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Sample records for medial meniscal injury

  1. Posterior horn medial meniscal root repair with cruciate ligament/medial collateral ligament combined injuries.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Brian F; Johnson, Darren L

    2011-12-01

    Many meniscal root tears remain unrepaired, potentially due to under-recognition and the technical challenge of repairing them. A great effort is made to preserve the native meniscus and restore the circumferential fibers for hoop stress resistance. It has been well demonstrated in the literature that failure to repair this will lead to increased contact pressures in the medial compartment and early degenerative changes in the articular cartilage. Our technique is one that allows the meniscus to resume its important role of knee stability. A thorough understanding of meniscal root anatomy, as well as repair techniques, is important for the cruciate ligament surgeon. Copyright © 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Sex Differences in the Incidence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Medial Collateral Ligament, and Meniscal Injuries in Collegiate and High School Sports: 2009-2010 Through 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Laura E; Kerr, Zachary Y; Dompier, Thomas P; Padua, Darin A

    2016-06-01

    Previous research has noted sex-based differences in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury rates in young athletes, while little is known about medial collateral ligament (MCL) and meniscal injury rates in this population. The objective of this study was to compare injury rates for traumatic knee injuries (ie, ACL, MCL, and meniscal injuries) in collegiate and high school (HS) varsity student-athletes across multiple sports. Knee injury rates vary by sex and across different sports and levels of competition. Descriptive epidemiology study. Injury and athlete-exposure data were utilized from the National Athletic Treatment, Injury and Outcomes Network (NATION) and National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) during the 2009-2010 to 2013-2014 academic years. Analyses focused on ACL, MCL, and meniscal injuries. Injury rates and injury rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs were calculated for basketball, ice hockey, lacrosse, soccer, and baseball/softball. The ACL injury rate was higher for female than male athletes at the collegiate (IRR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.81-3.41) and HS (IRR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.67-3.18) levels. At the collegiate level, the highest ACL IRR comparing female to male athletes was reported in softball/baseball (IRR, 6.61; 95% CI, 1.48-29.55). At the HS level, the highest ACL IRR was reported in basketball (IRR, 3.68; 95% CI, 1.91-7.10). The MCL injury rate was higher for female than male athletes at the HS level (IRR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.25-3.56) but lower for female than male athletes at the collegiate level (IRR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.59-0.92). The meniscal injury rate was lower for female than male athletes at the HS level (IRR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.71), while no differences by sex were seen at the collegiate level (IRR, 1.35; 95% CI, 0.90-2.02). Knee injury rates varied by sex across 5 different sports in the HS and collegiate settings. Female athletes sustained ACL injuries at a higher rate than male athletes at both the HS and

  3. [SPECIFIC DIAGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF "RIPPLE SIGN" OF MEDIAL FEMORAL CONDYLE UNDER ARTHROSCOPE IN MEDIAL LONGITUDINAL MENISCAL TEARS].

    PubMed

    Ren Shiyou; Sun, Limang; Chen, Guofei; Jiang, Changqing; Zhang, Xintao; Zhang Wentao

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of the "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle in the diagnosis of medial longitudinal meniscal tears under arthroscope. Between June 2013 and June 2014, 56 patients with knee injuries were included. There were 35 males and 21 females with an average age of 22.2 years (range, 12-38 years). The causes of injury were sports in 40 cases, falling in 10 cases, and traffic accident in 6 cases. The injury was located at the left knee in 22 cases and at the right knee in 34 cases. The disease duration was 10-40 days (mean, 20.2 days). Of 56 patients, 15 cases had simple medial meniscal injury; 41 cases had combined injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury in 38 cases, posterior cruciate ligament injury in 2 cases, and patellar dislocation in 1 case. The "ripple sign" was observed under arthroscope before operation. Repair of medial meniscal injury and reconstruction of cruciate ligament were performed. The positive "ripple sign" was seen under arthroscope in all patients, who were diagnosed to have longitudinal meniscal tears, including 23 cases of mild "ripple sign" , 28 cases of moderate "ripple sign", and 5 cases of severe "ripple sign". The "ripple sign" on the upper surface of the medial femoral condyle is a reliable diagnostic evidence of medial longitudinal meniscal tears.

  4. Isolated medial meniscal tear in a Border Collie.

    PubMed

    Ridge, P A

    2006-01-01

    A three-year-old, female Border Collie was successfully treated for an isolated, torn, medial meniscus by arthroscopic meniscal tear resection. The dog returned to agility competition without recurrence of lameness.

  5. Effects of medial meniscal posterior horn avulsion and repair on meniscal displacement.

    PubMed

    Hein, Christopher N; Deperio, Jennifer Gurske; Ehrensberger, Mark T; Marzo, John M

    2011-06-01

    Medial meniscal posterior root avulsion (MMRA) leads to deleterious alteration of medial joint compartment loading profiles and increased risk of medial degenerative changes. Surgical repair restores more normal biomechanics to the knee. Our hypothesis is that MMRA will cause medial meniscal (MM) extrusion and gap formation between the root attachment site and MM. Meniscal root repair will restore the ability of the meniscus to resist extrusion, and reduce gap formation at the defect. Seven fresh frozen human cadaveric knees were dissected and mechanically loaded using a servo-hydraulic load frame (MTS ®) with 0 and 1800 N. The knees were tested under three conditions: native, avulsed, and repaired. Four measurements were obtained: meniscal displacement anteriorly, medially, posteriorly, and gap distance between the root attachment site and MM after transection and repair. The medial displacement of the avulsed MM (3.28 mm) was significantly greater (p < 0.001) than the native knee (1.60mm) and repaired knee (1.46 mm). Gap formation is significantly larger in the avulsed compared to repaired state at 0 (p < 0.02) and 1800N (p < 0.02) and also larger with loading in both avulsed (p < 0.05) and repaired (p < 0.02) conditions. Therefore, MMRA results in MM extrusion from the joint and gap formation between the MM root and the MM. Subsequent surgical repair reduces meniscal displacement and gap formation at the defect. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Wii knee revisited: meniscal injury from 10-pin bowling

    PubMed Central

    Almedghio, Sami M; Shablahidis, Odisseas; Rennie, Winston; Ashford, Robert U

    2009-01-01

    The present report concerns a 23-year-old woman who sustained an injury to her right knee while playing 10-pin bowling on a Nintendo Wii video game console. She presented to our orthopaedic outpatients clinic 3 months later with history and examination findings suggestive of a medial meniscal tear, which was confirmed by MRI scan. She underwent arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy and made an uneventful recovery. PMID:21686424

  7. Meniscal injuries in the young, athletically active patient.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Matthew R; Johnson, Darren L

    2011-02-01

    Meniscal injuries are common in young physically active individuals, particularly those who are involved in contact level 1 sports that involve frequent pivoting, such as soccer and American football. This is a unique population because of their high physical activity at a young age, and it is important that correct diagnosis and appropriate treatment are provided, as the medial and lateral menisci are essential for normal knee function. In this article, we review the anatomy and function of the meniscus, the epidemiology of meniscal tears, and mechanism(s) of injury. Important concomitant injuries are also discussed. When making a diagnosis, relevant patient history, physical examination, and appropriate imaging studies are required. Nonoperative treatment is rarely successful for treating meniscal tears in young athletes, and therefore repair of the torn menisci is often required. We also discuss partial resection (which should only be performed when repair is not possible), as well as rehabilitation protocols after repair has been performed. All of these factors associated with meniscal injuries are important for a physician when diagnosing and treating these often complex injuries.

  8. Biomechanical consequences of a nonanatomic posterior medial meniscal root repair.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Christopher M; Foad, Abdullah; Smith, Sean D; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Dornan, Grant J; Engebretsen, Lars; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-04-01

    Posterior medial meniscal root tears have been reported to extrude with the meniscus becoming adhered posteromedially along the posterior capsule. While anatomic repair has been reported to restore tibiofemoral contact mechanics, it is unknown whether nonanatomic positioning of a meniscal root repair to a posteromedial location would restore the loading profile of the knee joint. The purpose of this study was to compare the tibiofemoral contact mechanics of a nonanatomic posterior medial meniscal tear with that of the intact knee or anatomic repair. It was hypothesized that a nonanatomic root repair would not restore the tibiofemoral contact pressures and areas to that of the intact or anatomic repair state. Controlled laboratory study. Tibiofemoral contact mechanics were recorded in 6 male human cadaveric knee specimens (average age, 45.8 years) using pressure sensors. Each knee underwent 5 testing conditions for the posterior medial meniscal root: (1) intact knee; (2) root tear; (3) anatomic transtibial pull-out repair; (4) nonanatomic transtibial pull-out repair, placed 5 mm posteromedially along the edge of the articular cartilage; and (5) root tear concomitant with an ACL tear. Knees were loaded with a 1000-N axial compressive force at 4 flexion angles (0°, 30°, 60°, 90°), and contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were calculated. Contact area was significantly lower after nonanatomic repair than for the intact knee at all flexion angles (mean = 44% reduction) and significantly higher for anatomic versus nonanatomic repair at all flexion angles (mean = 27% increase). At 0° and 90°, and when averaged across flexion angles, the nonanatomic repair significantly increased mean contact pressures in comparison to the intact knee or anatomic repair. When averaged across flexion angles, the peak contact pressures after nonanatomic repair were significantly higher than the intact knee but not the anatomic repair. In contrast, when

  9. Posterior medial meniscus detachment: a unique type of medial meniscal tear.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Richard A; DeHaan, Alex; Baldwin, James L

    2009-10-01

    Patients with posterior medial meniscal detachment, as determined at knee arthroscopy, were evaluated retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years for 8 men and 20 women (30 knees; mean age, 57 years). Most patients had acute onset of pain with a minor specific incident. Seventeen patients were obese, 9 were overweight, and 2 were normal. Eleven of 22 magnetic resonance imaging evaluations detected a tear at the site of the posterior medial meniscus root. Nine of 16 bone scan evaluations showed moderate uptake medially. Arthroscopic treatment included partial medial meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Twelve knees (40%) showed significant progression of arthritis. Of the 7 patients with severe arthritic knees, 5 have subsequently undergone total knee arthroplasty, 1 is considering total knee arthroplasty, and the other has minimal symptoms. Patients should be counseled about the clinical course of posterior medial meniscus detachment and its potential for progressive arthritis in the joint.

  10. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  11. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Results Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. Conclusions We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear. PMID:29333118

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging evidence of meniscal extrusion in medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chul-Jun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Lee, Jae-Jeong; Choi, Chong-Hyuk

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between meniscal extrusion on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and tearing of the posterior root of the medial meniscus, as well as to understand the relation between meniscal extrusion and chondral lesions. From January 2007 to December 2008, 387 consecutive cases of medial meniscal tears were treated arthroscopically. Of these cases, 248 (64.1%) with MRI were reviewed. Arthroscopic findings were reviewed for the type of tear and medial compartment cartilage lesion. Root tear was defined as a radial tear in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus near the tibial spine (i.e., within 5 mm of the root attachment). An MRI scan of the knee was used to evaluate the presence and extent of meniscal extrusion. Meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater was considered pathologic. Arthroscopic findings were compared with respect to the extent of meniscal extrusion. There were 98 male patients and 150 female patients. The mean age was 53.5 years (range, 15 to 81 years). The results showed 127 cases (51.2%) in which the medial meniscus had meniscal extrusion of 3 mm or greater. Posterior root tears were found in 66 (26.6%) of the 248 knees. The mean meniscal extrusion in patients with root tear was 3.8 ± 1.4 mm, whereas the mean extrusion of those who had no root tear was 2.7 ± 1.3 mm. We found an association between pathologic meniscal extrusion and root tear (P < .001). Meniscal extrusion showed a low positive predictive value (39%) and specificity (58%) with regard to the meniscal root tear. Meniscal extrusion was also significantly correlated with severity of chondral lesions (P < .001). Considerable extrusion (≥3 mm) can be associated with tearing of the medial meniscus root and chondral lesion of the medial femoral condyle. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of arthroscopic medial meniscal suture repair techniques: inside-out versus all-inside repair.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Victoroff, Brian N

    2009-11-01

    There are no reports comparing meniscal healing between inside-out and all-inside repairs using sutures. No difference in healing rate exists between meniscal repairs with inside-out and all-inside suture repair in conjunction with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Forty-eight consecutive patients underwent meniscal repairs of longitudinal tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus combined with anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. All-inside repair was attempted when the tears were located in the red-red zone or the ramp area of the meniscus. If a tear that was in the ramp area or red-red zone extended to the midbody of the meniscus, or if there was a tear in red-white zone, the inside-out repair technique was used. Fourteen patients had all-inside meniscal repairs, and 34 patients had inside-out meniscal repairs with absorbable sutures. Identical postoperative rehabilitation protocols were used. Postoperative evaluations included Lysholm knee scoring scale, Tegner activity levels, Lachman and pivot-shift tests, and KT-1000 arthrometer. Assessment of meniscal status was performed using joint line tenderness, McMurray test, and range of motion. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on all patients. Mean follow-up was 35.7 months. No patient had joint line tenderness or reported pain or clicking on McMurray test. There was no significant difference in range of motion between groups. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated that 10 (71.4%) menisci were healed and 4 (28.6%) partially healed in the all-inside group; 24 (70.6%) menisci were healed and 10 (29.4%) partially healed in the inside-out group. There was no significant difference in meniscal healing between groups. There were no differences in Lachman test, KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side differences measurements, Lysholm scores, and Tegner activity scales. There was a significant difference in

  14. Medial Meniscal Extrusion Relates to Cartilage Loss in Specific Femorotibial Subregions- Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Bloecker, K.; Wirth, W.; Guermazi, A.; Hunter, DJ; Resch, H.; Hochreiter, J.; Eckstein, F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medial meniscal extrusion is known to be related to structural progression of knee OA. However, it is unclear whether medial meniscal extrusion is more strongly associated with cartilage loss in certain medial femorotibial subregions than to others. Methods Segmentation of the medial tibial and femoral cartilage (baseline; 1-year follow-up) and the medial meniscus (baseline) was performed in 60 participants with frequent knee pain (age 61.3±9.2y, BMI 31.3±3.9 kg/m2) and with unilateral medial radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN) grade 1–3, using double echo steady state MR-images. Medial meniscal extrusion distance and extrusion area (%) between the external meniscal and tibial margin at baseline, and longitudinal medial cartilage loss in eight anatomical subregions were determined. Results A significant association (Pearson correlation coefficient) was seen between medial meniscus extrusion area in JSN knees and cartilage loss over one year throughout the entire medial femorotibial compartment. The strongest correlation was with cartilage loss in the external medial tibia (r=−0.34 [p<0.01] in JSN, and r=−0.30 [p=0.02] in noJSN knees). Conclusion Medial meniscus extrusion was associated with subsequent medial cartilage loss. The external medial tibial cartilage may be particularly vulnerable to thinning once the meniscus extrudes and its surface is “exposed” to direct, non-physiological, cartilage-cartilage contact. PMID:25988986

  15. Epidemiology of isolated meniscal injury and its effect on performance in athletes from the National Basketball Association.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Peter C; Starkey, Chad; Lombardo, Stephen; Vitti, Gary; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2012-03-01

    The current incidence and outcomes of meniscal injury have not been quantified in professional athletes. To describe the incidence, risk, amount of time lost, and effect on performance for isolated meniscal injury in athletes from the National Basketball Association (NBA). Demographic factors predicting the risk of meniscal tears and the effect of injury in return to play were also investigated. Descriptive epidemiology study. A centralized database was queried to identify meniscal injuries occurring in the NBA over 21 seasons. The frequency of injury, time lost, game exposures, and incidence, rate, and risk were calculated. The preinjury and postinjury player efficiency rating (PER) was used to identify changes in player performance. We identified 129 isolated meniscal tears in NBA athletes during a 21-season span. From this number, 77 (59.7%) involved the lateral meniscus and 52 (40.3%) the medial meniscus. Injuries occurred more frequently in games. The lateral meniscus had a statistically significant higher injury rate. Both left and right knees were equally affected. The number of days missed for lateral meniscal tears and medial meniscal tears was 43.8 ± 35.7 days and 40.9 ± 29.7 days, respectively, and was not statistically different. There was a significant inverse relationship between age and rate of lateral meniscal tears, with lateral meniscal tears more likely to occur up to age 30 years; beyond that medial meniscal tears were more common. Players with a body mass index (BMI) greater than 25 had a significantly increased risk of meniscal tears compared with players with a BMI less than 25, specifically with an increased risk of lateral meniscal tears. Twenty-five players (19.4%) did not return to play. For those who did, upon returning to competition, there was no statistical change in PER from their preinjury status, and the mean number of seasons completed was 4.1 ± 3.7 seasons. The lateral meniscus is more frequently torn than the medial meniscus

  16. Incidence and Characteristics of Meniscal Injuries in Cadets at a Military School, 2013-2015.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji Zheng; Cui, Shu Fang; Hu, Fei; Lu, Qiu Ju; Li, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Meniscal injury is common among military service members.  To examine the incidence and characteristics of meniscal injuries in cadets at a single military institution between 2013 and 2015.  Cohort study.  Meniscal-injury data were collected at the Center of Rehabilitation Training, the People's Liberation Army University of Science and Technology.  A total of 2479 cadets participating in physical activities between 2013 and 2015.  Injury rates, injury proportions by body mass index, risk ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).  The overall incidence rate was 10.08 (95% CI = 6.84, 14.84) per 1000 person-years. A multiple-comparisons test revealed differences in the relative injury rate in overweight or obese cadets versus normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (χ 2 = 8.98, P = .01). No differences were found between injured normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (P = .66, RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.32, 6.06) or between injured overweight or obese cadets and injured underweight cadets (P = .24, RR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.09, 1.91). The absolute injury rate was higher for overweight and obese cadets compared with normal-weight cadets (P < .01, RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.69). The overall proportional distribution for patterns of injury was 2:1 (medial to lateral) for meniscal injuries. Grade 2 injuries were the most common.  The high frequency and level of severity of meniscal injuries may negatively affect the readiness and health of cadets. High body mass index was a risk factor for meniscal injury.

  17. Incidence and Characteristics of Meniscal Injuries in Cadets at a Military School, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ji Zheng; Cui, Shu Fang; Hu, Fei; Lu, Qiu Ju; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Context: Meniscal injury is common among military service members. Objective: To examine the incidence and characteristics of meniscal injuries in cadets at a single military institution between 2013 and 2015. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Meniscal-injury data were collected at the Center of Rehabilitation Training, the People's Liberation Army University of Science and Technology. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 2479 cadets participating in physical activities between 2013 and 2015. Main Outcome Measure(s): Injury rates, injury proportions by body mass index, risk ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: The overall incidence rate was 10.08 (95% CI = 6.84, 14.84) per 1000 person-years. A multiple-comparisons test revealed differences in the relative injury rate in overweight or obese cadets versus normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (χ2 = 8.98, P = .01). No differences were found between injured normal-weight cadets and underweight cadets (P = .66, RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 0.32, 6.06) or between injured overweight or obese cadets and injured underweight cadets (P = .24, RR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.09, 1.91). The absolute injury rate was higher for overweight and obese cadets compared with normal-weight cadets (P < .01, RR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.13, 0.69). The overall proportional distribution for patterns of injury was 2:1 (medial to lateral) for meniscal injuries. Grade 2 injuries were the most common. Conclusions: The high frequency and level of severity of meniscal injuries may negatively affect the readiness and health of cadets. High body mass index was a risk factor for meniscal injury. PMID:27740851

  18. Incidence and Risk Factors Associated with Meniscal Injuries Among Active-Duty US Military Service Members

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jennifer C.; Burks, Robert; Owens, Brett D.; Sturdivant, Rodney X.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Cameron, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Few population-based studies have examined the incidence of meniscal injuries, and limited information is available on the influence of patient's demographic and occupational factors. Objective: To examine the incidence of meniscal injuries and the influence of demographic and occupational factors among active-duty US service members between 1998 and 2006. Design: Cohort study. Setting: Using the International Classification of Diseases (9th revision) codes 836.0 (medial meniscus), 836.1 (lateral meniscus), and 836.2 (meniscus unspecified), we extracted injury data from the Defense Medical Surveillance System to identify all acute meniscal injuries among active-duty military personnel. Patients or Other Participants: Active-duty military personnel serving in all branches of military service during the study period. Main Outcome Measure(s): Incidence rate (IR) per 1000 person-years at risk and crude and adjusted rates by strata for age, sex, race, rank, and service. Results: During the study period, 100201 acute meniscal injuries and 12115606 person-years at risk for injury were documented. The overall IR was 8.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.22, 8.32) per 1000 person-years. Main effects were noted for all demographic and occupational variables (P< .001), indicating that age, sex, race, rank, and service were associated with the incidence of meniscal injuries. Men were almost 20% more likely to experience an acute meniscal injury than were women (incidence rate ratio = 1.18, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.20). The rate of meniscal injury increased with age; those older than 40 years of age experienced injuries more than 4 times as often as those under 20 years of age (incidence rate ratio = 4.25,95% CI = 4.08, 4.42). Conclusions: The incidence of meniscal injury was sub-stantially higher in this study than in previously reported studies. Male sex, increasing age, and service in the Army or Marine Corps were factors associated with meniscal injuries. PMID:22488232

  19. Cam impingement of the posterior femoral condyle in medial meniscal tears.

    PubMed

    Suganuma, Jun; Mochizuki, Ryuta; Yamaguchi, Kenji; Inoue, Yutaka; Yamabe, Eikou; Ueda, Yoshiyuki; Fujinaka, Tarou

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results of meniscal repair of the medial meniscus with or without decompression of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus for the treatment of posteromedial tibiofemoral incongruence at full flexion (PMTFI), which induces deformation of the posterior segment on sagittal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For more than 2 years, we followed up 27 patients with PMTFI who were classified into the following 2 groups. Group 1 included 8 patients (5 male joints and 3 female joints) with a medial meniscal tear with instability at the site of the tear who underwent meniscal repair. The mean age was 23.6 years. Group 2 included 19 patients (16 male joints and 3 female joints) who had a meniscal tear with instability at the site of the tear and underwent meniscal repair and decompression. The mean age was 26.5 years. In decompression of the posterior segment, redundant bone tissue on the most proximal part of the medial femoral condyle was excised. The patients were assessed by use of the Lysholm score, sagittal MRI at full flexion, and arthroscopic examination. There were no statistical differences in mean Lysholm score between the 2 groups before surgery, but the mean score in group 2 was significantly higher than that in group 1 after surgery. Meniscal deformation of the posterior segment at full flexion on MRI disappeared in all cases after decompression. On second-look arthroscopy, the rate of complete healing at the site of the tear was 0% in group 1 but 57% in group 2, and it was significantly different between these groups. The addition of decompression of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus to meniscal repair of knee joints with PMTFI allowed more room for the medial meniscus to accommodate and improved both function of the knee joint and the rate of success of repair of isolated medial meniscal tears in patients who regularly performed full knee flexion. (c) 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America

  20. Bilateral atraumatic medial meniscal tears in a 17-year-old rower

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Taryn Lise; Frankovich, Renata; Rumball, Jane

    2009-01-01

    Meniscal injury produces disability in a large portion of the population, and sports injuries are a common cause. Atraumatic meniscal tears may occur after repetitive low-energy loading. Rowing is a highly technical sport and very demanding on an athlete’s body. There are numerous reports on patellofemoral and iliotibial band friction syndrome in rowers but there is an extremely low incidence of meniscal tears reported in these athletes. This is a unique case report of a young adolescent athlete who suffered bilateral medical meniscal tears during sporting activity. Rowing is a low impact sport making this an unusual occurrence, especially in a young individual. This case report highlights the importance of considering all training activities when trying to isolate the mechanism of injury in an athlete. PMID:21686387

  1. Middle-aged patients with an MRI-verified medial meniscal tear report symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kristoffer B; Stefan Lohmander, L; Kise, Nina Jullum; Risberg, May Arna; Roos, Ewa M

    2017-12-01

    Background and purpose - No consensus exists on when to perform arthroscopic partial meniscectomy in patients with a degenerative meniscal tear. Since MRI and clinical tests are not accurate in detecting a symptomatic meniscal lesion, the patient's symptoms often play a large role when deciding when to perform surgery. We determined the prevalence and severity of self-reported knee symptoms in patients eligible for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy due to a degenerative meniscal tear. We investigated whether symptoms commonly considered to be related to meniscus injury were associated with early radiographic signs of knee osteoarthritis. Patients and methods - We included individual baseline items from the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score collected in 2 randomized controlled trials evaluating treatment for an MRI-verified degenerative medial meniscal tears in 199 patients aged 35-65 years. Each item was scored as no, mild, moderate, severe, extreme, and at least "mild" considering the symptoms present. Early radiographic signs of osteoarthritis, defined as a Kellgren and Lawrence grade of at least 1, were seen in 70 patients. Results - At least monthly knee pain, pain during stair walking and when twisting on the knee, and lack of confidence in knee was present in at least 80% of the patients. Median severity was at least moderate for knee pain, pain when twisting on the knee, pain walking on stairs, lack of confidence in knee, and clicking. Mechanical symptoms such as catching were rare. Early radiographic signs of osteoarthritis were associated with an increased risk of self-reported swelling, catching, and stiffness later in the day; the odds ratio was 2.4 (95% CI 1.2-4.9), 2.3 (1.2-4.3), and 2.3 (1.1-5.0), respectively. Interpretation - Middle-aged patients with a degenerative medial meniscus tear reported symptoms commonly associated with knee osteoarthritis. Frequent knee pain, presence of lack of confidence in the knee, and clicking did not

  2. Lateral Meniscal Allograft Transplant via a Medial Approach Leads to Less Extrusion.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Choi, Jeong-Ki; Yang, Bong-Seok; Lee, Doe-Hyun; Victoroff, Brian N

    2017-10-01

    Accurate positioning of the bony bridge is crucial to prevent extrusion of meniscal allografts after transplant. However, oblique or lateralized placement of the bony bridge of the lateral meniscal allograft may occur due to technical error or a limited visual field. The patellar tendon may be an obstacle to approaching the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus, resulting in a laterally placed allograft. Therefore, lateral meniscal transplant through a medial arthrotomy would be an alternative approach. However, no report exists regarding allograft extrusion when comparing medial and lateral arthrotomy techniques in lateral meniscal transplants. Extrusion of the midbody of the allograft is less severe and the rotation of the bony bridge is less oblique in lateral meniscal allograft transplants through the medial parapatellar approach than those through the lateral approach. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A bony bridge was used to perform 55 lateral meniscal transplants through either a medial or a lateral arthrotomy. Thirty-two allografts were transplanted through a medial arthrotomy and 23 were transplanted through a lateral arthrotomy, not randomly. Because correct positioning of the bony trough through the medial arthrotomy was easier than that through the lateral arthrotomy, the method of the arthrotomy was changed for the latter. The procedure for both groups was identical except for the arthrotomy technique, and rehabilitation was identical for both groups. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging was conducted for all patients to measure the postoperative extrusion and obliquity of the bony bridge of the allograft. On the coronal view, extrusion was measured as the distance between the outer edge of the articular cartilage of the lateral tibial plateau and the outer edge of the meniscal allograft. On the axial view, a line (line B) was drawn along the longitudinal axis of the bony bridge. The posterior tibial condylar tangential line was drawn between the

  3. Arthroscopic Repair of the Medial Meniscus Radial/Oblique Tear Prevents the Progression of Meniscal Extrusion in Mildly Osteoarthritic Knees.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuya; Kamatsuki, Yusuke; Hino, Tomohito; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-10-01

    Extrusion of the medial meniscus (MM) is associated with knee joint pain in osteoarthritic knees. The relationships among MM radial/oblique tears, MM extrusion (MME), and the effect of arthroscopic meniscal repair are not established. Here we evaluated the effects of arthroscopic all-inside MM repair on MME and the clinical outcomes in patients with radially oriented MM tears and mildly osteoarthritic knees. Twenty patients with a symptomatic radial or oblique tear of the MM posterior segment, MME ≥2.5 mm, and mildly osteoarthritic knees were treated using FasT-Fix 360 All-inside Meniscal Suture devices. We used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure the patients' MM body width (MMBW), absolute MME, and relative MME. The Japanese Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Lysholm, Tegner, IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation, and Visual Analogue Scale scores were obtained. Arthroscopic all-inside MM repair prevented increases of absolute and relative MME. The preoperative and 3- and 12-month MRI-based MMBW values were similar. Over a 24-month follow-up after the MM repairs, the clinical scores showed significant improvements. Our results suggest that all-inside meniscal repairs would be useful in preventing the progression of MME in patients suffering from symptomatic MM radial/oblique tears associated with mildly osteoarthritic knees.

  4. Does Medial Meniscal Allograft Transplantation With the Bone-Plug Technique Restore the Anatomic Location of the Native Medial Meniscus?

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Ki; Bin, Seong-Il; Kim, Jong-Min; Lee, Chang-Rack

    2015-12-01

    Previous work has shown the importance of restoring the normal structure of the native meniscus with meniscal allograft transplantation. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomic positions of the anterior horn and posterior horn between the preoperative medial meniscus and the postoperative meniscal allograft after medial meniscal allograft transplantation with the bone-plug technique. The hypothesis was that the bone-plug technique could restore the preoperative structure of the native medial meniscus. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between December 1999 and December 2013, a total of 59 patients (49 male, 10 female) underwent medial meniscal allograft transplantation by use of the bone-plug technique. The anatomic positions of both horns in the native medial meniscus and in the meniscal allograft were measured via MRI. The percentage reference method was used to measure the locations of both horns. On coronal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the posterior horn from the lateral border of the tibial plateau changed from 45.2 ± 3.3 to 48.1 ± 4.2 mm (P < .05), and the percentage distance of the posterior horn changed from 59.6% to 63.0% (P < .05). On sagittal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the posterior horn from the anterior reference point changed from 40.3 ± 3.0 to 42.0 ± 3.5 mm (P < .05), and the mean percentage distance of the posterior horn changed from 76.5% to 79.4% (P <.05). On coronal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the anterior horn from the lateral border of the tibial plateau changed from 41.3 ± 4.2 to 48.5 ± 5.6 mm (P < .05), and the mean percentage distance of the anterior horn changed from 54.5% to 63.8% (P < .05). On sagittal MRI, the mean absolute distance of the anterior horn from the anterior reference point changed from 5.5 ± 1.0 to 9.9 ± 2.9 mm (P < .05), and the mean percentage distance of the anterior horn changed from 10.6% to 19.0% (P < .05). Despite attempts to place the meniscal allograft in the same

  5. PHYSICAL EXAMINATIONS FOR DIAGNOSING MENISCAL INJURIES: CORRELATION WITH SURGICAL FINDINGS

    PubMed Central

    Gobbo, Ricardo da Rocha; Rangel, Victor de Oliveira; Karam, Francisco Consoli; Pires, Luiz Antônio Simões

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A set of five maneuvers for meniscal injuries (McMurray, Apley, Childress and Steinmann 1 and 2) was evaluated and their sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and likelihood were calculated. The same methods were applied to each test individually. Methods: One hundred and fifty-two patients of both sexes who were going to undergo videoarthroscopy on the knee were examined blindly by one of five residents at this hospital, without knowledge of the clinical data and why the patient was going to undergo an operation. This examination was conducted immediately before the videoarthroscopy and its results were recorded in an electronic spreadsheet. The set of maneuvers was considered positive when one was positive. In the individual analysis, it was enough for the test to be positive. Results: The analysis showed that the set of five meniscal tests presented sensitivity of 89%, specificity of 42%, accuracy of 75%, positive likelihood of 1.53 and negative likelihood of 0.26. Individually, the tests presented accuracy of between 48% and 53%. Conclusion: The set of maneuvers for meniscal injuries presented a good accuracy and significant value, especially for ruling out injury. Individually, the tests had less diagnostic value, although the Apley test had better specificity. PMID:27047833

  6. Anterolateral ligament abnormalities in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament rupture are associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Pieter; Clockaerts, Stefan; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Lambrecht, Valérie; Wouters, Kristien; De Smet, Eline; Gielen, Jan L; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-10-01

    To determine the frequency of anterolateral ligament (ALL) injury in patients with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and to analyse its associated injury patterns. Ninety patients with acute ACL rupture for which MRI was obtained within 8 weeks after the initial trauma were retrospectively identified. Two radiologists assessed the status of the ALL on MRI by consensus. The presence or absence of an ALL abnormality was compared with the existence of medial and lateral meniscal tears diagnosed during arthroscopy. Associated collateral ligament and osseous injuries were documented with MRI. Forty-one of 90 knees (46 %) demonstrated ALL abnormalities on MRI. Of 49 knees with intact ALL, 15 (31 %) had a torn lateral meniscus as compared to 25 torn lateral menisci in 41 knees (61 %) with abnormal ALL (p = 0.008). Collateral ligament (p ≤ 0.05) and osseous injuries (p = 0.0037) were more frequent and severe in ALL-injured as compared with ALL-intact knees. ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture and are statistically significantly associated with lateral meniscal, collateral ligament and osseous injuries. • ALL injuries are fairly common in patients with acute ACL rupture. • ALL injuries are highly associated with lateral meniscal and osseous injuries. • MRI assessment of ACL-injured knees should include evaluation of the ALL.

  7. Incidence and patterns of meniscal tears accompanying the anterior cruciate ligament injury: possible local and generalized risk factors.

    PubMed

    Mansori, Ashraf El; Lording, Timothy; Schneider, Antoine; Dumas, Raphael; Servien, Elvire; Lustig, Sebastien

    2018-05-26

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is frequently accompanied by tears of the menisci. Some of these tears occur at the time of injury, but others develop over time in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the patient characteristics, time from injury (TFI), and posterior tibial slope (PTS) on meniscal tear patterns. Our hypothesis was that meniscal tears would occur more frequently in ACL-deficient knees with increasing age, weight, TFI, PTS, and in male patients. Of the ACL-injured patients, 362 were analyzed, and details of meniscal lesions were collected. The medial and lateral tibial slopes (MTS, LTS) were measured via computed tomography. Patient demographics, TFI, MTS, and LTS were correlated with the diagnosed meniscal tears. Of the patients, 113 had a medial meniscus (MM) tear, 54 patients had a lateral meniscus (LM) tear, 34 patients had tears of both menisci, and 161 patients had no meniscal tear. The most common tear location was the posterior horn (PH) of the MM, followed by tear involving the whole MM. Patient age, BMI, and TFI were significantly associated with the incidence of MM tear. Female patients had a higher incidence of injury than males in all tear sites except in the body and PH. Male patients had more vertical and peripheral tears. The median MTS and LTS for patients with MM tears were 7.0°and 8.7°, respectively, while those of patients with LM tears were 6.9° and 8.1°. Steeper LTS was significantly associated with tears of LM and of both menisci. Older age, male sex, increased BMI, and prolonged TFI were significant factors for the development of MM tears. An increase in the tibial slope, especially of the lateral plateau, seems to increase the risk of tear of the LM and of both menisci. Level III.

  8. Delay in surgery predisposes to meniscal and chondral injuries in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Masih, Gladson David; Chander, Gaurav; Bachhal, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite improvements in instability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, associated intraarticular injuries remain a major cause of concern and important prognostic factor for long term results as it may lead to osteoarthritis. Delay in ACL reconstruction has been in variably linked to increase in these injuries but there is lack of consensus regarding optimal timing of reconstruction. The goal of this study was to investigate delay in surgery and other factors, associated with intraarticular injuries in ACL deficient knees. Materials and Methods: A total of 438 patients (42 females; 396 males) enrolled for this prospective observational study. The average age of patients was 26.43 (range 17–51 years) years with a mean surgical delay of 78.91 (range 1 week - 18 years) weeks after injury. We analyzed the factors of age, sex, surgical delay, instability, and level of activity for possible association with intraarticular injuries. Results: Medial meniscus injuries had a significant association with surgical delay (P = 0.000) after a delay of 6 months. Lateral meniscus injuries had a significant association with degree of instability (P = 0.001). Medial-sided articular injuries were significantly affected by age (0.005) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.048 (95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.014–1.082) reflecting 4.8% rise in incidence with each year. Lateral-sided injuries were associated with female sex (P = 0.018) with OR of 2.846 (95% CI of 1.200–6.752). The level of activity failed to reveal any significant associations. Conclusion: Surgical delay predicts an increase in medial meniscal and lateral articular injuries justifying early rather than delayed reconstruction in ACL deficient knees. Increasing age is positively related to intraarticular injuries while females are more susceptible to lateral articular injuries. PMID:27746491

  9. Delay in surgery predisposes to meniscal and chondral injuries in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ravi; Masih, Gladson David; Chander, Gaurav; Bachhal, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Despite improvements in instability after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, associated intraarticular injuries remain a major cause of concern and important prognostic factor for long term results as it may lead to osteoarthritis. Delay in ACL reconstruction has been in variably linked to increase in these injuries but there is lack of consensus regarding optimal timing of reconstruction. The goal of this study was to investigate delay in surgery and other factors, associated with intraarticular injuries in ACL deficient knees. A total of 438 patients (42 females; 396 males) enrolled for this prospective observational study. The average age of patients was 26.43 (range 17-51 years) years with a mean surgical delay of 78.91 (range 1 week - 18 years) weeks after injury. We analyzed the factors of age, sex, surgical delay, instability, and level of activity for possible association with intraarticular injuries. Medial meniscus injuries had a significant association with surgical delay ( P = 0.000) after a delay of 6 months. Lateral meniscus injuries had a significant association with degree of instability ( P = 0.001). Medial-sided articular injuries were significantly affected by age (0.005) with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.048 (95% confidence interval [CI] of 1.014-1.082) reflecting 4.8% rise in incidence with each year. Lateral-sided injuries were associated with female sex ( P = 0.018) with OR of 2.846 (95% CI of 1.200-6.752). The level of activity failed to reveal any significant associations. Surgical delay predicts an increase in medial meniscal and lateral articular injuries justifying early rather than delayed reconstruction in ACL deficient knees. Increasing age is positively related to intraarticular injuries while females are more susceptible to lateral articular injuries.

  10. Medial Meniscal Root Avulsion: A Biomechanical Comparison of 4 Different Repair Constructs.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Richard; Pitts, Ryan; Kim, Young-Mo; Matava, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the time-zero load-to-failure strength of 4 different constructs used to repair medial meniscal root avulsions. Sixty fresh-frozen cadaveric knees with a mean age of 74 years were used for this study. Each knee was dissected to isolate the attachment of the posterior root of the medial meniscus to the tibial plateau. An Instron machine (Instron, Norwood, MA) with a custom-designed clamp was used to avulse the intact posterior meniscal root in 12 control specimens. An additional 48 specimens were tested after transection of the native meniscal root to evaluate the pullout strength of 4 different repair constructs using No. 0 FiberWire suture (Arthrex, Naples, FL): a single suture (n = 12), a double suture (n = 12), a loop stitch (n = 12), and a locking loop stitch (n = 12). Analysis of variance was used to compare load to failure and stiffness of all 4 groups; pair-wise, between-group differences were also assessed. Repair failure occurred most commonly by suture pullout in 94% of the specimens in the repair groups. For the controls, failure occurred most commonly at the meniscus-clamp interface. Failure load was highest for the control group (mean, 359.5 ± 168 N), followed in descending order by the locking loop stitch (191.4 ± 45.1 N), loop stitch (119.6 ± 55.0 N), double suture (96.2 ± 51.4 N), and single suture (58.2 ± 29.6 N). The control group was significantly stronger than 3 of the experimental groups (single suture [95% CI, 3.8 to 11.3], double suture [95% CI, 2.1 to 6.4], and loop stitch [95% CI, 2.0 to 4.5]; P < .0001) but not the locking loop stitch (P = .003; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.2). The locking loop stitch was significantly stronger than the single suture (P < .0001; 95% CI, 2.0 to 5.4) and double suture (P = .003; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.9). The locking loop stitch was significantly stiffer than the single suture (P < .0001; 95% CI, 3.8 to 20.3), double suture (P < .0001; 95% CI, 2.0 to 9.8), and loop stitch (P = .03; 95% CI, 1.1 to 5

  11. Effect of partial meniscectomy at the medial posterior horn on tibiofemoral contact mechanics and meniscal hoop strains in human knees.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Andreas Martin; Lubomierski, Anja; Friemert, Benedikt; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2012-06-01

    We examined the influence of partial meniscectomy of 10 mm width on 10 human cadaveric knee joints, as it is performed during the treatment of radial tears in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, on maximum contact pressure, contact area (CA), and meniscal hoop strain in the lateral and medial knee compartments. In case of 0° and 30° flexion angle, 20% and 50% partial meniscectomy did not influence maximum contact pressure and area. Only in case of 60° knee flexion, 50% partial resection increased medial maximum contact pressure and decreased the medial CA statistically significant. However, 100% partial resection increased maximum contact pressure and decreased CA significantly in the meniscectomized medial knee compartment in all tested knee positions. No significant differences were noted for meniscal hoop strain. From a biomechanical point of view, our in vitro study suggests that the medial joint compartment is not in danger of accelerated cartilage degeneration up to a resection limit of 20% meniscal depth and 10 mm width. Contact mechanics are likely to be more sensitive to partial meniscectomy at higher flexion angles, which has to be further investigated. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  12. Arthroscopic medial meniscal repair with or without concurrent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: A subgroup analysis.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Erdal; Misir, Abdulhamit; Kizkapan, Turan Bilge; Ozcamdalli, Mustafa; Akkurt, Soner; Guney, Ahmet

    2018-01-01

    There are few large-scale, long-term studies comparing medial meniscal repairs with or without concurrent anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A total of 140 patients who underwent arthroscopic medial meniscal repair were divided into two groups: Group A, meniscus repair only and Group B, meniscus repair with concurrent ACL reconstruction. Clinical assessments in- cluded physical examination findings, Lysholm score, and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) form. Barret criteria were used for the clinical assessment of healing status. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)was obtained to confirmhealing and failure. Subgroups of participants were compared in terms of suture technique, type of tear, and location of tear. KT-2000 arthrometer testing was used for objective evaluation of anterior-posterior knee movement. Mean follow-up duration was 61 (34-85) months. Clinical outcomes in both groups were significantly improved compared to baseline (P=0.001 vs. P=0.001); however, there was no significant between-group difference in postoperative Lysholm and IKDC scores (P=0.830). The outcomes of three participants (seven percent) in Group A and 11 (11.3%) in Group B were considered as treatment failures (P=0.55). Red-red zone tears had higher scores. Mean postoperative KT2000 arthrometer values of failed participants in Groups A and B were 4.66mm (range, four to six) and 5.2mm (range, two to seven), respectively. Concurrentmedialmeniscus repair and ACL reconstruction did not have clinical superiority over meniscus repair alone. Repairs in the red-red zone appeared to be associated with better outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The association between reduced knee joint proprioception and medial meniscal abnormalities using MRI in knee osteoarthritis: results from the Amsterdam osteoarthritis cohort.

    PubMed

    van der Esch, M; Knoop, J; Hunter, D J; Klein, J-P; van der Leeden, M; Knol, D L; Reiding, D; Voorneman, R E; Gerritsen, M; Roorda, L D; Lems, W F; Dekker, J

    2013-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is characterized by pain and activity limitations. In knee OA, proprioceptive accuracy is reduced and might be associated with pain and activity limitations. Although causes of reduced proprioceptive accuracy are divergent, medial meniscal abnormalities, which are highly prevalent in knee OA, have been suggested to play an important role. No study has focussed on the association between proprioceptive accuracy and meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. To explore the association between reduced proprioceptive accuracy and medial meniscal abnormalities in a clinical sample of knee OA subjects. Cross-sectional study in 105 subjects with knee OA. Knee proprioceptive accuracy was assessed by determining the joint motion detection threshold in the knee extension direction. The knee was imaged with a 3.0 T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Number of regions with medial meniscal abnormalities and the extent of abnormality in the anterior and posterior horn and body were scored according to the Boston-Leeds Osteoarthritis Knee Score (BLOKS) method. Multiple regression analyzes were used to examine whether reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA subjects. Mean proprioceptive accuracy was 2.9° ± 1.9°. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected medial meniscal abnormalities were found in the anterior horn (78%), body (80%) and posterior horn (90%). Reduced proprioceptive accuracy was associated with both the number of regions with meniscal abnormalities (P < 0.01) and the extent of abnormality (P = 0.02). These associations were not confounded by muscle strength, joint laxity, pain, age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and duration of knee complaints. This is the first study showing that reduced proprioceptive accuracy is associated with medial meniscal abnormalities in knee OA. The study highlights the importance of meniscal abnormalities in understanding reduced proprioceptive accuracy in

  14. Reliability of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating meniscal and cartilage injuries in anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knees.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kenneth Pak Leung; Han, Audrey XinYun; Wong, Jeannie Leh Ying; Lee, Dave Yee Han

    2017-02-01

    The accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in assessing meniscal and cartilage injuries in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knees as compared to arthroscopy was evaluated in the present study. The results of all preoperative MR imaging performed within 3 months prior to the ACL reconstruction were compared against intraoperative arthroscopic findings. A total of 206 patients were identified. The location and type of meniscal injuries as well as the location and grade of the cartilage injuries were studied. The negative predictive value, positive predictive value, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MR imaging for these 206 cases were calculated and analysed. In patients with an ACL injury, the highest incidence of concomitant injury was that of medial meniscus tears, 124 (60.2 %), followed by lateral meniscus tears, 105 (51.0 %), and cartilage injuries, 66 (32.0 %). Twenty-three (11.2 %) patients sustained injuries to all of the previously named structures. MR imaging was most accurate in detecting medial meniscus tears (85.9 %). MR imaging for medial meniscus tears also had the highest sensitivity (88.0 %) and positive predictive value (88.7 %), while MR imaging for cartilage injuries had the largest specificity (84.1 %) and negative predictive value (87.1 %). It was least accurate in evaluating lateral meniscus tears (74.3 %). The diagnostic accuracy of medial meniscus imaging is significantly influenced by age and the presence of lateral meniscus tears, while the duration between MR imaging and surgery has greater impact on the likelihood of lateral meniscus and cartilage injuries actually being present during surgery. The majority of meniscus tears missed by MR imaging affected the posterior horn and were complex in nature. Cartilage injuries affecting the medial femoral condyle or medial patella facet were also often missed by MR imaging. MR imaging remains a reliable tool for assessing meniscus tears and cartilage defects

  15. Anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal injuries in sports: incidence, time of practice until injury, and limitations caused after trauma.

    PubMed

    Astur, Diego Costa; Xerez, Marcos; Rozas, João; Debieux, Pedro Vargas; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Cohen, Moises

    2016-01-01

    To analyze the incidence of ACL and meniscal injuries in a population of recreational and elite athletes from Brazil and the relation of these injuries with their sports activities. This was a prospective observational study of 240 patients with ACL and/or meniscal injuries submitted to surgical treatment. Data of patients and sport modality, as well as Tegner score were registered in the first clinical evaluation. The patients were divided into three groups: (1) isolated rupture of the ACL; (2) ACL injury associated with meniscal injury; (3) isolated menisci injury. The majority of the patients belonged to group 1 (44.58%), followed by group 2 (30.2%) and 3 (25%). Most patients were soccer players. The mean time from sport practice to injury in group 1 was 17.81 years. In group 2, it was 17.3 years, and in group 3, 26.91 years. Soccer athletes presented ACL injury in 0.523/1000 h of practice and meniscal injury in 0.448/1000 h of practice. Before the injury, the mean Tegner score obtained for groups 1, 2, and 3 were 7.18, 7.34, and 6.53, respectively. After knee injury, those values were 3.07, 3.18, and 2.87, respectively. Soccer was the sport that caused the majority of lesions, regardless the group. Furthermore, patients from groups 1 and 2 had less time of practice prior to the injury (17.81 and 17.3 years) than the patients of group 3 (26.91 years). Women presented a higher risk to develop ACL and meniscal injuries in 1000 h of game/practice. Running, volleyball, and weightlifting are in ascending order of risk for ACL and/or meniscal injury. Regarding the return to sport practice, the efficiency of all athletes was impaired because of the injury.

  16. Chondral Injuries and Irreparable Meniscal Tears Among Adolescents With Anterior Cruciate Ligament or Meniscal Tears Are More Common in Patients With Public Insurance.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ariel A; Mancini, Nickolas S; Solomito, Matthew J; Nissen, Carl W; Milewski, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Access to health care services is a critical component of health care reform and may differ among patients with different types of insurance. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to compare adolescents with private and public insurance undergoing surgery for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and/or meniscal tears. We hypothesized that patients with public insurance would have a delayed presentation from the time of injury and therefore would have a higher incidence of chondral injuries and irreparable meniscal tears and lower preoperative International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores than patients with private insurance. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This was a retrospective study of patients under 21 years of age undergoing ACL reconstruction and/or meniscal repair or debridement from January 2013 to March 2016 at a single pediatric sports medicine center. Patients were identified by a search of Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes. A chart review was performed for insurance type; preoperative diagnosis; date of injury, initial office visit, and surgery; preoperative IKDC score; intraoperative findings; and procedures. The study group consisted of 119 patients (mean age, 15.0 ± 1.7 years). Forty-one percent of patients had private insurance, while 59% had public insurance. There were 27 patients with isolated meniscal tears, 59 with combined meniscal and ACL tears, and 33 with isolated ACL tears. The mean time from injury to presentation was 56 days (range, 0-457 days) in patients with private insurance and 136 days (range, 0-1120 days) in patients with public insurance ( P = .02). Surgery occurred, on average, 35 days after the initial office visit in both groups. The mean preoperative IKDC score was 53 in both groups. Patients with meniscal tears with public insurance were more likely to require meniscal debridement than patients with private insurance (risk ratio [RR], 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1; P = .02). Patients with public insurance

  17. Association of medial meniscal extrusion with medial tibial osteophyte distance detected by T2 mapping MRI in patients with early-stage knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hada, Shinnosuke; Ishijima, Muneaki; Kaneko, Haruka; Kinoshita, Mayuko; Liu, Lizu; Sadatsuki, Ryo; Futami, Ippei; Yusup, Anwajan; Takamura, Tomohiro; Arita, Hitoshi; Shiozawa, Jun; Aoki, Takako; Takazawa, Yuji; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Aoki, Shigeki; Kurosawa, Hisashi; Okada, Yasunori; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-09-12

    Medial meniscal extrusion (MME) is associated with progression of medial knee osteoarthritis (OA), but no or little information is available for relationships between MME and osteophytes, which are found in cartilage and bone parts. Because of the limitation in detectability of the cartilage part of osteophytes by radiography or conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the rate of development and size of osteophytes appear to have been underestimated. Because T2 mapping MRI may enable us to evaluate the cartilage part of osteophytes, we aimed to examine the association between MME and OA-related changes, including osteophytes, by using conventional and T2 mapping MRI. Patients with early-stage knee OA (n = 50) were examined. MRI-detected OA-related changes, in addition to MME, were evaluated according to the Whole-Organ Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score. T2 values of the medial meniscus and osteophytes were measured on T2 mapping images. Osteophytes surgically removed from patients with end-stage knee OA were histologically analyzed and compared with findings derived by radiography and MRI. Medial side osteophytes were detected by T2 mapping MRI in 98% of patients with early-stage knee OA, although the detection rate was 48% by conventional MRI and 40% by radiography. Among the OA-related changes, medial tibial osteophyte distance was most closely associated with MME, as determined by multiple logistic regression analysis, in the patients with early-stage knee OA (β = 0.711, p < 0.001). T2 values of the medial meniscus were directly correlated with MME in patients with early-stage knee OA, who showed ≥ 3 mm of MME (r = 0.58, p = 0.003). The accuracy of osteophyte evaluation by T2 mapping MRI was confirmed by histological analysis of the osteophytes removed from patients with end-stage knee OA. Our study demonstrates that medial tibial osteophyte evaluated by T2 mapping MRI is frequently observed in the patients with early-stage knee

  18. Osteoligamentous injuries of the medial ankle joint.

    PubMed

    Lötscher, P; Lang, T H; Zwicky, L; Hintermann, B; Knupp, M

    2015-12-01

    Injuries of the ankle joint have a high incidence in daily life and sports, thus, playing an important socioeconomic role. Therefore, proper diagnosis and adequate treatment are mandatory. While most of the ligament injuries around the ankle joint are treated conservatively, great controversy exists on how to treat deltoid ligament injuries in ankle fractures. Missed injuries and inadequate treatment of the medial ankle lead to inferior outcome with instability, progressive deformity, and ankle joint osteoarthritis.

  19. Medial meniscal posterior root/horn radial tears correlate with cartilage degeneration detected by T1ρ relaxation mapping.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kenji; Hashimoto, Sanshiro; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Mori, Atsushi; Sato, Akiko; Majima, Tokifumi; Takai, Shinro

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to identify factors on routine pulse sequence MRI associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. This study included 137 subjects with knee pain. T1ρ values were measured in the regions of interest on the surface layer of the cartilage on mid-coronal images of the femorotibial joint. Assessment of cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and ligaments was performed using routine pulse sequence MRI. Radiographic evaluation for osteoarthritis was also performed. Multiple regression analysis revealed posterior root/horn tears to be independent factors increasing the T1ρ values of the cartilage in the medial compartment of the femorotibial joint. Even when adjusted for radiographically defined early-stage osteoarthritis, medial posterior meniscal radial tears significantly increased the T1ρ values. This study showed that posterior root/horn radial tears in the medial meniscus are particularly important MRI findings associated with cartilage degeneration observed on T1ρ relaxation mapping. Morphological factors of the medial meniscus on MRI provide findings useful for screening early-stage osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Medial elbow injury in young throwing athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Bonnie; Nyland, John

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report reviews the anatomy, overhead throwing biomechanics, injury mechanism and incidence, physical examination and diagnosis, diagnostic imaging and conservative treatment of medial elbow injuries in young throwing athletes. Based on the information a clinical management decision-making algorithm is presented. PMID:23888291

  1. Earlier anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is associated with a decreased risk of medial meniscal and articular cartilage damage in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kay, Jeffrey; Memon, Muzammil; Shah, Ajay; Yen, Yi-Meng; Samuelsson, Kristian; Peterson, Devin; Simunovic, Nicole; Flageole, Helene; Ayeni, Olufemi R

    2018-06-06

    To evaluate the association between surgical timing and the incidence of secondary meniscal or chondral damage in children and adolescents with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ruptures. Three electronic databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE, were systematically searched from database inception until October 16, 2017 by two reviewers independently and in duplicate. The inclusion criteria were English language studies that reported the incidence of meniscal and articular cartilage damage in children or adolescent athletes with ACL injuries as well as the timing of their ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Risk ratios were combined in a meta-analysis using a random effects model. A total of nine studies including 1353 children and adolescents met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of patients included was 14.2 years (range 6-19), and 45% were female. There was a significantly decreased risk of concomitant medial meniscal injury in those reconstructed early (26%) compared to those with delayed reconstruction (47%) [pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.49, 95% CI 0.36-0.65, p < 0.00001]. There was also a significantly reduced risk of medial femoral chondral (RR = 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.75, p = 0.001), lateral femoral chondral (RR = 0.38, 95% CI 0.20-0.75, p = 0.005), tibial chondral (RR = 0.45, 95% CI 0.27-0.75, p = 0.002), and patellofemoral chondral (RR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.20-0.82, p = 0.01) damage in the early reconstruction group in comparison to the delayed group. Pooled results from observational studies suggest that early ACLR results in a significantly decreased risk of secondary medial meniscal injury, as well as secondary medial, lateral, and patellofemoral compartment chondral damage in children and adolescents. This study provides clinicians with valuable information regarding the benefits of early ACL reconstruction in children and adolescents, and can be used in the decision making for athletes in this population. IV.

  2. The Strength of Transosseous Medial Meniscal Root Repair Using a Simple Suture Technique Is Dependent on Suture Material and Position.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James R; Frank, Evelyn G; Hunter, Alan J; Jermin, Paul J; Gill, Harinderjit S

    2018-03-01

    A simple suture technique in transosseous meniscal root repair can provide equivalent resistance to cyclic load and is less technically demanding to perform compared with more complex suture configurations, yet maximum yield loads are lower. Various suture materials have been investigated for repair, but it is currently not clear which material is optimal in terms of repair strength. Meniscal root anatomy is also complex; consisting of the ligamentous mid-substance (root ligament), the transition zone between the meniscal body and root ligament; the relationship between suture location and maximum failure load has not been investigated in a simulated surgical repair. (A) Using a knottable, 2-mm-wide, ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) braided tape for transosseous meniscal root repair with a simple suture technique will give rise to a higher maximum failure load than a repair made using No. 2 UHMWPE standard suture material for simple suture repair. (B) Suture position is an important factor in determining the maximum failure load. Controlled laboratory study. In part A, the posterior root attachment of the medial meniscus was divided in 19 porcine knees. The tibias were potted, and repair of the medial meniscus posterior root was performed. A suture-passing device was used to place 2 simple sutures into the posterior root of the medial meniscus during a repair procedure that closely replicated single-tunnel, transosseous surgical repair commonly used in clinical practice. Ten tibias were randomized to repair with No. 2 suture (Suture group) and 9 tibias to repair with 2-mm-wide knottable braided tape (Tape group). The repair strength was assessed by maximum failure load measured by use of a materials testing machine. Micro-computed tomography (CT) scans were obtained to assess suture positions within the meniscus. The wide range of maximum failure load appeared related to suture position. In part B, 10 additional porcine knees were prepared. Five

  3. Comparison of CT and MRI in patients with tibial plateau fracture: can CT findings predict ligament tear or meniscal injury?

    PubMed

    Mui, Leonora W; Engelsohn, Eliyahu; Umans, Hilary

    2007-02-01

    (1) To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in the evaluation of ligament tear and avulsion in patients with tibial plateau fracture. (2) To evaluate whether the presence or severity of fracture gap and articular depression can predict meniscal injury. A fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist retrospectively reviewed knee CT and MRI examinations of 41 consecutive patients presenting to a level 1 trauma center with tibial plateau fractures. Fracture gap, articular depression, ligament tear and footprint avulsions were assessed on CT examinations. The MRI studies were examined for osseous and soft tissue injuries, including meniscal tear, meniscal displacement, ligament tear, and ligament avulsion. CT demonstrated torn ligaments with 80% sensitivity and 98% specificity. Only 2% of ligaments deemed intact on careful CT evaluation had partial or complete tears on MRI. Although the degree of fracture gap and articular depression was significantly greater in patients with meniscal injury compared with those without meniscal injury, ROC analysis demonstrated no clear threshold for gap or depression that yielded a combination of high sensitivity and specificity. In the acute setting, CT offers high sensitivity and specificity for depicting osseous avulsions, as well as high negative predictive value for excluding ligament injury. However, MRI remains necessary for the preoperative detection of meniscal injury.

  4. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL) Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... torn MCL tend to play contact sports, like football and soccer. More severe injuries happen when the ... the things you love — like running or playing football, field hockey, or softball — can be frustrating. If ...

  5. Meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Maffulli, Nicola; Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Campi, Stefano; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    The menisci are two semilunar-shaped fibrocartilagenous structures, which are interposed between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaux. They have an important role in knee function. Long-term follow-up studies showed that virtually all meniscectomized knees develop arthritic changes with time. The meniscus has functions in load bearing, load transmission, shock absorption, joint stability, joint lubrication, and joint congruity. Because of these functions, meniscal tissue should be preserved whenever possible. A well-trained surgeon can safely rely on clinical examination for diagnosing meniscal injuries. History and clinical examination are at least as accurate as magnetic resonance imaging in the skilled orthopedic surgeon’s hand. When meniscal repair is not possible, partial resection of the meniscus is indicated. Meniscal repair has evolved from open to arthroscopic techniques, which include the inside-out and outside-in suture repairs and the all-inside techniques. Meniscal transplantation is generally accepted as a management alternative option for selected symptomatic patients with previous complete or near-complete meniscectomy. PMID:24198542

  6. Increased extrusion and ICRS grades at 2-year follow-up following transtibial medial meniscal root repair evaluated by MRI.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Daniel J; Alaia, Erin F; Dold, Andrew P; Meislin, Robert J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith M; Alaia, Michael J

    2017-11-02

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the short-term results of meniscal root repair surgery, assessing clinical and radiographic outcomes, utilizing MRI to assess root healing and extent of post-operative extrusion. This was a single-center, retrospective study evaluating patients who had undergone a medial meniscus posterior root repair using a transtibial pullout technique with two locking cinch sutures. Demographic data were collected from patient charts. Clinical outcomes were assessed with pre- and post-operative IKDC and Lysholm scores. Pre-op scores were taken at the patients' initial clinical visit, mean 1.55 months prior to surgery (± 1.8 months, min 0.3, max 7.3). Radiographic outcomes were assessed with MRI evaluation of root healing, meniscal extrusion, and cartilage degeneration using ICRS criteria. Tunnel placement was evaluated and compared to the anatomic footprint. Eighteen patients (47.2 years ± 11.9) were evaluated at mean follow-up of 24.9 months (± 7.2, min 18.4, max 35.6). The IKDC score significantly increased from 45.9 (± 12.6) pre-operatively to 76.8 (± 14.7) post-operatively (p < 0.001). Lysholm scores also increased from 50.9 (± 7.11) to 87.1 (± 9.8) (p < 0.001). Mean tunnel placement was 5.3 mm (± 3.5, range 0-11.8) away from the anatomic footprint. Mean extrusion increased from 4.74 mm (± 1.7) pre-operatively to 5.98 (± 2.8) post-operatively (p < 0.02). No patients with > 3 mm of extrusion on pre-operative MRI had < 3 mm of extrusion on post-operative MRI. Both medial femoral condyle and medial tibial plateau ICRS grades worsened significantly (p < 0.02 and p < 0.01, respectively). On MRI, one root appeared completely healed, 16 partially healed, and one not healed. Patients treated with the transtibial suture pull-out technique with two locking cinch sutures had improved clinical outcomes, but only partial healing in the majority of cases, increased extrusion

  7. Meniscal Extrusion Progresses Shortly after the Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Kodama, Yuya; Kamatsuki, Yusuke; Hino, Tomohito; Okazaki, Yoshiki; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-12-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT) induce medial meniscus extrusion (MME). However, the time-dependent extent of MME in patients suffering from the MMPRT remains unclear. This study evaluated the extent of MME after painful popping events that occurred at the onset of the MMPRT. Thirty-five patients who had an episode of posteromedial painful popping were investigated. All the patients were diagnosed as having an MMPRT by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 12 months after painful popping. Medial meniscus body width (MMBW), absolute MME, and relative MME (100×absolute MME/MMBW) were assessed among three groups divided according to the time after painful popping events: early period (〈1 month), subacute period (1-3 months), and chronic period (4-12 months). In the early period, absolute and relative MMEs were 3.0 mm and 32.7%, respectively. Absolute MME increased up to 4.2 mm and 5.8 mm during the subacute and chronic periods, respectively. Relative MME also progressed to 49.2% and 60.3% in the subacute and chronic periods, respectively. This study demonstrated that absolute and relative MMEs increased progressively within the short period after the onset of symptomatic MMPRT. Our results suggest that early diagnosis of an MMPRT may be important to prevent progression of MME following the MMPRT.

  8. Reliability and Validity of the IKDC, KOOS, and WOMAC for Patients With Meniscal Injuries.

    PubMed

    van de Graaf, Victor A; Wolterbeek, Nienke; Scholtes, Vanessa A B; Mutsaerts, Eduard L A R; Poolman, Rudolf W

    2014-06-01

    Several patient-reported outcome measurements are used to measure functional outcome after treatment of meniscal injuries. However, for comparison of study results, there is a need for a uniform and standardized approach of measuring functional outcome. Selection of the instrument should be based on the quality of its measurement properties, and only the best instrument can be justified to be used. This study aimed to determine and compare the measurement properties of the Dutch-language versions of the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Form, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) in a homogeneous group of patients with meniscal tears. Cohort study (design); Level of evidence, 2. Patients on the waiting list for meniscal surgery and patients between 6 weeks and 6 months after meniscal surgery were included (n = 75). Patients were excluded if they received an arthroplasty or had surgery on the anterior cruciate ligament. Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]), measurement error (SEM), smallest detectable difference (SDD), content validity, construct validity (factor analysis and hypothesis testing), and floor and ceiling effects were determined. Results for the IKDC, KOOS dimensions, and WOMAC dimensions, respectively, were as follows: Cronbach alpha = .90, .72-.95, and .84-.95; ICC = 0.93, 0.84-0.89, and 0.77-0.89; SEM = 5.3, 7.0-12.6, and 7.3-12.2; SDD = 14.6, 19.4-35.0, and 20.2-33.9; hypotheses testing confirmation = 100%, 86%, and 85%. Floor effects within the SDD from the minimum score were found for the KOOS Sports/Recreation and Quality of Life dimensions. Ceiling effects within the SDD from the maximum score were found for the KOOS Activities of Daily Living and for all WOMAC dimensions. The IKDC showed the best performance on all measurement properties, implying that the IKDC

  9. Dynamic Alterations in Microarchitecture, Mineralization and Mechanical Property of Subchondral Bone in Rat Medial Meniscal Tear Model of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Gang; Nie, Shao-Bo; Liu, Feng-Xiang; Wu, Chuan-Long; Tian, Bo; Wang, Wen-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Zhen-An; Mao, Yuan-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Background: The properties of subchondral bone influence the integrity of articular cartilage in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the characteristics of subchondral bone alterations remain unresolved. The present study aimed to observe the dynamic alterations in the microarchitecture, mineralization, and mechanical properties of subchondral bone during the progression of OA. Methods: A medial meniscal tear (MMT) operation was performed in 128 adult Sprague Dawley rats to induce OA. At 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following the MMT operation, cartilage degeneration was evaluated using toluidine blue O staining, whereas changes in the microarchitecture indices and tissue mineral density (TMD), mineral-to-collagen ratio, and intrinsic mechanical properties of subchondral bone plates (BPs) and trabecular bones (Tbs) were measured using micro-computed tomography scanning, confocal Raman microspectroscopy and nanoindentation testing, respectively. Results: Cartilage degeneration occurred and worsened progressively from 2 to 12 weeks after OA induction. Microarchitecture analysis revealed that the subchondral bone shifted from bone resorption early (reduced trabecular BV/TV, trabecular number, connectivity density and trabecular thickness [Tb.Th], and increased trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) at 2 and 4 weeks) to bone accretion late (increased BV/TV, Tb.Th and thickness of subchondral bone plate, and reduced Tb.Sp at 8 and 12 weeks). The TMD of both the BP and Tb displayed no significant changes at 2 and 4 weeks but decreased at 8 and 12 weeks. The mineral-to-collagen ratio showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks for the Tb and from 8 weeks for the BP after OA induction. Both the elastic modulus and hardness of the Tb showed a significant decrease from 4 weeks after OA induction. The BP showed a significant decrease in its elastic modulus from 8 weeks and its hardness from 4 weeks. Conclusion: The microarchitecture, mineralization and mechanical properties of

  10. Medial Meniscus Root Tear in the Middle Aged Patient: A Case Based Review

    PubMed Central

    Carreau, Joseph H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Biomechanical studies have shown that medial meniscal root tears result in meniscal extrusion and increased tibiofemoral joint contact pressures, which can accelerate the progression of arthritis. Repair is generally recommended for acute injuries in the young, active patient population. The far more common presentation however, is a subacute root tear with medial meniscal extrusion in a middle aged patient. Coexisting arthritis is common in this population and complicates decision making. Treatment should be based on the severity of the underlying arthritis. In cases of early or minimal arthritis, root repair is ideal to improve symptoms and restore meniscal function. In patients with moderate or severe medial compartment arthritis, medial unloader bracing or injections can be tried initially. When non-operative treatment fails, high tibial osteotomy or arthroplasty is recommended. Long term clinical studies are needed to determine the natural history of medial meniscal root tears in middle aged patients and the best surgical option. PMID:28852346

  11. Accuracy of routine magnetic resonance imaging in meniscal and ligamentous injuries of the knee: comparison with arthroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Behairy, Noha H.; Dorgham, Mohsen A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the accuracy of routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) done in different centres and its agreement with arthroscopy in meniscal and ligamentous injuries of the knee. We prospectively examined 70 patients ranging in age between 22 and 59 years. History taking, plain X-ray, clinical examination, routine MRI and arthroscopy were done for all patients. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, P value and kappa agreement measures were calculated. We found a sensitivity of 47 and 100%, specificity of 95 and 75% and accuracy of 73 and 78.5%, respectively, for the medial and lateral meniscus. A sensitivity of 77.8%, specificity of 100% and accuracy of 94% was noted for the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). We found good kappa agreements (0.43 and 0.45) for both menisci and excellent agreement (0.84) for the ACL. MRI shows high accuracy and should be used as the primary diagnostic tool for selection of candidates for arthroscopy. Level of evidence: 4. PMID:18506445

  12. Anatomical risk evaluation of iatrogenic injury to the infrapatellar branch of the saphenous nerve during medial meniscus arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Koch, Guillaume; Kling, Agathe; Ramamurthy, Nitin; Edalat, Faramarz; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; Kahn, Jean-Luc; Garnon, Julien; Clavert, Philippe

    2017-06-01

    To determine the relationship of the medial meniscus with the infrapatellar branches of the saphenous nerve, the primary goal is to define and characterize different risk areas for these nerves during medial meniscus surgery. After dissecting 20 embalmed cadaver knees, we defined 7 readily identifiable anatomical landmarks. For each knee, we recorded 2 morphological criteria and 16 measurements. The most common anatomical course is a main trunk that is 8 mm anterior to the tuberculum adductorium and 60 mm posterior to the midpoint of the medial patellar margin. It has two main infrapatellar branches. The nerve division is 23 mm above the joint line. The path is oblique with an angle of 55.5°. The anterior meniscal landmark is 24 mm from the upper branch and 42.5 mm from the lower branch. The posterior meniscal landmark is 55 mm from the upper branch and 38 mm from the lower branch. We defined a common anatomical course for the saphenous nerve and its infrapatellar branches. Then, three different areas were defined at risk for iatrogenic nerve injuries during medial meniscus.

