically involved in unconscious and involuntary motor control. We employed masked-prime stimuli that evoked automatic inhibition in healthy people and control patients with lateral premotor or pre-SMA damage. In contrast, our SEF/SMA patients showed a complete reversal of the normal inhibitory effect—ocular or manual—corresponding to the functional subregion lesioned. These findings imply that the SEF and SMA mediate automatic effector-specific suppression of motor plans. This automatic mechanism may contribute to the participation of these areas in the voluntary control of action. PMID:17553420

  11. Medial Temporal Lobe Roles in Human Path Integration

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naohide; Philbeck, John W.; Woods, Adam J.; Gajewski, Daniel A.; Arthur, Joeanna C.; Potolicchio, Samuel J.; Levy, Lucien; Caputy, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Path integration is a process in which observers derive their location by integrating self-motion signals along their locomotion trajectory. Although the medial temporal lobe (MTL) is thought to take part in path integration, the scope of its role for path integration remains unclear. To address this issue, we administered a variety of tasks involving path integration and other related processes to a group of neurosurgical patients whose MTL was unilaterally resected as therapy for epilepsy. These patients were unimpaired relative to neurologically intact controls in many tasks that required integration of various kinds of sensory self-motion information. However, the same patients (especially those who had lesions in the right hemisphere) walked farther than the controls when attempting to walk without vision to a previewed target. Importantly, this task was unique in our test battery in that it allowed participants to form a mental representation of the target location and anticipate their upcoming walking trajectory before they began moving. Thus, these results put forth a new idea that the role of MTL structures for human path integration may stem from their participation in predicting the consequences of one's locomotor actions. The strengths of this new theoretical viewpoint are discussed. PMID:24802000

  12. Transient medial prefrontal perturbation reduces false memory formation.

    PubMed

    Berkers, Ruud M W J; van der Linden, Marieke; de Almeida, Rafael F; Müller, Nils C J; Bovy, Leonore; Dresler, Martin; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-03-01

    Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where the studying of words that fit a common semantic schema are found to induce false memories for words that are congruent with the given schema, but were not studied. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been ascribed the function of leveraging prior knowledge to influence encoding and retrieval, based on imaging and patient studies. Here, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to transiently perturb ongoing mPFC processing immediately before participants performed the DRM-task. We observed the predicted reduction in false recall of critical lures after mPFC perturbation, compared to two control groups, whereas veridical recall and recognition memory performance remained similar across groups. These data provide initial causal evidence for a role of the mPFC in biasing the assimilation of new memories and their consolidation as a function of prior knowledge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Single-cell recordings in the human medial temporal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Hernan G; Ison, Matias J; Pedreira, Carlos; Valentin, Antonio; Alarcon, Gonzalo; Selway, Richard; Richardson, Mark P; Quian Quiroga, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Recordings from individual neurons in patients who are implanted with depth electrodes for clinical reasons have opened the possibility to narrow down the gap between neurophysiological studies in animals and non-invasive (e.g. functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalogram, magnetoencephalography) investigations in humans. Here we provide a description of the main procedures for electrode implantation and recordings, the experimental paradigms used and the main steps for processing the data. We also present key characteristics of the so-called ‘concept cells’, neurons in the human medial temporal lobe with selective and invariant responses that represent the meaning of the stimulus, and discuss their proposed role in declarative memory. Finally, we present novel results dealing with the stability of the representation given by these neurons, by studying the effect of stimulus repetition in the strength of the responses. In particular, we show that, after an initial decay, the response strength reaches an asymptotic value after approximately 15 presentations that remains above baseline for the whole duration of the experiment. PMID:25163775

  14. Medial prefrontal cortex neuronal circuits in fear behavior.

    PubMed

    Courtin, J; Bienvenu, T C M; Einarsson, E Ö; Herry, C

    2013-06-14

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has emerged as a key structure involved in the modulation of fear behavior over the past few decades. Anatomical, functional and electrophysiological studies have begun to shed light on the precise mechanisms by which different prefrontal regions regulate the expression and inhibition of fear behavior. These studies have established a canonical view of mPFC functions during fear behavior with dorsal regions selectively involved in the expression of fear behavior and ventral regions linked to the inhibition of fear behavior. Although numerous reports support this view, recent data have refined this model and suggested that dorsal prefrontal regions might also play an important role in the encoding of fear behavior itself. The recent development of sophisticated approaches such as large scale neuronal recordings, simultaneous multisite recordings of spiking activity and local field potentials (LFPs) along with optogenetic approaches will facilitate the testing of these new hypotheses in the near future. Here we provide an extensive review of the literature on the role of mPFC in fear behavior and propose further directions to dissect the contribution of specific prefrontal neuronal elements and circuits in the regulation of fear behavior. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Visual working memory capacity and the medial temporal lobe.

    PubMed

    Jeneson, Annette; Wixted, John T; Hopkins, Ramona O; Squire, Larry R

    2012-03-07

    Patients with medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage are sometimes impaired at remembering visual information across delays as short as a few seconds. Such impairments could reflect either impaired visual working memory capacity or impaired long-term memory (because attention has been diverted or because working memory capacity has been exceeded). Using a standard change-detection task, we asked whether visual working memory capacity is intact or impaired after MTL damage. Five patients with hippocampal lesions and one patient with large MTL lesions saw an array of 1, 2, 3, 4, or 6 colored squares, followed after 3, 4, or 8 s by a second array where one of the colored squares was cued. The task was to decide whether the cued square had the same color as the corresponding square in the first array or a different color. At the 1 s delay typically used to assess working memory capacity, patients performed as well as controls at all array sizes. At the longer delays, patients performed as well as controls at small array sizes, thought to be within the capacity limit, and worse than controls at large array sizes, thought to exceed the capacity limit. The findings suggest that visual working memory capacity in humans is intact after damage to the MTL structures and that damage to these structures impairs performance only when visual working memory is insufficient to support performance.

  16. The Medial Ventrothalamic Circuitry: Cells Implicated in a Bimodal Network

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Zuniga, Tomas; Trost, Dominik; Schicker, Katrin; Bogner, Eva M.; Luksch, Harald

    2018-01-01

    Previous avian thalamic studies have shown that the medial ventral thalamus is composed of several nuclei located close to the lateral wall of the third ventricle. Although the general connectivity is known, detailed morphology and connectivity pattern in some regions are still elusive. Here, using the intracellular filling technique in the chicken, we focused on two neural structures, namely, the retinorecipient neuropil of the n. geniculatus lateralis pars ventralis (GLv), and the adjacent n. intercalatus thalami (ICT). We found that the GLv-ne cells showed two different neuronal types: projection cells and horizontal interneurons. The projection cells showed variable morphologies and dendritic arborizations with axons that targeted the n. lentiformis mesencephali (LM), griseum tectale (GT), ICT, n. principalis precommissuralis (PPC), and optic tectum (TeO). The horizontal cells showed a widespread mediolateral neural process throughout the retinorecipient GLv-ne. The ICT cells, on the other hand, had multipolar somata with wide dendritic fields that extended toward the lamina interna of the GLv, and a projection pattern that targeted the n. laminaris precommissuralis (LPC). Together, these results elucidate the rich complexity of the connectivity pattern so far described between the GLv, ICT, pretectum, and tectum. Interestingly, the implication of some of these neural structures in visuomotor and somatosensory roles strongly suggests that the GLv and ICT are part of a bimodal circuit that may be involved in the generation/modulation of saccades, gaze control, and space perception. PMID:29479309

  17. The Necessity of the Medial Temporal Lobe for Statistical Learning

    PubMed Central

    Schapiro, Anna C.; Gregory, Emma; Landau, Barbara; McCloskey, Michael; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.

    2014-01-01

    The sensory input that we experience is highly patterned, and we are experts at detecting these regularities. Although the extraction of such regularities, or statistical learning (SL), is typically viewed as a cortical process, recent studies have implicated the medial temporal lobe (MTL), including the hippocampus. These studies have employed fMRI, leaving open the possibility that the MTL is involved but not necessary for SL. Here, we examined this issue in a case study of LSJ, a patient with complete bilateral hippocampal loss and broader MTL damage. In Experiments 1 and 2, LSJ and matched control participants were passively exposed to a continuous sequence of shapes, syllables, scenes, or tones containing temporal regularities in the co-occurrence of items. In a subsequent test phase, the control groups exhibited reliable SL in all conditions, successfully discriminating regularities from recombinations of the same items into novel foil sequences. LSJ, however, exhibited no SL, failing to discriminate regularities from foils. Experiment 3 ruled out more general explanations for this failure, such as inattention during exposure or difficulty following test instructions, by showing that LSJ could discriminate which individual items had been exposed. These findings provide converging support for the importance of the MTL in extracting temporal regularities. PMID:24456393

  18. Medial prefrontal cortex subserves diverse forms of self-reflection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Adrianna C; Mitchell, Jason P

    2011-01-01

    The ability to think about oneself--to self--reflect--is one of the defining features of the human mind. Recent research has suggested that this ability may be subserved by a particular brain region: the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). However, although humans can contemplate a variety of different aspects of themselves, including their stable personality traits, current feelings, and physical attributes, no research has directly examined the extent to which these different forms of self-reflection are subserved by common mechanisms. To address this question, participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while making judgments about their own personality traits, current mental states, and physical attributes as well as those of another person. Whereas some brain regions responded preferentially during only one form of self-reflection, a robust region of MPFC was engaged preferentially during self-reflection across all three types of judgment. These results suggest that--although dissociable--diverse forms of self-referential thought draw on a shared cognitive process subserved by MPFC.

  19. Perceived ownership impacts reward evaluation within medial-frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Krigolson, Olave E; Hassall, Cameron D; Balcom, Lynsey; Turk, David

    2013-06-01

    Ownership is a powerful construct. Indeed, in a series of recent studies, perceived ownership has been shown to increase attentional capacity, facilitate a memorial advantage, and elicit positive attitudes. Here, we sought to determine whether self-relevance would bias reward evaluation systems within the brain. To accomplish this, we had participants complete a simple gambling task during which they could "win" or "lose" prizes for themselves or for someone else, while electroencephalographic data were recorded. Our results indicated that the amplitude of the feedback error-related negativity, a component of the event-related brain potential sensitive to reward evaluation, was diminished when participants were not gambling for themselves. Furthermore, our data suggest that the ownership cues that indicated who would win or lose a given gamble either were processed as a potential for an increase in utility (i.e., gain: self-gambles) or were processed in a nonutilitarian manner (other-gambles). Importantly, our results suggest that the medial-frontal reward system is sensitive to perceived ownership, to the extent that it may not process changes in utility when they are not directly relevant to self.

  20. Content Representation in the Human Medial Temporal Lobe

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jackson C.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    Current theories of medial temporal lobe (MTL) function focus on event content as an important organizational principle that differentiates MTL subregions. Perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices may play content-specific roles in memory, whereas hippocampal processing is alternately hypothesized to be content specific or content general. Despite anatomical evidence for content-specific MTL pathways, empirical data for content-based MTL subregional dissociations are mixed. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multiple statistical approaches to characterize MTL subregional responses to different classes of novel event content (faces, scenes, spoken words, sounds, visual words). Univariate analyses revealed that responses to novel faces and scenes were distributed across the anterior–posterior axis of MTL cortex, with face responses distributed more anteriorly than scene responses. Moreover, multivariate pattern analyses of perirhinal and parahippocampal data revealed spatially organized representational codes for multiple content classes, including nonpreferred visual and auditory stimuli. In contrast, anterior hippocampal responses were content general, with less accurate overall pattern classification relative to MTL cortex. Finally, posterior hippocampal activation patterns consistently discriminated scenes more accurately than other forms of content. Collectively, our findings indicate differential contributions of MTL subregions to event representation via a distributed code along the anterior–posterior axis of MTL that depends on the nature of event content. PMID:22275474

  1. Medial PFC Damage Abolishes the Self-reference Effect

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Duff, Melissa C.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel; Rudrauf, David

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the medial PFC (mPFC) is a key component of a large-scale neural system supporting a variety of self-related processes. However, it remains unknown whether the mPFC is critical for such processes. In this study, we used a human lesion approach to examine this question. We administered a standard trait judgment paradigm [Kelley, W. M., Macrae, C. N., Wyland, C. L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., & Heatherton, T. F. Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 785–794, 2002] to patients with focal brain damage to the mPFC. The self-reference effect (SRE), a memory advantage conferred by self-related processing, served as a measure of intact self-processing ability. We found that damage to the mPFC abolished the SRE. The results demonstrate that the mPFC is necessary for the SRE and suggest that this structure is important for self-referential processing and the neural representation of self. PMID:21942762

  2. Longitudinal Changes in White Matter Fractional Anisotropy in Adult-Onset Niemann-Pick Disease Type C Patients Treated with Miglustat.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Elizabeth A; Velakoulis, Dennis; Desmond, Patricia; Walterfang, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a rare neurometabolic disorder resulting in impaired intracellular lipid trafficking. The only disease-modifying treatment currently available is miglustat, an iminosugar that inhibits the accumulation of lipid metabolites in neurons and other cells. This longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study examined how the rate of white matter change differed between treated and non-treated adult-onset NPC patient groups. Nine adult-onset NPC patients (seven undergoing treatment with miglustat, two not treated) underwent DTI neuroimaging. Rates of change in white matter structure as indexed by Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) of fractional anisotropy were compared between treated and untreated patients. Treated patients were found to have a significantly slower rate of white matter change in the corticospinal tracts, the thalamic radiation and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. This is further evidence that miglustat treatment may have a protective effect on white matter structure in the adult-onset form of the disease.

  3. Benefit of cup medialization in total hip arthroplasty is associated with femoral anatomy.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Alexandre; Levrero Florencio, Francesc; Rüdiger, Hannes A

    2014-10-01

    Medialization of the cup with a respective increase in femoral offset has been proposed in THA to increase abductor moment arms. Insofar as there are potential disadvantages to cup medialization, it is important to ascertain whether the purported biomechanical benefits of cup medialization are large enough to warrant the downsides; to date, studies regarding this question have disagreed. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of cup medialization with a compensatory increase in femoral offset compared with anatomic reconstruction for patients undergoing THA. We tested the hypothesis that there is a (linear) correlation between preoperative anatomic parameters and muscle moment arm increase caused by cup medialization. Fifteen patients undergoing THA were selected, covering a typical range of preoperative femoral offsets. For each patient, a finite element model was built based on a preoperative CT scan. The model included the pelvis, femur, gluteus minimus, medius, and maximus. Two reconstructions were compared: (1) anatomic position of the acetabular center of rotation, and (2) cup medialization compensated by an increase in the femoral offset. Passive abduction-adduction and flexion-extension were simulated in the range of normal gait. Muscle moment arms were evaluated and correlated to preoperative femoral offset, acetabular offset, height of the greater trochanter (relative to femoral center of rotation), and femoral antetorsion angle. The increase of muscle moment arms caused by cup medialization varied among patients. Muscle moment arms increase by 10% to 85% of the amount of cup medialization for abduction-adduction and from -35% (decrease) to 50% for flexion-extension. The change in moment arm was inversely correlated (R(2) = 0.588, p = 0.001) to femoral antetorsion (anteversion), such that patients with less femoral antetorsion gained more in terms of hip muscle moments. No linear correlation was observed between changes in moment arm and

  4. Posterior medial meniscus-femoral insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A; Ferrari, D A

    1998-03-01

    Medial meniscal anomalies are rare. The anterior horn insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common. In the course of an arthroscopy for torn lateral meniscus, an anomalous band in continuity with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was observed to insert into the anterior cruciate ligament. Although the tibial portion of the anterior cruciate was redundant, the anomalous band provided tension to the anterior cruciate ligament and a negative pivot shift. A previously unreported posterior medial meniscal femoral insertion is described.

  5. Augmentation of the Pullout Repair of a Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear by Arthroscopic Centralization.

    PubMed

    Koga, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Toshifumi; Horie, Masafumi; Katagiri, Hiroki; Otabe, Koji; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Katakura, Mai; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    The meniscus roots are critical for meniscus function in preserving correct knee kinematics and avoiding meniscus extrusion and, consequently, in the progression of osteoarthritis. Several techniques exist for medial meniscus posterior root tear repair; however, current surgical techniques have been proved to fail to reduce meniscus extrusion, which has been shown to be associated with development of osteoarthritis, although significant improvements in the postoperative clinical findings have been achieved. This Technical Note describes an arthroscopic technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear in which a pullout repair is augmented by a centralization technique to restore and maintain the medial meniscus function by efficiently reducing meniscus extrusion.

  6. Lateral patellar retinaculum reconstruction for medial patellar instability following lateral retinacular release: a case report.

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Kazuhiko; Niki, Yasuo; Matsumoto, Hiroaki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Enomoto, Hiroyuki; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Suda, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Lateral retinacular release is still being performed in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation as an additional procedure with distal realignment or medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction. However, consensus remains lacking regarding suitable indications for lateral retinacular release. A 20-year-old woman presented with patellar instability in both medial and lateral directions after undergoing lateral retinacular release with MPFL reconstruction. She displayed inherent systemic joint laxity meeting all seven Carter-Wilkinson criteria. Simultaneous MPFL revision and lateral retinaculum reconstruction successfully improved patellar instability in both directions. This case provides an example of iatrogenic medial patellar instability after failed lateral retinacular release. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Diffusion Tensor Imaging Parameters in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Its Correlation with Early Neuropsychological Impairment: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Veeramuthu, Vigneswaran; Narayanan, Vairavan; Kuo, Tan Li; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Chinna, Karuthan; Bondi, Mark William; Waran, Vicknes; Ganesan, Dharmendra; Ramli, Norlisah

    2015-10-01

    We explored the prognostic value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters of selected white matter (WM) tracts in predicting neuropsychological outcome, both at baseline and 6 months later, among well-characterized patients diagnosed with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Sixty-one patients with mTBI (mean age=27.08; standard deviation [SD], 8.55) underwent scanning at an average of 10 h (SD, 4.26) post-trauma along with assessment of their neuropsychological performance at an average of 4.35 h (SD, 7.08) upon full Glasgow Coma Scale recovery. Results were then compared to 19 healthy control participants (mean age=29.05; SD, 5.84), both in the acute stage and 6 months post-trauma. DTI and neuropsychological measures between acute and chronic phases were compared, and significant differences emerged. Specifically, chronic-phase fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity values showed significant group differences in the corona radiata, anterior limb of internal capsule, cingulum, superior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, and genu of corpus callosum. Findings also demonstrated associations between DTI indices and neuropsychological outcome across two time points. Our results provide new evidence for the use of DTI as an imaging biomarker and indicator of WM damage occurring in the context of mTBI, and they underscore the dynamic nature of brain injury and possible biological basis of chronic neurocognitive alterations.

  8. Effects of active feedback gait retraining to produce a medial weight transfer at the foot in subjects with symptomatic medial knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Erhart-Hledik, Jennifer C; Asay, Jessica L; Clancy, Caitlin; Chu, Constance R; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to determine if active feedback gait retraining to produce a medial weight transfer at the foot significantly reduces the knee adduction moment in subjects with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Secondarily, changes in peak knee flexion moment, frontal plane knee and ankle kinematics, and center of pressure were investigated. Ten individuals with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (9 males; age: 65.3 ± 9.8 years; BMI: 27.8 ± 3.0 kg/m 2 ) were tested at self-selected normal and fast speeds in two conditions: Intervention, with an active feedback device attached to the shoe of their more affected leg, and control, with the device de-activated. Kinematics and kinetics were assessed using a motion capture system and force plate. The first peak, second peak, and impulse of the knee adduction moment were significantly reduced by 6.0%, 13.9%, and 9.2%, respectively, at normal speed, with reductions of 10.7% and 8.6% in first peak and impulse at fast speed, respectively, with the active feedback system, with no significant effect on the peak knee flexion moment. Significant reductions in peak varus knee angle and medialized center of pressure in the first half of stance were observed, with reductions in peak varus knee angle associated with reductions in the knee adduction moment. This study demonstrated that active feedback to produce a medial weight-bearing shift at the foot reduces the peaks and impulse of the knee adduction moment in patients with medial compartment knee osteoarthritis. Future research should determine the long-term effect of the active feedback intervention on joint loading, pain, and function. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2251-2259, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Longitudinal assessment of neuroanatomical and cognitive differences in young children with type 1 diabetes: association with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Mauras, Nelly; Mazaika, Paul; Buckingham, Bruce; Weinzimer, Stuart; White, Neil H; Tsalikian, Eva; Hershey, Tamara; Cato, Allison; Cheng, Peiyao; Kollman, Craig; Beck, Roy W; Ruedy, Katrina; Aye, Tandy; Fox, Larry; Arbelaez, Ana Maria; Wilson, Darrell; Tansey, Michael; Tamborlane, William; Peng, Daniel; Marzelli, Matthew; Winer, Karen K; Reiss, Allan L

    2015-05-01

    Significant regional differences in gray and white matter volume and subtle cognitive differences between young diabetic and nondiabetic children have been observed. Here, we assessed whether these differences change over time and the relation with dysglycemia. Children ages 4 to <10 years with (n = 144) and without (n = 72) type 1 diabetes (T1D) had high-resolution structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive tests at baseline and 18 months and continuous glucose monitoring and HbA1c performed quarterly for 18 months. There were no differences in cognitive and executive function scores between groups at 18 months. However, children with diabetes had slower total gray and white matter growth than control subjects. Gray matter regions (left precuneus, right temporal, frontal, and parietal lobes and right medial-frontal cortex) showed lesser growth in diabetes, as did white matter areas (splenium of the corpus callosum, bilateral superior-parietal lobe, bilateral anterior forceps, and inferior-frontal fasciculus). These changes were associated with higher cumulative hyperglycemia and glucose variability but not with hypoglycemia. Young children with T1D have significant differences in total and regional gray and white matter growth in brain regions involved in complex sensorimotor processing and cognition compared with age-matched control subjects over 18 months, suggesting that chronic hyperglycemia may be detrimental to the developing brain. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  10. [Application of pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release in arthroscopic surgery for posterior horn of 
medial meniscus in knee joint].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weihong; Tang, Qi; Liao, Lele; Li, Ding; Yang, Yang; Chen, You

    2017-09-28

    To explore the effectiveness and safety of pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release (MCL) in treating posterior horn of medial meniscus (PHMM) tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee joint.
 Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with PHMM tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee joint were admitted to our department from January, 2013 to December, 2014. All patients were performed pie-crusting the MCL release at its tibial insertion with 18-gauge intravenous needle. All patients were evaluated by valgus stress test and bilateral valgus stress radiograph at postoperative 1st day, 4th week and 12th week. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Lysholm scores, Tegner scores and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were recorded at the 1st, 3th, 6th month follow-up, then follow-up every 6 months.
 Results: The mean follow-up was 28 (24-36) months. All cases were negative in valgus stress test. MCL rupture, femoral fracture, articular cartilage lesion and neurovascular injury were not found at the last follow-up. The median medial joint space width of affected side and unaffected side for valgus stress radiographs were 6.8 mm and 4.3 mm (P<0.05) at the 1st day, 5.5 mm and 4.2 mm 
(P<0.05) in the 4th week and 4.8 mm and 4.3 mm (P>0.05) at the 12th week, respectively. VAS scores was changed from 4.5±1.5 preoperatively to 1.7±1.0 at the final follow-up (t=16.561, P<0.05). Lysholm scores was changed from 52.3±5.8 preoperatively to 93.2±6.3 at the final follow-up (t=-41.353, P<0.05). Tegner scores was changed from 4.1±1.1 preoperatively to 5.5±0.6 at the final follow-up (t=-18.792, P<0.05). IKDC scores was changed from 54.5±6.2 preoperative to 93.8±4.5 at the final follow-up (t=-38.253, P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release is a safe, minimal invasive and effective surgical option for posterior horn of medial meniscus tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee

  11. Opening the medial tibiofemoral compartment by pie-crusting the superficial medial collateral ligament at its tibial insertion: a cadaver study.

    PubMed

    Roussignol, X; Gauthe, R; Rahali, S; Mandereau, C; Courage, O; Duparc, F

    2015-09-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of tears in the middle and posterior parts of the medial meniscus can be difficult when the medial tibiofemoral compartment is tight. Passage of the instruments may damage the cartilage. The primary objective of this cadaver study was to perform an arthroscopic evaluation of medial tibiofemoral compartment opening after pie-crusting release (PCR) of the superficial medial collateral ligament (sMCL) at its distal insertion on the tibia. The secondary objective was to describe the anatomic relationships at the site of PCR (saphenous nerve, medial saphenous vein). We studied 10 cadaver knees with no history of invasive procedures. The femur was held in a vise with the knee flexed at 45°, and the medial aspect of the knee was dissected. PCR of the sMCL was performed under arthroscopic vision, in the anteroposterior direction, at the distal tibial insertion of the sMCL, along the lower edge of the tibial insertion of the semi-tendinosus tendon. Continuous 300-N valgus stress was applied to the ankle. Opening of the medial tibiofemoral compartment was measured arthroscopically using graduated palpation hooks after sequential PCR of the sMCL. The compartment opened by 1mm after release of the anterior third, 2.3mm after release of the anterior two-thirds, and 3.9mm after subtotal release. A femoral fracture occurred in 1 case, after completion of all measurements. Both the saphenous nerve and the medial saphenous vein were located at a distance from the PCR site in all 10 knees. PCR of the sMCL is chiefly described as a ligament-balancing method during total knee arthroplasty. This procedure is usually performed at the joint line, where it opens the compartment by 4-6mm at the most, with some degree of unpredictability. PCR of the sMCL at its distal tibial insertion provides gradual opening of the compartment, to a maximum value similar to that obtained with PCR at the joint space. The lower edge of the semi-tendinosus tendon is a valuable landmark

  12. [A case of bilateral medial medullary infarction caused by unilateral vertebral artery dissection].

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Takayoshi; Hara, Makoto; Saito, Mari; Takahashi, Keiko; Kamei, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man developed right neck pain. Several hours later, he felt numbness of his extremities and presented at our hospital. He developed right hemiparesis and hypoesthesia of the right extremities. A few hours later, upbeat nystagmus and dysarthria appeared along with a sensory disturbance that spread to all extremities, and right hemiparesis progressed to tetraplegia. Brain MR diffusion-weighted images revealed a high-intensity lesion in the bilateral medial medulla oblongata and we diagnosed this bilateral medial medullary infarction. Three dimentional CT angiography revealed dissection of the right VA. We administered intravenous argatroban, edaravone, glycerin and oral clopidogrel. He was assessed as having modified Rankin scale 4 and was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation on day 30. When the medial medulla oblongata is supplied by the unilateral VA, a unilateral VA dissection can cause bilateral medial medullary infarction.

  13. Avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root: case report and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Matthias J; Minzlaff, Philipp; Saier, Tim; Lenich, Andreas; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Injuries of the meniscus roots have become increasingly recognised as a serious pathology of the knee joint. However, the current available literature focuses primarily on posterior meniscus root tears. In this article, a case with an isolated avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root is presented, and a new arthroscopic technique to treat this type of injury is described. The anterior horn of the medial meniscus was sutured with a double-looped nonabsorbable suture and reattached to the tibial plateau using a knotless suture anchor. This technique may also be useful to treat avulsion injuries of the anterolateral or posteromedial meniscus root, and symptomatic subluxation of the medial meniscus in case of a variant insertion anatomy with an absent attachment of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus to the tibial plateau. Level of evidence V.

  14. Inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate for displaced medial clavicle fracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Jiang, Jiannong; Dou, Bin; Zhang, Panjun

    2015-09-01

    Fractures of the medial clavicle are rare injuries. Recently, open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended for displaced medial clavicle fractures in order to prevent non-union and dysfunction. Because of the rarity of this injury, the optimal fixation device has not yet been established. In this report, we describe a case of a 40-year-old male patient who sustained a significantly displaced medial clavicle fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation using an inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate. At the 12 months follow-up, the patient recovered well, had returned to pre-injury job, and was quite satisfied with the outcome. Internal fixation of medial clavicle fracture using an inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate of the ipsilateral side appears to be a good treatment option.

  15. Double transosseous pull out suture technique for transection of posterior horn of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Wang, Joon Ho; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Park, Joon Soo; Yoo, Jae Chul; Shyam, Ashok Kumar

    2009-03-01

    Transection injury (complete radial tear, root tear) in the posterior horn of medial meniscus will lead to loss of hoop strain, extrusion of the meniscus and early degenerative changes. The posterior horn of medial meniscus is amenable to repair due to its good blood supply and repair is the procedure of choice for these injuries. In cases of transection of the medial meniscus posterior horn, the meniscus can be repaired by a pull out suture technique using trans-septal portal. The single transosseous pull out suturing technique is a point fixation technique with limited contact area having low and inhomogeneous contact pressure. This article describes a double transosseous pull out suture technique using trans-septal portal for the repair of transection of posterior horn of medial meniscus. Use of double transosseous technique provides more secure fixation, more homogeneous and wider contact pressure area between meniscus and the bone, improving the healing potential of the repair.

  16. Recruitment of the Rhesus soleus and medial gastrocnemius before, during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Aragon, J.; Day, M. K.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Electromyograms were recorded from the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles and tendon force from the medial gastrocnemius muscle of 2 juvenile Rhesus monkeys before, during and after Cosmos flight 2229 and of ground control animals. Recording sessions were made while the Rhesus were performing a foot pedal motor task. Preflight testing indicated normal patterns of recruitment between the soleus and medial gastrocnemius, i.e. a higher level of recruitment of the soleus compared to the medial gastrocnemius during the task. Recording began two days into the spaceflight and showed that the media gastrocnemius was recruited preferentially over the soleus. This observation persisted throughout the flight and for the 2 week period of postflight testing. These data indicate a significant change in the relative recruitment of slow and fast extensor muscles under microgravity conditions. The appearance of clonic-like activity in one muscle of each Rhesus during flight further suggests a reorganization in the neuromotor system in a microgravity environment.