  13. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2010-04-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.

  14. The Influence of Meniscal and Anterolateral Capsular Injury on Knee Laxity in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries.

    PubMed

    Musahl, Volker; Rahnemai-Azar, Ata A; Costello, Joanna; Arner, Justin W; Fu, Freddie H; Hoshino, Yuichi; Lopomo, Nicola; Samuelsson, Kristian; Irrgang, James J

    2016-12-01

    The role of the anterolateral capsule (ALC) as a secondary restraint to quantitative rotatory laxity of patients with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury is currently debated. The purpose was to determine the influence of concomitant ALC injuries as well as injuries to other soft tissue structures on rotatory knee laxity in patients with an ACL injury. It was hypothesized that a concomitant ALC injury would be associated with increased rotatory knee laxity as measured during a quantitative pivot-shift test. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Forty-one patients with an ACL injury (average age, 23 ± 6.9 years) were enrolled. Two blinded musculoskeletal radiologists reviewed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for the presence of ACL injuries and concomitant soft tissue injuries including the ALC, medial collateral ligament, lateral collateral ligament, posterolateral corner, medial meniscus, and lateral meniscus. A standardized pivot-shift test was performed under anesthesia, and rotatory laxity was quantified according to anterior translation of the lateral tibial compartment during the pivot-shift maneuver. The Student t test was used to analyze the data. Statistical significance was set at P < .05. A complete ACL rupture was confirmed in all of the patients. MRI evidence of an ALC injury was observed in 21 (51%) of the patients. Patients with MRI evidence of an ALC injury had significantly higher rotatory knee laxity (3.6 ± 1.5 mm) compared with those without an ALC injury (2.7 ± 1.5 mm; P = .04). Lateral and medial meniscus injuries were detected in 17 (41%) and 19 (46%) patients, respectively. Patients with MRI evidence of either a medial meniscus injury or lateral meniscus injury had significantly higher rotatory knee laxity compared with patients without these injuries (medial meniscus: 3.7 ± 1.4 mm vs 2.7 ± 1.6 mm, respectively; lateral meniscus: 3.7 ± 1.7 mm vs 2.7 ± 1.3 mm, respectively) (P = .03 for both). MRI evidence of a

  15. Successful anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and meniscal repair in osteogenesis imperfecta.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae-Young; Cho, Tae-Joon; Lee, Myung Chul; Han, Hyuk-Soo

    2018-03-20

    A case of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with meniscal repair in an osteogenesis imperfecta patient is reported. A 24-year-old female with osteogenesis imperfecta type 1a suffered from a valgus extension injury resulting in tear of ACL and medial meniscus. She underwent an arthroscopic-assisted ACL reconstruction and medial meniscus repair. Meniscal tear at the menisco-capsular junction of the posterior horn of medial meniscus was repaired with three absorbable sutures via inside-out technique. ACL reconstruction was then performed with a bone-patellar tendon-bone allograft. The patient was followed up for 1 year with intact ACL grafts and healed medial meniscus. This case report showed that successful ACL reconstruction and meniscal repair is possible in an osteogenesis imperfecta patient.Level of evidence V.

  16. Advances in Meniscal Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Umile Giuseppe; Loppini, Mattia; Forriol, Francisco; Romeo, Giovanni; Maffulli, Nicola; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Meniscal tears are the most common knee injuries and have a poor ability of healing. In the last few decades, several techniques have been increasingly used to optimize meniscal healing. Current research efforts of tissue engineering try to combine cell-based therapy, growth factors, gene therapy, and reabsorbable scaffolds to promote healing of meniscal defects. Preliminary studies did not allow to draw definitive conclusions on the use of these techniques for routine management of meniscal lesions. We performed a review of the available literature on current techniques of tissue engineering for the management of meniscal tears. PMID:25098366

  17. Sex-Specific Predictors of Intra-articular Injuries Observed During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Kluczynski, Melissa A.; Marzo, John M.; Rauh, Michael A.; Bernas, Geoffrey A.; Bisson, Leslie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Male patients tend to have more meniscal and chondral injuries at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction than females. No studies have examined sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions in ACL-injured patients. Purpose: To identify sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions, as well as meniscal tear management, in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Data were collected prospectively from 689 patients (56.2% males) undergoing ACL reconstruction between 2005 and 2014. Predictors of meniscal tears, meniscal tear management, and chondral injuries were determined using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex. Predictors were age, body mass index (BMI; 25-29.99 and ≥30 vs ≤24.99 kg/m2), mechanism (contact vs noncontact) and type (high-impact sports [basketball, football, soccer, and skiing] and other sports vs not sports-related) of injury, interval from injury to surgery (≤6 vs >6 weeks), and instability episodes (vs none). Odds ratios and 95% CIs were reported. Results: Males had more lateral (46% vs 27.8%; P < .0001) and medial (40.2% vs 31.5%; P = .01) meniscal tears, as well as more lateral (72.1% vs 27.9%; P < .0001) and medial (61.4% vs 38.6%; P = .01) meniscectomies than females. For males, age predicted chondral injuries and medial meniscectomy; BMI ≥30 kg/m2 predicted medial meniscal tears; high-impact and other sports predicted medial meniscal tears, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs; injuries ≤6 weeks from surgery predicted lateral meniscal repairs; and instability episodes predicted medial meniscal tears, medial tears left in situ, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs. For females, age predicted chondral injuries, BMI ≥30 kg/m2 predicted lateral meniscectomies and repairs, and instability episodes predicted medial meniscectomies. Conclusion: Sex differences were observed. For

  18. Sex-Specific Predictors of Intra-articular Injuries Observed During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kluczynski, Melissa A; Marzo, John M; Rauh, Michael A; Bernas, Geoffrey A; Bisson, Leslie J

    2015-02-01

    Male patients tend to have more meniscal and chondral injuries at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction than females. No studies have examined sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions in ACL-injured patients. To identify sex-specific predictors of meniscal and chondral lesions, as well as meniscal tear management, in patients undergoing ACL reconstruction. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected prospectively from 689 patients (56.2% males) undergoing ACL reconstruction between 2005 and 2014. Predictors of meniscal tears, meniscal tear management, and chondral injuries were determined using multivariate logistic regression models stratified by sex. Predictors were age, body mass index (BMI; 25-29.99 and ≥30 vs ≤24.99 kg/m(2)), mechanism (contact vs noncontact) and type (high-impact sports [basketball, football, soccer, and skiing] and other sports vs not sports-related) of injury, interval from injury to surgery (≤6 vs >6 weeks), and instability episodes (vs none). Odds ratios and 95% CIs were reported. Males had more lateral (46% vs 27.8%; P < .0001) and medial (40.2% vs 31.5%; P = .01) meniscal tears, as well as more lateral (72.1% vs 27.9%; P < .0001) and medial (61.4% vs 38.6%; P = .01) meniscectomies than females. For males, age predicted chondral injuries and medial meniscectomy; BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) predicted medial meniscal tears; high-impact and other sports predicted medial meniscal tears, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs; injuries ≤6 weeks from surgery predicted lateral meniscal repairs; and instability episodes predicted medial meniscal tears, medial tears left in situ, medial meniscectomies, and medial meniscal repairs. For females, age predicted chondral injuries, BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) predicted lateral meniscectomies and repairs, and instability episodes predicted medial meniscectomies. Sex differences were observed. For males, predictors included age, BMI, sports

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of three hyaluronic acid formulations in young and middle-aged patients with early-stage meniscal injuries

    PubMed Central

    Dernek, Bahar; Kesiktas, Fatma Nur; Duymus, Tahir Mutlu; Diracoglu, Demirhan; Aksoy, Cihan

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate and compare the efficacy of three hyaluronic acid formulations in patients with early-stage meniscal injuries. [Subjects and Methods] Male and female patients who were admitted to our clinic between January 2013 and December 2013, diagnosed with early-stage meniscus lesions of the knee, and given a hyaluronic acid treatment were included in this retrospective study. Patients were categorized into 3 groups according to their treatments: MONOVISC, OSTENIL PLUS, or ORTHOVISC. Scores from a Visual Analog Scale and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index were evaluated at baseline and one, three, and six months after baseline. [Results] A total of 55 patients were included in this study. Most of the patients were female (55%), and the mean age of the patients was 42.4 (± 8.1) years. Based on the pre- and post-injection data, there was significant reductions both in the Visual Analog Scale score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index score after the injections for all groups. According to intergroup comparisons, no significant difference was observed in terms of efficacy. [Conclusion] Three hyaluronic acid formulations produced a similar efficacy in patients with meniscal injuries, and further studies are needed to evaluate long-term results. PMID:28744035

  20. Meniscal tears missed on MR imaging: relationship to meniscal tear patterns and anterior cruciate ligament tears.

    PubMed

    De Smet, A A; Graf, B K

    1994-04-01

    MR imaging of the knee is a valuable technique for diagnosing meniscal tears, but some tears found at arthroscopy are not shown on MR imaging. The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not tears were more frequently missed in the presence of an anterior cruciate ligament tear or when tears had certain locations or configurations. We reviewed the original MR reports and surgical records of 400 patients who had both an MR examination and arthroscopy of the knee. Using chi 2 analysis, we examined how the sensitivity for detecting meniscal tears varied with the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, with the location of the tear within the meniscus, and among six configurations of meniscal tears. We also studied whether sensitivity decreased with an increasing delay between MR examination and arthroscopy. In the presence of a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, the sensitivity decreased from 0.97 to 0.88 (p = .016) for medial meniscal tears and from 0.94 to 0.69 (p = .0005) for lateral tears. The overall sensitivity for lateral meniscal tears was significantly less for posterior (p = .001) and peripheral (p = .005) tears than for other tear locations or configurations. The sensitivities did not significantly differ between tear locations and configurations in the medial meniscus or with an increasing delay until arthroscopy. Patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament were more likely to have peripheral tears of the medial meniscus (p = .00004) and posterior (p = .0004) and peripheral (p = .04) tears of the lateral meniscus. Because of their location and configuration, meniscal tears associated with an anterior cruciate ligament injury are more difficult to detect on MR images than are tears in knees with an intact ligament. If a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament is detected, special attention should be given to the subtle peripheral tears that may be present in either meniscus, but most commonly in the posterior horn of the

  1. Implantation of Allogenic Synovial Stem Cells Promotes Meniscal Regeneration in a Rabbit Meniscal Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masafumi; Driscoll, Matthew D.; Sampson, H. Wayne; Sekiya, Ichiro; Caroom, Cyrus T.; Prockop, Darwin J.; Thomas, Darryl B.

    2012-01-01

    Update This article was updated on May 16, 2012, because of a previous error. The legend for Figures 7-A and 7-B that had previously read “Representative macroscopic appearance (Fig. 7-A) and histological sections (Fig. 7-B) of the meniscal defect one day to twelve weeks after the implantation of GFP-positive green fluorescent protein under fluorescence” now reads “Representative macroscopic appearance (Fig. 7-A) and histological sections (Fig. 7-B) of the meniscal defect one day to twelve weeks after the implantation of GFP-positive synovial mesenchymal stem cells under fluorescence.” Background: Indications for surgical meniscal repair are limited, and failure rates remain high. Thus, new ways to augment repair and stimulate meniscal regeneration are needed. Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent cells present in mature individuals and accessible from peripheral connective tissue sites, including synovium. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effect of implantation of synovial tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells on meniscal regeneration in a rabbit model of partial meniscectomy. Methods: Synovial mesenchymal stem cells were harvested from the knee of one New Zealand White rabbit, expanded in culture, and labeled with a fluorescent marker. A reproducible 1.5-mm cylindrical defect was created in the avascular portion of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus bilaterally in fifteen additional rabbits. Allogenic synovial mesenchymal stem cells suspended in phosphate-buffered saline solution were implanted into the right knees, and phosphate-buffered saline solution alone was placed in the left knees. Meniscal regeneration was evaluated histologically at four, twelve, and twenty-four weeks for (1) quantity and (2) quality (with use of an established three-component scoring system). A similar procedure was performed in four additional rabbits with use of green fluorescent protein-positive synovial mesenchymal stem cells for the

  2. Injuries of the Medial Clavicle: A Cohort Analysis in a Level-I-Trauma-Center. Concomitant Injuries. Management. Classification.

    PubMed

    Bakir, Mustafa Sinan; Merschin, David; Unterkofler, Jan; Guembel, Denis; Langenbach, Andreas; Ekkernkamp, Axel; Schulz-Drost, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although shoulder girdle injuries are frequent, those of the medial clavicle are widely unexplored. An applied classification is less used just as a standard management. Methods: A retrospective analysis of medial clavicle injuries (MCI) during a 5-year-term in a Level-1-Trauma-Center. We analyzed amongst others concomitant injuries, therapy strategies and the classification following the AO standards. Results: 19 (2.5%) out of 759 clavicula injuries were medial ones (11 A, 6 B and 2 C-Type fractures) thereunder 27,8% were displaced and thus operatively treated Locked plate osteosynthesis was employed in unstable fractures and a reconstruction of the ligaments at the sternoclavicular joint (SCJ) in case of their disruption. 84,2% of the patients sustained relevant concomitant injuries. Numerous midshaft fractures were miscoded as medial fracture, which limited the study population. Conclusions: MCI resulted from high impact mechanisms of injury, often with relevant dislocation and concomitant injuries. Concerning medial injury's complexity, treatment should occur in specialized hospitals. Unstable fractures and injuries of the SCJ ligaments should be considered for operative treatment. Midshaft fractures should be clearly distinguished from the medial ones in ICD-10-coding. Further studies are required also regarding a subtyping of the AO classification for medial clavicle fractures including ligamental injuries. Celsius.

  3. Success of Meniscal Repair at ACL Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Toman, Charles; Spindler, Kurt P.; Dunn, Warren R.; Amendola, Annunziata; Andrish, Jack T.; Bergfeld, John A.; Flanigan, David; Jones, Morgan; Kaeding, Christopher C.; Marx, Robert G.; Matava, Matthew J.; McCarty, Eric C.; Parker, Richard D.; Wolcott, Michelle; Vidal, Armando; Wolf, Brian R.; Huston, Laura J.; Harrell, Frank E.; Wright, Rick W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Meniscal repair is performed in an attempt to prevent posttraumatic arthritis resulting from meniscal dysfunction after meniscal tears. The socioeconomic implications of premature arthritis are significant in the young patient population. Investigations and techniques focusing on meniscus preservation and healing are now at the forefront of orthopaedic sports medicine. Hypothesis Concomitant meniscal repair with ACL reconstruction is a durable and successful procedure at two year follow-up. Study Design Case Series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods All unilateral primary ACL reconstructions entered in 2002 in a prospective cohort who had meniscal repair at the time of ACLR were evaluated. Validated patient oriented outcome instruments were completed preoperatively and then again at the two-year postoperative time point. Reoperation after the index procedure was also documented and confirmed by operative reports. Results 437 unilateral primary ACL reconstructions were performed with 86 concomitant meniscal repairs (57 medial, 29 lateral) in 84 patients during the study period. Patient follow-up was obtained on 94% (81/86) of the meniscal repairs, allowing confirmation of meniscal repair success (defined as no repeat arthroscopic procedure) or failure. The overall success rate for meniscal repairs was 96% (76/79 patients) at two-year follow-up. Conclusions Meniscal repair is a successful procedure in conjunction with ACL reconstruction. When confronted with a “repairable” meniscal tear at the time of ACL reconstruction, orthopaedic surgeons can expect an estimated >90% clinical success rate at two-year follow-up using a variety of methods as shown in our study. PMID:19465734

  4. Outcomes of Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries during Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, Marcelo B P; Haller, Kathryn; Mulder, Andrew; Goldblum, Andrew S; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2016-01-01

    Intraoperative medial collateral ligament (MCL) disruption during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is often managed with either primary repair or use of a constrained implant. A total of 23 patients with an MCL injury during TKA between 2003 and 2009 were compared with 92 matched controls. Of the 23 patients, 10 were treated with an unconstrained implant and primary MCL repair, 8 with constrained implants, 3 with constrained implants and MCL repair, and 2 with unconstrained implants and no MCL repair. After an average 5-year follow-up, patients had lower Knee Society Scores (KSS), 79 versus 87 (p = 0.03), but similar Knee Function Scores (KFS), 68 versus 72 (p = 0.35). The improvement between preoperative and postoperative KSS and KFS did not vary among the two groups (p = 0.88 and p = 0.77, respectively). Postoperative scores did not vary significantly among the four treatment modalities. Conservative treatment can provide satisfactory outcomes and avoid potential complications of increased constraint. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Finnish Degenerative Meniscal Lesion Study (FIDELITY): a protocol for a randomised, placebo surgery controlled trial on the efficacy of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for patients with degenerative meniscus injury with a novel ‘RCT within-a-cohort’ study design

    PubMed Central

    Sihvonen, Raine; Paavola, Mika; Malmivaara, Antti; Järvinen, Teppo L N

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) to treat degenerative meniscus injury is the most common orthopaedic procedure. However, valid evidence of the efficacy of APM is lacking. Controlling for the placebo effect of any medical intervention is important, but seems particularly pertinent for the assessment of APM, as the symptoms commonly attributed to a degenerative meniscal injury (medial joint line symptoms and perceived disability) are subjective and display considerable fluctuation, and accordingly difficult to gauge objectively. Methods and analysis A multicentre, parallel randomised, placebo surgery controlled trial is being carried out to assess the efficacy of APM for patients from 35 to 65 years of age with a degenerative meniscus injury. Patients with degenerative medial meniscus tear and medial joint line symptoms, without clinical or radiographic osteoarthritis of the index knee, were enrolled and then randomly assigned (1 : 1) to either APM or diagnostic arthroscopy (placebo surgery). Patients are followed up for 12 months. According to the prior power calculation, 140 patients were randomised. The two randomised patient groups will be compared at 12 months with intention-to-treat analysis. To safeguard against bias, patients, healthcare providers, data collectors, data analysts, outcome adjudicators and the researchers interpreting the findings will be blind to the patients’ interventions (APM/placebo). Primary outcomes are Lysholm knee score (a generic knee instrument), knee pain (using a numerical rating scale), and WOMET score (a disease-specific, health-related quality of life index). The secondary outcome is 15D (a generic quality of life instrument). Further, in one of the five centres recruiting patients for the randomised controlled trial (RCT), all patients scheduled for knee arthroscopy due to a degenerative meniscus injury are prospectively followed up using the same protocol as in the RCT to provide an external

  6. Retropatellar chondromalacia associated with medial osteoarthritis after meniscus injury. One year of observations in sheep.

    PubMed

    Burger, C; Kabir, K; Mueller, M; Rangger, C; Minor, T; Tolba, R H

    2006-01-01

    In an ovine meniscal repair model, the patellofemoral (PF) osteoarthritis due to a non-sutured tear or failed repair was investigated. A radial meniscus tear was either sutured with polydioxanone (PDS), with a slow degrading polylactide long-term suture(LTS) or left without treatment. Knee joint cartilage in the PF and medial compartment was evaluated compared to normal knees (healthy controls). Retropatellar osteoarthritis in the non-sutured and sutured animals was intense in contrast to the control knees after 6 months in all groups (p < 0.001), and after 12 months in the PDS group (p < 0.001), LTS group and non-sutured animals (p < 0.05). Non-sutured meniscus tears and failed repair lead fast to intense PF osteoarthritis corresponding with tibial damage of the injured compartment.

  7. Nociceptive and sympathetic innervations in the abaxial part of the cranial horn of the equine medial meniscus: an immunohistochemical approach.

    PubMed

    Nemery, Elodie; Gabriel, Annick; Piret, Joëlle; Antoine, Nadine

    2016-12-01

    In athletic horses, diseases leading to lameness are of great importance due to the loss of performance and the resultant economic concerns. Although stifle lesions are frequent in the hindlimb, due to the large size and complexity of the joint, and although meniscal tears have been identified as the most common soft tissue injuries in this joint, little is known about the mechanism that causes the painful sensation and thus the lameness. The aim of our study was to highlight any peripheral fibres involved in meniscal nociception in five macroscopically sound cranial horns of the equine medial meniscus, which has been one of the most common sites reported for equine meniscal injuries. Immunohistochemical stainings were performed using antibodies against Substance P in order to identify nociceptive fibres; against tyrosine hydroxylase for detecting postganglionic sympathetic fibres; and against glial fibrillary acidic proteins in order to identify Schwann cells. Our work highlights for the first time the presence of nociceptive and sympathetic fibres in equine menisci. They were found in the abaxial part of the cranial horn of the equine medial meniscus. This study suggests that when the abaxial part is injured, the meniscus itself could be the source of pain. These findings could provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of horses with meniscal injury and contribute towards improving therapeutic strategies to alleviate pain in cases of equine meniscal injury. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  8. Biological knee reconstruction for combined malalignment, meniscal deficiency, and articular cartilage disease.

    PubMed

    Harris, Joshua D; Hussey, Kristen; Wilson, Hillary; Pilz, Kyle; Gupta, Anil K; Gomoll, Andreas; Cole, Brian J

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported outcomes in those undergoing the triad of simultaneous osteotomy, meniscal transplantation, and articular cartilage repair. Patients undergoing simultaneous meniscal transplantation, distal femoral or proximal tibial osteotomy, and articular cartilage surgery by a single surgeon (B.J.C.) were analyzed. Meniscal transplantation was performed using bone-in-slot techniques. Distal femoral and high tibial osteotomies were performed for valgus and varus malalignment, respectively. Microfracture, autologous chondrocyte implantation, and osteochondral autograft or allograft were performed for articular cartilage disease. Validated patient-reported and surgeon-measured outcomes were collected. Preoperative and postoperative outcomes and medial versus lateral disease were compared using Student t tests. Eighteen participants (mean age, 34 ± 7.8 years; symptomatic patients, 7.4 ± 5.6 years; 2.4 ± 1.0 surgical procedures before study enrollment; mean follow-up, 6.5 ± 3.2 years) were analyzed. Two thirds of participants had medial compartment pathologic conditions and one third had lateral compartment pathologic processes. At final follow-up, there were statistically significant clinically meaningful improvements in International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective classification, Lysholm score, and 4 Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) subscores. Postoperative 12-item short form (SF-12) physical and mental component scores were not significantly different from preoperative scores. The Kellgren-Lawrence classification grade was 1.5 ± 1.1 at 2.5 ± 3.0 years after surgery. There was a significantly higher preoperative SF-12 physical composite score (PCS) in participants with lateral compartment pathologic conditions (v medial compartment conditions) (P = .011). Although there were 13 reoperations in 10 patients (55.5% reoperation rate), only one patient was converted to knee arthroplasty (5

  9. A clinical sign to detect root avulsions of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Seil, Romain; Dück, Klaus; Pape, Dietrich

    2011-12-01

    The goal of the present report was to describe a new clinical sign to make a clinical diagnosis of meniscal extrusion related to medial meniscal root avulsion. Description of an easy clinical sign to detect extrusion of the medial meniscus at the anteromedial joint line. A varus stress test was applied in full extension before and after transosseous repair of an isolated traumatic avulsion of the posterior root of the medial meniscus in a 21-year-old patient. The clinical sign was verified by sectioning of the meniscotibial ligament during knee arthroplasty surgery in 3 patients. With a deficient posterior root, the clinical sign was positive, showing anteromedial extrusion under varus stress. After repair and at clinical follow-up, extrusion was normalized. Making the clinical diagnosis of medial meniscus extrusion after knee injury by applying a simple varus stress test to the knee and palpating the anteromedial meniscal extrusion might help physicians to suspect a medial meniscus root tear in the early stages after the injury as well as to evaluate its reduction after repair. A varus stress test in full extension should be performed systematically in patients where a root tear of the medial meniscus is suspected as well as after surgery to evaluate the success of the repair.

  10. Postero-medial approach for complex tibial plateau injuries with a postero-medial or postero-lateral shear fragment.

    PubMed

    Berber, Reshid; Lewis, Charlotte P; Copas, David; Forward, Daren P; Moran, Christopher G

    2014-04-01

    This study demonstrates the utility of a modified postero-medial surgical approach to the knee in treating a series of patients with complex tibial plateau injuries with associated postero-medial and postero-lateral shear fractures. Posterior coronal shear fractures are underappreciated and their clinical relevance has recently been characterised. Less-invasive surgery and indirect reduction techniques are inadequate for treating these coronal plane fractures. Our approach includes an inverted 'L'-shaped incision situated within the posterior flexor knee crease, followed by the retraction or incision of the medial head of the gastrocnemius tendon, while protecting the neurovascular structures. This provides a more extensile exposure, as far as the postero-lateral corner, than previously described. Our case series included eight females and eight males. The average age was 53 years. The majority of these injuries were sustained through high-energy trauma. All patients' fractures were classified as Schatzker grade 4, or above, with a postero-medial split depression. Eight patients had associated postero-lateral corner fractures. Two were open, two had vascular compromise and one had neurological injury. The average time to surgery was 6.4 days (range 0-12), operative time 142 min (range 76-300) and length of stay 17 days (range 7-46). A total of 11 patients were treated using the postero-medial approach alone and in five the treatment was combined with an antero-lateral approach. Two patients suffered a reduced range of movement requiring manipulation and physiotherapy, and three patients had a 5-degree fixed flexion deformity. Two patients developed superficial wound infections treated with antibiotics alone. Anatomical reduction and fracture union was achieved in 15 patients. These are complex fractures to treat, and our modified posterior approach allows direct reduction and optimal positioning of plates to act as buttress devices. It can be extended across the

  11. Meniscal Repair with Concurrent Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Operative Success and Patient Outcomes at 6-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, RW; Wright, RW; Huston, LJ; Wolf, BR

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Meniscus repairs are commonly performed concurrently with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in the acutely injured knee. No large-scale, prospective, multicenter studies have evaluated long-term success and patient-oriented outcomes after combined ACLR and meniscus repair. PURPOSE To define operative success and patient-oriented outcome scores 6 years after combined meniscus repair and ACLR. STUDY DESIGN Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. METHODS All ipsilateral primary ACLR and meniscus repair cases from a multicenter study group between 2002 and 2004 were selected. Validated patient-oriented outcome instruments were completed at 3 time points: preoperatively, 2 years and 6 years following the index procedure. Subsequent ipsilateral knee re-operation was confirmed by operative reports to evaluate for failure of meniscal repairs. RESULTS In total, 286 patients of 1440 primary ACLR’s underwent concurrent meniscus repair (298 meniscal repairs). 235/286 (82.2%) were available for follow-up at 6 years (154 medial, 72 lateral and 9 both lateral and medial meniscal repairs). Repaired menisci most commonly involved the peripheral 1/3 of the meniscus (84%); patterns were typically longitudinal (84%) or displaced bucket-handle (10%), with mean length of 16.5 ±5.8mm. Overall, the meniscal repair failure rate was 14% (medial, 21/154; lateral, 10/72; both 2/9) at 6 years. Medial repairs failed earlier than lateral repairs (2.1 versus 3.7 years; p=0.01). Significant improvements in outcome instruments were sustained at 6-year follow-up. No differences in suture number or type were detected between repair failures and successes. Meniscal reoperation was higher in patients who underwent repair compared to those who did have an identified meniscal injury at the time of ACLR (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Concurrent meniscal repair with ACLR is associated with failure rates approximating 14% at 6-year follow-up. Improvements in patient-oriented outcome

  12. Evaluation of changes in vertical ground reaction forces as indicators of meniscal damage after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament in dogs.

    PubMed

    Trumble, Troy N; Billinghurst, R Clark; Bendele, Alison M; McIlwraith, C Wayne

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether decreases in peak vertical force of the hind limb after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament (CrCL) would be indicative of medial meniscal damage in dogs. 39 purpose-bred adult male Walker Hounds. The right CrCL was transected arthroscopically. Force plate measurements of the right hind limb were made prior to and 2, 4, 10, and 18 weeks after transection of the CrCL. Only dogs with > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force after week 2 were considered to have potential meniscal damage. Dogs that did not have > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force at any time point after week 2 were assigned to group 1. Group 2 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 2 to 4 only. Group 3 and 4 dogs had > or =10% decreases in peak vertical force from weeks 4 to 10 only or from weeks 10 to 18 only, respectively. Damage to menisci and articular cartilage was graded at week 18, and grades for groups 2 to 4 were compared with those of group 1. The percentage change in peak vertical force and impulse area was significantly different in groups 2 (n = 4), 3 (4), and 4 (4) at the end of each measurement period (weeks 4, 10, and 18, respectively) than in group 1 (27). The meniscal grade for groups 2 to 4 was significantly higher than for group 1. A > or =10% decrease in peak vertical force had sensitivity of 52% and accuracy of 72% for identifying dogs with moderate to severe medial meniscal damage. In dogs with transected or ruptured CrCLs, force plate analysis can detect acute exacerbation of lameness, which may be the result of secondary meniscal damage, and provide an objective noninvasive technique that delineates the temporal pattern of medial meniscal injury.

  13. Meniscal Damage Associated with Increased Local Subchondral Bone Mineral Density: A Framingham Study

    PubMed Central

    Lo, GH; Niu, J; McLennan, CE; DP, Kiel; McLean, RR; Guermazi, A; Genant, HK; McAlindon, TE; Hunter, DJ

    2008-01-01

    Objective Because menisci and the M:L BMD are associated with loading within the knee, we postulated there to be an association between compartment-specific meniscal damage and M:L BMD. We hypothesized that knees with higher M:L BMD, consistent with increased medial subchondral BMD, would be associated with medial meniscal damage, and lower ratios with lateral meniscal damage. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study evaluating participants in the Framingham OA Cohort having MRIs, BMDs, and x-rays of the knee. Medial and lateral meniscal damage were defined on MRI. We performed a logistic regression with medial meniscal damage as the outcome testing M:L BMD groups as predictor variables. We adjusted for age and sex; we used GEE to adjust for correlation between knees. Identical analyses were performed evaluating lateral meniscal damage. Results When evaluating the relation of M:L BMD to medial meniscal damage, the odds ratios (ORs) of prevalent medial meniscal damage from lowest to highest quartile of M:L BMD were 1.0 (referent), 1.9, 2.4 and 8.9, p for trend <0.0001. When evaluating the relation of M:L BMD to lateral meniscal damage, the ORs of prevalent lateral meniscal damage from lowest to highest quartile of M:L BMD were 1.0 (referent), 0.3, 0.2, and 0.2, p for trend =0.001. Conclusions Meniscal damage is associated with higher regional tibial BMD in the same compartment. Our findings highlight the close relationship between meniscal integrity and regional tibial subchondral BMD. PMID:17825586

  14. Repair of meniscal tears with the absorbable Clearfix screw: results after 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Frosch, K H; Fuchs, M; Losch, A; Stürmer, K M

    2005-11-01

    Total meniscus resection usually leads to osteoarthritis of the knee joint. Preservation and refixation of the injured menisci are therefore of great clinical importance. The present study examines 40 meniscal injuries in 37 patients that were arthroscopically treated with Clearfix meniscal screws (Mitek, Norderstedt, Germany) in the period from August 1999 to December 2002. The mean patient age was 27.7 (range 16-62) years. Nine patients were female. A total of 24 patients (27 meniscal tears) also had an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) lesion, and 5 patients had cartilage injuries. Twenty-two patients were treated within the first 2 weeks following the trauma, 10 patients within 8 weeks, and 5 patients after 8 weeks. The lesions were a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus in 11 cases and a bucket-handle tear of the lateral meniscus in 2 cases. The posterior horn of the medial meniscus was torn in 13 cases, and the pars intermedia in 3 cases. The posterior horn of the lateral meniscus was torn in 8 cases, and the pars intermedia in 3 cases. The mean tear length was 2.9 (+/- 1.5) cm and was fixed with an average of 1.8 (+/- 0.7) screws. In 7 cases, the anterior horn was treated with an additional meniscal suture. A total of 35 patients were examined after an average of 18 (range 7-45) months. In the event of a moderate outcome, MRI was performed as part of the follow-up investigation. The average Lysholm score was 93 (+/- 7.4), the Tegner activity index was 6.3 (+/- 2.0) before the accident and 5.8 (+/- 2.0) at the follow-up, the Marshall knee score was 47 (+/- 3.8). The VAS pain assessment was 1.6 (+/- 1.3) and the VAS function assessment was 7.9 (+/- 1.6). Of the 7 patients with a moderate result, 2 patients without additional ligament lesions suffered re-ruptures after and 13 months, respectively. The other 5 patients with a moderate result each had multiple accompanying injuries or pre-existing damage to the affected knee joint. The Clearfix screws

  15. The Mediolateral Excursion of the Meniscal Bearing during Flexion and Extension of the Knee after Medial Mobile-Bearing Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Suh, Dong-Won; Kim, Han-Ju; Lim, Hong-Chul

    2017-02-01

    This mediolateral excursion of the bearing during knee motion is supposed to be caused by external rotation of the tibia during knee extension. However, to our knowledge, there is no published clinical evidence supporting these hypotheses. The current study aimed to evaluate the mediolateral excursion of the bearing during flexion-extension motion of the knee after medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA). In 52 knees, varus/valgus (F-VarVal) or rotational position (F-Rot) of the femoral component and relative location of the bearing were measured with the standing anteroposterior and modified axial view, respectively. We adopted the modified axial radiographs that are simple to assess the bearing position in the flexed knee. The modified axial view showed excellent inter- and intraobserver agreements. F-Rot in the modified axial view and CT showed a high agreement in terms of validity (r = 0.98; p  < 0.0001). On average, the bearing showed more medial position in extension than flexion of the knee. No correlation was found between the femoral component positions (F-VarVal and F-Rot) and mediolateral bearing excursion ( p  = 0.68 and 0.80, respectively). In conclusion, coronal location of bearing according to flexion-extension of the knee is not influenced by the coronal and axial alignment of the femoral component. With simple radiographic method, more medial position of the bearing according to flexion-extension of the knee. Our method could be used to assess axial rotation of the femoral component and spin-out phenomenon of the bearing following the medial UKA. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  16. Structure and function, injury, pathology, and treatment of the medial collateral ligament of the knee.

    PubMed

    Schein, Aaron; Matcuk, George; Patel, Dakshesh; Gottsegen, Christopher J; Hartshorn, Timothy; Forrester, Deborah; White, Eric

    2012-12-01

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly injured ligament of the knee. There is a spectrum of injury severity, and injuries may be acute or chronic. The MCL is also frequently injured in conjunction with other knee structures. Clinical evaluation of the knee is important to assess the degree of surgical acuity, but magnetic resonance imaging can provide details about the injury that may not be obvious clinically. In addition to injury, MCL bursitis can occur and may be treated with needle aspiration and corticosteroid injection. This review article covers the anatomy and biomechanics of the MCL, its injury patterns and approach to management, and MCL bursitis.

  17. Arthroscopic Decompression for a Giant Meniscal Cyst.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    The authors report the case of a giant medial meniscal cyst in an osteoarthritic knee of an 82-year-old woman that was successfully treated with only arthroscopic cyst decompression. The patient noticed a painful mass on the medial side of the right knee that had been gradually growing for 5 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an encapsulated large medial cystic mass measuring 80×65×40 mm that was adjacent to the medial meniscus. An accompanying horizontal tear was also detected in the middle and posterior segments of the meniscus. The medial meniscus was resected up to the capsular attachment to create bidirectional flow between the joint and the cyst with arthroscopic surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging performed 14 months postoperatively showed that the cyst had completely disappeared, and no recurrence was observed during a 2-year follow-up period. An excellent result could be obtained by performing limited meniscectomy to create a channel leading to the meniscal cyst, even though the cyst was large. Among previously reported cases of meniscal cysts, this case is the largest to be treated arthroscopically without open excision. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Effects of neonatal medial versus lateral temporal cortex injury: theoretical comment on Malkova et al. (2010).

    PubMed

    Kolb, Bryan

    2010-12-01

    The article by Malkova, Mishkin, Suomo, and Bachevalier (2010, this issue) adds an important piece to our understanding of the role of the medial versus lateral temporal regions in socioemotional behavior. In their paper, they evaluate the effect of infant and adult amygdala lesions and infant inferotemporal cortex lesions on the social interactions of monkeys in infancy and adulthood. The results show that medial temporal lesions performed in infants produce greater effects on socioaffective behavior than similar lesions in adulthood and that infant monkeys with inferotemporal lesions exhibit social deficits that are resolved by adulthood. These results are relevant to three significant issues: (1) the role of the medial temporal and lateral temporal cortex in the symptoms of the Kluver-Bucy syndrome; (2) the role of age at injury in behavioral change after cerebral injuries; and (3) the importance of lesion locus and behavioral measure for recovery from infant and adult cerebral injury. © 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Medial shoe-ground pressure and specific running injuries: A 1-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brund, René B K; Rasmussen, Sten; Nielsen, Rasmus O; Kersting, Uwe G; Laessoe, Uffe; Voigt, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Achilles tendinitis, plantar fasciopathy and medial tibial stress syndrome injuries (APM-injuries) account for approximately 25% of the total number of running injuries amongst recreational runners. Reports on the association between static foot pronation and APM-injuries are contradictory. Possibly, dynamic measures of pronation may display a stronger relationship with the risk of APM-injuries. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate if running distance until the first APM-injury was dependent on the foot balance during stance phase in recreational male runners. Prospective cohort study. Foot balance for both feet was measured during treadmill running at the fastest possible 5000-m running pace in 79 healthy recreational male runners. Foot balance was calculated by dividing the average of medial pressure with the average of lateral pressure. Foot balance was categorized into those which presented a higher lateral shod pressure (LP) than medial pressure, and those which presented a higher medial shod pressure (MP) than lateral pressure during the stance phase. A time-to-event model was used to compare differences in incidence between foot balance groups. Compared with the LP-group (n=59), the proportion of APM-injuries was greater in the MP-group (n=99) after 1500km of running, resulting in a cumulative risk difference of 16%-points (95% CI=3%-point; 28%-point, p=0.011). Runners displaying a more medial pressure during stance phase at baseline sustained a greater amount of APM-injuries compared to those displaying a lateral shod pressure during stance phase. Prospective studies including a greater amount of runners are needed to confirm this relationship. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The 180° spin of meniscal bearing in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su Chan; Hwang, Seung Hyun; Nam, Chang Hyun; Ryu, Seung Ryol; Ahn, Hye Sun

    2017-01-01

    Mobile-bearing Oxford medial unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has been widely used and has produced good results in the treatment of medial compartmental osteoarthritis. But it is associated with the potential risk of meniscal bearing dislocation. Symptoms caused by most meniscal bearing dislocations include acute pain, knee swelling, and locking. We report two unusual cases of meniscal bearing spinning of 180° without remarkable symptoms, which would have been easily missed if we had not watched carefully. Therefore, if there is sudden locking, pain, swelling, or a slight locking history, the possibility of meniscal bearing spin out as well as meniscal bearing dislocation should be considered and the direction of meniscal bearing markers should be confirmed, especially on lateral radiographs.

  1. Meniscal healing after meniscal repair: a CT arthrography assessment.

    PubMed

    Pujol, Nicolas; Panarella, Ludovico; Selmi, Tarik Ait Si; Neyret, Philippe; Fithian, Donald; Beaufils, Philippe

    2008-08-01

    Studies evaluating healing of repaired meniscus are rare and primarily retrospective. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were different healing rates for arthroscopic meniscal repair with respect to the different zones of the meniscus. This study was conducted to assess outcomes and to document anatomic characteristics of the repaired meniscus with postoperative arthrography combined with computed tomography (arthro-CT), particularly the dimensions and healing of the repaired meniscus. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Fifty-three arthroscopic meniscal repairs were prospectively evaluated between 2002 and 2004 in 2 orthopaedic departments. There were 36 medial and 17 lateral torn menisci. All ACL tears (n = 31, 58.5%) underwent reconstruction. Patients were preoperatively evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical evaluation included International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores before the operation and 6 and 12 months afterward. Healing criteria were evaluated at 6 months by arthro-CT scan. Three parameters were evaluated--healing in thickness (Henning criteria), overall healing rate, and reduction in the width of the remaining meniscus. According to the objective IKDC score, 26 patients were graded A, 20 B, and 4 C (92% good results). The mean subjective IKDC score was 78.9 (standard deviation [SD], 16.2). According to Henning's criteria, 58% of the menisci healed completely, 24% partially, and 18% failed. The overall healing rate was 73.1% (SD, 38.5). Twenty tears located in the posterior part had a healing rate of 59.8% (SD, 46.0). Nineteen tears extending from the posterior to the middle part had a healing rate of 79.2% (SD, 28.2). Isolated tears located in the posterior part had a lower healing rate (P < .05). There was a 9% +/- 1.2% reduction in the width of the remaining medial meniscus in the middle and posterior repaired portions (P < .02). There was a 15% +/- 14% reduction in the width of the remaining lateral meniscus

  2. Arthroscopic meniscal repair with use of the outside-in technique.

    PubMed

    Rodeo, S A

    2000-01-01

    The outside-in technique of arthroscopic repair is effective for repair of most meniscal tears. The overall indications for the use of this technique are similar to those for the commonly used inside-out technique. The outside-in technique is especially useful for suturing the anterior horn of the meniscus as well as for suturing meniscal replacement devices such as a collagen meniscal implant or a meniscal allograft. Other specific advantages of this technique include the ability to predictably avoid neurovascular injury without the need for a large posterior incision. A particular disadvantage is the difficulty of achieving perpendicular orientation of sutures when a tear is adjacent to the site of attachment of the posterior horn. Use of the inside-out technique or an all-inside implant is suggested for these tears. The use of this suturing technique is facilitated by attention to several technical points. The knee should be maintained in flexion for repair of tears of the lateral meniscus (to avoid injury to the peroneal nerve) and in nearly full extension for repair of the posterior aspect of the medial meniscus (to avoid injury to the saphenous nerve and its branches). Care must be taken to avoid tying the sutures around a branch of the saphenous nerve during repair of the medial meniscus. The sutures should be retrieved through a cannula in the anterior portal to avoid the entrapment of the sutures in soft tissue. A probe can be used to prevent displacement of the inner fragment of a bucket handle tear when the needles are placed across the tear, as the entering needles may push the torn fragment into the knee. A vertical suture orientation is preferred in order to evenly co-apt the meniscus to the capsule. If knot-end sutures (so-called Mulberry knots) are used, 2 sutures can be vertically stacked, with 1 on each surface of the meniscus. If a mattress suture is used, a vertical orientation is easily achieved with the outside-in technique. Use of an

  3. Patterns of meniscal tears associated with anterior cruciate ligament lesions in athletes.

    PubMed

    Binfield, P M; Maffulli, N; King, J B

    1993-09-01

    In this study, 400 clinically anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient knees were arthroscoped and studied prospectively in the period January 1986 to April 1992. An ACL tear was always confirmed, and 41 per cent of these patients did not have an associated meniscal tear. In 30.25 per cent the lateral meniscus was torn; in 21.25 per cent the ACL tear was associated with a medial meniscus tear, and in the remaining 7 per cent both menisci were torn. The most frequently associated meniscal injury was the bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus (9 per cent), followed by the posterior horn tear of the lateral meniscus, which showed the same frequency as the ragged (or degenerated) tear of the lateral meniscus (6 per cent). The horizontal tear of the posterior part of the lateral meniscus showed a prevalence of 4.3 per cent. This picture is probably dependent on a secondary referral nature of the centre surveyed, in which the average time between injury and arthroscopy was 23.3 months.

  4. Posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in multiple knee ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jae; Kim, Jin Goo; Chang, Seok Hwan; Shim, Jae Chan; Kim, Sang Bum; Lee, Mi Young

    2010-10-01

    The purposes of the present study were to examine the frequency and characteristics of root tears of the medial meniscus associated with ligament injuries of the knee and to evaluate the effectiveness of pull-out repair for restoring meniscus function. We retrospectively analyzed the 9 patients (10 knees) with posterior root tears of the medial meniscus and ligament injuries of the knee treated between August 2004 and February 2007. All the patients were male, with average age of 29.8 years, and the mean follow-up period was 29.7 months. The pull-out suture technique was used to repair the root tears. Clinical outcomes were evaluated using the Lysholm, IKDC, and Tegner scores, as well as the McMurray and Apley tests. The mean follow-up period was 41.1 months (range, 30 to 63 months). The incidence of root tears of the medial meniscus with ligament injuries was 2.74% (10 cases in 365 ligament surgeries). All clinical results showed significant improvement. At the final follow-up, McMurray test showed one positive and nine negative cases, and the Apley test revealed two positive and eight negative cases. There were no positive findings in anterior drawer test, posterior drawer test, valgus and varus stress test, and posterolateral instability test. Healing of the root tear was confirmed by arthroscopy in five patients and by MR in four patients. Root tears of the medial meniscus may occur in multiple knee ligament injuries. It is important not to miss them. Our results indicate that pull-out repair provides satisfactory results and evidence of healing. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Posterior Horn Medial Meniscus Root Tear on In Vivo Knee Kinematics.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Chelsea A; Martin, Daniel E; Harner, Christopher D; Tashman, Scott

    2014-07-01

    . This study will further our knowledge of meniscal deficiency and osteoarthritis and provide a baseline for more common forms of medial meniscal injuries (vertical, horizontal, radial), with various degrees of circumferential fiber function remaining.

  6. Medial joint line bone bruising at MRI complicating acute ankle inversion injury: what is its clinical significance?

    PubMed

    Chan, V O; Moran, D E; Shine, S; Eustace, S J

    2013-10-01

    To assess the incidence and clinical significance of medial joint line bone bruising following acute ankle inversion injury. Forty-five patients who underwent ankle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within 2 weeks of acute ankle inversion injury were included in this prospective study. Integrity of the lateral collateral ligament complex, presence of medial joint line bone bruising, tibio-talar joint effusion, and soft-tissue swelling were documented. Clinical follow-up at 6 months was carried out to determine the impact of injury on length of time out of work, delay in return to normal walking, delay in return to sports activity, and persistence of medial joint line pain. Thirty-seven patients had tears of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL). Twenty-six patients had medial joint line bone bruising with altered marrow signal at the medial aspect of the talus and congruent surface of the medial malleolus. A complete ATFL tear was seen in 92% of the patients with medial joint line bone bruising (p = 0.05). Patients with an ATFL tear and medial joint line bone bruising had a longer delay in return to normal walking (p = 0.0002), longer delay in return to sports activity (p = 0.0001), and persistent medial joint line pain (p = 0.0003). There was no statistically significant difference in outcome for the eight patients without ATFL tears. Medial joint line bone bruising following an acute ankle inversion injury was significantly associated with a complete ATFL tear, longer delay in the return to normal walking and sports activity, as well as persistent medial joint line pain. Its presence should prompt detailed assessment of the lateral collateral ligament complex, particularly the ATFL. Copyright © 2013 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. X-ray microtomography-based measurements of meniscal allografts.

    PubMed

    Mickiewicz, P; Binkowski, M; Bursig, H; Wróbel, Z

    2015-05-01

    X-ray microcomputed tomography (XMT) is a technique widely used to image hard and soft tissues. Meniscal allografts as collagen structures can be imaged and analyzed using XMT. The aim of this study was to present an XMT scanning protocol that can be used to obtain the 3D geometry of menisci. It was further applied to compare two methods of meniscal allograft measurement: traditional (based on manual measurement) and novel (based on digital measurement of 3D models of menisci obtained with use of XMT scanner). The XMT-based menisci measurement is a reliable method for assessing the geometry of a meniscal allograft by measuring the basic meniscal dimensions known from traditional protocol. Thirteen dissected menisci were measured according the same principles traditionally applied in a tissue bank. Next, the same specimens were scanned by a laboratory scanner in the XMT Lab. The images were processed to obtain a 3D mesh. 3D models of allograft geometry were then measured using a novel protocol enhanced by computer software. Then, both measurements were compared using statistical tests. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between the lengths of the medial and lateral menisci measured in the tissue bank and the XMT Lab. Also, medial meniscal widths were significantly different (P<0.05). Differences in meniscal lengths may result from difficulties in dissected meniscus measurements in tissue banks, and may be related to the elastic structure of the dissected meniscus. Errors may also be caused by the lack of highlighted landmarks on the meniscal surface in this study. The XMT may be a good technique for assessing meniscal dimensions without actually touching the specimen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Medial meniscus posterior horn avulsion.

    PubMed

    Marzo, John M

    2009-05-01

    Avulsion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can occur from acute trauma or chronic degeneration, leading to meniscus extrusion, articular cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and medial joint space narrowing. With meniscus extrusion, the meniscus is unable to resist hoop stresses and cannot shield the adjacent articular cartilage from excessive axial load. Over time, this can lead to symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Patients typically report pain, swelling, mechanical symptoms, and general functional loss. Although nonsurgical care may relieve symptoms, it is unlikely to alter either the natural history of meniscal loss or the fate of the medial compartment. Surgical repair of posterior horn meniscal avulsion is done in an attempt to restore the anatomy and biomechanical function of the meniscus, and to slow or prevent degenerative joint disease. Meniscal transplantation is reserved for salvage situations.

  9. Advances and Prospects in Tissue-Engineered Meniscal Scaffolds for Meniscus Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weimin; Liu, Shuyun; Zhu, Yun; Yu, Changlong; Lu, Shibi; Yuan, Mei; Huang, Jingxiang; Yuan, Zhiguo; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Wang, Yu; Chen, Jifeng; Zhang, Li; Sui, Xiang; Xu, Wenjing; Guo, Quanyi

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus plays a crucial role in maintaining knee joint homoeostasis. Meniscal lesions are relatively common in the knee joint and are typically categorized into various types. However, it is difficult for inner avascular meniscal lesions to self-heal. Untreated meniscal lesions lead to meniscal extrusions in the long-term and gradually trigger the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). The relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA is complex. Partial meniscectomy, which is the primary method to treat a meniscal injury, only relieves short-term pain; however, it does not prevent the development of knee OA. Similarly, other current therapeutic strategies have intrinsic limitations in clinical practice. Tissue engineering technology will probably address this challenge by reconstructing a meniscus possessing an integrated configuration with competent biomechanical capacity. This review describes normal structure and biomechanical characteristics of the meniscus, discusses the relationship between meniscal lesions and knee OA, and summarizes the classifications and corresponding treatment strategies for meniscal lesions to understand meniscal regeneration from physiological and pathological perspectives. Last, we present current advances in meniscal scaffolds and provide a number of prospects that will potentially benefit the development of meniscal regeneration methods. PMID:26199629

  10. The potential of optical coherence tomography in meniscal tear characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Hang-yin; Guo, Shuguang; Thieman, Kelley M.; Wise, Brent T.; Pozzi, Antonio; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2009-02-01

    Meniscal tear is one of the most common knee injuries leading to pain and discomfort. Partial and total meniscectomies have been widely used to treat the avascular meniscal injuries in which tears do not heal spontaneously. However, the meniscectomies would cause an alteration of the tibiofemoral contact mechanics resulting in progressive osteoarthritis (OA). To mitigate the progression of OA, maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is recommended. The clinical challenge is deciding which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and which part of damaged tissues should be removed. Current diagnosis techniques such as arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging can provide macrostructural information of menisci, but the microstructural changes that occur prior to the observable meniscal tears cannot be identified by these techniques. Serving as a nondestructive optical biopsy, optical coherence tomography (OCT), a newly developed imaging modality, can provide high resolution, cross-sectional images of tissues and has been shown its capabilty in arthroscopic evaulation of articular cartilage. Our research was to demonstrate the potential of using OCT for nondestructive characterization of the histopathology of different types of meniscal tears from clinical cases in dogs, providing a fundamental understanding of the failure mechanism of meniscal tears. First, cross-sectional images of torn canine menisci obtained from the OCT and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) were be compared. By studying the organization of collegan fibrils in torn menisci from the SEM images, the feasibility of using OCT to characterize the organization of collegan fibrils was elucidated. Moreover, the crack size of meniscal tears was quantatitively measured from the OCT images. Changes in the crack size of the tear may be useful for understanding the failure mechanism of meniscal tears.

  11. Dynamic imaging in mild traumatic brain injury: support for the theory of medial temporal vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Umile, Eric M; Sandel, M Elizabeth; Alavi, Abass; Terry, Charles M; Plotkin, Rosette C

    2002-11-01

    To determine whether patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) and persistent postconcussive symptoms have evidence of temporal lobe injury on dynamic imaging. Case series. An academic medical center. Twenty patients with a clinical diagnosis of mild TBI and persistent postconcussive symptoms were referred for neuropsychologic evaluation and dynamic imaging. Fifteen (75%) had normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or computed tomography (CT) scans at the time of injury. Neuropsychologic testing, positron-emission tomography (PET), and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). Temporal lobe findings on static imaging (MRI, CT) and dynamic imaging (PET, SPECT); neuropsychologic test findings on measures of verbal and visual memory. Testing documented neurobehavioral deficits in 19 patients (95%). Dynamic imaging documented abnormal findings in 18 patients (90%). Fifteen patients (75%) had temporal lobe abnormalities on PET and SPECT (primarily in medial temporal regions); abnormal findings were bilateral in 10 patients (50%) and unilateral in 5 (25%). Six patients (30%) had frontal abnormalities, and 8 (40%) had nonfrontotemporal abnormalities. Correlations between neuropsychologic testing and dynamic imaging could be established but not consistently across the whole group. Patients with mild TBI and persistent postconcussive symptoms have a high incidence of temporal lobe injury (presumably involving the hippocampus and related structures), which may explain the frequent finding of memory disorders in this population. The abnormal temporal lobe findings on PET and SPECT in humans may be analogous to the neuropathologic evidence of medial temporal injury provided by animal studies after mild TBI. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  12. [SEMITENDINOUS AND GRACILIS TRANSFER FOR TREATMENT OF MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT INJURY CAUSED BY TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY].

    PubMed

    Cao Jiangang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Huiwen; Liu, Jun

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of semitendinous and gracilis transfer for the treatment of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury caused by total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Between March 2009 and May 2014, 11 patients (11 knees) with MCL injuries caused by primary TKA were treated by semitendinous and gracilis transfer in primary TKA (injury group). Another 18 patients (21 knees) without MCL injury were included as the control group. There was no significant difference in gender, age, injury sides, disease duration, body mass index, knee varus deformity, and preoperative Knee Society Score (KSS) between 2 groups (P>0.05), with comparability. KSS score was used to evaluate the function after operation. Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients, and no complications of joint instability and pain occurred. The follow-up time was-6-29 months in injury group and was 7-34 months in control group. At last follow-up, the KSS clinical score and ftinctional score were significantly increased to 89.82 +/- 3.76 and 89.54 +/- 3.50 in the injury group (P<0.05) and were significantly increased to 90.19 +/- 3.39 and 90.00 +/- 3.53 in the control group (P<0.05) respectively, but no significant difference was shown between 2 groups (t=0.158, P=0.877; t=0.820, P=0.432). X-ray films showed no prosthetic loosening or subsidence during follow-up. The semitendinous and gracilis transfer is reliable for the treatment of MCL injury caused by TKA. The insertions of semitendinous tendon and gracilis are close to that of the knee MCL, which can effectively improve knee function.

  13. Correlation of Meniscal T2* with Multiphoton Microscopy, and Change of Articular Cartilage T2 in an Ovine Model of Meniscal Repair

    PubMed Central

    Koff, Matthew F.; Shah, Parina; Pownder, Sarah; Romero, Bethsabe; Williams, Rebecca; Gilbert, Susannah; Maher, Suzanne; Fortier, Lisa A.; Rodeo, Scott A.; Potter, Hollis G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To correlate meniscal T2* relaxation times using ultra-short echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with quantitative microscopic methods, and to determine the effect of meniscal repair on post-operative cartilage T2 values. Design A medial meniscal tear was created and repaired in the anterior horn of one limb of 28 crossbred mature ewes. MR scans for morphological evaluation, meniscal T2* values, and cartilage T2 values were acquired at 0, 4 and 8 months post-operatively for the Tear and Non-Op limb. Samples of menisci from both limbs were analyzed using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) analysis and biomechanical testing. Results Significantly prolonged meniscal T2* values were found in repaired limbs than in control limbs, p<0.0001. No regional differences of T2* were detected for either the repaired or control limbs in the anterior horn. Repaired limbs had prolonged cartilage T2 values, primarily anteriorly, and tended to have lower biomechanical force to failure at 8 months than Non-Op limbs. MPM autofluorescence and second harmonic generation data correlated with T2* values at 8 months (ρ=−0.48, p=0.06). Conclusions T2* mapping is sensitive to detecting temporal and zonal differences of meniscal structure and composition. Meniscal MPM and cartilage T2 values indicate changes in tissue integrity in the presence of meniscal repair. PMID:23680878

  14. The 'trampoline ankle': severe medial malleolar physeal injuries in children and adolescents secondary to multioccupant use of trampolines.

    PubMed

    Blumetti, Francesco C; Gauthier, Luke; Moroz, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a series of patients presenting with medial malleolus Salter-Harris types III and IV fractures (MacFarland fractures) related to trampoline use. In total, 11 patients were reviewed retrospectively (mean age: 11.8 years; four boys and seven girls). Salter-Harris type III fractures were more commonly seen (n=7). Undisplaced fractures were more prevalent (n=6). Six children underwent surgical treatment. Average follow-up time was 17.8 months. A medial physeal bar with subsequent growth arrest and ankle deformity was observed in two patients. More than one user was present on the trampoline at the time of the injury in nine of the reported cases. Medial malleolus growth-plate injuries can be seen after trampoline injuries where multiple users were involved. Potential complications including growth arrest can occur.

  15. Articular cartilage scores in cranial cruciate ligament-deficient dogs with or without bucket handle tears of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Kathryn; Beale, Brian S; Thames, Howard D; Saunders, W Brian

    2017-01-01

    To compare articular cartilage scores in cranial cruciate ligament (CCL)-deficient dogs with or without concurrent bucket handle tears (BHT) of the medial meniscus. Retrospective case series. Client-owned dogs treated with arthroscopy and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy or extracapsular repair for complete CCL rupture (290 stifles from 264 dogs). Medical records and arthroscopic images were reviewed. Medial femoral condyle (MFC) and medial tibial plateau (MTP) cartilage was scored using the modified Outerbridge scale. Periarticular osteophytosis (PAO) and injury to the medial meniscus were recorded. Data were analyzed using Student's t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and Fisher's exact test for changes in the stifle based on meniscal condition, body weight, and duration of lameness. PAO, MFC, and MTP articular cartilage scores were not significantly different in dogs with or without BHT. There were no significant differences in MFC or MTP scores when dogs were evaluated based on bodyweight and the presence or absence of a BHT. However, PAO formation was significantly increased in dogs weighing >13.6 kg and concurrent meniscal injury vs. dogs weighing <13.6 kg and concurrent meniscal injury (P < .001). Significantly more stifles with chronic lameness (40 of 89; 44.9%) had the highest PAO score of 2 reported compared to only 42 of 182 stifles (23.1%) with acute lameness (P < .001). The presence of a BHT of the medial meniscus was not associated with more severe arthroscopic articular cartilage lesions in the medial joint compartment at the time of surgery. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  16. Meniscal Extrusion or Subchondral Damage Characterize Incident Accelerated Osteoarthritis: Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Driban, Jeffrey B.; Ward, Robert J.; Eaton, Charles B.; Lo, Grace H.; Price, Lori Lyn; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is typically a slowly progressive disorder; however, a subset of knees progress with dramatic rapidity. We aimed to describe magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings that are associated with accelerated KOA. Materials and Methods We conducted a longitudinal descriptive study in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI) cohort. We selected participants who had no radiographic KOA at baseline with one of the following in the most severe knee: 1) accelerated KOA (progressed to end-stage KOA within 48 months), 2) common KOA, and 3) no KOA at all visits. We enriched the sample by selecting knees with a self-reported or suspected knee injury. A musculoskeletal radiologist blinded to group assignments but not to time sequence performed MRI readings for the visit before and after an injury. Results We assessed 38 participants (knees), 66% were female, mean age 61 (9) years, and mean body mass index 28.5 (4.9) kg/m2. Fifteen of 20 knees with no or common KOA, had no incident findings consistent with acute damage. Among the 18 knees with accelerated KOA most had incident findings: 13 (72%) had incident medial meniscal pathology with extrusion and 5 (28%) knees had subchondral damage. Conclusions Incident MRI findings that are associated with incident accelerated KOA are characterized by structural damage that compromises subchondral bone or the function of the meniscus. Recognizing meniscal extrusion and/or change in shape, lateral meniscal tear, or acute subchondral damage may be vital for identifying individuals at risk for accelerated KOA. PMID:26149125

  17. A rare type of ankle fracture: Syndesmotic rupture combined with a high fibular fracture without medial injury.

    PubMed

    van Wessem, K J P; Leenen, L P H

    2016-03-01

    High fibular spiral fractures are usually caused by pronation-external rotation mechanism. The foot is in pronation and the talus externally rotates, causing a rupture of the medial ligaments or a fracture of the medial malleolus. With continued rotation the anterior and posterior tibiofibular ligament will rupture, and finally, the energy leaves the fibula by creating a spiral fracture from anterior superior to posterior inferior. In this article we demonstrate a type of ankle fracture with syndesmotic injury and high fibular spiral fractures without a medial component. This type of ankle fractures cannot be explained by the Lauge-Hansen classification, since it lacks injury on the medial side of the ankle, but it does have the fibular fracture pattern matching the pronation external rotation injury (anterior superior to posterior inferior fracture). We investigated the mechanism of this injury illustrated by 3 cases and postulate a theory explaining the biomechanics behind this type of injury. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of Medial Malleolus or Pure Deltoid Ligament Injury in Patients with Supination-External Rotation Type IV Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Jian-Wen; Wang, Chen; Huang, Jia-Zhang; Ma, Xin; Wang, Cheng-Wei; Wang, Xue

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of internal fixation on postoperative ankle function in patients with supination-external rotation type IV ankle fractures, including medial malleolus fractures and deltoid ligament injury. Between January 2012 and June 2014, patients with medial structure injuries were enrolled in this study and assigned to the medial malleolus fracture group or the deltoid ligament group. The surgical procedures for the two groups were documented. The follow-up endpoint was the time point when the steel plate or screw was removed from the lateral ankle. The Olerud-Molander ankle scoring system was used to assess ankle function. A total of 84 patients with supination-external rotation type IV ankle fractures had complete medical records and were included in this study. The average age of the patients was 44.16 years (range, 15-75). The patient sample included 39 males and 45 females. Overall, 49 patients (19 males and 30 females) suffered a medial malleolus fracture. The average age of these patients was 40.20 years (range, 15-75). Patients with a posterior malleolar fracture fragment >25% of the articular surface accounted for 81.6% (40 patients) of these patients. Overall, 35 patients (20 males and 15 females) experienced a deltoid ligament injury. The average age of these patients was 44.21 years (range, 17-73). Patients with a posterior malleolar fracture fragment >25% of the articular surface accounted for 11.5% (four patients) of these patients. Open reduction was performed in patients with medial malleolus fractures, and two 4.0-mm cannulated screws were used to fixate the posterior malleolus and the medial malleolus. The suture-anchor technique was used to repair the ligaments in patients with deltoid ligament injuries. The follow-up endpoint was the time point when the steel plate and screws were removed from the lateral ankle in patients. The average follow-up period was 13.4 months (range, 11-17). The Olerud-Molander ankle scoring system was

  19. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient’s history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  20. Aetiology and mechanisms of injury in medial tibial stress syndrome: Current and future developments.

    PubMed

    Franklyn, Melanie; Oakes, Barry

    2015-09-18

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a debilitating overuse injury of the tibia sustained by individuals who perform recurrent impact exercise such as athletes and military recruits. Characterised by diffuse tibial anteromedial or posteromedial surface subcutaneous periostitis, in most cases it is also an injury involving underlying cortical bone microtrauma, although it is not clear if the soft tissue or cortical bone reaction occurs first. Nuclear bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can both be used for the diagnosis of MTSS, but the patient's history and clinical symptoms need to be considered in conjunction with the imaging findings for a correct interpretation of the results, as both imaging modalities have demonstrated positive findings in the absence of injury. However, MRI is rapidly becoming the preferred imaging modality for the diagnosis of bone stress injuries. It can also be used for the early diagnosis of MTSS, as the developing periosteal oedema can be identified. Retrospective studies have demonstrated that MTSS patients have lower bone mineral density (BMD) at the injury site than exercising controls, and preliminary data indicates the BMD is lower in MTSS subjects than tibial stress fracture (TSF) subjects. The values of a number of tibial geometric parameters such as cross-sectional area and section modulus are also lower in MTSS subjects than exercising controls, but not as low as the values in TSF subjects. Thus, the balance between BMD and cortical bone geometry may predict an individual's likelihood of developing MTSS. However, prospective longitudinal studies are needed to determine how these factors alter during the development of the injury and to find the detailed structural cause, which is still unknown. Finite element analysis has recently been used to examine the mechanisms involved in tibial stress injuries and offer a promising future tool to understand the mechanisms involved in MTSS. Contemporary accurate diagnosis

  1. Utility of nerve conduction studies for diagnosis of injury to the medial branch of the superficial radial nerve.

    PubMed

    Kon, Tomoya; Suzuki, Chieko; Hotta, Ryotaro; Funamizu, Yukihisa; Haga, Rie; Ueno, Tatsuya; Nishijima, Haruo; Arai, Akira; Nunomura, Jinichi; Nukada, Hitoshi; Tomiyama, Masahiko; Baba, Masayuki

    2017-09-01

    The clinical utility of nerve conduction study (NCS) for the distal medial branch of the superficial radial nerve (SRN) has not yet been clarified. Therefore, we investigated the clinical utility of NCS in patients with suspected SRN injury and compared the results with those in healthy control subjects. Bilateral NCS of the medial branch of the SRN was performed in two patients with suspected injury of the medial branch of the SRN, and in 20 healthy control subjects. A surface recording electrode was placed at the medial side of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumb. The SRN was then stimulated at a location 12 cm proximal from the recording electrode. The mean sensory nerve action potential in the two patients was significantly lower than that of the controls (6.75 ± 0.92 vs. 23.8 ± 8.2 μV, P  < 0.05). The side-to-side differences in sensory nerve action potential in the two patients were significantly higher than in the controls (55 ± 7.1 vs. 11 ± 7.8%, P  < 0.05). NCS may be useful for diagnosing injury of the medial branch of the SRN.

  2. Posterior Root Meniscal Tears: Preoperative, Intraoperative, and Postoperative Imaging for Transtibial Pullout Repair.

    PubMed

    Palisch, Andrew R; Winters, Ronald R; Willis, Marc H; Bray, Collin D; Shybut, Theodore B

    2016-10-01

    The menisci play an important biomechanical role in axial load distribution of the knees by means of hoop strength, which is contingent on intact circumferentially oriented collagen fibers and meniscal root attachments. Disruption of the meniscal root attachments leads to altered biomechanics, resulting in progressive cartilage loss, osteoarthritis, and subchondral edema, with the potential for development of a subchondral insufficiency fracture. Identification of meniscal root tears at magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is crucial because new arthroscopic surgical techniques (transtibial pullout repair) have been developed to repair meniscal root tears and preserve the tibiofemoral cartilage of the knee. An MR imaging classification of posterior medial meniscal root ligament lesions has been recently described that is dedicated to the posterior root of the medial meniscus. An arthroscopic classification of meniscal root tears has been described that can be applied to the anterior and posterior roots of both the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. This arthroscopic classification includes type 1, partial stable root tears; type 2, complete radial root tears; type 3, vertical longitudinal bucket-handle tears; type 4, complex oblique tears; and type 5, bone avulsion fractures of the root attachments. Knowledge of these classifications and the potential contraindications to meniscal root repair can aid the radiologist in the preoperative reporting of meniscal root tear types and the evaluation of the tibiofemoral cartilage. As more patients undergo arthroscopic repair of meniscal root tears, familiarity with the surgical technique and the postoperative radiographic and MR imaging appearance is important to adequately report the imaging findings. © RSNA, 2016.