  17. Disconnection Between Amygdala and Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Prerona; Sabharwal, Amri; Kotov, Roman; Szekely, Akos; Parsey, Ramin; Barch, Deanna M.; Mohanty, Aprajita

    2016-01-01

    Distracting emotional information impairs attention more in schizophrenia (SCZ) than in never-psychotic individuals. However, it is unclear whether this impairment and its neural circuitry is indicative generally of psychosis, or specifically of SCZ, and whether it is even more specific to certain SCZ symptoms (eg, deficit syndrome). It is also unclear if this abnormality contributes to impaired behavioral performance and real-world functioning. Functional imaging data were recorded while individuals with SCZ, bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) and no history of psychotic disorders (CON) attended to identity of faces while ignoring their emotional expressions. We examined group differences in functional connectivity between amygdala, involved in emotional evaluation, and sub-regions of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), involved in emotion regulation and cognitive control. Additionally, we examined correlation of this connectivity with deficit syndrome and real-world functioning. Behaviorally, SCZ showed the worst accuracy when matching the identity of emotional vs neutral faces. Neurally, SCZ showed lower amygdala-MPFC connectivity than BDP and CON. BPD did not differ from CON, neurally or behaviorally. In patients, reduced amygdala-MPFC connectivity during emotional distractors was related to worse emotional vs neutral accuracy, greater deficit syndrome severity, and unemployment. Thus, reduced amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity during emotional distractors reflects a deficit that is specific to SCZ. This reduction in connectivity is associated with worse clinical and real-world functioning. Overall, these findings provide support for the specificity and clinical utility of amygdala-MPFC functional connectivity as a potential neural marker of SCZ. PMID:26908926

  18. Tinnitus, Medial Olivocochlear System, and Music Exposure in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hinalaf, María; Maggi, Ana L.; Hüg, Mercedes X.; Kogan, Pablo; Villalobo, Jorge Pérez; Biassoni, Ester C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The most common cause of tinnitus is the exposure to noise; in the case of adolescents, music is the main sound source they are exposed to. Currently, one of the hypotheses about the genesis of tinnitus is related to the deterioration in the functioning of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS). Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of tinnitus in adolescents with normal hearing and to relate it to: (a) the functioning of the MOCS, by the contralateral suppression of the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) and (b) the musical general exposure (MGE). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive correlational study was conducted. The sample was composed by adolescents with ages between 14 and 15. Two questionnaires were administered, one in relation to the subjective report of tinnitus and the other in relation to recreational activities to know the MGE. Results: The results showed that the amplitude of frequencies (1000, 1500, 2000, and 3000 Hz) and global amplitude of TEOAEs, with and without acoustic contralateral stimulation, were higher in the group without tinnitus, with a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05). The suppressive effect was higher in the group without tinnitus; however, there was no statistically significant difference. Contrastingly, a significant association (P < 0.05) between exposure to music and tinnitus was observed; 72.41% of the adolescents with high exposure to music had tinnitus. Discussion and Conclusion: The results of the present investigation provide a contribution to the hypothesis of “the participation of the MOCS.” Furthermore, a high MGE can be considered a risk factor for the onset of tinnitus. PMID:29192619

  19. Ultrastructural organization of medial prefrontal inputs to the rhinal cortices.

    PubMed

    Apergis-Schoute, John; Pinto, Aline; Paré, Denis

    2006-07-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a critical role in the formation, retrieval and long-term storage of hippocampal-dependent memories. Consistent with this, there are direct hippocampal projections to the mPFC. Moreover, the mPFC sends robust projections to the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices, two interconnected cortical fields that funnel information into and out of the hippocampus. However, the significance of the latter projection remains unclear because no data are available regarding the rhinal targets of mPFC axons. This question was examined in the present study using a combination of anterograde tracing with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and pre-embedding gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunocytochemistry in guinea pigs. Following Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin injections in the mPFC, anterogradely labeled axons were seen in the perirhinal (mainly superficial layers) and lateral entorhinal (mainly deep layers) cortices. In the electron microscope, the synaptic articulation of anterogradely labeled mPFC axon terminals with perirhinal and entorhinal neurons was found to be nearly identical. In these two rhinal fields, mPFC axon terminals only formed asymmetric synapses, typically with GABA-immunonegative spines ( approximately 70%) but occasionally with dendritic profiles ( approximately 30%), half of which were GABA immunopositive. In the light of earlier observations, these findings indicate that mPFC inputs exert mainly excitatory effects in the rhinal cortices, prevalently on principal neurons. Thus, these results suggest that the mPFC may affect hippocampal-dependent memories by enhancing impulse traffic into and out of the hippocampus at the level of the rhinal cortices.

  20. Medial frontal white and gray matter contributions to general intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Nestor, Paul G; Bouix, Sylvain; Saito, Yukiko; Hosokawa, Taiga; Kubicki, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) are part of a wider neural network that plays an important role in general intelligence and executive function. We used structural brain imaging to quantify magnetic resonance gray matter volume and diffusion tensor white matter integrity of the mOFC-rACC network in 26 healthy participants who also completed neuropsychological tests of intellectual abilities and executive function. Stochastic tractography, the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging method for examining white matter connections between adjacent gray matter regions, was employed to assess the integrity of mOFC-rACC pathways. Fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects the integrity of white matter connections, was calculated. Results indicated that higher intelligence correlated with greater gray matter volumes for both mOFC and rACC, as well as with increased FA for left posterior mOFC-rACC connectivity. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that DTI-derived FA of left posterior mOFC-rACC uniquely accounted for 29%-34% of the variance in IQ, in comparison to 11%-16% uniquely explained by gray matter volume of the left rACC. Together, left rACC gray matter volume and white matter connectivity between left posterior mOFC and rACC accounted for up to 50% of the variance in general intelligence. This study is to our knowledge the first to examine white matter connectivity between OFC and ACC, two gray matter regions of interests that are very close in physical proximity, and underscores the important independent contributions of variations in rACC gray matter volume and mOFC-rACC white matter connectivity to individual differences in general intelligence.

  1. Anatomical and Electrophysiological Clustering of Superficial Medial Entorhinal Cortex Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Local GABAergic interneurons regulate the activity of spatially-modulated principal cells in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), mediating stellate-to-stellate connectivity and possibly enabling grid formation via recurrent inhibitory circuitry. Despite the important role interneurons seem to play in the MEC cortical circuit, the combination of low cell counts and functional diversity has made systematic electrophysiological studies of these neurons difficult. For these reasons, there remains a paucity of knowledge on the electrophysiological profiles of superficial MEC interneuron populations. Taking advantage of glutamic acid decarboxylase 2 (GAD2)-IRES-tdTomato and PV-tdTomato transgenic mice, we targeted GABAergic interneurons for whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and characterized their passive membrane features, basic input/output properties and action potential (AP) shape. These electrophysiologically characterized cells were then anatomically reconstructed, with emphasis on axonal projections and pial depth. K-means clustering of interneuron anatomical and electrophysiological data optimally classified a population of 106 interneurons into four distinct clusters. The first cluster is comprised of layer 2- and 3-projecting, slow-firing interneurons. The second cluster is comprised largely of PV+ fast-firing interneurons that project mainly to layers 2 and 3. The third cluster contains layer 1- and 2-projecting interneurons, and the fourth cluster is made up of layer 1-projecting horizontal interneurons. These results, among others, will provide greater understanding of the electrophysiological characteristics of MEC interneurons, help guide future in vivo studies, and may aid in uncovering the mechanism of grid field formation. PMID:29085901

  2. Clinical Study of 27 Patients with Medial Medullary Infarction.

    PubMed

    Akimoto, Takayoshi; Ogawa, Katsuhiko; Morita, Akihiko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kamei, Satoshi

    2017-10-01

    Medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare ischemic stroke. Frequency of each neurological finding in MMI was different in each study. We retrospectively evaluated the medical records of patients with cerebral infarction who were admitted between March 1998 and October 2015. Patients in our study were diagnosed as having MMI by magnetic resonance image examination. Of 2727 patients with ischemic stroke, 27 patients (20 males and 7 females) had MMI. The MMI was complicated by infarcts located in the pons (n = 6), cerebellum (n = 2), and lateral medulla (n = 1). One patient had bilateral MMI. Large-artery atherosclerosis was the most common etiology. Motor weakness of the extremities was the most common neurological finding. Diminished contralateral superficial sensation was more common than diminished contralateral vibratory sensation, and these 2 types of sensory disturbance were often complicated. The patients with large MMI significantly more often accompanied diminished touch (P = .003), pain (P = .017), and vibratory (P = .019) sensation. Facial weakness was shown more common contralateral to the infarcts than ipsilateral (n = 8 contralateral, n = 1 ipsilateral). Lingual palsy was also more common contralateral to the lesions (n = 3 contralateral, n = 1 ipsilateral). One patient alone fulfilled the classical Dejerine triad. In MMI, motor weakness of extremities was commonly shown, and complication of diminished sensations indicated the large infarcts. As for facial weakness and lingual palsy, the supranuclear type was more prominent than the infranuclear type. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Medial Orbitofrontal Cortex Mediates Effort-related Responding in Rats.

    PubMed

    Münster, Alexandra; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2017-11-17

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) is known to support flexible control of goal-directed behavior. However, limited evidence suggests that the mOFC also mediates the ability of organisms to work with vigor towards a selected goal, a hypothesis that received little consideration to date. Here we show that excitotoxic mOFC lesion increased responding under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, that is, the highest ratio achieved, and increased the preference for the high effort-high reward option in an effort-related decision-making task, but left intact outcome-selective Pavlovian-instrumental transfer and outcome-specific devaluation. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of the mOFC increased, while pharmacological stimulation reduced PR responding. In addition, pharmacological mOFC stimulation attenuated methylphenidate-induced increase of PR responding. Intact rats tested for PR responding displayed higher numbers of c-Fos positive mOFC neurons than appropriate controls; however, mOFC neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens did not show a selective increase in neuronal activation implying that they may not play a major role in regulating PR responding. Collectively, these results suggest that the mOFC plays a major role in mediating effort-related motivational functions. Moreover, our data demonstrate for the first time that the mOFC modulates effort-related effects of psychostimulant drugs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Evidence-Based Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Reference: Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32–40. Clinical Question: Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Data Sources: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966–2000), Current Contents (1996–2000), Biomedical Collection (1993–1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. Data Extraction: A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Main Results: Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. Conclusions: No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most

  5. Medial tibial stress syndrome: evidence-based prevention.

    PubMed

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32-40. Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966-2000), Current Contents (1996-2000), Biomedical Collection (1993-1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most promising outcomes support the use of shock-absorbing insoles. Well-designed and controlled trials are critically needed

  6. Modeling conflict and error in the medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Andrew R; Teshiba, Terri M; Franco, Alexandre R; Ling, Josef; Shane, Matthew S; Stephen, Julia M; Jung, Rex E

    2012-12-01

    Despite intensive study, the role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex (dMFC) in error monitoring and conflict processing remains actively debated. The current experiment manipulated conflict type (stimulus conflict only or stimulus and response selection conflict) and utilized a novel modeling approach to isolate error and conflict variance during a multimodal numeric Stroop task. Specifically, hemodynamic response functions resulting from two statistical models that either included or isolated variance arising from relatively few error trials were directly contrasted. Twenty-four participants completed the task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging on a 1.5-Tesla scanner. Response times monotonically increased based on the presence of pure stimulus or stimulus and response selection conflict. Functional results indicated that dMFC activity was present during trials requiring response selection and inhibition of competing motor responses, but absent during trials involving pure stimulus conflict. A comparison of the different statistical models suggested that relatively few error trials contributed to a disproportionate amount of variance (i.e., activity) throughout the dMFC, but particularly within the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (rACC). Finally, functional connectivity analyses indicated that an empirically derived seed in the dorsal ACC/pre-SMA exhibited strong connectivity (i.e., positive correlation) with prefrontal and inferior parietal cortex but was anti-correlated with the default-mode network. An empirically derived seed from the rACC exhibited the opposite pattern, suggesting that sub-regions of the dMFC exhibit different connectivity patterns with other large scale networks implicated in internal mentations such as daydreaming (default-mode) versus the execution of top-down attentional control (fronto-parietal). Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Medial sural artery perforator flap: a challenging free flap.

    PubMed

    Toyserkani, Navid Mohamadpour; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    Oral and extremity defect reconstruction can often require a flap that is thin, and traditionally, the radial forearm free flap has been used, however, this has significant donor site morbidity. Over the last decade, the medial sural artery perforator (MSAP) flap has emerged as a possible alternative with lower donor site morbidity. We present our experiences and review the literature regarding this promising but challenging flap. The study was a retrospective case series in a university hospital setting. All patients who had a MSAP flap performed at our institution were included until March 2015, and their data was retrieved from electronic patient records. In total, ten patients were reconstructed with a MSAP flap for floor of mouth (eight) and lower extremity (two) defect reconstruction. The median flap dimensions were as follows: 10 cm (range 7-14 cm), width 5 cm (range 3.5-8 cm), thickness 5 mm (range 4-8 mm), and pedicle length 10 cm (range 8-12 cm). In one case, the procedure was abandoned because of very small perforators and another flap was used. In two cases, late onset of venous congestion occurred which could not be salvaged. There were no donor site complaints. The MSAP flap is an ideal flap when a thin free flap is needed with lower donor site morbidity than alternative solutions. There seems to be a higher rate of late onset of venous thrombosis compared with more established flaps. Therefore, this flap should be monitored more closely for venous problems and we recommend performing two venous anastomoses when using this flap. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

  8. Medial Prefrontal Cortex: Adding Value to Imagined Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wen-Jing; Horner, Aidan J.; Bisby, James A.; Burgess, Neil

    2016-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is consistently implicated in the network supporting autobiographical memory. Whereas more posterior regions in this network have been related to specific processes, such as the generation of visuospatial imagery or the association of items and contexts, the functional contribution of the mPFC remains unclear. However, the involvement of mPFC in estimation of value during decision-making suggests that it might play a similar role in memory. We investigated whether mPFC activity reflects the subjective value of elements in imagined scenarios. Participants in an MRI scanner imagined scenarios comprising a spatial context, a physiological state of need (e.g., thirst), and two items that could be congruent (e.g., drink) or incongruent (e.g., food) with the state of need. Memory for the scenarios was tested outside the scanner. Our manipulation of subjective value by imagined need was verified by increased subjective ratings of value for congruent items and improved subsequent memory for them. Consistent with our hypothesis, fMRI signal in mPFC reflected the modulation of an item’s subjective value by the imagined physiological state, suggesting the mPFC selectively tracked subjective value within our imagination paradigm. Further analyses showed uncorrected effects in non-mPFC regions, including increased activity in the insula when imagining states of need, the caudate nucleus when imagining congruent items, and the anterior hippocampus/amygdala when imagining subsequently remembered items. We therefore provide evidence that the mPFC plays a role in constructing the subjective value of the components of imagined scenarios and thus potentially in reconstructing the value of components of autobiographical recollection. PMID:26042501

  9. Longitudinal cystic fibrosis care.

    PubMed

    Antunovic, S S; Lukac, M; Vujovic, D

    2013-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a complex disease entity that presents considerable lifelong challenges. Implementation of medical and surgical treatment options involves multisystem interventions to prevent and treat lung and gastrointestinal manifestations of cystic fibrosis and associated comorbidities. From birth through adulthood, cystic fibrosis care entails a longitudinal regimen aimed at achieving relief of disease symptoms and enhanced life expectancy. With increased knowledge of the molecular behavior of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in health and disease, clinical practice has been enriched by the prospect of novel strategies, including mutation-specific drug and gene therapy targeting restoration of corrupted transepithelial ion transport. Emerging paradigms of comprehensive care increasingly enable personalized solutions to address the root cause of disease-transforming management options for individuals with cystic fibrosis.

  10. Digital Longitudinal Tomosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimkus, Daniel Steven

    1985-12-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to investigate the clinical utility of digital longitudinal tomosynthesis in radiology. By acquiring a finite group of digital images during a longitudinal tomographic exposure, and processing these images, tomographic planes, other than the fulcrum plane, can be reconstructed. This process is now termed "tomosynthesis". A prototype system utilizing this technique was developed. Both phantom and patient studies were done with this system. The phantom studies were evaluated by subjective, visual criterion and by quantitative analysis of edge sharpness and noise in the reconstructions. Two groups of patients and one volunteer were studied. The first patient group consisted of 8 patients undergoing intravenous urography (IVU). These patients had digital tomography and film tomography of the abdomen. The second patient group consisted of 4 patients with lung cancer admitted to the hospital for laser resection of endobronchial tumor. These patients had mediastinal digital tomograms to evaluate the trachea and mainstem bronchi. The knee of one volunteer was imaged by film tomography and digital tomography. The results of the phantom studies showed that the digital reconstructions accurately produced images of the desired planes. The edge sharpness of the reconstructions approached that of the acquired images. Adequate reconstructions were achieved with as few as 5 images acquired during the exposure, with the quality of the reconstructions improving as the number of images acquired increased. The IVU patients' digital studies had less contrast and spatial resolution than the film tomograms. The single renal lesion visible on the film tomograms was also visible in the digital images. The digital mediastinal studies were felt by several radiologists to be superior to a standard chest xray in evaluating the airways. The digital images of the volunteer's knee showed many of the same anatomic features as the film tomogram, but the digital

  11. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  12. Proximo-distal patellar position in three small dog breeds with medial patellar luxation.

    PubMed

    Wangdee, C; Theyse, L F H; Hazewinkel, H A W

    2015-01-01

    Medial patellar luxation is thought to be associated with a high proximal position of the patella in the trochlear groove. To determine whether the ratio of patellar ligament length and patellar length (L:P) is influenced by the stifle angle (75°, 96°, 113°, 130°, and 148°) in small dog breeds and to compare the L:P ratio in dogs of three small dog breeds with and without medial patellar luxation. A mediolateral radiograph of the stifle joint was used to measure the L:P ratio in the stifle joints of dogs of three small breeds with and without medial patellar luxation. The L:P ratio was evaluated at five stifle angles (75°, 96°, 113°, 130°, and 148°) in 14 cadavers (26 stifle joints) of small dog breeds in order to identify the best stifle angle to measure the L:P ratio. Then the mean ± SD L:P ratio was calculated for normal stifles and stifles with medial patellar luxation grades 1, 2, and 3 in 194 Pomeranians, 74 Chihuahuas, and 41 Toy or Standard Poodles. The L:P ratio was the same for all five stifle angles in the cadavers (p = 0.195). It was also not significantly different in the three breeds (p = 0.135), in normal and medial patellar luxation-affected stifles overall (p = 0.354), and in normal and medial patellar luxation-affected joints within each breed (p = 0.19). We conclude that a proximo-distal patellar position is not associated with medial patellar luxation in Pomeranians, Chihuahuas, and Toy or Standard Poodles. Thus a longer patellar ligament length does not play a role in the pathophysiology of medial patellar luxation in these small dog breeds.

  13. Preoperative Patellofemoral Chondromalacia is Not a Contraindication for Fixed-Bearing Medial Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Adams, Alexander J; Kazarian, Gregory S; Lonner, Jess H

    2017-06-01

    Patellofemoral chondromalacia (PFCM) has historically been considered a contraindication for unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA), but there is limited data assessing PFCM's impact on the results of fixed-bearing UKA. Our objective was to assess the impact of medial patellar and/or medial trochlear PFCM on overall and patellofemoral-specific 2-year outcomes after fixed-bearing medial UKA. Intraoperative notes defined the presence and location of PFCM during fixed bearing medial UKA. Outcome measures included the New Knee Society Score (NKSS), Kneeling Ability Score (KAS) and Forgotten Joint Score (FJS-12). Thirty-one knees with PFCM (PFCM group), and 52 knees without PFCM (N-PFCM group) were included for analysis. Mann-Whitney U tests assessed the statistical significance of observed differences, and a Bonferroni correction was applied, adjusting threshold for significance to P = .005. At minimum follow-up of 2 years, no statistical differences were detected between the N-PFCM and PFCM groups in the postoperative NKSS (159 vs 157, P = .731), preoperative to postoperative NKSS change (P = .447), FJS-12 (70.5 vs 67.6, P = .471), or KAS (71% vs 65%, P = .217). Patients with isolated patellar chondromalacia (n = 13) demonstrated trends toward worse outcomes according to NKSS (147, P = .198), FJS-12 (58, P = .094), and KAS (46%, P = .018), but were statistically insignificant. No failures occurred in either group. Functional outcomes of fixed-bearing medial UKA are not adversely impacted by the presence of PFCM involving the medial patellar facet and/or medial or central trochlea. Further follow-up is needed to determine longer-term implications of fixed-bearing medial UKA in patients with PFCM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Computed Tomographic Distinction of Intimal and Medial Calcification in the Intracranial Internal Carotid Artery.

    PubMed

    Kockelkoren, Remko; Vos, Annelotte; Van Hecke, Wim; Vink, Aryan; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Verdoorn, Daphne; Mali, Willem P Th M; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Koek, Huiberdina L; de Jong, Pim A; De Vis, Jill B

    2017-01-01

    Intracranial internal carotid artery (iICA) calcification is associated with stroke and is often seen as a proxy of atherosclerosis of the intima. However, it was recently shown that these calcifications are predominantly located in the tunica media and internal elastic lamina (medial calcification). Intimal and medial calcifications are thought to have a different pathogenesis and clinical consequences and can only be distinguished through ex vivo histological analysis. Therefore, our aim was to develop CT scoring method to distinguish intimal and medial iICA calcification in vivo. First, in both iICAs of 16 cerebral autopsy patients the intimal and/or medial calcification area was histologically assessed (142 slides). Brain CT images of these patients were matched to the corresponding histological slides to develop a CT score that determines intimal or medial calcification dominance. Second, performance of the CT score was assessed in these 16 patients. Third, reproducibility was tested in a separate cohort. First, CT features of the score were circularity (absent, dot(s), <90°, 90-270° or 270-360°), thickness (absent, ≥1.5mm, or <1.5mm), and morphology (indistinguishable, irregular/patchy or continuous). A high sum of features represented medial and a lower sum intimal calcifications. Second, in the 16 patients the concordance between the CT score and the dominant calcification type was reasonable. Third, the score showed good reproducibility (kappa: 0.72 proportion of agreement: 0.82) between the categories intimal, medial or absent/indistinguishable. The developed CT score shows good reproducibility and can differentiate reasonably well between intimal and medial calcification dominance in the iICA, allowing for further (epidemiological) studies on iICA calcification.

  15. Increased GABA Levels in Medial Prefrontal Cortex of Young Adults with Narcolepsy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seog Ju; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Lee, Yujin S.; Sung, Young Hoon; Kim, Hengjun J.; Kim, Jihyun H.; Kim, Kye Hyun; Jeong, Do-Un

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including gamma amino-butyric acid (GABA) in the medial prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia of young adults with narcolepsy. Design: Proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy centered on the medial prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia was acquired. The absolute concentrations of brain metabolites including GABA and glutamate were assessed and compared between narcoleptic patients and healthy comparison subjects. Setting: Sleep and Chronobiology Center at Seoul National University Hospital; A high strength 3.0 Tesla MR scanner in the Department of Radiology at Seoul National University Hospital. Patients or Participants: Seventeen young adults with a sole diagnosis of HLA DQB1 0602 positive narcolepsy with cataplexy (25.1 ± 4.6 years old) and 17 healthy comparison subjects (26.8 ± 4.8 years old). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Relative to comparison subjects, narcoleptic patients had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex (t = 4.10, P <0.001). Narcoleptic patients with nocturnal sleep disturbance had higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex than those without nocturnal sleep disturbance (t = 2.45, P= 0.03), but had lower GABA concentration than comparison subjects (t = 2.30, P = 0.03). Conclusions: The current study reports that young adults with narcolepsy had a higher GABA concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex, which was more prominent in patients without nocturnal sleep disturbance. Our findings suggest that the medial prefrontal GABA level may be increased in narcolepsy, and the increased medial prefrontal GABA might be a compensatory mechanism to reduce nocturnal sleep disturbances in narcolepsy. Citation: Kim SJ; Lyoo IK; Lee YS; Sung YH; Kim HJ; Kim JH; Kim KH; Jeong DU. Increased GABA levels in medial prefrontal cortex of young adults with narcolepsy. SLEEP 2008;31(3):342-347. PMID:18363310

  16. Comparison of arthroscopic medial meniscal suture repair techniques: inside-out versus all-inside repair.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Victoroff, Brian N

    2009-11-01

    There are no reports comparing meniscal healing between inside-out and all-inside repairs using sutures. No difference in healing rate exists between meniscal repairs with inside-out and all-inside suture repair in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Forty-eight consecutive patients underwent meniscal repairs of longitudinal tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. All-inside repair was attempted when the tears were located in the red-red zone or the ramp area of the meniscus. If a tear that was in the ramp area or red-red zone extended to the midbody of the meniscus, or if there was a tear in red-white zone, the inside-out repair technique was used. Fourteen patients had all-inside meniscal repairs, and 34 patients had inside-out meniscal repairs with absorbable sutures. Identical postoperative rehabilitation protocols were used. Postoperative evaluations included Lysholm knee scoring scale, Tegner activity levels, Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and KT-1000 arthrometer. Assessment of meniscal status was performed using joint line tenderness, McMurray test, and range of motion. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on all patients. Mean follow-up was 35.7 months. No patient had joint line tenderness or reported pain or clicking on McMurray test. There was no significant difference in range of motion between groups. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that 10 (71.4%) menisci were healed and 4 (28.6%) partially healed in the all-inside group; 24 (70.6%) menisci were healed and 10 (29.4%) partially healed in the inside-out group. There was no significant difference in meniscal healing between groups. There were no differences in Lachman test, KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side differences measurements, Lysholm scores, and Tegner activity scales. There was a significant difference in

  17. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient’s history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  18. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  19. Differential effects of unilateral lesions in the medial amygdala on spontaneous and induced ovulation.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, M A; Dominguez, R

    1995-01-01

    The possible existence of asymmetry in the control of ovulation by the medial amygdala was explored. Unilateral lesions of the medial amygdala were performed on each day of the estrous cycle. The estral index diminished in almost all animals with a lesion in the right side of medial amygdala. Lesions of the right medial amygdala, when performed on diestrus-1, resulted in a significant decrease in the number of rats ovulating compared to controls (4/8 vs. 8/8, p < 0.05). In ovulating animals a significant reduction in the number of ova shed by the left ovary was found (2.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 6.3 +/- 0.8, p < 0.05). Lesions of the stria terminalis performed on diestrus-1 did not affect ovulation. In a second experiment, administration of GnRH did not restore ovulation in rats with lesions of the right medial amygdala. However, sequential injections of PMSG-hCG did result in ovulation by all members of a group of lesioned animals. In this last condition a significant decrease in the number of ova shed by the right ovary was found compared to animals in the lesion-only condition (1.5 +/- 0.5 vs. 6.0 +/- 1.5, p < 0.05). These data suggest that control of ovulation by the medial amygdala is asymmetric and varies during the estrous cycle.

  20. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-Ichi

    2017-06-18

    To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau.

  1. Medial tibial plateau morphology and stress fracture location: A magnetic resonance imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Yukata, Kiminori; Yamanaka, Issei; Ueda, Yuzuru; Nakai, Sho; Ogasa, Hiroyoshi; Oishi, Yosuke; Hamawaki, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the location of medial tibial plateau stress fractures and its relationship with tibial plateau morphology using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS A retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of stress fracture of the medial tibial plateau was performed for a 5-year period. Fourteen patients [three female and 11 male, with an average age of 36.4 years (range, 15-50 years)], who underwent knee MRI, were included. The appearance of the tibial plateau stress fracture and the geometry of the tibial plateau were reviewed and measured on MRI. RESULTS Thirteen of 14 stress fractures were linear, and one of them stellated on MRI images. The location of fractures was classified into three types. Three fractures were located anteromedially (AM type), six posteromedially (PM type), and five posteriorly (P type) at the medial tibial plateau. In addition, tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau tended to be larger when the fracture was located more posteriorly on MRI. CONCLUSION We found that MRI showed three different localizations of medial tibial plateau stress fractures, which were associated with tibial posterior slope at the medial tibial plateau. PMID:28660141

  2. Electrophysiological evidence during episodic prospection implicates medial prefrontal and bilateral middle temporal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Fen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-08-01

    fMRI studies have implicated the medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe, components of the default mode network (DMN), in episodic prospection. This study compared quantitative EEG localized to these DMN regions during prospection and during resting and while waiting for rewards. EEG was recorded in twenty-two adults while they were asked to (i) envision future monetary episodes; (ii) wait for rewards and (iii) rest. Activation sources were localized to core DMN regions. EEG power and phase coherence were compared across conditions. Prospection, compared to resting and waiting, was associated with reduced power in the medial prefrontal gyrus and increased power in the bilateral medial temporal gyrus across frequency bands as well as greater phase synchrony between these regions in the delta band. The current quantitative EEG analysis confirms prior fMRI research suggesting that medial prefrontal and medial temporal gyrus interactions are central to the capacity for episodic prospection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Characteristics of radial tears in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus compared to horizontal tears.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chul-Jun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Song, In-Bum; Choi, Chong-Hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The clinical and radiologic features of radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn were compared with those of horizontal tears. From January 2007 to December 2008, 387 consecutive cases of medial meniscal tears were treated arthroscopically. Among these, 91 were radial tears in the medial meniscus posterior horn, and 95 were horizontal tears in the posterior segment of the medial meniscus. The patients' data (age, gender, duration of symptom, body mass index, and injury history), radiographic findings (Kellgren and Lawrence score, posterior tibial slope, and femorotibial angle), and chondral lesions were recorded. The patient factors of age, gender, and body mass index were related to radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. Radial tears were significantly correlated with Kellgren and Lawrence score, varus alignment, posterior tibial slope, and severity of the chondral lesion. Radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn are a unique clinical entity that are associated with older age, females and obesity, and are strongly associated with an increased incidence and severity of cartilage degeneration compared to horizontal tears.

  4. The JCR:LA-cp rat: a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis.

    PubMed

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Chilian, William M; Bennett, Martin R; Figg, Nichola; Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Although there are multiple rodent models of the metabolic syndrome, very few develop vascular complications. In contrast, the JCR:LA-cp rat develops both metabolic syndrome and early atherosclerosis in predisposed areas. However, the pathology of the normal vessel wall has not been described. We examined JCR:LA control (+/+) or cp/cp rats fed normal chow diet for 6 or 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats developed multiple features of advanced cystic medial necrosis including "cysts," increased collagen formation and proteoglycan deposition around cysts, apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, and spotty medial calcification. These appearances began within 6 mo and were extensive by 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats had reduced medial cellularity, increased medial thickness, and vessel hypoxia that was most marked in the adventitia. In conclusion, the normal chow-fed JCR:LA-cp rat represents a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis, associated with multiple metabolic abnormalities, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and vessel hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Triggers for cystic medial necrosis (CMN) have been difficult to study due to lack of animal models to recapitulate the pathologies seen in humans. Our study is the first description of CMN in the rat. Thus the JCR:LA-cp rat represents a useful model to investigate the underlying molecular changes leading to the development of CMN. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  5. A Medial Malleolar "Fleck Sign" May Predict Ankle Instability in Ligamentous Supination External Rotation Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Kenneth; Schneiderman, Brian Andrew; Shymon, Stephen Joseph; Harris, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Ankle joint stability dictates treatment in ligamentous supination external rotation ankle injuries (LSERAI). Investigation of the medial structures that support the ankle mortise is critical, and a small avulsion fracture, or "fleck", of the medial malleolus is occasionally encountered. This study aimed to assess the utility of this medial malleolus fleck sign (MMFS) in diagnosing instability requiring surgery in LSERAI. This retrospective observational study examined 166 LSERAI at a single level I trauma center. A standardized diagnostic and treatment protocol for ankle fractures was followed. LSERAI at presentation were reported as having a normal, dynamically wide, or statically wide medial clear space. Patient demographics, MMFS characteristics, and the use of operative management were recorded. MMFS incidence in the cohort was 16 (10%) of 166 and was present in 25% of patients with unstable LSERAI. Fifteen (94%) of 16 patients with a MMFS were deemed to have an unstable LSERAI (P < .005). MMFS had a 25% sensitivity and 99% specificity in diagnosing an unstable LSERAI. For the subgroup of patients without a statically wide medial clear space, MMFS had a 50% sensitivity and 99% specificity in determining instability. A MMFS may be indicative of an unstable LSERAI. With previous MRI studies demonstrating complete deltoid disruption in unstable LSERAI, we deduce the MMFS may be associated with extensive deltoid incompetence. The MMFS may help to diagnose a complete deltoid injury in LSERAI with a normal medial clear space, which could influence treatment and reduce patient morbidity, radiation exposure, and healthcare costs. Level III: Retrospective Cohort Study.

  6. Proximally pedicled medial plantar flap based on superficial venous system alone for venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Wright, Thomas C; Mossaad, Bassem M; Chummun, Shaheel; Khan, Umraz; Chapman, Thomas W L

    2013-07-01

    The proximally pedicled medial plantar flap is well described for coverage of wounds around the ankle and heel. This flap is usually based on the deep venae comitantes for venous drainage, with the superficial veins divided during dissection. Usually any disruption of the deep venous system of the flap would result in abandoning this choice of flap. Venous congestion is a recognised complication of medial plantar flaps. The patient described in this case report had a medial ankle defect with exposed bone, for which a proximally pedicled medial plantar flap was used. As we raised the flap, both venae comitantes of the medial planter artery were found to be disrupted. The flap was raised based on the superficial veins draining into the great saphenous, as the only system for venous drainage, with no evidence of venous congestion. The flap was successfully transposed into the defect and healed with no complications. The proximally pedicled medial plantar flap can safely rely on the superficial venous system alone for drainage. In addition, preserving the superficial veins minimise the risk of venous congestion in this flap. We recommend preservation of superficial venous system when possible. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of medial meniscal posterior horn avulsion and repair on meniscal displacement.