  3. Meniscal pathology associated with acute anterior cruciate ligament tears in patients with open physes.

    PubMed

    Samora, Walter P; Palmer, Ryan; Klingele, Kevin E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize meniscal pathology associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture in skeletally immature patients. We also evaluate the accuracy of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in predicting ACL and meniscus pathology. A retrospective chart review was performed on 124 skeletally immature patients who underwent arthroscopically assisted ACL reconstruction within 3 months of injury. Operative reports and arthroscopic images were reviewed to determine patterns of meniscal injury. The accuracy of preoperative MRI in predicting ACL rupture and meniscus pathology was also compared. One hundred twenty-four patients, including 80 males with an average age of 14.3 years, and 44 females with an average age of 14.1 years were included. The lateral meniscus was torn in 51 patients, the medial meniscus in 17 patients, and both menisci in 19. The prevalence of meniscus tear was 69.3%. Location of the tear occurred in the posterior horn in 69 tears (65.0%), the middle and posterior horn in 31 tears (29.2%), the middle horn in 4 tears (3.7%), and the anterior horn and posterior horn in 2 tears (1.8%). MRI showed 95.6% sensitivity in detecting complete ACL rupture. Further, MRI had a sensitivity of 58.6% and a specificity of 91.3% in characterizing meniscus tears. There are many studies that evaluate ACL rupture in the skeletally immature population, but few studies focus on the meniscus pathology that is associated with these injuries. We reinforce the fact that meniscal injury is commonly associated with ACL rupture in patients with open physes (prevalence of 69.3%). We were able to conclude that lateral meniscus tears are more common than medial meniscus tears, which were equally as common as combined tears in our patient population. The posterior horn is injured in most of patients, and is usually in a repairable configuration and vascular zone. These findings will help to guide surgeons in their clinical evaluation and

  4. Relationship between meniscal integrity and risk factors for cartilage degeneration.

    PubMed

    Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher P; Xia, Ding; Regatte, Ravinder R; Krasnokutsky, Svetlana; Samuels, Jonathan; Oh, Cheongeun; Abramson, Steven; Walker, Peter S

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to use MRI to determine if a loss of meniscal intra-substance integrity, as determined by T2* relaxation time, is associated with an increase of Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grade, and if this was correlated with risk factors for cartilage degeneration, namely meniscal extrusion, contact area and anterior-posterior (AP) displacement. Eleven symptomatic knees with a KL 2 to 4 and 11 control knees with a KL 0 to 1 were studied. A 3 Tesla MRI scanner was used to scan all knees at 15° of flexion. With a 222N compression applied, a 3D SPACE sequence was obtained, followed by a spin echo 3D T2* mapping sequence. Next, an internal tibial torque of 5Nm was added and a second 3D SPACE sequence obtained. The MRI scans were post-processed to evaluate meniscal extrusion, contact area, AP displacement and T2* relaxation time. KL grade was correlated with T2* relaxation time for both the anterior medial meniscus (r=0.79, p<0.001) and the posterior lateral meniscus (r=0.55, p=0.009). In addition, T2* relaxation time was found to be correlated with risk factors for cartilage degeneration. The largest increases in meniscal extrusion and decreases in contact area were noted for those with meniscal tears (KL 3 to 4). All patients with KL 3 to 4 indicated evidence of meniscal tears. This suggests that a loss of meniscal integrity, in the form of intra-substance degeneration, is correlated with risk factors for cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Physical Risk Factors for a Medial Elbow Injury in Junior Baseball Players: A Prospective Cohort Study of 353 Players.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Jun; Nakamura, Emi; Suzukawa, Makoto; Akaike, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kuniaki

    2017-01-01

    The physical risk factors for a medial elbow injury in junior baseball players are unknown. To identify the risk factors for an initial medial elbow injury in junior baseball players. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Junior baseball players (aged 6-12 years) without a history of elbow pain underwent a clinical assessment, ultrasonography, and physical function measurements before the baseball season started. Bilateral passive range of motion (ROM) of elbow extension and flexion, external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR) of the shoulder, and ER and IR of the hip were measured. IR and ER strength of the shoulder and scapular muscles were measured on both sides. The thoracic kyphosis angle was measured with participants in a relaxed standing position. Before these examinations, every participant completed a questionnaire regarding his or her age, sex, total years of baseball played, position in baseball, number of balls thrown, and episodes of pain during throwing. After the initial test session, each participant was followed up for 12 months to assess for the occurrence of a new injury. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors for a medial elbow injury. Seventy-eight players (22.1%) sustained a medial elbow injury. Age ≥9 years (odds ratio [OR], 2.708; 95% CI, 1.224-5.990), pitcher position (OR, 2.620; 95% CI, 1.389-4.941), >100 throws per day (OR, 1.936; 95% CI, 1.072-3.497), thoracic kyphosis angle ≥30° (OR, 2.501; 95% CI, 1.381-4.531), and elbow extension deficit ≥5° (OR, 1.973; 95% CI, 1.022-3.809) were significantly associated with a medial elbow injury. The incidence of an initial medial elbow injury was 22.1%. Age, number of throws per day, thoracic kyphosis angle, and elbow extension deficit are newly discovered risk factors related to physical function. Improvement of the posture and early detection of a silent elbow extension deficit may prevent a medial elbow injury.

  6. Medial collateral ligament injuries and subsequent load on the anterior cruciate ligament: a biomechanical evaluation in a cadaveric model.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Michael J; Lenhoff, Mark W; Ehteshami, John R; Lyman, Stephen; Provencher, Matthew T; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Warren, Russell F

    2009-02-01

    Numerous studies have documented the effect of complete medial collateral ligament injury on anterior cruciate ligament loads; few have addressed how partial medial collateral ligament disruption affects knee kinematics. To determine knee kinematics and subsequent change in anterior cruciate ligament load in a partial and complete medial collateral ligament injury model. Controlled laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric knees were sequentially tested by a robot with the medial collateral ligament intact, in a partial injury model, and in a complete injury model with a universal force-moment sensor measuring system. Tibial translation, rotation, and anterior cruciate ligament load were measured under 3 conditions: anterior load (125 N), valgus load (10 N x m), and internal-external rotation torque (4 N x m; all at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion). Anterior and posterior translation did not statistically increase with a partial or complete medial collateral ligament injury at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion. In response to a 125 N anterior load, at 0 degrees , the anterior cruciate ligament load increased 8.7% (from 99.5 to 108.2 N; P = .006) in the partial injury and 18.3% (117.7 N; P < .001) in the complete injury; at 30 degrees , anterior cruciate ligament load was increased 12.3% (from 101.7 to 114.2 N; P = .001) in the partial injury and 20.6% (122.7 N; P < .001) in the complete injury. In response to valgus torque (10 N x m) at 30 degrees , anterior cruciate ligament load was increased 55.3% (30.4 to 47.2 N; P = .044) in the partial injury model and 185% (86.8 N; P = .001) in the complete injury model. In response to internal rotation torque (4 N.m) at 30 degrees , anterior cruciate ligament load was increased 29.3% (27.6 to 35.7 N; P = .001) in the partial injury model and 65.2% (45.6 N; P < .001) in the complete injury model. The amount of internal rotation at 30 degrees of flexion was significantly increased in the complete injury model (22.8 degrees

  7. Subregional effects of meniscal tears on cartilage loss over 2 years in knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alison; Moisio, Kirsten; Chmiel, Joan S; Eckstein, Felix; Guermazi, Ali; Almagor, Orit; Cahue, September; Wirth, Wolfgang; Prasad, Pottumarthi; Sharma, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Meniscal tears have been linked to knee osteoarthritis progression, presumably by impaired load attenuation. How meniscal tears affect osteoarthritis is unclear; subregional examination may help to elucidate whether the impact is local. This study examined the association between a tear within a specific meniscal segment and subsequent 2-year cartilage loss in subregions that the torn segment overlies. Participants with knee osteoarthritis underwent bilateral knee MRI at baseline and 2 years. Mean cartilage thickness within each subregion was quantified. Logistic regression with generalised estimating equations were used to analyse the relationship between baseline meniscal tear in each segment and baseline to 2-year cartilage loss in each subregion, adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, tear in the other two segments and extrusion. 261 knees were studied in 159 individuals. Medial meniscal body tear was associated with cartilage loss in external subregions and in central and anterior tibial subregions, and posterior horn tear specifically with posterior tibial subregion loss; these relationships were independent of tears in the other segments and persisted in tibial subregions after adjustment for extrusion. Lateral meniscal body and posterior horn tear were also associated with cartilage loss in underlying subregions but not after adjustment for extrusion. Cartilage loss in the internal subregions, not covered by the menisci, was not associated with meniscal tear in any segment. These results suggest that the detrimental effect of meniscal tears is not spatially uniform across the tibial and femoral cartilage surfaces and that some of the effect is experienced locally.

  8. Outcomes after repair of chronic bucket-handle tears of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Serrano-Fernández, José Miguel; Martín-Castilla, Belén; Estades-Rubio, Francisco Javier; Briggs, Karen K; Espejo-Baena, Alejandro

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the outcomes after repair of chronic bucket-handle medial meniscal tears by use of magnetic resonance imaging, clinical examination, and patient-reported outcomes. A retrospective review of patients with chronic bucket-handle medial meniscal tears that had been repaired with meniscal sutures was undertaken. The following criteria for inclusion were adopted: minimum tear length of 2 cm and chronic medial meniscal tear identified at the time of arthroscopy. The tears were susceptible to dislocation with probing. Data collected included demographic, clinical, radiologic, and surgical data. Postoperative healing was assessed with the clinical criteria of Barrett et al. The International Knee Documentation Committee rating, Lysholm score, and Tegner activity level were determined, and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was used to evaluate healing in accordance with the criteria of Henning et al. Twenty-four patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean time from injury to surgery was 10 months (range, 2 to 60 months). Sixteen patients underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, 1 patient underwent posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and 6 patients underwent meniscus repair only. A median of 5 sutures (range, 3 to 6 sutures) were used for repair. Four cases (all of which had undergone meniscus repair only) required revision. Complete healing was achieved in 83% of cases according to the criteria of Barrett et al. The mean follow-up time was 48 months (range, 24 to 112 months). An International Knee Documentation Committee rating of A or B was achieved in the 20 patients who did not require revision. The median Lysholm score was 95 (range, 92 to 100). The median Tegner activity level before injury was 7, and it remained unchanged after surgery in all cases. This study showed that repair of chronic bucket-handle meniscal tears can lead to good clinical outcomes and a relatively low (17

  9. Hidden lesions of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus: a systematic arthroscopic exploration of the concealed portion of the knee.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Conteduca, Jacopo; Thaunat, Mathieu; Gunepin, François Xavier; Seil, Romain

    2014-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are frequently associated with meniscal lesions. Despite improvements in meniscal repair techniques, failure rates remain significant, especially for the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. To determine whether a systematic arthroscopic exploration of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with an additional posteromedial portal is useful to identify otherwise unrecognized lesions. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. In a consecutive series of 302 ACL reconstructions, a systematic arthroscopic exploration of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was performed. The first stage of the exploration was achieved through anterior visualization via a standard anterolateral portal. In the second stage, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was visualized posteriorly via the anterolateral portal with the scope positioned deep in the notch. In the third stage, the posterior horn was probed through an additional posteromedial portal. A χ2 test and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine if the time from injury to surgery was associated with the meniscal tear pattern. A medial meniscal tear was diagnosed in 125 of the 302 patients (41.4%). Seventy-five lesions (60%) located in the meniscal body were diagnosed at the first stage of the arthroscopic exploration. Fifty lesions located in the ramp area were diagnosed: 29 (23.2%) at the second stage and 21 lesions (16.8%) at the third stage after minimal debridement of the superficial soft tissue layer. The latter type of lesion is called a "hidden lesion." Altogether, the prevalence of ramp lesions in this population was 40%. Meniscal body lesions (odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-5.18; P < .02) were found to be significantly correlated with a longer delay between injury and surgery. Posterior visualization and posteromedial probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can help in discovering a higher rate of lesions that could be easily

  10. Clinical study on the arthroscopic refreshing treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injury combined with stable medial meniscus ramp injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, J.; Guan, K.; Wang, J.Z.

    2017-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the clinical efficacy of arthroscopic refreshing treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury combined with stable medial meniscus ramp injury. Sixty-eight patients treated between January 2010 and January 2014 were included, and their clinical data were retrospectively analyzed. All patients, after being treated using ACL reconstruction, were divided into 2 groups according to meniscus injury treatment method. The observation group (31 cases) was treated by arthroscopic refreshing, which removed the tissue on both sides of the tear edge using a cutting knife, while the control group (37 cases) was treated using Fast-fix sutures. All patients were followed up for at least 24 months. Surgical duration, postoperative function recovery time, and hospital stay for patients in the observation group were significantly shorter than for those of the control group (P<0.05). Both groups showed significant post-operative improvement for Lysholm scores, IKDC scores, and average knee range of motion at 12 and 24 months post-operation (P<0.05), but no significant differences between groups were observed (P>0.05). Regarding the difference in movement range between the healthy and injured sides, both groups showed significant decrease post-operation (P<0.05). Ultimately, there was no significant difference in the recovery of ramp damage and objective symptoms between the two groups (P>0.05). Arthroscopic refreshing treatment of patients with anterior cruciate ligament injury combined with stable ramp lesion can achieve similar clinical curative effects as the Fast-fix suture, thereby providing a simple alternative for patient treatment worth popularizing. PMID:28574418

  11. Interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and transforming growth factor-beta 1 and integrative meniscal repair: influences on meniscal cell proliferation and migration

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    , while TGF-β1 had no effect on either measure. Conclusions Meniscal cell proliferation in vivo may be diminished following joint injury due to the up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines, thereby limiting native cellular repair of meniscal lesions. Therefore, therapies that can promote meniscal cell proliferation have promise to enhance meniscal repair and improve tissue engineering strategies. PMID:22087734

  12. Pullout repair of a medial meniscus posterior root tear using a FasT-Fix® all-inside suture technique.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Y; Furumatsu, T; Fujii, M; Tanaka, T; Miyazawa, S; Ozaki, T

    2016-11-01

    A medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) may increase the tibiofemoral contact pressure by decreasing the tibiofemoral contact area. Meniscal dysfunction induced by posterior root injury may lead to the development of osteoarthritic knees. Repair of a MMPRT can restore medial meniscus (MM) function and prevent knee osteoarthritis progression. Several surgical procedures have been reported for treating a MMPRT. However, these procedures are associated with several technical difficulties. Here, we describe a technique to stabilize a torn MM posterior root using the FasT-Fix ® all-inside meniscal suture device and a new aiming device. The uncut free-end of the FasT-Fix ® suture can be used as a thread for transtibial pullout repair. Our procedure might help overcome the technical difficulties in arthroscopic treatment of a MMPRT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Posteromedial meniscal tears may be missed during anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Adrien; Lording, Timothy D; Lustig, Sébastien; Servien, Elvire; Maubisson, Laurent; Neyret, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the benefit of using an arthroscopic intercondylar view and a posterior medial viewing portal during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in the diagnosis of posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) tears. A secondary objective was to determine clinical and radiological risk factors for the PHMM. Forty-one patients undergoing isolated ACL reconstruction were prospectively evaluated. At ACL reconstruction, the PHMM was assessed using a standard 30° arthroscope in 3 sequential stages: a "classic" anterolateral portal view, an intercondylar view, and a view through a posteromedial portal. Thirty-nine patients were included (12 female patients and 27 male patients). A posteromedial tear of the medial meniscus was found in 17 patients using the anterolateral portal view. The intercondylar view identified 4 new additional lesions and extensions of 3 previously identified lesions. The posteromedial portal view identified 6 new lesions and 5 extensions of known lesions compared with the anterolateral portal view. Two lesions seen through the posteromedial portal were not identified by either the anterolateral portal view or the intercondylar view. Tears of the PHMM may be underdiagnosed by intraoperative assessment using only an anterolateral portal view during ACL reconstruction. The intercondylar view combined with a posteromedial portal aids in the diagnosis of PHMM tears and should be considered in routine ACL reconstruction to assess meniscal status, particularly when the interval from injury to surgery is prolonged. Level IV, therapeutic case series. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Posterior medial meniscus root ligament lesions: MRI classification and associated findings.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ja-Young; Chang, Eric Y; Cunha, Guilherme M; Tafur, Monica; Statum, Sheronda; Chung, Christine B

    2014-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the prevalence of altered MRI appearances of "posterior medial meniscus root ligament (PMMRL)" lesions, introduce a classification of lesion types, and report associated findings. We retrospectively reviewed 419 knee MRI studies to identify the presence of PMMRL lesions. Classification was established on the basis of lesions encountered. The medial compartment was assessed for medial meniscal tears in the meniscus proper, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous changes, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture, and cruciate ligament abnormality. PMMRL abnormalities occurred in 28.6% (120/419) of the studies: degeneration, 14.3% (60/419) and tear, 14.3% (60/419). Our classification system included degeneration and tearing. Tearing was categorized as partial or complete with delineation of the point of failure as entheseal, midsubstance, or junction to meniscus. Of all tears, 93.3% (56/60) occurred at the meniscal junction. Univariate analysis revealed significant differences between the knees with and without PMMRL lesions in age, medial meniscal tear, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous change, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture (p=0.017), and cruciate ligament degeneration (p<0.001). PMMRL lesions are commonly detected in symptomatic patients. We have introduced an MRI classification system. PMMRL lesions are significantly associated with age, medial meniscal tears, medial meniscal extrusion, insertional PMMRL osseous change, regional synovitis, osteoarthritis, insufficiency fracture, and cruciate ligament degeneration.

  15. Improvement in the medial meniscus posterior shift following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Hiroto; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Fujii, Masataka; Kodama, Yuya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2018-02-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can reduce the risk of developing osteoarthritic knees. The goals of ACL reconstruction are to restore knee stability and reduce post-traumatic meniscal tears and cartilage degradation. A chronic ACL insufficiency frequently results in medial meniscus (MM) injury at the posterior segment. How ACL reconstruction can reduce the deformation of the MM posterior segment remains unclear. In this study, we evaluated the form of the MM posterior segment and anterior tibial translation before and after ACL reconstruction using open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Seventeen patients who underwent ACL reconstructions without MM injuries were included in this study. MM deformation was evaluated using open MRI before surgery and 3 months after surgery. We measured medial meniscal length (MML), medial meniscal height (MMH), medial meniscal posterior body width (MPBW), MM-femoral condyle contact width (M-FCW) and posterior tibiofemoral distance (PTFD) at knee flexion angles of 10° and 90°. There were no significant pre- and postoperative differences during a flexion angle of 10°. At a flexion angle of 90°, MML decreased from 43.7 ± 4.5 to 41.4 ± 4.5 mm (P < 0.001), MMH from 7.5 ± 1.4 to 6.9 ± 1.4 mm (P = 0.006), MPBW from 13.1 ± 2.0 to 12.2 ± 1.9 mm (P < 0.001) and M-FCW from 10.0 ± 1.5 to 8.5 ± 1.5 mm (P < 0.001) after ACL reconstruction. The PTFD increased from 2.1 ± 2.8 to 2.7 ± 2.4 mm after ACL reconstruction (P = 0.015). ACL reconstruction affects the contact pattern between the MM posterior segment and medial femoral condyle and can reduce the deformation of the MM posterior segment in the knee-flexed position by reducing abnormal anterior tibial translation. It possibly prevents secondary injury to the MM posterior segment and cartilage that progresses to knee osteoarthritis. IV.

  16. [Diagnostic value of MRI for posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus].

    PubMed

    Qian, Yue-Nan; Liu, Fang; Dong, Yi-Long; Cai, Chun-Yuan

    2018-03-25

    To explore diagnostic value of MRI on posterior root tear of medial and lateral meniscus. From January 2012 to January 2016, clinical data of 43 patients with meniscal posterior root tear confirmed by arthroscopy were retrospective analyzed, including 25 males and 18 females, aged from 27 to 69 years old with an average age of(42.5±8.3)years old;27 cases on the right side and 16 cases on the left side. MRI examinations of 43 patients with tear of posterior meniscus root confirmed by knee arthroscopies were retrospectively reviewed. MRI images were double-blinded, independently, retrospectively scored by two imaging physicians. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MRI diagnosis of lateral and medial meniscus posterior root tear were calculated, and knee ligament injury and meniscal dislocation were calculated. Forty-three of 143 patients were diagnosed with meniscus posterior root tears by arthroscopy, including 19 patients with lateral tears and 24 patients with medial tears. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior medial meniscus root tears for doctor A were 91.67%, 86.6% and 83.9% respectively, and for doctor B were 87.5%, 87.4% and 87.4%, 19 patients with medial meniscal protrusion and 2 patients with anterior cruciate ligament tear. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy in diagnosis of posterior lateral meniscus root tears for doctor A were 73.7%, 79.9% and 79% respectively, and for doctor B were 78.9%, 82.3% and 82.5%, 4 patients with lateral meniscus herniation and 16 patients with cruciate ligament tear. Kappa statistics for posterior medial meniscus root tears and posterior lateral meniscus root tears were 0.84 and 0.72. MRI could effectively demonstrate imaging features of medial and lateral meniscal root tear and its accompanying signs. It could provide the basis for preoperative diagnosis of clinicians, and be worthy to be popularized. Copyright© 2018 by the China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology Press.

  17. Association of parameniscal cysts with underlying meniscal tears as identified on MRI and arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Arthur A; Graf, Ben K; del Rio, Alejandro Munoz

    2011-02-01

    Although patients with parameniscal cysts usually have underlying meniscal tears, we noted that this association was less common with anterior lateral cysts. We wished to determine whether the frequency of a meniscal tear underlying a parameniscal cyst varied with cyst location. We reviewed a database of 7,771 knee MR examinations and identified 134 patients with an MR diagnosis of 138 parameniscal cysts and correlative arthroscopy in 78 patients. We reviewed their medical records and MR studies to determine the location of the cysts and presence of an underlying meniscal tear as determined by MRI or arthroscopy. There were 50 lateral and 88 medial parameniscal cysts. Medial meniscal tears were found underlying a cyst in 96% of arthroscopy patients and 86% of patients who had only MR examinations without a location difference in tears (p = 0.68). Meniscal tears were found on MRI or arthroscopy in all 28 patients with a lateral cyst overlying the body or posterior horn of the lateral meniscus, whereas a tear was found on MRI or arthroscopy in only 14 (64%) of 22 patients with cysts adjacent to or extending to the lateral meniscus anterior horn (p = 0.006). Anterior lateral cysts extended medially either into the root or into Hoffa fat-pad, but the type of extension did not correlate with the presence of an underlying meniscal tear. In contrast to medial parameniscal cysts or cysts at other locations adjacent to the lateral meniscus, anteriorly located lateral parameniscal cysts are less likely to have underlying meniscal tears.

  18. BIORESORBABLE POLYMERIC MENISCAL PROSTHESIS: STUDY IN RABBITS

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; de Rezende Duek, Eliana Aparecida; Amatuzzi, Marco Martins; Caetano, Edie Benedito

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To induce growth of a neomeniscus into the pores of a prosthesis in order to protect the knee joint cartilage. Methods: 70 knees of 35 New Zealand rabbits were operated. The rabbits were five to seven months old, weighed 2 to 3.8 kilograms, and 22 were male and 13 were female. Each animal underwent medial meniscectomy in both knees during a single operation. A bioabsorbable polymeric meniscal prosthesis composed of 70% polydioxanone and 30% L-lactic acid polymer was implanted in one side. The animals were sacrificed after different postoperative time intervals. The femoral condyles and neomeniscus were subjected to histological analysis. Histograms were used to measure the degradation and absorption of the prosthesis, the growth of meniscal tissue in the prosthesis and the degree of degradation of the femoral condyle joint cartilage. Results: The data obtained showed that tissue growth histologically resembling a normal meniscus occurred, with gradual absorption of the prosthesis, and the percentages of chondrocytes on the control side and prosthesis side. Conclusion: Tissue growth into the prosthesis pores that histologically resembled the normal rabbit meniscus was observed. The joint cartilage of the femoral condyles on the prosthesis side presented greater numbers of chondrocytes in all its layers. PMID:27022549

  19. Surgical interventions for meniscal tears: a closer look at the evidence.

    PubMed

    Mutsaerts, Eduard L A R; van Eck, Carola F; van de Graaf, Victor A; Doornberg, Job N; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the outcomes of various surgical treatments for meniscal injuries including (1) total and partial meniscectomy; (2) meniscectomy and meniscal repair; (3) meniscectomy and meniscal transplantation; (4) open and arthroscopic meniscectomy and (5) various different repair techniques. The Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Register, Cochrane Database, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL were searched for all (quasi) randomized controlled clinical trials comparing various surgical techniques for meniscal injuries. Primary outcomes of interest included patient-reported outcomes scores, return to pre-injury activity level, level of sports participation and persistence of pain using the visual analogue score. Where possible, data were pooled and a meta-analysis was performed. A total of nine studies were included, involving a combined 904 subjects, 330 patients underwent a meniscal repair, 402 meniscectomy and 160 a collagen meniscal implant. The only surgical treatments that were compared in homogeneous fashion across more than one study were the arrow and inside-out technique, which showed no difference for re-tear or complication rate. Strong evidence-based recommendations regarding the other surgical treatments that were compared could not be made. This meta-analysis illustrates the lack of level I evidence to guide the surgical management of meniscal tears. Level I meta-analysis.

  20. Meniscal repair using the Polysorb Meniscal Stapler XLS.

    PubMed

    Oberlander, Michael A; Chisar, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    We present our technique of repair of meniscal tears in 11 patients using a newly designed stapler, the Polysorb Meniscal Stapler XLS (USS Sports Medicine, Norwalk, CT), to increase the effectiveness and ease of repair of tears in the vascular zone while limiting potential complications. The low-profile stapler comes with a reloadable pistol grip device and a disposable straight or 15 degrees upcurved shaft with a single preloaded 10-mm staple. Standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals were used, along with a superomedial portal for inflow. The portal was enlarged slightly to facilitate introduction of the cannula or the stapler directly into the knee. The nose of the stapler was applied to the superior surface of the inner edge of the meniscal tear. The sharp points on the tip of the nose were used to manipulate the inner edge and coapt the tear site. Firm pressure was applied to the meniscal tissue, and the nose of the stapler was embedded in the inner edge of the meniscus no more than 2 to 3 mm from the tear (as measured along the meniscal surface). The handle was pulled slowly as the staple engaged the meniscal tissue. This step was repeated every 3 to 4 mm to ensure ideal tear stabilization.

  1. In vitro synthesis of tensioned synoviocyte bioscaffolds for meniscal fibrocartilage tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Warnock, Jennifer J; Baker, Lindsay; Ballard, George A; Ott, Jesse

    2013-12-03

    Meniscal injury is a common cause of lameness in the dog. Tissue engineered bioscaffolds may be a treatment option for meniscal incompetency, and ideally would possess meniscus- like extracellular matrix (ECM) and withstand meniscal tensile hoop strains. Synovium may be a useful cell source for meniscal tissue engineering because of its natural role in meniscal deficiency and its in vitro chondrogenic potential. The objective of this study is to compare meniscal -like extracellular matrix content of hyperconfluent synoviocyte cell sheets ("HCS") and hyperconfluent synoviocyte sheets which have been tensioned over wire hoops (tensioned synoviocyte bioscaffolds, "TSB") and cultured for 1 month. Long term culture with tension resulted in higher GAG concentration, higher chondrogenic index, higher collagen concentration, and type II collagen immunoreactivity in TSB versus HCS. Both HCS and TSB were immunoreactive for type I collagen, however, HCS had mild, patchy intracellular immunoreactivity while TSB had diffuse moderate immunoreactivity over the entire bisocaffold. The tissue architecture was markedly different between TSB and HCS, with TSB containing collagen organized in bands and sheets. Both HCS and TSB expressed alpha smooth muscle actin and displayed active contractile behavior. Double stranded DNA content was not different between TSB and HCS, while cell viability decreased in TSB. Long term culture of synoviocytes with tension improved meniscal- like extra cellular matrix components, specifically, the total collagen content, including type I and II collagen, and increased GAG content relative to HCS. Future research is warranted to investigate the potential of TSB for meniscal tissue engineering.

  2. Does high knee flexion cause separation of meniscal repairs?

    PubMed

    Lin, David L; Ruh, Sarah S; Jones, Hugh L; Karim, Azim; Noble, Philip C; McCulloch, Patrick C

    2013-09-01

    Previous clinical studies comparing nonrestrictive and restrictive protocols after meniscal repair have shown no difference in outcomes; however, some surgeons still limit range of motion out of concern that it will place undue stress on the repair. Large acute medial meniscal tears will gap during simulated open chain exercises at high flexion angles, and a repaired construct with vertical mattress sutures will not gap. Controlled laboratory study. Tantalum beads were implanted in the medial menisci of 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees via an open posteromedial approach. Each knee underwent 10 simulated open chain flexion cycles with loading of the quadriceps and hamstrings. Testing was performed on 3 different states of the meniscus: intact, torn, and repaired. Biplanar radiographs were taken of the loaded knee in 90°, 110°, and 135° of flexion for each state. A 2.5-cm tear was created in the posteromedial meniscus and repaired with inside-out vertical mattress sutures. Displacement of pairs of beads spanning the tear was measured in all planes by use of radiostereometric analysis (RSA) with an accuracy of better than 80 μm. With a longitudinal tear, compression rather than gapping occurred in all 3 regions of the posterior horn of the meniscus (mean ± standard deviation for medial collateral ligament [MCL], -321 ± 320 μm; midposterior, -487 ± 256 μm; root, -318 ± 150 μm) with knee flexion. After repair, meniscal displacement returned part way to intact values in both the MCL (+55 ± 250 μm) and root region (-170 ± 123 μm) but not the midposterior region, where further compression was seen (-661 ± 278 μm). Acute posteromedial meniscal tears and repairs with vertical mattress sutures do not gap, but rather compress in the transverse plane at higher flexion angles when subjected to physiologic loads consistent with active, open kinetic chain range of motion rehabilitation exercises. The kinematics of the repaired meniscus more closely resemble that of

  3. Surgical Techniques for the Reconstruction of Medial Collateral Ligament and Posteromedial Corner Injuries of the Knee: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    DeLong, Jeffrey M; Waterman, Brian R

    2015-11-01

    To systematically review reconstruction techniques of the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and associated medial structures of the knee (e.g., posterior oblique ligament). A systematic review of Medline/PubMed Database (1966 to November 2013), reference list scanning and citation searches of included articles, and manual searches of high-impact journals (2000 to July 2013) and conference proceedings (2009 to July 2013) were performed to identify publications describing MCL reconstruction techniques of the knee. Exclusion criteria included (1) MCL primary repair techniques or advancement procedures, (2) lack of clear description of MCL reconstruction technique, (3) animal models, (4) nonrelevant study design, (5) and foreign language articles without available translation. After review of 4,600 references, 25 publications with 359 of 388 patients (92.5%) were isolated for analysis, including 18 single-bundle MCL and 10 double-bundle reconstruction techniques. Only 2 techniques were classified as anatomic reconstructions, and clinical and objective outcomes (n = 28; 100% <3 mm side-to-side difference [SSD]) were superior to those with nonanatomic reconstruction (n = 182; 79.1% <3 mm SSD) and tendon transfer techniques (n = 114; 52.6% <3 mm SSD). This systematic review demonstrated that numerous medial reconstruction techniques have been used in the treatment of isolated and combined medial knee injuries in the existent literature. Many variations exist among reconstruction techniques and may differ by graft choices, method of fixation, number of bundles, tensioning protocol, and degree of anatomic restoration of medial and posteromedial corner knee restraints. Further studies are required to better ascertain the comparative clinical outcomes with anatomic, non-anatomic, and tendon transfer techniques for medial knee reconstruction. Level IV, systematic review of level IV studies and surgical techniques. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The effect of a nonanatomic repair of the meniscal horn attachment on meniscal tension: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Stärke, Christian; Kopf, Sebastian; Gröbel, Karl-Heinz; Becker, Roland

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this biomechanical study was to investigate the potential effect of a nonanatomic repair of the meniscal horn attachment on the resultant circumferential tension in a large animal model and to show that the circumferential tension of the meniscus affects the local stress of the cartilage. All investigations were done in the medial compartment of porcine knees. First, the anterior horn attachment of the meniscus was mechanically separated from the surrounding tibial bone and fitted with a force transducer (n = 8). The femorotibial joint was loaded in compression at different flexion angles, and the resultant tension at the horn attachment was recorded. The measurements were done with the horn attachment at its anatomic position and repeated with the horn attachment being displaced medially or laterally by 3 mm. In the second part the local deformation of the cartilage under a femorotibial compressive load was measured at different levels of meniscal hoop tension (n = 5). A nonanatomic position of the horn attachment had a significant effect on the resultant tension (P < .01). Placing the horn attachment 3 mm medially decreased the tension at the horn attachment by 49% to 73%, depending on flexion angle and femorotibial load. The opposite placement resulted in a relative increase in the tension by 28% to 68%. Lower levels of meniscal hoop tension caused increased deformation of the cartilage (P < .05), indicating increased local stress. A nonanatomic position of the horn attachment strongly affects conversion of femorotibial loads into circumferential tension. There is a narrow window for a functionally sufficient repair of meniscal root tears. Although clinical inferences are limited because the specimens used were from a different species, there seems to be only a narrow window for a mechanically sufficient repair of root tears. Copyright 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Functional Outcomes After a Polyurethane Meniscal Scaffold Implantation: Minimum 5-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Monllau, Joan C; Poggioli, Francesco; Erquicia, Juan; Ramírez, Eduardo; Pelfort, Xavier; Gelber, Pablo; Torres-Claramunt, Raúl

    2018-05-01

    To report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and clinical outcomes at a minimum 5-year follow-up in a series of patients with postmeniscectomy syndrome and treated with a polyurethane scaffold. All consecutive patients operated on from September 2008 to February 2011 for either persistent medial or lateral joint line compartmental pain receiving a polyurethane scaffold due to a previous partial meniscus resection with a minimum 5-year follow-up were included. Functional scores (Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcomes Score, International Knee Documentation Committee, Lysholm, and Tegner) were assessed preoperatively and at the last follow-up. The state of the scaffold as well as postoperative scaffold extrusion and the total remaining meniscal volume was also evaluated in MRI. Thirty-two patients were included. The mean follow-up was 70.8 ± 7.5 months. The functionality of the knees improved in all the scores used (P < .001) except for the Tegner score that stayed steady. Most of meniscal implants showed extrusion of 2.4 mm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-3.7) were smaller and a hyperintensity signal was seen in the MRI. Three scaffolds were resorbed at the last follow-up. The meniscal volume, determined by MRI, was 1.14 cm 3 (95% CI, 0.96-1.31) preoperatively and 1.61 cm 3 (95% CI, 1.43-1.7) at the last follow-up. No differences were presented. The use of a polyurethane meniscal scaffold in patients with a symptomatic meniscus deficit had a good functional outcome at 5 years after surgery. However, the implanted scaffolds did not present normal meniscal tissue with MRI, and the implant volume was considerably less than expected. The fact that most of patients included received different concomitant procedures during scaffold implantation introduces a degree of performance bias into the results. Level IV, case series. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament injury on MRI.

    PubMed

    Ringler, Michael D; Shotts, Ezekiel E; Collins, Mark S; Howe, B Matthew

    2016-12-01

    Unlike with anterior cruciate ligament injury, little is known about the prevalence of intra-articular pathology associated with isolated posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury in the knee. The objectives of this study were to characterize and identify the frequency of meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries in these patients, and to see if management might be affected. Altogether, 48 knee MRI exams with isolated PCL tears were evaluated for the presence of: grade and location of PCL tear, meniscal tear, articular chondral lesion, bone bruise, and fracture. Comparisons between PCL tear grade and location, as well as mechanism of injury when known, with the presence of various intra-articular pathologies, were made using the chi-square or Fisher's exact test as appropriate. In all, 69 % of isolated PCL tears occur in the midsubstance, 27 % proximally. Meniscal tears were seen in 25 % of knees, involving all segments of both menisci, except for the anterior horn medial meniscus. Altogether, 23 % had focal cartilage lesions, usually affecting the central third medial femoral condyle and medial trochlea, while 12.5 % of knees had fractures, and 48 % demonstrated bone bruises, usually involving the central to anterior tibiofemoral joint. The presence of a fracture (p = 0.0123) and proximal location of PCL tear (p = 0.0016) were both associated with the hyperextension mechanism of injury. There were no statistically significant associations between PCL tear grade and presence of intra-articular abnormality. Potentially treatable meniscal tears and osteochondral injuries are relatively prevalent, and demonstrable on MRI in patients with isolated acute PCL injury of the knee.

  7. The relation between chondromalacia patella and meniscal tear and the sulcus angle/ trochlear depth ratio as a powerful predictor.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Hatice; Zateri, Coskun; Nusran, Gurdal; Goksel, Ferdi; Aylanc, Nilufer

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relation between chondromalacia patella and the sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio as a marker of trochlear morphology. In addition, we also planned to show the relationship between meniscus damage, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness as a marker of obesity, patellar tilt angle and chondromalacia patella. Patients with trauma, rheumatologic disease, a history of knee surgery and patellar variations such as patella alba and patella baja were excluded. Magnetic resonance images of the knees of 200 patients were evaluated. Trochlear morphology from standardized levels, patellar tilt angle, lateral/medial facet ratio, subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness from 3 locations and meniscus injury were assessed by two specialist radiologists. Retropatellar cartilage was normal in 108 patients (54%) at radiological evaluation, while chondromalacia patella was determined in 92 (46%) cases. Trochlear sulcus angle and prepatellar subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness were significantly high in patients with chondromalacia patella, while trochlear depth and lateral patellar tilt angle were low. The trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio was also high in chondromalacia patella and was identified as an independent risk factor at regression analysis. Additionally, medial meniscal tear was observed in 35 patients (38%) in the chondromalacia patella group and in 27 patients (25%) in the normal group, the difference being statistically significant (P = 0.033). An increased trochlear sulcus angle/trochlear depth ratio is a significant predictor of chondromalacia patella. Medial meniscus injury is more prevalent in patients with chondromalacia patella in association with impairment in knee biomechanics and the degenerative process.

  8. Distinct white matter injury associated with medial temporal lobe atrophy in Alzheimer's versus semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Bejanin, Alexandre; Desgranges, Béatrice; La Joie, Renaud; Landeau, Brigitte; Perrotin, Audrey; Mézenge, Florence; Belliard, Serge; de La Sayette, Vincent; Eustache, Francis; Chételat, Gaël

    2017-04-01

    This study aims at further understanding the distinct vulnerability of brain networks in Alzheimer's disease (AD) versus semantic dementia (SD) investigating the white matter injury associated with medial temporal lobe (MTL) atrophy in both conditions. Twenty-six AD patients, twenty-one SD patients, and thirty-nine controls underwent a high-resolution T1-MRI scan allowing to obtain maps of grey matter volume and white matter density. A statistical conjunction approach was used to identify MTL regions showing grey matter atrophy in both patient groups. The relationship between this common grey matter atrophy and white matter density maps was then assessed within each patient group. Patterns of grey matter atrophy were distinct in AD and SD but included a common region in the MTL, encompassing the hippocampus and amygdala. This common atrophy was associated with alterations in different white matter areas in AD versus SD, mainly including the cingulum and corpus callosum in AD, while restricted to the temporal lobe - essentially the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi - in SD. Complementary analyses revealed that these relationships remained significant when controlling for global atrophy or disease severity. Overall, this study provides the first evidence that atrophy of the same MTL region is related to damage in distinct white matter fibers in AD and SD. These different patterns emphasize the vulnerability of distinct brain networks related to the MTL in these two disorders, which might underlie the discrepancy in their symptoms. These results further suggest differences between AD and SD in the neuropathological processes occurring in the MTL. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1791-1800, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem/progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...cells, stem cells, progenitor cells, meniscus healing, meniscus repair, osteoarthritis 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT...changes that occur after injury. As a result, meniscal injuries are a common underlying cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis . This is particularly

  10. Factors Predicting Meniscal Allograft Transplantation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Ben; Smith, Nicholas; Asplin, Laura; Thompson, Peter; Spalding, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background: Meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) is performed to improve symptoms and function in patients with a meniscal-deficient compartment of the knee. Numerous studies have shown a consistent improvement in patient-reported outcomes, but high failure rates have been reported by some studies. The typical patients undergoing MAT often have multiple other pathologies that require treatment at the time of surgery. The factors that predict failure of a meniscal allograft within this complex patient group are not clearly defined. Purpose: To determine predictors of MAT failure in a large series to refine the indications for surgery and better inform future patients. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: All patients undergoing MAT at a single institution between May 2005 and May 2014 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up were prospectively evaluated and included in this study. Failure was defined as removal of the allograft, revision transplantation, or conversion to a joint replacement. Patients were grouped according to the articular cartilage status at the time of the index surgery: group 1, intact or partial-thickness chondral loss; group 2, full-thickness chondral loss 1 condyle; and group 3, full-thickness chondral loss both condyles. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to determine significant predictors of failure, independently of other factors. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were produced for overall survival and significant predictors of failure in the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: There were 125 consecutive MATs performed, with 1 patient lost to follow-up. The median follow-up was 3 years (range, 1-10 years). The 5-year graft survival for the entire cohort was 82% (group 1, 97%; group 2, 82%; group 3, 62%). The probability of failure in group 1 was 85% lower (95% CI, 13%-97%) than in group 3 at any time. The probability of failure with lateral allografts was 76% lower (95% CI, 16%-89%) than medial allografts at

  11. Meniscus Repair in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Treatment Approaches, Meniscal Healing, and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Márcio Balbinotti; Murphy, Colin P; Gomes, João Luiz Ellera

    2018-05-23

    Although the consequences of traumatic meniscus tears and the importance of meniscal repair are well-established in adults, the same cannot be said for the young population. Better evidence regarding the outcomes following traumatic meniscal tears in children would improve our understanding of this increasing pathology and help define important factors in deciding the best treatment option. A systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis guidelines using the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE Ovid, and MEDLINE PubMed databases. Inclusion criteria were as follows: studies reporting the outcomes of meniscal repair in patients 18 years old or younger, with a minimum mean follow-up of 12 months, Portuguese, Spanish, or English languages, and human studies including 10 or more patients. Our search identified 2,534 individual titles. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 8 studies were included, evaluating 287 patients with repaired meniscal tears. All eight studies were classified as level of evidence IV. The mean methodological index for nonrandomized studies score was 8.6 ± 1.4. Meniscal repair included all meniscal zones and tear patterns. Anterior cruciate ligament tear was the most common associated injury. The all-inside and inside-out techniques were predominantly reported. The majority of the patients reported good to excellent outcomes and had clinical signals of meniscal healing; meniscectomies following meniscal repair were performed in just 44 cases. In conclusion, meniscal tears in pediatrics are not uncommon. Repairs of this injury were associated with good to excellent outcomes in most patients, regardless of the injury pattern, zone, or technique. Reported complications were minimal; however, higher quality studies are needed to confirm the findings of this systematic review. This is a systematic

  12. Stable Meniscal Tears Left In Situ at the Time of Arthroscopic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Rothermich, Marcus A; Cohen, Jared A; Wright, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Meniscal tears can be incidentally encountered at the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. In these cases, the surgeon has several treatment options that include benign neglect, debridement, trephination, and repair. The authors performed a systematic review of the literature studying the various treatment options for meniscal tears discovered at the time of ACL reconstruction. This systematic review included eight articles that had relevant data regarding benign neglect compared with debridement, trephination, or repair of incidentally encountered meniscal tears. Combined data from these studies resulted in a total of 646 meniscal tears treated with benign neglect with follow-up information available. Importantly, there were differences in reoperation rates between medial and lateral meniscal tears left in situ. However, stable medial and lateral meniscal tears treated with benign neglect did not have different subjective or objective outcomes than those treated with surgical intervention. This systematic review concludes that when stable meniscal tears are encountered at the time of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction, benign neglect can be used for a successful outcome. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. MRI versus ultrasonography to assess meniscal abnormalities in acute knees.

    PubMed

    Cook, James L; Cook, Cristi R; Stannard, James P; Vaughn, Gavin; Wilson, Nichole; Roller, Brandon L; Stoker, Aaron M; Jayabalan, Prakash; Hdeib, Moses; Kuroki, Keiichi

    2014-08-01

    meniscal pathology was associated with Sn = 91.7%, Sp = 66.7%, PPV = 84.6%, NPV = 80.0%, CCR = 81.1%, LR(+) = 2.75, and LR(-) = 0.13. Ultrasonography was two times more likely than MRI to correctly determine presence or absence of meniscal pathology seen arthroscopically in this study. Ultrasonography is a useful tool for diagnosis of meniscal pathology with potential advantages over MRI. Based on these data and available portable equipment, ultrasonography could be considered for use as a point-of-injury diagnostic modality for meniscal injuries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. Contemporary Surgical Trends in the Management of Symptomatic Meniscal Tears among United States Military Servicemembers from 2010 to 2015.

    PubMed

    Pekari, Timothy B; Wang, Kevin C; Cotter, Eric J; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Waterman, Brian R

    2018-03-07

    The purpose of this investigation is to report on trends over time in the treatment of meniscal pathology among military orthopaedic surgeons, as well as to evaluate the impact of patient demographics and concomitant procedure on the type of meniscal procedure performed. We performed a retrospective analysis of all active-duty United States military servicemembers who underwent a meniscal procedure from 2010 to 2015 within the Military Health System. Patient demographics and surgical variables were extracted from the electronic medical record. Treatments were categorized by location and by type of intervention (i.e., repair or debridement). Chi-square and linear regression analyses were performed to identify temporal trends in meniscal procedures and factors that were correlated with the type of meniscal procedure performed. Out of 29,571 meniscal procedures analyzed, partial meniscectomy was performed in 81.3% ( n  = 24,343) of cases, meniscal repair in 20.3% ( n  = 6,073), and meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) in 0.7% ( n  = 206). The rates of debridement, repair, and concomitant surgeries did not demonstrate any significant temporal trends, whereas MAT demonstrated a significant decrease in overall utilization. Nearly two-thirds of all meniscal procedures were performed in the medial compartment. MAT occurred equally between the medial and lateral compartments. Lateral meniscal lesions demonstrated significantly higher rates of debridement. With each year of advancing age, there was a 3.7% increasing likelihood of meniscectomy and 6.5% decreasing likelihood of repair. Females were more likely to undergo meniscal repair than males. Patients in the military population were more likely to undergo meniscal repair compared with previously reported rates in the civilian population. In this physically active cohort of nearly 30,000 military patients, 1 in 5 meniscal tears were treated with meniscal repair. Meniscal repairs were performed at a higher

  15. Histopathological Evidence of Adventitial or Medial Injury Is a Strong Predictor of Restenosis During Directional Atherectomy for Peripheral Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Tarricone, Arthur; Ali, Ziad; Rajamanickam, Anitha; Gujja, Karthik; Kapur, Vishal; Purushothaman, K-Raman; Purushothaman, Meerarani; Vasquez, Miguel; Zalewski, Adrian; Parides, Micheal; Overbey, Jessica; Wiley, Jose; Krishnan, Prakash

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the impact on restenosis rates of deep injury to the adventitial layer during directional atherectomy. Between 2007 and 2010, 116 consecutive patients (mean age 69.6 years; 56 men) with symptomatic femoropopliteal stenoses were treated with directional atherectomy at a single center. All patients had claudication and TASC A/B lesions in the superficial femoral or popliteal arteries. Histopathology analysis of atherectomy specimens was performed to identify adventitial injury. Clinical follow-up included physical examination and duplex ultrasound scans at 3, 6, and 12 months in all patients. The primary endpoint was the duplex-documented 1-year rate of restenosis, which was determined by a peak systolic velocity ratio <2.4. Patients were dichotomized by the presence or absence of adventitial or medial cuts as evaluated by histopathology. Adventitial injury were identified in 62 (53%) of patients. There were no differences in baseline demographic and clinical features (p>0.05), lesion length (58.7±12.8 vs 56.2±13.6 mm, p=0.40), or vessel runoff (1.9±0.6 vs 2.0±0.6, p=0.37) between patients with and without adventitial injury, respectively. The overall 1-year incidence of restenosis was 57%, but the rate was significantly higher (p<0.0001) in patients with adventitial or medial injury (97%, 60/62) as compared with those without (11%, 6/54). Lack of adventitial injury after atherectomy for femoropopliteal stenosis is strongly related to patency at 1 year. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Sonography on injury of the medial patellofemoral ligament after acute traumatic lateral patellar dislocation: Injury patterns and correlation analysis with injury of articular cartilage of the inferomedial patella.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Ying; Zheng, Lei; Shi, Hao; Qu, Su-Hui; Ding, Hong-Yu

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of high-frequency ultrasonography in the diagnosis of injuries of medial patellofemoral ligaments (MPFLs), analyse the characteristics of MPFL injury and correlations between injury of the MPFL and articular cartilage of the inferomedial patella in patients with acute traumatic lateral patellar dislocation. High-frequency sonographic images of 49 patients with acute traumatic lateral patellar dislocations treated surgically were reviewed. The χ(2) tests were performed for statistical analysis. Twenty-eight cases of complete MPFL tear and 21 cases of partial MPFL tear were identified in operation, with 27 cases of MPFL tear located at their femoral attachment, 21 cases of tear at the patellar attachment and one case of midsubstance tear. The diagnostic accuracy of sonography regarding partial MPFL tear and complete MPFL tear was 89.8% and 89.8%. Among the patients with MPFL tear at the patellar attachment, eight and six cases were concomitant with chondral and osteochondral lesions in the inferomedial patella, respectively, in contrast to nine and six cases in patients with MPFL tear at the femoral attachment, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two locations described above regarding the prevalence rates of chondral or osteochondral lesions of the inferomedial patella (P=0.732, P=0.614). Among the patients with complete MPFL tear, 12 and 10 cases were concomitant with chondral and osteochondral lesions in the inferomedial patella, respectively, while six and two cases were concomitant with partial MPFL tear. There was no significant difference between the two types of injuries discussed above on the prevalence rates of chondral lesions of the inferomedial patella (P=0.305), but the prevalence rate of osteochondral lesions between the two types of injuries discussed above was statistically different (P=0.035). The MPFL is most easily injured at the femoral attachment, secondly at

  17. Modified Pull-out Suture in Posterior Root Tear of the Medial Meniscus: Using a Posteromedial Portal.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jin Ho

    2012-06-01

    In cases with root tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn, the meniscus usually can be repaired by a pull out suture technique. However, there is difficulty in manipulating a suture hook via the anteromedial portal and looking through the arthroscopic camera via anterolateral portal in the narrow medial joint space at the same time. This article describes a modified simple pull out suture technique for root tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn using a posteromedial portal that provides a safe and easy handling of the suture hook. Our indications of this technique used in patients with Outerbridge 1-2 arthritic change and minimal varus axis change. Benefits of this technique are simple, less invasive, and reduced operation time by simultaneous suture with a hook via posteromedial portal and pulling of a string with grasper. It may reduce the possibility of an additional chondral or meniscal injury.

  18. Outcome of ACL Reconstruction for Chronic ACL Injury in Knees without the Posterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus: Comparison with ACL Reconstructed Knees with An Intact Medial Meniscus.

    PubMed

    Syam, Kevin; Chouhan, Devendra K; Dhillon, Mandeep Singh

    2017-03-01

    Cadaveric studies have shown that deficiency of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) increases strain on the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft. However, its influence on the clinical and radiological outcome after ACL reconstruction is less discussed and hence evaluated in this study. This study included 77 cases of ACL reconstruction with a minimum 18-month follow-up. Of the 77 cases, 41 patients with intact menisci were compared clinically and radiologically with 36 patients with an injury to the PHMM that required various grades of meniscectomy. The knees were evaluated using subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score and Orthopadische Arbeitsgruppe Knie (OAK) score. Cases with intact menisci showed better stability (p=0.004) at an average of 44.51 months after surgery. No significant differences were noted in the overall OAK score, subjective IKDC score, and functional OAK score (p=0.082, p=0.526, and p=0.363, respectively). The incidence of radiological osteoarthrosis was significantly higher in the posterior horn deficient knees (p=0.022). The tendency toward relatively higher objective instability and increased incidence of osteoarthrosis in the group with absent posterior horn reinforces its importance as a secondary stabiliser of the knee.

  19. Meniscal root entrapment of an osteochondritis dissecans loose body.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher R; McMonagle, Joseph S; Garrett, William E

    2014-09-01

    Loose bodies are relatively common in the knee. On radiographs they can often be seen in the medial and lateral gutters, intercondylar notch, and the posterior compartment. At times an apparent loose body is not free to move in the knee because it has been covered by synovium and is no longer mobile. It is uncommon for an osteochondral loose body to become incorporated into meniscal tissue. We report a case of an apparent loose body becoming incorporated into the posterior horn and root of the medial meniscus. We are not aware that this condition has been previously reported. Because removing the entire loose body would have destabilized the posterior root of the medial meniscus, it is important to be aware of this potential occurrence.

  20. Intra-articular administration of xenogeneic neonatal Mesenchymal Stromal Cells early after meniscal injury down-regulates metalloproteinase gene expression in synovium and prevents cartilage degradation in a rabbit model of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Saulnier, N; Viguier, E; Perrier-Groult, E; Chenu, C; Pillet, E; Roger, T; Maddens, S; Boulocher, C

    2015-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects of neonatal Mesenchymal Stromal Cell (MSC) were investigated in a xenogeneic model of mild osteoarthritis (OA). The paracrine properties of MSC on synoviocytes were further investigated in vitro. OA was induced by medial meniscal release (MMR) in 30 rabbit knees. A single early (day 3) or delayed (day 15) intra-articular (IA) injection of MSC isolated from equine Umbilical Cord Wharton's jelly (UC-MSC) was performed. Rabbits were euthanized on days 15 or 56. OA grading was performed and gene expression of inflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases was measured in synovial tissue. Paracrine effects of UC-MSC were investigated using UC-conditioned vs control medium on rabbit primary synoviocytes stimulated with interleukin 1 beta in vitro. No adverse local or systemic responses were observed clinically after xenogeneic UC-MSC injection. At study end point, cartilage fibrillation was lower in early treatment than in delayed treatment group. Cellular infiltrate was observed in the synovium of both UC-MSC groups. OA synovium exhibited a reduced expression of metalloproteinases-1, -3, -13 in the early cell-treated group at d56. In vitro, UC-conditioned medium exerted anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic effects on synoviocytes exposed to pro-inflammatory stimulus. Early IA injection of equine UC-MSC was effective in preventing OA signs in rabbit knees following MMR. UC-MSC target the synovium and modulate the gene expression pattern of synoviocytes to promote an anti-catabolic environment. This confirms the synovium is a major target and mediator of MSC therapy, modulating the expression of matrix-degrading enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of radial tears in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus compared to horizontal tears.

    PubMed

    Choi, Chul-Jun; Choi, Yun-Jin; Song, In-Bum; Choi, Chong-Hyuk

    2011-06-01

    The clinical and radiologic features of radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn were compared with those of horizontal tears. From January 2007 to December 2008, 387 consecutive cases of medial meniscal tears were treated arthroscopically. Among these, 91 were radial tears in the medial meniscus posterior horn, and 95 were horizontal tears in the posterior segment of the medial meniscus. The patients' data (age, gender, duration of symptom, body mass index, and injury history), radiographic findings (Kellgren and Lawrence score, posterior tibial slope, and femorotibial angle), and chondral lesions were recorded. The patient factors of age, gender, and body mass index were related to radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. Radial tears were significantly correlated with Kellgren and Lawrence score, varus alignment, posterior tibial slope, and severity of the chondral lesion. Radial tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn are a unique clinical entity that are associated with older age, females and obesity, and are strongly associated with an increased incidence and severity of cartilage degeneration compared to horizontal tears.

  2. Vulnerability of the Medial Frontal Corticospinal Projection Accompanies Combined Lateral Frontal and Parietal Cortex Injury in Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Morecraft, R.J.; Ge, J.; Stilwell-Morecraft, K.S.; McNeal, D.W.; Hynes, S.M.; Pizzimenti, M.A.; Rotella, D.L.; Darling, W.G.

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent damage to the lateral frontal and parietal cortex is common following middle cerebral artery infarction leading to upper extremity paresis, paresthesia and sensory loss. Motor recovery is often poor and the mechanisms that support, or impede this process are unclear. Since the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is commonly spared following stroke, we investigated the long-term (6 and 12 month) effects of lateral frontoparietal injury (F2P2 lesion) on the terminal distribution of the corticospinal projection (CSP) from intact, ipsilesional supplementary motor cortex (M2) at spinal levels C5 to T1. Isolated injury to the frontoparietal arm/hand region resulted in a significant loss of contralateral corticospinal boutons from M2 compared to controls. Specifically, reductions occurred in the medial and lateral parts of lamina VII and the dorsal quadrants of lamina IX. There were no statistical differences in the ipsilateral corticospinal projection. Contrary to isolated lateral frontal motor injury (F2 lesion) which results in substantial increases in contralateral M2 labeling in laminae VII and IX (McNeal et al., Journal of Comparative Neurology 518:586-621, 2010), the added effect of adjacent parietal cortex injury to the frontal motor lesion (F2P2 lesion) not only impedes a favorable compensatory neuroplastic response, but results in a substantial loss of M2 CSP terminals. This dramatic reversal of the CSP response suggests a critical trophic role for cortical somatosensory influence on spared ipsilesional frontal corticospinal projections, and that restoration of a favorable compensatory response will require therapeutic intervention. PMID:25349147

  3. Combined injuries of the medial collateral ligament and the anterior cruciate ligament. Early ACL reconstruction versus late ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Petersen, W; Laprell, H

    1999-01-01

    Aim of this retrospective study is to evaluate the effect of acute and late anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in patients with a combined injury of the ACL and the medial collateral ligament (MCL). All MCL injuries were treated non-operatively. In 27 patients (group I) we performed early ACL reconstruction (within the first 3 weeks after injury). The postoperative rehabilitation protocol included brace treatment for all patients over a period of 6 weeks. In 37 patients we performed late ACL reconstruction (after a minimum of 10 weeks). In this group initial non-operative MCL treatment (6 weeks brace treatment) was followed by a period of accelerated rehabilitation. Patients with late ACL reconstruction had a lower rate of loss of motion after finishing the postoperative rehabilitation programme and a lower rate of re-arthroscopies for a loss of extension (group I: 4 patients, group II: 1 patient). The difference in the mean quadriceps muscle strength (group I: 83.3%, group II: 86.3%) was not statistically significant. After a mean interval of 22 months, we saw no difference in the frequency of anterior or medial instabilities or in the loss of motion. The Lysholm score was significantly better in the group with late ACL reconstruction (group I: 85.3, group II: 89.9). The position on the Tegner activity scale decreased in both groups, to 5.5 in group I (preoperatively: 6.0) and to 5.6 in group II (preoperatively: 5.9). With regard to the lower rate of motion complications in the early postoperative period, the lower rate of re-arthroscopies, and the significantly better results in the Lysholm score, we prefer late ACL reconstruction in the treatment of combined injuries of the ACL and the MCL.

  4. White matter integrity of the medial forebrain bundle and attention and working memory deficits following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Owens, Jacqueline A; Spitz, Gershon; Ponsford, Jennie L; Dymowski, Alicia R; Ferris, Nicholas; Willmott, Catherine

    2017-02-01

    The medial forebrain bundle (MFB) contains ascending catecholamine fibers that project to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Damage to these fibers following traumatic brain injury (TBI) may alter extracellular catecholamine levels in the PFC and impede attention and working memory ability. This study investigated white matter microstructure of the medial MFB, specifically the supero-lateral branch (slMFB), following TBI, and its association with performance on attention and working memory tasks. Neuropsychological measures of attention and working memory were administered to 20 moderate-severe participants with TBI (posttraumatic amnesia M  = 40.05 ± 37.10 days, median time since injury 10.48 months, range 3.72-87.49) and 20 healthy controls. Probabilistic tractography was used to obtain fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values for 17 participants with TBI and 20 healthy controls. When compared to controls, participants with TBI were found to have significantly lower FA ( p  < .001) and higher MD ( p  < .001) slMFB values, and they were slower to complete tasks including Trail Making Task-A, Hayling, selective attention task, n -back, and Symbol Digit Modalities Test. This study was the first to demonstrate microstructural white matter damage within the slMFB following TBI. However, no evidence was found for an association of alterations to this tract and performance on attentional tasks.

  5. MR imaging of knees having isolated and combined ligament injuries.

    PubMed

    Rubin, D A; Kettering, J M; Towers, J D; Britton, C A

    1998-05-01

    Although clinical evaluation and MR imaging both accurately reveal injuries in knees with isolated ligament tears, physical examination becomes progressively less reliable when multiple lesions exist. We investigated the accuracy of MR imaging of knees having varying degrees and numbers of ligament injuries. We prospectively interpreted the MR images of 340 consecutive injured knees and compared these interpretations with the results of subsequent arthroscopy or open surgery, which served as the gold standard. Our interpretations of MR images focused on five soft-tissue supporting structures (the two cruciate ligaments, the two collateral ligaments, and the patellar tendon) and the two menisci. Patients were divided into three groups: no ligament injuries, single ligament injuries, and multiple ligament injuries. Using MR imaging, we found overall sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing ligament tears to be 94% and 99%, respectively, when no or one ligament was torn and 88% and 84%, respectively, when two or more supporting structures were torn. The difference in specificity was statistically significant (p < .0001). Sensitivity for diagnosing meniscal tears decreased as the number of injured structures increased, but the relationship achieved statistical significance (p = .001) only for the medial meniscus. For all categories of injury, MR imaging was more accurate than clinical evaluation, statistics for which were taken from the orthopedic literature. In knees with multiple ligament injuries, the diagnostic specificity of MR imaging for ligament tears decreases, as does the sensitivity for medial meniscal tears.

  6. Meniscal shear stress for punching.

    PubMed

    Tuijthof, Gabrielle J M; Meulman, Hubert N; Herder, Just L; van Dijk, C Niek

    2009-01-01

    Experimental determination of the shear stress for punching meniscal tissue. Meniscectomy (surgical treatment of a lesion of one of the menisci) is the most frequently performed arthroscopic procedure. The performance of a meniscectomy is not optimal with the currently available instruments. To design new instruments, the punching force of meniscal tissue is an important parameter. Quantitative data are unavailable. The meniscal punching process was simulated by pushing a rod through meniscal tissue at constant speed. Three punching rods were tested: a solid rod of Oslash; 3.00 mm, and two hollow tubes (Oslash; 3.00-2.60 mm) with sharpened cutting edges of 0.15 mm and 0.125 mm thick, respectively. Nineteen menisci acquired from 10 human cadaveric knee joints were punched (30 tests). The force and displacement were recorded from which the maximum shear stress was determined (average added with three times the standard deviation). The maximum shear stress for the solid rod was determined at 10.2 N/mm2. This rod required a significantly lower punch force in comparison with the hollow tube having a 0.15 mm cutting edge (plt;0.01). The maximum shear stress for punching can be applied to design instruments, and virtual reality training environments. This type of experiment is suitable to form a database with material properties of human tissue similar to databases for the manufacturing industry.

  7. Articular contact pressures of meniscal repair techniques at various knee flexion angles.

    PubMed

    Flanigan, David C; Lin, Fang; Koh, Jason L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2010-07-13

    Articular cartilage injury can occur after meniscal repair with biodegradable implants. Previous contact pressure analyses of the knee have been based on the tibial side of the meniscus at limited knee flexion angles. We investigated articular contact pressures on the posterior femoral condyle with different knee flexion angles and surgical repair techniques. Medial meniscus tears were repaired in 30 fresh bovine knees. Knees were mounted on a 6-degrees-of-freedom jig and statically loaded to 200 N at 45 degrees, 70 degrees, 90 degrees, and 110 degrees of knee flexion under 3 conditions: intact meniscus, torn meniscus, and meniscus after repair. For each repair, 3 sutures or biodegradable implants were used. A pressure sensor was used to determine the contact area and peak pressure. Peak pressures over each implant position were measured. Peak pressure increased significantly as knee flexion increased in normal, injured, and repaired knees. The change in peak pressure in knees with implant repairs was significantly higher than suture repairs at all knee flexion angles. Articular contact pressure on the posterior femoral condyle increased with knee flexion. Avoidance of deep knee flexion angles postoperatively may limit increases in articular contact pressures and potential chondral injury. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Nonreconstruction Options for Treating Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries of the Elbow in Overhead Athletes.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nicholas J; Desai, Vishal S; Dines, Joshua D; Morrey, Mark E; Camp, Christopher L

    2018-03-01

    This review aims to describe the nonreconstructive options for treating ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries ranging from nonoperative measures, including physical therapy and biologic injections, to ligament repair with and without augmentation. Nonoperative options for UCL injuries include guided physical therapy and biologic augmentation with platelet-rich plasma (PRP). In some patients, repair of the UCL has shown promising return to sport rates by using modern suture and suture anchor techniques. Proximal avulsion injuries have shown the best results after repair. Currently, there is growing interest in augmentation of UCL repair with an internal brace. The treatment of UCL injuries involves complex decision making. UCL reconstruction remains the gold standard for attritional injuries and complete tears, which occur commonly in professional athletes. However, nonreconstructive options have shown promising results for simple avulsion or partial thickness UCL injuries. Future research comparing reconstructive versus nonreconstructive options is necessary.