    PubMed

    Hein, Christopher N; Deperio, Jennifer Gurske; Ehrensberger, Mark T; Marzo, John M

    2011-06-01

    Medial meniscal posterior root avulsion (MMRA) leads to deleterious alteration of medial joint compartment loading profiles and increased risk of medial degenerative changes. Surgical repair restores more normal biomechanics to the knee. Our hypothesis is that MMRA will cause medial meniscal (MM) extrusion and gap formation between the root attachment site and MM. Meniscal root repair will restore the ability of the meniscus to resist extrusion, and reduce gap formation at the defect. Seven fresh frozen human cadaveric knees were dissected and mechanically loaded using a servo-hydraulic load frame (MTS ®) with 0 and 1800 N. The knees were tested under three conditions: native, avulsed, and repaired. Four measurements were obtained: meniscal displacement anteriorly, medially, posteriorly, and gap distance between the root attachment site and MM after transection and repair. The medial displacement of the avulsed MM (3.28 mm) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the native knee (1.60mm) and repaired knee (1.46 mm). Gap formation is significantly larger in the avulsed compared to repaired state at 0 (p < 0.02) and 1800N (p < 0.02) and also larger with loading in both avulsed (p < 0.05) and repaired (p < 0.02) conditions. Therefore, MMRA results in MM extrusion from the joint and gap formation between the MM root and the MM. Subsequent surgical repair reduces meniscal displacement and gap formation at the defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A clinical sign to detect root avulsions of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Seil, Romain; Dück, Klaus; Pape, Dietrich

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the present report was to describe a new clinical sign to make a clinical diagnosis of meniscal extrusion related to medial meniscal root avulsion. Description of an easy clinical sign to detect extrusion of the medial meniscus at the anteromedial joint line. A varus stress test was applied in full extension before and after transosseous repair of an isolated traumatic avulsion of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in a 21-year-old patient. The clinical sign was verified by sectioning of the meniscotibial ligament during knee arthroplasty surgery in 3 patients. With a deficient posterior root, the clinical sign was positive, showing anteromedial extrusion under varus stress. After repair and at clinical follow-up, extrusion was normalized. Making the clinical diagnosis of medial meniscus extrusion after knee injury by applying a simple varus stress test to the knee and palpating the anteromedial meniscal extrusion might help physicians to suspect a medial meniscus root tear in the early stages after the injury as well as to evaluate its reduction after repair. A varus stress test in full extension should be performed systematically in patients where a root tear of the medial meniscus is suspected as well as after surgery to evaluate the success of the repair.

  9. Endoscopic partial medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap for maxillary sinus mucoceles.

    PubMed

    Durr, Megan L; Goldberg, Andrew N

    2014-01-01

    To describe a technique of endoscopic medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap for postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles and to present a case series of subjects who underwent this procedure. This case series includes four subjects with postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles who underwent resection via endoscopic partial medial maxillectomy with a mucosal flap. We will discuss the clinical presentation, imaging characteristics, operative details, and outcomes. Four subjects are included in this study. The average age at the time of medial maxillectomy was 52 years (range 35-65 years). Three subjects (75%) were female. One subject (25%) had bilateral postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles. Two subjects (50%) had unilateral right sided mucoceles, and the remaining subject had a unilateral left sided mucocele. All subjects had a history of multiple sinus procedures for chronic sinusitis including Caldwell-Luc procedures ipsilateral to the postoperative mucocele. All subjects underwent endoscopic medial maxillectomy without complication and were symptom free at the last follow up appointment, average 24 months (range 3-71 months) after medial maxillectomy. For postoperative maxillary sinus mucoceles in locations that are difficult to access via the middle meatus antrostomy, we recommend endoscopic medial maxillectomy with mucosal flap. Our preliminary experience with four subjects demonstrates complete resolution of symptoms after this procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Longitudinal assessment of chemotherapy-induced changes in brain and cognitive functioning: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingmei; Caeyenberghs, Karen

    2018-05-20

    In addition to the burden of a life-threatening diagnosis, cancer patients are struggling with adverse side-effects from cancer treatment. Chemotherapy has been linked to an array of cognitive impairments and alterations in brain structure and function ("chemobrain"). In this review, we summarized the existing evidence that evaluate the changes in cognitive functioning and brain with chemotherapy, as assessed using structural and functional MRI-based techniques in a longitudinal design. This review followed the latest PRISMA guidelines using Embase, Medline, PsychINFO, Scopus, and Web of Science databases with date restrictions from 2012-2017. Fourteen research articles met the key inclusion criteria: (i) the studies involved adult cancer patients (mean age≥18); (ii) the use of chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer; (iii) pre-post assessment of behavioral and brain-based outcomes; and (iv) abstracts written in English. Effect sizes of subjective and objective cognitive impairments from the reviewed studies were estimated using Cohen's d or z-scores. We calculated percentage of mean change or effect sizes for main neuroimaging findings when data were available. Strength of the correlations between brain alterations and cognitive changes was obtained using squared correlation coefficients. We showed small to medium effect sizes on individual tests of attention, processing speed, verbal memory, and executive control; and medium effect sizes on self-report questionnaires. Neuroimaging data showed reduced grey matter density in cancer patients in frontal, parietal, and temporal regions. Changes in brain function (brain activation and cerebral blood flow) were observed with cancer across functional networks involving (pre)frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal, and cerebellar regions. Data from diffusion-weighted MRI suggested reduced white matter integrity involving the superior longitudinal fasciculus, corpus callosum, forceps major, and corona radiate, and altered

  11. Longitudinal Changes in Cortical Thickness in Children after Traumatic Brain Injury and their Relation to Behavioral Regulation and Emotional Control

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Merkley, Tricia L.; Bigler, Erin D.; Max, Jeffrey E.; Schmidt, Adam T.; Ayoub, Kareem W.; McCauley, Stephen R.; Hunter, Jill V.; Hanten, Gerri; Li, Xiaoqi; Chu, Zili D.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patterns of cortical development over time in children who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared to children with orthopedic injury (OI), and to examine how these patterns related to emotional control and behavioral dysregulation, two common post-TBI symptoms. Cortical thickness was measured at approximately 3 and 18 months post-injury in 20 children aged 8.2 to 17.5 years who had sustained moderate-to-severe closed head injury and 21 children aged 7.4 to 16.7 years who had sustained OI. At approximately 3 months post-injury, the TBI group evidenced decreased cortical thickness bilaterally in aspects of the superior frontal, dorsolateral frontal, orbital frontal, and anterior cingulate regions compared to the control cohort, areas of anticipated vulnerability to TBI-induced change. At 18 months post-injury, some of the regions previously evident at 3 months post-injury remained significantly decreased in the TBI group, including bilateral frontal, fusiform, and lingual regions. Additional regions of significant cortical thinning emerged at this time interval (bilateral frontal regions and fusiform gyrus and left parietal regions). However, differences in other regions appeared attenuated (no longer areas of significant cortical thinning) by 18 months post-injury including large bilateral regions of the medial aspects of the frontal lobes and anterior cingulate. Cortical thinning within the OI group was evident over time in dorsolateral frontal and temporal regions bilaterally and aspects of the left medial frontal and precuneus, and right inferior parietal regions. Longitudinal analyses within the TBI group revealed decreases in cortical thickness over time in numerous aspects throughout the right and left cortical surface, but with notable “sparing” of the right and left frontal and temporal poles, the medial aspects of both the frontal lobes, the left fusiform gyrus, and the cingulate bilaterally. An

  12. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: ‘SCOPEX’ a randomised control trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. Methods/design 62 people aged 30–50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. Discussion The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home-based, physiotherapist

  13. Association of medial meniscal extrusion with medial tibial osteophyte distance detected by T2 mapping MRI in patients with early-stage knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hada, Shinnosuke; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Liu, Lizu; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Futami, Ippei; Yusup, Anwajan; Takamura, Tomohiro; Arita, Hitoshi; Shiozawa, Jun; Aoki, Takako; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shigeki; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Okada, Yasunori; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    Medial meniscal extrusion (MME) is associated with progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), but no or little information is available for relationships between MME and osteophytes, which are found in cartilage and bone parts. Because of the limitation in detectability of the cartilage part of osteophytes by radiography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the rate of development and size of osteophytes appear to have been underestimated. Because T2 mapping MRI may enable us to evaluate the cartilage part of osteophytes, we aimed to examine the association between MME and OA-related changes, including osteophytes, by using conventional and T2 mapping MRI. Patients with early-stage knee OA (n = 50) were examined. MRI-detected OA-related changes, in addition to MME, were evaluated according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score. T2 values of the medial meniscus and osteophytes were measured on T2 mapping images. Osteophytes surgically removed from patients with end-stage knee OA were histologically analyzed and compared with findings derived by radiography and MRI. Medial side osteophytes were detected by T2 mapping MRI in 98% of patients with early-stage knee OA, although the detection rate was 48% by conventional MRI and 40% by radiography. Among the OA-related changes, medial tibial osteophyte distance was most closely associated with MME, as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis, in the patients with early-stage knee OA (β = 0.711, p < 0.001). T2 values of the medial meniscus were directly correlated with MME in patients with early-stage knee OA, who showed ≥ 3 mm of MME (r = 0.58, p = 0.003). The accuracy of osteophyte evaluation by T2 mapping MRI was confirmed by histological analysis of the osteophytes removed from patients with end-stage knee OA. Our study demonstrates that medial tibial osteophyte evaluated by T2 mapping MRI is frequently observed in the patients with early-stage knee

  14. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Roos, Ewa M; Hodges, Paul W; Staples, Margaret; Bennell, Kim L

    2012-11-27

    Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. 62 people aged 30-50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee

  15. Distinct Regions within Medial Prefrontal Cortex Process Pain and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Andrew; Nee, Derek Evan; Alexander, William H.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) suggest that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) region is responsive to a wide variety of stimuli and psychological states, such as pain, cognitive control, and prediction error (PE). In contrast, a recent meta-analysis argues that the dACC is selective for pain, whereas the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA are specifically associated with higher-level cognitive processes (Lieberman and Eisenberger, 2015). To empirically test this claim, we manipulated effects of pain, conflict, and PE in a single experiment using human subjects. We observed a robust dorsal-ventral dissociation within the mPFC with cognitive effects of PE and conflict overlapping dorsally and pain localized more ventrally. Classification of subjects based on the presence or absence of a paracingulate sulcus showed that PE effects extended across the dorsal area of the dACC and into the pre-SMA. These results begin to resolve recent controversies by showing the following: (1) the mPFC includes dissociable regions for pain and cognitive processing; and (2) meta-analyses are correct in localizing cognitive effects to the dACC, although these effects extend to the pre-SMA as well. These results both provide evidence distinguishing between different theories of mPFC function and highlight the importance of taking individual anatomical variability into account when conducting empirical studies of the mPFC. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Decades of neuroimaging research have shown the mPFC to represent a wide variety of stimulus processing and cognitive states. However, recently it has been argued whether distinct regions of the mPFC separately process pain and cognitive phenomena. To address this controversy, this study directly compared pain and cognitive processes within subjects. We found a double dissociation within the mPFC with pain localized ventral to the cingulate sulcus and cognitive effects localized more dorsally within

  16. The Anatomic Midpoint of the Attachment of the Medial Patellofemoral Complex.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho J; Voss, Andreas; Fulkerson, John P

    2016-07-20

    The medial patellofemoral ligament varies in attachment of its fibers to the patella and vastus intermedius tendon. Our aim was to identify and describe its anatomic midpoint. To account for the variability of the attachment site, we refer to it as the medial patellofemoral complex. Using AutoCAD software, we identified the midpoint of the medial patellofemoral complex attachment on photographs of 31 cadaveric knee dissections. The midpoint was referenced relative to the superior articular surface of the patella (P1) and was described in terms of the percentage of the patellar articular length distal to this point. A second point, at the junction of the medial border of the vastus intermedius tendon with the superior articular border of the patella, was identified (P2). The distances of the midpoint to P1 and P2 were calculated and were compared using paired t tests. Twenty-five images had appropriate quality and landmarks for digital analysis. The midpoint of the medial patellofemoral complex was located a mean (and standard deviation) of 2.3% ± 15.8% of the patellar articular length distal to the superior pole and was at or proximal to P1 in 12 knees. In all knees, the midpoint was at or proximal to P2. After exclusion of 2 knees with vastus intermedius tendon attachments only, the medial patellofemoral complex midpoint was closer to P2 (5.3% ± 8.6% of the patellar articular length) than to P1 (9.3% ± 8.5% of the patellar articular length) (p = 0.06). The midpoint of the medial patellofemoral complex was 2.3% of the articular length distal to the superior pole of the patella. Additionally, we describe an anatomic landmark at the junction of the medial border of the vastus intermedius tendon and the articular border of the patella that approximates the midpoint of this complex. Our study shows that the anatomic midpoint of the attachment of the medial patellofemoral complex is proximal to the junction of the medial vastus intermedius tendon and the articular

  17. Medial versus lateral supraspinatus tendon properties: implications for double-row rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Vincent M; Wang, Fan Chia; McNickle, Allison G; Friel, Nicole A; Yanke, Adam B; Chubinskaya, Susan; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J

    2010-12-01

    Rotator cuff repair retear rates range from 25% to 90%, necessitating methods to improve repair strength. Although numerous laboratory studies have compared single-row with double-row fixation properties, little is known regarding regional (ie, medial vs lateral) suture retention properties in intact and torn tendons. A torn supraspinatus tendon will have reduced suture retention properties on the lateral aspect of the tendon compared with the more medial musculotendinous junction. Controlled laboratory study. Human supraspinatus tendons (torn and intact) were randomly assigned for suture retention mechanical testing, ultrastructural collagen fibril analysis, or histologic testing after suture pullout testing. For biomechanical evaluation, sutures were placed either at the musculotendinous junction (medial) or 10 mm from the free margin (lateral), and tendons were elongated to failure. Collagen fibril assessments were performed using transmission electron microscopy. Intact tendons showed no regional differences with respect to suture retention properties. In contrast, among torn tendons, the medial region exhibited significantly higher stiffness and work values relative to the lateral region. For the lateral region, work to 10-mm displacement (1592 ± 261 N-mm) and maximum load (265 ± 44 N) for intact tendons were significantly higher (P < .05) than that of torn tendons (1086 ± 388 N-mm and 177 ± 71 N, respectively). For medial suture placement, maximum load, stiffness, and work of intact and torn tendons were similar (P > .05). Regression analyses for the intact and torn groups revealed generally low correlations between donor age and the 3 biomechanical indices. For both intact and torn tendons, the mean fibril diameter and area density were greater in the medial region relative to the lateral (P ≤ .05). In the lateral tendon, but not the medial region, torn specimens showed a significantly lower fibril area fraction (48.3% ± 3.8%) than intact specimens

  18. Longitudinal analysis of tibiofemoral cartilage contact area and position in ACL reconstructed patients.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ellison; Amano, Keiko; Pedoia, Valentina; Souza, Richard B; Ma, C Benjamin; Li, Xiaojuan

    2018-04-18

    Patients who have suffered ACL injury are more likely to develop early onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis despite reconstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in the tibiofemoral cartilage contact area size and location after ACL injury and reconstruction. Thirty-one patients with isolated unilateral ACL injury were followed with T 2 weighted Fast Spin Echo, T 1ρ and T 2 MRI at baseline prior to reconstruction, and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Areas were delineated in FSE images with an in-house Matlab program using a spline-based semi-automated segmentation algorithm. Tibiofemoral contact area and centroid position along the anterior-posterior axis were calculated along with T 1ρ and T 2 relaxation times on both the injured and non-injured knees. At baseline, the injured knees had significantly smaller and more posteriorly positioned contact areas on the medial tibial surface compared to corresponding healthy knees. These differences persisted 6 months after reconstruction. Moreover, subjects with more anterior medial centroid positions at 6 months had elevated T 1ρ and T 2 measures in the posterior medial tibial plateau at 1 year. Changes in contact area and centroid position after ACL injury and reconstruction may characterize some of the mechanical factors contributing to post-traumatic osteoarthritis. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2018 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. What to do with medialized tympanostomy tubes? A survey of pediatric otolaryngologists.

    PubMed

    Bezdjian, Aren; Jiang, Joanna; Maby, Alexandra; Daniel, Sam J

    2018-01-01

    Tympanostomy tube placement is the most common surgical procedure performed in children. Medial migration of a tympanostomy tube is a rare occurrence where the tube migrates into the middle ear cavity as opposed to its normal extrusion into the external auditory canal. Whether medialized tympanostomy tubes should be surgically removed in asymptomatic patients is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine experience and management approach of medialized tympanostomy tubes among pediatric otolaryngologists. A 12-question cross-section survey was designed and distributed to the American Society of Pediatric Otolaryngology (ASPO) members. The survey study was granted McGill University institutional review board and ASPO research committee approval. The survey data were filtered and cross-tabulated. Descriptive statistics were generated. 128 pediatric otolaryngologists completed the 12-question survey. The majority of respondents had experienced at least one case of medialized tympanostomy tube (90.6%). The majority of patients (82.0%) were asymptomatic. 74 out of 128 respondents (57.8%) indicated that they would not remove a medialized tube in an asymptomatic patient. However, 7.0% of those respondents clarified that they would proceed to surgical removal if the patient were undergoing general anesthesia for another surgery. 30.5% of respondents indicated that they would surgically remove the tube even if the patient were asymptomatic. 6.3% of respondents indicated that opted management in children would be based on a shared decision with parents. Most respondents (80.5%) did not experience complications with surgical removal nor with elected observation. There is no consensus among pediatric otolaryngologists regarding the necessity of surgically removing a medialized tympanostomy tube in asymptomatic patients. The survey suggests that both options are acceptable. If observation is chosen, it is important that parents are well informed of the

  20. Variations in medial-lateral hamstring force and force ratio influence tibiofemoral kinematics.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Sami; Fitzwater, Fallon G; Cyr, Adam J; Maletsky, Lorin P

    2016-10-01

    A change in hamstring strength and activation is typically seen after injuries or invasive surgeries such as anterior cruciate reconstruction or total knee replacement. While many studies have investigated the influence of isometric increases in hamstring load on knee joint kinematics, few have quantified the change in kinematics due to a variation in medial to lateral hamstring force ratio. This study examined the changes in knee joint kinematics on eight cadaveric knees during an open-chain deep knee bend for six different loading configurations: five loaded hamstring configurations that varied the ratio of a total load of 175 N between the semimembranosus and biceps femoris and one with no loads on the hamstring. The anterior-posterior translation of the medial and lateral femoral condyles' lowest points along proximal-distal axis of the tibia, the axial rotation of the tibia, and the quadriceps load were measured at each flexion angle. Unloading the hamstring shifted the medial and lateral lowest points posteriorly and increased tibial internal rotation. The influence of unloading hamstrings on quadriceps load was small in early flexion and increased with knee flexion. The loading configuration with the highest lateral hamstrings force resulted in the most posterior translation of the medial lowest point, most anterior translation of the lateral lowest point, and the highest tibial external rotation of the five loading configurations. As the medial hamstring force ratio increased, the medial lowest point shifted anteriorly, the lateral lowest point shifted posteriorly, and the tibia rotated more internally. The results of this study, demonstrate that variation in medial-lateral hamstrings force and force ratio influence tibiofemoral transverse kinematics and quadriceps loads required to extend the knee. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1707-1715, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of meniscal extrusion in medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chul-Jun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Jeong; Choi, Chong-Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between meniscal extrusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tearing of the posterior root of the medial meniscus, as well as to understand the relation between meniscal extrusion and chondral lesions. From January 2007 to December 2008, 387 consecutive cases of medial meniscal tears were treated arthroscopically. Of these cases, 248 (64.1%) with MRI were reviewed. Arthroscopic findings were reviewed for the type of tear and medial compartment cartilage lesion. Root tear was defined as a radial tear in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus near the tibial spine (i.e., within 5 mm of the root attachment). An MRI scan of the knee was used to evaluate the presence and extent of meniscal extrusion. Meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater was considered pathologic. Arthroscopic findings were compared with respect to the extent of meniscal extrusion. There were 98 male patients and 150 female patients. The mean age was 53.5 years (range, 15 to 81 years). The results showed 127 cases (51.2%) in which the medial meniscus had meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater. Posterior root tears were found in 66 (26.6%) of the 248 knees. The mean meniscal extrusion in patients with root tear was 3.8 ± 1.4 mm, whereas the mean extrusion of those who had no root tear was 2.7 ± 1.3 mm. We found an association between pathologic meniscal extrusion and root tear (P < .001). Meniscal extrusion showed a low positive predictive value (39%) and specificity (58%) with regard to the meniscal root tear. Meniscal extrusion was also significantly correlated with severity of chondral lesions (P < .001). Considerable extrusion (≥3 mm) can be associated with tearing of the medial meniscus root and chondral lesion of the medial femoral condyle. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. How tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations affect predictions of medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Zachary F; DeMers, Matthew S; Delp, Scott L; Browning, Raymond C

    2015-02-26

    Understanding degeneration of biological and prosthetic knee joints requires knowledge of the in-vivo loading environment during activities of daily living. Musculoskeletal models can estimate medial/lateral tibiofemoral compartment contact forces, yet anthropometric differences between individuals make accurate predictions challenging. We developed a full-body OpenSim musculoskeletal model with a knee joint that incorporates subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment (i.e. knee varus-valgus) and geometry (i.e. contact locations). We tested the accuracy of our model and determined the importance of these subject-specific parameters by comparing estimated to measured medial and lateral contact forces during walking in an individual with an instrumented knee replacement and post-operative genu valgum (6°). The errors in the predictions of the first peak medial and lateral contact force were 12.4% and 11.9%, respectively, for a model with subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations determined through radiographic analysis, vs. 63.1% and 42.0%, respectively, for a model with generic parameters. We found that each degree of tibiofemoral alignment deviation altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 51N (r(2)=0.99), while each millimeter of medial-lateral translation of the compartment contact point locations altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 41N (r(2)=0.99). The model, available at www.simtk.org/home/med-lat-knee/, enables the specification of subject-specific joint alignment and compartment contact locations to more accurately estimate medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces in individuals with non-neutral alignment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pediatric obesity and walking duration increase medial tibiofemoral compartment contact forces.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Zachary F; Board, Wayne J; Browning, Raymond C

    2016-01-01

    With the high prevalence of pediatric obesity there is a need for structured physical activity during childhood. However, altered tibiofemoral loading during physical activity in obese children likely contribute to their increased risk of orthopedic disorders of the knee. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of pediatric obesity and walking duration on medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces. We collected experimental biomechanics data during treadmill walking at 1 m•s(-1) for 20 min in 10 obese and 10 healthy-weight 8-12 year-olds. We created subject-specific musculoskeletal models using radiographic measures of tibiofemoral alignment and centers-of-pressure, and predicted medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces at the beginning and end of each trial. Obesity and walking duration affected tibiofemoral loading. At the beginning of the trail, the average percent of the total load passing through the medial compartment during stance was 85% in the obese children and 63% in the healthy-weight children; at the end of the trial, the medial distribution was 90% in the obese children and 72% in the healthy-weight children. Medial compartment loading rates were 1.78 times greater in the obese participants. The medial compartment loading rate increased 17% in both groups at the end compared to the beginning of the trial (p = 0.001). We found a strong linear relationship between body-fat percentage and the medial-lateral load distribution (r(2) = 0.79). Altered tibiofemoral loading during walking in obese children may contribute to their increased risk of knee pain and pathology. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. How Tibiofemoral Alignment and Contact Locations Affect Predictions of Medial and Lateral Tibiofemoral Contact Forces

    PubMed Central

    Lerner, Zachary F.; DeMers, Matthew S.; Delp, Scott L.; Browning, Raymond C.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding degeneration of biological and prosthetic knee joints requires knowledge of the in-vivo loading environment during activities of daily living. Musculoskeletal models can estimate medial/lateral tibiofemoral compartment contact forces, yet anthropometric differences between individuals make accurate predictions challenging. We developed a full-body OpenSim musculoskeletal model with a knee joint that incorporates subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment (i.e. knee varus-valgus) and geometry (i.e. contact locations). We tested the accuracy of our model and determined the importance of these subject-specific parameters by comparing estimated to measured medial and lateral contact forces during walking in an individual with an instrumented knee replacement and post-operative genu valgum (6°). The errors in the predictions of the first peak medial and lateral contact force were 12.4% and 11.9%, respectively, for a model with subject-specific tibiofemoral alignment and contact locations determined via radiographic analysis, vs. 63.1% and 42.0%, respectively, for a model with generic parameters. We found that each degree of tibiofemoral alignment deviation altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 51N (r2=0.99), while each millimeter of medial-lateral translation of the compartment contact point locations altered the first peak medial compartment contact force by 41N (r2=0.99). The model, available at www.simtk.org/home/med-lat-knee/, enables the specification of subject-specific joint alignment and compartment contact locations to more accurately estimate medial and lateral tibiofemoral contact forces in individuals with non-neutral alignment. PMID:25595425

  5. Functional specialization of medial auditory belt cortex in the alert rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Kusmierek, Pawel; Rauschecker, Josef P

    2009-09-01

    Responses of neural units in two areas of the medial auditory belt (middle medial area [MM] and rostral medial area [RM]) were tested with tones, noise bursts, monkey calls (MC), and environmental sounds (ES) in microelectrode recordings from two alert rhesus monkeys. For comparison, recordings were also performed from two core areas (primary auditory area [A1] and rostral area [R]) of the auditory cortex. All four fields showed cochleotopic organization, with best (center) frequency [BF(c)] gradients running in opposite directions in A1 and MM than in R and RM. The medial belt was characterized by a stronger preference for band-pass noise than for pure tones found medially to the core areas. Response latencies were shorter for the two more posterior (middle) areas MM and A1 than for the two rostral areas R and RM, reaching values as low as 6 ms for high BF(c) in MM and A1, and strongly depended on BF(c). The medial belt areas exhibited a higher selectivity to all stimuli, in particular to noise bursts, than the core areas. An increased selectivity to tones and noise bursts was also found in the anterior fields; the opposite was true for highly temporally modulated ES. Analysis of the structure of neural responses revealed that neurons were driven by low-level acoustic features in all fields. Thus medial belt areas RM and MM have to be considered early stages of auditory cortical processing. The anteroposterior difference in temporal processing indices suggests that R and RM may belong to a different hierarchical level or a different computational network than A1 and MM.

  6. Systematic review of medial versus lateral survivorship in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    van der List, J P; McDonald, L S; Pearle, A D

    2015-12-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has gained popularity in patients with isolated unicompartmental osteoarthritis. To our knowledge no systematic review has assessed and compared survivorship of medial and lateral UKA. We performed a systematic review assessing medial and lateral UKA survivorship and comparing survivorship in cohort studies and registry-based studies. A search was performed using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane systems. Ninety-six eligible studies reported survivorship, of which fifty-eight reported medial and sixteen reported lateral UKA survivorship. Nineteen cohort studies and seven registry-based studies reported combined medial and lateral survivorship. The five-year, ten-year and fifteen-year medial UKA survivorship was 93.9%, 91.7% and 88.9%, respectively. Lateral UKA survivorship was 93.2%, 91.4% and 89.4% at five-year, ten-year and fifteen-year, respectively. No statistical difference between both compartments was found. At twenty years and twenty-five years survivorship of medial UKA was 84.7% and 80%, respectively, but no studies reported lateral UKA survivorship at these follow-up intervals. Survivorship of cohort studies was not significantly higher compared to registry-based studies at five years (94.3 vs. 91.7, respectively, p=0.133) but was significantly higher at ten years (90.5 vs. 84.1, p=0.015). This is the first systematic review that shows no difference in the five-, ten- and fifteen-year survivorship of medial and lateral UKA. We found a lower survivorship in the registry-based studies compared to cohort studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Longitudinal joint treatment : construction report.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-05-01

    Maine highways have been showing signs of longitudinal joint failure for a number of : years. In an effort to reduce the amount of joint failures the Maine Department of : Transportation (MDOT) is currently evaluating two projects. One project is mon...

  8. Biomechanical consequences of a tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus. Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Harner, Christopher D; Mauro, Craig S; Lesniak, Bryson P; Romanowski, James R

    2009-10-01

    Tears of the posterior root of the medial meniscus are becoming increasingly recognized. They can cause rapidly progressive arthritis, yet their biomechanical effects are not understood. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of posterior root tears of the medial meniscus and their repairs on tibiofemoral joint contact pressure and kinematics. Nine fresh-frozen cadaver knees were used. An axial load of 1000 N was applied with a custom testing jig at each of four knee-flexion angles: 0 degrees , 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees . The knees were otherwise unconstrained. Four conditions were tested: (1) intact, (2) a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus, (3) a repaired posterior root tear, and (4) a total medial meniscectomy. Fuji pressure-sensitive film was used to record the contact pressure and area for each testing condition. Kinematic data were obtained by using a robotic arm to record the position of the knees for each loading condition. Three-dimensional knee kinematics were analyzed with custom programs with use of previously described transformations. The measured variables were axial rotation, varus angulation, lateral translation, and anterior translation. In the medial compartment, a posterior root tear of the medial meniscus caused a 25% increase in peak contact pressure compared with that found in the intact condition (p < 0.001). Repair restored the peak contact pressure to normal. No difference was detected between the peak contact pressure after the total medial meniscectomy and that associated with the root tear. The peak contact pressure in the lateral compartment after the total medial meniscectomy was up to 13% greater than that for all other conditions (p = 0.026). Significant increases in external rotation and lateral tibial translation, compared with the values in the intact knee, were observed in association with the posterior root tear (2.98 degrees and 0.84 mm, respectively) and the meniscectomy (4.45 degrees and 0

  9. Medial prefrontal cortex supports source memory accuracy for self-referenced items

    PubMed Central

    Leshikar, Eric D.; Duarte, Audrey

    2013-01-01

    Previous behavioral work suggests that processing information in relation to the self enhances subsequent item recognition. Neuroimaging evidence further suggests that regions along the cortical midline, particularly those of the medial prefrontal cortex, underlie this benefit. There has been little work to date, however, on the effects of self-referential encoding on source memory accuracy or whether the medial prefrontal cortex might contribute to source memory for self-referenced materials. In the current study, we used fMRI to measure neural activity while participants studied and subsequently retrieved pictures of common objects superimposed on one of two background scenes (sources) under either self-reference or self-external encoding instructions. Both item recognition and source recognition were better for objects encoded self-referentially than self-externally. Neural activity predictive of source accuracy was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (BA 10) at the time of study for self-referentially but not self-externally encoded objects. The results of this experiment suggest that processing information in relation to the self leads to a mnemonic benefit for source level features, and that activity in the medial prefrontal cortex contributes to this source memory benefit. This evidence expands the purported role that the medial prefrontal cortex plays in self-referencing. PMID:21936739

  10. Is the posterior cruciate ligament necessary for medial pivot knee prostheses with regard to postoperative kinematics?

    PubMed

    Fang, Chao-Hua; Chang, Chia-Ming; Lai, Yu-Shu; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Song, Da-Yong; McClean, Colin J; Kao, Hao-Yuan; Qu, Tie-Bing; Cheng, Cheng-Kung

    2015-11-01

    Excellent clinical and kinematical performance is commonly reported after medial pivot knee arthroplasty. However, there is conflicting evidence as to whether the posterior cruciate ligament should be retained. This study simulated how the posterior cruciate ligament, post-cam mechanism and medial tibial insert morphology may affect postoperative kinematics. After the computational intact knee model was validated according to the motion of a normal knee, four TKA models were built based on a medial pivot prosthesis; PS type, modified PS type, CR type with PCL retained and CR type with PCL sacrificed. Anteroposterior translation and axial rotation of femoral condyles on the tibia during 0°-135° knee flexion were analyzed. There was no significant difference in kinematics between the intact knee model and reported data for a normal knee. In all TKA models, normal motion was almost fully restored, except for the CR type with PCL sacrificed. Sacrificing the PCL produced paradoxical anterior femoral translation and tibial external rotation during full flexion. Either the posterior cruciate ligament or post-cam mechanism is necessary for medial pivot prostheses to regain normal kinematics after total knee arthroplasty. The morphology of medial tibial insert was also shown to produce a small but noticeable effect on knee kinematics. V.