  9. Combined use of bFGF and GDF-5 enhances the healing of medial collateral ligament injury

    SciTech Connect

    Saiga, Kenta; Furumatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: matino@md.okayama-u.ac.jp; Yoshida, Aki

    Research highlights: {yields} bFGF/GDF-5 treatment increases cellular proliferation and migration of MCL fibroblasts. {yields} bFGF/GDF-5 hydrogels stimulate the healing of MCL injury in vivo. {yields} bFGF/GDF-5 hydrogels stimulate Col1a1 expression and type I collagen synthesis. {yields} Combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 enhances MCL healing. -- Abstract: Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and growth and differentiation factor (GDF)-5 stimulate the healing of medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury. However, the effect of isolated and combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 remains still unclear. We investigated cellular proliferation and migration responding to bFGF/GDF-5 using rabbit MCL fibroblasts. Rabbit MCL injury was treated by bFGF and/or GDF-5more » with peptide hydrogels. Gene expression and deposition of collagens in healing tissues were evaluated. bFGF/GDF-5 treatment additively enhanced cell proliferation and migration. bFGF/GDF-5 hydrogels stimulated Col1a1 expression without increasing Col3a1 expression. Combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 stimulated type I collagen deposition and the reorganization of fiber alignment, and induced better morphology of fibroblasts in healing MCLs. Our study indicates that combined use of bFGF/GDF-5 might enhance MCL healing by increasing proliferation and migration of MCL fibroblasts, and by regulating collagen synthesis and connective fiber alignment.« less

  10. Physicians’ accuracy and interrator reliability for the diagnosis of unstable meniscal tears in patients having osteoarthritis of the knee

    PubMed Central

    Dervin, Geoffrey F.; Stiell, Ian G.; Wells, George A.; Rody, Kelly; Grabowski, Jenny

    2001-01-01

    Objective To determine clinicians’ accuracy and reliability for the clinical diagnosis of unstable meniscus tears in patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting A single tertiary care centre. Patients One hundred and fifty-two patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis of the knee refractory to conservative medical treatment were selected for prospective evaluation of arthroscopic débridement. Intervention Arthroscopic débridement of the knee, including meniscal tear and chondral flap resection, without abrasion arthroplasty. Outcome measures A standardized assessment protocol was administered to each patient by 2 independent observers. Arthroscopic determination of unstable meniscal tears was recorded by 1 observer who reviewed a video recording and was blinded to preoperative data. Those variables that had the highest interobserver agreement and the strongest association with meniscal tear by univariate methods were entered into logistic regression to model the best prediction of resectable tears. Results There were 92 meniscal tears (77 medial, 15 lateral). Interobserver agreement between clinical fellows and treating surgeons was poor to fair (κ < 0.4) for all clinical variables except radiographic measures, which were good. Fellows and surgeons predicted unstable meniscal tear preoperatively with equivalent accuracy of 60%. Logistic regression modelling revealed that a history of swelling and a ballottable effusion were negative predictors. A positive McMurray test was the only positive predictor of unstable meniscal tear. “Mechanical” symptoms were not reliable predictors in this prospective study. The model was 69% accurate for all patients and 76% for those with advanced medial compartment osteoarthritis defined by a joint space height of 2 mm or less. Conclusions This study underscored the difficulty in using clinical variables to predict unstable medial meniscal tears in patients with pre

  11. Anterior superior alveolar nerve injury after extended endoscopic medial maxillectomy: a preclinical study to predict neurological morbidity.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Alberto; Mattavelli, Davide; Ferrari, Marco; Rampinelli, Vittorio; Lancini, Davide; Ravanelli, Marco; Bertazzoni, Giacomo; Rodella, Luigi Fabrizio; Buffoli, Barbara; Doglietto, Francesco; Nicolai, Piero

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopic medial maxillectomies (EMMs) are used to optimize exposure of the maxillary sinus and retromaxillary areas. Although in type D EMM (Sturmann-Canfield procedure) the anterior superior alveolar nerve (ASAN) is always at risk of injury, only 29% of patients complained of alveolar process and dental anesthesia. The purpose of this anatomical study is to assess the neural anastomotic network of the ASAN (ASAN-NAN) and describe different extensions of type D EMMs in a preclinical setting. The ASAN and its medial anastomotic branches (MABs) and lateral anastomotic branches (LABs) were evaluated by cone-beam computerized tomography (CBCT). Five different extensions of type D (D1 to D5) EMMs were identified and nerves at risk of injury in each type were assessed by CBCT. Moreover, quantification of surgical corridors was performed on cadaver heads with a neuronavigation system. Fifty-seven CBCT scans were analyzed. The ASAN would be spared in 16.3% of cases with a type D1 EMM, while it would be injured in the majority of type D2 to D5 resections. At least 1 nerve of the ASAN-NAN was spared in 96.6%, 93%, 74.6%, 0%, and 65.8% of type D1 to D5 EMMs, respectively. Two cadaver heads were dissected and the incremental volume and number of maxillary subsites exposed was assessed in type D1 to D5 EMMs. ASAN function impairment is probably compensated by LABs and MABs. If this hypothesis will be validated in a prospective study on patients, preoperative CBCT evaluation could predict neurological morbidity after type D EMM, and allow tailoring the procedure to minimize impairment of the ASAN-NAN. © 2017 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  12. Comparison of the accuracy rates of 3-T and 1.5-T MRI of the knee in the diagnosis of meniscal tear.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jeffrey W; De Smet, Arthur A; Shinki, Kazuhiko

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of 3-T MRI with that of 1.5-T MRI of the knee in the diagnosis of meniscal tear and to analyze the causes of diagnostic error. We reviewed the medical records and original MRI interpretations of 100 consecutive patients who underwent 3-T MRI of the knee and of 100 consecutive patients who underwent 1.5-T MRI of the knee to determine the accuracy of diagnoses of meniscal tear. Knee arthroscopy was the reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed all MRI diagnostic errors to determine the cause of the errors. At arthroscopy, 109 medial and 77 lateral meniscal tears were identified in the 200 patients. With two abnormal MR images indicating a meniscal tear, the sensitivity and specificity for medial tear were 92.7% and 82.2% at 1.5-T MRI and 92.6% and 76.1% at 3-T MRI (p = 1.0, p = 0.61). The sensitivity and specificity for lateral tears were 68.4% and 95.2% at 1.5-T MRI and 69.2% and 91.8% at 3-T MRI (p = 1.0, p = 0.49). Of the false-positive diagnoses of medial meniscal tear, five of eight at 1.5 T and seven of 11 at 3 T were apparent peripheral longitudinal tears of the posterior horn. Fifteen of the 26 missed medial and lateral meniscal tears were not seen in retrospect even with knowledge of the tear type and location. Allowing for sample size limitations, we found comparable accuracy of 3-T and 1.5-T MRI of the knee in the diagnosis of meniscal tear. The causes of false-positive and false-negative MRI diagnoses of meniscal tear are similar for 3-T and 1.5-T MRI.

  13. Meniscal repair using engineered tissue.

    PubMed

    Peretti, G M; Caruso, E M; Randolph, M A; Zaleske, D J

    2001-03-01

    In this study, devitalized meniscal tissue pre-seeded with viable cultured chondrocytes was used to repair a bucket-handle incision in meniscal tissue transplanted to nude mice. Lamb knee menisci were devitalized by cyclic freezing and thawing. Chips measuring four by two by one-half millimeters were cut from this devitalized tissue to serve as scaffolds. These chips were then cultured either with or without viable allogeneic lamb chondrocytes. From the inner third of the devitalized meniscal tissue, rectangles were also cut approximately 8 x 6 mm. A 4 mm bucket-handle type incision was made in these blocks. The previously prepared chips either with (experimental group) or without viable chondrocytes (control group) were positioned into the incisions and secured with suture. Further control groups included blocks of devitalized menisci with incisions into which no chips were positioned and either closed with suture or left open with no suture. Specimens were transplanted to subcutaneous pouches of nude mice for 14 weeks. After 14 weeks, seven of eight experimental specimens (chips with viable chondrocytes) demonstrated bridging of the incision assessed by gross inspection and manual distraction. All the control groups were markedly different from the experimental group in that the incision remained grossly visible. Histological analysis was consistent with the differences apparent at the gross level. Only the experimental specimens (chips with viable chondrocytes) with gross bridging demonstrated obliteration of the interface between incision and scaffold. None of the control specimens revealed any cells or tissue filling the incision. Tissue engineering using scaffolds and viable cells may have an application in meniscal repair in vivo.

  14. The imaging features of the meniscal roots on isotropic 3D MRI in young asymptomatic volunteers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Zhang, Cheng-Zhou; Zhang, Di; Liu, Quan-Yuan; Zhong, Xiao-Fei; Yin, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to describe clearly the normal imaging features of the meniscal roots on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with a 3-dimensional (3D) proton density-weighted (PDW) sequence at 3T. A total of 60 knees of 31 young asymptomatic volunteers were examined using a 3D MRI. The insertion patterns, constitution patterns, and MR signals of the meniscal roots were recorded. The anterior root of the medial meniscus (ARMM), the anterior root of the lateral meniscus (ARLM), and the posterior root of the medial meniscus (PRMM) had 1 insertion site, whereas the posterior root of the lateral meniscus (PRLM) can be divided into major and minor insertion sites. The ARLM and the PRMM usually consisted of multiple fiber bundles (≥3), whereas the ARMM and the PRLM often consisted of a single fiber bundle. The ARMM and the PRLM usually appeared as hypointense, whereas the ARLM and the PRMM typically exhibited mixed signals. The meniscal roots can be complex and diverse, and certain characteristics of them were observed on 3D MRI. Understanding the normal imaging features of the meniscal roots is extremely beneficial for further diagnosis of root tears.

  15. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Repair Using a Transtibial Technique.

    PubMed

    Woodmass, Jarret M; Mohan, Rohith; Stuart, Michael J; Krych, Aaron J

    2017-06-01

    The meniscal roots are critical in maintaining the normal shock absorbing function of the meniscus. If a meniscal root tear is left untreated, meniscal extrusion can occur rendering the meniscus nonfunctional resulting in degenerative arthritis. Two main repair techniques are described: (1) suture anchors (direct fixation) and (2) sutures pulled through a tibial tunnel (indirect fixation). Meniscal root repair using a suture anchor technique is technically challenging requiring a posterior portal and a curved suture passing device that can be difficult to manipulate within the knee. We present a technique for posterior medial meniscus root repair using 3 sutures (1 leader, 2 cinch), standard arthroscopy portals, and transtibial fixation. Overall, this technique simplifies a challenging procedure and allows for familiarity and efficiency.

  16. Use of platelet-rich plasma for patellar tendon and medial collateral ligament injuries: best current clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Andia, Isabel; Maffulli, Nicola

    2015-02-01

    Platelet-rich plasmas (PRPs) are complex molecular therapies prepared from the patient's own blood through minimal manipulation. Clinical studies examining the efficacy of PRPs to manage patellar tendinopathy and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries have been reviewed. We found three controlled trials, two of them randomized, and seven case series in the management of patellar tendinopathy. In addition, three other randomized studies showed that PRPs help to regenerate the patellar tendon harvest site for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and to reduce patellar donor site morbidity. On the other hand, the use of PRP in MCL injuries is reported in a single case study. Seven of the 11 studies used leukocyte and PRP which was buffered in four studies. Seven of the 11 studies applied two or three injections. Given the heterogeneity of PRP protocols and the paucity of high-quality data, the most effective approach to guide clinical decisions regarding patellar tendinopathy cannot be deduced from the present published studies. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  17. MRSI of the Medial Temporal Lobe at 7T in Explosive Blast Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hetherington, HP; Hamid, H; Kulas, J; Ling, G; Bandak, F; de Lanerolle, NC; Pan, JW

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Up to 19% of veterans returning from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan have a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with 70% associated with blast exposure. Tragically, 20–50% of this group reports persistent symptoms, including memory loss. Unfortunately, routine clinical imaging is typically normal, making diagnosis and clinical management difficult. The goal of this work was to develop methods to acquire hippocampal MRSI at 7T and evaluate their sensitivity to detect injury in veterans with mTBI. Methods At 7T, hippocampal MRSI measurements are limited by: 1) poor B0 homogeneity; 2) insufficient B1+ strength and homogeneity; and 3) chemical shift dispersion artifacts. To overcome these limitations we: 1) used 3rd degree B0 shimming; 2) an inductively decoupled transceiver array with RF shimming and 3) a volume localized single slice sequence using RF shimming based outer volume suppression. Results In 20 controls and 25 veterans with mTBI due to blast exposure with memory impairment, hippocampal NAA/Cho (P<0.001) and NAA/Cr (P<0.001) were decreased in comparison to control subjects. Conclusion With the appropriate methods robust spectroscopic imaging of the hippocampus can be carried out at 7T. MRSI at 7T can detect hippocampal injury in veterans with mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:23918077

  18. The percutaneous pie-crusting medial release during arthroscopic procedures of the medial meniscus does neither affect valgus laxity nor clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sang-Woo; Jung, Min; Chun, Yong-Min; Lee, Su-Keon; Jung, Woo Seok; Choi, Chong Hyuk; Kim, Sung-Jae; Kim, Sung-Hwan

    2017-12-28

    To analyze the effect of percutaneous pie-crusting medial release on valgus laxity before and after surgery and on clinical outcomes. Eight-hundred fourteen consecutive patients who underwent an arthroscopic procedure for the medial compartment of the knee were evaluated retrospectively. Sex, age, type of operation (meniscectomy, meniscal repair, and posterior root repair), type of accompanying surgery (none, cartilage procedure, ligament procedure and osteotomy) were documented. Sixty-four patients who underwent percutaneous pie-crusting medial release (release group) and 64 who did not undergo medial release (non-release group) were matched using the propensity score method. Each patient was evaluated for the following variables: degree of valgus laxity on stress radiographs, Lysholm knee score, visual analog scale score, and International Knee Documentation Committee knee score and grade. At the 24-month follow-up, no significant increase in side-to-side differences in the valgus gap was observed in comparison to the preoperative value in the release group [preoperative, - 0.1 ± 1.3 mm; follow-up, - 0.1 ± 1.4 mm; (n.s.)]. The follow-up Lysholm score, visual analog scale score and International Knee Documentation Committee knee score and grade were similar between the two groups. Percutaneous pie-crusting medial release is an additional procedure that can be performed during arthroscopic surgery for patients with a narrow medial joint space of the knee. Percutaneous pie-crusting medial release reduces iatrogenic injury to the cartilage and does not produce any residual valgus laxity of the knee. IV.

  19. Three-Dimensional Coculture of Meniscal Cells and Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Collagen Type I Hydrogel on a Small Intestinal Matrix-A Pilot Study Toward Equine Meniscus Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Antje; Ribitsch, Iris; Reboredo, Jenny; Dürr, Julia; Egerbacher, Monika; Jenner, Florien; Walles, Heike

    2017-05-01

    Meniscal injuries are the most frequently encountered soft tissue injuries in the equine stifle joint. Due to the inherent limited repair potential of meniscal tissue, meniscal injuries do not only affect the meniscus itself but also lead to impaired joint homeostasis and secondary osteoarthritis. The presented study compares 3D coculture constructs of primary equine mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) and meniscus cells (MC) seeded on three different scaffolds-a cell-laden collagen type I hydrogel (Col I gel), a tissue-derived small intestinal matrix scaffold (SIS-muc) and a combination thereof-for their qualification to be applied for meniscus tissue engineering. To investigate cell attachment of primary MC and MSC on SIS-muc matrix SEM pictures were performed. For molecular analysis, lyophilized samples of coculture constructs with different cell ratios (100% MC, 100% MSC, and 50% MC and 50% MSC, 20% MC, and 80% MSC) were digested and analyzed for DNA and GAG content. Active matrix remodeling of 3D coculture models was indicated by matrix metalloproteinases detection. For comparison of tissue-engineered constructs with the histologic architecture of natural equine menisci, paired lateral and medial menisci of 15 horses representing different age groups were examined. A meniscus phenotype with promising similarity to native meniscus tissue in its GAG/DNA expression in addition to Col I, Col II, and Aggrecan production was achieved using a scaffold composed of Col I gel on SIS-muc combined with a coculture of MC and MSC. The results encourage further development of this scaffold-cell combination for meniscus tissue engineering.

  20. Arthroscopic suture anchor repair of posterior root attachment injury in medial meniscus: technical note.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwa; Shin, Dong-Eun; Dan, Jin-Myong; Nam, Ki-Shik; Ahn, Tae-Keun; Lee, Dong-Hoon

    2009-08-01

    A root attachment injury (root tear) of the meniscus can abolish the ability of the meniscus to bear hoop stress and predispose to increase articular contact stress which contribute to femorotibial degenerative changes. A pull out suture technique to repair the root tear has been described, but the procedure making the tibial tunnel may be difficult and troublesome. This article describes a repair technique using a suture anchor and posterior trans-septal portal.

  1. Cartilage morphology at 2-3 years following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with or without concomitant meniscal pathology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyang; Wang, Yuanyuan; Bennell, Kim L; Wrigley, Tim V; Cicuttini, Flavia M; Fortin, Karine; Saxby, David J; Van Ginckel, Ans; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Grigg, Nicole; Vertullo, Christopher; Feller, Julian A; Whitehead, Tim; Lloyd, David G; Bryant, Adam L

    2017-02-01

    To examine differences in cartilage morphology between young adults 2-3 years post-anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR), with or without meniscal pathology, and control participants. Knee MRI was performed on 130 participants aged 18-40 years (62 with isolated ACLR, 38 with combined ACLR and meniscal pathology, and 30 healthy controls). Cartilage defects, cartilage volume and bone marrow lesions (BMLs) were assessed from MRI using validated methods. Cartilage defects were more prevalent in the isolated ACLR (69 %) and combined group (84 %) than in controls (10 %, P < 0.001). Furthermore, the combined group showed higher prevalence of cartilage defects on medial femoral condyle (OR 4.7, 95 % CI 1.3-16.6) and patella (OR 7.8, 95 % CI 1.5-40.7) than the isolated ACLR group. Cartilage volume was lower in both ACLR groups compared with controls (medial tibia, lateral tibia and patella, P < 0.05), whilst prevalence of BMLs was higher on lateral tibia (P < 0.001), with no significant differences between the two ACLR groups for either measure. Cartilage morphology was worse in ACLR patients compared with healthy controls. ACLR patients with associated meniscal pathology have a higher prevalence of cartilage defects than ACLR patients without meniscal pathology. The findings suggest that concomitant meniscal pathology may lead to a greater risk of future OA than isolated ACLR. III.

  2. Unlocking the talus by eversion limits medial ankle injury risk during external rotation.

    PubMed

    Button, Keith D; Wei, Feng; Haut, Roger C

    2015-10-15

    Eversion prior to excessive external foot rotation has been shown to predispose the anterior tibiofibular ligament (ATiFL) to failure, yet protect the anterior deltoid ligament (ADL) from failure despite high levels of foot rotation. The purpose of the current study was to measure the rotations of both the subtalar and talocrural joints during foot external rotation at sub-failure levels in either a neutral or a pre-everted position as a first step towards understanding the mechanisms of injury in previous studies. Fourteen (seven pairs) cadaver lower extremities were externally rotated 20° in either a pre-everted or neutral configuration, without producing injury. Motion capture was performed to track the tibia, talus, and calcaneus motions, and a joint coordinate system was used to analyze motions of the two joints. While talocrural joint rotation was greater in the neutral ankle (13.3±2.0° versus 10.5±2.7°, p=0.006), subtalar joint rotation was greater in the pre-everted ankle (2.4±1.9° versus 1.1±1.0°, p=0.014). Overall, the talocrural joint rotated more than the subtalar joint (11.9±2.8° versus 1.8±1.6°, p<0.001). It was proposed that the calcaneus and talus 'lock' in a neutral position, but 'unlock' when the ankle is everted prior to rotation. This locking/unlocking mechanism could be responsible for an increased subtalar rotation, but decreased talocrural rotation when the ankle is pre-everted, protecting the ADL from failure. This study may provide information valuable to the study of external rotation kinematics and injury risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigating the relationship between internal tibial torsion and medial collateral ligament injury in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy due to tears in the posterior one third of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Guler, Olcay; Isyar, Mehmet; Karataş, Dilek; Ormeci, Tugrul; Cerci, Halis; Mahirogulları, Mahir

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the relationship between medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury and degree of internal tibial torsion in patients who had undergone arthroscopic resection due to tears in the posterior one third of the medial meniscus. Seventy-one patients were allocated into two groups with respect to foot femur angle (FFA) and transmalleolar angle (TMA) (Group 1 31 patients with FFA<8° and Group 2 40 patients with FFA≥8°). The groups were compared in terms of valgus instability, Lysholm score, magnetic resonance view, FFA, and TMA, both before and after the operation. Lysholm scores were higher in Group 2 at both postoperative week 1 (p<0.001) and month 1 (p=0.045) relative to Group 1. Preoperative cartilage injury was encountered more frequently in Group 1 (p=0.037) than in Group 2. MCL injury was detected more frequently in Group 1 compared to Group 2 postoperatively at week 1 (p=0.001). We conclude that FFA and TFA, indicators of internal tibial torsion, may serve as markers for foreseeing clinical improvement and complications following arthroscopic surgery. level III retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Posterior medial meniscus-femoral insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A; Ferrari, D A

    1998-03-01

    Medial meniscal anomalies are rare. The anterior horn insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common. In the course of an arthroscopy for torn lateral meniscus, an anomalous band in continuity with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was observed to insert into the anterior cruciate ligament. Although the tibial portion of the anterior cruciate was redundant, the anomalous band provided tension to the anterior cruciate ligament and a negative pivot shift. A previously unreported posterior medial meniscal femoral insertion is described.

  5. An allogenic cell-based implant for meniscal lesions.

    PubMed

    Weinand, Christian; Peretti, Giuseppe M; Adams, Samuel B; Bonassar, Lawrence J; Randolph, Mark A; Gill, Thomas J

    2006-11-01

    Meniscal tears in the avascular zones do not heal. Although tissue-engineering approaches using cells seeded onto scaffolds could expand the indication for meniscal repair, harvesting autologous cells could cause additional trauma to the patient. Allogenic cells, however, could provide an unlimited amount of cells. Allogenic cells from 2 anatomical sources can repair lesions in the avascular region of the meniscus. Controlled laboratory study. Both autologous and allogenic chondrocytes were seeded onto a Vicryl mesh scaffold and sutured into a bucket-handle lesion created in the medial menisci of 17 swine. Controls consisted of 3 swine knees treated with unseeded implants and controls from a previous experiment in which 4 swine were treated with suture only and 4 with no treatment. Menisci were harvested after 12 weeks and evaluated histologically for new tissue and percentage of interface healing surface; they were also evaluated statistically. The lesions were closed in 15 of 17 menisci. None of the control samples demonstrated healing. Histologic analysis of sequential cuts through the lesion showed formation of new scar-like tissue in all experimental samples. One of 8 menisci was completely healed in the allogenic group and 2 of 9 in the autologous group; the remaining samples were partially healed in both groups. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of healing were observed between the autologous and allogenic cell-based implants. Use of autologous and allogenic chondrocytes delivered via a biodegradable mesh enhanced healing of avascular meniscal lesions. This study demonstrates the potential of a tissue-engineered cellular repair of the meniscus using autologous and allogenic chondrocytes.

  6. Loading of the medial meniscus in the ACL deficient knee: A multibody computational study.

    PubMed

    Guess, Trent M; Razu, Swithin

    2017-03-01

    The menisci of the knee reduce tibiofemoral contact pressures and aid in knee lubrication and nourishment. Meniscal injury occurs in half of knees sustaining anterior cruciate ligament injury and the vast majority of tears in the medial meniscus transpire in the posterior horn region. In this study, computational multibody models of the knee were derived from medical images and passive leg motion for two female subjects. The models were validated against experimental measures available in the literature and then used to evaluate medial meniscus contact force and internal hoop tension. The models predicted that the loss of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) constraint increased contact and hoop forces in the medial menisci by a factor of 4 when a 100N anterior tibial force was applied. Contact forces were concentrated in the posterior horn and hoop forces were also greater in this region. No differences were found in contact or hoop tension between the intact and ACL deficient (ACLd) knees when only a 5Nm external tibial torque was applied about the long axis of the tibia. Combining a 100N anterior tibial force and a 5Nm external tibial torque increased posterior horn contact and hoop forces, even in the intact knee. The results of this study show that the posterior horn region of the medial meniscus experiences higher contact forces and hoop tension, making this region more susceptible to injury, especially with the loss of anterior tibia motion constraint provided by the ACL. The contribution of the dMCL in constraining posterior medial meniscus motion, at the cost of higher posterior horn hoop tension, is also demonstrated. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Loading of the Medial Meniscus in the ACL deficient knee: a Multibody Computational Study

    PubMed Central

    Razu, Swithin

    2017-01-01

    The menisci of the knee reduce tibiofemoral contact pressures and aid in knee lubrication and nourishment. Meniscal injury occurs in half of knees sustaining anterior cruciate ligament injury and the vast majority of tears in the medial meniscus transpire in the posterior horn region. In this study, computational multibody models of the knee were derived from medical images and passive leg motion for two female subjects. The models were validated against experimental measures available in the literature and then used to evaluate medial meniscus contact force and internal hoop tension. The models predicted that the loss of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) constraint increased contact and hoop forces in the medial menisci by a factor of 4 when a 100 N anterior tibial force was applied. Contact forces were concentrated in the posterior horn and hoop forces were also greater in this region. No differences were found in contact or hoop tension between the intact and ACL deficient (ACLd) knees when only a 5 Nm external tibial torque was applied about the long axis of the tibia. Combining a 100 N anterior tibial force and a 5 Nm external tibial torque increased posterior horn contact and hoop forces, even in the intact knee. The results of this study show that the posterior horn region of the medial meniscus experiences higher contact forces and hoop tension, making this region more susceptible to injury, especially with the loss of anterior tibia motion constraint provided by the ACL. The contribution of the dMCL in constraining posterior medial meniscus motion, at the cost of higher posterior horn hoop tension, is also demonstrated. PMID:28089224

  8. Association of medial prefrontal cortex connectivity with consciousness level and its outcome in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jingqi; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Zhen; Meng, Fanxia; Pan, Gang; Luo, Benyan

    2017-08-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is usually known for participating in virtually all self related processing. However, few have investigated the role of mPFC in modulating conscious awareness. This study aimed to depict the relationship between the mPFC connectivity and the severity and outcome of the disorders of consciousness (DOC) among patients with acquired brain injury. Thirty-four patients with DOC (17 in a minimally conscious state and 17 in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state) and 11 healthy controls were recruited, underwent clinical assessment and resting-state functional MRI scan, and were further followed up to evaluate recovery outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The mPFC connectivity was then analyzed, by comparing DOC patients to healthy controls at baseline, and by comparing "recovered consciousness" and "non-recovered consciousness" patients at follow-up, as identified by graph theory. As a result, enhanced mPFC connectivity against weakened posteromedial cortex connectivity was observed in a minimally conscious state, not in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state. Besides, increased mPFC connectivity was significantly associated with consciousness recovery. In conclusion, the mPFC connectivity could possibly serve as a mark to track the severity and outcome of DOC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Meniscal Mechanics and Proteoglycan Content in a Modified Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection Model

    PubMed Central

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Coatney, Garrett A.; Haverkamp, John H.; Button, Keith D.; DeCamp, Charlie; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2014-01-01

    Post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) develops as a result of traumatic loading that causes tears of the soft tissues in the knee. A modified transection model, where the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and both menisci were transected, was used on skeletally mature Flemish Giant rabbits. Gross morphological assessments, elastic moduli, and glycosaminoglycan (GAG) coverage of the menisci were determined to quantify the amount of tissue damage 12 weeks post injury. This study is one of the first to monitor meniscal changes after inducing combined meniscal and ACL transections. A decrease in elastic moduli as well as a decrease in GAG coverage was seen. PMID:24749144

  10. Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Tear Repair Using a 2-Simple-Suture Pullout Technique.

    PubMed

    Samy, Tarek Mohamed; Nassar, Wael A M; Zakaria, Zeiad Mohamed; Farrag Abdelaziz, Ahmed Khaled

    2017-06-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tear is one of the underestimated knee injuries in terms of incidence. Despite its grave sequelae, using simple but effective technique can maintain the native knee joint longevity. In the current note, a 2-simple-suture pullout technique was used to effectively reduce the meniscus posterior root to its anatomic position. The success of the technique depended on proper tool selection as well as tibial tunnel direction that allowed easier root suturing and better suture tensioning, without inducing any iatrogenic articular cartilage injury or meniscal tissue loss. Using anterior knee arthroscopy portals, anterolateral as a viewing portal and anteromedial as a working portal, a 7-mm tibial tunnel starting at Gerdy tubercle and ending at the medial meniscus posterior root bed was created. The 2 simple sutures were retrieved through the tunnel and tensioned and secured over a 12-mm-diameter washer at the tibial tunnel outer orifice. Anatomic reduction of the medial meniscus posterior root tear was confirmed arthroscopically intraoperatively and radiologically by postoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. [S2k-Guideline on Meniscal Disease: Non-operative and Surgical Management].

    PubMed

    Siebert, Christian H; Becker, Roland; Buchner, Matthias; Förster, Jürgen; Frosch, Karl-Heinz; Losch, Andreas; Niemeyer, Philipp; Scheffler, Sven

    2018-03-12

    A meniscal injury should not automatically lead to surgery. Even in light of all the developments in arthroscopic surgery, non-operative management still has a place in the treatment algorithms for lesions around the knee. In this second publication of the German guidelines for meniscal surgery, the authors describe the various treatment possibilities, their indications and offer critical insight into the various therapeutic options. This will allow the patient and physician alike to make the proper individual decisions. Various German speaking associations addressing topics surrounding the knee have joined forces to develop these guidelines for meniscal lesions. The hope is that these two publications on the topic will shed light on the ongoing debate and offer some guidance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Posterior Meniscal Root Repairs: Outcomes of an Anatomic Transtibial Pull-Out Technique.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Robert F; Matheny, Lauren M; Moulton, Samuel G; James, Evan W; Dean, Chase S

    2017-03-01

    Outcomes after transtibial pull-out repair for posterior meniscal root tears remain underreported, and factors that may affect outcomes are unknown. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare patient-centered outcomes after transtibial pull-out repair for posterior root tears in patients <50 and ≥50 years of age. We hypothesized that improvement in function and activity level at minimum 2-year follow-up would be similar among patients <50 years of age compared with patients ≥50 years and among patients undergoing medial versus lateral root repairs. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Inclusion criteria were patients aged 18 years or older who underwent anatomic transtibial pull-out repair of the medial or lateral posterior meniscus root by a single surgeon. All patients were identified from a data registry consisting of prospectively collected data in a consecutive series. Cohorts were analyzed by age (<50 years [n = 35] vs ≥50 years [n = 15]) and laterality (lateral [n = 15] vs medial [n = 35]). Patients completed a subjective questionnaire preoperatively and at minimum of 2 years postoperatively (Lysholm, Tegner, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], 12-Item Short Form Health Survey [SF-12], and patient satisfaction with outcome). Failure was defined as revision meniscal root repair or partial meniscectomy. The analysis included 50 knees in 49 patients (16 females, 33 males; mean age, 38.3 years; mean body mass index, 26.6). Of the 50 knees, 45 were available for analysis. Three of 45 (6.7%) required revision surgery. All failures were in patients <50 years old, and all failures underwent medial root repair. No significant difference in failure was found based on age ( P=.541) or laterality ( P = .544). For age cohorts, Lysholm and WOMAC scores demonstrated significant postoperative improvement. For laterality cohorts, all functional scores significantly improved postoperatively. No significant difference

  13. Similar failure rate in immediate post-operative weight bearing versus protected weight bearing following meniscal repair on peripheral, vertical meniscal tears.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Bryan; Gronbeck, Kyle R; Yue, Ruixian Alexander; Tompkins, Marc A

    2017-08-16

    Post-operative weight bearing after meniscal repair is a point of debate among physicians. This study sought to evaluate whether patients adhering to an immediate WBAT rehabilitation programme have a higher failure rate compared to those adhering to a more traditional, protected, NWB status following meniscal repair. The null hypothesis was that there would be no difference in failure between the two groups. A retrospective review of meniscal repair patients greater than 5 years from surgery was performed for patients receiving meniscal repair treatment. Patients were categorized by post-surgical weight-bearing status, either NWB or WBAT, and then analysed for failure of repair. Failure was defined as re-operation on the torn meniscus. The study controlled for variables including age at surgery, sex, height, weight, and BMI, classification of tear type, acuity of the tear, repair location (medial or lateral), repair location within the meniscus, repair technique, and concomitant procedures. Re-operations were performed in 61 of 157 patients [38.9%]. There was no difference between weight-bearing groups for failure of meniscus repair (n.s.). The tears were acute vertical tears located in the posterior horn and body. For the 61 patients with re-operation, the average time to re-operation was 2.2 years with 10 [16%] > 5 years from surgery, 17 [28%] 2-5 years from surgery, and 34 [56%] < 2 years from surgery. In isolated meniscal repair patients (n = 62), there was no difference between weight-bearing groups for rate of re-operation (n.s.). Weight bearing as tolerated after meniscal repair for peripheral, vertical tears does not result in a higher failure rate than traditional, non-weight bearing over a five-year follow-up period. The clinical relevance is that, based on these data, it may be appropriate to allow weight bearing as tolerated following meniscal repair of peripheral, vertical tears. Retrospective cohort study, Level III.

  14. Extrusion of the medial meniscus in knee osteoarthritis assessed with a rotating clino-orthostatic permanent-magnet MRI scanner.

    PubMed

    Paparo, Francesco; Revelli, Matteo; Piccazzo, Riccardo; Astengo, Davide; Camellino, Dario; Puntoni, Matteo; Muda, Alessandro; Rollandi, Gian Andrea; Garlaschi, Giacomo; Cimmino, Marco Amedeo

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of weight-bearing on tibiofemoral osteoarthritis, including medial meniscal extrusion, by using a low-field (0.25 T) rotating clino-orthostatic permanent-magnet magnetic resonance (MR) scanner, and to analyse correlations of medial meniscal extrusion with the patient's Kellgren-Lawrence score, body mass index, and all the osteoarthritis features of the WORMS scoring system. Twenty-six patients (69.2% women and 30.8% men; mean age 67 ± 9.7 years) with medial tibiofemoral knee osteoarthritis were prospectively enrolled and MR sequences were acquired in both clino- and orthostatic position. MR images were assessed by two independent radiologists, according to the WORMS scale. Medial meniscal extrusion was measured and its clino-orthostatic difference (∆MME) was calculated. Intra- and inter-observer agreement of the WORMS Global Score readings was high by Cohen's K test (>0.81). No significant clino-orthostatic changes in the scoring parameters of the medial tibiofemoral joint were shown by Wilcoxon's test. Medial meniscal extrusion measured on orthostatic images was significantly higher than that measured in clinostatic position (p < 0.0001). At univariate analysis, the Kellgren-Lawrence score, WORMS Global Score, cartilage loss, meniscal damage, and osteophytes were significantly correlated to ∆MME (p < 0.005). Using a multiple regression model, tibiofemoral cartilage loss was found to correlate independently with ∆MME (p = 0.0499). Medial meniscal extrusion, evaluated with an open-configuration, rotating MR scanner, increased from the clinostatic to the orthostatic position. ∆MME, a new meniscal parameter, correlated with several important features of medial tibiofemoral osteoarthritis.

  15. Is radiographic measurement of bony landmarks reliable for lateral meniscal sizing?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Kim, Taik-Seon; Lim, Hong-Chul; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy of meniscal measurement methods is still in debate. The authors' protocol for radiologic measurements will provide reproducible bony landmarks, and this measurement method of the lateral tibial plateau will correlate with the actual anatomic value. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five samples of fresh lateral meniscus with attached proximal tibia were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Each sample was obtained without damage to the meniscus and bony attachment sites. The inclusion criterion was mild to moderate osteoarthritis in patients with mechanical axis deviation of less than 15°. Knees with lateral compartment osteoarthritic change or injured or degenerated menisci were excluded. For the lateral tibial plateau length measurements, the radiographic beam was angled 10° caudally at neutral rotation, which allowed differentiation of the lateral plateau cortical margins from the medial plateau. The transition points were identified and used for length measurement. The values of length were then compared with the conventional Pollard method and the anatomic values. The width measurement was done according to Pollard's protocol. For each knee, the percentage deviation from the anatomic dimension was recorded. Intraobserver error and interobserver error were calculated. The deviation of the authors' radiographic length measurements from anatomic dimensions was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm. The deviation of Pollard's radiographic length measurements was 4.1 ± 2.0 mm. With respect to accuracy-which represents the frequency of measurements that fall within 10% of measurements-the accuracy of authors' length was 98%, whereas for Pollard's method it was 40%. There was a good correlation between anatomic meniscal dimensions and each radiologic plateau dimensions for lateral meniscal width (R(2) = .790) and the authors' lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .823) and fair correlation for Pollard's lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .660). The reliability of each

  16. Anatomical significance of a posterior horn of medial meniscus: the relationship between its radial tear and cartilage degradation of joint surface.

    PubMed

    Kan, Akinori; Oshida, Midori; Oshida, Shigemi; Imada, Masato; Nakagawa, Takumi; Okinaga, Shuji

    2010-01-12

    Traumatic injury and surgical meniscectomy of a medial meniscus are known to cause subsequent knee osteoarthritis. However, the difference in the prevalence of osteoarthritis caused by the individual type of the medial meniscal tear has not been elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate what type of tear is predominantly responsible for the degradation of articular cartilage in the medial compartment of knee joints. Five hundred and forty eight cadaveric knees (290 male and 258 female) were registered in this study. The average age of cadavers at death was 78.8 years old (range: 52-103 years). The knees were macroscopically examined and their medial menisci were classified into four groups according to types of tears: "no tear", "radial tear of posterior horn", "other types of tear" and "worn-out meniscus" groups. The severity of cartilage degradation in their medial compartment of knee joints was evaluated using the international cartilage repair society (ICRS) grading system. We statistically compared the ICRS grades among the groups using Mann-Whitney U test. The knees were assigned into the four groups: 416 "no tear" knees, 51 "radial tear of posterior horn" knees, 71 "other types of tear" knees, and 10 "worn-out meniscus" knees. The knees with substantial meniscal tears showed the severer ICRS grades of cartilage degradation than those without meniscal tears. In addition, the ICRS grades were significantly severer in the "radial tear of posterior horn" group than in the "other types of tear" group, suggesting that the radial tear of posterior horn in the medial meniscus is one of the risk factors for cartilage degradation of joint surface. We have clarified the relationship between the radial tear of posterior horn in the medial meniscus and the severer grade of cartilage degradation. This study indicates that the efforts should be made to restore the anatomical role of the posterior horn in keeping the hoop strain, when patients' physical activity

  17. Posterior root tear of the medial and lateral meniscus.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Wolf; Forkel, Philipp; Feucht, Matthias J; Zantop, Thore; Imhoff, Andreas B; Brucker, Peter U

    2014-02-01

    An avulsion of the tibial insertion of the meniscus or a radial tear close to the meniscal insertion is defined as a root tear. In clinical practice, the incidence of these lesions is often underestimated. However, several biomechanical studies have shown that the effect of a root tear is comparable to a total meniscectomy. Clinical studies documented progredient arthritic changes following root tears, thereby supporting basic science studies. The clinical diagnosis is limited by unspecific symptoms. In addition to the diagnostic arthroscopy, MRI is considered to be the gold standard of diagnosis of a meniscal root tear. Three different direct MRI signs for the diagnosis of a meniscus root tear have been described: Radial linear defect in the axial plane, vertical linear defect (truncation sign) in the coronal plane, and the so-called ghost meniscus sign in the sagittal plane. Meniscal extrusion is also considered to be an indirect sign of a root tear, but is less common in lateral root tears. During arthroscopy, the function of the meniscus root must be assessed by probing. However, visualization of the meniscal insertions is challenging. Refixation of the meniscal root can be performed using a transtibial pull-out suture, suture anchors, or side-to-side repair. Several short-term studies reported good clinical results after medial or lateral root repair. Nevertheless, MRI and second-look arthroscopy revealed high rates of incomplete or absent healing, especially for medial root tears. To date, most studies are case series with short-term follow-up and level IV evidence. Outerbridge grade 3 or 4 chondral lesions and varus malalignment of >5° were found to predict an inferior clinical outcome after medial meniscus root repair. Further research is needed to evaluate long-term results and to define evident criteria for meniscal root repair.

  18. Does simulated walking cause gapping of meniscal repairs?

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Patrick C; Jones, Hugh L; Hamilton, Kendall; Hogen, Michael G; Gold, Jonathan E; Noble, Philip C

    2016-12-01

    The objective of rehabilitation following meniscal repair is to promote healing by limiting stresses on repairs, while simultaneously preserving muscle strength and joint motion. Both protective protocols limiting weight bearing and accelerated which do not, have shown clinical success. This study assesses the effects of physiologic gait loading on the kinematic behavior of a repaired medial meniscus. The medial menisci of eight fresh cadaveric knees were implanted with arrays of six 0.8-1.0 mm beads. Pneumatic actuators delivered muscle loads and forces on the knee as each specimen was subjected to a simulated stance phase of gait. Meniscus motion was measured at loading response, mid stance, and toe-off positions. Measurements were performed using biplanar radiography and RSA, with each knee: (a) intact, (b) with posterior longitudinal tear, and (c) after inside-out repair. The tissue spanning the site of the longitudinal tear underwent compression rather than gapping open in all states (intact [I], torn [T] and repaired [R] states). Average compression at three sites along the posterior half of the meniscus was: posterior horn -0.20 ± 0.08 mm [I], -0.39 ± 0.10 mm [T], and -0.20 ± 0.06 mm [R] (p = 0.15); junction of posterior horn and body -0.11 ± 0.12 mm [I], -0.21 ± 12 mm [T], -0.17 ± 0.09 mm [R] (p = 0.87); and adjacent to the medial collateral ligament -0.07 ± 0.06 mm [I], -0.29 ± 0.13 mm [T], -0.07 ± 0.17 mm [R] (p = 0.35). The entire meniscus translated posteriorly from mid-stance to toe off. Displacement was greatest in the torn state compared to intact, but was not restored to normal levels after repair. The edges of a repaired longitudinal medial meniscal tear undergo compression, not gapping, during simulated gait.

  19. Autologous mesenchymal stem cells or meniscal cells: what is the best cell source for regenerative meniscus treatment in an early osteoarthritis situation?

    PubMed

    Zellner, Johannes; Pattappa, Girish; Koch, Matthias; Lang, Siegmund; Weber, Johannes; Pfeifer, Christian G; Mueller, Michael B; Kujat, Richard; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2017-10-10

    Treatment of meniscus tears within the avascular region represents a significant challenge, particularly in a situation of early osteoarthritis. Cell-based tissue engineering approaches have shown promising results. However, studies have not found a consensus on the appropriate autologous cell source in a clinical situation, specifically in a challenging degenerative environment. The present study sought to evaluate the appropriate cell source for autologous meniscal repair in a demanding setting of early osteoarthritis. A rabbit model was used to test autologous meniscal repair. Bone marrow and medial menisci were harvested 4 weeks prior to surgery. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and meniscal cells were isolated, expanded, and seeded onto collagen-hyaluronan scaffolds before implantation. A punch defect model was performed on the lateral meniscus and then a cell-seeded scaffold was press-fit into the defect. Following 6 or 12 weeks, gross joint morphology and OARSI grade were assessed, and menisci were harvested for macroscopic, histological, and immunohistochemical evaluation using a validated meniscus scoring system. In conjunction, human meniscal cells isolated from non-repairable bucket handle tears and human MSCs were expanded and, using the pellet culture model, assessed for their meniscus-like potential in a translational setting through collagen type I and II immunostaining, collagen type II enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and gene expression analysis. After resections of the medial menisci, all knees showed early osteoarthritic changes (average OARSI grade 3.1). However, successful repair of meniscus punch defects was performed using either meniscal cells or MSCs. Gross joint assessment demonstrated donor site morbidity for meniscal cell treatment. Furthermore, human MSCs had significantly increased collagen type II gene expression and production compared to meniscal cells (p < 0.05). The regenerative potential of the

  20. Biomechanical evaluation of a transtibial pull-out meniscal root repair: challenging the bungee effect.

    PubMed

    Cerminara, Anthony J; LaPrade, Christopher M; Smith, Sean D; Ellman, Michael B; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-12-01

    A common treatment for posterior meniscal root tears is transtibial pull-out repair, which has been biomechanically reported to restore tibiofemoral contact mechanics to those of the intact knee. Biomechanical data suggest that there is significant displacement of the repaired meniscal root with cyclic loading, which may be responsible for the poor healing and meniscal extrusion demonstrated in some clinical studies. The purpose of this study was to quantify the time-zero displacement of the posterior meniscal root in response to cyclic loading after transtibial pull-out repair and to quantify the individual contributions to displacement of the following: (1) suture elongation, (2) button-bone interface, and (3) meniscus-suture interface. The meniscus-suture interface was hypothesized to result in significantly more displacement than the button-bone interface or suture elongation. Descriptive laboratory study. Transtibial pull-out repair of the posterior medial meniscal root was performed in 6 porcine knees, and cyclic displacement was measured using a loading protocol representative of postoperative rehabilitation. Displacement from (1) suture elongation, (2) the button-bone interface, and (3) the meniscus-suture interface was determined by cyclically loading 6 specimens for each construct using the same loading protocol to determine the contribution of each component to the overall displacement of the repair construct. After 1000 cycles, the repair construct displaced by a mean of 3.28 mm (95% CI, 2.07-4.49). The meniscus-suture component (mean, 2.52 mm; 95% CI, 2.21-2.83) displaced significantly more than the button-bone component (mean, 0.90 mm; 95% CI, 0.64-1.15; P = .006) and suture elongation component (mean, 0.71 mm; 95% CI, 0.36-1.06; P = .006) after 1000 cycles. Displacement of the button-bone and suture elongation components was not significantly different after 1000 cycles (P = .720). There was substantial displacement of the posterior medial meniscal

  1. Root avulsion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in skeletally immature patients.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Mortati, Rafael; Archbold, Pooler; Gadea, François; Clechet, Julien; Thaunat, Mathieu

    2014-12-01

    Meniscal root avulsion has been predominantly reported in an adult population but little is known about this meniscal lesion in children and adolescents. The of this article is to describe the clinical symptoms and a new MRI sign of a medial meniscus posterior root avulsion in skeletally immature patients, and to report the arthroscopic procedure for its reinsertion in the presence of open physes. We report two skeletally immature patients who had a medial meniscus posterior root avulsion [MMPRA]. Diagnosis of a MMPRA was suspected on MRI by intense T2 hypersignal located at the postero-medial part of the tibial plateau reflecting trabecular bone oedema ("Bone bruise") at the level of the medial meniscal posterior root attachment. Arthroscopic reduction and fixation of the posterior root of the medial meniscus with transosseous sutures was performed. The patients returned to sport at the end of 6 months without residual symptoms. At one year, the radiographs showed no modification of the physis. Healing of the medial meniscal posterior root was noted on MRI. In a skeletally immature patient it is important that this rare meniscal lesion is diagnosed early and adequately treated. We emphasize the importance of the indirect MRI signs that can lead a clinician to suspect the diagnosis of MMPRA. The aim of the surgery was to restore the anatomical footprint of the meniscal root and to re-establish its function thus preventing future chondral damage without damage to the tibial physeal growth plate. Level IV. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may trigger posterior root tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Jun Young; Song, Hyung Keun; Jung, Myung Kuk; Oh, Hyeong Tak; Kim, Joon Ho; Yoon, Ji-Sang; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-05-01

    The major meniscal functions are load bearing, load distribution, and shock absorption by increasing the tibiofemoral joint (TFJ) contact area and dissipating axial loads by conversion into hoop stresses. The increased hoop strain stretches the meniscus in outward direction towards radius, causing extrusion, which is associated with the root tear and resultant degenerative osteoarthritis. Since the larger contact area of medial TFJ may increase the hoop stresses, we hypothesized that the larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension would contribute to the development of medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thus, the purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between MMPRT and medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension. A case-control study was conducted to compare medial femoral to tibial condylar dimensions of patients with complete MMPRT (n = 59) with those of demography-matched controls (n = 59) during the period from 2010 to 2013. In each patient, MRIs were reviewed and several parameters were measured including articulation width of medial femoral condyle (MFC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, medial tibial condyle (MTC) width, degree of meniscal extrusion, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio (MFC/MTC) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90°, respectively. Demographic and radiographic data were assessed. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension was associated with MMPRT at 0° and 30° knee angles. Patients with MFC/MTC greater than 0.9 at 0° also showed about 2.5-fold increase in the chance of MMPRT. Those with meniscal extrusion greater than 3 mm also had about 17.1 times greater chance for the presence of MMPRT accordingly. A larger medial femoral to tibial condylar dimension may be considered as one of the regional contributors to the outbreak of MMPRT, and medial femoral to tibial condylar width ratio greater than 0.9 at 0° knee angle may be considered as a significant risk factor for MMPRT. III.

  3. Meniscectomy versus meniscal repair: 10 years radiological and clinical results in vertical lesions in stable knee.

    PubMed

    Lutz, C; Dalmay, F; Ehkirch, F P; Cucurulo, T; Laporte, C; Le Henaff, G; Potel, J F; Pujol, N; Rochcongar, G; Salledechou, E; Seil, R; Gunepin, F-X; Sonnery-Cottet, B

    2015-12-01

    Surgical management of meniscal lesion consists of either a meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Although repair offers immediate recovery after surgery, it is also associated with higher rates of revision. A meniscectomy, on the other hand is known to be associated with an early onset of osteoarthritis. The present study compared clinical and radiological results at 10 years between meniscectomy and meniscal repair in isolated vertical lesion in an otherwise stable knee. The hypothesis was that repair shows functional and radiological benefit over meniscectomy. A multi-centric retrospective comparative study of 32 patients (24 male, 8 female). Mean follow-up was 10.6 years (range, 10-13 years). There were 10 meniscal repairs (group R) and 22 meniscectomies (group M), in 17 right and 15 left knees. Mean age at surgery was 33.45±12.3 years (range, 9-47 years). There were 28 medial and 4 lateral meniscal lesions; 26 were in the red-red zone and 6 in red-white zone. Functional score: KOOS score was significantly higher in group R than M on almost all parameters: 98±4.69 versus 77.38±21.97 for symptoms (P=0.0043), 96.89±7.20 versus 78.57±18.9 for pain (P=0.0052), 99.89±0.33 versus 80.88±19.6 for daily life activities (P=0.0002), 96.11±9.83 versus 54.05±32.85 for sport and leisure (P=0.0005), but 91±16.87 versus 68.15±37.7 for quality of life (P=0.1048). Radiology score: in group R, 7 patients had no features of osteoarthritis, and 2 had grade 1 osteoarthritis. In group M, 5 patients had grade 1 osteoarthritis, 10 grade 2, 3 grade 3 and 3 grade 4. Mean quantitative score was 0 (mean, 0.22±0.44) in-group R and 2 (mean, 2.19±0.98) in group M (P<0.0001). At more than 10year's follow-up, functional scores were significantly better with meniscal repair than meniscectomy on all parameters of the KOOS scale except quality of life. Functional and radiological scores correlated closely. These results show that meniscal repair for vertical lesions in stable knees

  4. The contribution of 3D quantitative meniscal and cartilage measures to variation in normal radiographic joint space width-Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference cohort.

    PubMed

    Roth, Melanie; Wirth, Wolfgang; Emmanuel, Katja; Culvenor, Adam G; Eckstein, Felix

    2017-02-01

    To explore to what extent three-dimensional measures of the meniscus and femorotibial cartilage explain the variation in medial and lateral femorotibial radiographic joint space width (JSW), in healthy men and women. The right knees of 87 Osteoarthritis Initiative healthy reference participants (no symptoms, radiographic signs or risk factors of osteoarthritis; 37 men, 50 women; age 55.0±7.6; BMI 24.4±3.1) were assessed. Quantitative measures of subregional femorotibial cartilage thickness and meniscal position and morphology were computed from segmented magnetic resonance images. Minimal and medial/lateral fixed-location JSW were determined from fixed-flexion radiographs. Correlation and regression analyses were used to explore the contribution of demographic, cartilage and meniscal parameters to JSW in healthy subjects. The correlation with (medial) minimal JSW was somewhat stronger for cartilage thickness (0.54≤r≤0.67) than for meniscal (-0.31≤r≤0.50) or demographic measures (-0.15≤r≤0.48), in particular in men. In women, in contrast, the strength of the correlations of cartilage thickness and meniscal measures with minimal JSW were in the same range. Fixed-location JSW measures showed stronger correlations with cartilage thickness (r≥0.68 medially; r≥0.59 laterally) than with meniscal measures (r≤|0.32| medially; r≤|0.32| laterally). Stepwise regression models revealed that meniscal measures added significant independent information to the total variance explained in minimal JSW (adjusted multiple r 2 =58%) but not in medial or lateral fixed-location JSW (r 2 =60/51%, respectively). In healthy subjects, minimal JSW was observed to reflect a combination of cartilage and meniscal measures, particularly in women. Fixed-location JSW, in contrast, was found to be dominated by variance in cartilage thickness in both men and women, with somewhat higher correlations between cartilage and JSW in the medial than lateral femorotibial compartment. The

  5. Medial meniscus anatomy-from basic science to treatment.

    PubMed

    Śmigielski, Robert; Becker, Roland; Zdanowicz, Urszula; Ciszek, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the anatomical attachment of the medial meniscus. Detailed anatomical dissections have been performed and illustrated. Five zones can be distinguished in regard to the meniscus attachments anatomy: zone 1 (of the anterior root), zone 2 (anteromedial zone), zone 3 (the medial zone), zone 4 (the posterior zone) and the zone 5 (of the posterior root). The understanding of the meniscal anatomy is especially crucial for meniscus repair but also for correct fixation of the anterior and posterior horn of the medial meniscus.

  6. Incidence and variance of knee injuries in elite college football players.

    PubMed

    Bradley, James; Honkamp, Nicholas J; Jost, Patrick; West, Robin; Norwig, John; Kaplan, Lee D

    2008-06-01

    Knee injuries are among the most common musculoskeletal injuries in US football players. The literature includes little information about the role of player position and risk for knee injury. We hypothesized that the incidence of knee injury in elite collegiate US football players is high and that type of injury varies by player position. We evaluated 332 elite collegiate US football players at the 2005 National Football League Combine. All players underwent radiographic examinations, including plain x-rays and/or magnetic resonance imaging when necessary. All knee pathologic conditions and surgical procedures were recorded. Data were analyzed by player position to detect any trends. Fifty-four percent (179) of the 332 players had a history of knee injury; knee injuries totaled 233 (1.3/player injured). Eighty-six players (25.9%) had a total of 114 surgeries. The most common injuries were medial collateral ligament injury (n = 79), meniscal injury (n = 51), and anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury (n = 40). The most common surgeries were arthroscopic meniscectomy (n = 39), ACL reconstruction (n = 35), and arthroscopic meniscal repair (n = 13). A history of knee injury was most common in defensive linemen (68% of players), tight ends (57%), and offensive linemen (57%). Knee surgery was more commonly performed on running backs (36%) and linebackers (34%). There were no significant associations between type or frequency of specific injuries with regard to player position. Knee injuries are common injuries in elite collegiate football players, and one fourth of these players undergo surgical procedures. However, there were no statistically significant differences in type or frequency of injuries by player position.

  7. Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Posterior Root Reconstruction Using Auto-Gracilis Tendon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dhong Won; Haque, Russel; Chung, Kyu Sung; Kim, Jin Goo

    2017-08-01

    There have been several techniques to repair the medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs) with the goal of restoring the anatomic and firm fixation of the meniscal root to bone. Many anatomic studies about the menisci also have been developed, so a better understanding of the anatomy could help surgeons perform correct fixation of the MMPRTs. The meniscal roots have ligament-like structures that firmly attach the menisci to the tibial plateau, and this structural concept is important to restore normal biomechanics after anatomic root repair. We present arthroscopic transtibial medial meniscus posterior root reconstruction using auto-gracilis tendon.

  8. Acute and chronic response of meniscal fibrocartilage to holmium:YAG laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horan, Patrick J.; Popovic, Neven A.; Islinger, Richard B.; Kuklo, Timothy R.; Dick, Edward J.

    1997-05-01

    The acute and chronic (10 week) histological effects of the holmium:YAG laser during partial meniscectomy in an in vivo rabbit model were investigated. Twenty-four adult male New Zealand rabbits underwent bilateral parapatellar medial knee arthrotomies. In the right knee, a partial medial meniscectomy was done through the avascular zone using a standard surgical blade. In the left knee, an anatomically similar partial medial meniscectomy was performed using a Ho:YAG laser (Coherent, USA). This study indicates that the laser creates two zones of damage in the meniscal fibrocartilage and that the zone of thermal change may act as a barrier to healing. The zone of thermal change which is eventually debrided was thought at the time of surgery to be viable. In the laser cut menisci, the synovium appears to have greater inflammation early and to be equivalent with the scalpel cut after three weeks. At all time periods there appeared more cellular damage in the laser specimens.

  9. Demographics and Injuries Associated With Knee Dislocation: A Prospective Review of 303 Patients

    PubMed Central

    Moatshe, Gilbert; Dornan, Grant J.; Løken, Sverre; Ludvigsen, Tom C.; LaPrade, Robert F.; Engebretsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Background: Information on the incidence, injury mechanisms, ligament injury patterns, and associated injuries of knee dislocations is lacking in the literature. There is a need to characterize ligament injury patterns and associated injuries in knee dislocations to avoid missing common associated diagnoses and to plan surgical treatment. Purpose: To evaluate patient demographics, ligament injury patterns and associated injury patterns, and associated injuries in patients with knee dislocation. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 303 patients with knee dislocations treated at a single level 1 trauma center were followed prospectively. Injury mechanism; ligament injury patterns; associated neurovascular, meniscal, and cartilage injuries; and surgical complications were recorded. The Schenck knee dislocation classification was used to classify the ligament injury patterns. Results: The mean age at injury was 37.8 ± 15.3 years. Of the 303 patients included, 65% were male and 35% were female. There was an equal distribution of high-energy and low-energy injuries. Injury to 3 major ligaments was the most common, with Schenck classification type KD III-M constituting 52.4% of the injuries and KD III-L comprising 28.1%. Meniscal injuries and cartilage injuries occurred in 37.3% and 28.3% of patients, respectively. Patients with acute injuries had significantly lower odds of a cartilage injury than those with chronic injuries (odds ratio [OR], 0.28; 95% CI, 0.15-0.50; P < .001). Peroneal nerve injuries were recorded in 19.2% of patients (10.9% partial and 8.3% complete deficit), while vascular injuries were recorded in 5%. The odds of having a common peroneal nerve injury were 42 times greater (P < .001) among those with posterolateral corner injury (KD III-L) than those without. The odds for popliteal artery injury were 9 times greater (P = .001) among those with KD III-L injuries than other ligament injury types. Conclusion

  10. Return to play after all-inside meniscal repair in competitive football players: a minimum 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Diaz, Pedro; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; Llobet, Federico; Granados, Nelson; Steinbacher, Gilbert; Cugat, Ramón

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the mid-to-long-term return to sports after all-inside meniscal repair in competitive football players. All football players undergoing all-inside meniscal repair with a minimum Tegner activity score of 9 and minimum follow-up of 5 years were eligible for inclusion. Patients were excluded if: (a) they had ipsilateral or contralateral: meniscectomy, posterior cruciate ligament tear, multi-ligament knee injuries, osteotomies, or meniscal transplant (b) they had meniscal tears in the anterior horn, and (c) they had bucket-handle tears. All patients included were contacted by phone and asked for current sport status or Tegner score. Preoperative Tegner scores were collected from the medical charts. All patients (n = 29) were men with a median (range) age of 27 (18-37) years and a follow-up of 6 (5-8) years. All meniscal injuries were complete and longitudinal tears. The median preinjury Tegner activity score was 9 (range 9-10). Two patients required revision arthroscopy (6.7 %) with partial meniscectomy before being able to return to competitive football due to suture failure. Twenty-six patients (89.6 %) returned to the same level of competition after recovering from surgery. At the last follow-up, 13 patients (45 %) were able to continue playing football at any level, and 8 (28 %) of them were able to return to the same pre-injury competitive level. The main reasons for the decreased level of activity (from competitive to recreational) or to give up football were job-related or changes in their personal life situation, but were not related to knee or meniscal disorders. Fourteen patients underwent meniscal repair alone, whereas 15 patients had an associated ACL reconstruction procedure. There were no significant differences in the collected variables between both subgroups. All-inside meniscal repair allows for excellent results with regard to return-to-play rates in competitive football. However, only half of the

  11. Performance of PROMIS for Healthy Patients Undergoing Meniscal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew

    2017-06-07

    The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the

  12. The meniscal ossicle revisited: etiology and an arthroscopic technique for treatment.

    PubMed

    Raustol, Ole A; Poelstra, Kornelis A; Chhabra, Annikar; Diduch, David R

    2006-06-01

    We describe a new arthroscopic technique for repair of meniscal ossicles in support of the theory that meniscal ossicles are traumatic in nature. Using a standard inferolateral portal, the arthroscope is passed under the posterior cruciate ligament to permit visualization of the "root" of the medial meniscus with a matching donor lesion on the tibia. A limited debridement should be performed of the donor site as well as the posterior horn of the meniscus if it has healed over with fibrocartilage to allow bone-to-bone healing. A posteromedial working portal is made at an angle amenable to the repair and a 6-mm cannula is placed. A Beath passing pin commonly used for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is used to pass suture for the outside-inside-out repair. The pin is passed through the cannula in the posterior medial portal. The root of the medial meniscus and the avulsed ossicle are pierced with the Beath pin and tensioned, after which the pin is drilled into the matching donor site and out through the tibia. Two passes are used to create a mattress suture through the ossicle, and the suture is tied over a bone bridge on the anterolateral tibia.

  13. Knee injuries in women collegiate rugby players.

    PubMed

    Levy, A S; Wetzler, M J; Lewars, M; Laughlin, W

    1997-01-01

    We evaluated the prevalence and patterns of knee injuries in 810 women collegiate rugby players. Injuries that resulted in players missing at least one game were recorded and a questionnaire was used to delineate players' rugby and knee injury history. There were 76 total knee injuries in 58,296 exposures. This resulted in a 1.3 knee injury rate per 1000 exposures. Twenty-one anterior cruciate ligament tears were reported for a 0.36 incidence per 1000 exposures. Other injuries included meniscal tears (25), medical collateral ligament sprains (23), patellar dislocations (5), and posterior cruciate ligament tears (2). Sixty-one percent of the medial collateral ligament sprains occurred in rugby forwards and 67% of anterior cruciate ligament tears occurred in rugby backs. All other injuries occurred with equal frequency in backs and forwards. This study demonstrates that knee injury rates in women's collegiate rugby are similar to those reported for other women's collegiate sports. The overall rate of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women's rugby, however, is slightly higher than that reported for women soccer and basketball players.

  14. Return-to-Play Outcomes in Professional Baseball Players After Medial Ulnar Collateral Ligament Injuries: Comparison of Operative Versus Nonoperative Treatment Based on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings.

    PubMed

    Ford, Gregory M; Genuario, James; Kinkartz, Jason; Githens, Thomas; Noonan, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) is the primary static stabilizer to valgus stress of the elbow. Injuries to the UCL are common in baseball pitchers. In the 1970s, reconstructive surgery was developed. Return-to-play (RTP) rates of 67% to 95% after reconstruction have been reported. There is a paucity of published studies among professional baseball players reporting RTP with nonoperative treatment. To identify professional baseball players' ability to RTP after the nonoperative treatment of UCL injuries based on the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grade. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A review of elbow injuries among a professional baseball organization from 2006 to 2011 was performed. MRI was performed on all players. Forty-three UCL injuries were diagnosed. Treatment included rehabilitation, surgery, or both. Rates of RTP and return to the same level of play or higher (RTSP) were calculated and correlated with the MRI grade, location of injury, and player position. MRI grading was as follows: I, intact ligament with or without edema; IIA, partial tear; IIB, chronic healed injury; and III, complete tear. Forty-three UCL injuries in 43 players were diagnosed. Eight had complete tears (grade III), were treated operatively with UCL reconstruction, and had an RTP rate of 75% and RTSP rate of 63% (5/8 returned to the same level and 1 to a lower level). All 8 were pitchers. The remaining 35 players had incomplete injuries (4 grade I, 8 grade IIA, and 23 grade IIB), consisting of 24 pitchers and 11 positional players. Of these 35 players, 1 underwent surgery without attempted rehabilitation, 3 initiated rehabilitation until MRI was performed and then underwent surgery, and 3 underwent surgery after failed rehabilitation. The 7 players who underwent UCL reconstruction surgery had an RTP rate of 100% and RTSP rate of 86% (6/7 returned to the same level and 1 to a lower level). The remaining 28 with nonoperative treatment had both RTP and RTSP rates of 93

  15. Financial impact of radiological reports on medical-legal evaluation of compensation for meniscal lesions.

    PubMed

    Lelario, M; Ciuffreda, P; Lupo, P; Bristogiannis, C; Vinci, R; Stoppino, L P; De Filippo, M; Macarini, L

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate any discrepancy between radiological reports for clinical purposes and for medicolegal purposes and to quantify its economic impact on repayments made by private insurance companies for meniscal injuries of the knee. The medical records obtained pertaining to 108 knee injury patients (mean age 43.3 years) assessed over a period of 12 months were analysed. Clinical medical reports, aimed at assessing the lesion, and medicolegal reports, drawn up with a view to quantifying compensation, were compared. Unlike reports for clinical purposes in reports for medicolegal purposes, in the evaluation of meniscal lesions, in addition to morphological features of lesions, chronological, topographical, severity and exclusion criteria were applied. To estimate the economic impact resulting from the biological damage, we consulted an actuarial table based on the 9-point minor incapacity classification system. Meniscal lesions not compatible with a traumatic event and therefore not eligible for an insurance payout were found in 56 patients. Of these, 37 failed exclusion criteria, while 19 failed to meet chronological criteria. This difference resulted in a reduction in compensation made by private insurance companies with savings estimated with a saving between euro 203,715.41 and euro 622,315.39. The use of a clinical report for medicolegal purposes can be a source of valuation error, as chronological and/or dynamic information regarding the trauma mechanism may be lacking. Therefore, the use of a full radiological appraisal allows a better damage's assessment and an adequate compensation for injuries.

  16. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Necmettin; Ardic, Füsun

    2008-04-21

    Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow.

  17. A rare cause of forearm pain: anterior branch of the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve (MACN) neuropathy is reported to be caused by iatrogenic reasons. Although the cases describing the posterior branch of MACN neuropathy are abundant, only one case caused by lipoma has been found to describe the anterior branch of MACN neuropathy in the literature. As for the reason for the forearm pain, we report the only case describing isolated anterior branch of MACN neuropathy which has developed due to repeated minor trauma. Case presentation We report a 37-year-old woman patient with pain in her medial forearm and elbow following the shaking of a rug. Pain and symptoms of dysestesia in the distribution of the right MACN were found. Electrophysiological examination confirmed the normality of the main nerve trunks of the right upper limb and demonstrated abnormalities of the right MACN when compared with the left side. Sensory action potential (SAP) amplitude on the right anterior branch of the MACN was detected to be lower in proportion to the left. In the light of these findings, NSAI drug and physical therapy was performed. Dysestesia and pain were relieved and no recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 14 months. Conclusion MACN neuropathy should be taken into account for the differential diagnosis of the patients with complaints of pain and dysestesia in medial forearm and anteromedial aspect of the elbow. PMID:18426569

  18. Medial extrusion of the posterior segment of medial meniscus is a sensitive sign for posterior horn tears.

    PubMed

    Ohishi, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Kazufumi; Banno, Tomohiro; Shimizu, Yuta; Matsuyama, Yukihiro

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate medial extrusion of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus in posterior horn tears. This study enrolled 72 patients without medial meniscal tears (group N), 72 patients with medial meniscal tears without posterior horn tears (group PH-), 44 patients with posterior horn tears of the medial meniscus (group PH+). All meniscal tears were confirmed by arthroscopy. Medial extrusion of the middle segment and the posterior segment was measured on coronal MRIs. Extrusions of both middle and posterior segments in groups PH- and PH+ (middle segment; 2.94±1.51 mm for group PH- and 3.75±1.69 mm for group PH+, posterior segment; 1.85±1.82 mm for group PH- and 4.59±2.74 mm for group PH+) were significantly larger than those in group N (middle segment; 2.04±1.20, posterior segment; 1.21±1.86). Both indicators of extrusion in group PH+ were larger than those in group PH-. In the early OA category, neither middle nor posterior segment in group PH- extruded more than in group N. However, only the posterior segment in group PH+ extruded significantly more than in group N. Multiple lineal regression analyses revealed that posterior segment extrusion was strongly correlated with the posterior horn tears (p<0.001) among groups PH- and PH+. The newly presented indicator for extrusion of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus is associated with posterior horn tears in comparison with the extrusion of the middle segment, especially in the early stages of osteoarthritis. Level II--Diagnostic Study. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient-reported symptoms and changes up to 1 year after meniscal surgery.

    PubMed

    Skou, Søren T; Pihl, Kenneth; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Uffe; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2018-06-01

    Background and purpose - Detailed information on the symptoms and limitations that patients with meniscal tears experience is lacking. This study was undertaken to map the most prevalent self-reported symptoms and functional limitations among patients undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery and investigate which symptoms and limitations had improved most at 1 year after surgery. Patients and methods - Patients aged 18-76 years from the Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS) undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery were included in this analysis of individual subscale items from the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and 1 question on knee stability. Severity of each item was scored as none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme. Improvements were evaluated using Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and effect size (ES). Results - The most common symptoms were knee grinding and clicking, knee pain in general, pain when twisting and bending the knee and climbing stairs (88-98%), while the most common functional limitations were difficulty bending to the floor, squatting, twisting, kneeling, and knee awareness (97-99%). Knee pain in general and knee awareness improved most 1 year after meniscal surgery (ES -0.47 and -0.45; p < 0.001), while knee instability and general knee difficulties improved least (ES 0.10 and -0.08; p < 0.006). Interpretation - Adults undergoing surgery for a meniscal tear commonly report clinical symptoms and functional limitations related to their daily activities. Moderate improvements were observed in some symptoms and functional limitations and small to no improvement in others at 1 year after surgery. These findings can assist the clinical discussion of symptoms, treatments, and patients' expectations.

  20. MR imaging of meniscal tears: comparison of intermediate-weighted FRFSE imaging with intermediate-weighted FSE imaging.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Osamu; Harada, Yuko; Ueda, Takaaki; Iida, Etsushi; Shiraishi, Gen; Motomura, Tetsuhisa; Fukuda, Kouji; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2012-11-01

    We compared intermediate-weighted fast spin-echo (IW-FSE) images with intermediate-weighted fast-recovery FSE (IW-FRFSE) images in the diagnosis of meniscal tears. First, 64 patients were recruited, and the arthroscopic findings (n = 40) and image analysis (n = 19) identified 59 torn menisci with 36 patients. Both the diagnostic performance and image quality in assessing meniscal tears was evaluated for IW-FSE and IW-FRFSE images using a four-point scale. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculation was performed for both sets of images. IW-FRFSE image specificity (100 %) for diagnosing the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (MM) tear with reader 1 was significantly higher than that of IW-FSE images (90 %). Mean ratings of the contrast between the lesion and normal signal intensity within the meniscus were significantly higher for the IW-FRFSE image ratings than the IW-FSE images in most meniscal tears. Mean SNRs were significantly higher for IW-FSE images than for IW-FRFSE images (P < 0.05). IW-FRFSE imaging can be used as an alternative to the IW-FSE imaging to evaluate meniscal tears.