  11. Novel air-injection technique to locate the medial cut end of lacerated canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bingqian; Li, Yonghao; Long, Chongde; Wang, Zhonghao; Liang, Xuanwei; Ge, Jian; Wang, Zhichong

    2013-12-01

    Locating the medial cut end of the severed canaliculus is the most difficult aspect of canalicular repair, especially in patients with more medial laceration, severe oedema, persistent errhysis and a narrow canaliculus. Irrigation is a widely used technique to identify the cut end; however, we found that air injected through the intact canaliculus with a straight needle failed to reflux when the common canaliculus or lacrimal sac was not blocked. We describe a simple, safe and efficient air-injection technique to identify the medial cut edge of a lacerated canaliculus. In this method, we initially submersed the medial canthus under normal saline, then injected filtered air through the intact canaliculus using a side port stainless steel probe with a closed round tip. The tip was designed to block the common canaliculus to form a relatively closed system. The efficiency of this novel air-injection technique was equivalent to the traditional technique but does not require the cooperation of the patient to blow air. Using this technique, the medial cut end was successfully identified by locating the air-bubble exit within minutes in 19 cases of mono-canalicular laceration without any complication.

  12. Medial Tibial Stress Shielding: A Limitation of Cobalt Chromium Tibial Baseplates.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Stress shielding is a well-recognized complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly described. Specifically, no study to our knowledge has evaluated the radiographic impact of utilizing various tibial component compositions on tibial stress shielding. We retrospectively reviewed 3 cohorts of 50 patients that had a preoperative varus deformity and were implanted with a titanium, cobalt chromium (CoCr), or an all polyethylene tibial implant. A radiographic comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of medial tibial bone loss in each cohort. In addition, a clinical outcomes analysis was performed on the 3 cohorts. The CoCr was noted to have a statistically significant increase in medial tibial bone loss compared with the other 2 cohorts. The all polyethylene cohort had a statistically significantly higher final Knee Society Score and was associated with the least amount of stress shielding. The CoCr tray is the most rigid of 3 implants that were compared in this study. Interestingly, this cohort had the highest amount of medial tibial bone loss. In addition, 1 patient in the CoCr cohort had medial soft tissue irritation which was attributed to a prominent medial tibial tray which required revision surgery to mitigate the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Physical examination and imaging of medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner of the knee.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jason A; Kurzweil, Peter R

    2015-06-01

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament. Most will heal well with nonoperative treatment. However, not all medial knee injuries are the same. A detailed physical examination can help determine the severity of the medial-sided injury. When combined with advanced imaging, the examination will delineate damage to associated medial knee structures, including the location of MCL damage, posteromedial capsule injuries, and combined cruciate injuries. Failure to recognize MCL injuries that may be prone to chronic laxity can lead to significant disability, joint damage, and failure of concomitant cruciate ligament reconstructions. Magnetic resonance imaging is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging, with coronal sequences allowing full assessment of the MCL complex. Tangential views aid in the diagnosis of concomitant injuries. Stress radiography can play a role in evaluating MCL healing and subtle chronic laxity. Ultrasonography is also gaining acceptance as a means to assess MCL injuries. Use of a detailed examination and advanced imaging will allow optimal treatment of medial knee injuries and improve clinical outcomes.

  14. Retrograde amnesia in patients with hippocampal, medial temporal, temporal lobe, or frontal pathology.

    PubMed

    Bright, Peter; Buckman, Joseph; Fradera, Alex; Yoshimasu, Haruo; Colchester, Alan C F; Kopelman, Michael D

    2006-01-01

    There is considerable controversy concerning the theoretical basis of retrograde amnesia (R.A.). In the present paper, we compare medial temporal, medial plus lateral temporal, and frontal lesion patients on a new autobiographical memory task and measures of the more semantic aspects of memory (famous faces and news events). Only those patients with damage extending beyond the medial temporal cortex into the lateral temporal regions showed severe impairment on free recall remote memory tasks, and this held for both the autobiographical and the more semantic memory tests. However, on t-test analysis, the medial temporal group was impaired in retrieving recent autobiographical memories. Within the medial temporal group, those patients who had combined hippocampal and parahippocampal atrophy (H+) on quantified MRI performed somewhat worse on the semantic tasks than those with atrophy confined to the hippocampi (H-), but scores were very similar on autobiographical episodic recall. Correlational analyses with regional MRI volumes showed that lateral temporal volume was correlated significantly with performance on all three retrograde amnesia tests. The findings are discussed in terms of consolidation, reconsolidation, and multiple trace theory: We suggest that a widely distributed network of regions underlies the retrieval of past memories, and that the extent of lateral temporal damage appears to be critical to the emergence of a severe remote memory impairment.

  15. TopMaker: A Technique for Automatic Multi-Block Topology Generation Using the Medial Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidmann, James D. (Technical Monitor); Rigby, David L.

    2004-01-01

    A two-dimensional multi-block topology generation technique has been developed. Very general configurations are addressable by the technique. A configuration is defined by a collection of non-intersecting closed curves, which will be referred to as loops. More than a single loop implies that holes exist in the domain, which poses no problem. This technique requires only the medial vertices and the touch points that define each vertex. From the information about the medial vertices, the connectivity between medial vertices is generated. The physical shape of the medial edge is not required. By applying a few simple rules to each medial edge, the multiblock topology is generated with no user intervention required. The resulting topologies contain only the level of complexity dictated by the configurations. Grid lines remain attached to the boundary except at sharp concave turns where a change in index family is introduced as would be desired. Keeping grid lines attached to the boundary is especially important in the area of computational fluid dynamics where highly clustered grids are used near no-slip boundaries. This technique is simple and robust and can easily be incorporated into the overall grid generation process.

  16. Medial prefrontal cortex supports source memory accuracy for self-referenced items.

    PubMed

    Leshikar, Eric D; Duarte, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    Previous behavioral work suggests that processing information in relation to the self enhances subsequent item recognition. Neuroimaging evidence further suggests that regions along the cortical midline, particularly those of the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), underlie this benefit. There has been little work to date, however, on the effects of self-referential encoding on source memory accuracy or whether the medial PFC might contribute to source memory for self-referenced materials. In the current study, we used fMRI to measure neural activity while participants studied and subsequently retrieved pictures of common objects superimposed on one of two background scenes (sources) under either self-reference or self-external encoding instructions. Both item recognition and source recognition were better for objects encoded self-referentially than self-externally. Neural activity predictive of source accuracy was observed in the medial PFC (Brodmann area 10) at the time of study for self-referentially but not self-externally encoded objects. The results of this experiment suggest that processing information in relation to the self leads to a mnemonic benefit for source level features, and that activity in the medial PFC contributes to this source memory benefit. This evidence expands the purported role that the medial PFC plays in self-referencing.

  17. Multi-parameter analysis of titanium vocal fold medializing implant in an excised larynx model

    PubMed Central

    Witt, Rachel E.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Friedrich, Gerhard; Rieves, Adam L.; Schoepke, Benjamin J.; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the efficacy of the titanium vocal fold medializing implant (TVFMI) for the treatment of unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) based on acoustic, aerodynamic, and mucosal wave measurements in an excised larynx setup. Methods Measurements were recorded on eight excised canine larynges with simulated UVFP before and after medialization with the TVFMI. Results Phonation threshold flow (PTF) and phonation threshold power (PTW) decreased significantly after medialization (p<0.001; p=0.008). Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) also decreased, but this difference was not significant (p=0.081). Percent jitter and percent shimmer decreased significantly after medialization (p=0.005; p=0.034). Signal to noise ratio (SNR) increased significantly (p=0.05). Differences in mucosal wave characteristics were discernable, but not significant. Phase difference between the normal and paralyzed vocal fold and amplitude of the paralyzed vocal fold decreased (p=0.15; p=0.78). Glottal gap decreased significantly (p=0.004). Conclusions The TVFMI was effective in achieving vocal fold medialization, improving vocal aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of phonation significantly and mucosal wave characteristics discernibly. This study provides objective, quantitative support for the use of the TVFMI in improving vocal function in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis. PMID:20336924

  18. Posterior horn instability of the medial meniscus a sign of posterior meniscotibial ligament insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mariani, P P

    2011-07-01

    In longstanding chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency, we identified an abnormal movement of the posterior medial meniscal horn, likely due to insufficiency of the posteromedial meniscotibial ligament. Passing from extension to flexion or vice versa, the medial posterior horn slides below the posterior rim of the tibia exposing the tibial plateau. Fixation with suture anchors of the meniscotibial ligament through a posteromedial portal restored normal meniscotibial tension and reduced instability of the meniscal posterior horn. The purpose of the present study was to present the arthroscopic features of posterior medial meniscus instability and to report results following arthroscopic repair. During the two-year study period, from 2007 through 2008, this arthroscopic feature was detected in 12 patients, 5 patients had failure of a previous ACL reconstruction and 7 patients had delay in ligamentous reconstruction for various reasons. All patients were affected by severe anterior-posterior translation with 11.3 ± 4.3 mm of side-to-side difference at KT-2000 and by associated rotatory laxity with grade 3 of pivot shift. At follow-up of 1 year, the combined ACL reconstruction and fixation of the posteromedial horn showed a reduction in the rotatory and anteroposterior laxity. This study suggests the importance of a proper arthroscopic evaluation of the posterior medial capsule in patients with chronic ACL insufficiency and highlights the potential presence of an unstable posterior horn of the medial meniscus as an indirect arthroscopic sign of peripheral laxity.

  19. TopMaker: Technique Developed for Automatic Multiblock Topology Generation Using the Medial Axis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rigby, David L.

    2004-01-01

    The TopMaker technique was developed in an effort to reduce the time required for grid generation in complex numerical studies. Topology generation accounts for much of the man-hours required for structured multiblock grids. With regard to structured multiblock grids, topology refers to how the blocks are arranged and connected. A two-dimensional multiblock topology generation technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Very general configurations can be addressed by the technique. A configuration is defined by a collection of non-intersecting closed curves, which will be referred to as loops. More than a single loop implies that holes exist in the domain, which poses no problem. This technique requires only the medial vertices and the touch points that define each vertex. From the information about the medial vertices, the connectivity between medial vertices is generated. The physical shape of the medial edge is not required. By applying a few simple rules to each medial edge, a multiblock topology can be generated without user intervention. The resulting topologies contain only the level of complexity dictated by the configurations. Grid lines remain attached to the boundary except at sharp concave turns, where a change in index family is introduced as would be desired. Keeping grid lines attached to the boundary is especially important in computational fluid dynamics, where highly clustered grids are used near no-slip boundaries. This technique is simple and robust and can easily be incorporated into the overall grid-generation process.

  20. Age-Group Differences in Medial Cortex Activity Associated with Thinking About Self-Relevant Agendas

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Karen J.; Raye, Carol L.; Ebner, Natalie C.; Tubridy, Shannon M.; Frankel, Hillary; Johnson, Marcia K.

    2009-01-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study compared young and older adults’ brain activity as they thought about motivationally self-relevant agendas (hopes and aspirations, duties and obligations) and concrete control items (e.g., shape of USA). Young adults’ activity replicated a double dissociation (Johnson et al., 2006): an area of medial frontal gyrus/anterior cingulate cortex was most active during hopes and aspirations trials and an area of medial posterior cortex, primarily posterior cingulate, was most active during duties and obligations trials. Compared to young adults, older adults showed attenuated responses in medial cortex, especially in medial prefrontal cortex, with both less activity during self-relevant trials and less deactivation during control trials. The fMRI data, together with post-scan reports and the behavioral literature on age-group differences in motivational orientation, suggest that the differences in medial cortex seen in this study reflect young and older adults’ focus on different information during motivationally self-relevant thought. Differences also may be related to an age-associated deficit in controlled cognitive processes that are engaged by complex self-reflection and mediated by prefrontal cortex. PMID:19485660

  1. Contributions of Medial Temporal Lobe and Striatal Memory Systems to Learning and Retrieving Overlapping Spatial Memories

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Thackery I.; Stern, Chantal E.

    2014-01-01

    Many life experiences share information with other memories. In order to make decisions based on overlapping memories, we need to distinguish between experiences to determine the appropriate behavior for the current situation. Previous work suggests that the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and medial caudate interact to support the retrieval of overlapping navigational memories in different contexts. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to test the prediction that the MTL and medial caudate play complementary roles in learning novel mazes that cross paths with, and must be distinguished from, previously learned routes. During fMRI scanning, participants navigated virtual routes that were well learned from prior training while also learning new mazes. Critically, some routes learned during scanning shared hallways with those learned during pre-scan training. Overlap between mazes required participants to use contextual cues to select between alternative behaviors. Results demonstrated parahippocampal cortex activity specific for novel spatial cues that distinguish between overlapping routes. The hippocampus and medial caudate were active for learning overlapping spatial memories, and increased their activity for previously learned routes when they became context dependent. Our findings provide novel evidence that the MTL and medial caudate play complementary roles in the learning, updating, and execution of context-dependent navigational behaviors. PMID:23448868

  2. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Touryan, Sharon R; Greene, Erich J; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2006-06-01

    Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a 'self' and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus) during functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared these self-reflection conditions with a distraction condition in which participants thought about non-self-relevant items. Self-reflection resulted in greater activity than distraction in dorsomedial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, consistent with previous findings of activity in these areas during self-relevant thought. For additional medial areas, we report new evidence of a double dissociation of function between medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about hopes and aspirations, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about duties and obligations. One possibility is that activity in medial prefrontal cortex is associated with instrumental or agentic self-reflection, whereas posterior medial cortex is associated with experiential self-reflection. Another, not necessarily mutually exclusive, possibility is that medial prefrontal cortex is associated with a more inward-directed focus, while posterior cingulate is associated with a more outward-directed, social or contextual focus.

  3. Dissociating medial frontal and posterior cingulate activity during self-reflection

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Marcia K.; Raye, Carol L.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Touryan, Sharon R.; Greene, Erich J.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a ‘self’ and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus) during functional magnetic resonance imaging and compared these self-reflection conditions with a distraction condition in which participants thought about non-self-relevant items. Self-reflection resulted in greater activity than distraction in dorsomedial frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, consistent with previous findings of activity in these areas during self-relevant thought. For additional medial areas, we report new evidence of a double dissociation of function between medial prefrontal/anterior cingulate cortex, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about hopes and aspirations, and posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus, which showed relatively greater activity to thinking about duties and obligations. One possibility is that activity in medial prefrontal cortex is associated with instrumental or agentic self-reflection, whereas posterior medial cortex is associated with experiential self-reflection. Another, not necessarily mutually exclusive, possibility is that medial prefrontal cortex is associated with a more inward-directed focus, while posterior cingulate is associated with a more outward-directed, social or contextual focus. PMID:18574518

  4. Editorial Commentary: Chondrocytes Trump Ligaments! Partial Release of the Medial Collateral Ligament During Knee Arthroscopy Protects Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Leland, J Martin

    2016-10-01

    With knee arthroscopy being the most common orthopaedic procedure performed in the United States, it is crucial to be able to access the entire knee without iatrogenic injury. Frequently orthopaedic surgeons encounter tight medial compartments, creating difficulty in accessing the posterior horn of the medial meniscus without damaging the articular cartilage. Partial release of the medial collateral ligament during knee arthroscopy protects chondrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contrasting medial moraine development at adjacent temperate, maritime glaciers: Fox and Franz Josef Glaciers, South Westland, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Martin; Hagg, Wilfried; Winkler, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Medial moraines form important pathways for sediment transportation in valley glaciers. Despite the existence of well-defined medial moraines on several glaciers in the New Zealand Southern Alps, medial moraines there have hitherto escaped attention. The evolving morphology and debris content of medial moraines on Franz Josef Glacier and Fox Glacier on the western flank of the Southern Alps is the focus of this study. These temperate maritime glaciers exhibit accumulation zones of multiple basins that feed narrow tongues flowing down steep valleys and terminate 400 m above sea level. The medial moraines at both glaciers become very prominent in the lower ablation zones, where the medial moraines widen, and develop steeper flanks coeval with an increase in relative relief. Medial moraine growth appears somewhat self-limiting in that relief and slope angle increase eventually lead to transport of debris away from the medial moraine by mass-movement-related processes. Despite similarities in overall morphologies, a key contrast in medial moraine formation exists between the two glaciers. At Fox Glacier, the medial moraine consists of angular rockfall-derived debris, folded to varying degrees along flow-parallel axes throughout the tongue. The debris originates above the ELA, coalesces at flow-unit boundaries, and takes a medium/high level transport pathway before subsequently emerging at point-sources aligned with gently dipping fold hinges near the snout. In contrast at Franz Josef Glacier, the medial moraine emerges farther down-glacier immediately below a prominent rock knob. Clasts show a mix of angular to rounded shapes representing high level transport and subglacially transported materials, the latter facies possibly also elevated by supraglacial routing of subglacial meltwater. Our observations confirm that a variety of different debris sources, transport pathways, and structural glaciological processes can interact to form medial moraines within New Zealand

  6. Longitudinal white matter change in frontotemporal dementia subtypes and sporadic late onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Elahi, Fanny M; Marx, Gabe; Cobigo, Yann; Staffaroni, Adam M; Kornak, John; Tosun, Duygu; Boxer, Adam L; Kramer, Joel H; Miller, Bruce L; Rosen, Howard J

    2017-01-01

    Degradation of white matter microstructure has been demonstrated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In preparation for clinical trials, ongoing studies are investigating the utility of longitudinal brain imaging for quantification of disease progression. To date only one study has examined sample size calculations based on longitudinal changes in white matter integrity in FTLD. To quantify longitudinal changes in white matter microstructural integrity in the three canonical subtypes of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and AD using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 60 patients with clinical diagnoses of FTD, including 27 with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), 14 with non-fluent variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA), and 19 with semantic variant PPA (svPPA), as well as 19 patients with AD and 69 healthy controls were studied. We used a voxel-wise approach to calculate annual rate of change in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) in each group using two time points approximately one year apart. Mean rates of change in FA and MD in 48 atlas-based regions-of-interest, as well as global measures of cognitive function were used to calculate sample sizes for clinical trials (80% power, alpha of 5%). All FTD groups showed statistically significant baseline and longitudinal white matter degeneration, with predominant involvement of frontal tracts in the bvFTD group, frontal and temporal tracts in the PPA groups and posterior tracts in the AD group. Longitudinal change in MD yielded a larger number of regions with sample sizes below 100 participants per therapeutic arm in comparison with FA. SvPPA had the smallest sample size based on change in MD in the fornix (n = 41 participants per study arm to detect a 40% effect of drug), and nfvPPA and AD had their smallest sample sizes based on rate of change in MD within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus (n = 49 for nfvPPA, and n = 23 for AD). Bv

  7. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of a posteriorly flipped superior leaflet in a horizontal medial meniscus tear using a posterior transseptal portal.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ki-Mo; Ahn, Jin Hwan; Wang, Joon Ho

    2012-03-07

    This article describes a case of an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of a posteriorly flipped superior leaflet in a horizontal medial meniscus tear using the posterior transseptal portal. An arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for bucket handle or flap tears in medial or lateral compartments using ordinary portals is a relatively common procedure in irreparable cases. However, the posterior compartment of the knee is not readily accessible through ordinary arthroscopic portals. Therefore, it has been considered a blind spot. Through the posterior transseptal portal, surgeons can achieve excellent arthroscopic visualization of the posterior compartment and easily perform arthroscopic procedures of the posterior compartment of the knee. A 48-year-old woman presented with a 1-year history of pain in the medial aspect of the right knee joint. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a thinning of the medial meniscus posterior horn in coronal images and a sharp-edged triangle arising from the medial meniscus posterior horn between the medial femoral condyle and medial meniscus posterior horn on sagittal images (flipped-over sign). During the arthroscopic procedure, we found that the flipped leaflet was displaced posteriorly and was not mobile between the medial femoral condyle and medial meniscus posterior horn. Partial meniscectomy for a posteriorly displaced fragment can be performed successfully using the posterior transseptal portal. The posterior transseptal portal is useful for an arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of a posteriorly flipped leaflet in the posterior compartment of the knee. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. A new surgical technique for medial collateral ligament balancing: multiple needle puncturing.

    PubMed

    Bellemans, Johan; Vandenneucker, Hilde; Van Lauwe, Johan; Victor, Jan

    2010-10-01

    In this article, we present our experience with a new technique for medial soft tissue balancing, where we make multiple punctures in the medial collateral ligament (MCL) using a 19-gauge needle, to progressively stretch the MCL until a correct ligament balance is achieved. Ligament status was evaluated both before and after the procedure using computer navigation and mediolateral stress testing. The procedure was considered successful when 2 to 4-mm mediolateral joint line opening was obtained in extension and 2 to 6 mm in flexion. In 34 of 35 cases, a progressive correction of medial tightness was achieved according to the above described criteria. One case was considered overreleased in extension. Needle puncturing is a new, effective, and safe technique for progressive correction of MCL tightness in the varus knee. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exertional compartment syndrome of the medial foot compartment--diagnosis and treatment: a case report.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Faye E; Richie, Douglas H

    2014-07-01

    Exertional compartment syndrome in the foot is rarely reported and often confused with plantar fasciitis as a cause of arch pain in the running athlete. We describe a case involving a 19-year-old competitive collegiate runner who developed a chronic case of bilateral medial arch pain during training, which was initially diagnosed as plantar fasciitis but failed to respond to conventional treatment. After symptoms began to suggest exertional compartment syndrome, the diagnosis was confirmed by measuring an elevated resting pressure in the medial compartment of both feet. The patient underwent a bilateral medial compartment fasciotomy, which allowed a full return to activity, and has remained pain free after a 1-year follow-up.

  10. Tibial avulsion fracture of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Jonas Vestergård; Krogsgaard, Michael Rindom

    2014-01-01

    Few reports have described avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in skeletally immature patients. This lesion should not be overlooked as it damages the load absorptive (distributive) function of the meniscus, increasing the risk of cartilage degeneration. Two cases of displaced avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in children are presented along with a concise report of the literature regarding avulsion fractures of the posterior root of the medial meniscus. Both avulsions were reattached arthroscopically by trans-tibial pull-out sutures with a good clinical result at 2-years follow-up, and in one case, the avulsion was found at re-arthroscopy after 6 weeks to have healed.

  11. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  12. Fornix and medial temporal lobe lesions lead to comparable deficits in complex visual perception.

    PubMed

    Lech, Robert K; Koch, Benno; Schwarz, Michael; Suchan, Boris

    2016-05-04

    Recent research dealing with the structures of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) has shifted away from exclusively investigating memory-related processes and has repeatedly incorporated the investigation of complex visual perception. Several studies have demonstrated that higher level visual tasks can recruit structures like the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex in order to successfully perform complex visual discriminations, leading to a perceptual-mnemonic or representational view of the medial temporal lobe. The current study employed a complex visual discrimination paradigm in two patients suffering from brain lesions with differing locations and origin. Both patients, one with extensive medial temporal lobe lesions (VG) and one with a small lesion of the anterior fornix (HJK), were impaired in complex discriminations while showing otherwise mostly intact cognitive functions. The current data confirmed previous results while also extending the perceptual-mnemonic theory of the MTL to the main output structure of the hippocampus, the fornix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Glutamate microinjection in the medial septum of rats decreases paradoxical sleep and increases slow wave sleep.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Didhiti; Kaushik, Mahesh K; Jaryal, Ashok Kumar; Kumar, Velayudhan Mohan; Mallick, Hruda Nanda

    2012-05-09

    The role of the medial septum in suppressing paradoxical sleep and promoting slow wave sleep was suggested on the basis of neurotoxic lesion studies. However, these conclusions need to be substantiated with further experiments, including chemical stimulation studies. In this report, the medial septum was stimulated in adult male rats by microinjection of L-glutamate. Sleep-wakefulness was electrophysiologically recorded, through chronically implanted electrodes, for 2 h before the injection and 4 h after the injection. There was a decrease in paradoxical sleep during the first hour and an increase in slow wave sleep during the second hour after the injection. The present findings not only supported the lesion studies but also showed that the major role of the medial septum is to suppress paradoxical sleep.

  14. Effects of neonatal medial versus lateral temporal cortex injury: theoretical comment on Malkova et al. (2010).

    PubMed

    Kolb, Bryan

    2010-12-01

    The article by Malkova, Mishkin, Suomo, and Bachevalier (2010, this issue) adds an important piece to our understanding of the role of the medial versus lateral temporal regions in socioemotional behavior. In their paper, they evaluate the effect of infant and adult amygdala lesions and infant inferotemporal cortex lesions on the social interactions of monkeys in infancy and adulthood. The results show that medial temporal lesions performed in infants produce greater effects on socioaffective behavior than similar lesions in adulthood and that infant monkeys with inferotemporal lesions exhibit social deficits that are resolved by adulthood. These results are relevant to three significant issues: (1) the role of the medial temporal and lateral temporal cortex in the symptoms of the Kluver-Bucy syndrome; (2) the role of age at injury in behavioral change after cerebral injuries; and (3) the importance of lesion locus and behavioral measure for recovery from infant and adult cerebral injury. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. A giraffe neck sign of the medial meniscus: A characteristic finding of the medial meniscus posterior root tear on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Fujii, Masataka; Kodama, Yuya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-07-01

    The posterior root ligament of the medial meniscus (MM) has a critical role in regulating the MM movement. An accurate diagnosis of the MM posterior root tear (MMPRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for preventing sequential osteoarthritis following the MMPRT. However, diagnosis of the MMPRT is relatively difficult even after using several characteristic MRI findings. The aim of this study was to identify a useful meniscal body sign of the MMPRT for improving diagnostic MRI reading. Eighty-five patients who underwent surgical treatments for the MMPRT (39 knees) and other types of MM tears (49 knees) were included. The presence of characteristic MRI findings such as cleft sign, ghost sign, radial tear sign, medial extrusion sign, and new meniscal body shape-oriented "giraffe neck sign" was evaluated in 120 MRI examinations. Giraffe neck signs were observed in 81.7% of the MMPRTs and in 3.3% of other MM tears. Cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs were highly positive in the MMPRTs compared with other MM tears. Medial extrusion signs were frequently observed in both groups. Coexistence rates of any 2 MRI signs, except for medial extrusion sign, were 91.7% in the MMPRT group and 5% in other MM tears. This study demonstrated that a new characteristic MRI finding "giraffe neck sign" was observed in 81.7% of the MMPRT. Our results suggest that the combination of giraffe neck, cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs may be important for an accurate diagnostic MRI reading of the MMPRT. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Releasing the circumferential fixation of the medial meniscus does not affect its kinematics.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, A C T; van Tienen, T G; Hannink, G; Janssen, D; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

    2014-12-01

    Meniscal functioning depends on the fixation between the meniscal horns and the surrounding tissues. It is unknown, however, whether the integration between the outer circumference of the medial meniscus and the knee capsule/medial collateral ligament also influences the biomechanical behavior of the meniscus. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether detaching and resuturing the circumferential fixation of the medial meniscus influence its kinematic pattern. Human cadaveric knee joints were flexed (0°-30°-60°-90°) in a knee loading rig, in neutral orientation and under internal and external tibial torques. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis was used to determine the motion of the meniscus in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions. Three fixation conditions were evaluated: (I) intact, (II) detached and (III) resutured. Detaching and resuturing the circumferential fixation did not alter the meniscal motion pattern in either the AP or ML direction. Applying an additional internal tibial torque caused the medial meniscus to move slightly anteriorly, and an external torque caused a little posterior translation with respect to the neutral situation. These patterns did not change when the circumferential fixation condition was altered. This study demonstrated that the motion pattern of the medial meniscus is independent of its fixation to the knee capsule and medial collateral ligament. The outcomes of this study can be deployed to design the fixation strategy of a permanent meniscus prosthesis. As peripheral fixation is a complicated step during meniscal replacement, the surgical procedure is considerably simplified when non-resorbable implants do not require circumferential fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. What Preoperative Radiographic Parameters Are Associated With Increased Medial Release in Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Jennings, Jason M; Levy, Daniel L; Watters, Tyler Steven; Miner, Todd M; Dennis, Douglas A

    2017-03-01

    Preoperative varus deformity of the knee is a common malalignment in patients undergoing primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We are unaware of any studies that have correlated how various preoperative radiographic parameters can predict the amount of medial releases performed to achieve optimal coronal alignment and ligamentous balance. A retrospective review was performed on 67 patients who required at least a medial tibial reduction osteotomy (MTRO) during primary TKA to achieve coronal balance. This patient population was matched 1:1 to another cohort of TKA patients by age, gender, and body mass index who did not require an MTRO. A radiographic evaluation was used to compare the 2 cohorts. Preoperatively, the MTRO cohort was noted to have significantly increased varus tibiofemoral (86.12° vs 93.43°), tibial articular surface (85.79° vs 87.54°), and medial tibial articular surface angles (75.22° vs 85.34°) compared to the control cohort. The MTRO cohort had 3.13 mm of medial tibial offset and 9.06 mm of lateral joint space opening and the control cohort had 0.09 mm and 4.07 mm, respectively. The medial tibial articular surface angle and lateral joint space widening were statistically associated with the MTRO cohort. The final tibiofemoral angle in the MTRO cohort was 92.43° and was 93.40° in the control cohort. The MTRO cohort was noted to have several preoperative radiographic parameters that were significantly different than the control cohort. However, the medial tibial articular surface angle and lateral joint space widening were the only radiographic parameters that were statistically associated with requiring an MTRO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tibiofemoral contact mechanics after serial medial meniscectomies in the human cadaveric knee.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen J; Aadalen, Kirk J; Malaviya, Prasanna; Lorenz, Eric P; Hayden, Jennifer K; Farr, Jack; Kang, Richard W; Cole, Brian J

    2006-08-01

    There is no consensus regarding the extent of meniscectomy leading to deleterious effects on tibiofemoral contact mechanics. The meniscus aids in optimizing tibiofemoral contact mechanics, increasing contact area, and decreasing contact stress. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees each underwent 15 separate testing conditions-5 serial 20-mm posterior medial meniscectomy conditions (intact, 50% radial width, 75% radial width, segmental, and total meniscectomy) at 3 flexion angles (0 degrees , 30 degrees , and 60 degrees )-under an 1800-N axial load. Tekscan sensors were used to measure total force and medial force, contact area, mean contact stress, and peak contact stress. All posterior medial meniscectomy conditions resulted in significantly decreased contact areas and increased mean and peak contact stresses compared with the intact state (P < .05). The changes in contact mechanics after segmental and total posterior medial meniscectomies were not statistically different (P > .05). Incremental changes in contact area and mean contact stress increased as more peripheral portions of the medial meniscus were removed, whereas peak contact stresses exhibited similar incremental changes throughout all meniscectomy conditions. The meniscus is a crucial load-bearing structure, optimizing contact area and minimizing contact stress. Loss of hoop tension (ie, segmental meniscectomy) is equivalent to total meniscectomy in load-bearing terms. The peripheral portion of the medial meniscus provides a greater contribution to increasing contact areas and decreasing mean contact stresses than does the central portion, whereas peak contact stresses increase proportionally to the amount of meniscus removed. Because the degree of meniscectomy leading to clinically significant outcomes is unknown, a prudent strategy is to preserve the greatest amount of meniscus possible.