  1. Characterization of synovial fluid cytokine profiles in chronic meniscal tear of the knee.

    PubMed

    Bigoni, Marco; Turati, Marco; Sacerdote, Paola; Gaddi, Diego; Piatti, Massimiliano; Castelnuovo, Alberto; Franchi, Silvia; Gandolla, Marta; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Omeljaniuk, Robert J; Bresciani, Elena; Locatelli, Vittorio; Torsello, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid samples collected from patients with chronic meniscal tears were investigated. An acute inflammatory response is generally reported 24-48 h after knee injury, but the largest body of data available in literature concerns anterior cruciate ligament injury and very little information is available about the balance of soluble factors in the synovial fluid of knees with chronic meniscal tears. Sixty-nine patients (46 males and 23 females) with meniscal tear that occurred more than 3 months earlier were enrolled. According to cartilage integrity assessment by arthroscopic examination, patients were assigned to one of the following groups: (i) no chondral damage (n = 18); (ii) chondral damage graded from I to II (n = 15); and (iii) chondral damage graded from III to IV (n = 37). In all groups, levels of IL-10 and inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-8 where greater compared with those reported in the intact population; by contrast, levels of IL-1ra and IL-1β were significantly lower. Interestingly, IL-6 levels were higher in female than male patients. Cytokine levels did not correlate with degree of chondral damage. IL-6 and IL-1ra levels positively correlated with IL-1β, and negatively correlated with TNF-α. Interestingly, levels of IL-1β and TNF-α were inversely correlated. Our data demonstrate increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) in the chronic phase of meniscal trauma. This pro-inflammatory state is maintained in the joint from the time of initial injury to several months later and could be a key factor in hampering cartilage regeneration. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:340-346, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Repair of a complete radial tear in the midbody of the medial meniscus using a novel crisscross suture transtibial tunnel surgical technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    James, Evan W; LaPrade, Christopher M; Feagin, John A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    Complete radial meniscus tears have been reported to result in deleterious effects in the knee joint if left unrepaired. An emphasis on meniscal preservation is important in order to restore native meniscal function. In this case report, a complete radial tear of the medial meniscus midbody was repaired using a novel crisscross suture transtibial technique. This technique secured the anterior and posterior meniscal horns, which were released from their extruded and scarred position along the capsule, using crisscrossing sutures passed through two transtibial tunnels and secured over a bone bridge on the anterolateral tibia. In addition, the repair was supplemented with the injection of platelet-rich plasma and bone marrow aspirate concentrate to promote the healing of the meniscal tissue. Complete healing on second-look arthroscopy is presented, including in the previously unreported white-white meniscal zone.

  3. Implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath enhances fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in a large harvest site defect.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Yasukazu; Yasuda, Kazunori; Kondo, Eiji; Katsura, Taro; Tanabe, Yoshie; Kimura, Masashi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2010-04-01

    Concerning meniscal tissue regeneration, many investigators have studied the development of a tissue-engineered meniscus. However, the utility still remains unknown. Implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath into the donor site meniscal defect may significantly enhance fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in the defect. Controlled laboratory study. Seventy-five mature rabbits were used in this study. In each animal, an anterior one-third of the right medial meniscus was resected. Then, the animals were divided into the following 3 groups of 25 rabbits each: In group 1, no treatment was applied to the meniscal defect. In group 2, the defect was covered with a fascia sheath. In group 3, after the resected meniscus was fragmented into small pieces, the fragments were grafted into the defect. Then, the defect with the meniscal fragments was covered with a fascia sheath. In each group, 5 rabbits were used for histological evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 weeks after surgery, and 5 rabbits were used for biomechanical evaluation at 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. Histologically, large round cells in group 3 were scattered in the core portion of the meniscus-shaped tissue, and the matrix around these cells was positively stained by safranin O and toluisin blue at 12 weeks. The histological score of group 3 was significantly higher than that of group 1 and group 2. Biomechanically, the maximal load and stiffness of group 3 were significantly greater than those of groups 1 and 2. This study clearly demonstrated that implantation of autogenous meniscal fragments wrapped with a fascia sheath into the donor site meniscal defect significantly enhanced fibrocartilage regeneration in vivo in the defect at 12 weeks after implantation in the rabbit. This study proposed a novel strategy to treat a large defect after a meniscectomy.

  4. Regional and depth variability of porcine meniscal mechanical properties through biaxial testing.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, A; Hurtig, M B; Gordon, K D

    2015-01-01

    The menisci in the knee joint undergo complex loading in-vivo resulting in a multidirectional stress distribution. Extensive mechanical testing has been conducted to investigate the tissue properties of the knee meniscus, but the testing conditions do not replicate this complex loading regime. Biaxial testing involves loading tissue along two different directions simultaneously, which more accurately simulates physiologic loading conditions. The purpose of this study was to report mechanical properties of meniscal tissue resulting from biaxial testing, while simultaneously investigating regional variations in properties. Ten left, fresh porcine joints were obtained, and the medial and lateral menisci were harvested from each joint (twenty menisci total). Each menisci was divided into an anterior, middle and posterior region; and three slices (femoral, deep and tibial layers) were obtained from each region. Biaxial and constrained uniaxial testing was performed on each specimen, and Young's moduli were calculated from the resulting stress strain curves. Results illustrated significant differences in regional mechanical properties, with the medial anterior (Young's modulus (E)=11.14 ± 1.10 MPa), lateral anterior (E=11.54 ± 1.10 MPa) and lateral posterior (E=9.0 ± 1.2 MPa) regions exhibiting the highest properties compared to the medial central (E=5.0 ± 1.22 MPa), medial posterior (E=4.16 ± 1.13 MPa) and lateral central (E=5.6 ± 1.20 MPa) regions. Differences with depth were also significant on the lateral meniscus, with the femoral (E=12.7 ± 1.22 MPa) and tibial (E=8.6 ± 1.22 MPa) layers exhibiting the highest Young's moduli. This data may form the basis for future modeling of meniscal tissue, or may aid in the design of synthetic replacement alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Diagnosis of knee injuries: comparison of the physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging with the findings from arthroscopy☆

    PubMed Central

    Orlando Júnior, Nilton; de Souza Leão, Marcos George; de Oliveira, Nelson Henrique Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and concordance of the physical examination (PE) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in comparison with arthroscopy, in diagnosing knee injuries. Methods Prospective study on 72 patients, with evaluation and comparison of PE, MRI and arthroscopic findings, to determine the concordance, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. Results PE showed sensitivity of 75.00%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44% for medial meniscal (MM) lesions, while it showed sensitivity of 47.82%, specificity of 93.87% and accuracy of 79.16% for lateral meniscal (LM) lesions. For anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, PE showed sensitivity of 88.67%, specificity of 94.73% and accuracy of 90.27%. For MM lesions, MRI showed sensitivity of 92.50%, specificity of 62.50% and accuracy of 69.44%, while for LM injuries, it showed sensitivity of 65.00%, specificity of 88.46% and accuracy of 81.94%. For ACL injuries, MRI showed sensitivity of 86.79%, specificity of 73.68% and accuracy of 83.33%. For ACL injuries, the best concordance was with PE, while for MM and LM lesions, it was with MRI (p < 0.001). Conclusions Meniscal and ligament injuries can be diagnosed through careful physical examination, while requests for MRI are reserved for complex or doubtful cases. PE and MRI used together have high sensitivity for ACL and MM lesions, while for LM lesions the specificity is higher. Level of evidence II – Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference “gold” standard). PMID:27218085

  6. What Is the Optimal Minimum Penetration Depth for "All-Inside" Meniscal Repairs?

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Patrick C; Jones, Hugh L; Lue, Jeffrey; Parekh, Jesal N; Noble, Philip C

    2016-08-01

    To identify desired minimum depth setting for safe, effective placement of the all-inside meniscal suture anchors. Using 16 cadaveric knees and standard arthroscopic techniques, 3-dimensional surfaces of the meniscocapsular junction and posterior capsule were digitized. Using standard anteromedial and anterolateral portals, the distance from the meniscocapsular junction to the posterior capsule outer wall was measured for 3 locations along the posterior half of medial and lateral menisci. Multiple all-inside meniscal repairs were performed on 7 knees to determine an alternate measure of capsular thickness (X2) and compared with the digitized results. In the digitized group, the distance (X1) from the capsular junction to the posterior capsular wall was averaged in both menisci for 3 regions using anteromedial and anterolateral portals. Mean distances of 6.4 to 8.8 mm were found for the lateral meniscus and 6.5 to 9.1 mm for the medial meniscus. The actual penetration depth was determined in the repair group and labeled X2. It showed a similar pattern to the variation seen in X1 by region, although it exceeded predicted distances an average 1.7 mm in the medial and 1.5 mm in the lateral meniscus owing to visible deformation of the capsule as it pierced. Capsular thickness during arthroscopic repair measures approximately 6 to 9 mm (X1), with 1.5 to 2 mm additional depth needed to ensure penetration rather than bulging of the posterior capsule (X2), resulting in 8 to 10 mm minimum penetration depth range. Surgeons can add desired distance away from the meniscocapsular junction (L) at device implantation, finding optimal minimal setting for penetration depth (X2 + L), which for most repairable tears may be as short as 8 mm and not likely to be greater than 16 mm. Minimum depth setting for optimal placement of all-inside meniscal suture anchors when performing all-inside repair of the medial or lateral meniscus reduces risk of harming adjacent structures

  7. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients' ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29-71 years) and 30 years (range: 14-62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is common in

  8. Comparison of Medial and Lateral Meniscus Root Tears

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ji Hyun; Choi, Sang-Hee; Lee, Seung Ah; Wang, Joon Ho

    2015-01-01

    The meniscus root plays an essential role in maintaining the circumferential hoop tension and preventing meniscal displacement. Studies on meniscus root tears have investigated the relationship of osteoarthritis and an anterior cruciate ligament tear. However, few studies have directly compared the medial and lateral root tears. To assess the prevalence of meniscal extrusion and its relationship with clinical features in medial and lateral meniscus root tears, we performed a retrospective review of the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results of 42 knee patients who had meniscus posterior horn root tears and who had undergone arthroscopic operations. The presence of meniscal extrusion was evaluated and the exact extent was measured from the tibial margin. The results were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Clinical features including patients’ ages, joint abnormalities, and previous trauma histories were evaluated. Twenty-two patients had medial meniscus root tears (MMRTs) and twenty patients had lateral meniscus root tears (LMRTs). Meniscal extrusion was present in 18 MMRT patients and one LMRT patient. The mean extent of extrusion was 4.2mm (range, 0.6 to 7.8) in the MMRT group and 0.9mm (range, -1.9 to 3.4) in the LMRT group. Five patients with MMRT had a history of trauma, while 19 patients with LMRT had a history of trauma. Three patients with MMRT had anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, while 19 patients with LMRT had ACL tears. The mean age of the patients was 52 years (range: 29–71 years) and 30 years (range: 14–62 years) in the MMRT and LMRT group, respectively. There was a significant correlation between a MMRT and meniscal extrusion (p<0.0001), and between an ACL tear and LMRT (p<0.0001). A history of trauma was significantly common in LMRT (p<0.0001). LMRT patients were significantly younger than MMRT patients (p<0.0001). Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade differed significantly between MMRT and LMRT group (p<0.0001). Meniscal extrusion is

  9. Translation and Validation of the Dutch Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Robert J P; Heemskerk, Bastiaan T J; van Arkel, Ewoud R A; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Thomassen, Bregje J W

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to translate the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) into Dutch, to evaluate the content validity, construct validity, reliability, and responsiveness, and to determine the minimal important change (MIC) of the Dutch version. The WOMET was translated into Dutch according to a standardized forward-backward translation protocol. A total of 86 patients (51 males, 35 females, median age 52 years [interquartile range, 43-60 years]) with isolated meniscal pathology were included. The WOMET was completed three times; at baseline, around 2 weeks, and after 3 months from the baseline. Knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score, International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee form, short-form 36, and an anchor question were also answered. There were good results for content validity (floor and ceiling effects [< 15%]), construct validity (79% of the predefined hypotheses were confirmed), internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.87, 0.79, and 0.86 for each subscale score), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.78 for total WOMET score), and responsiveness (79% of the predefined hypotheses were confirmed). The smallest detectable change and MIC for the Dutch WOMET are 20.5 and 14.7, respectively. The Dutch version of the WOMET is valid and reliable for assessing health-related quality of life in patients with meniscal pathology. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Synovial chemokine expression and relationship with knee symptoms in patients with meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Anjali; Gan, Justin; Bush-Joseph, Charles; Verma, Nikhil; Tetreault, Matthew W.; Saha, Kanta; Margulis, Arkady; Fogg, Louis; Scanzello, Carla R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In patients with knee OA, synovitis is associated with knee pain and symptoms. We previously identified synovial mRNA expression of a set of chemokines (CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL-1, CCR7) associated with synovitis in patients with meniscal tears but without radiographic OA. CCL19 and CCR7 were also associated with knee symptoms. This study sought to validate expression of these chemokines and association with knee symptoms in more typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, many who have pre-existing OA. Design Synovial biopsies and fluid (SF) were collected from patients undergoing meniscal arthroscopy. Synovial mRNA expression was measured using quantitative RT-PCR. The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) was administered preoperatively. Regression analyses determined if associations between chemokine mRNA levels and KOOS scores were independent of other factors including radiographic OA. CCL19 in SF was measured by ELISA, and compared to patients with advanced knee OA and asymptomatic organ donors. Results 90% of patients had intra-operative evidence of early cartilage degeneration. CCL19, IL-8, CCL5, XCL1, CCR7 transcripts were detected in all patients. Synovial CCL19 mRNA levels independently correlated with KOOS Activities of Daily Living scores (95% CI [-8.071, -0.331], p= 0.036), indicating higher expression was associated with more knee-related dysfunction. SF CCL19 was detected in 7 of 10 patients, compared to 4 of 10 asymptomatic donors. Conclusion In typical patients presenting for meniscal arthroscopy, synovial CCL19 mRNA expression was associated with knee-related difficulty with activities of daily living, independent of other factors including presence of radiographic knee OA. PMID:25724256

  11. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  12. Releasing the circumferential fixation of the medial meniscus does not affect its kinematics.

    PubMed

    Vrancken, A C T; van Tienen, T G; Hannink, G; Janssen, D; Verdonschot, N; Buma, P

    2014-12-01

    Meniscal functioning depends on the fixation between the meniscal horns and the surrounding tissues. It is unknown, however, whether the integration between the outer circumference of the medial meniscus and the knee capsule/medial collateral ligament also influences the biomechanical behavior of the meniscus. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether detaching and resuturing the circumferential fixation of the medial meniscus influence its kinematic pattern. Human cadaveric knee joints were flexed (0°-30°-60°-90°) in a knee loading rig, in neutral orientation and under internal and external tibial torques. Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis was used to determine the motion of the meniscus in anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) directions. Three fixation conditions were evaluated: (I) intact, (II) detached and (III) resutured. Detaching and resuturing the circumferential fixation did not alter the meniscal motion pattern in either the AP or ML direction. Applying an additional internal tibial torque caused the medial meniscus to move slightly anteriorly, and an external torque caused a little posterior translation with respect to the neutral situation. These patterns did not change when the circumferential fixation condition was altered. This study demonstrated that the motion pattern of the medial meniscus is independent of its fixation to the knee capsule and medial collateral ligament. The outcomes of this study can be deployed to design the fixation strategy of a permanent meniscus prosthesis. As peripheral fixation is a complicated step during meniscal replacement, the surgical procedure is considerably simplified when non-resorbable implants do not require circumferential fixation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. TGF-beta1 induces the different expressions of lysyl oxidases and matrix metalloproteinases in anterior cruciate ligament and medial collateral ligament fibroblasts after mechanical injury.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jing; Wang, Chunli; Huang, Dong-Yue; Zhang, Yanyan; Xu, Jianwen; Kolesnikov, Stanislav S; Sung, K L Paul; Zhao, Hucheng

    2013-03-15

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to have a poor self-healing ability. In contrast, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) can heal relatively well and restore the joint function. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) is considered to be an important chemical mediator in the wound healing of the ligaments. While the role of TGF-β1-induced expressions of the lysyl oxidases (LOXs) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which respectively facilitate the extracellular matrix (ECM) repair and degradation, is poorly understood. In this study, we used equibiaxial stretch chamber to mimic mechanical injury of ACL and MCL fibroblasts, and aimed to determine the intrinsic differences between ACL and MCL by characterizing the differential expressions of LOXs and MMPs in response to TGF-β1 after mechanical injury. By using semi-quantitative PCR, quantitative real-time PCR, western blot and zymography, we found TGF-β1 induced injured MCL to express more LOXs than injured ACL (up to 1.85-fold in LOX, 2.21-fold in LOXL-1, 1.71-fold in LOXL-2, 2.52-fold in LOXL-3 and 3.32-fold in LOXL-4). Meanwhile, TGF-β1 induced injured ACL to express more MMPs than injured MCL fibroblasts (up to 2.33-fold in MMP-1, 2.45-fold in MMP-2, 1.89-fold in MMP-3 and 1.50-fold in MMP-12). The further protein results were coincident with the gene expressions above. The different expressions of LOXs and MMPs inferred the intrinsic differences between ACL and MCL, and the intrinsic differences could help to explain their differential healing abilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Relationship between Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury and Osteoarthritis of the Knee

    PubMed Central

    Simon, David; Saltzman, Bryan M.; Rollins, Meaghan; Bach, Bernard R.; MacDonald, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are a common injury, particularly in the athletic and youth populations. The known association between ACL injury and subsequent osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee merits a more in-depth understanding of the relationship between the ACL-injured knee and osteoarthritis. ACL injury, especially with concomitant meniscal or other ligamentous pathology, predisposes the knee to an increased risk of osteoarthritis. ACL insufficiency results in deterioration of the normal physiologic knee bending culminating in increased anterior tibial translation and increased internal tibial rotation. This leads to increased mean contact stresses in the posterior medial and lateral compartments under anterior and rotational loading. However, surgical reconstruction of the ACL has not been shown to reduce the risk of future OA development back to baseline and has variability based on operative factors of graft choice, timing of surgery, presence of meniscal and chondral abnormalities, and surgical technique. Known strategies to prevent OA development are applicable to patients with ACL deficiency or after ACL reconstruction and include weight management, avoidance of excessive musculoskeletal loading, and strength training. Reconstruction of the ACL does not necessarily prevent osteoarthritis in many of these patients and may depend on several external variables. PMID:25954533

  15. Scaffold architecture and fibrin gels promote meniscal cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pawelec, K. M., E-mail: pawelec.km@gmail.com, E-mail: jw626@cam.ac.uk; Best, S. M.; Cameron, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Stability of the knee relies on the meniscus, a complex connective tissue with poor healing ability. Current meniscal tissue engineering is inadequate, as the signals for increasing meniscal cell proliferation have not been established. In this study, collagen scaffold structure, isotropic or aligned, and fibrin gel addition were tested. Metabolic activity was promoted by fibrin addition. Cellular proliferation, however, was significantly increased by both aligned architectures and fibrin addition. None of the constructs impaired collagen type I production or triggered adverse inflammatory responses. It was demonstrated that both fibrin gel addition and optimized scaffold architecture effectively promote meniscal cell proliferation.

  16. Diagnostic value of history-taking and physical examination for assessing meniscal tears of the knee in general practice.

    PubMed

    Wagemakers, Harry Pa; Heintjes, Edith M; Boks, Simone S; Berger, Marjolein Y; Verhaar, Jan An; Koes, Bart W; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita Ma

    2008-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic value of history-taking and physical examination of meniscal tears in general practice. An observational study determining diagnostic values (sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratios). General practice. Consecutive patients aged 18 to 65 years with a traumatic knee injury who consulted their general practitioner within 5 weeks after trauma. Participating patients filled out a questionnaire (history-taking) followed by a standardized physical examination. Assessment of meniscal tears was determined by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and was performed blinded for the results of physical examination and history-taking. Of the 134 patients included in this study, 47 had a meniscal tear. From history-taking, the determinants "age over 40 years," "continuation of activity impossible," and "weight-bearing during trauma" indicated an association with a meniscal tear after multivariate logistic regression analysis, whereas from physical examination only "pain at passive flexion" indicated an association. These associated determinants from history-taking showed some diagnostic value; the positive likelihood ratio (LR+) reached up to 2.0 for age over 40 years, whereas the isolated test pain at passive flexion from physical examination has less diagnostic value, with an LR+ of 1.3. Combining determinants from history-taking and physical examination improved the diagnostic value with a maximum LR+ of 5.8; however, this combination only applied to a limited number of patients. History-taking has some diagnostic value, whereas physical examination did not add any diagnostic value for detecting meniscal tears in general practice.

  17. Comparison of postoperative magnetic resonance imaging and second-look arthroscopy for evaluating meniscal allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Min; Kim, Jong-Min; Jeon, Byeong-Sam; Lee, Chang-Rack; Lim, Sung-Joon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Bin, Seong-Il

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of transplanted meniscal allograft with second-look arthroscopy and evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI for assessing graft status. From 1996 to 2012, among 290 knees that underwent meniscal allograft transplantation and received follow-up examination for more than 1 year, those knees that underwent second-look arthroscopy were reviewed. Patients with no postoperative MRI and patients with a time gap between postoperative MRI and second-look arthroscopy of more than 3 months were excluded. Anatomically, the meniscus was divided into 3 segments: anterior one-third, mid body, and posterior one-third. Each part of the meniscus was evaluated using both methods. Grade 3 MRI signal intensity was diagnosed as a meniscal tear radiologically. By use of second-look arthroscopy as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of postoperative MRI were assessed in each segment of the grafts. Twenty knees were retrospectively enrolled. The specificity, PPV, and accuracy for the anterior one-third were lower than those for the mid body and posterior one-third (specificity of 35.3% v 91.7% and 90%, respectively; PPV of 21.4% v 87.5% and 90.9%, respectively; and accuracy of 45% v 90% and 95%, respectively). However, the sensitivity and NPV were similar among the anterior one-third, mid body, and posterior one-third (sensitivity of 100%, 87.5%, and 100%, respectively; and NPV of 100%, 91.7%, and 100%, respectively). There were no significant differences in the comparison between the diagnostic MRI values of lateral grafts and medial grafts. Of 5 cases that showed grade 3 signal at only the anterior one-third section, 60% had no clinical signs. There were no graft tears in any cases. The anterior one-third of grafts showed low specificity, PPV, and accuracy of postoperative MRI compared with the mid

  18. Analysis of 3D strain in the human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Kolaczek, S; Hewison, C; Caterine, S; Ragbar, M X; Getgood, A; Gordon, K D

    2016-10-01

    This study presents a method to evaluate three-dimensional strain in meniscal tissue using medical imaging. Strain is calculated by tracking small teflon markers implanted within the meniscal tissue using computed tomography imaging. The results are presented for strains in the middle and posterior third of the medial menisci of 10 human cadaveric knees, under simulated physiologically relevant loading. In the middle position, an average compressive strain of 3.4% was found in the medial-lateral direction, and average tensile strains of 1.4% and 3.5% were found in the anterior-posterior and superior-inferior directions respectively at 5° of knee flexion with an applied load of 1× body weight. In the posterior position, under the same conditions, average compressive strains of 2.2% and 6.3% were found in the medial-lateral and superior-inferior directions respectively, and an average tensile strain of 3.8% was found in the anterior-posterior direction. No statistically significant difference between strain in the middle or posterior of the meniscus or between the global strains is uncovered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of gait and pathology outcomes of three meniscal procedures for induction of knee osteoarthritis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Cake, M A; Read, R A; Corfield, G; Daniel, A; Burkhardt, D; Smith, M M; Little, C B

    2013-01-01

    Meniscectomy (MX) of sheep induces a well-established animal model of human osteoarthritis (OA). This study compared the clinical (lameness) and pathological outcomes of unilateral, complete medial MX vs two less traumatic and more easily performed meniscal destabilisation procedures. Four-year old wethers (n = 6/group) underwent sham operation, cranial pole release (CPR), mid-body transection (MBT) or total MX of the medial meniscus. Joints were assessed for gross pathology (cartilage erosion and osteophytes), histomorphometry, two histopathology scoring methods (modified Mankin-type and Pritzker score), and immunohistology for ADAMTS- and MMP-cleaved neoepitopes, at 12 weeks post-op. Ground reaction forces (GRFs) were determined by force plate in a subset (n = 4/group) at baseline, 2.5, 8, and 12 weeks post-op. Gross pathology scores of operated groups differed significantly from sham animals (P < 0.05) but not from each other, though qualitative differences were noted: CPR sheep developed more cranial and focal lesions, while MBT and MX joints showed more widespread lesions and osteophyte formation. Similarly, histopathology scores were significantly elevated vs sham but did not differ between operated groups at P < 0.05, except for a trend for lower tibial cartilage histopathology in MBT consistent with the immunohistologic pattern of reduced aggrecanase-cleavage neoepitope in that model. CPR sheep developed less femoral subchondral sclerosis, suggesting some residual biomechanical effect from the destabilised but intact meniscus. Few significant differences were noted between operated groups in force plate analyses, though gait abnormalities appeared to be least in CPR sheep, and most persistent (>12 weeks) in MBT animals. The well-validated ovine MX model and the simpler meniscal destabilisation procedures resulted in broadly similar joint pathology and lameness. Meniscal CPR or MBT, as easier and more clinically relevant procedures, may represent preferred

  20. Predictors of degenerative medial meniscus extrusion: radial component and knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Lee, Bum-Sik; Kim, Jong-Min; Yang, Kyung-Sook; Cha, Eun-Jong; Park, Ji-Hun; Bin, Seong-Il

    2011-02-01

    the purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a radial tear on degenerative medial meniscus posterior horn tear extrusion and to identify predictors of medial meniscus extrusion. we reviewed the records of 102 knees with medial meniscus posterior horn tears and degeneration that underwent a partial meniscectomy. Tears were classified as root (n = 17) and non-root (n = 85) tears, or as radial (n = 46) and non-radial (n = 56) tears. Groups were compared in terms of absolute and relative meniscal extrusion, and the proportion of knees with major (> 3 mm) extrusion. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify predictors of extrusion. the radial group had greater mean absolute (4 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 mm, P = 0.001) and relative (31 ± 11 vs. 23 ± 12%, P = 0.031) extrusion than the non-radial group. The radial group also had a greater proportion of major extrusions than the non-radial group (74% vs. 26%; P = 0.016). In contrast, the root tear and non-root tear groups were similar in terms of mean absolute (3 ± 1 vs. 3 ± 1 mm, P = n.s.) and relative (30 ± 7 vs. 26 ± 13%; P = n.s.) extrusion and in terms of proportion with major extrusions (59 vs. 55%; P = n.s.). Extrusion was found to be associated with a similar strength with both the presence of a radial component and the preoperative Kellgren-Lawrence grade. meniscal extrusion was greater and more severe in knees with a radial tear component than in knees without a radial component. The incidence and degree of major extrusion was similar in knees with root tears and non-root tears. A radial component and knee osteoarthritis severity were similarly predictive of absolute and relative extrusion. Meniscal extrusion in osteoarthritic knees was associated not only with degenerative meniscal tear but also with osteoarthritis severity. Therefore, arthroscopic meniscal procedures, especially meniscal repair, should be cautiously considered in patients with meniscal extrusion.

  1. Patient-reported outcome measures for patients with meniscal tears: a systematic review of measurement properties and evaluation with the COSMIN checklist

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Robert; Beard, David J; Price, Andrew J; Hopewell, Sally

    2017-01-01

    Objective Meniscal tears occur frequently in the population and the most common surgical treatment, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, is performed in approximately two million cases worldwide each year. The purpose of this systematic review is to summarise and critically appraise the evidence for the use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in patients with meniscal tears. Design A systematic review was undertaken. Data on reported measurement properties were extracted and the quality of the studies appraised according to Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments. Data sources A search of MEDLINE, Embase, AMED and PsycINFO, unlimited by language or publication date (last search 20 February 2017). Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Development and validation studies reporting the measurement properties of PROMs in patients with meniscal tears were included. Results 11 studies and 10 PROMs were included. The overall quality of studies was poor. For measurement of symptoms and functional status, there is only very limited evidence supporting the selection of either the Lysholm Knee Scale, International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form or the Dutch version of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. For measuring health-related quality of life, only limited evidence supports the selection of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET). Of all the PROMs evaluated, WOMET has the strongest evidence for content validity. Conclusion For patients with meniscal tears, there is poor quality and incomplete evidence regarding the validity of the currently available PROMs. Further research is required to ensure these PROMs truly reflect the symptoms, function and quality of life of patients with meniscal tears. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017056847. PMID:29030413

  2. A Cohort Study on Meniscal Lesions among Airport Baggage Handlers.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Sigurd; Brauer, Charlotte; Pedersen, Ellen Bøtker; Alkjær, Tine; Koblauch, Henrik; Simonsen, Erik Bruun; Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal lesions are common and may contribute to the development of knee arthrosis. A few case-control and cross-sectional studies have identified knee-straining work as risk factors for meniscal lesions, but exposure-response relations and the role of specific exposures are uncertain, and previous results may be sensitive to reporting and selection bias. We examined the relation between meniscal lesions and cumulative exposure to heavy lifting in a prospective register-based study with complete follow-up and independent information on exposure and outcome. We established a cohort of unskilled men employed at Copenhagen Airport or in other companies in the metropolitan Copenhagen area from 1990 to 2012 (the Copenhagen Airport Cohort). The cohort at risk included 3,307 airport baggage handlers with heavy lifting and kneeling or squatting work tasks and 63,934 referents with a similar socioeconomic background and less knee-straining work. Baggage handlers lifted suitcases with an average weight of approximately 15 kg, in total approximately five tonnes during a 9-hour workday. The cohort was followed in the National Patient Register and Civil Registration System. The outcome was a first time hospital diagnosis or surgery of a meniscal lesion. Baggage handlers had a higher incidence of meniscal lesions than the referents. Within baggage handlers spline regression showed that the incidence rate ratio was 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.29-2.84) after five years as a baggage handler and then decreased slowly to reach unity after approximately 30 years, adjusted for effects of potential confounders. This relation between baggage handling and meniscal lesions was present for work on the apron which involves lifting in a kneeling or squatting position, but not in the baggage hall, which only involves lifting in standing positions. The results support that long-term heavy lifting in a kneeling or squatting position is a risk factor for the development of symptomatic

  3. Affective Aprosodia from a Medial Frontal Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Kenneth M.; Leon, Susan A.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectives: Whereas injury to the left hemisphere induces aphasia, injury to the right hemisphere's perisylvian region induces an impairment of emotional speech prosody (affective aprosodia). Left-sided medial frontal lesions are associated with reduced verbal fluency with relatively intact comprehension and repetition…

  4. Medial meniscus posterior root tear induces pathological posterior extrusion of the meniscus in the knee-flexed position: An open magnetic resonance imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Masuda, S; Furumatsu, T; Okazaki, Y; Kodama, Y; Hino, T; Kamatsuki, Y; Miyazawa, S; Ozaki, T

    2018-04-10

    A medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) is defined as an injury to the posterior meniscal insertion on the tibia. In MMPRT, the medial meniscus (MM) hoop function is damaged, and the MM undergoes a medial extrusion into the interior from the superior articular surface of the tibia. However, the details of MM position and movement during knee joint movement are unclear in MMPRT cases. The present study aims to evaluate MM position and movement via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination of the MM posterior extrusion (MMPE) at knee flexion angles of 10° and 90°. We hypothesized that, during knee flexion, the MM will shift to the posterior and the posterior extrusion will increase compared to that when the knee is extended. Twenty-four patients were diagnosed with symptomatic MMPRT on open MRI examination. Preoperative MMPE, anteroposterior interval (API) of the MM, and MM medial extrusion (MMME) at knee flexion angles of 10° and 90° were measured. For patients with MMPRT, the MMPE increased from -4.77±1.43mm to 3.79±1.17mm (p<0.001) when the knee flexion angle increased from 10° to 90°. Further, flexing the knee from 10° to 90° decreased the API of the MM from 20.19±4.22mm to 16.41±5.14mm (p<0.001). MMME showed no significant change between knee flexion angles of 10° and 90°. This study demonstrated that, in cases of MMPRT, the MMPE clearly increases when the knee is flexed to 90°, while MMME does not change. Our results suggest that open MRI examination can be used to evaluate the dynamic position of the posterior MM by scanning the knee as it flexes to 90°. IV: retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Both Posterior Root Lateral-Medial Meniscus Tears With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: The Step-by-Step Systematic Arthroscopic Repair Technique.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Prasetia, Renaldi

    2017-10-01

    The occurrence of posterior root tear of both the lateral and medial menisci, combined with anterior cruciate ligament rupture, is rare. Problems may be encountered such as the difficulty to access the medial meniscal root tear, the confusing circumstances about which structure to repair first, and the possibility of the tunnel for each repair to become taut inside the tibial bone. We present the arthroscopy technique step by step to overcome the difficulties in an efficient and time-preserving manner.

  6. The Oxford Medial Partial Knee Replacement. The rationale for a femur first technique.

    PubMed

    Shakespeare, David; Waite, Jon

    2012-12-01

    The Oxford Medial Partial Knee Replacement (PKR) has been in clinical use for more than 20 years. The current surgical technique requires a number of judgements to be made, and even in the most experienced hands surgery can be challenging. We present an alternative surgical technique, which we believe addresses the unpredictability of the current method. The technique is based on precise femoral positioning prior to tibial resection. A prospective series of 125 Oxford Medial PKRs was performed using this new technique and a radiographical analysis was performed. We used meniscal thickness, meniscal position and femoral position as measures of reproducibility of the procedure. Variability in meniscal thickness has been minimised with a 3mm meniscal bearing used in 21 knees (15%), 4mm (the target thickness) in 73 knees (59%) and 5mm in 30 knees (24%). The mean meniscal position relative to the tibial tray upright was 2mm (SD 1mm). Femoral component position relative to the tibial tray, which defines the excursion of the meniscus was also assessed. Mean coronal plane alignment was 2° of valgus (SD 2.8). Mean flexion/extension was 3.8° (SD 3.1). The mean rotation was 10° internal (SD 5°). We believe this new technique makes this procedure more reproducible, and should be considered as a viable alternative to the current recommended technique. It may be a better technique for those surgeons who are relatively inexperienced with this prosthesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical knee findings in floor layers with focus on meniscal status.

    PubMed

    Rytter, Søren; Jensen, Lilli Kirkeskov; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2008-10-22

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported and clinical knee morbidity among floor layers compared to a group of graphic designers, with special attention to meniscal status. We obtained information about knee complaints by questionnaire and conducted a bilateral clinical and radiographic knee examination in 134 male floor layers and 120 male graphic designers. After the exclusion of subjects with reports of earlier knee injuries the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) of knee complaints and clinical findings were computed among floor layers compared to graphic designers, using logistic regression. Estimates were adjusted for effects of body mass index, age and knee straining sports. Using radiographic evaluations, we conducted side-specific sensitivity analyses regarding clinical signs of meniscal lesions after the exclusion of participants with tibiofemoral (TF) osteoarthritis (OA). Reports of knee pain (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.6), pain during stair walking (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.3-3.9) and symptoms of catching of the knee joint (OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 1.4-5.7) were more prevalent among floor layers compared to graphic designers. Additionally, significant more floor layers than graphic designers had clinical signs suggesting possible meniscal lesions: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1-5.0) and TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.4, 95% CI = 2.4-12.0). Excluding floor layers (n = 22) and graphic designers (n = 15) with radiographic TF OA did not alter this trend between the two study groups: a positive McMurray test (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.0-4.9), TF joint line tenderness (OR = 5.0, 95% CI = 2.0-12.5). Results indicate that floor layers have a high prevalence of both self-reported and clinical knee morbidity. Clinical knee findings suggesting possible meniscal lesions were significant more prevalent among floor layers compared to a group of low-level exposed graphic designers and an association with occupational

  8. Effect of radial meniscal tear on in situ forces of meniscus and tibiofemoral relationship.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Yuta; Mae, Tatsuo; Fujie, Hiromichi; Shino, Konsei; Ohori, Tomoki; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Nakata, Ken

    2017-02-01

    To clarify the effect of the radial tear of the lateral meniscus on the in situ meniscus force and the tibiofemoral relationship under axial loads and valgus torques. Ten intact porcine knees were settled to a 6-degree of freedom robotic system, while the force and 3-dimensional path of the knees were recorded via Universal Force Sensor (UFS) during 3 cycles of 250-N axial load and 5-Nm valgus torque at 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of knee flexion. The same examination was performed on the following 3 meniscal states sequentially; 33, 66, and 100% width of radial tears at the middle segment of the lateral meniscus, while recording the force and path of the knees via UFS. Finally, all paths were reproduced after total lateral meniscectomy and the in situ force of the lateral meniscus were calculated with the principle of superposition. The radial tear of 100% width significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused tibial medial shift and valgus rotation at 30°-60° of knee flexion in both testing protocols. Under a 250-N axial load at 60° of knee flexion, the in situ force decreased to 36 ± 29 N with 100% width of radial tear, which was 122 ± 38 N in the intact state. Additionally, the tibia shifted medially by 2.1 ± 0.9 mm and valgusrotated by 2.5 ± 1.9° with the complete radial tear. However, the radial tear of 33 or 66% width had little effect on either the in situ force or the tibial position. A radial tear of 100% width involving the rim significantly decreased the in situ force of the lateral meniscus and caused medial shift and valgus rotation of the tibia, whereas a radial tear of up to 66% width produced only little change. The clinical relevance is that loss of meniscal functions due to complete radial tear can lead to abnormal stress concentration in a focal area of cartilage and can increase the risk of osteoarthritis in the future.

  9. The role of biomaterials in the treatment of meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Robert J.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive investigations over the recent decades have established the anatomical, biomechanical and functional importance of the meniscus in the knee joint. As a functioning part of the joint, it serves to prevent the deterioration of articular cartilage and subsequent osteoarthritis. To this end, meniscus repair and regeneration is of particular interest from the biomaterial, bioengineering and orthopaedic research community. Even though meniscal research is previously of a considerable volume, the research community with evolving material science, biology and medical advances are all pushing toward emerging novel solutions and approaches to the successful treatment of meniscal difficulties. This review presents a tactical evaluation of the latest biomaterials, experiments to simulate meniscal tears and the state-of-the-art materials and strategies currently used to treat tears. PMID:29158995

  10. Intra-articular Recombinant Human Proteoglycan 4 Mitigates Cartilage Damage Following Destabilization of the Medial Meniscus in the Yucatan Minipig

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Kimberly A.; Chin, Kaitlyn E.; Jay, Gregory D.; Zhang, Ling X.; Teeple, Erin; McAllister, Scott; Badger, Gary J.; Schmidt, Tannin A.; Fleming, Braden C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lubricin, or proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), is a glycoprotein responsible for joint boundary lubrication. PRG4 has been previously shown to be down-regulated following traumatic joint injury such as a meniscal tear. There is preliminary evidence suggesting that intra-articular injection of PRG4 post-injury will reduce cartilage damage in rat models of surgically-induced post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Objective To determine the efficacy of intra-articular injection of full length recombinant human lubricin (rhPRG4) for reducing cartilage damage after medial meniscus destabilization (DMM) in a pre-clinical large animal model. Study Design Controlled laboratory study Methods Unilateral DMM was performed in 29 Yucutan minipigs. One week post-DMM, animals received 3 weekly intra-articular injections (3cc/injection): 1) rhPRG4 [1.3mg/ml; n=10], 2) rhPRG4+hyaluronan [1.3mg/ml rhPRG4 and 3mg/ml hyaluronan (~950 kDA); n=10], and 3) phosphate buffered saline [PBS; n=9]. Hind limbs were harvested 26 weeks post-surgery. Cartilage integrity was evaluated using macroscopic (India Ink) and microscopic (Safranin O-fast green and hematoxylin & eosin) scoring systems. Secondary outcomes evaluated using ELISA included PRG4 levels in synovial fluid, CTX-II concentrations in urine and serum, and IL-1β levels in synovial fluid and serum. Results The rhPRG4 group had significantly less macroscopic cartilage damage in the medial tibial plateau compared to the PBS group (p=.002). No difference was found between the rhPRG4+hyaluronan and PBS groups (p=.23). However, no differences in microscopic damage scores were observed between the three groups (p=.70). PRG4 production was elevated in the rhPRG4 group synovial fluid compared to the PBS group (p=.033). The rhPRG4 group presented significantly lower urinary CTX-II levels, but not serum levels, when compared to the PBS (p=.013) and rhPRG4+hyaluronan (p=.011) groups. In serum and synovial fluid, both rhPRG4 (p=.006; p=.017) and rhPRG4

  11. Posterior horn instability of the medial meniscus a sign of posterior meniscotibial ligament insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Mariani, P P

    2011-07-01

    In longstanding chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency, we identified an abnormal movement of the posterior medial meniscal horn, likely due to insufficiency of the posteromedial meniscotibial ligament. Passing from extension to flexion or vice versa, the medial posterior horn slides below the posterior rim of the tibia exposing the tibial plateau. Fixation with suture anchors of the meniscotibial ligament through a posteromedial portal restored normal meniscotibial tension and reduced instability of the meniscal posterior horn. The purpose of the present study was to present the arthroscopic features of posterior medial meniscus instability and to report results following arthroscopic repair. During the two-year study period, from 2007 through 2008, this arthroscopic feature was detected in 12 patients, 5 patients had failure of a previous ACL reconstruction and 7 patients had delay in ligamentous reconstruction for various reasons. All patients were affected by severe anterior-posterior translation with 11.3 ± 4.3 mm of side-to-side difference at KT-2000 and by associated rotatory laxity with grade 3 of pivot shift. At follow-up of 1 year, the combined ACL reconstruction and fixation of the posteromedial horn showed a reduction in the rotatory and anteroposterior laxity. This study suggests the importance of a proper arthroscopic evaluation of the posterior medial capsule in patients with chronic ACL insufficiency and highlights the potential presence of an unstable posterior horn of the medial meniscus as an indirect arthroscopic sign of peripheral laxity.

  12. Meniscal tears, repairs and replacement: their relevance to osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Ian

    2011-04-01

    The menisci of the knee are important load sharers and shock absorbers in the joint. Meniscal tears are common, and whenever possible meniscal tears should be surgically repaired. Meniscectomy leads to a significant increased risk of osteoarthritis, and various options now exist for replacing missing menisci, including the use of meniscal scaffolds or the replacement of the entire meniscus by meniscal allograft transplantation. The field of meniscal surgery continues to develop apace, and the future may lie in growing new menisci by tissue engineering techniques.

  13. Anatomy of the anterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; Rasmussen, Matthew T; James, Evan W; Wijdicks, Coen A; Engebretsen, Lars; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    While the biomechanical importance of the meniscal roots has been demonstrated, the anatomy of the anterior meniscal roots remains largely unknown. Defining the quantitative anatomy of the anterior meniscal root attachments is essential for developing improved diagnostic and surgical techniques. The anterior medial (AM) and anterior lateral (AL) meniscal roots could be quantitatively defined relative to open and arthroscopic surgical landmarks. Descriptive laboratory study. Twelve nonpaired human cadaveric knees were used (average age, 51.3 years). A coordinate measuring device quantified the anatomic relationships of the AM and AL root attachments to open and arthroscopic surgical landmarks. The tibial attachments of both anterior roots were defined and quantified by categorizing the fibers of the root as either central, dense attachments or peripheral, supplemental attachments. The center of the tibial tuberosity and the medial tibial eminence apex were 27.0 mm lateral and distal and 27.5 mm posterior to the center of the AM root, respectively. The center of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the lateral tibial eminence apex were 5.0 mm posteromedial and 14.4 mm posterolateral to the center of the AL root, respectively. The AM root attachment had a mean area of 110.4 mm(2) (95% CI, 92.2-128.5) with a central attachment of 56.3 mm(2) (95% CI, 46.9-65.8). The AL root attachment had a mean area of 140.7 mm(2) (95% CI, 121.6-159.8) and inserted deeply beneath the ACL in all specimens. The overlap of the ACL on the AL root averaged 88.9 mm(2) (95% CI, 63.3-114.6), comprising 63.2% of the AL root attachment. The anterior meniscal roots were identified in relation to pertinent open and arthroscopic landmarks. The extended overlap between the AL root and ACL attachment revealed a more intimate tibial attachment relationship than previously recognized. Quantitative descriptions of the anterior meniscal roots elucidate the relationship between the root attachments

  14. In-vivo evaluation of the kinematic behavior of an artificial medial meniscus implant: A pilot study using open-MRI.

    PubMed

    De Coninck, Tineke; Elsner, Jonathan J; Linder-Ganz, Eran; Cromheecke, Michiel; Shemesh, Maoz; Huysse, Wouter; Verdonk, René; Verstraete, Koenraad; Verdonk, Peter

    2014-09-01

    In this pilot study we wanted to evaluate the kinematics of a knee implanted with an artificial polycarbonate-urethane meniscus device, designed for medial meniscus replacement. The static kinematic behavior of the implant was compared to the natural medial meniscus of the non-operated knee. A second goal was to evaluate the motion pattern, the radial displacement and the deformation of the meniscal implant. Three patients with a polycarbonate-urethane implant were included in this prospective study. An open-MRI was used to track the location of the implant during static weight-bearing conditions, within a range of motion of 0° to 120° knee flexion. Knee kinematics were evaluated by measuring the tibiofemoral contact points and femoral roll-back. Meniscus measurements (both natural and artificial) included anterior-posterior meniscal movement, radial displacement, and meniscal height. No difference (P>0.05) was demonstrated in femoral roll-back and tibiofemoral contact points during knee flexion between the implanted and the non-operated knees. Meniscal measurements showed no significant difference in radial displacement and meniscal height (P>0.05) at all flexion angles, in both the implanted and non-operated knees. A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in anterior-posterior movement during flexion was observed between the two groups. In this pilot study, the artificial polycarbonate-urethane implant, indicated for medial meniscus replacement, had no influence on femoral roll-back and tibiofemoral contact points, thus suggesting that the joint maintains its static kinematic properties after implantation. Radial displacement and meniscal height were not different, but anterior-posterior movement was slightly different between the implant and the normal meniscus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Protects the Repaired Medial Meniscus: A Comparative Study of 383 Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstructions From the SANTI Study Group With a Minimum Follow-up of 2 Years.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Saithna, Adnan; Blakeney, William G; Ouanezar, Herve; Borade, Amrut; Daggett, Matt; Thaunat, Mathieu; Fayard, Jean-Marie; Romain Delaloye, Jean

    2018-05-01

    The prevalence of osteoarthritis after successful meniscal repair is significantly less than that after failed meniscal repair. To determine whether the addition of anterolateral ligament reconstruction (ALLR) confers a protective effect on medial meniscal repair performed at the time of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was performed to include all patients who had undergone primary ACLR with concomitant posterior horn medial meniscal repair through a posteromedial portal between January 2013 and August 2015. ACLR autograft choice was bone-patellar tendon-bone, hamstring tendons (or quadrupled hamstring tendons), or quadrupled semitendinosus tendon graft with or without ALLR. At the end of the study period, all patients were contacted to determine if they had undergone reoperation. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was plotted, and a Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to perform multivariate analysis. A total of 383 patients (mean ± SD age, 27.4 ± 9.2 years) were included with a mean follow-up of 37.4 months (range, 24-54.9 months): 194 patients underwent an isolated ACLR, and 189 underwent a combined ACLR + ALLR. At final follow-up, there was no significant difference between groups in postoperative side-to-side laxity (isolated ACLR group, 0.9 ± 0.9 mm [min to max, -1 to 3]; ACLR + ALLR group, 0.8 ± 1.0 mm [min to max, -2 to 3]; P = .2120) or Lysholm score (isolated ACLR group, 93.0 [95% CI, 91.3-94.7]; ACLR + ALLR group, 93.7 [95% CI, 92.3-95.1]; P = .556). Forty-three patients (11.2%) underwent reoperation for failure of the medial meniscal repair or a new tear. The survival rates of meniscal repair at 36 months were 91.2% (95% CI, 85.4%-94.8) in the ACLR + ALLR group and 83.8% (95% CI, 77.1%-88.7%; P = .033) in the ACLR group. The probability of failure of medial meniscal repair was >2 times lower in patients with ACLR + ALLR as compared

  16. Cell Based Meniscal Repair Using an Aligned Bioactive Nanofibrous Sheath

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    to rapid joint degeneration (i.e., osteoarthritis). Tissue engineering approaches, including the combination of cells, scaffolds, and bioactive...nano/microfibers comprising engineered scaffolds can mimic the ultrastructure of the native meniscal extracellular matrix (ECM); when seeded with adult...explant and in vivo goat model. 2. KEYWORDS: Provide a brief list of keywords (limit to 20 words). Meniscus tissue engineering , electrospun

  17. Knee Pain and Mobility Impairments: Meniscal and Articular Cartilage Lesions Revision 2018: Using the Evidence to Guide Physical Therapist Practice.

    PubMed

    2018-02-01

    Meniscus and articular cartilage lesions are common knee injuries. The resulting knee pain and mobility impairments can be improved by physical therapists during nonoperative and operative management. Recommendations from clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) such as this revision, titled "Knee Pain and Mobility Impairments: Meniscal and Articular Cartilage Lesions," published in the February 2018 issue of JOSPT, can help physical therapists engage in evidence-informed practice and reduce unnecessary clinical variation. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2018;48(2):123-124. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.0503.

  18. The potential effect of anatomic relationship between the femur and the tibia on medial meniscus tears.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Murat; Unlu, Serhan; Cay, Nurdan; Apaydin, Nihal; Dogan, Metin

    2014-10-01

    The anatomic and the kinematical relationships between the femur and the tibia have been previously examined in both normal and diseased knees. However, less attention has been directed to the effect of these relationships on the meniscal diseases. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the impact of femorotibial incongruence on both lateral and medial meniscal tears. A total of 100 images obtained from MRI of 100 patients (39 males and 61 females) were included in the study. Diameters of the medial and the lateral femoral condyles, thicknesses of the menisci, and diameters of the medial and the lateral tibial articular surfaces were measured. The medial meniscus tear was detected in 40 (40 %) patients. However, no lateral meniscus tear was found. Significant relationships were found between the diameters of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial superior articular surface and between the diameters of the posterior lateral femoral condyle and the lateral tibial superior articular surface. The mean values for the diameter of the medial condyle of the femur, the lateral condyle of the femur, the medial superior articular surface of the tibia, and the lateral superior articular surface of the tibia were found to be significantly higher in cases with meniscus tear compared to cases without meniscus tear. However, no significant difference was present regarding the thicknesses of the medial and the lateral menisci. A positive relationship between the diameter of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the tibial medial superior articular surface was found in cases with (n = 40) (r (2) = 0.208, p = 0.003) and without tear (n = 60) (r (2) = 0.182, p = 0.001). In addition, a significant positive relationship was found between the diameter of the posterior medial femoral condyle and the medial tibial superior articular surface in cases with and without tear. The impact of femorotibial incongruence on the medial meniscus tear is important for

  19. Radiographic identification of the anterior and posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci.

    PubMed

    James, Evan W; LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; Wijdicks, Coen A; Engebretsen, Lars; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-11-01

    Anatomic root placement is necessary to restore native meniscal function during meniscal root repair. Radiographic guidelines for anatomic root placement are essential to improve the accuracy and consistency of anatomic root repair and to optimize outcomes after surgery. To define quantitative radiographic guidelines for identification of the anterior and posterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci on anteroposterior (AP) and lateral radiographic views. Descriptive laboratory study. The anterior and posterior roots of the medial and lateral menisci were identified in 12 human cadaveric specimens (average age, 51.3 years; age range, 39-65 years) and labeled using 2-mm radiopaque spheres. True AP and lateral radiographs were obtained, and 2 raters independently measured blinded radiographs in relation to pertinent landmarks and radiographic reference lines. On AP radiographs, the anteromedial and posteromedial roots were, on average, 31.9 ± 5.0 mm and 36.3 ± 3.5 mm lateral to the edge of the medial tibial plateau, respectively. The anterolateral and posterolateral roots were, on average, 37.9 ± 5.2 mm and 39.3 ± 3.8 mm medial to the edge of the lateral tibial plateau, respectively. On lateral radiographs, the anteromedial and anterolateral roots were, on average, 4.8 ± 3.7 mm and 20.5 ± 4.3 mm posterior to the anterior margin of the tibial plateau, respectively. The posteromedial and posterolateral roots were, on average, 18.0 ± 2.8 mm and 19.8 ± 3.5 mm anterior to the posterior margin of the tibial plateau, respectively. The intrarater and interrater intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were >0.958, demonstrating excellent reliability. The meniscal root attachment sites were quantitatively and reproducibly defined with respect to anatomic landmarks and superimposed radiographic reference lines. The high ICCs indicate that the measured radiographic relationships are a consistent means for evaluating meniscal root positions. This study

  20. Capsulodesis Versus Bone Trough Technique in Lateral Meniscal Allograft Transplantation: Graft Extrusion and Functional Results.

    PubMed

    Masferrer-Pino, Angel; Monllau, Joan C; Ibáñez, Maximiliano; Erquicia, Juan I; Pelfort, Xavier; Gelber, Pablo E

    2018-06-01

    and B, respectively (P < .001). The Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score improved from 51.98 ± 2.84 to 90.88 ± 7.53 in group A (P < .001) and from 50.44 ± 2.32 to 92.01 ± 6.71 in group B (P < .001). Patient satisfaction with regard to the procedure stood at a mean of 3.6 ± 0.2 points out of a maximum of 4 in group A and 3.8 ± 0.4 in group B. There were no complications in this series. The capsulodesis technique in lateral MAT proved not to be statistically different at decreasing the degree of meniscal extrusion with respect to the bone-bridge fixation. If the first 4 cases using the new capsulodesis technique had not included in the results, the capsulodesis technique would have effectively presented better results relative to the degree of meniscal extrusion compared with the bone-bridge fixation technique. In addition, the functional results were similar. Level II, prospective comparative study. Copyright © 2018 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of medial meniscus posterior horn avulsion and repair on tibiofemoral contact area and peak contact pressure with clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Marzo, John M; Gurske-DePerio, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Avulsion of the posterior horn attachment of the medial meniscus can compromise load-bearing ability, produce meniscus extrusion, and result in tibiofemoral joint-space narrowing, articular cartilage damage, and osteoarthritis. Avulsion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus will increase peak contact pressure and decrease contact area in the medial compartment of the knee, and posterior horn repair will restore contact area and peak contact pressures to values of the control knee. Controlled laboratory study. Eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees had tibiofemoral peak contact pressures and contact area measured in the control state. The posterior horn of the medial meniscus was avulsed from its insertion and knees were retested. The meniscal avulsion was repaired by suture through a transosseous tunnel and the knees were tested a third time. Avulsion of the posterior horn attachment of the medial meniscus resulted in a significant increase in medial joint peak contact pressure (from 3841 kPa to 5084 kPa) and a significant decrease in contact area (from 594 mm(2) to 474 mm(2)). Repair of the avulsion resulted in restoration of the loading profiles to values equal to the control knee, with values of 3551 kPa for peak pressure and 592 mm(2) for contact area. Posterior horn medial meniscal root avulsion leads to deleterious alteration of the loading profiles of the medial joint compartment and results in loss of hoop stress resistance, meniscus extrusion, abnormal loading of the joint, and early knee medial-compartment degenerative changes. The repair technique described restores the ability of the medial meniscus to absorb hoop stress and eliminate joint-space narrowing, possibly decreasing the risk of degenerative disease.

  2. Combined osteochondral allograft and meniscal allograft transplantation: a survivorship analysis.

    PubMed

    Getgood, Alan; Gelber, Jonathon; Gortz, Simon; De Young, Alison; Bugbee, William

    2015-04-01

    The efficacy of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) and osteochondral allografting (OCA) as individual treatment modalities for select applications is well established. MAT and OCA are considered symbiotic procedures due to a complementary spectrum of indications and reciprocal contraindications. However, few outcomes of concomitant MAT and OCA have been reported. This study is a retrospective review of patients who received simultaneous MAT and OCA between 1983 and 2011. Forty-eight (twenty-nine male: nineteen female) patients with a median age of 35.8 years (15-66) received combined MAT and OCA procedures between 1983 and 2011. Forty-three patients had received previous surgery with a median of 3 procedures (1-11 procedures). The underlying diagnosis was trauma (tibial plateau fracture) in 33 % with osteoarthritis predominating in 54.2 % of cases. Thirty-one patients received a lateral meniscus, 16 received a medial meniscus and one patient received bilateral MAT. The median number of OCAs was two per patient (1-5 grafts), with a median graft area of 15 cm(2) (0.7-41 cm(2)). There were 21 unipolar, 24 bipolar (tibiofemoral) and three multifocal lesions. Thirty-six MATs constituted a compound tibial plateau OCA with native meniscus attached. At follow-up, failure was defined as any procedure resulting in removal or revision of one or more of the grafts. Patients completed the modified Merle d'Aubigné and Postel (18-point) scale, Knee Society Function (KS-F) score, and subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores. Patient satisfaction was also captured. Twenty-six of 48 patients (54.2 %) required reoperation, but only 11 patients (22.9 %) were noted to have failed (10 MAT and 11 OCA). The mean time to failure was 3.2 years (95 % CI 1.5-4.9 years) and 2.7 years (95 % CI 1.3-4.2 years) for MAT and OCA, respectively. The 5-year survivorship was 78 and 73 % for MAT and OCA respectively, and 69 and 68 % at 10 years. Six of

  3. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  4. Medial elbow pain

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Medial elbow pain is uncommon when compared with lateral elbow pain. Medial epicondylitis is an uncommon diagnosis and can be confused with other sources of pain. Overhead throwers and workers lifting heavy objects are at increased risk of medial elbow pain. Differential diagnosis includes ulnar nerve disorders, cervical radiculopathy, injured ulnar collateral ligament, altered distal triceps anatomy or joint disorders. Children with medial elbow pain have to be assessed for ‘Little League elbow’ and fractures of the medial epicondyle following a traumatic event. This paper is primarily focused on the differential diagnosis of medial elbow pain with basic recommendations on treatment strategies. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:362-371. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160006 PMID:28932488

  5. Identification, Characterization, and Utilization of Adult Meniscal Progenitor Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    pluripotent stem cells for osteoarthritis drug screening . Arthritis Rheumatol. 66, 3062–3072. Xia, Y., Zheng, S., Bidthanapally, A., 2008. Depth-dependent...the development of knee osteoarthritis (OA). New treatments centered on the stem /progenitor cell population resident within the adult meniscus will be...biology to develop a profile of repair cells in the adult meniscus, track meniscal stem /progenitor cell (MSPC) behavior within meniscus as function of

  6. Clinical Evaluation of the Root Tear of the Posterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus in Total Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eui-Sung; Park, Sang-Jun

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the incidence of root tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in total knee replacement arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis and retrospectively analyze clinical results and factors associated with root tears. There were 197 knees of 140 enrolled patients who had undergone total knee replacement arthroplasty between September 2010 and May 2014. The presence of a root tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was confirmed in all patients. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between root tears and the possible factors of meniscal tears including gender, age, severity of symptoms (visual analogue scale [VAS] score and medial joint line tenderness), grade of osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale), body mass index (BMI), varus deformity, and mechanical axis deviation. Meniscal tears were observed in 154 knees (78.17%). The root tear had correlation with the severity of osteoarthritis (p<0.05), varus deformity (p<0.05), mechanical axis deviation (p<0.05), and BMI (p<0.05). Factors considered to represent the severity of osteoarthritis were found to be associated with root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. Increased BMI seemed to be associated with the increased incidence of root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn.

  7. Clinical Evaluation of the Root Tear of the Posterior Horn of the Medial Meniscus in Total Knee Arthroplasty for Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the incidence of root tears of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in total knee replacement arthroplasty for knee osteoarthritis and retrospectively analyze clinical results and factors associated with root tears. Materials and Methods There were 197 knees of 140 enrolled patients who had undergone total knee replacement arthroplasty between September 2010 and May 2014. The presence of a root tear of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was confirmed in all patients. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between root tears and the possible factors of meniscal tears including gender, age, severity of symptoms (visual analogue scale [VAS] score and medial joint line tenderness), grade of osteoarthritis (Kellgren-Lawrence grading scale), body mass index (BMI), varus deformity, and mechanical axis deviation. Results Meniscal tears were observed in 154 knees (78.17%). The root tear had correlation with the severity of osteoarthritis (p<0.05), varus deformity (p<0.05), mechanical axis deviation (p<0.05), and BMI (p<0.05). Conclusions Factors considered to represent the severity of osteoarthritis were found to be associated with root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. Increased BMI seemed to be associated with the increased incidence of root tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn. PMID:26060607

  8. Medial and Lateral Discoid Menisci of Both Knees

    PubMed Central

    Kan, Hiroyuki; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Minami, Ginjiro; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Discoid menisci on both the medial and lateral sides are rare, and there are very few reports on cases involving both sides. We report a case of a 52-year-old female with medial and lateral discoid menisci in both knees. Arthroscopy revealed the lateral menisci of both knees were complete discoid menisci, and partial meniscectomy was performed. The medial menisci were incomplete discoid menisci, but there were no findings of abnormal mobility or injury; therefore, the medial menisci were observed without treatment. At six months postoperatively, her pain and range of motion restrictions disappeared. PMID:27894182

  9. Responses of adventitial CD34+ vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells and medial smooth muscle cells to carotid injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Wu, Yan; Zheng, Yong; Ao, Feng; Kang, Kai; Wan, Yu; Song, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cell culture and carotid injury studies with SD rats were performed to investigate the roles of CD34 + vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal formation. In vitro, the media-isolated SM MHC + SMCs occupied 93.92±8.62% of total BrdU + cells, whereas the CD34 + cells, only 2.61±0.82%, indicating that the cell expansion in SMC culture was attributed to SM MHC + SMCs. The adventitia-isolated CD34 + VRS/Pcs responded to PDGF-BB by differentiating into SMC-like cells which expressed SM22α (an early stage SMC marker), but seldom SM MHC (a late stage SMC marker). In carotid injury model, the CD34 + VRS/Pcs differentiated SMC-like cells migrated in very few numbers into only the outer layer of the media, and this was further confirmed by a cell tracking analysis. While the neointimal cells were consistently SM MHC + and CD34 - SMCs during whole course of the post-injury remodeling. Thus it is speculated that the adventitial CD34 + VRS/Pcs, at least in rat model, do not directly participate in neointimal formation, but function to maintain homeostasis of the media during injury-induced vascular wall remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Interactions between meniscal cells and a self assembled biomimetic surface composed of hyaluronic acid, chitosan and meniscal extracellular matrix molecules.

    PubMed

    Tan, Guak-Kim; Dinnes, Donna L M; Butler, Lauren N; Cooper-White, Justin J

    2010-08-01

    Menisci are one of the most commonly injured parts of the knee with a limited healing potential. This study focuses on fabrication and characterization of biomimetic surfaces for meniscal tissue engineering. To achieve this, a combination of hyaluronic acid/chitosan (HA/CH) mutilayers with covalently immobilized major extracellular matrix (ECM) components of native meniscus, namely collagen I/II (COL.I/II) and chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) was employed. Adsorption of the biomolecules was monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fourier transform-surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR). Immobilization of the biomolecules onto HA/CH mutilayers was achieved by sequential adsorption, with optimum binding at a molar ratio of 1.4:1 (COL.I/II: C6S). After adding COL.I/II, the layers became relatively more rigid and large aggregates were evident. The effects of the modified surfaces on cell proliferation, gene expression and proteoglycan production of rat meniscal cells were examined. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis showed that primary meniscal cells dedifferentiated rapidly after one passage in monolayer culture. This process could be reversed by culturing the cells on C6S surfaces, as indicated by increases in both collagen II and aggrecan gene expression, as well as proteoglycan production. Cells with abundant lipid vacuoles were evident on all the surfaces over an extended culture period. The results demonstrate the feasibility of C6S surfaces to avoid the dedifferentiation that normally occurs during monolayer expansion of meniscal cells. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conservative treatment of torn medial meniscus via mechanical force, manually assisted short lever chiropractic adjusting procedures.

    PubMed

    Polkinghorn, B S

    1994-09-01

    To present the first reported case of successful chiropractic intervention in treatment of a torn medial meniscus of the knee, the meniscal tear being documented by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A 54-yr-old woman complaining of right knee pain of several months' duration with accompanying marked functional impairment was diagnosed as having a tear in the posterior horn of the ipsilateral medial meniscus, verified by MRI studies of the same. Independent consultation with three medical specialists resulted in the unanimous decision that surgical intervention for the purpose of meniscectomy provided the only therapeutic approach indicated for the problem. However, the patient was reticent to undergo said surgical procedure and chose, instead, to utilize chiropractic care and conservative management in an effort to resolve her condition without having to resort to surgery. The patient received chiropractic treatment to the knee via mechanical force, manually assisted short lever chiropractic adjusting procedures (MFMA) utilizing an Activator Adjusting Instrument. Auxiliary treatment included the use of homeopathic therapy as an adjunct to chiropractic care. Said treatment resulted in a complete resolution of the patient's disability, the patient recovering full function of the knee joint and achieving an asymptomatic status without having to submit to surgical intervention and its possible adverse sequelae. Conservative management of meniscal tears via chiropractic treatment may provide a therapeutically effective and financially cost containing alternative to routine meniscectomy in certain cases involving torn medial menisci of the knee.

  12. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    PubMed

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  13. Repair of Meniscal Ramp Lesions Through a Posteromedial Portal During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: Outcome Study With a Minimum 2-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Jan, Nicolas; Fayard, Jean Marie; Kajetanek, Charles; Murphy, Colin G; Pupim, Barbara; Gardon, Roland; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the results of arthroscopic all-inside suture repair of medial meniscal ramp lesions through a posteromedial portal during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. All patients who underwent a suture of the posterior segment of the medial meniscus using a suture hook device through a posteromedial portal during ACL reconstruction with minimum 2 year-follow-up were included in the study. Repair was performed for longitudinal tears within the rim of less than 3 mm (capsulomeniscal junction or red-red zone) or 3 to 5 mm (red-white zone) of an unstable torn meniscus. Patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively with IKDC score and Tegner activity scale. Instrumented knee testing was performed with the Rolimeter arthrometer. Complications including reoperation for failed meniscal repair were also recorded. One hundred thirty-two patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean follow-up time was 27 months (range, 24 to 29 months). The average subjective IKDC rose from 63.8 ± 13.5 (range, 27 to 92) preoperatively to 85.7 ± 12 (range, 43 to 100) at last follow-up (P < .0001). The Rolimeter test decreased from a side-to-side difference in anterior knee laxity of 7 mm (range, 5 to 14 mm) to a mean value of 0.4 mm (range, -3 to 5 mm) at last follow-up (P < .0001). The Tegner activity scale at the last follow-up (6.9 ± 1.72) was slightly lower than that before surgery (7.2 ± 1.92; P = .0017). Nine patients (6.8%) had failure of the meniscal repair. In 5 cases, recurrent tears were related to a newly formed tear located anterior to the initial tear. Our results show that arthroscopic meniscal repair of ramp lesions during ACL reconstruction through a posteromedial portal provided a high rate of meniscus healing at the level of the tear and appeared to be safe and effective in this group of patients. Level IV, therapeutic study, case series (no control group). Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc

  14. Complications in posteromedial arthroscopic suture of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Jan, N; Sonnery-Cottet, B; Fayard, J-M; Kajetanek, C; Thaunat, M

    2016-12-01

    All-inside posteromedial suture for lesions of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair provides effective freshening and good healing. The posteromedial portal provides satisfactory healing rates without increasing morbidity or complications rates. Intra- and postoperative complications were collected for a consecutive single-center series of 132 patients undergoing posteromedial hook suture of the medial meniscus in ACL repair. Meniscal healing was assessed as the rate of recurrence of symptomatic medial meniscus lesions (Barret criteria) and on revision surgery, if any, in terms of the aspect and extent of the iterative lesion. The severity of any sensory disorder was assessed by questionnaire. The intraoperative complications rate was 1.5% (2 saphenous vein punctures). At a mean 31months (range, 28-35months), there was no loss to follow-up. Twelve patients (9%) showed symptomatic recurrence of the medial meniscus lesion, requiring 10 repeat surgeries. In 6 cases (4.5%), the iterative lesion involved a smaller, more central part of the meniscus anterior to the sutures, of "postage-stamp" effect, possibly implicating the suture hook and/or non-absorbable sutures. There were no cases of infection or fistula. Postoperative hematoma occurred in 7% of patients. In total, 1.8% reported dysesthesia areas equal to or greater than the size of a credit card (45cm 2 ). Some retears, or "partial failures", may implicate a new lesion caused by the suture hook and possibly prolonged by non-resorbable sutures. Hematoma and sensory disorder rates were comparable to those reported in isolated ACL repair without posteromedial portal. The present results show that posteromedial arthroscopic hook suture in posterior medial meniscus tear provides good healing rates without increased morbidity due to the supplementary portal. IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Traumatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus in patients with severe medial instability of the knee.

    PubMed

    Ra, Ho Jong; Ha, Jeong Ku; Jang, Ho Su; Kim, Jin Goo

    2015-10-01

    To examine the incidence and diagnostic rate of traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear associated with severe medial instability and to evaluate the effectiveness of pullout repair. From 2007 to 2011, 51 patients who underwent operation due to multiple ligament injuries including medial collateral ligament rupture were reviewed retrospectively. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective and Lysholm score were evaluated pre- and postoperatively. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed, and if indicated, a second-look arthroscopic examination was conducted. Fourteen out of 51 patients were associated with severe medial instability. Seven patients were diagnosed with traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear and underwent arthroscopic pullout repair. Five of them were missed at initial diagnosis using MRI. In seven patients, the mean Lysholm and IKDC subjective scores improved from 74.6 ± 10.3 and 47.6 ± 7.3 to 93.0 ± 3.7 and 91.6 ± 2.6, respectively. All showed complete healing of meniscus root on follow-up MRI and second-look arthroscopy. Medial meniscus posterior root tear may occur in severe medial instability from trauma. It is a common mistake that surgeons may not notice on the diagnosis of those injuries using MRI. Therefore, a high index of suspicion is required for the diagnosis of medial meniscus posterior root tear in this type of injuries. The traumatic medial meniscus posterior root tear could be healed successfully using arthroscopic pullout repair technique. The possibility of the medial meniscus posterior root tear should be considered in severe medial instability and arthroscopic pullout repair can be an effective option for treatment. Case series with no comparison group, Level IV.

  16. Natural history of medial clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Salipas, Andrew; Kimmel, Lara A; Edwards, Elton R; Rakhra, Sandeep; Moaveni, Afshin Kamali

    2016-10-01

    Fractures of the medial third of the clavicle comprise less than 3% of all clavicle fractures. The natural history and optimal management of these rare injuries are unknown. The aim of our study is to describe the demographics, management and outcomes of patients with medial clavicle fractures treated at a Level 1 Trauma Centre. A retrospective review was conducted of patients presenting to our institution between January 2008 and March 2013 with a medial third clavicle fracture. Clinical and radiographic data were recorded including mechanism of injury, fracture pattern and displacement, associated injuries, management and complications. Functional outcomes were assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOS-E) scores from the Victorian Orthopaedic Trauma Outcomes Registry (VOTOR). Shoulder outcomes were assessed using two patient reported outcomes scores, the American Shoulder and Elbow Society Score (ASES) and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Sixty eight medial clavicle fractures in 68 patients were evaluated. The majority of patients were male (n=53), with a median age of 53.5 years (interquartile range (IQR) 37.5-74.5 years). The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle accident (n=28). The in-hospital mortality rate was 4.4%. The fracture pattern was almost equally distributed between extra articular (n=35) and intra-articular (n=33). Fifty-five fractures (80.9%) had minimal or no displacement. Associated injuries were predominantly thoracic (n=31). All fractures were initially managed non-operatively, with a broad arm sling. Delayed operative fixation was performed for painful atrophic delayed union in two patients (2.9%). Both patients were under 65 years of age and had a severely displaced fracture of the medial clavicle. One intra-operative vascular complication was seen, with no adverse long-term outcome. Follow-up was obtained in 85.0% of the surviving cohort at an average of three years post injury (range 1-6 years). The mean ASES

  17. Medial meniscus allograft transplantation using a modified bone plug technique: clinical, radiologic, and arthroscopic results.

    PubMed

    Ha, Jeong Ku; Sung, Jung Hwan; Shim, Jae Chan; Seo, Jeong Gook; Kim, Jin Goo

    2011-07-01

    To determine clinical, radiologic, and arthroscopic results of our meniscus allograft transplantation (MAT) by use of modified bone plug technique, which permits easy passage of the allograft by reducing the size of the posterior bone plug. From December 2004 to December 2008, 22 consecutive patients (20 men and 2 women) with a mean age of 35.9 years underwent medial MAT with the modified bone plug method. The Lysholm score and International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee score were documented. Joint space narrowing and Kellgren-Lawrence grade changes were evaluated on radiographs, and graft healing status, arthrosis changes in cartilage, and meniscal extrusion were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The mean follow-up was 24.9 months. The mean Lysholm score improved significantly, from 68.2 to 89.7 (P = .002). The International Knee Documentation Committee subjective knee score improved significantly, from 60.3 to 85.4 (P = .003). Joint space narrowing was insignificant, and arthrosis progression was observed in 3 of 22 cases (13.6%) on radiographs. On MRI, complete healing of the grafts was observed in 18 cases (100%), 15 cases (83.3%), and 17 cases (94.4%) at the anterior root, posterior root, and meniscal rim, respectively. Mean meniscal extrusion was 4.35 ± 1.76 mm, and arthrosis progression was observed in 4 of 18 cases (22.2%). During second-look arthroscopy, complete healing of the grafts was observed in 11 cases (100%), 9 cases (81.8%), and 10 cases (90.9%) at the anterior root, posterior root, and meniscal rim, respectively. Cartilage degeneration was advanced in 4 cases (36.4%). No significant correlations were found between meniscal extrusion and other outcomes. Our modified bone plug method was an effective surgical method. MRI and second-look arthroscopic examinations showed sound evidence of graft healing. Meniscal extrusion was observed in most cases but was not correlated with other clinical and radiologic outcomes

  18. A giraffe neck sign of the medial meniscus: A characteristic finding of the medial meniscus posterior root tear on magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, Takayuki; Fujii, Masataka; Kodama, Yuya; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-07-01

    The posterior root ligament of the medial meniscus (MM) has a critical role in regulating the MM movement. An accurate diagnosis of the MM posterior root tear (MMPRT) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is important for preventing sequential osteoarthritis following the MMPRT. However, diagnosis of the MMPRT is relatively difficult even after using several characteristic MRI findings. The aim of this study was to identify a useful meniscal body sign of the MMPRT for improving diagnostic MRI reading. Eighty-five patients who underwent surgical treatments for the MMPRT (39 knees) and other types of MM tears (49 knees) were included. The presence of characteristic MRI findings such as cleft sign, ghost sign, radial tear sign, medial extrusion sign, and new meniscal body shape-oriented "giraffe neck sign" was evaluated in 120 MRI examinations. Giraffe neck signs were observed in 81.7% of the MMPRTs and in 3.3% of other MM tears. Cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs were highly positive in the MMPRTs compared with other MM tears. Medial extrusion signs were frequently observed in both groups. Coexistence rates of any 2 MRI signs, except for medial extrusion sign, were 91.7% in the MMPRT group and 5% in other MM tears. This study demonstrated that a new characteristic MRI finding "giraffe neck sign" was observed in 81.7% of the MMPRT. Our results suggest that the combination of giraffe neck, cleft, ghost, and radial tear signs may be important for an accurate diagnostic MRI reading of the MMPRT. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors for medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byoung-Yoon; Kim, Sung-Jae; Lee, Sang-Won; Lee, Ha-Eun; Lee, Choon-Key; Hunter, David J; Jung, Kwang-Am

    2012-07-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRT) have a different clinical effect from other types of meniscal tears. These tears are very common among Asian people and may be related to the frequent use of postures such as the lotus position or squatting. The present study was designed to identify the risk factors for MMPRT among an Asian sample. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. An observational study was performed of 476 consecutive patients undergoing an arthroscopic procedure on their medial meniscus from January 2010 to December 2010. One hundred four patients had MMPRT (group 1), and the other patients had other types of medial meniscal tears (group 2). Demographic characteristics (age, sex, body mass index [BMI]), radiographic features (mechanical axis angle, tibia vara angle, tibial slope angle, Kellgren-Lawrence grade [KLG]), and environmental factors (occupation, trauma history, sports activity level, table use or not, bed use or not-variables that are representative of the oriental lifestyle of lotus position and squatting) were surveyed. We assessed the relation of these risk factors to the type of meniscal tear (group 1 or 2). In group 1, there were 7 male and 97 female patients, with an average age of 58.2 years (range, 39-78 years) and BMI of 26.7 ± 3.4 kg/m2. In group 2, there were 136 male and 236 female patients (P < .01 compared with group 1), with an average age of 54.3 years (range, 17-77 years; P < .01) and a BMI of 24.9 ± 3.1 kg/m2 (P < .01). With regard to radiographic features, the mechanical axis angle demonstrated a significantly increased varus alignment in group 1 (4.5° ± 3.4°) compared with group 2 (2.4° ± 2.7°; P < .01), and the KLG was 1.4 ± 0.8 in group 1 and 0.9 ± 0.6 in group 2 (P < .01). Environmental factors showed no differences in occupation, table use or not, and bed use or not, except sports activity level. There were 41 patients (42.7%) in group 1 and 77 patients (20.6%) in group 2 who did not participate in any

  20. The role of suture cutout in the failure of meniscal root repair during the early post-operative period: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blanca, Ana; Prado Nóvoa, María; Lombardo Torre, Maximiano; Espejo-Reina, Alejandro; Ezquerro Juanco, Francisco; Espejo-Baena, Alejandro

    2018-04-01

    To assess the role of suture cutout in the mechanics of failure of the repaired posterior meniscal root during the early post-operative period when using sutures of different shape. Twenty medial porcine menisci were randomized in two groups depending on the suture shape used to repair the posterior root: thread or tape. The sutured menisci were subjected to cyclic loading (1000 cycles, (10, 30) N) followed by load-to-failure testing. Residual displacements, stiffness, and ultimate failure load were determined. During tests, the tissue-suture interface was recorded using a high-resolution camera. In cyclic tests, cutout progression at the suture insertion points was not observed for any specimen of either group and no differences in residual displacements were found between use of thread or tape. In load-to-failure tests, suture cutout started in all menisci at a load close to the ultimate failure and all specimens failed by suture pullout. Suture tape had a greater ultimate load with no other differences. In a porcine model of a repaired posterior meniscal root subjected to cyclic loads representative of current rehabilitation protocols in the early post-operative period under restricted loading conditions, suture cutout was not found as a main source of permanent root displacement when using suture thread or tape. Suture cutout progression started at high loading levels close to the ultimate load of the construct. Tape, with a meniscus-suture contact area larger than thread, produced higher ultimate load.

  1. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    PubMed Central

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial and lateral discoid meniscus. In magnetic resonance imaging, although the lateral discoid meniscus had no tear, the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. Arthroscopic examination of his right knee similarly revealed that the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. In addition, the discoid medial meniscus also had an anomalous insertion to the anterior cruciate ligament, and there was also mild fibrillation of the medial tibial cartilage surface. We performed arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for the torn medial discoid meniscus but not for the asymptomatic lateral discoid meniscus. The latest follow-up at 18 months indicated satisfactory results. Conclusion: We report a rare case of ipsilateral medial and lateral discoid meniscus with medial meniscus tear. The medial discoid meniscus with tear was treated with partial meniscectomy, whereas the lateral discoid meniscus without tear was only followed up. PMID:28164045

  2. Gene Expression in Human Meniscal Tears has Limited Association with Early Degenerative Changes in Knee Articular Cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Brophy, Robert H.; Sandell, Linda J.; Cheverud, James M.; Rai, Muhammad Farooq

    2018-01-01

    Purpose/Aim Meniscus tears are a common injury to the knee associated with the development of osteoarthritis. Gene expression in the injured meniscus may be associated with early degeneration in the articular cartilage. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that gene expression in meniscus tears is associated with early degenerative changes in the articular cartilage at the time of partial meniscectomy. Materials and Methods Torn meniscus was removed at the time of partial meniscectomy in 63 patients without radiographic osteoarthritis. Meniscal mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR for multiple molecular markers of osteoarthritis and cartilage homeostasis. The presence of early degenerative changes in the knee was recorded by X-ray (N=63), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, N=48) and arthroscopy (N=63). Gene expression was tested for correlation with the presence/absence of degenerative changes after adjusting for age, sex and body mass index. Results Overall gene expression varied significantly with degenerative changes based on X-ray (P=0.047) and MRI (P=0.018). The linear combination of gene variation was also significant. However, only adiponectin (ADIPOQ) (P=0.015) was expressed at a significantly lower level in patients with chondrosis on MRI while the expression of ADIPOQ (P=0.035) and resistin (RETN) (P=0.017) was higher in patients with early degenerative changes on X-ray. Conclusions There is an overall association of gene expression in meniscal tears to early degenerative changes in the knee, but only a limited number of specific genes demonstrate this relationship. The roles of adiponectin and resistin in knee injury and osteoarthritis deserve further study. PMID:27435997

  3. The FasT-Fix Repair Technique for Ramp Lesion of the Medial Meniscus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Ping; Chen, Zhong; Song, Bin; Yang, Rui; Tan, Weiquan

    2015-03-01

    This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to repair the peripheral attachment lesion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. The operation was performed under arthroscopy using a standard anterior portal. A FasT-Fix needle was inserted obliquely close to the tibial plateau and the first implant was inserted into the joint capsule depending on its bending angle underneath the meniscus. The second implant was inserted through 1/3 periphery of the meniscus into the meniscocapsular area. The pre-tied self-sliding knot was tensioned to achieve secure fixation of the posterior meniscal peripheral attachment at the original attachment point. From August 2011 to February 2014, 23 knees were diagnosed as ramp lesion, underwent meniscal repair using FasT-Fix technique. All patients were followed up for average 14 months. The Lysholm score improved from preoperative 64.4±4.52 to postoperative 91.2±4.60. We believe that the FasT-Fix technique via the standard anterior portal can be a more convenient and less traumatic alternative for repair of the peripheral attachment lesion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

  4. Certified Athletic Trainers' Knowledge and Perceptions of Posttraumatic Osteoarthritis After Knee Injury.

    PubMed

    Pietrosimone, Brian; Blackburn, J Troy; Golightly, Yvonne M; Harkey, Matthew S; Luc, Brittney A; DeFreese, J D; Padua, Darin A; Jordan, Joanne M; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-06-02

      Posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) is a specific phenotype of osteoarthritis (OA) that commonly develops after acute knee injury, such as anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) or meniscal injury (or both). Athletic trainers (ATs) are well positioned to educate patients and begin PTOA management during rehabilitation of the acute injury, yet it remains unknown if ATs currently prioritize long-term outcomes in patients with knee injury.   To investigate ATs' knowledge and perceptions of OA and its treatment after ACL injury, ACL reconstruction, or meniscal injury or surgery.   Cross-sectional study.   An online survey was administered to 2000 randomly sampled certified ATs. We assessed participants' perceptions of knee OA, the risk of PTOA after ACL or meniscal injury or surgery, and therapeutic management of knee OA.   Of the 437 ATs who responded (21.9%), the majority (84.7%) correctly identified the definition of OA, and 60.3% indicated that they were aware of PTOA. A high percentage of ATs selected full meniscectomy (98.9%), meniscal tear (95.4%), ACL injury (90.2%), and partial meniscectomy (90.1%) as injuries that would increase the risk of developing OA. Athletic trainers rated undertaking strategies to prevent OA development in patients after ACL injury or reconstruction (73.8%) or meniscal injury or surgery (74.7%) as extremely or somewhat important. Explaining the risk of OA to patients with an ACL or meniscal injury was considered appropriate by 98.8% and 96.8% of respondents, respectively; yet a lower percentage reported that they actually explained these risks to patients after an ACL (70.8%) or meniscal injury (80.6%).   Although 84.7% of ATs correctly identified the definition of OA, a lower percentage (60.3%) indicated awareness of PTOA. These results may reflect the need to guide ATs on how to educate patients regarding the long-term risks of ACL and meniscal injuries and how to implement strategies that may prevent PTOA.

  5. Function of the medial meniscus in force transmission and stability.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter S; Arno, Sally; Bell, Christopher; Salvadore, Gaia; Borukhov, Ilya; Oh, Cheongeun

    2015-06-01

    We studied the combined role of the medial meniscus in distributing load and providing stability. Ten normal knees were loaded in combinations of compressive and shear loading as the knee was flexed over a full range. A digital camera tracked the motion, from which femoral-tibial contacts were determined by computer modelling. Load transmission was determined from the Tekscan for the anterior horn, central body, posterior horn, and the uncovered cartilage in the centre of the meniscus. For the three types of loading; compression only, compression and anterior shear, compression and posterior shear; between 40% and 80% of the total load was transmitted through the meniscus. The overall average was 58%, the remaining 42% being transmitted through the uncovered cartilage. The anterior horn was loaded only up to 30 degrees flexion, but played a role in controlling anterior femoral displacement. The central body was loaded 10-20% which would provide some restraint to medial femoral subluxation. Overall the posterior horn carried the highest percentage of the shear load, especially after 30 degrees flexion when a posterior shear force was applied, where the meniscus was estimated to carry 50% of the shear force. This study added new insights into meniscal function during weight bearing conditions, particularly its role in early flexion, and in transmitting shear forces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is It Necessary to Repair Stable Ramp Lesions of the Medial Meniscus During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hui; Feng, Hua; Hong, Lei; Wang, Xue-Song; Song, Guan-Yang

    2017-04-01

    A special type of meniscal lesion involving the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM), termed a "ramp lesion," is commonly associated with an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, its treatment is still controversial. Recently, stable ramp lesions treated with abrasion and trephination alone have been shown to have good clinical outcomes after ACL reconstruction. Stable ramp lesions treated with abrasion and trephination alone during ACL reconstruction will result in similar clinical outcomes compared with those treated with surgical repair. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 2. A prospective randomized controlled study was performed in 91 consecutive patients who had complete ACL injuries and concomitant stable ramp lesions of the medial meniscus. All patients were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 groups based on whether the stable ramp lesions were surgically repaired (study group; n = 50) or only abraded and trephined (control group; n = 41) during ACL reconstruction. All surgical procedures were performed by a single surgeon who was blinded to the functional assessment findings of the patients. The Lysholm score, subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, and stability assessments (pivot-shift test, Lachman test, KT-1000 arthrometer side-to-side difference, and KT-1000 arthrometer differences of <3, 3-5, and >5 mm) were evaluated preoperatively and at the last follow-up. Moreover, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate the healing status of the ramp lesions. All consecutive patients who were screened for eligibility from August 2008 to April 2012 were enrolled and observed clinically. There were 40 patients in the study group and 33 patients in the control group who were observed for at least 2 years. At the final follow-up, there were no significant differences between the study group and the control group in terms of the mean Lysholm score (88.7 ± 4.8 vs 90.4

  7. A Novel Repair Method for Radial Tears of the Medial Meniscus: Biomechanical Comparison of Transtibial 2-Tunnel and Double Horizontal Mattress Suture Techniques Under Cyclic Loading.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Sanjeev; Civitarese, David M; Turnbull, Travis Lee; LaPrade, Christopher M; Nitri, Marco; Wijdicks, Coen A; LaPrade, Robert F

    2016-03-01

    Complete radial tears of the medial meniscus have been reported to be functionally similar to a total meniscectomy. At present, there is no consensus on an ideal technique for repair of radial midbody tears of the medial meniscus. Prior attempts at repair with double horizontal mattress suture techniques have led to a reportedly high rate of incomplete healing or healing in a nonanatomic (gapped) position, which compromises the ability of the meniscus to withstand hoop stresses. A newly proposed 2-tunnel radial meniscal repair method will result in decreased gapping and increased ultimate failure loads compared with the double horizontal mattress suture repair technique under cyclic loading. Controlled laboratory study. Ten matched pairs of male human cadaveric knees (average age, 58.6 years; range, 48-66 years) were used. A complete radial medial meniscal tear was made at the junction of the posterior one-third and middle third of the meniscus. One knee underwent a horizontal mattress inside-out repair, while the contralateral knee underwent a radial meniscal repair entailing the same technique with a concurrent novel 2-tunnel repair. Specimens were potted and mounted on a universal testing machine. Each specimen was cyclically loaded 1000 times with loads between 5 and 20 N before experiencing a load to failure. Gap distances at the tear site and failure load were measured. The 2-tunnel repairs exhibited a significantly stronger ultimate failure load (median, 196 N; range, 163-212 N) than did the double horizontal mattress suture repairs (median, 106 N; range, 63-229 N) (P = .004). In addition, the 2-tunnel repairs demonstrated decreased gapping at all testing states (P < .05) with a final measured gapping of 1.7 mm and 4.1 mm after 1000 cycles for the 2-tunnel and double horizontal mattress suture repairs, respectively. The 2-tunnel repairs displayed significantly less gapping distance after cyclic loading and had significantly stronger ultimate failure loads

  8. The importance of the posterior oblique ligament in repairs of acute tears of the medial ligaments in knees with and without an associated rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament. Results of long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hughston, J C

    1994-09-01

    Forty-one of fifty patients (fifty knees) who had had a repair of an acute tear of the medial ligaments, a procedure in which repair of the posterior oblique ligament and the semimembranosus complex was emphasized, were re-evaluated after an average duration of follow-up of twenty-two years (range, eighteen to thirty years). The ages of the patients at the time of the injury had ranged from fifteen to twenty-one years. In twenty-four of the forty-one knees, the anterior cruciate ligament had been torn. In seventeen of these knees, the torn ligament had been debrided; in six others, which had had avulsion of a bone fragment or a terminal tear, the ligament had been repaired with absorbable sutures; and in the remaining knee, the repaired anterior cruciate ligament had been augmented. Four patients had had a pes anserinus transfer to supplement the medial repair. The medial meniscus had been intact or repaired in twenty-five of the forty-one knees and had been removed from the remaining sixteen. The lateral meniscus had been retained in thirty-nine knees and removed from two. Postoperatively, all knees had been immobilized for six weeks in 60 degrees of flexion by means of a plaster cast. This had not caused lasting loss of motion, persistent muscle atrophy, or clinically demonstrable deterioration of the articular cartilage. In the twenty-four knees that had had a tear of the anterior cruciate ligament, the rates of instability, meniscal injury, and deterioration of the joint had not increased since the time of treatment, compared with those in the knees with an intact ligament, even though repair and augmentation of this ligament had not been performed (except in one patient, in whom it was unsuccessful). Thirty-eight patients had good stability and a normal range of motion, as well as little or no muscle atrophy. Radiographic changes were slight or absent in all but four knees. Most patients had maintained a high level of physical fitness and recreational athletic

  9. Surgery versus physical therapy for a meniscal tear and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Katz, Jeffrey N; Brophy, Robert H; Chaisson, Christine E; de Chaves, Leigh; Cole, Brian J; Dahm, Diane L; Donnell-Fink, Laurel A; Guermazi, Ali; Haas, Amanda K; Jones, Morgan H; Levy, Bruce A; Mandl, Lisa A; Martin, Scott D; Marx, Robert G; Miniaci, Anthony; Matava, Matthew J; Palmisano, Joseph; Reinke, Emily K; Richardson, Brian E; Rome, Benjamin N; Safran-Norton, Clare E; Skoniecki, Debra J; Solomon, Daniel H; Smith, Matthew V; Spindler, Kurt P; Stuart, Michael J; Wright, John; Wright, Rick W; Losina, Elena

    2013-05-02

    Whether arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for symptomatic patients with a meniscal tear and knee osteoarthritis results in better functional outcomes than nonoperative therapy is uncertain. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving symptomatic patients 45 years of age or older with a meniscal tear and evidence of mild-to-moderate osteoarthritis on imaging. We randomly assigned 351 patients to surgery and postoperative physical therapy or to a standardized physical-therapy regimen (with the option to cross over to surgery at the discretion of the patient and surgeon). The patients were evaluated at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome was the difference between the groups with respect to the change in the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) physical-function score (ranging from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms) 6 months after randomization. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the mean improvement in the WOMAC score after 6 months was 20.9 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 17.9 to 23.9) in the surgical group and 18.5 (95% CI, 15.6 to 21.5) in the physical-therapy group (mean difference, 2.4 points; 95% CI, -1.8 to 6.5). At 6 months, 51 active participants in the study who were assigned to physical therapy alone (30%) had undergone surgery, and 9 patients assigned to surgery (6%) had not undergone surgery. The results at 12 months were similar to those at 6 months. The frequency of adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups. In the intention-to-treat analysis, we did not find significant differences between the study groups in functional improvement 6 months after randomization; however, 30% of the patients who were assigned to physical therapy alone underwent surgery within 6 months. (Funded by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; METEOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00597012.).

  10. Cartilage Degeneration, Subchondral Mineral and Meniscal Mineral Densities in Hartley and Strain 13 Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yubo; Scannell, Brian P; Honeycutt, Patrick R; Mauerhan, David R; H, James Norton; Hanley Jr, Edward N

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a joint disease involved in articular cartilage, subchondral bone, meniscus and synovial membrane. This study sought to examine cartilage degeneration, subchondral bone mineral density (BMD) and meniscal mineral density (MD) in male Hartley, female Hartley and female strain 13 guinea pigs to determine the association of cartilage degeneration with subchondral BMD and meniscal MD. Cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD in 12 months old guinea pigs were examined with histochemistry, X-ray densitometry and calcium analysis. We found that male Hartley guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration, subchondral BMD and meniscal MD than female Hartley guinea pigs, but not female strain 13 guinea pigs. Female strain 13 guinea pigs had more severe cartilage degeneration and higher subchondral BMD, but not meniscal MD, than female Hartley guinea pigs. These findings indicate that higher subchondral BMD, not meniscal MD, is associated with more severe cartilage degeneration in the guinea pigs and suggest that abnormal subchondral BMD may be a therapeutic target for OA treatment. These findings also indicate that the pathogenesis of OA in the male guinea pigs and female guinea pigs are different. Female strain 13 guinea pig may be used to study female gender-specific pathogenesis of OA. PMID:26401159

  11. The medial patellofemoral complex.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Alexander E; Tanaka, Miho J

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of the medial patellofemoral complex, including recent anatomic advances, evaluation of indications for reconstruction with concomitant pathology, and surgical reconstruction techniques. Recent advances in our understanding of MPFC anatomy have found that there are fibers that insert onto the deep quadriceps tendon as well as the patella, thus earning the name "medial patellofemoral complex" to allow for the variability in its anatomy. In MPFC reconstruction, anatomic origin and insertion points and appropriate graft length are critical to prevent overconstraint of the patellofemoral joint. The MPFC is a crucial soft tissue checkrein to lateral patellar translation, and its repair or reconstruction results in good restoration of patellofemoral stability. As our understanding of MPFC anatomy evolves, further studies are needed to apply its relevance in kinematics and surgical applications to its role in maintaining patellar stability.

  12. Posterior double PCL sign: a case report of unusual MRI finding of bucket-handle tear of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Hahn, Sung Ho; Yi, Seung Rim; Kim, Seong Wan

    2007-11-01

    Among the MRI signs of bucket-handle tears of medial meniscus, double posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) sign denotes a low signal band anterior and parallel to the PCL, which looks like another PCL in MR images. If the bucket-handle fragment subsequently tears at the anterior horn, the torn meniscal substance can be displaced to the posterosuperior region of the PCL, and looks like another PCL behind the original PCL. We propose the lesion be called the "posterior double PCL sign" in contrast to the ordinary double PCL sign. We present a case showing the posterior double PCL sign.

  13. Assessment of apoptosis and MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-2 expression in tibial hyaline cartilage after viable medial meniscus transplantation in the rabbit.

    PubMed

    Zwierzchowski, Tomasz J; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Danilewicz, Marian; Fabiś, Jarosław

    2012-12-20

    The porpuse of this animal study was to assess chondrocyte apoptosis and MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-2 expression in rabbit tibial cartilage 6 months after viable medial meniscal autografts and allografts. Twenty white male New Zealand rabbits were chosen for the study. The medial meniscus was excised from 14 animals and stored under tissue culture conditions for 2 weeks, following which t of them were implantated as autografts and 7 as allografts. The control group consisted of 6 animals which underwent arthtrotomy. When the animals were eutanized, the tibial cartilage was used for immunohisochemical examination. Apoptosis (TUNEL method) and MMP-1, MMP-3 and TIMP-2 expression were estimated semiquantatively. An increased level of chodrocyte apoptosis in the tibail cartilage was observed after both kinds of transplants (p < 0.05), allografts (1.43 ±0.98) and autografts (0.86 ±0.69); no statistical diferences existed between them. An increased level of metalloproteinases and TIMP-2 expression was obreved only after allografts with statistical differences among the allograft group, the autograft group nad the control group (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that the meniscal graft does not protect the hyaline cartilage against excessive apoptosis. The results of experimantal studies on humans indicate the need to device a method of apoptosis inhibition in the hyaline cartilage to improve long-term results of meniscal transplantation.

  14. Common injuries in athletes' knee: experience of a specialized center

    PubMed Central

    Nicolini, Alexandre Pedro; de Carvalho, Rogério Teixeira; Matsuda, Marcelo Mitsuro; Sayum, Jorge; Cohen, Moisés

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present cross-sectional study aims to identify the most common knee injuries in athletes cared at a Specialized Outpatient Clinics. METHOD: Analysis of patients cared at the Knee Outpatient Clinics of a Sports Trauma Center, divided by gender, age and diagnosed injury. RESULTS: Initially 440 patients were divided into 33 types of sports; after excluding the less statistically significant practices, nine sports remained. The most frequently performed sports were football with almost 50% of total patients presenting anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, and road runs with great frequency of meniscal injury. There was no correlation of the disorder with the type of sports performed but a correlation was found with patient's age/gender. CONCLUSION: The complete ACL rupture was the most common injury found in football, basketball and volleyball players, followed by meniscal injury in street runners. Level of Evidence IV, Study Transversal. PMID:25061417

  15. Non-operative management of medial meniscus posterior horn root tears is associated with worsening arthritis and poor clinical outcome at 5-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Krych, Aaron J; Reardon, Patrick J; Johnson, Nick R; Mohan, Rohith; Peter, Logan; Levy, Bruce A; Stuart, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs) are a significant source of pain and dysfunction, but little is known about the natural history and outcome and for non-operative management of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate (1) the mid-term clinical and radiographic outcomes of non-operative treatment of MMPRTs and (2) risk factors for worse outcomes. A retrospective review was performed for patients with symptomatic, unrepaired MMPRTs and a minimum 2-year follow-up for IKDC and Tegner outcome scores. Baseline and final radiographs were reviewed and graded according to Kellgren-Lawrence scores. Baseline MRIs were reviewed for the presence of meniscal extrusion, subchondral oedema, and insufficiency fractures. Failure was defined as conversion to arthroplasty or severely abnormal patient subjective IKDC score. Fifty-two patients (21M:31F) with a mean age of 58 ± 10 years were diagnosed with symptomatic MMPRTs clinically and confirmed by MRI and followed for a mean of 62 ± 30 months. Sixteen patients (31 %) underwent total knee arthroplasty at a mean of 30 ± 32 months after diagnosis with higher Kellgren-Lawrence grades associated with increased rates of arthroplasty (p = 0.01). Mean IKDC scores for the remaining patients were 61.2 ± 21 with significantly lower scores in females compared to males (75 ± 12 vs. 49 ± 20; p = 0.03). Mean Kellgren-Lawrence grades and rates of arthritis progressed over time on radiographs (1.5 ± 0.7 vs. 2.4 ± 1.0; p < 0.001 and 78 % vs. 51 %; p = 0.01). Overall, 87 % of patients failed non-operative treatment. Non-operative treatment of medial meniscus posterior horn root tears is associated with poor clinical outcome, worsening arthritis, and a relatively high rate of arthroplasty at 5-year follow-up. Female gender was associated with lower subjective scores and higher rate of arthroplasty. The current study provides a natural history benchmark for clinical outcomes that can be

  16. Meniscal Scaffolds - Preclinical Evidence to Support their Use: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Di Matteo, Berardo; Perdisa, Francesco; Gostynska, Natalia; Kon, Elizaveta; Filardo, Giuseppe; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2015-01-01

    Arthroscopic meniscal treatment is the most common procedure performed in the orthopedic practice. Current management of meniscal pathology relies on different therapeutic options, ranging from selective meniscectomy, suturing, and to meniscal replacement by using either allografts or scaffolds. The progresses made in the field of regenerative medicine and biomaterials allowed to develop several meniscal substitutes, some of those currently used in the clinical practice. Before reaching the clinical application, these devices necessarily undergo accurate testing in the animal model: the aim of the present manuscript is to systematically review the scientific evidence derived by animal model results for the use of meniscal scaffolds, in order to understand the current state of research in this particular field and to identify the trends at preclinical level that may influence in the near future the clinical practice. Thirty-four papers were included in the present analysis. In 12 cases the meniscal scaffolds were used with cells to further stimulate tissue regeneration. With the exception of some negative reports regarding dacron-based scaffolds, the majority of the trials highlighted that biomaterials and bio-engineered scaffolds are safe and could play a beneficial role in stimulating meniscal healing and in chondral protection. With regard to the benefits of cell augmentation, the evidence is limited to a small number of studies and no conclusive evidence is available. However, preclinical evidence seems to suggest that cells could enhance tissue regeneration with respect to the use of biomaterials alone, and further research should confirm the translational potential of cell-based approach. PMID:26157531

  17. Cost effectiveness of meniscal allograft for torn discoid lateral meniscus in young women.

    PubMed

    Ramme, Austin J; Strauss, Eric J; Jazrawi, Laith; Gold, Heather T

    2016-09-01

    A discoid meniscus is more prone to tears than a normal meniscus. Patients with a torn discoid lateral meniscus are at increased risk for early onset osteoarthritis requiring total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Optimal management for this condition is controversial given the up-front cost difference between the two treatment options: the more expensive meniscal allograft transplantation compared with standard partial meniscectomy. We hypothesize that meniscal allograft transplantation following excision of a torn discoid lateral meniscus is more cost-effective compared with partial meniscectomy alone because allografts will extend the time to TKA. A decision analytic Markov model was created to compare the cost effectiveness of two treatments for symptomatic, torn discoid lateral meniscus: meniscal allograft and partial meniscectomy. Probability estimates and event rates were derived from the scientific literature, and costs and benefits were discounted by 3%. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed to test model robustness. Over 25 years, the partial meniscectomy strategy cost $10,430, whereas meniscal allograft cost on average $4040 more, at $14,470. Partial meniscectomy postponed TKA an average of 12.5 years, compared with 17.30 years for meniscal allograft, an increase of 4.8 years. Allograft cost $842 per-year-gained in time to TKA. Meniscal allografts have been shown to reduce pain and improve function in patients with discoid lateral meniscus tears. Though more costly, meniscal allografts may be more effective than partial meniscectomy in delaying TKA in this model. Additional future long term clinical studies will provide more insight into optimal surgical options.

  18. [Meniscal lesion. A pre-osteoarthritic condition of the knee joint].

    PubMed

    Goebel, L; Reinhard, J; Madry, H

    2017-10-01

    A close relationship between meniscal damage and articular cartilage exist. Likewise, (partial) meniscectomy may lead to the development of osteoarthritis (OA). With a special emphasis on therapeutic consequences for orthopaedic surgeons, the structural and functional relationship between meniscal tears/extrusion and cartilage loss, and/or the effect of meniscectomy or meniscal repair on the development of OA, are emphasized. A selective literature review with implementation of own research findings. The close topographical and functional interplay between the menisci and the tibiofemoral cartilage is the basis for the clinically important relationship between meniscal damage and cartilage degeneration. In particular, due to its close connection to tibiofemoral OA, a degenerative meniscal lesion represents a pre-osteoarthritic condition. Meniscus extrusion is also often associated with tibiofemoral OA. Even large cartilage defects can cause meniscus lesions. Partial meniscectomy is strongly associated with the incidence and risk of progression of OA. Clinical results are particularly problematic after partial resection of the lateral meniscus. Although the use of arthroscopic partial resection for degenerative meniscal lesions has been controversially discussed, no long-term studies are available. A large number of studies emphasize the medium-term value of meniscus reconstruction compared to partial meniscus resection. Combined meniscus and cartilage damage are complex cases, and the value of a simultaneous therapy remains unclear. Preserving the meniscus is the first step towards cartilage repair. Randomized and controlled studies will provide better information on the long-term outcomes of meniscal resection and repair with regard to OA development.

  19. Change in patient-reported outcomes in patients with and without mechanical symptoms undergoing arthroscopic meniscal surgery: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pihl, Kenneth; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Englund, Martin; Stefan Lohmander, L; Jørgensen, Uffe; Nissen, Nis; Schjerning, Jeppe; Thorlund, Jonas B

    2018-05-21

    Patients with degenerative or traumatic meniscal tears are at high risk of developing knee osteoarthritis. We investigated if younger (≤40 years) and older (>40 years) patients with preoperative mechanical symptoms improved more in patient-reported outcomes after meniscal surgery than those without mechanical symptoms. Patients from Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS) undergoing arthroscopic surgery for a meniscal tear completed online questionnaires before surgery, and at 12 and 52 weeks follow-up. Questionnaires included self-reported presence of mechanical symptoms (i.e. sensation of catching and/or locking) and the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS). We analyzed between-group differences in change in KOOS 4 from baseline to 52 weeks, using an adjusted mixed linear model. 150 younger patients (mean age 31 (SD 7), 67% men) and 491 older patients (mean age 54 (SD 9), 53% men) constituted the baseline cohorts. Patients with mechanical symptoms generally had worse self-reported outcomes before surgery. At 52 weeks follow-up, younger patients with preoperative mechanical symptoms had improved more in KOOS 4 scores than younger patients without preoperative mechanical symptoms (adjusted mean difference 10.5, 95%CI: 4.3, 16.6), but did not exceed the absolute postoperative KOOS 4 scores observed for those without mechanical symptoms. No difference in improvement was observed between older patients with or without mechanical symptoms (adjusted mean difference 0.7, 95%CI: -2.6, 3.9). Younger patients (≤40 years) with preoperative mechanical symptoms experienced greater improvements after arthroscopic surgery compared to younger patients without mechanical symptoms. Our observational study result needs to be confirmed in randomized trials. Copyright © 2018 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Individuals Displaying Excessive Medial Knee Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; Bell, David R.; Clark, Micheal A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Knee-valgus motion is a potential risk factor for certain lower extremity injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain. Identifying neuromuscular characteristics associated with knee-valgus motion, such as hip and lower leg muscle activation, may improve our ability to prevent lower extremity injuries. Objective We hypothesized that hip and lower leg muscle-activation amplitude would differ among individuals displaying knee valgus (medial knee displacement) during a double-legged squat compared with those who did not display knee valgus. We further suggested that the use of a heel lift would alter lower leg muscle activation and frontal-plane knee motion in those demonstrating medial knee displacement. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 37 healthy participants were assigned to the control (n = 19) or medial-knee-displacement (n = 18) group based on their double-legged squat performance. Main Outcome Measure(s) Muscle-activation amplitude for the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was measured during 2 double-legged squat tasks. The first task consisted of performing a double-legged squat without a heel lift; the second consisted of performing a double-legged squat task with a 2-in (5.08-cm) lift under the heels. Results Muscle-activation amplitude for the hip adductor, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was greater in those who displayed knee valgus than in those who did not (P < .05). Also, use of heel lifts resulted in decreased activation of the gluteus maximus, hip adductor, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles (P < .05). Use of heel lifts also eliminated medially directed frontal-plane knee motion in those displaying medial knee displacement. Conclusions Medial knee displacement during squatting tasks appears to be associated with increased hip-adductor activation and

  1. Pediatric sports elbow injuries.

    PubMed

    Greiwe, R Michael; Saifi, Comron; Ahmad, Christopher S

    2010-10-01

    Elbow injuries in the pediatric and adolescent population represent a spectrum of pathology that can be categorized as medial tension injuries, lateral compression injuries, and posterior shear injuries. Early and accurate diagnosis can improve outcomes for both nonoperative and operative treatments. Prevention strategies are important to help reduce the increasing incidence of elbow injuries in youth athletes. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical and radiologic outcomes after a modified bone plug technique with anatomical meniscal root reinsertion for meniscal allograft transplantation and a minimum 18-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Ren, Shiyou; Zhang, Xintao; You, Tian; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Jin, Dadi; Zhang, Wentao

    2018-04-24

    To evaluate the clinical and radiologic outcomes of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) using a modified bone plug technique. We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 73 patients who underwent MAT between January 2007 and December 2013. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Lysholm score, Tegner score, visual analogue scale (VAS), and physical examinations were retrospectively reviewed to measure clinical outcomes after MAT, and questionnaires regarding activity and factors were analyzed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to assess the cartilage status and meniscal extrusion. The mean follow-up was 37 months for 61 patients (65 knees), and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. The mean meniscal extrusion was 3.39 ± 0.90 mm, the relative percentage of extrusion (RPE) was 34.82% ± 12.71%, and arthrosis progression was observed in 8 of 61 cases (13.1%). The mean results for VAS, IKDC, and Lysholm scores were significantly improved after MAT (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in the range of motion or Tegner score (P > 0.05). Thirty-eight (62.3%) patients were able to return to their previous level of activity, and 23 (37.7%) patients reached a mean 76.7% of the previous level of activity. Of the 23 patients reporting a decrease in activity, 10 reported a fear of reinjury as the primary factor limiting activity. The patient satisfaction rate in the study was 78.7%. Our modified bone plug method with anatomical meniscal root reinsertion was an effective surgical method, and the majority of active patients with meniscal disorders returned to preinjury levels of activity.

  3. Arthroscopic Assessment and Treatment of Dancers' Knee Injuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Daniel M.; Campbell, Pat

    1985-01-01

    Arthroscopic examination of 16 dancers with dance-related knee injuries which defied conservative treatment showed 15 meniscal tears and 4 cases of chondromalacia patellae. Partial arthroscopic meniscectomy was used to treat the tears. The results were excellent, with 13 of the 16 returning to preoperative levels of dance activity. (MT)

  4. Tibiofemoral contact mechanics following posterior root of medial meniscus tear, repair, meniscectomy, and allograft transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Goo; Lee, Yong Seuk; Bae, Tae Soo; Ha, Jeong Ku; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Young Jae; Ra, Ho Jong

    2013-09-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the effect on tibiofemoral contact mechanics of repair of the posterior root of the medial meniscus and the effect of meniscal allograft transplantation (MAT) with medial collateral ligament (MCL) release at different flexion angles. Ten fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees (five pairs) were used. A digital pressure sensor was inserted by capsulotomy, and experiments were performed serially under the following six conditions, that is, with an intact medial meniscus (normal controls), with a root tear, after root repair, after total meniscectomy, after MAT, and after MAT plus MCL release. During each experiment, knees were positioned at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion, and peak pressure (kPa) and contact area (cm2) were measured. At 0° of flexion, contact pressure did not differ among the six experimental settings. However, at 30° and 60° of flexion, contact pressure differed significantly between root tear and root repair specimens (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively), and between total meniscectomy and MAT specimens (p = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). On the other hand, mean contact pressures were different between normal (476.7 ± 473.1 and 573.3 ± 479.1 kPa) and root repair (575.7 ± 357.8 and 598.6 ± 415.8), and between normal and MAT (635.7 ± 437.4 and 674.3 ± 533.2). At 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion, contact areas differed significantly between normal and total meniscectomy specimens (p = 0.02, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.02, respectively), and between MAT and total meniscectomy specimens (p = 0.03, 0.02, 0.02, and 0.03, respectively). Contact areas differed significantly between root tear and root repair specimens at 60° of flexion (p = 0.04), and between normal control and root repair specimens at 60° and 90° of flexion (p = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). The effects of MAT plus MCL release on contact mechanics were not different from the effects of MAT alone (n.s.). Both meniscal root repair and

  5. Tibiofemoral Contact Mechanics with Horizontal Cleavage Tear and Resection of the Medial Meniscus in the Human Knee.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jason L; Yi, Seung Jin; Ren, Yupeng; Zimmerman, Todd A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-11-02

    The meniscus is known to increase the contact area and decrease contact pressure in the tibiofemoral compartments of the knee. Radial tears of the meniscal root attachment along with partial resections of the torn meniscal tissue decrease the contact area and increase pressure; however, there is a lack of information on the effects of a horizontal cleavage tear (HCT) and partial leaf meniscectomy of such tears on tibiofemoral contact pressure and contact area. Twelve fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees were tested under 10 conditions: 5 serial conditions of posterior medial meniscectomy (intact meniscus, HCT, repaired HCT, inferior leaf resection, and resection of both inferior and superior leaves), each at 2 knee flexion angles (0° and 60°) under an 800-N axial load. Tekscan sensors (model 4000) were used to measure the contact pressure and contact area. HCT and HCT repair resulted in small changes in the contact area and an increase in contact pressure compared with the intact condition. Resection of the inferior leaf resulted in significantly decreased contact area (to a mean 82.3% of the intact condition at 0° of flexion and 81.8% at 60° of flexion; p < 0.05) and increased peak contact pressure (a mean 36.3% increase at 0° flexion and 43.2% increase at 60° flexion; p < 0.05) in the medial compartment. Further resection of the remaining superior leaf resulted in additional significant decreases in contact area (to a mean 60.1% of the intact condition at 0° of flexion and 49.7% at 60° of flexion; p < 0.05) and increases in peak contact pressure (a mean 79.2% increase at 0° of flexion and 74.9% increase at 60° of flexion; p < 0.05). Resection of meniscal tissue forming the inferior leaf of an HCT resulted in substantially decreased contact area and increased contact pressure. Additional resection of the superior leaf resulted in a further significant decrease in contact area and increase in contact pressure in the medial compartment. Repair or minimal

  6. Baseball and softball injuries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quincy

    2006-05-01

    Baseball and softball injuries can be a result of both acute and overuse injuries. Soft tissue injuries include contusions, abrasions, and lacerations. Return to play is allowed when risk of further injury is minimized. Common shoulder injuries include those to the rotator cuff, biceps tendon, and glenoid labrum. Elbow injuries are common in baseball and softball and include medial epicondylitis, ulnar collateral ligament injury, and osteochondritis dissecans. Typically conservative treatment with relative rest, medication, and a rehabilitation program will allow return to play. Surgical intervention may be needed for certain injuries or conservative treatment failure.

  7. Characterizing the distinct structural changes associated with self-reported knee injury among individuals with incident knee osteoarthritis: Data from the osteoarthritis initiative.

    PubMed

    Davis, Julie E; Harkey, Matthew S; Ward, Robert J; Mackay, James W; Lu, Bing; Price, Lori Lyn; Eaton, Charles B; Barbe, Mary F; Lo, Grace H; McAlindon, Timothy E; Driban, Jeffrey B

    2018-04-01

    We aimed to characterize the agreement between distinct structural changes on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and self-reported injury in the 12 months leading to incident common or accelerated knee osteoarthritis (KOA). We conducted a descriptive study using data from baseline and the first 4 annual visits of the Osteoarthritis Initiative. Knees had no radiographic KOA at baseline (Kellgren-Lawrence [KL]<2). We classified two groups: (1) accelerated KOA: a knee developed advanced-stage KOA (KL = 3 or 4) within 48 months and (2) common KOA: a knee increased in radiographic severity (excluding those with accelerated KOA). Adults were 1:1 matched based on sex. The index visit was when a person met the accelerated or common KOA criteria. We limited our sample to people with MR images and self-reported injury data at index visit and year prior. Among 226 people, we found fair agreement between self-reported injuries and distinct structural changes (kappa = 0.24 to 0.31). Most distinct structural changes were medial meniscal pathology. No distinct structural changes (e.g., root or radial tears) appeared to differ between adults who reported or did not report an injury; except, all subchondral fractures occurred in adults who developed accelerated KOA and reported an injury. While there is fair agreement between self-reported knee injuries and distinct structural changes, there is some discordance. Self-reported injury may represent a different construct from distinct structural changes that occur after joint trauma. Clin. Anat. 31:330-334, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Diagnostic Validity of Combining History Elements and Physical Examination Tests for Traumatic and Degenerative Symptomatic Meniscal Tears.

    PubMed

    Décary, Simon; Fallaha, Michel; Frémont, Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Feldman, Debbie E; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Vendittoli, Pascal-André; Desmeules, François

    2018-05-01

    The current approach to the clinical diagnosis of traumatic and degenerative symptomatic meniscal tears (SMTs) proposes combining history elements and physical examination tests without systematic prescription of imaging investigations, yet the evidence to support this diagnostic approach is scarce. To assess the validity of diagnostic clusters combining history elements and physical examination tests to diagnose or exclude traumatic and degenerative SMT compared with other knee disorders. Prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Patients were recruited from 2 orthopedic clinics, 2 family medicine clinics, and from a university community. A total of 279 consecutive patients who underwent consultation for a new knee complaint. Each patient was assessed independently by 2 evaluators. History elements and standardized physical examination tests performed by a physiotherapist were compared with the reference standard: an expert physicians' composite diagnosis including a clinical examination and confirmatory magnetic resonance imaging. Participating expert physicians were orthopedic surgeons (n = 3) or sport medicine physicians (n = 2). Penalized logistic regression (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) was used to identify history elements and physical examination tests associated with the diagnosis of SMT and recursive partitioning was used to develop diagnostic clusters. Diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/-) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Eighty patients had a diagnosis of SMT (28.7%), including 35 traumatic tears and 45 degenerative tears. The combination a history of trauma during a pivot, medial knee pain location, and a positive medial joint line tenderness test was able to diagnose (LR+ = 8.9; 95% CI 6.1-13.1) or exclude (LR- = 0.10; 95% CI 0.03-0.28) a traumatic SMT. Combining a history of

  9. Arthroscopic all-inside repair for a tear of posterior root of the medial meniscus: a technical note.

    PubMed

    Choi, Nam-Hong; Son, Kyung-Mo; Victoroff, Brian N

    2008-09-01

    This technical note describes a new arthroscopic technique to repair a tear of posterior root of the medial meniscus. Cartilage at the insertion area of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) was removed using a curved curette inserted through an anteromedial portal. A metal anchor loaded with two FiberWires (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was placed at the insertion area of the PHMM through a high posteromedial portal. A PDS suture was passed the PHMM by curved suture hook through the anteromedial portal. Two limbs of the PDS were then used to pass two limbs of the FiberWire through the meniscus. The same procedure was repeated for the second FiberWire suture. The sutures were tied, achieving secure fixation of the posterior meniscal root at the anatomic insertion.

  10. Quality and Variability of Online Physical Therapy Protocols for Isolated Meniscal Repairs.

    PubMed

    Trofa, David P; Parisien, Robert L; Noticewala, Manish S; Noback, Peter C; Ahmad, Christopher S; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C

    2018-05-31

    The ideal meniscal repair postoperative rehabilitation protocol has yet to be determined. Further, patients are attempting to access health care content online at a precipitously increasing rate given the efficiency of modern search engines. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the quality and variability of meniscal repair rehabilitation protocols published online with the hypothesis that there would be a high degree of variability found across available protocols. To this end, Web-based meniscal repair physical therapy protocols from U.S. academic orthopaedic programs as well as the first 10 protocols identified by the Google search engine for the term "meniscal repair physical therapy protocol" were reviewed and assessed via a custom scoring rubric. Twenty protocols were identified from 155 U.S. academic orthopaedic programs for a total of 30 protocols. Twenty-six protocols (86.6%) recommended immediate postoperative bracing. Twelve (40.0%) protocols permitted immediate weight-bearing as tolerated (WBAT) postoperatively, while the remaining protocols permitted WBAT at an average of 4.0 (range, 1-7) weeks. There was considerable variation in range of motion (ROM) goals, with most protocols (73.3%) initiating immediate passive ROM to 90°. The types and timing of strength, proprioception, agility, and pivoting exercises advised were extremely diverse. Only five protocols (16.7%) employed functional testing as a marker for return to athletics. The results of this study indicate that only a minority of academic orthopaedic programs publish meniscal repair physical therapy protocols online and that within the most readily available online protocols there are significant disparities in regards to brace use, ROM, weight-bearing, and strengthening and proprioception exercises. These discrepancies reflect the fact that the best rehabilitation practices after a meniscal repair have yet to be elucidated. This represents a significant area for improved patient

  11. Physical examination and imaging of medial collateral ligament and posteromedial corner of the knee.

    PubMed

    Craft, Jason A; Kurzweil, Peter R

    2015-06-01

    The medial collateral ligament (MCL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament. Most will heal well with nonoperative treatment. However, not all medial knee injuries are the same. A detailed physical examination can help determine the severity of the medial-sided injury. When combined with advanced imaging, the examination will delineate damage to associated medial knee structures, including the location of MCL damage, posteromedial capsule injuries, and combined cruciate injuries. Failure to recognize MCL injuries that may be prone to chronic laxity can lead to significant disability, joint damage, and failure of concomitant cruciate ligament reconstructions. Magnetic resonance imaging is the mainstay of diagnostic imaging, with coronal sequences allowing full assessment of the MCL complex. Tangential views aid in the diagnosis of concomitant injuries. Stress radiography can play a role in evaluating MCL healing and subtle chronic laxity. Ultrasonography is also gaining acceptance as a means to assess MCL injuries. Use of a detailed examination and advanced imaging will allow optimal treatment of medial knee injuries and improve clinical outcomes.

  12. The "safe zone" in medial percutaneous calcaneal pin placement.

    PubMed

    Gamie, Zakareya; Donnelly, Leo; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2009-05-01

    Percutaneous pin insertion into the medial calcaneus places a number of structures at risk. Evidence suggests that the greatest risk is to the medial calcaneal nerve (MCN). The medial calcaneal region of 24 cadavers was dissected to determine the major structures at risk. By using four palpable anatomical landmarks, the inferior tip of the medial malleolus (point A), the posterior superior portion of the calcaneal tuberosity (point B), the navicular tuberosity (point C), and the medial process of the calcaneal tuberosity (point D), we attempted to define the safe zone taking into account all possible variables in our dissections including ankle position, side, gender, and possible anatomical variations of the MCN. The commonest arrangement of the MCN was two MCNs that arose independently, one arising before the bifurcation of the tibial nerve and the other arising from the medial plantar nerve. A zone could be defined posterior to 75% of the distance along the lines AB, CD, AD, and CB which would avoid most structures. The posterior branches of the MCN, however, would still be at risk and placing the pin too far posteriorly risks an avulsion fracture. This is the first study to employ four palpable anatomical landmarks to identify a zone to minimize damage to neurovascular structures. It may not be possible, however, to avoid injury of the MCN and consequent sensory loss to the sole of the foot.

  13. Arthroscopic Direct Repair for a Complete Radial Tear of the Posterior Root of the Medial Meniscus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kook Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hee; Cho, Jin Ho; Changale, Sachin D.; Woo, Sung Jong

    2011-01-01

    We report here on a new arthroscopic direct repair technique for a radial tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (PRMM) using a posterior trans-septal portal. Radial tears of the PRMM are commonly observed in the elderly population of Korea and Japan, and the life style of these people requires squatting and kneeling down in daily life. A radial tear of the PRMM results in the loss of hoop tension and this accelerates degenerative changes in the knee joint and causes early osteoarthritis. Several reports in the medical literature have focused on various repair techniques for these tears by using pull out sutures. These techniques result in nonanatomic fixation of the meniscus, which may lead to disturbed meniscal excursion and failure to restore hoop tension. Arthroscopic direct repair may contribute to restoring hoop tension and preventing accelerated degenerative changes in the knee joint of these patients. PMID:22162797

  14. Arthroscopic direct repair for a complete radial tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kook Hyun; Hwang, Dae Hee; Cho, Jin Ho; Changale, Sachin D; Woo, Sung Jong; Nha, Kyung Wook

    2011-12-01

    We report here on a new arthroscopic direct repair technique for a radial tear of the posterior root of the medial meniscus (PRMM) using a posterior trans-septal portal. Radial tears of the PRMM are commonly observed in the elderly population of Korea and Japan, and the life style of these people requires squatting and kneeling down in daily life. A radial tear of the PRMM results in the loss of hoop tension and this accelerates degenerative changes in the knee joint and causes early osteoarthritis. Several reports in the medical literature have focused on various repair techniques for these tears by using pull out sutures. These techniques result in nonanatomic fixation of the meniscus, which may lead to disturbed meniscal excursion and failure to restore hoop tension. Arthroscopic direct repair may contribute to restoring hoop tension and preventing accelerated degenerative changes in the knee joint of these patients.

  15. Diagnosis of the "large medial meniscus" of the knee on MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Samoto, Nobuhiko; Kozuma, Masakazu; Tokuhisa, Toshio; Kobayashi, Kunio

    2006-11-01

    Although several quantitative magnetic resonance (MR) diagnostic criteria for discoid lateral meniscus (DLM) have been described, there are no criteria by which to estimate the size of the medial meniscus. We define a medial meniscus that exceeds the normal size as a "large medial meniscus" (LMM), and the purpose of this study is to establish the quantitative MR diagnostic criteria for LMM. The MR imaging findings of 96 knees with arthroscopically confirmed intact semilunar lateral meniscus (SLM), 18 knees with intact DLM, 105 knees with intact semilunar medial meniscus (SMM) and 4 knees with torn LMM were analyzed. The following three quantitative parameters were measured: (a) meniscal width (MW): the minimum MW on the coronal slice; (b) ratio of the meniscus to the tibia (RMT): the ratio of minimum MW to maximum tibial width on the coronal slice; (c) continuity of the anterior and posterior horns (CAPH): the number of consecutive 5-mm-thick sagittal slices showing continuity between the anterior horn and the posterior horn of the meniscus on sagittal slices. Using logistic discriminant analysis between intact SLM and DLM groups and using descriptive statistics of intact SLM and SMM groups, the cutoff values used to discriminate LMM from SMM were calculated by MW and RMT. Moreover, the efficacy of these cutoff values and three slices of the cutoff values for CAPH were estimated in the medial meniscus group. "MW> or =11 mm" and "RMT> or =15%" were determined to be effective diagnostic criteria for LMM, while three of four cases in the torn LMM group were true positives and specificity was 99% in both criteria. When "CAPH> or =3 slices" was used as a criterion, three of four torn LMM cases were true positives and specificity was 93%.

  16. Avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root: case report and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Matthias J; Minzlaff, Philipp; Saier, Tim; Lenich, Andreas; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Injuries of the meniscus roots have become increasingly recognised as a serious pathology of the knee joint. However, the current available literature focuses primarily on posterior meniscus root tears. In this article, a case with an isolated avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root is presented, and a new arthroscopic technique to treat this type of injury is described. The anterior horn of the medial meniscus was sutured with a double-looped nonabsorbable suture and reattached to the tibial plateau using a knotless suture anchor. This technique may also be useful to treat avulsion injuries of the anterolateral or posteromedial meniscus root, and symptomatic subluxation of the medial meniscus in case of a variant insertion anatomy with an absent attachment of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus to the tibial plateau. Level of evidence V.

  17. Inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate for displaced medial clavicle fracture.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Jiang, Jiannong; Dou, Bin; Zhang, Panjun

    2015-09-01

    Fractures of the medial clavicle are rare injuries. Recently, open reduction and internal fixation has been recommended for displaced medial clavicle fractures in order to prevent non-union and dysfunction. Because of the rarity of this injury, the optimal fixation device has not yet been established. In this report, we describe a case of a 40-year-old male patient who sustained a significantly displaced medial clavicle fracture treated by open reduction and internal fixation using an inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate. At the 12 months follow-up, the patient recovered well, had returned to pre-injury job, and was quite satisfied with the outcome. Internal fixation of medial clavicle fracture using an inverted distal clavicle anatomic locking plate of the ipsilateral side appears to be a good treatment option.

  18. Stem cell-based tissue-engineering for treatment of meniscal tears in the avascular zone.

    PubMed

    Zellner, Johannes; Hierl, Katja; Mueller, Michael; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Dienstknecht, Thomas; Krutsch, Werner; Geis, Sebastian; Gehmert, Sebastian; Kujat, Richard; Dendorfer, Sebastian; Prantl, Lukas; Nerlich, Michael; Angele, Peter

    2013-10-01

    Meniscal tears in the avascular zone have a poor self-healing potential, however partial meniscectomy predisposes the knee for early osteoarthritis. Tissue engineering with mesenchymal stem cells and a hyaluronan collagen based scaffold is a promising approach to repair meniscal tears in the avascular zone. 4 mm longitudinal meniscal tears in the avascular zone of lateral menisci of New Zealand White Rabbits were performed. The defect was left empty, sutured with a 5-0 suture or filled with a hyaluronan/collagen composite matrix without cells, with platelet rich plasma or with autologous mesenchymal stem cells. Matrices with stem cells were in part precultured in chondrogenic medium for 14 days prior to the implantation. Menisci were harvested at 6 and 12 weeks. The developed repair tissue was analyzed macroscopically, histologically and biomechanically. Untreated defects, defects treated with suture alone, with cell-free or with platelet rich plasma seeded implants showed a muted fibrous healing response. The implantation of stem cell-matrix constructs initiated fibrocartilage-like repair tissue, with better integration and biomechanical properties in the precultured stem cell-matrix group. A hyaluronan-collagen based composite scaffold seeded with mesenchymal stem cells is more effective in the repair avascular meniscal tear with stable meniscus-like tissue and to restore the native meniscus. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley Company.

  19. Hydrostatic pressure modulates mRNA expressions for matrix proteins in human meniscal cells.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toru; Toyoda, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Hisamori, Noriyuki; Matsumoto, Hideo; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    2006-01-01

    There have been few reports describing the effects of mechanical loading on the metabolism of meniscal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of hydrostatic pressure on meniscal cell metabolism. Human meniscal cells were cultured in alginate beads for 3 days. They were then subjected to 4 MPa hydrostatic pressure for 4 hours in either a static or cyclic (1 Hz) mode using a specially designed and constructed system. Immediately after the pressure application, the messenger RNA levels for aggrecan, type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) -1, -3, -9, -13 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP) -1 and -2 were measured. It was found that the application of static hydrostatic pressure caused a significant decrease in mRNA expression for MMP-1 and -13 (p<0.05). In contrast, the application of cyclic hydrostatic pressure was associated with a significant increase in type I collagen (p<0.01), TIMP-1 and -2 mRNA expression (p<0.01). These results would suggest that hydrostatic pressure in isolation can modulate mRNA expressions for matrix proteins in meniscal cells.

  20. [Diagnostic significance of "bay sign" of medial meniscus under arthroscope in medial collateral ligament rupture of knee].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wentao; Zhang, Xintao; Huang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    When knee medial collateral ligament (MCL) rupture, the upper surface of medial meniscus is exposed totally, like the gulf panoramic, which is called "panoramic views of the bay sign" or the "bay sign". To investigate the reliability and significance of the "bay sign" in diagnosis of knee MCL rupture under arthroscope. Between March 2007 and March 2011, 127 patients with knees injuries were divided into the observation group (n = 59) and control group (n = 68) based on the MRI results. In the observation group, 59 patients had MCL rupture by MRI, including 12 cases of MCL injury alone, 16 cases of MCL injury with lateral meniscus torn, 27 cases of MCL injury with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury, 3 cases of MCL injury with ACL and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injury, and 1 case of MCL injury with patellar dislocation; there were 38 males and 21 females with an average age of 23.2 years (range, 16-39 years). In the control group, 68 patients had no MCL rupture by MRI, including 38 cases of ACL injury, 4 cases of ACL and PCL injury, and 26 cases of ACL and lateral meniscus injury; there were 45 males and 23 females with an average age of 31.8 years (range, 25-49 years). The "bay sign" was observed under arthroscope in 2 groups before and after operation. The positive "bay sign" was seen under arthroscope in the patients of the observation group before MCL repair; the "bay sign" disappeared after repair. No "bay sign" was seen in patients of the control group before and after ACL reconstruction. The "bay sign" is a reliable diagnostic evidence of MCL injury. It can be used as a basis to judge the success of MCL reconstruction during operation.

  1. Arthroscopic pullout repair of posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: the anterior approach using medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Sik; Moon, Hong-Kyo; Koh, Yong-Gon; Kim, Yong-Chan; Sim, Dong-Sik; Jo, Seung-Bae; Kwon, Se-Kwang

    2011-08-01

    Posterior root tears of the medial meniscus are frequently encountered and should be repaired if possible to prevent osteoarthritis of the medial compartment. Various surgical techniques have been proposed to repair posterior root tears. The anterior arthroscopic approach can cause an iatrogenic chondral injury due to the narrow medial joint space. The posterior approaches might be technically unfamiliar to many surgeons because they require the establishment of a posteromedial or trans-septal portal. This paper describes the medial collateral ligament pie-crusting release technique for arthroscopic double transosseous pullout repair of posterior root tears of the medial meniscus through the anterior approach to provide the good visualization of the footprint and sufficient working space.

  2. The popliteus tendon provides a safe and reliable location for all-inside meniscal repair device placement.

    PubMed

    Ouanezar, Hervé; Blakeney, William G; Latrobe, Charles; Saithna, Adnan; Fernandes, Levi Reina; Delaloye, Jean Romain; Thaunat, Mathieu; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2018-03-03

    Repairs of the posterior horn of the lateral meniscus can be technically challenging. In contrast to medial meniscus repairs, the capsule around the posterior segment attachment of the lateral meniscus is quite thin. This study evaluates the clinical results of an arthroscopic all-inside repair technique for unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears, using a suture repair placed directly into the popliteus tendon. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from the SANTI database was performed. All patients who had undergone combined ACL reconstruction with lateral meniscus all-inside repair, using sutures placed in the popliteus tendon, between 2011 and 2015, were included. Patients were reviewed clinically at 1 and 2 years' follow-up. At final follow-up, all patients were contacted to identify if they underwent further surgery or had knee pain, locking or effusion. Symptomatic patients were recalled for clinical evaluation by a physician and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the knee. Operative notes for those undergoing further surgery were reviewed and rates and type of re-operation, including for failed lateral meniscal repair were recorded. Two hundred patients (mean age 28.6 ± 10.2 years) with a mean follow-up of 45.5 ± 12.8 months (range 24.7-75.2) were included. The mean Subjective International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) at final follow-up was 85.0 ± 11.3. The post-operative mean side-to-side laxity measured at 1 year was 0.6 ± 1.0 mm. Twenty-six patients underwent re-operation (13%) at a mean follow-up of 14.8 ± 7.8 months. The ACL graft rupture rate was 5.0%. Other causes for re-operation included medial meniscus tear (2.5%), cyclops lesion (1.5%) and septic arthritis (0.5%). The lateral meniscus repair failure rate was 3.5%. No specific complications relating to placement of sutures in the popliteus tendon were identified. Arthroscopic all-inside repair of unstable, vertical, lateral meniscus tears

  3. Development and Characterization of UHMWPE Fiber-Reinforced Hydrogels For Meniscal Replacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Julianne Leigh

    Meniscal tears are the most common orthopedic injuries to the human body. The current treatment of choice, however, is a partial meniscectomy that leads to osteoarthritis proportional to the amount of tissue removed. As a result, there is a significant clinical need to develop materials capable of restoring the biomechanical contact stress distribution to the knee after meniscectomy and preventing the onset of osteoarthritis. In this work, a fiber-reinforced hydrogel-based synthetic meniscus was developed that allows for tailoring of the mechanical properties and molding of the implant to match the size, shape, and property distribution of the native tissue. Physically cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels were reinforced with ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fibers and characterized in compression (0.1-0.8 MPa) and tension (0.1-250 MPa) showing fine control over mechanical properties within the range of the human meniscus. Morphology and crystallinity analysis of PVA hydrogels showed increases in crystallinity and PVA densification, or phase separation, with freeze-thaw cycles. A comparison of freeze-thawed and aged, physically cross-linked hydrogels provided insight on both crystallinity and phase separation as mechanisms for PVA gelation. Results indicated both mechanisms independently contributed to hydrogel modulus for freeze-thawed hydrogels. In vitro swelling studies were performed using osmotic solutions to replicate the swelling pressure present in the knee. Minimal swelling was observed for hydrogels with a PVA concentration of 30-35 wt%, independently of hydrogel freeze-thaw cycles. This allows for independent tailoring of hydrogel modulus and pore structure using freeze-thaw cycles and swelling behavior using polymer concentration to match a wide range of properties needed for various soft tissue applications. The UHMWPE-PVA interface was identified as a significant weakness. To improve interfacial adhesion, a novel

  4. Editorial Commentary: Chondrocytes Trump Ligaments! Partial Release of the Medial Collateral Ligament During Knee Arthroscopy Protects Chondrocytes.

    PubMed

    Leland, J Martin

    2016-10-01

    With knee arthroscopy being the most common orthopaedic procedure performed in the United States, it is crucial to be able to access the entire knee without iatrogenic injury. Frequently orthopaedic surgeons encounter tight medial compartments, creating difficulty in accessing the posterior horn of the medial meniscus without damaging the articular cartilage. Partial release of the medial collateral ligament during knee arthroscopy protects chondrocytes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation Among Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgeons When Treating Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Meghan; Dua, Karan; O'Hara, Nathan N; Brighton, Brian K; Ganley, Theodore J; Hennrikus, William L; Herman, Martin J; Hyman, Joshua E; Lawrence, J Todd; Mehlman, Charles T; Noonan, Kenneth J; Otsuka, Norman Y; Schwend, Richard M; Shrader, M Wade; Smith, Brian G; Sponseller, Paul D; Abzug, Joshua M

    2017-10-18

    Medial epicondyle fractures are a common pediatric and adolescent injury accounting for 11% to 20% of elbow fractures in this population. This purpose of this study was to determine the variability among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating pediatric medial epicondyle fractures. A discrete choice experiment was conducted to determine which patient and injury attributes influence the management of medial epicondyle fractures by pediatric orthopaedic surgeons. A convenience sample of 13 pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 60 case vignettes of medial epicondyle fractures that included elbow radiographs and patient/injury characteristics. Displacement was incorporated into the study model as a fixed effect. Surgeons were queried if they would treat the injury with immobilization alone or open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect regression model. In addition, surgeons filled out a demographic questionnaire and a risk assessment to determine if these factors affected clinical decision-making. Elbow dislocation and fracture displacement were the only attributes that significantly influenced surgeons to perform surgery (P<0.05). The presence of an elbow dislocation had the largest impact on surgeons when choosing operative care (β=-0.14; P=0.02). In addition, for every 1 mm increase in displacement, surgeons tended to favor ORIF by a factor of 0.09 (P<0.01). Sex, mechanism of injury, and sport participation did not influence decision-making. In total, 54% of the surgeons demonstrated a preference for ORIF for the included scenarios. On the basis of the personality Likert scale, participants were neither high-risk takers nor extremely risk adverse with an average-risk score of 2.24. Participant demographics did not influence decision-making. There is substantial variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when treating medial epicondyle fractures. The decision to operate is significantly based on

  6. The Anatomy of the Medial Patellofemoral Ligament.

    PubMed

    Trinh, Thai Q; Ferrel, Jason R; Bentley, Jared C; Steensen, Robert N

    2017-07-01

    Recurrent patellar dislocation is observed in many patients treated nonoperatively following primary dislocation. Injury to the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) is reported in the majority of patients following dislocation. There is an increased interest in repair or reconstruction of the MPFL for patients experiencing recurrent instability. The femoral attachment of the MPFL is critical in determining graft behavior following reconstruction. The femoral attachment can be determined by referencing local anatomy, fluoroscopic imaging or on the basis of desired graft-length changes. This article reviews the anatomy of the MPFL, with a focus on its femoral insertion site as it pertains to anatomic, isometric, and anisometric reconstruction. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e583-e588.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  8. Large regional differences in incidence of arthroscopic meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Hare, Kristoffer Borbjerg; Vinther, Jesper Høeg; Lohmander, L Stefan; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch

    2015-02-24

    A recent study reported a large increase in the number of meniscal procedures from 2000 to 2011 in Denmark. We examined the nation-wide distribution of meniscal procedures performed in the private and public sector in Denmark since different incentives may be present and the use of these procedures may differ from region to region. We included data on all patients who underwent an arthroscopic meniscal procedure performed in the public or private sector in Denmark. Data were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register on patients who underwent arthroscopic meniscus surgery as a primary or secondary procedure in the years 2000 to 2011. Hospital identification codes enabled linkage of performed procedures to specific hospitals. Yearly incidence of meniscal procedures per 100,000 inhabitants was calculated with 95% CIs for public and private procedures for each region. Incidence of meniscal procedures increased at private and at public hospitals. The private sector accounted for the largest relative and absolute increase, rising from an incidence of 1 in 2000 to 98 in 2011. In 2011, the incidence of meniscal procedures was three times higher in the Capital Region than in Region Zealand. Our study identified a large increase in the use of meniscal procedures in the public and private sector in Denmark. The increase was particularly conspicuous in the private sector as its proportion of procedures performed increased from 1% to 32%. Substantial regional differences were present in the incidence and trend over time of meniscal procedures. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  10. UTE-T2* mapping detects sub-clinical meniscus injury after anterior cruciate ligament tear

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A.; Qian, Y.; Golla, S.; Chu, C.R.

    2018-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective Meniscus tear is a known risk factor for osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative assessment of meniscus degeneration, prior to surface break-down, is important to identification of early disease potentially amenable to therapeutic interventions. This work examines the diagnostic potential of ultrashort echo time-enhanced T2* (UTE-T2*) mapping to detect human meniscus degeneration in vitro and in vivo in subjects at risk of developing OA. Design UTE-T2* maps of 16 human cadaver menisci were compared to histological evaluations of meniscal structural integrity and clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment by a musculoskeletal radiologist. In vivo UTE-T2* maps were compared in 10 asymptomatic subjects and 25 ACL-injured patients with and without concomitant meniscal tear. Results In vitro, UTE-T2* values tended to be lower in histologically and clinically normal meniscus tissue and higher in torn or degenerate tissue. UTE-T2* map heterogeneity reflected collagen disorganization. In vivo, asymptomatic meniscus UTE-T2* values were repeatable within 9% (root-mean-square average coefficient of variation). Posteromedial meniscus UTE-T2* values in ACL-injured subjects with clinically diagnosed medial meniscus tear (n = 10) were 87% higher than asymptomatics (n = 10, P < 0.001). Posteromedial menisci UTE-T2* values of ACL-injured subjects without concomitant medial meniscal tear (n = 15) were 33% higher than asymptomatics (P = 0.001). Posterolateral menisci UTE-T2* values also varied significantly with degree of joint pathology (P = 0.001). Conclusion Significant elevations of UTE-T2* values in the menisci of ACL-injured subjects without clinical evidence of subsurface meniscal abnormality suggest that UTE-T2* mapping is sensitive to subclinical meniscus degeneration. Further study is needed to determine whether elevated subsurface meniscus UTE-T2* values predict progression of meniscal degeneration and development of OA. PMID:22306000

  11. Selenium Reduces Early Signs of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Meniscal Tissue Degradation.

    PubMed

    Häfelein, Klaus; Preuße-Prange, Andrea; Behrendt, Peter; Kurz, Bodo

    2017-05-01

    Meniscal integrity is a prerequisite for sustained knee joint health and prevention of meniscal degeneration is a main research goal. Cartilage-protective effects of selenium have been described, but little is known about the impact on the meniscus. We therefore investigated the influence of sodium selenite on meniscal explants under tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα)-stimulated proinflammatory conditions. Meniscal explant disks (3 mm diameter × 1 mm thickness) were isolated from 2-year-old cattle and incubated with TNFα (10 ng/ml) and sodium selenite (low dose, LoD 6.7 ng/ml as being found in Insulin-Transferrin-Selenium medium supplements, ITS; medium-dose, MeD 40 ng/ml described as physiological synovial concentration; high dose, HiD 100 ng/ml described as optimal serum concentration). After 3 days of culture glycosaminoglycan (GAG) release (DMMB assay), nitric oxide (NO) production (Griess assay), gene expression of matrix-degrading enzymes (quantitative RT-PCR), and apoptosis rate were determined. TNFα led to a significant raise of GAG release and NO production. LoD and MeD selenite significantly reduced the TNFα-induced GAG release (by 83, 55 %, respectively), NO production (by 59, 40 %, respectively), and apoptosis (by 68, 39 %, respectively). LoD and MeD selenite showed a tendency to reduce the TNFα-mediated increase of inducible NO-synthase (iNOS) levels, LoD selenite furthermore matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3 transcription levels and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 levels. LoD and less pronounced MeD selenite show a substantial impact on the early meniscal inflammatory response. To our knowledge this is the first study showing the protective influence of selenium on meniscal tissue maintenance. To understand the superior potency of low-dose selenium on molecular level future studies are needed.

  12. Double transosseous pull out suture technique for transection of posterior horn of medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Wang, Joon Ho; Lim, Hong Chul; Bae, Ji Hoon; Park, Joon Soo; Yoo, Jae Chul; Shyam, Ashok Kumar

    2009-03-01

    Transection injury (complete radial tear, root tear) in the posterior horn of medial meniscus will lead to loss of hoop strain, extrusion of the meniscus and early degenerative changes. The posterior horn of medial meniscus is amenable to repair due to its good blood supply and repair is the procedure of choice for these injuries. In cases of transection of the medial meniscus posterior horn, the meniscus can be repaired by a pull out suture technique using trans-septal portal. The single transosseous pull out suturing technique is a point fixation technique with limited contact area having low and inhomogeneous contact pressure. This article describes a double transosseous pull out suture technique using trans-septal portal for the repair of transection of posterior horn of medial meniscus. Use of double transosseous technique provides more secure fixation, more homogeneous and wider contact pressure area between meniscus and the bone, improving the healing potential of the repair.

  13. Potential use of mesenchymal stem cells in human meniscal repair: current insights

    PubMed Central

    Pak, Jaewoo; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeon, Jeong Ho; Lee, Sang Hee

    2017-01-01

    The menisci of the human knee play an important role in maintaining normal functions to provide stability and nutrition to the articular cartilage, and to absorb shock. Once injured, these important structures have very limited natural healing potential. Unfortunately, the traditional arthroscopic meniscectomy performed on these damaged menisci may predispose the joint toward early development of osteoarthritis. Although a very limited number of studies are available, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated as an alternative therapeutic modality to repair human knee meniscal tears. This review summarizes the results of published applications of MSCs in human patients, which showed that the patients who received MSCs (autologous adipose tissue-derived stem cells or culture-expanded bone marrow-derived stem cells) presented symptomatic improvements, along with magnetic resonance imaging evidences of the meniscal repair. PMID:28356779

  14. Clinical significance of condylar chondromalacia after arthroscopic resection of flap-tears of the medial meniscus. A prospective study of 93 cases.

    PubMed

    Aune, A K; Madsen, J E; Moen, H

    1995-01-01

    We describe the results after arthroscopic resection of flap-tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn in 93 patients with (40) or without (53) chondromalacia of the adjacent condylar cartilage at the time of operation. These were 93 consecutive patients presenting with medial flap-tears during the period 1988-1990 in our departments. The follow-up averaged 42 (range 26-50) months. There was a significant difference in the functional results at review depending on the presence or absence of condylar chondromalacia at arthroscopy. Among the 40 patients with chondromalacia, the Lysholm score was significantly lower (P < 0.004), and only about half the patients reported a satisfactory result. There was a significant increase in the presence of chondromalacia with age (P < 0.001). In conclusion, the presence of minor degenerative changes in the articular cartilage adjacent to meniscal flap-tears correlated with a less favourable outcome.

  15. The Use of Blood Vessel–Derived Stem Cells for Meniscal Regeneration and Repair

    PubMed Central

    OSAWA, AKI; HARNER, CHRISTOPHER D.; GHARAIBEH, BURHAN; MATSUMOTO, TOMOYUKI; MIFUNE, YUTAKA; KOPF, SEBASTIAN; INGHAM, SHEILA J. M.; SCHREIBER, VERENA; USAS, ARVYDAS; HUARD, JOHNNY

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Surgical repairs of tears in the vascular region of the meniscus usually heal better than repairs performed in the avascular region; thus, we hypothesized that this region might possess a richer supply of vascular-derived stem cells than the avascular region. Methods In this study, we analyzed 6 menisci extracted from aborted human fetuses and 12 human lateral menisci extracted from adult human subjects undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Menisci were immunostained for CD34 (a stem cell marker) and CD146 (a pericyte marker) in situ, whereas other menisci were dissected into two regions (peripheral and inner) and used to isolate meniscus-derived cells by flow cytometry. Cell populations expressing CD34 and CD146 were tested for their multi-lineage differentiation potentials, including chondrogenic, osteogenic, and adipogenic lineages. Fetal peripheral meniscus cells were transplanted by intracapsular injection into the knee joints of an athymic rat meniscal tear model. Rat menisci were extracted and histologically evaluated after 4 wk posttransplantation. Results Immunohistochemistry and flow cytometric analyses demonstrated that a higher number of CD34- and CD146-positive cells were found in the peripheral region compared with the inner region. The CD34- and CD146-positive cells isolated from the vascular region of both fetal and adult menisci demonstrated multilineage differentiation capacities and were more potent than cells isolated from the inner (avascular) region. Fetal CD34- and CD146-positive cells transplanted into the athymic rat knee joint were recruited into the meniscal tear sites and contributed to meniscus repair. Conclusions The vascularized region of the meniscus contains more stem cells than the avascular region. These meniscal-derived stem cells were multi-potent and contributed to meniscal regeneration. PMID:23247715

  16. Bone marrow stimulation of the medial femoral condyle produces inferior cartilage and bone repair compared to the trochlea in a rabbit surgical model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongmei; Chevrier, Anik; Hoemann, Caroline D; Sun, Jun; Picard, Genevieve; Buschmann, Michael D

    2013-11-01

    The influence of the location of cartilage lesions on cartilage repair outcome is incompletely understood. This study compared cartilage and bone repair in medial femoral condylar (MFC) versus femoral trochlear (TR) defects 3 months after bone marrow stimulation in mature rabbits. Intact femurs from adult rabbits served as controls. Results from quantitative histomorphometry and histological scoring showed that bone marrow stimulation produced inferior soft tissue repair in MFC versus TR defects, as indicated by significantly lower % Fill (p = 0.03), a significant increase in collagen type I immunostaining (p < 0.00001) and lower O'Driscoll scores (p < 0.05). 3D micro-CT analysis showed that repaired TR defects regained normal un-operated values of bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number, whereas in MFC defects the repaired bone architecture appeared immature and less dense compared to intact un-operated MFC controls (p < 0.0001). Severe medial meniscal damage was found in 28% of operated animals and was strongly correlated with (i) low cartilage defect fill, (ii) incomplete bone repair in MFC, and (iii) with a more posterior defect placement in the weight-bearing region. We conclude that the location of cartilage lesions influences cartilage repair, with better outcome in TR versus MFC defects in rabbits. Meniscal degeneration is associated with cartilage damage. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Meniscus maturation in the swine model: changes occurring along with anterior to posterior and medial to lateral aspect during growth

    PubMed Central

    Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Deponti, Daniela; Addis, Alessandro; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2014-01-01

    The meniscus plays important roles in knee function and mechanics and is characterized by a heterogeneous matrix composition. The changes in meniscus vascularization observed during growth suggest that the tissue-specific composition may be the result of a maturation process. This study has the aim to characterize the structural and biochemical variations that occur in the swine meniscus with age. To this purpose, menisci were collected from young and adult pigs and divided into different zones. In study 1, both lateral and medial menisci were divided into the anterior horn, the body and the posterior horn for the evaluation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen 1 and 2 content. In study 2, the menisci were sectioned into the inner, the intermediate and the outer zones to determine the variations in the cell phenotype along with the inner–outer direction, through gene expression analysis. According to the results, the swine meniscus is characterized by an increasing enrichment in the cartilaginous component with age, with an increasing deposition in the anterior horn (GAGs and collagen 2; P < 0.01 both); moreover, this cartilaginous matrix strongly increases in the inner avascular and intermediate zone, as a consequence of a specific differentiation of meniscal cells towards a cartilaginous phenotype (collagen 2, P < 0.01). The obtained data add new information on the changes that accompany meniscus maturation, suggesting a specific response of meniscal cells to the regional mechanical stimuli in the knee joint. PMID:25216283

  18. Chronic medial instability of the elbow

    PubMed Central

    Savoie, Felix H.; O’Brien, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Damage to the medial collateral ligament of the elbow from an instability episode usually heals with non-operative treatment. In some cases, residual instability may occur, leading to functional impairment.Non-operative management can be successful when bracing, taping and therapy are used to stabilise the elbow.A recent report detailing the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma in effectively treating ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injuries in throwers has shown promise. However, there remain specific groups that should be considered for repair or reconstruction. These may include throwing athletes, wrestlers and some individuals involved in highly active physical activity which demands stability of the elbow.The results of surgical repair and reconstruction allowing a return to sports are quite good, ranging from 84% to 94%. Complications are generally low and mostly centred on ulnar nerve injuries.This report represents a review of the literature concerning valgus instability over the past five years, supplemented by selective older articles where relevant. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:1-6. DOI:10.1302/2058-5241.2.160037. PMID:28607764

  19. The operative outcomes of displaced medial-end clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, Verinder S; Hermans, Deborah; Duckworth, David G

    2015-11-01

    Nonoperative treatment of displaced medial clavicle fractures often leads to poor functional outcomes and painful nonunions. This study investigates the functional outcomes of patients undergoing operative fixation of these fractures. We investigated 27 patients undergoing operative fixation of a medial clavicle fracture; 24 had an acute, displaced fracture and 3 had fixation for nonunions. Preoperative radiographs or computed tomography scans were obtained, and data collected included age, sex, mechanism of injury, and fixation method. Follow-up included physical examination and radiographs for assessment of union; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores at 12 months; and the recording of complications. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range, 17-47 years). There were 26 male patients and one female patient included, with 7 physeal injuries and 20 adult injuries. The most common mechanism of fracture was vehicular accident (n = 15). Three patients had operations for nonunions and 2 for a periprosthetic fracture medial to an existing plate. The fracture was fixed with plate and screws in 19 cases and with transosseous sutures in 8 cases. The median Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score at 12 months was 0.4 (interquartile range, 0-5.0), with a union rate of 100% at 12 months. All patients had full shoulder range of motion at final follow-up and were able to return to preinjury occupational activities. There were no significant complications. Operative fixation of displaced medial clavicle fractures results in anatomic reconstruction and excellent functional outcomes, even in the setting of fixation performed for symptomatic nonunion. Early intervention can minimize the risk of painful nonunion. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A meta-analysis of clinical and radiographic outcomes of posterior horn medial meniscus root repairs.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu Sung; Ha, Jeong Ku; Ra, Ho Jong; Kim, Jin Goo

    2016-05-01

    Although interest in medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) repair has increased, few case series have been reported. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the clinical and radiological effects of MMPRT repair by pooling pre- and post-operative data from case-series reports. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE/PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and EMBASE databases. Pre- and post-operative data were pooled to investigate the effects of MMPRT repair, including the Lysholm score improvement, meniscal extrusion (mm) reduction, progression of the Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L) grade, and cartilage status according to the Outerbridge classification. Treatment effects included paired standardized mean differences (difference in the pre- and post-operative mean outcomes divided by the standard deviation) for the Lysholm score and meniscal extrusion, as well as the pooled event rates of progression of K-L grade and cartilage status. As treatment effects, the Lysholm score increased by as much as 3.675 (P < 0.001), whereas meniscus extrusion was not reduced (n.s.). The overall pooled event rates of progression of K-L grade and cartilage status were 10.6 and 17.3 % (P < 0.001), respectively. According to the current literature, MMPRT repair resulted in significant improvements in the post-operative clinical subjective scores compared with the preoperative status. However, meniscus extrusion was not reduced. Considering the occurrence of progression of K-L grade and cartilage status, it did not prevent the progression of arthrosis completely. Based on these results, repair results in favourable outcomes for MMPRT. Meta-analysis, Level IV.

  1. Meniscal Preservation is Important for the Knee Joint

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Shantanu Sudhakar; Shekhar, Anshu; Tapasvi, Sachin Ramchandra

    2017-01-01

    Native joint preservation has gained importance in recent years. This is mostly to find solutions for limitations of arthroplasty. In the knee joint, the menisci perform critical functions, adding stability during range of motion and efficiently transferring load across the tibiofemoral articulation while protecting the cartilage. The menisci are the most common injury seen by orthopedicians, especially in the younger active patients. Advances in technology and our knowledge on functioning of the knee joint have made meniscus repair an important mode of treatment. This review summarizes the various techniques of meniscus tear repair and also describes biological enhancements of healing. PMID:28966381

  2. The measurement of medial knee gap width using ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Slane, Laura C; Slane, Josh A; Scheys, Lennart

    2017-08-01

    Medial knee instability is a key clinical parameter for assessing ligament injury and arthroplasty success, but current methods for measuring stability are typically either qualitative or involve ionizing radiation. The purpose of this study was to perform a preliminary analysis of whether ultrasound (US) could be used as an alternate approach for quantifying medial instability by comparing an US method with an approach mimicking the current gold standard fluoroscopy method. US data from the medial knee were collected, while cadaveric lower limbs (n = 8) were loaded in valgus (10 Nm). During post-processing, the US gap width was measured by identifying the medial edges of the femur and tibia and computing the gap width between these points. For comparison, mimicked fluoroscopy (mFluoro) images were created from specimen-specific bone models, developed from segmented CT scans, and from kinematic data collected during testing. Then, gap width was measured in the mFluoro images based on two different published approaches with gap width measured either at the most medial or at the most distal aspect of the femur. Gap width increased significantly with loading (p < 0.001), and there were no significant differences between the US method (unloaded: 8.7 ± 2.4 mm, loaded: 10.7 ± 2.2 mm) and the mFluoro method that measured gap width at the medial femur. In terms of the change in gap width with load, no correlation with the change in abduction angle was observed, with no correlation between the various methods. Inter-rater reliability for the US method was high (0.899-0.952). Ultrasound shows promise as a suitable alternative for quantifying medial instability without radiation exposure. However, the outstanding limitations of existing approaches and lack of true ground-truth data require that further validation work is necessary to better understand the clinical viability of an US approach for measuring medial knee gap width.

  3. The triple PCL sign: bucket handle tears of both medial and lateral menisci in a chronically ACL-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Kakel, Rafid; Russell, Robert; VanHeerden, Pieter

    2010-10-11

    Bucket handle tears of both menisci in the setting of acute or chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears of the same knee have rarely been reported in the literature. This article presents a case of a bucket handle tear affecting both the medial and lateral menisci in a patient with chronic ACL rupture. Both bucket handle tears were displaced and locked in the intercondylar notch. A new magnetic resonance image (MRI) sign suggested on sagittal view is called the triple PCL sign, comprising the intact posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the 2 displaced fragments in the intercondylar notch from the two bucket handle tears. The precise diagnosis of this condition is of obvious importance for optimal operative planning. While finding the displaced fragment from the medial meniscus is expected to cause the double PCL sign, the torn ACL may have made it easier to visualize the bucket handle tear of the lateral meniscus in the same sagittal plane as the PCL. Only 5 other reports mention bimeniscal bucket handle tears of both the medial and lateral menisci in association with an ACL tear. None have shown the suggested triple PCL sign because of lack of overlap between the 2 bucket handle tears in the coronal plane while lying in the intercondylar notch causing them not to fall in the same sagittal plane. Our patient showed some overlap between the 2 meniscal fragments while lying in the notch to create the triple PCL sign on sagittal MRI. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Bilateral discoid medial menisci: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Puspak; Bhagwat, Kishan; Panigrahi, Tapas; Gopinathan, Nirmalraj

    2014-01-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a relatively rare pathology of the knee joint, with bilateral cases even rarer. Herein, we report the case of a 25-year-old man diagnosed with discoid medial meniscus in the right knee with a horizontal tear. Increased cupping of the medial condyle of the tibia, widening of the medial joint space and the presence of discoid meniscus in the right knee prompted investigation of the asymptomatic left knee with magnetic resonance imaging. The contralateral asymptomatic knee also showed evidence of discoid medial meniscus. The symptomatic knee was successfully treated by arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, with excellent functional outcome. PMID:25273941

  5. REHABILITATION FOLLOWING MEDIAL PATELLOFEMORAL LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION FOR PATELLAR INSTABILITY

    PubMed Central

    Prohaska, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Patellar instability is a common problem seen by physical therapists, athletic trainers and orthopedic surgeons. Although following an acute dislocation, conservative rehabilitation is usually the first line of defense; refractory cases exist that may require surgical intervention. Substantial progress has been made in the understanding of the medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) and its role as the primary stabilizer to lateral patellar displacement. Medial patellofemoral ligament disruption is now considered to be the essential lesion following acute patellar dislocation due to significantly high numbers of ruptures following this injury. Evidence is now mounting that demonstrates the benefits of early reconstruction with a variety of techniques. Recently rehabilitation has become more robust and progressive due to our better understanding of soft tissue reconstruction and repair techniques. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the etiology of patellar instability, the anatomy and biomechanics and examination of patellofemoral instability, and to describe surgical intervention and rehabilitation following MPFL rupture. Level of Evidence 5 PMID:28593102

  6. Investigation of the Expression of Myogenic Transcription Factors, microRNAs and Muscle-Specific E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Medial Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles following Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, Rebecca; Jonsson, Samuel; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite surgical innovation, the sensory and motor outcome after a peripheral nerve injury remains incomplete. One contributing factor to the poor outcome is prolonged denervation of the target organ, leading to apoptosis of both mature myofibres and satellite cells with subsequent replacement of the muscle tissue with fibrotic scar and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of myogenic transcription factors, muscle specific microRNAs and muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases at several time points following denervation in two different muscles, the gastrocnemius (containing predominantly fast type fibres) and soleus (slow type) muscles, since these molecules may influence the degree of atrophy following denervation. Both muscles exhibited significant atrophy (compared with the contra-lateral sides) at 7 days following either a nerve transection or crush injury. In the crush model, the soleus muscle showed significantly increased muscle weights at days 14 and 28 which was not the case for the gastrocnemius muscle which continued to atrophy. There was a significantly more pronounced up-regulation of MyoD expression in the denervated soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius muscle. Conversely, myogenin was more markedly elevated in the gastrocnemius versus soleus muscles. The muscles also showed significantly contrasting transcriptional regulation of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 showed the highest levels of expression in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle. This study provides further insights regarding the intracellular regulatory molecules that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in different fibre types following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26691660

  7. Medial meniscus extrusion correlates with disease duration of the sudden symptomatic medial meniscus posterior root tear.

    PubMed

    Furumatsu, T; Kamatsuki, Y; Fujii, M; Kodama, Y; Okazaki, Y; Masuda, S; Ozaki, T

    2017-12-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) leads to abnormal biomechanics of the knee by inducing the medial meniscus extrusion (MME). However, a time-dependent increase of the MME is not fully elucidated in patients suffering from the acute MMPRT. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships among disease duration of the MMPRT and severity of the MME. We hypothesized that MME measurement correlates with disease duration after a sudden onset of the minor traumatic MMPRT during the short-term follow-up period. Forty-six patients who had an accurate episode of the posteromedial painful popping were investigated. All the patients were diagnosed having a symptomatic MMPRT with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Absolute MME was measured using MRI scans within 12 months after painful popping events. A correlation coefficient between duration from injury to MRI examination and absolute MME was evaluated. Mean absolute MME was 4.5±1.6mm (range, 1.1-8.8mm) on MRI measurements. A good correlation was observed between MME measurement and duration from injury to MRI examination (R 2 =0.612). The best-fit equation for predicting each value was: MME=0.014×disease duration+3.288mm. This study demonstrated that absolute MME increases progressively within the short duration after the onset of symptomatic MMPRT. Our results suggest that preoperative MME assessment may be important in determining disease duration and treatment strategy of the MMPRT. Retrospective cohort study level IV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Arthroscopic suture anchor repair versus pullout suture repair in posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: a prospective comparison study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hwa; Chung, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Ryu, Keun-Jung

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate functional and radiographic results of arthroscopic suture anchor repair for posterior root tear of the medial meniscus (PRTMM) and compare with pullout suture repair. From December 2006 to August 2008, 51 consecutive patients underwent arthroscopic repair of PRTMM at our hospital. The repair technique was switched over time from pullout suture repair (group 1) to suture anchor repair (group 2). Of the patients, 6 were lost to follow-up, leaving a study population of 45 patients, with 22 menisci (48.9%) in group 1 and 23 (51.1%) menisci in group 2. The mean follow-up duration was 25.9 months (range, 24 to 27 months) in group 1 and 26.8 months (range, 24 to 28 months) in group 2. Compared variables included International Knee Documentation Committee criteria, Kellgren-Lawrence grade, gap distance at PRTMM, structural healing, meniscal extrusion, and cartilage degeneration of the medial femoral condyle. At 2 years postoperatively, both groups showed significant improvements in function (P < .05) and did not show significant differences in Kellgren-Lawrence grade (P > .05) compared with preoperatively. On magnetic resonance imaging, the gap distance at PRTMM was 3.2 ± 1.1 mm in group 1 and 2.9 ± 0.9 mm in group 2 preoperatively (P > .05). Complete structural healing was seen in 11 cases in group 1 and 12 cases in group 2 (P > .05). Mean meniscal extrusion of 4.3 ± 0.9 mm (group 1) and 4.1 ± 1.0 mm (group 2) preoperatively was significantly decreased to 2.1 ± 1.0 mm (group 1) and 2.2 ± 0.8 mm (group 2) postoperatively (P < .05). Regardless of repair technique, incompletely healed cases showed progression of cartilage degeneration (4 cases in group 1 and 2 cases in group 2). For PRTMM, our results show significant functional improvement in both the suture anchor repair and pullout suture repair groups. Reduction of meniscal extrusion seems to be appropriate to preserve its protective role against progression of cartilage degeneration after complete

  9. Characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus in male junior tennis players.

    PubMed

    Harada, Mikio; Takahara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Takagi, Michiaki

    2014-10-01

    Although medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus is a reported elbow injury in junior tennis players, there have been only a few studies on this entity, and none have investigated the characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Forty-one male junior tennis players, aged 11 to 14 years (mean, 13 years), underwent elbow examination by ultrasonography. Elbow re-examination was performed in subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation at an average of 20 months (12-30 months) after the initial examination. On examination, 9 subjects (22%) had elbow pain. Ultrasonography showed that 6 subjects (15%) had medial epicondylar fragmentation, all of whom had elbow pain. Medial epicondylar fragmentation was present in 5 (38%) of 13 subjects aged 11 to 12 years and in 1 (4%) of 28 aged 13 to 14 years. More subjects aged 11 to 12 years had medial epicondylar fragmentation (P = .0084). All 6 subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, although ultrasonography showed that 5 developed bone union and 1 had nonunion, 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Our results demonstrated that subjects aged 11 to 12 years had a high frequency (38%) of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Although medial epicondylar fragmentation was the main cause of elbow pain (67%) at the initial elbow examination, all 6 players with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, 5 subjects presented spontaneous bone union (83%), but 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A Medial Malleolar "Fleck Sign" May Predict Ankle Instability in Ligamentous Supination External Rotation Ankle Fractures.

    PubMed

    Nwosu, Kenneth; Schneiderman, Brian Andrew; Shymon, Stephen Joseph; Harris, Thomas

    2018-06-01

    Ankle joint stability dictates treatment in ligamentous supination external rotation ankle injuries (LSERAI). Investigation of the medial structures that support the ankle mortise is critical, and a small avulsion fracture, or "fleck", of the medial malleolus is occasionally encountered. This study aimed to assess the utility of this medial malleolus fleck sign (MMFS) in diagnosing instability requiring surgery in LSERAI. This retrospective observational study examined 166 LSERAI at a single level I trauma center. A standardized diagnostic and treatment protocol for ankle fractures was followed. LSERAI at presentation were reported as having a normal, dynamically wide, or statically wide medial clear space. Patient demographics, MMFS characteristics, and the use of operative management were recorded. MMFS incidence in the cohort was 16 (10%) of 166 and was present in 25% of patients with unstable LSERAI. Fifteen (94%) of 16 patients with a MMFS were deemed to have an unstable LSERAI (P < .005). MMFS had a 25% sensitivity and 99% specificity in diagnosing an unstable LSERAI. For the subgroup of patients without a statically wide medial clear space, MMFS had a 50% sensitivity and 99% specificity in determining instability. A MMFS may be indicative of an unstable LSERAI. With previous MRI studies demonstrating complete deltoid disruption in unstable LSERAI, we deduce the MMFS may be associated with extensive deltoid incompetence. The MMFS may help to diagnose a complete deltoid injury in LSERAI with a normal medial clear space, which could influence treatment and reduce patient morbidity, radiation exposure, and healthcare costs. Level III: Retrospective Cohort Study.

  11. A history of meniscal surgery: from ancient times to the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R

    2016-05-01

    The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.

  12. The role of medial meniscus posterior root tear and proximal tibial morphology in the development of spontaneous osteonecrosis and osteoarthritis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Yamagami, Ryota; Taketomi, Shuji; Inui, Hiroshi; Tahara, Keitaro; Tanaka, Sakae

    2017-03-01

    Medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT) has been reported to play a key role in the development of spontaneous osteonecrosis of the knee (SONK) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. However, little is known about the differences in the development of SONK and OA after MMPRT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors contributing to the development of these conditions. We evaluated the existence of MMPRT and the extent of medial meniscal extrusion in preoperative magnetic resonance images and proximal tibial morphology in radiographs of 45 patients with SONK and 104 patients with OA who underwent knee surgery. There were no significant differences in age, gender, height, weight, and body mass index between the two groups. The incidence of MMPRT and the mean posterior tibial slope (PTS) were significantly higher in SONK than in OA patients (62.2% versus 34.3%, P=0.002, and 12.8° versus 10.5°, P<0.001, respectively). The mean extent of meniscal extrusion was larger in OA than in SONK patients (7.5mm versus 5.3mm, P<0.001). The mean tibial varus angle was 4.8° in SONK and 5.4° in OA, with no significant difference between the two (P=0.088). Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that compared with OA, SONK was more closely associated with the existence of MMPRT and had a smaller extent of medial meniscus extrusion and higher PTS. MMRPT and higher PTS were more closely associated with the development of SONK than with that of OA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Predictive value of prior injury on career in professional American football is affected by player position.

    PubMed

    Brophy, Robert H; Lyman, Stephen; Chehab, Eric L; Barnes, Ronnie P; Rodeo, Scott A; Warren, Russell F

    2009-04-01

    The National Football League holds an annual combine where individual teams evaluate college football players The abstract goes here and covers two columns. likely to be drafted for physical skills, review players' medical history and imaging studies, and perform a physical examination. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of specific diagnoses and surgical procedures on the likelihood of playing and length of career in the league by position. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A database for all players reviewed at the annual National Football League Combine by the medical staff of 1 National Football League team from 1987 to 2000 was created, including each player's orthopaedic rating, diagnoses, surgical procedures, number of games played, and number of seasons played in the National Football League. Athletes were grouped by position as follows: offensive backfield, offensive receiver, offensive line, quarterback, tight end, defensive line, defensive secondary, linebacker, and kicker. The percentage of athletes who played in the National Football League was calculated by position for each specific diagnosis and surgery. The effect of injury on the likelihood of playing in the league varied by position. Anterior cruciate ligament injury significantly lowered the likelihood of playing in the league for defensive linemen (P = .03) and linebackers (P = .04). Meniscal injury significantly reduced the probability of playing (P < .05) and length of career (P = .002) for athletes in the defensive secondary. Shoulder instability had a significant effect on playing in the league for offensive (P = .03) and defensive linemen (P = .02), and shortened the length of career for defensive linemen (P = .016). Spondylolisthesis did not significantly reduce the chance of playing in the league for any position, while a history of spondylolysis had a significant effect for running backs (P = .01). Miscellaneous injuries (eg. acromioclavicular joint, knee medial

  14. An isolated dorso-medial dislocation of navicular bone: A case report.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varun Kumar; Kashyap, Abhishek; Vargaonkar, Gauresh; Kumar, Ramesh

    2015-03-01

    An isolated dislocation of tarsal navicular is extremely rare injury. Usually it is associated with fracture of navicular itself or other tarsal bones of foot along with disruption of medial or lateral column of foot. Mechanism of injury is complex but usually a severe abduction force is required to produce such injury in a planter flexed foot. A 30 year old male presented with isolated navicular dislocation. Management required open reduction and fixation with k-wires. These injuries have specific complications including avascular necrosis of navicular and post-traumatic arthritis.

  15. Discoid Medial Meniscus Tear, with a Literature Review of Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Song, In Soo; Kim, Jun Bum; Lee, Jong Keun; Park, Byeong-Seop

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports our experience of treating four cases of symptomatic discoid medial meniscus, three of which were bilateral. We performed partial meniscectomy with a four-portal technique using a knife leaving a 6 mm peripheral margin after confirmation of magnetic resonance imaging findings. Clinical results were assessed at the end of 2-year follow-up using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score and a visual analogue scale. We obtained satisfactory clinical results without recurrence of the symptoms in all cases. PMID:28854771

  16. The Anatomy of the Medial Patellofemoral Complex.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho J

    2017-06-01

    The term "medial patellofemoral complex" (MPFC) was proposed to describe the static medial stabilizer of the patella, typically referred to as the medial patellofemoral ligament. In light of our increasing understanding of the attachment of its fibers to the quadriceps tendon in addition to the patella, the term MPFC is used in this article. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss the anatomy of the MPFC.

  17. Does medial tenderness predict deep deltoid ligament incompetence in supination-external rotation type ankle fractures?

    PubMed

    DeAngelis, Nicola A; Eskander, Mark S; French, Bruce G

    2007-04-01

    To identify whether medial tenderness is a predictor of deep deltoid ligament incompetence in supination-external rotation ankle fractures. All Weber B lateral malleolar fractures with normal medial clear space over a 9 month period were prospectively included in the study. Fracture patterns not consistent with a supination-external rotation mechanism were excluded. High-volume tertiary care referral center and Level I trauma center. Fifty-five skeletally mature patients with a Weber B lateral malleolar fracture and normal medial clear space presenting to our institution were included. All study patients had ankle anteroposterior, lateral, and mortise radiographs. Each patient was seen and evaluated by an orthopedic specialist and the mechanism of injury was recorded. Each patient was assessed for tenderness to palpation in the region of the deltoid ligament and then had an external rotation stress mortise radiograph. Correlating medial tenderness with deep deltoid competence as measured by stress radiographs. Thirteen patients (23.6%) were tender medially and had a positive external rotation stress radiograph. Thirteen patients (23.6%) were tender medially and had a negative external rotation stress radiograph. Nineteen patients (34.5%) were nontender medially and had a negative external rotation stress radiograph. Ten patients (18.2%) were nontender medially and had a positive external rotation stress radiograph. We calculated a chi statistic of 2.37 as well as the associated P value of 0.12. Medial tenderness as a measure of deep deltoid ligament incompetence had a sensitivity of 57%, a specificity of 59%, a positive predictive value of 50%, a negative predictive value of 66%, and an accuracy of 42%. There was no statistical significance between the presence of medial tenderness and deep deltoid ligament incompetence. There is a 25% chance of the fracture in question with medial tenderness having a positive external rotation stress and a 25% chance the fracture

  18. Meniscal material properties are minimally affected by matrix stabilization using glutaraldehyde and glycation with ribose.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Shawn A; Noyes, Frank R; Haridas, Balakrishna; Levy, Martin S; Butler, David L

    2005-05-01

    Knee meniscus replacement holds promise, but current allografts are susceptible to biodegradation. Matrix stabilization with glutaraldehyde, a crosslinking agent used clinically to fabricate cardiovascular bioprostheses, or with glycation, a process of crosslinking collagen with sugars such as ribose, is a potential means of rendering tissue resistant to such degradation. However, stabilization should not significantly alter meniscal material properties, which could disturb normal function in the knee. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of glutaraldehyde- and glycation-induced matrix stabilization on the material properties of porcine meniscus. Normal untreated meniscus specimens were tested in confined compression at one of three applied stresses (0.069, 0.208, 0.347 MPa), subjected to either a glutaraldehyde or glycation stabilization treatment, and then re-tested to measure changes in tissue aggregate modulus, permeability, and compressive strain at equilibrium. Changes in these properties significantly increased with glutaraldehyde concentration and exposure time to ribose. One glutaraldehyde and three glycation treatments did not alter aggregate modulus or compressive strain at equilibrium compared to controls (p > 0.10). However, all treatments increased permeability by at least 108% compared to controls (p < 0.001). This study reveals a dose-dependent relationship between meniscal material properties and certain stabilization conditions and identifies treatments that minimally affect these properties. Further research is necessary to determine whether these treatments prevent enzymatic degradation before and after surgical implantation in the knee.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of continuous passive motion on meniscal fibrocartilage

    PubMed Central

    Ferretti, Mario; Srinivasan, Abiraman; Deschner, James; Gassner, Robert; Baliko, Frank; Piesco, Nicholas; Salter, Robert; Agarwal, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Motion-based therapies have been applied to promote healing of arthritic joints. The goal of the current study was to determine the early molecular events that are responsible for the beneficial actions of motion-based therapies on meniscal fibrocartilage. Rabbit knees with Antigen-Induced-Arthritis (AIA) were exposed to continuous passive motion (CPM) for 24 or 48 h and compared to immobilized knees. The menisci were harvested and glycosaminoglycans (GAG), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were determined by histochemical analysis. Within 24 h, immobilized knees exhibited marked GAG degradation. The expression of proinflammatory mediators MMP-1, COX-2, and IL-1β was notably increased within 24 h and continued to increase during the next 24 h in immobilized knees. Knees subjected to CPM revealed a rapid and sustained decrease in GAG degradation and the expression of all proinflammatory mediators during the entire period of CPM treatment. More importantly, CPM induced synthesis of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. The results demonstrate that mechanical signals generated by CPM exert potent anti-inflammatory signals on meniscal fibrochondrocytes. Furthermore, these studies explain the molecular basis of the beneficial effects of CPM observed on articular cartilage and suggest that CPM suppresses the inflammatory process of arthritis more efficiently than immobilization. PMID:16140197

  20. Dynamic hydrostatic pressure enhances differentially the chondrogenesis of meniscal cells from the inner and outer zone.

    PubMed

    Zellner, J; Mueller, M; Xin, Y; Krutsch, W; Brandl, A; Kujat, R; Nerlich, M; Angele, P

    2015-06-01

    This study analyses the influence of dynamic hydrostatic pressure on chondrogenesis of human meniscus-derived fibrochondrocytes and explores the differences in chondrogenic differentiation under loading conditions between cells derived from the avascular inner zone and vascularized outer region of the meniscus. Aggregates of human fibrochondrocytes with cell origin from the inner region or with cell origin from the outer region were generated. From the two groups of either cell origin, aggregates were treated with dynamic hydrostatic pressure (1Hz for 4h; 0.55-5.03MPa, cyclic sinusoidal) from day 1 to day 7. The other aggregates served as unloaded controls. At day 0, 7, 14 and 21 aggregates were harvested for evaluation including histology, immunostaining and ELISA analysis for glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and collagen II. Loaded aggregates were found to be macroscopically larger and revealed immunohistochemically enhanced chondrogenesis compared to the corresponding controls. Loaded or non-loaded meniscal cells from the outer zone showed a higher potential and earlier onset of chondrogenesis compared to the cells from the inner part of the meniscus. This study suggests that intrinsic factors like cell properties in the different areas of the meniscus and their reaction on mechanical load might play important roles in designing Tissue Engineering strategies for meniscal repair in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Posteromedial knee friction syndrome: an entity with medial knee pain and edema between the femoral condyle, sartorius and gracilis.

    PubMed

    Simeone, F Joseph; Huang, Ambrose J; Chang, Connie Y; Smith, Maximilian; Gill, Thomas J; Bredella, Miriam A; Torriani, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To describe MRI features of an entity consisting of medial knee pain and edema between the posteromedial femoral condyle (PMFC), sartorius and/or gracilis tendons and determine whether reduced tendon-bone distances may account for these findings. We retrospectively identified MRI cases of edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons (25 subjects, 26 knees). Two musculoskeletal radiologists independently graded edema and measured the sartorius- and gracilis-PMFC distances and knee flexion angle. Age- and gender-matched subjects with normal knee MRIs (27 subjects, 27 knees) served as controls for measurements. Statistical analyses compared abnormal to control subjects. Sartorius-PMFC and gracilis-PMFC spaces were narrower in abnormal compared to control subjects (1.6 ± 1.0 vs. 2.1 ± 1.2 mm, P = 0.04; 2.3 ± 2.0 vs. 4.6 ± 3.0 mm, P = 0.002, respectively). The knee flexion angle was similar between groups (P > 0.05). In subjects with clinical information, medial knee pain was the main complaint in 58 % (15/26) of abnormal subjects, with 42 % (11/26) having clinical suspicion of medial meniscal tear. Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis was mild in 54 % (14/26), moderate in 35 % (9/26) and severe in 12 % (3/26), and it was most frequent deep to both the sartorius and gracilis (50 %, 13/26). Edema between the PMFC, sartorius and/or gracilis tendons identified on knee MRI may be associated with medial knee pain and may represent a friction syndrome.

  2. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arthroscopic Transtibial Pullout Repair for Posterior Medial Meniscus Root Tears: A Systematic Review of Clinical, Radiographic, and Second-Look Arthroscopic Results.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Matthias J; Kühle, Jan; Bode, Gerrit; Mehl, Julian; Schmal, Hagen; Südkamp, Norbert P; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2015-09-01

    To systematically review the results of arthroscopic transtibial pullout repair (ATPR) for posterior medial meniscus root tears. A systematic electronic search of the PubMed database and the Cochrane Library was performed in September 2014 to identify studies that reported clinical, radiographic, or second-look arthroscopic outcomes of ATPR for posterior medial meniscus root tears. Included studies were abstracted regarding study characteristics, patient demographic characteristics, surgical technique, rehabilitation, and outcome measures. The methodologic quality of the included studies was assessed with the modified Coleman Methodology Score. Seven studies with a total of 172 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean patient age was 55.3 years, and 83% of patients were female patients. Preoperative and postoperative Lysholm scores were reported for all patients. After a mean follow-up period of 30.2 months, the Lysholm score increased from 52.4 preoperatively to 85.9 postoperatively. On conventional radiographs, 64 of 76 patients (84%) showed no progression of Kellgren-Lawrence grading. Magnetic resonance imaging showed no progression of cartilage degeneration in 84 of 103 patients (82%) and showed reduced medial meniscal extrusion in 34 of 61 patients (56%). On the basis of second-look arthroscopy and magnetic resonance imaging in 137 patients, the healing status was rated as complete in 62%, partial in 34%, and failed in 3%. Overall, the methodologic quality of the included studies was fair, with a mean modified Coleman Methodology Score of 63. ATPR significantly improves functional outcome scores and seems to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis in most patients, at least during a short-term follow-up. Complete healing of the repaired root and reduction of meniscal extrusion seem to be less predictable, being observed in only about 60% of patients. Conclusions about the progression of osteoarthritis and reduction of meniscal extrusion are limited by

  4. Comparison of osmotic swelling influences on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage tissue mechanics in compression and shear.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, An M; Levenston, Marc E

    2012-01-01

    Although the contribution of the circumferential collagen bundles to the anisotropic tensile stiffness of meniscal tissue has been well described, the implications of interactions between tissue components for other mechanical properties have not been as widely examined. This study compared the effects of the proteoglycan-associated osmotic swelling stress on meniscal fibrocartilage and articular cartilage (AC) mechanics by manipulating the osmotic environment and tissue compressive offset. Cylindrical samples were obtained from the menisci and AC of bovine stifles, equilibrated in phosphate-buffered saline solutions ranging from 0.1× to 10×, and tested in oscillatory torsional shear and unconfined compression. Biochemical analysis indicated that treatments and testing did not substantially alter tissue composition. Mechanical testing revealed tissue-specific responses to both increasing compressive offset and decreasing bath salinity. Most notably, reduced salinity dramatically increased the shear modulus of both axially and circumferentially oriented meniscal tissue explants to a much greater extent than for cartilage samples. Combined with previous studies, these findings suggest that meniscal proteoglycans have a distinct structural role, stabilizing, and stiffening the matrix surrounding the primary circumferential collagen bundles. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  5. Cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis and cartilage repair procedures

    PubMed Central

    Baum, T.; Joseph, G.B.; Karampinos, D.C.; Jungmann, P.M.; Link, T.M.; Bauer, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective The purpose of this work was to review the current literature on cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time. Methods Electronic searches in PubMed were performed to identify relevant studies about T2 relaxation time measurements as non-invasive biomarker for knee osteoarthritis (OA) and cartilage repair procedures. Results Initial osteoarthritic changes include proteoglycan loss, deterioration of the collagen network, and increased water content within the articular cartilage and menisci. T2 relaxation time measurements are affected by these pathophysiological processes. It was demonstrated that cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation time values were significantly increased in subjects with compared to those without radiographic OA and focal knee lesions, respectively. Subjects with OA risk factors such as overweight/obesity showed significantly greater cartilage T2 values than normal controls. Elevated cartilage and meniscal T2 relaxation times were found in subjects with vs without knee pain. Increased cartilage T2 at baseline predicted morphologic degeneration in the cartilage, meniscus, and bone marrow over 3 years. Furthermore, cartilage repair tissue could be non-invasively assessed by using T2 mapping. Reproducibility errors for T2 measurements were reported to be smaller than the T2 differences in healthy and diseased cartilage indicating that T2 relaxation time may be a reliable discriminatory biomarker. Conclusions Cartilage and meniscal T2 mapping may be suitable as non-invasive biomarker to diagnose early stages of knee OA and to monitor therapy of OA. PMID:23896316

  6. Development of a Chinese version of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool: cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Tong, W W; Wang, W; Xu, W D

    2016-08-15

    The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of patients with meniscal pathology. Our study aims to culturally adapt and validate the WOMET into a Chinese version. We translated the WOMET into Chinese. Then, a total of 121 patients with meniscal pathology were invited to participate in this study. To assess the test-retest reliability, the Chinese version WOMET was completed twice at 7-day intervals by the participants. The construct validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient or Spearman's correlation to test for correlations among the Chinese version WOMET and the eight domains of Short Form-36 (SF-36), the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Responsiveness was tested by comparison of the preoperative and postoperative scores of the Chinese version WOMET. The test-retest reliability of the overall scale and different domains were all found to be excellent. The Cronbach's α was 0.90. The Chinese version WOMET correlated well with other questionnaires which suggested good construct validity. We observed no ceiling and floor effects of the Chinese version WOMET. We also found good responsiveness for the effect size, and the standardized response mean values were 0.86 and 1.11. The Chinese version of the WOMET appears to be reliable and valid in evaluating patients with meniscal pathology.

  7. Effect of repair of radial tears at the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with the pullout suture technique: a biomechanical study using porcine knees.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Hee; Li, Guoan; Shetty, Gautam M; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Bae, Ji-Hoon; Jo, Myoung-Lae; Kim, Jung-Sung; Lee, Sung-Jae; Nha, Kyung-Wook

    2009-11-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the result of radial tears at the root of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) in terms of tibiofemoral contact mechanics and the effectiveness of pullout sutures for such tears. Eleven mature pig knees each underwent 15 different testing conditions with an intact, simulated (incised) radial tear at the root of the PHMM and placement of pullout sutures in the radial tears of the medial meniscus at 5 different angles of flexion (0 degrees, 15 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, and 90 degrees ) under a 1,500-N axial load. A K-Scan pressure sensor (Tekscan, Boston, MA) was used to measure medial tibiofemoral contact area and peak tibiofemoral contact pressure. Data were analyzed to assess the difference in medial contact area and tibiofemoral peak contact pressure among the 3 meniscal conditions at various degrees of knee flexion. The mean contact area was significantly lower, and the peak tibiofemoral contact pressure was significantly high in knees with simulated radial tears at all angles of knee flexion compared with knees with intact menisci (P < .0001). The peak tibiofemoral contact pressure after the pullout suture technique was significantly high at 0 degrees and 15 degrees of flexion (P < .0001) compared with intact knee specimens. Failure of sutures occurred in 45% of the specimens at 0 degrees of flexion. Radial tears at the root of the PHMM in a porcine model significantly increased medial tibiofemoral contact pressure and decreased contact area. Although repair of tears of the PHMM with the pullout suture technique aids in significantly reducing tibiofemoral peak contact pressure between 30 degrees and 90 degrees , it remains significantly high at 0 degrees and 15 degrees of flexion. Pullout sutures for radial tears at the root of the PHMM may lead to an increase in peak medial tibiofemoral contact pressure and may be prone to mechanical failure, especially during the stance (loading) phase of gait (mean, 15 degrees

  8. Longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Bae, Tae Soo; Kang, Ki-Ser; Kang, Soo Yong; Lee, Sang Hak

    2011-10-01

    ). In a combined rotatory load, tibial rotation after MMPH tears or a total medial meniscectomy in an ACL-deficient knee were not affected significantly at all flexion angles. This study shows that an MMPH longitudinal tear in an ACL-deficient knee alters the knee kinematics, particularly the anterior-posterior tibial translation. MMPH repair significantly improved anterior-posterior tibial translation in ACL-deficient knees. These findings may help improve the treatment of patients with ACL and MMPH longitudinal tear by suggesting that the medial meniscal repairs should be performed for greater longevity when combined with an ACL reconstruction.

  9. Changes in rates of arthroscopy due to degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland and Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Mattila, Ville M; Sihvonen, Raine; Paloneva, Juha; Felländer-Tsai, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Knee arthroscopy is commonly performed to treat degenerative knee disease symptoms and traumatic meniscal tears. We evaluated whether the recent high-quality randomized control trials not favoring arthroscopic surgery for degenerative knee disease affected the procedure incidence and trends in Finland and Sweden. Patients and methods We conducted a bi-national registry-based study including all adult (aged ≥18 years) inpatient and outpatient arthroscopic surgeries performed for degenerative knee disease (osteoarthritis (OA) and degenerative meniscal tears) and traumatic meniscal tears in Finland between 1997 and 2012, and in Sweden between 2001 and 2012. Results In Finland, the annual number of operations was 16,389 in 1997, reached 20,432 in 2007, and declined to 15,018 in 2012. In Sweden, the number of operations was 9,944 in 2001, reached 11,711 in 2008, and declined to 8,114 in 2012. The knee arthroscopy incidence for OA was 124 per 105 person-years in 2012 in Finland and it was 51 in Sweden. The incidence of knee arthroscopies for meniscal tears coded as traumatic steadily increased in Finland from 64 per 105 person-years in 1997 to 97 per 105 person-years in 2012, but not in Sweden. Interpretation The incidence of arthroscopies for degenerative knee disease declined after 2008 in both countries. Remarkably, the incidence of arthroscopy for degenerative knee disease and traumatic meniscal tears is 2 to 4 times higher in Finland than in Sweden. Efficient implementation of new high-quality evidence in clinical practice could reduce the number of ineffective surgeries. PMID:26122621

  10. Tensile strength of the pullout repair technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear: a porcine study.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Masataka; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Xue, Haowei; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Kodama, Yuya; Hino, Tomohito; Kamatsuki, Yusuke; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the load-to-failure of different common suturing techniques with a new technique for the medial meniscus posterior root tear (MMPRT). Thirty porcine medial menisci were randomly assigned to three suturing techniques used for transtibial pullout repair of the MMPRT (n = 10 per group). Three different meniscal suture configurations were studied: the two simple suture (TSS) technique, the conventional modified Mason-Allen suture (MMA) technique, and the new MMA technique using the FasT-Fix combined with the Ultrabraid (F-MMA). The ultimate failure load was tested using a tensile testing machine. The MMA and F-MMA groups demonstrated significantly higher failure loads than the TSS group (P = 0.0003 and P = 0.0005, respectively). No significant differences were observed between the MMA and F-MMA groups (P = 0.734). The ultimate failure load was significantly greater in the F-MMA than the TSS group and similar to the conventional MMA technique.

  11. Outside-In Deep Medial Collateral Ligament Release During Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel

    2016-08-01

    Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is a very common orthopaedic procedure performed for symptomatic, irreparable meniscus tears. It is usually associated with a very good outcome and minimal complications. In some patients with tight medial compartment, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can be difficult to visualize, and access in this area with instruments may be challenging. To increase the opening of the medial compartment, after valgus-extension stress position of the knee, different techniques of deep medial collateral ligament release have been described. The outside-in pie-crusting technique shown in this technical note has documented effectiveness and good outcomes with minimal or no morbidity.

  12. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and patellofemoral stabilizing brace, is often unsuccessful. Primary surgical options include lateral retinacular repair/imbrication or lateral reconstruction. Prevention is key to avoid medial patella subluxation. When considering patellofemoral surgery, important factors include appropriate lateral release indications, consideration of lateral retinacular lengthening vs release, correct MPFL graft placement and tension, and avoiding excessive medialization during tubercle transfer. This review article will analyze patient symptoms, diagnostic exam findings and appropriate treatment options, as well as pearls to avoid this painful clinical entity. PMID:26361441

  13. Direct measurement of hoop strains in the intact and torn human medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Jones, R Spencer; Keene, G C R; Learmonth, D J A; Bickerstaff, D; Nawana, N S; Costi, J J; Pearcy, M J

    1996-07-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the circumferential or hoop strains generated in the medial meniscus during loading of the knee joint and to examine the effect of longitudinal and radial tears in the meniscus on these strain values. DESIGN: An in vitro investigation measuring the circumferential strains in the medial menisci of cadaveric human knees as they were loaded in a materials testing machine. BACKGROUND: The menisci transmit approximately 50% of the load through the knee, the rest being transmitted by direct contact of the articular cartilage. Damage to the menisci will alter the pattern of load transmission as will meniscectomy. This study examined the changes in the mechanics of the meniscus in situ as a result of simulated tears to assess the effect of its load carrying capacity and the implications of surgery to remove part or all of a damaged meniscus. METHODS: Nineteen human cadaveric knees were tested. Windows were made in the joint capsule and strain gauges inserted into the anterior, middle and posterior sections of the medial meniscus. The knees were then loaded to three times body weight at speeds of 50 and 500 mm/min, with the knee joint at 0 degrees and 30 degrees of flexion. The tests were repeated following the creation of a longitudinal or a radial tear in the meniscus. RESULTS: The intact menisci showed significantly less strain in the posterior section compared to the anterior and middle sections (P < 0.003, with strains of 1.54%, 2.86% and 2.65% respectively). With a longitudinal tear this pattern changed with strains decreasing anteriorly and increasing posteriorly. There were also significant differences at different angles of knee joint flexion not seen in the intact meniscus. 50% radial tears reduced the strains anteriorly whilst a complete radial tear completely defunctioned the meniscus. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that there are significantly different hoop strains produced in different sections of the medial meniscus under load and

  14. Bonding of human meniscal and articular cartilage with photoactive 1,8-naphthalimide dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judy, Millard M.; Nosir, Hany R.; Jackson, Robert W.; Matthews, James Lester; Lewis, David E.; Utecht, Ronald E.; Yuan, Dongwu

    1996-05-01

    This study focused on meniscal cartilage repair by using the laser-activated photoactive 1,8- naphthalimide dye N,N'-bis-{6-[2-(2-(2- aminoethoxy)ethoxy)ethoxyethyl]amino-1H-benz (de)isoquinolin-1,3(2H)-dion-2- yl}-1,11-diamino-3,6,9-trioxaundecane. Harvested cadaveric human menisci were debrided and carved into strips 1 mm thick, 10 mm long, and 3 mm wide. Each strip was divided into two flaps, the surface painted with photoactive dye, the painted surfaces overlapped, the sample wrapped in Saran film, and the composite sandwiched between two glass slides at a pressure of approximately 3 kg/cm2. The sample then was transilluminated by argon ion laser light of 457.9-nm wavelength at a power density of 200 mW/cm2 with exposure times up to 5 h (3902 J/cm2 energy density). Essentially, the same procedures were performed for human femoral articular cartilage samples. Control experiments were conducted with laser irradiation alone and with dye alone. All the specimens were stored in isotonic saline solution for 2 h after irradiation to ensure hydration. The bond shear-strength was then tested and samples prepared for optical and electron transmission microscopy. Shear strength values of up to 1.8 kg/cm2 for meniscal tissues and 1.2 kg/cm2 for articular cartilaginous tissues were obtained for exposures of 3902 J/cm2. Shear strength values of approximately 0.9 kg/cm2 and 0.4 kg/cm2, respectively, for meniscus and cartilage were obtained with 459 J/cm2 exposure. Dye- and light-only controls exhibited 0 kg/cm2 shear strength values. Microscopy revealed close contact at the bonded surface in the laser-activated, dye-treated-specimens. This study shows that the laser-activated photoactive dyes have the capability of athermally bonding the meniscal and articular cartilage surfaces.

  15. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  16. Meniscus maturation in the swine model: changes occurring along with anterior to posterior and medial to lateral aspect during growth.

    PubMed

    Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Deponti, Daniela; Addis, Alessandro; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Peretti, Giuseppe M

    2014-10-01

    The meniscus plays important roles in knee function and mechanics and is characterized by a heterogeneous matrix composition. The changes in meniscus vascularization observed during growth suggest that the tissue-specific composition may be the result of a maturation process. This study has the aim to characterize the structural and biochemical variations that occur in the swine meniscus with age. To this purpose, menisci were collected from young and adult pigs and divided into different zones. In study 1, both lateral and medial menisci were divided into the anterior horn, the body and the posterior horn for the evaluation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), collagen 1 and 2 content. In study 2, the menisci were sectioned into the inner, the intermediate and the outer zones to determine the variations in the cell phenotype along with the inner-outer direction, through gene expression analysis. According to the results, the swine meniscus is characterized by an increasing enrichment in the cartilaginous component with age, with an increasing deposition in the anterior horn (GAGs and collagen 2; P < 0.01 both); moreover, this cartilaginous matrix strongly increases in the inner avascular and intermediate zone, as a consequence of a specific differentiation of meniscal cells towards a cartilaginous phenotype (collagen 2, P < 0.01). The obtained data add new information on the changes that accompany meniscus maturation, suggesting a specific response of meniscal cells to the regional mechanical stimuli in the knee joint. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  17. Dynamic compression of human and ovine meniscal tissue compared with a potential thermoplastic elastomer hydrogel replacement.

    PubMed

    Fischenich, Kristine M; Boncella, Katie; Lewis, Jackson T; Bailey, Travis S; Haut Donahue, Tammy L

    2017-10-01

    Understanding how human meniscal tissue responds to loading regimes mimetic of daily life as well as how it compares to larger animal models is critical in the development of a functionally accurate synthetic surrogate. Seven human and eight ovine cadaveric meniscal specimens were regionally sectioned into cylinders 5 mm in diameter and 3 mm thick along with 10 polystyrene-b-polyethylene oxide block copolymer-based thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) hydrogels. Samples were compressed to 12% strain at 1 Hz for 5000 cycles, unloaded for 24 h, and then retested. No differences were found within each group between test one and test two. Human and ovine tissue exhibited no regional dependency (p < 0.05). Human samples relaxed quicker than ovine tissue or the TPE hydrogel with modulus values at cycle 50 not significantly different from cycle 5000. Ovine menisci were found to be similar to human menisci in relaxation profile but had significantly higher modulus values (3.44 MPa instantaneous and 0.61 MPa after 5000 cycles compared with 1.97 and 0.11 MPa found for human tissue) and significantly different power law fit coefficients. The TPE hydrogel had an initial modulus of 0.58 MPa and experienced less than a 20% total relaxation over the 5000. Significant differences in the magnitude of compressive modulus between human and ovine menisci were observed, however the relaxation profiles were similar. Although statistically different than the native tissues, modulus values of the TPE hydrogel material were similar to those of the human and ovine menisci, making it a material worth further investigation for use as a synthetic replacement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2722-2728, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy breaking new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.

  19. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  20. Multiligament Knee Injuries in Older Adolescents: A 2-Year Minimum Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Jonathan A.; Cinque, Mark E.; Pogorzelski, Jonas; Moatshe, Gilbert; Chahla, Jorge; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multiligament knee injuries cause significant functional impairment. Adults undergoing anatomic reconstruction of multiligament knee injuries have excellent outcomes postoperatively. However, less is known about the outcomes in adolescent patients following multiligament reconstruction. Purpose/Hypothesis: We aimed to assess patient outcomes and failure rates following unstaged multiligament reconstruction in an adolescent population at a minimum 2-year follow-up. We hypothesized that outcomes of multiligament reconstruction in these patients would be comparable to previously reported outcomes in the adult population. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: The study included patients who had undergone multiligament knee reconstruction at 19 years of age or younger and had at least 2 years of follow-up. All procedures were performed by the same surgeon. Exclusion criteria included patient age 14 years or younger at the time of surgery, open physes, prior ipsilateral meniscal or knee ligament surgery, or a tibial plateau fracture at the time of injury. Multiligament reconstruction was defined as a reconstruction of at least 1 cruciate ligament and at least 1 component of the posterolateral corner or the medial knee. Patients were evaluated according to Lysholm score, Tegner score, Short Form–12 physical component summary (SF-12 PCS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) score, and postoperative patient satisfaction. Results: Twenty patients (mean age, 17.7 years; mean follow-up, 37.1 months) were included in this study. No patient required additional ligament surgery after the index surgery because of graft failure. The median preoperative Lysholm score was 49.5 (range, 18-90), and the median postoperative Lysholm score was 86 (range, 44-100) (P < .001). The median preoperative Tegner activity score was 2 (range, 0-9), and the median postoperative Tegner activity score was 6 (range, 2-10) (P = .012

  1. Comparison of the effects of caudal pole hemi-meniscectomy and complete medial meniscectomy in the canine stifle joint.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K A; Francis, D J; Manley, P A; Chu, Q; Caterson, B

    2004-08-01

    To compare the effects of caudal pole hemi-meniscectomy (CPHM) and complete medial meniscectomy (MM), specifically with respect to development of secondary osteoarthritis, in the stifle joints of clinically normal dogs. 14 large-breed dogs. Unilateral CPHM (7 dogs) or MM (7) was performed, and the left stifle joints served as untreated control joints. Gait was assessed in all dogs before surgery and at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks postoperatively. After euthanasia, joints were evaluated grossly; Mankin cartilage scores, subchondral bone density assessment, and articular cartilage proteoglycan extraction and western blot analyses of 3B3(-) and 7D4 epitopes were performed. Weight distribution on control limbs exceeded that of treated limbs at 4 and 16 weeks after surgery in the CPHM group and at 4 and 8 weeks after surgery in the MM group; weight distribution was not significantly different between the 2 groups. After 16 weeks, incomplete meniscal regeneration and cartilage fibrillation on the medial aspect of the tibial plateau and medial femoral condyle were detected in treated joints in both groups. Mankin cartilage scores, subchondral bone density, and immunoexpression of 3B3(-) or 7D4 in articular cartilage in CPHM- or MM-treated joints were similar; 7D4 epitope concentration in synovial fluid was significantly greater in the MM-treated joints than in CPHM-treated joints. Overall severity of secondary osteoarthritis induced by CPHM and MM was similar. Investigation of 7D4 epitope concentration in synovial fluid suggested that CPHM was associated with less disruption of chondrocyte metabolism.

  2. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  3. Joint line tenderness and McMurray tests for the detection of meniscal lesions: what is their real diagnostic value?

    PubMed

    Galli, Marco; Ciriello, Vincenzo; Menghi, Amerigo; Aulisa, Angelo G; Rabini, Alessia; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2013-06-01

    To assess the interobserver concordance of the joint line tenderness (JLT) and McMurray tests, and to determine their diagnostic efficiency for the detection of meniscal lesions. Prospective observational study. Orthopedics outpatient clinic, university hospital. Patients (N=60) with suspected nonacute meniscal lesions who underwent knee arthroscopy. Not applicable. Patients were examined by 3 independent observers with graded levels of experience (>10y, 3y, and 4mo of practice). The interobserver concordance was assessed by Cohen-Fleiss κ statistics. Accuracy, negative and positive predictive values for prevalence 10% to 90%, positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios, and the Bayesian posttest probability with a positive or negative result were also determined. The diagnostic value of the 2 tests combined was assessed by logistic regression. Arthroscopy was used as the reference test. No interobserver concordance was determined for the JLT. The McMurray test showed higher interobserver concordance, which improved when judgments by the less experienced examiner were discarded. The whole series studied by the "best" examiner (experienced orthopedist) provided the following values: (1) JLT: sensitivity, 62.9%; specificity, 50%; LR+, 1.26; LR-, .74; (2) McMurray: sensitivity, 34.3%; specificity, 86.4%; LR+, 2.52; LR-, .76. The combination of the 2 tests did not offer advantages over the McMurray alone. The JLT alone is of little clinical usefulness. A negative McMurray test does not modify the pretest probability of a meniscal lesion, while a positive result has a fair predictive value. Hence, in a patient with a suspected meniscal lesion, a positive McMurray test indicates that arthroscopy should be performed. In case of a negative result, further examinations, including imaging, are needed. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Are biomechanical factors, meniscal pathology, and physical activity risk factors for bone marrow lesions at the knee? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yuan Z; Wang, Yuanyuan; Wluka, Anita E; Davies-Tuck, Miranda L; Teichtahl, Andrew; Urquhart, Donna M; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2013-10-01

    To systematically review the literature to determine whether biomechanical factors, meniscal pathology, and physical activity are risk factors for bone marrow lesions (BMLs) at the knee identified from magnetic resonance imaging in pre-osteoarthritis and osteoarthritis populations. Electronic searches of MEDLINE and EMBASE were performed from January 1, 1996 to October 31, 2012 using the keywords of bone marrow lesion(s), bone marrow (o)edema, osteoarthritis, and knee. Studies examining biomechanical factors, meniscal pathology, or physical activity in relation to the presence, incidence, or change in BMLs at the knee were included. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and assessed the methodological quality of selected studies. Due to the heterogeneity of the studies, we performed a best evidence synthesis. Fifteen studies were included in this review, of which 9 were considered high quality. The study populations were heterogeneous in terms of the symptoms and radiographic knee osteoarthritis. There was strong evidence for relationships of mechanical knee alignment and meniscal pathology with BMLs in osteoarthritis populations. There was a paucity of evidence for a relationship between physical activity and BMLs. Despite the heterogeneity of included studies, these data suggest that mechanical knee alignment and meniscal pathology are risk factors for BMLs in knee osteoarthritis. It suggests that BMLs in individuals with osteoarthritis are more susceptible to mechanical knee alignment. Given the role of BMLs in the pathogenesis of knee osteoarthritis, identifying strategies to modify these risk factors will be important in slowing the progression and reducing the burden of knee osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variations in medial-lateral hamstring force and force ratio influence tibiofemoral kinematics.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Sami; Fitzwater, Fallon G; Cyr, Adam J; Maletsky, Lorin P

    2016-10-01

    A change in hamstring strength and activation is typically seen after injuries or invasive surgeries such as anterior cruciate reconstruction or total knee replacement. While many studies have investigated the influence of isometric increases in hamstring load on knee joint kinematics, few have quantified the change in kinematics due to a variation in medial to lateral hamstring force ratio. This study examined the changes in knee joint kinematics on eight cadaveric knees during an open-chain deep knee bend for six different loading configurations: five loaded hamstring configurations that varied the ratio of a total load of 175 N between the semimembranosus and biceps femoris and one with no loads on the hamstring. The anterior-posterior translation of the medial and lateral femoral condyles' lowest points along proximal-distal axis of the tibia, the axial rotation of the tibia, and the quadriceps load were measured at each flexion angle. Unloading the hamstring shifted the medial and lateral lowest points posteriorly and increased tibial internal rotation. The influence of unloading hamstrings on quadriceps load was small in early flexion and increased with knee flexion. The loading configuration with the highest lateral hamstrings force resulted in the most posterior translation of the medial lowest point, most anterior translation of the lateral lowest point, and the highest tibial external rotation of the five loading configurations. As the medial hamstring force ratio increased, the medial lowest point shifted anteriorly, the lateral lowest point shifted posteriorly, and the tibia rotated more internally. The results of this study, demonstrate that variation in medial-lateral hamstrings force and force ratio influence tibiofemoral transverse kinematics and quadriceps loads required to extend the knee. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:1707-1715, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by

  6. Repair of Torn Avascular Meniscal Cartilage Using Undifferentiated Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells: From In Vitro Optimization to a First-in-Human Study.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Michael R; Howells, Nicholas R; Parry, Michael C; Austin, Eric; Kafienah, Wael; Brady, Kyla; Goodship, Allen E; Eldridge, Jonathan D; Blom, Ashley W; Hollander, Anthony P

    2017-04-01

    Meniscal cartilage tears are common and predispose to osteoarthritis (OA). Most occur in the avascular portion of the meniscus where current repair techniques usually fail. We described previously the use of undifferentiated autologous mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded onto a collagen scaffold (MSC/collagen-scaffold) to integrate meniscal tissues in vitro. Our objective was to translate this method into a cell therapy for patients with torn meniscus, with the long-term goal of delaying or preventing the onset of OA. After in vitro optimization, we tested an ovine-MSC/collagen-scaffold in a sheep meniscal cartilage tear model with promising results after 13 weeks, although repair was not sustained over 6 months. We then conducted a single center, prospective, open-label first-in-human safety study of patients with an avascular meniscal tear. Autologous MSCs were isolated from an iliac crest bone marrow biopsy, expanded and seeded into the collagen scaffold. The resulting human-MSC/collagen-scaffold implant was placed into the meniscal tear prior to repair with vertical mattress sutures and the patients were followed for 2 years. Five patients were treated and there was significant clinical improvement on repeated measures analysis. Three were asymptomatic at 24 months with no magnetic resonance imaging evidence of recurrent tear and clinical improvement in knee function scores. Two required subsequent meniscectomy due to retear or nonhealing of the meniscal tear at approximately 15 months after implantation. No other adverse events occurred. We conclude that undifferentiated MSCs could provide a safe way to augment avascular meniscal repair in some patients. Registration: EU Clinical Trials Register, 2010-024162-22. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2017;6:1237-1248. © 2017 The Authors Stem Cells Translational Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  7. Pure Varus Injury to the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Lee, Jung Ha; Chang, Chong Bum

    2015-06-01

    A 30-year-old male was involved in a car accident. Radiographs revealed a depressed marginal fracture of the medial tibial plateau and an avulsion fracture of the fibular head. Magnetic resonance imaging showed avulsion fracture of Gerdy's tubercle, injury to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), posterior horn of the medial meniscus, and the attachments of the lateral collateral ligament and the biceps femoris tendon. The depressed fracture of the medial tibial plateau was elevated and stabilized using a cannulated screw and washer. The injured lateral and posterolateral corner (PLC) structures were repaired and augmented by PLC reconstruction. However, the avulsion fracture of Gerdy's tubercle was not fixed because it was minimally displaced and the torn PCL was also not repaired or reconstructed. We present a unique case of pure varus injury to the knee joint. This case contributes to our understanding of the mechanism of knee injury and provides insight regarding appropriate treatment plans for this type of injury.

  8. A Contact Pressure Analysis Comparing an All-Inside and Inside-Out Surgical Repair Technique for Bucket-Handle Medial Meniscus Tears.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Daniel Cole; Phelps, Brian M; Dahl, Kimi D; Slette, Erik L; Mikula, Jacob D; Dornan, Grant J; Bucci, Gabriella; Turnbull, Travis Lee; Singleton, Steven B

    2017-10-01

    To directly compare effectiveness of the inside-out and all-inside medial meniscal repair techniques in restoring native contact area and contact pressure across the medial tibial plateau at multiple knee flexion angles. Twelve male, nonpaired (n = 12), fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees underwent a series of 5 consecutive states: (1) intact medial meniscus, (2) MCL tear and repair, (3) simulated bucket-handle longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus, (4) inside-out meniscal repair, and (5) all-inside meniscal repair. Knees were loaded with a 1,000-N axial compressive force at 5 knee flexion angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 90°), and contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure were calculated using thin film pressure sensors. No significant differences were observed between the inside-out and all-inside repair techniques at any flexion angle for contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure (all P > .791). Compared with the torn meniscus state, inside-out and all-inside repair techniques resulted in increased contact area at all flexion angles (all P < .005 and all P < .037, respectively), decreased mean contact pressure at all flexion angles (all P < .007 and all P < .001, respectively) except for 0° (P = .097 and P = .39, respectively), and decreased peak contact pressure at all flexion angles (all P < .001, all P < .001, respectively) except for 0° (P = .080 and P = .544, respectively). However, there were significant differences in contact area and peak contact pressure between the intact state and inside-out technique at angles ≥45° (all P < .014 and all P < .032, respectively). Additionally, there were significant differences between the intact state and all-inside technique in contact area at 60° and 90° and peak contact pressure at 90° (both P < .005 and P = .004, respectively). Median values of intact contact area, mean contact pressure, and peak contact pressure over the tested flexion angles ranged

  9. MCL Injuries of the Knee: Current Concepts Review

    PubMed Central

    Phisitkul, Phinit; James, Stan L; Wolf, Brian R; Amendola, Annunziato

    2006-01-01

    Medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury is one of the most common knee injuries, especially in young athletic patients. Most MCL injuries can be managed conservatively with good results. However, a complete understanding of knee anatomy and the involved structures is necessary to make intelligent treatment decisions. We will review the anatomy and biomechanics of the MCL, classification systems for MCL injuries, and operative and nonoperative treatment for acute and chronic MCL injuries. PMID:16789454

  10. 75 FR 9422 - Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... repair of soft tissue injuries of the medial meniscus. In repairing and reinforcing medial meniscal... zone of the meniscus to provide sufficient vascularization. The CS reinforces soft tissue and provides a resorbable scaffold that is replaced by the patient's own soft tissue. The CS is not a prosthetic...

  11. Dendrites of medial olivocochlear neurons in mouse.

    PubMed

    Brown, M C; Levine, J L

    2008-06-12

    Stains for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and retrograde labeling with Fluorogold (FG) were used to study olivocochlear neurons and their dendritic patterns in mice. The two methods gave similar results for location and number of somata. The total number of medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) is about 170 per side. An additional dozen large olivocochlear neurons are located in the dorsal periolivary nucleus (DPO). Dendrites of all of these neurons are long and extend in all directions from the cell bodies, a pattern that contrasts with the sharp frequency tuning of their responses. For VNTB neurons, there were greater numbers of dendrites directed medially than laterally and those directed medially were longer (on average, 25-50% longer). Dendrite extensions were most pronounced for neurons located in the rostral portion of the VNTB. When each dendrite from a single neuron was represented as a vector, and all the vectors summed, the result was also skewed toward the medial direction. DPO neurons, however, had more symmetric dendrites that projected into more dorsal parts of the trapezoid body, suggesting that this small group of olivocochlear neurons has very different physiological properties. Dendrites of both types of neurons were somewhat elongated rostrally, about 20% longer than those directed caudally. These results can be interpreted as extensions of dendrites of olivocochlear neurons toward their synaptic inputs: medially to meet crossing fibers from the cochlear nucleus that are part of the MOC reflex pathway, and rostrally to meet descending inputs from higher centers.

  12. [Application of pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release in arthroscopic surgery for posterior horn of 
medial meniscus in knee joint].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weihong; Tang, Qi; Liao, Lele; Li, Ding; Yang, Yang; Chen, You

    2017-09-28

    To explore the effectiveness and safety of pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release (MCL) in treating posterior horn of medial meniscus (PHMM) tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee joint.
 Methods: Thirty-two consecutive patients with PHMM tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee joint were admitted to our department from January, 2013 to December, 2014. All patients were performed pie-crusting the MCL release at its tibial insertion with 18-gauge intravenous needle. All patients were evaluated by valgus stress test and bilateral valgus stress radiograph at postoperative 1st day, 4th week and 12th week. Visual Analogue Scales (VAS), Lysholm scores, Tegner scores and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores were recorded at the 1st, 3th, 6th month follow-up, then follow-up every 6 months.
 Results: The mean follow-up was 28 (24-36) months. All cases were negative in valgus stress test. MCL rupture, femoral fracture, articular cartilage lesion and neurovascular injury were not found at the last follow-up. The median medial joint space width of affected side and unaffected side for valgus stress radiographs were 6.8 mm and 4.3 mm (P<0.05) at the 1st day, 5.5 mm and 4.2 mm 
(P<0.05) in the 4th week and 4.8 mm and 4.3 mm (P>0.05) at the 12th week, respectively. VAS scores was changed from 4.5±1.5 preoperatively to 1.7±1.0 at the final follow-up (t=16.561, P<0.05). Lysholm scores was changed from 52.3±5.8 preoperatively to 93.2±6.3 at the final follow-up (t=-41.353, P<0.05). Tegner scores was changed from 4.1±1.1 preoperatively to 5.5±0.6 at the final follow-up (t=-18.792, P<0.05). IKDC scores was changed from 54.5±6.2 preoperative to 93.8±4.5 at the final follow-up (t=-38.253, P<0.05).
 Conclusion: Pie-crusting the medial collateral ligament release is a safe, minimal invasive and effective surgical option for posterior horn of medial meniscus tear in tight medial tibiofemoral compartment of knee

  13. Risk factors, diagnosis and non-surgical treatment for meniscal tears: evidence and recommendations: a statement paper commissioned by the Danish Society of Sports Physical Therapy (DSSF).

    PubMed

    Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Juhl, Carsten Bogh; Ingelsrud, Lina Holm; Skou, Søren Thorgaard

    2018-05-01

    This statement aimed at summarising and appraising the available evidence for risk factors, diagnostic tools and non-surgical treatments for patients with meniscal tears. We systematically searched electronic databases using a pragmatic search strategy approach. Included studies were synthesised quantitatively or qualitatively, as appropriate. Strength of evidence was determined according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation framework. Low-quality evidence suggested that overweight (degenerative tears, k=3), male sex (k=4), contact and pivoting sports (k=2), and frequent occupational kneeling/squatting (k=3) were risk factors for meniscal tears. There was low to moderate quality evidence for low to high positive and negative predictive values, depending on the underlying prevalence of meniscal tears for four common diagnostic tests (k=15, n=2474). Seven trials investigated exercise versus surgery (k=2) or the effect of surgery in addition to exercise (k=5) for degenerative meniscal tears. There was moderate level of evidence for exercise improving self-reported pain (Effect Size (ES)-0.51, 95% CI -1.16 to 0.13) and function (ES -0.06, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.11) to the same extent as surgery, and improving muscle strength to a greater extent than surgery (ES -0.45, 95% CI -0.62 to -0.29). High-quality evidence showed no clinically relevant effect of surgery in addition to exercise on pain (ES 0.18, 95% 0.05 to 0.32) and function (ES, 0.13 95% CI -0.03 to 0.28) for patients with degenerative meniscal tears. No randomised trials comparing non-surgical treatments with surgery in patients younger than 40 years of age or patients with traumatic meniscal tears were identified. Diagnosis of meniscal tears is challenging as all clinical diagnostic tests have high risk of misclassification. Exercise therapy should be recommended as the treatment of choice for middle-aged and older patients with degenerative meniscal lesions. Evidence on

  14. Quantitative histological grading methods to assess subchondral bone and synovium changes subsequent to medial meniscus transection in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of the Study The importance of the medial meniscus to knee health is demonstrated by studies which show meniscus injuries significantly increase the likelihood of developing osteoarthritis (OA), and knee OA can be modeled in rodents using simulated meniscus injuries. Traditionally, histological assessments of OA in these models have focused on damage to the articular cartilage; however, OA is now viewed as a disease of the entire joint as an organ system. The aim of this study was to develop quantitative histological measures of bone and synovial changes in a rat medial meniscus injury model of knee OA. Materials and Methods To initiate OA, a medial meniscus transection (MMT) and a medial collateral ligament transection (MCLT) were performed in 32 male Lewis rats (MMT group). MCLT alone served as the sham procedure in 32 additional rats (MCLT sham group). At weeks 1, 2, 4, and 6 post-surgery, histological assessment of subchondral bone and synovium was performed (n = 8 per group per time point). Results Trabecular bone area and the ossification width at the osteochondral interface increased in both the MMT and MCLT groups. Subintimal synovial cell morphology also changed in MMT and MCLT groups relative to naïve animals. Conclusions OA affects the joint as an organ system, and quantifying changes throughout an entire joint can improve our understanding of the relationship between joint destruction and painful OA symptoms following meniscus injury. PMID:27797605

  15. Medial Prefrontal Functional Connectivity--Relation to Memory Self-Appraisal Accuracy in Older Adults with and without Memory Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Michele L.; McLaren, Donald G.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Xu, Guofan; Rowley, Howard A.; Birn, Rasmus; Kastman, Erik K.; Sager, Mark A.; Asthana, Sanjay; Johnson, Sterling C.

    2012-01-01

    It is tentatively estimated that 25% of people with early Alzheimer's disease (AD) show impaired awareness of disease-related changes in their own cognition. Research examining both normative self-awareness and altered awareness resulting from brain disease or injury points to the central role of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) in generating…

  16. [Dynamic retraction microneurosurgery for the treatment of medial tentorial meningiomas].

    PubMed

    Du, W; Zhong, D; Lü, D; Li, J; Huang, H Y; Yang, J; Wu, Y T; Xia, H J; Tang, W Y; Sun, X C

    2018-05-08

    Objective: To investigate the effectiveness and clinical significance of dynamic retraction microneurosurgery for the treatment of medial tentorial meningiomas. Methods: From January 2011 to December 2016, a cohort of 28 patients with medial tentorial meningiomas were treated by microneurosurgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Patients who treated intraoperatively with dynamic retraction surgery from January 2014 to December 2016 were assigned into dynamic retraction group, and those with fixed retractors intraoperatively from January 2011 to December 2013 were assigned into retractor group. The surgical approaches tailored in our patients were based on predominant direction of tumor extension. The extent of tumor resection was scored according to the Simpson's classification scale. Comparisons of tumor size, operation time, hospitalization time, retraction-related injury, tumor Simpson resection grade and Karnofsky Performance Scale(KPS) score six months after surgery were also made between two groups. Results: A total of 12 patients(retractor group) were treated with the use of self-retaining brain retractors intraoperatively and dynamic retraction surgical procedure was performed intraoperatively in 16 patients(dynamic retraction group). The difference between two groups with regard to sex, age, tumor size, operation time and tumor Simpson resection grade was not statistically significant(all P >0.05). The mean duration of hospital time was shorter in the dynamic retraction group than that in the retractor group(18.3 d±1.8 d vs 20.2 d±1.3 d, P =0.004). The dynamic retraction group had lower incidence of retraction-related injury compared with the retractor group(1/16 vs 6/12), P =0.022]. The dynamic retraction group had better neurological recovery rate with KPS >80 evaluated six months after surgery compared with the retractor group(14/16 vs 5/12, P =0.017). Conclusions: Dynamic retraction microneurosurgery for the treatment

  17. Ulnar neuropathy and medial elbow pain in women's fastpitch softball pitchers: a report of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam M; Butler, Thomas H; Dolan, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    Elite-level women's fastpitch softball players place substantial biomechanical strains on the elbow that can result in medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. There is scant literature reporting the expected outcomes of the treatment of these injuries. This study examined the results of treatment in a series of these patients. We identified 6 female softball pitchers (4 high school and 2 collegiate) with medial elbow pain and ulnar neuropathic symptoms. Trials of conservative care failed in all 6, and they underwent surgical treatment with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition. These patients were subsequently monitored postoperatively to determine outcome. All 6 female pitchers had early resolution of elbow pain and neuropathic symptoms after surgical treatment. Long-term follow-up demonstrated that 1 patient quit playing softball because of other injuries but no longer reported elbow pain or paresthesias. One player was able to return to pitching at the high school level but had recurrent forearm pain and neuritis 1 year later while playing a different sport and subsequently stopped playing competitive sports. Four patients continued to play at the collegiate level without further symptoms. Medial elbow pain in women's softball pitchers caused by ulnar neuropathy can be treated effectively with subcutaneous ulnar nerve transposition if nonsurgical options fail. Further study is necessary to examine the role of overuse, proper training techniques, and whether pitching limits may be necessary to avoid these injuries. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ankle syndesmotic injury.

    PubMed

    Zalavras, Charalampos; Thordarson, David

    2007-06-01

    Ankle syndesmotic injury does not necessarily lead to ankle instability; however, the coexistence of deltoid ligament injury critically destabilizes the ankle joint. Syndesmotic injury may occur in isolation or may be associated with ankle fracture. In the absence of fracture, physical examination findings suggestive of injury include ankle tenderness over the anterior aspect of the syndesmosis and a positive squeeze or external rotation test. Radiographic findings usually include increased tibiofibular clear space decreased tibiofibular overlap, and increased medial clear space. However, syndesmotic injury may not be apparent radiographically; thus, routine stress testing is necessary for detecting syndesmotic instability. The goals of management are to restore and maintain the normal tibiofibular relationship to allow for healing of the ligamentous structures of the syndesmosis. Fixation of the syndesmosis is indicated when evidence of a diastasis is present. This may be detected preoperatively, in the absence of fracture, or intraoperatively, after rigid fixation of the medial malleolus and fibula fractures. Failure to diagnose and stabilize syndesmotic disruption adversely affects outcome.

  19. Associated lateral/medial knee instability and its relevant factors in anterior cruciate ligament-injured knees.

    PubMed

    Yuuki, Arata; Muneta, Takeshi; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Koga, Hideyuki

    2017-03-01

    Associations of lateral/medial knee instability with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury have not been thoroughly investigated. The purposes of this study were to investigate whether lateral/medial knee instability is associated with ACL injury, and to clarify relevant factors for lateral/medial knee instability in ACL-injured knees. One hundred and nineteen patients with unilateral ACL-injured knees were included. Lateral/medial knee instability was assessed with varus/valgus stress X-ray examination for both injured and uninjured knees by measuring varus/valgus angle, lateral/medial joint opening, and lateral/medial joint opening index. Manual knee instability tests for ACL were evaluated to investigate associations between lateral/medial knee instability and anterior and/or rotational instabilities. Patients' backgrounds were evaluated to identify relevant factors for lateral/medial knee instability. Damage on the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) on MRI was also evaluated. All parameters regarding lateral knee instability in injured knees were significantly greater than in uninjured knees. There were significant correlations between lateral knee instability and the Lachman test as well as the pivot shift test. Patients with LCL damage had significantly greater lateral joint opening than those without LCL damage on MRI. Sensitivity of LCL damage on MRI to lateral joint opening was 100%, while its specificity was 36%. No other relevant factors were identified. In medial knee instability, there were also correlations between medial knee instability and the Lachman test/pivot shift test. However, the correlations were weak and other parameters were not significant. Lateral knee instability was greater in ACL-deficient knees than in uninjured knees. Lateral knee instability was associated with ACL-related instabilities as well as LCL damage on MRI, whereas MRI had low specificity to lateral knee instability. On the other hand, the association of medial knee

  20. Rupture of posterior cruciate ligament leads to radial displacement of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Deng, Zhenhan; Luo, Wei; Xiao, Wenfeng; Hu, Yihe; Liao, Zhan; Li, Kanghua; He, Hongbo

    2017-07-11

    To explore the association between the rupture of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) and the radial displacement of medial meniscus under the conditions of different flexion and various axial loads. The radial displacement value of medial meniscus was measured for the specimens of normal adult knee joints, including 12 intact PCLs, 6 ruptures of the anterolateral bundle (ALB), 6 ruptures of the postmedial bundle (PMB), and 12 complete ruptures. The measurement was conducted at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of knee flexion angles under 200 N, 400 N, 600 N, 800 N and 1000 N of axial loads respectively. The displacement values of medial meniscus of the ALB rupture group increased at 0° flexion under 800 N and 1000 N, and at 30°, 60° and 90° flexion under all loads in comparison with the PCL intact group. The displacement values of the PMB rupture group was higher at 0° and 90° flexion under all loads, and at 30° and 60° flexion under 800 N and 1000 N loads. The displacement of the PCL complete rupture group increased at all flexion angles under all loads. Either partial or complete rupture of the PCL can increase in the radial displacement of the medial meniscus, which may explain the degenerative changes that occuring in the medial meniscus due to PCL injury. Therefore, early reestablishment of the PCL is necessarily required in order to maintain stability of the knee joint after PCL injury.

  1. Gait retraining and incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in army recruits.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Jagannath; Weston, Matthew; Batterham, Alan M; Spears, Iain R

    2014-09-01

    Gait retraining, comprising biofeedback and/or an exercise intervention, might reduce the risk of musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose was to examine the effect of a gait-retraining program on medial tibial stress syndrome incidence during a 26-wk basic military training regimen. A total of 450 British Army recruits volunteered. On the basis of a baseline plantar pressure variable (mean foot balance during the first 10% of stance), participants classified as at risk of developing medial tibial stress syndrome (n = 166) were randomly allocated to an intervention (n = 83) or control (n = 83) group. The intervention involved supervised gait retraining, including exercises to increase neuromuscular control and flexibility (three sessions per week) and biofeedback enabling internalization of the foot balance variable (one session per week). Both groups continued with the usual military training regimen. Diagnoses of medial tibial stress syndrome over the 26-wk regimen were made by physicians blinded to the group assignment. Data were modeled in a survival analysis using Cox regression, adjusting for baseline foot balance and time to peak heel rotation. The intervention was associated with a substantially reduced instantaneous relative risk of medial tibial stress syndrome versus control, with an adjusted HR of 0.25 (95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.53). The number needed to treat to observe one additional injury-free recruit in intervention versus control at 20 wk was 14 (11 to 23) participants. Baseline foot balance was a nonspecific predictor of injury, with an HR per 2 SD increment of 5.2 (1.6 to 53.6). The intervention was effective in reducing incidence of medial tibial stress syndrome in an at-risk military sample.

  2. New understanding of the complex structure of knee menisci: implications for injury risk and repair potential for athletes.

    PubMed

    Rattner, J B; Matyas, J R; Barclay, L; Holowaychuk, S; Sciore, P; Lo, I K Y; Shrive, N G; Frank, C B; Achari, Y; Hart, D A

    2011-08-01

    Menisci help maintain the structural integrity of the knee. However, the poor healing potential of the meniscus following a knee injury can not only end a career in sports but lead to osteoarthritis later in life. Complete understanding of meniscal structure is essential for evaluating its risk for injury and subsequent successful repair. This study used novel approaches to elucidate meniscal architecture. The radial and circumferential collagen fibrils in the meniscus were investigated using novel tissue-preparative techniques for light and electron microscopic studies. The results demonstrate a unique architecture based on differences in the packaging of the fundamental collagen fibrils. For radial arrays, the collagen fibrils are arranged in parallel into ∼10 μm bundles, which associate laterally to form flat sheets of varying dimensions that bifurcate and come together to form a honeycomb network within the body of the meniscus. In contrast, the circumferential arrays display a complex network of collagen fibrils arranged into ∼5 μm bundles. Interestingly, both types of architectural organization of collagen fibrils in meniscus are conserved across mammalian species and are age and sex independent. These findings imply that disruptions in meniscal architecture following an injury contribute to poor prognosis for functional repair. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Progression of cartilage damage and meniscal pathology over 30 months is associated with an increase in radiographic tibiofemoral joint space narrowing in persons with knee OA--the MOST study.

    PubMed

    Crema, M D; Nevitt, M C; Guermazi, A; Felson, D T; Wang, K; Lynch, J A; Marra, M D; Torner, J; Lewis, C E; Roemer, F W

    2014-10-01

    To determine the association of MRI-assessed worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage, meniscal damage, meniscal extrusion, separately and together, with progression of radiographic joint space narrowing (JSN). The Multicenter Osteoarthitis Study (MOST) Study is a cohort study of subjects with or at risk for knee osteoarthritis (OA). Knees with radiographic OA Kellgren-Lawrence grade 2 at baseline and with baseline and 30-month 1.0 T MRIs were selected for reading using the WORMS system for cartilage damage, meniscal damage, and meniscal extrusion. The association of worsening of cartilage damage, meniscal damage, and/or meniscal extrusion with increases in the JSN was performed using logistic regression. A total of 276 knees (one per subject) were included (women 68.5%, mean age 62.9 ± 7.8, mean body mass index (BMI) 30.2 ± 5.0). Worsening of each MRI feature was associated with any increase in JSN (P < 0.01). Worsening of cartilage damage was more frequently observed than worsening of meniscal damage and extrusion, and was significantly associated with both slow and fast progression of JSN. An increasing risk of JSN worsening was associated with increasing number of worsening MRI features (P for trend < 0.0001). Worsening of tibiofemoral cartilage damage, meniscal damage, and meniscal extrusion are independent predictors of JSN progression in the same compartment. Worsening of cartilage damage is more frequently observed in JSN when compared to meniscal worsening. A strong cumulative effect on JSN progression is observed for worsening of more than one MRI feature. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Prognostic Factors in the Midterm Results of Pullout Fixation for Posterior Root Tears of the Medial Meniscus.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu Sung; Ha, Jeong Ku; Ra, Ho Jong; Kim, Jin Goo

    2016-07-01

    To identify predictors of unfavorable clinical and radiologic outcomes a minimum of 5 years after pullout fixation for medial meniscus posterior root tears (MMPRTs). In total, 40 patients who were followed for >5 years after pullout fixation in MMPRT were recruited. The mean follow-up duration was 71.1 months. Clinical outcomes, including Lysholm score and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, and radiographic results, including Kellgren-Lawrence (K-L; 0/1/2/3/4) grade and medial joint space width, were evaluated preoperatively and at final follow-up. Preoperative prognostic factors, including age, sex, body mass index, degree of varus alignment, K-L grade, medial joint space width, meniscal extrusion, and cartilage status, by the modified Outerbridge classification (grades 1 or 2 v 3 or 4), for relatively unfavorable (fair or poor grade) Lysholm or IKDC score, and progression of K-L grade were investigated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The mean Lysholm score (52.1 ± 8.8 to 83.8 ± 11.9) and IKDC score (40.1 ± 7.6 to 73.3 ± 10.9) were improved significantly (P < .001), although the loss of medial joint space width (4.8 ± 1.1 to 3.9 ± 1.1 mm) and K-L grade (6/25/9/0/0 to 0/11/20/9/0) progressed significantly (P < .001). Unfavorable prognostic factors of the Lysholm score were grade ≥3 chondral lesions (odds ratio [OR] = 5.993; P = .028) and varus mechanical alignment (OR = 1.644; P = .017), for IKDC score were grade ≥3 chondral lesions (OR = 11.146; P = .038) and older age (OR = 1.200; P = .017). Preoperative chondral lesion grade ≥3 increased the risk of K-L grade progression (OR = 11.000; P = .031). Clinically, modified Outerbridge classification grade ≥3 chondral lesions, varus alignment, and older age were found to predict a poor prognosis after MMPRT fixation. In terms of radiographic K-L grade progression, grade ≥3 chondral lesions were identified as a poor prognostic factor. Level IV, case series

  5. Golf and racquet sports injuries.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Jon A; Miller, Bruce S; Morag, Yoav

    2005-12-01

    There are specific injuries that are common in golf and racquet sports. These abnormalities have a predilection for specific structures as well and can be divided into two categories on the basis of etiology as either chronic repetitive injury or acute trauma. With golf injuries, upper extremity abnormalities prevail and include rotator cuff disease, epicondylitis, wrist tenosynovitis, and hamate hook fracture. Thoracolumbar spine pain can also occur. The order of frequency of these ailments is different for professional and recreational athletes. With racquet injuries, as in tennis, lower extremity injuries are more common and include medial gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon abnormalities, although shoulder, elbow, and wrist abnormalities may also occur. Knowledge of the biomechanics behind each sport is also helpful in understanding the pathophysiology of injury and in part explains the findings seen at imaging.

  6. Stimulation of the medial amygdala enhances medial preoptic dopamine release: implications for male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, J M; Hull, E M

    2001-11-02

    Increased dopamine (DA) in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) facilitates male sexual behavior. A major source of innervation to the MPOA is the medial amygdala (MeA). We now report that chemical stimulation of the MeA enhanced levels of extracellular MPOA DA in anesthetized male rats. These results suggest that DA activity in the MPOA can be regulated by input from the MeA to the MPOA.

  7. Medial Elbow Joint Space Increases With Valgus Stress and Decreases When Cued to Perform A Maximal Grip Contraction.

    PubMed

    Pexa, Brett S; Ryan, Eric D; Myers, Joseph B

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo. Controlled laboratory study. Participants were 22 healthy males with no history of elbow dislocation or UCL injury (age, 21.25 ± 1.58 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight, 79.43 ± 18.50 kg). Medial elbow joint space was measured by use of ultrasonography during 3 separate conditions: at rest (unloaded), under valgus load (loaded), and with a maximal grip contraction under a valgus load (loaded-contracted) in both limbs. Participants lay supine with their arm abducted 90° and elbow flexed 30° with the forearm in full supination. A handgrip dynamometer was placed in the participants' hand to grip against during the contracted condition. Images were reduced in ImageJ to assess medial elbow joint space. A 2-way (condition × limb) repeated-measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess changes in medial elbow joint space. Post hoc testing was performed with a Bonferroni adjustment to assess changes within limb and condition. The medial elbow joint space was significantly larger in the loaded condition (4.91 ± 1.16 mm) compared with the unloaded condition (4.26 ± 1.23 mm, P < .001, d = 0.712) and the loaded-contracted condition (3.88 ± 0.94 mm, P < .001, d = 1.149). No significant change was found between the unloaded and loaded-contracted conditions ( P = .137). Medial elbow joint space increases under a valgus load and then

  8. Adult human mesenchymal stem cells delivered via intra-articular injection to the knee following partial medial meniscectomy: a randomized, double-blind, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Vangsness, C Thomas; Farr, Jack; Boyd, Joel; Dellaero, David T; Mills, C Randal; LeRoux-Williams, Michelle

    2014-01-15

    There are limited treatment options for tissue restoration and the prevention of degenerative changes in the knee. Stem cells have been a focus of intense preclinical research into tissue regeneration but limited clinical investigation. In a randomized, double-blind, controlled study, the safety of the intra-articular injection of human mesenchymal stem cells into the knee, the ability of mesenchymal stem cells to promote meniscus regeneration following partial meniscectomy, and the effects of mesenchymal stem cells on osteoarthritic changes in the knee were investigated. A total of fifty-five patients at seven institutions underwent a partial medial meniscectomy. A single superolateral knee injection was given within seven to ten days after the meniscectomy. Patients were randomized to one of three treatment groups: Group A, in which patients received an injection of 50 × 10⁶ allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells; Group B, 150 × 10⁶ allogeneic mesenchymal stem cells; and the control group, a sodium hyaluronate (hyaluronic acid/hyaluronan) vehicle control. Patients were followed to evaluate safety, meniscus regeneration, the overall condition of the knee joint, and clinical outcomes at intervals through two years. Evaluations included sequential magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). No ectopic tissue formation or clinically important safety issues were identified. There was significantly increased meniscal volume (defined a priori as a 15% threshold) determined by quantitative MRI in 24% of patients in Group A and 6% in Group B at twelve months post meniscectomy (p = 0.022). No patients in the control group met the 15% threshold for increased meniscal volume. Patients with osteoarthritic changes who received mesenchymal stem cells experienced a significant reduction in pain compared with those who received the control, on the basis of visual analog scale assessments. There was evidence of meniscus regeneration and improvement in knee pain following treatment with

  9. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries in Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Jeffrey R; Bedford, Benjamin B; Andrachuk, John S; Scillia, Anthony J; Aune, Kyle T; Cain, E Lyle; Andrews, James R; Fleisig, Glenn S

    2016-11-01

    To determine common mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in baseball players and to quantify the rate of return to play after primary surgical reconstruction and review intermediate clinical outcomes. Surgical injuries involving the ACL in youth, high school, collegiate, and professional baseball players were queried for an 11-year period (2001 to 2011). Over the study period, 42 baseball players were identified who had undergone arthroscopically assisted primary ACL reconstruction by 1 of 3 attending surgeons. Retrospective chart review was performed for all 42 patients to evaluate variables of age, level of competition, position, mechanism of injury, graft choice, and associated meniscal injuries. Twenty-six patients were reached for telephone survey and International Knee Documentation Committee questionnaire and they answered questions about their original injury and playing history. The most common mechanism of injury was fielding, followed by base running. Infielders and outfielders (32% each) were the most commonly injured position, followed by pitchers (29%). Among the 32 players for whom it could be determined, 30 (94%) were able to return to playing baseball at a mean follow-up of 4.2 years (range 1.0 to 9.9 years). The mean International Knee Documentation Committee score was 84.0 (range 63 to 91). Among the 26 patients contacted for telephone interview, no one required revision ACL surgery, but 3 required a subsequent procedure for meniscal tear. Twenty-five patients (96%) denied any episodes of instability in the knee after reconstruction. The overwhelming majority of baseball players that sustain ACL injuries do so while fielding or base running. Outfielders are significantly more likely than infielders to suffer ACL injuries while fielding versus base running. The results with respect to return to play are promising, as nearly all patients were able to return to baseball and none required a revision ACL surgery at a mean follow

  10. Arthroscopic partial meniscectomy of a medial meniscus bucket-handle tear using the posteromedial portal.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Oh, Irvin

    2004-09-01

    Arthroscopic resection of irreparable bucket-handle tears of the medial meniscus is a commonly performed procedure. Adequate visualization of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can be a challenging task with the conventional use of the anterior portal. An attempt to resect the posterior horn in a blind fashion may result in iatrogenic damage of the articular cartilage in the posterior compartment, over-resection of a remnant meniscus, or an insufficient resection of the torn fragment. We describe the use of the posteromedial portal for an accurate visualization and resection of the posterior attachment of a bucket-handle tear for arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, as well as detection of other injuries that may be involved in the posteromedial compartment, while avoiding injury to other intra-articular structures during the arthroscopic procedure. We found that the use of the posteromedial portal is a safe and efficient method in removing a bucket-handle tear of the medial meniscus in one piece.

  11. Hypersexuality or altered sexual preference following brain injury.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, B L; Cummings, J L; McIntyre, H; Ebers, G; Grode, M

    1986-01-01

    Eight patients are described in whom either hypersexuality (four cases) or change in sexual preference (four cases) occurred following brain injury. In this series disinhibition of sexual activity and hypersexuality followed medial basal-frontal or diencephalic injury. This contrasted with the patients demonstrating altered sexual preference whose injuries involved limbic system structures. In some patients altered sexual behaviour may be the presenting or dominant feature of brain injury. Images PMID:3746322

  12. [SECOT consensus on medial femorotibial osteoarthritis].

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Silvestre, A; Carpintero, P

    2013-01-01

    A consensus, prepared by SECOT, is presented on the management of medial knee compartment osteoarthritis, in order to establish clinical criteria and recommendations directed at unifying the criteria in its management, dealing with the factors involved in the pathogenesis of medial femorotibial knee osteoarthritis, the usefulness of diagnostic imaging techniques, and the usefulness of arthroscopy. Conservative and surgical treatments are also analysed. The experts consulted showed a consensus (agreed or disagreed) in 65.8% of the items considered, leaving 14items where no consensus was found, which included the aetiopathogenesis of the osteoarthritis, the value of NMR in degenerative disease, the usefulness of COX-2 and the chondroprotective drugs, as well as on the ideal valgus tibial osteotomy technique. © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Pediatric Glial Heterotopia in the Medial Canthus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soung Min; Amponsah, Emmanuel Kofi; Eo, Mi Young; Cho, Yun Ju; Lee, Suk Keun

    2017-11-01

    Glial heterotopias are rare, benign, congenital, midline, and nonteratomatous extracranial glial tissue. They may be confused as encephalocele or dermoid cysts and are mostly present in the nose.An 8-month-old African female child presented with a slow growing paranasal mass. The mass had been present at the left upper medial canthus since birth and had slowly and progressively enlarged. There was no communication between the mass and the cranial cavity during the operational procedure. The mass was immunohistochemically positive for S-100 protein as well as for glial fibrillary acidic protein, but negative for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. This suggested that the mass was composed of benign glial tissues with many astrocytes.The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the first patient with pediatric glial heterotopic tissue in the medial canthus and to report the clinical importance of its immunohistochemical findings.

  14. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Helene; Gour, Anjali; Straehle, Jakob; Boergens, Kevin M.; Brecht, Michael; Helmstaedter, Moritz

    2017-09-01

    Research on neuronal connectivity in the cerebral cortex has focused on the existence and strength of synapses between neurons, and their location on the cell bodies and dendrites of postsynaptic neurons. The synaptic architecture of individual presynaptic axonal trees, however, remains largely unknown. Here we used dense reconstructions from three-dimensional electron microscopy in rats to study the synaptic organization of local presynaptic axons in layer 2 of the medial entorhinal cortex, the site of grid-like spatial representations. We observe path-length-dependent axonal synapse sorting, such that axons of excitatory neurons sequentially target inhibitory neurons followed by excitatory neurons. Connectivity analysis revealed a cellular feedforward inhibition circuit involving wide, myelinated inhibitory axons and dendritic synapse clustering. Simulations show that this high-precision circuit can control the propagation of synchronized activity in the medial entorhinal cortex, which is known for temporally precise discharges.

  15. Unicameral Bone Cyst of the Medial Cuneiform.

    PubMed

    Schick, Faith A; Daniel, Joseph N; Miller, Juliane S

    2016-09-02

    A unicameral bone cyst is a relatively uncommon, benign bone tumor found in the metaphysis of long bones, such as the humerus and the femur, in skeletally immature persons. In the foot, these benign, fluid-filled cavities are most commonly found within the os calcis. We present a case report of a 10-year-old female with a unicameral bone cyst of the medial cuneiform.

  16. A novel hypothesis: The application of platelet-rich plasma can promote the clinical healing of white-white meniscal tears

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Li-Cheng; Gao, Shu-Guang; Xu, Mai; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Jian; Lei, Guang-Hua

    2012-01-01

    Summary The white-white tears (meniscus lesion completely in the avascular zone) are without blood supply and theoretically cannot heal. Basal research has demonstrated that menisci are unquestionably important in load bearing, load redistribution, shock absorption, joint lubrication and the stabilization of the knee joint. It has been proven that partial or all-meniscusectomy results in an accelerated degeneration of cartilage and an increased rate of early osteoarthritis. Knee surgeons must face the difficult decision of removing or, if possible, retaining the meniscus; if it is possible to retain the meniscus, surgeons must address the difficulties of meniscal healing. Some preliminary approaches have progressed to improve meniscal healing. However, the problem of promoting meniscal healing in the avascular area has not yet been resolved. The demanding nature of the approach as well as its low utility and efficacy has impeded the progress of these enhancement techniques. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a platelet concentration derived from autologous blood. In recent years, PRP has been used widely in preclinical and clinical applications for bone regeneration and wound healing. Therefore, we hypothesize that the application of platelet-rich plasma for white-white meniscal tears will be a simple and novel technique of high utility in knee surgery. PMID:22847210

  17. Automated T2-mapping of the Menisci From Magnetic Resonance Images in Patients with Acute Knee Injury.

    PubMed

    Paproki, Anthony; Engstrom, Craig; Strudwick, Mark; Wilson, Katharine J; Surowiec, Rachel K; Ho, Charles; Crozier, Stuart; Fripp, Jurgen

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of an automated method for segmentation and T2 mapping of the medial meniscus (MM) and lateral meniscus (LM) in clinical magnetic resonance images from patients with acute knee injury. Eighty patients scheduled for surgery of an anterior cruciate ligament or meniscal injury underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the knee (multiplanar two-dimensional [2D] turbo spin echo [TSE] or three-dimensional [3D]-TSE examinations, T2 mapping). Each meniscus was automatically segmented from the 2D-TSE (composite volume) or 3D-TSE images, auto-partitioned into anterior, mid, and posterior regions, and co-registered onto the T2 maps. The Dice similarity index (spatial overlap) was calculated between automated and manual segmentations of 2D-TSE (15 patients), 3D-TSE (16 patients), and corresponding T2 maps (31 patients). Pearson and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated between automated and manual T2 values. T2 values were compared (Wilcoxon rank sum tests) between torn and non-torn menisci for the subset of patients with both manual and automated segmentations to compare statistical outcomes of both methods. The Dice similarity index values for the 2D-TSE, 3D-TSE, and T2 map volumes, respectively, were 76.4%, 84.3%, and 75.2% for the MM and 76.4%, 85.1%, and 76.1% for the LM. There were strong correlations between automated and manual T2 values (r MM  = 0.95, ICC MM  = 0.94; r LM  = 0.97, ICC LM  = 0.97). For both the manual and the automated methods, T2 values were significantly higher in torn than in non-torn MM for the full meniscus and its subregions (P < .05). Non-torn LM had higher T2 values than non-torn MM (P < .05). The present automated method offers a promising alternative to manual T2 mapping analyses of the menisci and a considerable advance for integration into clinical workflows. Copyright © 2017 The Association of University Radiologists. All rights reserved.

  18. Arthroscopic pullout suture repair of posterior root tear of the medial meniscus: radiographic and clinical results with a 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ju Hong; Lim, Young Jin; Kim, Ki Bum; Kim, Kyu Hyung; Song, Ji Hun

    2009-09-01

    This study was undertaken to document the short-term clinical efficacy of arthroscopic pullout suture repair in treating posterior root tears of the medial meniscus. From March 2004 to August 2006, 26 patients (27 knees) with posterior root tears of the medial meniscus were treated with arthroscopic pullout suture repair surgery by the senior author. Of these, 20 consecutive patients (21 knees) with a minimum of 2 years' follow-up treated by arthroscopic pullout suture repair were analyzed. Clinical results by use of the Lysholm knee and Hospital for Special Surgery scores and radiographic grade were evaluated, both preoperatively and at final follow-up. In addition, the second-look arthroscopic findings for 10 knees were analyzed. A radiographic evaluation using the criteria of Kellgren and Lawrence at final follow-up showed an increase in radiographic grade by 1 grade in only 1 knee. On the second-look arthroscopies performed in 10 knees (47.6%), all repaired menisci had healed completely without additional chondral lesions in the knee. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery scores improved from 61.1 preoperatively to 93.8 at final follow-up (P < .0001), and the mean preoperative Lysholm knee scores improved from 57.0 to 93.1 at final follow-up (P < .0001). Retear was found in 1 knee at the 6-month follow-up, and reoperation was performed with the same procedure used for the index surgery. Arthroscopic pullout suture repair is an effective treatment for alleviating meniscal symptoms in patients with a symptomatic posterior root tear of the medial meniscus with degenerated articular cartilage of less than grade III. In addition, no discernable degenerative arthritic changes were found in terms of radiographic features with our limited short-term follow-up. Level IV, therapeutic case series.

  19. Medially placed vagus nerve in relation to common carotid artery: a pointer to a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve.

    PubMed

    Sagayaraj, A; Deo, Ravi Padmakar; Merchant, Shuaib; Mohiyuddin, S M Azeem; Nayak, Abhishek C

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to highlight a medialized vagus in relation to common carotid artery as an operative marker to a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve during thyroid surgeries. Three patients who underwent thyroidectomy, in who per operative diagnosis of right non-recurrent laryngeal nerve was made and the findings were confirmed radiologically by demonstration of aberrant subclavian artery were included in the study. A medially placed vagus nerve in relation to common carotid artery was the common observation in all the 3 patients. With no operative marker to identify a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve, it is more prone to injury during thyroidectomies. Vagus nerve which was constantly seen medial to the common carotid artery in all our three patients can be used as an operative marker to a non-recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  20. Medial-Vowel Writing Difficulty in Korean Syllabic Writing: A Characteristic Sign of Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Jeong, Yong

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose Korean-speaking patients with a brain injury may show agraphia that differs from that of English-speaking patients due to the unique features of Hangul syllabic writing. Each grapheme in Hangul must be arranged from left to right and/or top to bottom within a square space to form a syllable, which requires greater visuospatial abilities than when writing the letters constituting an alphabetic writing system. Among the Hangul grapheme positions within a syllable, the position of a vowel is important because it determines the writing direction and the whole configuration in Korean syllabic writing. Due to the visuospatial characteristics of the Hangul vowel, individuals with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) may experiences differences between the difficulties of writing Hangul vowels and consonants due to prominent visuospatial dysfunctions caused by parietal lesions. Methods Eighteen patients with EOAD and 18 age-and-education-matched healthy adults participated in this study. The participants were requested to listen to and write 30 monosyllabic characters that consisted of an initial consonant, medial vowel, and final consonant with a one-to-one phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence. We measured the writing time for each grapheme, the pause time between writing the initial consonant and the medial vowel (P1), and the pause time between writing the medial vowel and the final consonant (P2). Results All grapheme writing and pause times were significantly longer in the EOAD group than in the controls. P1 was also significantly longer than P2 in the EOAD group. Conclusions Patients with EOAD might require a higher judgment ability and longer processing time for determining the visuospatial grapheme position before writing medial vowels. This finding suggests that a longer pause time before writing medial vowels is an early marker of visuospatial dysfunction in patients with EOAD. PMID:29504296

  1. Medial-Vowel Writing Difficulty in Korean Syllabic Writing: A Characteristic Sign of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ji Hye; Jeong, Yong; Na, Duk L

    2018-04-01

    Korean-speaking patients with a brain injury may show agraphia that differs from that of English-speaking patients due to the unique features of Hangul syllabic writing. Each grapheme in Hangul must be arranged from left to right and/or top to bottom within a square space to form a syllable, which requires greater visuospatial abilities than when writing the letters constituting an alphabetic writing system. Among the Hangul grapheme positions within a syllable, the position of a vowel is important because it determines the writing direction and the whole configuration in Korean syllabic writing. Due to the visuospatial characteristics of the Hangul vowel, individuals with early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) may experiences differences between the difficulties of writing Hangul vowels and consonants due to prominent visuospatial dysfunctions caused by parietal lesions. Eighteen patients with EOAD and 18 age-and-education-matched healthy adults participated in this study. The participants were requested to listen to and write 30 monosyllabic characters that consisted of an initial consonant, medial vowel, and final consonant with a one-to-one phoneme-to-grapheme correspondence. We measured the writing time for each grapheme, the pause time between writing the initial consonant and the medial vowel (P1), and the pause time between writing the medial vowel and the final consonant (P2). All grapheme writing and pause times were significantly longer in the EOAD group than in the controls. P1 was also significantly longer than P2 in the EOAD group. Patients with EOAD might require a higher judgment ability and longer processing time for determining the visuospatial grapheme position before writing medial vowels. This finding suggests that a longer pause time before writing medial vowels is an early marker of visuospatial dysfunction in patients with EOAD. Copyright © 2018 Korean Neurological Association.

  2. Effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion: a biomechanics study

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Daniel TP; Lam, Mak-Ham; Lao, Miko LM; Chan, Chad WN; Yung, Patrick SH; Fung, Kwai-Yau; Lui, Pauline PY; Chan, Kai-Ming

    2008-01-01

    Background Excessive pronation (or eversion) at ankle joint in heel-toe running correlated with lower extremity overuse injuries. Orthotics and inserts are often prescribed to limit the pronation range to tackle the problem. Previous studies revealed that the effect is product-specific. This study investigated the effect of medial arch-heel support in inserts on reducing ankle eversion in standing, walking and running. Methods Thirteen pronators and 13 normal subjects participated in standing, walking and running trials in each of the following conditions: (1) barefoot, and shod condition with insert with (2) no, (3) low, (4) medium, and (5) high medial arch-heel support. Motions were captured and processed by an eight-camera motion capture system. Maximum ankle eversion was calculated by incorporating the raw coordinates of 15 anatomical positions to a self-compiled Matlab program with kinematics equations. Analysis of variance with repeated measures with post-hoc Tukey pairwise comparisons was performed on the data among the five walking conditions and the five running conditions separately. Results Results showed that the inserts with medial arch-heel support were effective in dynamics trials but not static trials. In walking, they successfully reduced the maximum eversion by 2.1 degrees in normal subjects and by 2.5–3.0 degrees in pronators. In running, the insert with low medial arch support significantly reduced maximum eversion angle by 3.6 and 3.1 degrees in normal subjects and pronators respectively. Conclusion Medial arch-heel support in inserts is effective in reducing ankle eversion in walking and running, but not in standing. In walking, there is a trend to bring the over-pronated feet of the pronators back to the normal eversion range. In running, it shows an effect to restore normal eversion range in 84% of the pronators. PMID:18289375

  3. Force measurements in the medial meniscus posterior horn attachment: effects of anterior cruciate ligament removal.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Jackson, Steven R; McAllister, David R

    2012-02-01

    Tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn attachment (PHA) occur clinically, and an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee may be more vulnerable to this injury. The PHA forces from applied knee loadings will increase after removal of the ACL. Controlled laboratory study. A cap of bone containing the medial meniscus PHA was attached to a load cell that measured PHA tensile force. Posterior horn attachment forces were recorded before and after ACL removal during anteroposterior (AP) laxity testing at ±200 N and during passive knee extension tests with 5 N·m tibial torque and varus-valgus moment. Selected tests were also performed with 500 N joint load. For AP tests with no joint load, ACL removal increased laxity between 0° and 90° and increased PHA force generated by applied anterior tibial force between 30° and 90°. For AP tests with an intact ACL, application of joint load approximately doubled PHA forces. Anteroposterior testing of ACL-deficient knees was not possible with joint load because of bone cap failures from high PHA forces. Removal of the ACL during knee extension tests under joint load significantly increased PHA forces between 20° and 90° of flexion. For unloaded tests with applied tibial torque and varus-valgus moment, ACL removal had no significant effect on PHA forces. Applied anterior tibial force and external tibial torque were loading modes that produced relatively high PHA forces, presumably by impingement of the medial femoral condyle against the medial meniscus posterior horn rim. Under joint load, an ACL-deficient knee was particularly susceptible to PHA injury from applied anterior tibial force. Because tensile forces developed in the PHA are also borne by meniscus tissue near the attachment site, loading mechanisms that produce high PHA forces could also produce complete or partial radial tears near the posterior horn, a relatively common clinical observation.

  4. Differences in Medial and Lateral Posterior Tibial Slope: An Osteological Review of 1090 Tibiae Comparing Age, Sex, and Race.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Douglas S; Williamson, Drew F K; Gebhart, Jeremy J; Knapik, Derrick M; Voos, James E

    2017-01-01

    Injuries to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) are common, and a number of knee morphological variables have been identified as risk factors for an ACL injury, including the posterior tibial slope (TS). However, limited data exist regarding innate population differences in the TS. To (1) establish normative values for the medial and lateral posterior TS; (2) determine what differences exist between ages, sexes, and races; and (3) determine how internal or external tibial rotation (as occurs during sagittal knee motion) influences the stereotactic perception of the TS. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 545 cadaveric specimens (1090 tibiae) were obtained from the Hamann-Todd osteological collection. Specimens were leveled in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes using a digital laser. Virtual representations of each bone were created with a 3-dimensional digitizer apparatus. The TS of the medial and lateral tibial plateaus were measured using techniques adapted from previous radiographic protocols. Medial and lateral TS were then again measured on 200 tibiae that were internally and externally rotated by 10° (axially). The mean (±SD) medial TS was 6.9° ± 3.7° posterior, which was greater than the mean lateral TS of 4.7° ± 3.6° posterior ( P < .001). Neither the medial nor lateral TS changed with age. Women had a greater mean TS compared with men on both the medial (7.5° ± 3.8° vs 6.8° ± 3.7°, respectively; P = .03) and lateral (5.2° ± 3.5° vs 4.6° ± 3.5°, respectively; P = .04) sides. Black specimens had a greater mean medial TS (8.7° ± 3.6° vs 5.8° ± 3.3°, respectively; P < .001) and lateral TS (5.9° ± 3.3° vs 3.8° ± 3.5°, respectively; P < .001) compared with white specimens. Axial rotation was shown to increase the perception of the medial and lateral TS ( P < .001). The medial TS was shown to be greater than the lateral TS. Important sex- and race-based differences exist in the TS. This study also

  5. [Effects of creating a tunnel through intercondylar fossa under arthroscopy for the treatment of complex tears at the medial meniscus posterior horn].

    PubMed

    Dong, Ling-Dai; Bing, Chang-Jian; Li, Jian-Lin; Cai, Yue

    2017-04-25

    To discuss the advantages of the arthroscopic treatment for complex tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn by creating a tunnel passageway through the intercondylar fossa. All 127 patients including 24 males and 103 females with complex tears at the medial meniscus posterior horn were reviewed. The age of all patients ranged from 45 to 78 years old, with an average of 67 years old. All 127 patients were treated with partial meniscectomy, in which 112 patients were treated with partial meniscectomy smoothly with three incisions (anterior medial incision, anterior lateral incision, high anterior lateral incision), and 15 patients were treated with four incisions (anterior medial incision, anterior lateral incision, high anterior lateral incision, posterior medial incision). Four aspects were estimated:whether the meniscus posterior horns could be observed totally and conveniently, whether tools could be pushed to target area conveniently, the damage of adjacent cartilages, operation time(the operation time of partial meniscectomy). Posterior horns of all patients were totally and conveniently observed, tools were conveniently pushed to the target area in all cases, and all the cases had no iatrogenic injuries at adjacent cartilages. The operation time of partial meniscectomy at posterior horns with three incisions ranged from 5 to 10 minutes, and it ranged from 10 to 30 minutes with four incisions. It is very convenient and fast of the arthroscopy to treat complex tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn by creating a tunnel through the intercondylor fossa. Iatrogenic injuries of the adjacent cartilages were prevented to the greatest extent.

  6. Persistently active neurons in human medial frontal and medial temporal lobe support working memory

    PubMed Central

    Kamiński, J; Sullivan, S; Chung, JM; Ross, IB; Mamelak, AN; Rutishauser, U

    2017-01-01

    Persistent neural activity is a putative mechanism for the maintenance of working memories. Persistent activity relies on the activity of a distributed network of areas, but the differential contribution of each area remains unclear. We recorded single neurons in the human medial frontal cortex and the medial temporal lobe while subjects held up to three items in memory. We found persistently active neurons in both areas. Persistent activity of hippocampal and amygdala neurons was stimulus-specific, formed stable attractors, and was predictive of memory content. Medial frontal cortex persistent activity, on the other hand, was modulated by memory load and task set but was not stimulus-specific. Trial-by-trial variability in persistent activity in both areas was related to memory strength, because it predicted the speed and accuracy by which stimuli were remembered. This work reveals, in humans, direct evidence for a distributed network of persistently active neurons supporting working memory maintenance. PMID:28218914

  7. A Study of Acute and Chronic Tissue Changes in Surgical and Traumatically-Induced Experimental Models of Knee Joint Injury Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Fischenich, Kristine M.; Pauly, Hannah M.; Button, Keith D.; Fajardo, Ryan S.; DeCamp, Charles E.; Haut, Roger C.; Haut Donahue, Tammy L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to monitor the progression of joint damage in two animal models of knee joint trauma using two non-invasive, clinically available imaging modalities. Methods A 3-T clinical magnet and micro-computed tomography (mCT) was used to document changes immediately following injury (acute) and post-injury (chronic) at time points of 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Joint damage was recorded at dissection and compared to the chronic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) record. Fifteen Flemish Giant rabbits were subjected to a single tibiofemoral compressive impact (ACLF), and 18 underwent a combination of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and meniscal transection (mACLT). Results All ACLF animals experienced ACL rupture, and 13 also experienced acute meniscal damage. All ACLF and mACLT animals showed meniscal and articular cartilage damages at dissection. Meniscal damage was documented as early as 4 weeks and worsened in 87% of the ACLF animals and 71% of the mACLT animals. Acute cartilage damage also developed further and increased in occurrence with time in both models. A progressive decrease in bone quantity and quality was documented in both models. The MRI data closely aligned with dissection notes suggesting this clinical tool may be a non-invasive method for documenting joint damage in lapine models of knee joint trauma. Conclusions The study investigates the acute to chronic progression of meniscal and cartilage damage at various time points, and chronic changes to the underlying bone in two models of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA), and highlights the dependency of the model on the location, type, and progression of damage over time. PMID:27756698

  8. Effects of Lateral and Medial Wedged Insoles on Knee and Ankle Internal Joint Moments During Walking in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Claudiane A; Lewinson, Ryan T; Worobets, Jay T; Stefanyshyn, Darren J

    2016-11-01

    Wedged insoles have been used to treat knee pathologies and to prevent injuries. Although they have received much attention for the study of knee injury, the effects of wedges on ankle joint biomechanics are not well understood. This study sought to evaluate the immediate effects of lateral and medial wedges on knee and ankle internal joint loading and center of pressure (CoP) in men during walking. Twenty-one healthy men walked at 1.4 m/sec in five footwear conditions: neutral, 6° (LW6) and 9° (LW9) lateral wedges, and 6° (MW6) and 9° (MW9) medial wedges. Peak internal knee abduction moments and angular impulses, internal ankle inversion moments and angular impulses, and mediolateral CoP were analyzed. Analysis of variance with post hoc analysis and Pearson correlations were performed to detect differences between conditions. No differences in internal knee joint loading were found between neutral and any of the wedge conditions. However, as the wedge angle increased from medial to lateral, the internal ankle inversion moment (LW6: P = .020; LW9: P < .001; MW6: P = .046; MW9: P < .001) and angular impulse (LW9: P = .012) increased, and the CoP shifted laterally (LW9: P < .001) and medially (MW9: P < .001) compared with the neutral condition. Neither lateral nor medial wedges were effective in altering internal knee joint loading during walking. However, the greater internal ankle inversion moment and angular impulse observed with lateral wedges could lead to a higher risk of ankle injury. Thus, caution should be taken when lateral wedges need to be prescribed.

  9. The Effects of Elbow Bracing on Medial Elbow Joint Space Gapping Associated With Repetitive Throwing in High School Baseball Players.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Takei, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mitsuru

    2017-04-01

    Throwing athletes risk medial elbow injury from extreme valgus stress generated across the medial elbow during throwing. Braces have been developed to protect the elbow joint; however, no previous study has investigated the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with repetitive throwing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping during repetitive throwing. Our hypothesis was that an elbow brace may reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five high school baseball players participated in this study. Each subject pitched 100 times under 2 conditions: control (without elbow brace) and elbow brace. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonically before pitching and after every block of 20 pitches. Measurement of the ulnohumeral joint space was carried out using ultrasound with the forearm hanging by the side. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used to compare ulnohumeral joint space with repeated pitching and between the elbow brace and control conditions. In the control condition, ulnohumeral joint space after 60 pitches was significantly greater than that before pitching ( P < .01). In contrast, in the elbow brace condition, ulnohumeral joint space was not significantly different after repeated pitching. When comparing these 2 conditions, ulnohumeral joint space in the control condition was significantly greater than that in the elbow brace condition after 60 pitches ( P < .01). An elbow brace has the effect of preventing medial elbow joint space gapping with repeated throwing when determined ultrasonically by measuring the ulnohumeral joint space under gravity load. An elbow brace worn during baseball pitching practice may help reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping.

  10. The Effects of Elbow Bracing on Medial Elbow Joint Space Gapping Associated With Repetitive Throwing in High School Baseball Players

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Takei, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Mitsuru

    2017-01-01

    Background: Throwing athletes risk medial elbow injury from extreme valgus stress generated across the medial elbow during throwing. Braces have been developed to protect the elbow joint; however, no previous study has investigated the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with repetitive throwing. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of elbow bracing on medial elbow joint space gapping during repetitive throwing. Our hypothesis was that an elbow brace may reduce mechanical stress on the elbow by reducing medial elbow joint space gapping. Study Design: Controlled laboratory study. Methods: Twenty-five high school baseball players participated in this study. Each subject pitched 100 times under 2 conditions: control (without elbow brace) and elbow brace. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonically before pitching and after every block of 20 pitches. Measurement of the ulnohumeral joint space was carried out using ultrasound with the forearm hanging by the side. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc tests were used to compare ulnohumeral joint space with repeated pitching and between the elbow brace and control conditions. Results: In the control condition, ulnohumeral joint space after 60 pitches was significantly greater than that before pitching (P < .01). In contrast, in the elbow brace condition, ulnohumeral joint space was not significantly different after repeated pitching. When comparing these 2 conditions, ulnohumeral joint space in the control condition was significantly greater than that in the elbow brace condition after 60 pitches (P < .01). Conclusion: An elbow brace has the effect of preventing medial elbow joint space gapping with repeated throwing when determined ultrasonically by measuring the ulnohumeral joint space under gravity load. Clinical Relevance: An elbow brace worn during baseball pitching practice may help reduce mechanical stress

  11. Effects of medially wedged foot orthoses on knee and hip joint running mechanics in females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boldt, Andrew R; Willson, John D; Barrios, Joaquin A; Kernozek, Thomas W

    2013-02-01

    We examined the effects of medially wedged foot orthoses on knee and hip joint mechanics during running in females with and without patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). We also tested if these effects depend on standing calcaneal eversion angle. Twenty female runners with and without PFPS participated. Knee and hip joint transverse and frontal plane peak angle, excursion, and peak internal knee and hip abduction moment were calculated while running with and without a 6° full-length medially wedged foot orthoses. Separate 3-factor mixed ANOVAs (group [PFPS, control] x condition [medial wedge, no medial wedge] x standing calcaneal angle [everted, neutral, inverted]) were used to test the effect of medially wedged orthoses on each dependent variable. Knee abduction moment increased 3% (P = .03) and hip adduction excursion decreased 0.6° (P < .01) using medially wedged foot orthoses. No significant group x condition or calcaneal angle x condition effects were observed. The addition of medially wedged foot orthoses to standardized running shoes had minimal effect on knee and hip joint mechanics during running thought to be associated with the etiology or exacerbation of PFPS symptoms. These effects did not appear to depend on injury status or standing calcaneal posture.

  12. Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET).

    PubMed

    Celik, Derya; Demirel, Murat; Kuş, Gamze; Erdil, Mehmet; Özdinçler, Arzu Razak

    2015-03-01

    The Western Ontario Meniscal Evaluation Tool (WOMET) is a questionnaire designed to evaluate quality of life related to the health (HRQOL) of patients with meniscus pathology. The purpose of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the WOMET into Turkish, and thereby to determine the reliability and validity of the translated version. The WOMET was translated into Turkish in accordance with the stages recommended by Guillemin. Ninety-six patients [35 male, 61 female; mean age: 43.6 ± 11.7 (23-71) years] with meniscal pathology were included in the study. The WOMET was completed twice at 3-7-day intervals. The inter-rater correlation coefficient was used for reliability, and Cronbach's α was used for internal consistency. Patients were asked to answer the Lysholm knee scale and the short form-36 (SF-36) for the validity of the estimation. The distribution of ceiling and floor effects was determined. Mean and standard deviation of the first and second evaluations of the total WOMET were 1,048.9 ± 271.6 and 1,000.4 ± 255.2 (p = 0.03), respectively. The test-retest reliability of the total score, physical function, sports/work/lifestyle and emotion domains were 0.88, 0.78, 0.80 and 0.85, respectively. Cronbach's α was 0.89. WOMET was most strongly related to the physical function scale and the physical component score (ρ 0.54, ρ 0.60, respectively; p < 0.001). The weakest correlations between the WOMET and the SF-36 were for the mental component score and the emotional role functioning (ρ 0.11, ρ 0.03, respectively). We observed no ceiling and floor effects of the overall WOMET score, but 36.5 % of the patients showed floor effect in the question of "numbness", and 40.6 % of the patients showed ceiling effect in the question of "consciousness". The Turkish version of the WOMET is valid and reliable. It can therefore be used for HRQOL of patients with meniscal pathology.

  13. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Meniscal Healing, Clinical Outcomes, and Safety in Patients Undergoing Meniscal Repair of Unstable, Complete Vertical Meniscal Tears (Bucket Handle) Augmented with Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, Rafal; Kulinski, Krzysztof; Kozar-Kaminska, Katarzyna; Wielgus, Monika; Langner, Maciej; Wasko, Marcin K; Kowalczewski, Jacek; Pomianowski, Stanislaw

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application in arthroscopic repair of complete vertical tear of meniscus located in the red-white zone. This single center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study included 37 patients with complete vertical meniscus tears. Patients received an intrarepair site injection of either PRP or sterile 0.9% saline during an index arthroscopy. The primary endpoint was the rate of meniscus healing in the two groups. The secondary endpoints were changes in the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and analog scale (VAS) in the two groups at 42 months. After 18 weeks, the meniscus healing rate was significantly higher in the PRP-treated group than in the control group (85% versus 47%, P = 0.048). Functional outcomes were significantly better 42 months after treatment than at baseline in both groups. The IKDC score, WOMAC, and KOOS were significantly better in the PRP-treated group than in the control group. No adverse events were reported during the study period. The findings of this study indicate that PRP augmentation in meniscus repair results in improvements in both meniscus healing and functional outcome.

  14. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Parallel-Group, Placebo-Controlled Study Evaluating Meniscal Healing, Clinical Outcomes, and Safety in Patients Undergoing Meniscal Repair of Unstable, Complete Vertical Meniscal Tears (Bucket Handle) Augmented with Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kulinski, Krzysztof; Kozar-Kaminska, Katarzyna; Wielgus, Monika; Langner, Maciej; Wasko, Marcin K.; Kowalczewski, Jacek; Pomianowski, Stanislaw

    2018-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application in arthroscopic repair of complete vertical tear of meniscus located in the red-white zone. Methods This single center, prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm study included 37 patients with complete vertical meniscus tears. Patients received an intrarepair site injection of either PRP or sterile 0.9% saline during an index arthroscopy. The primary endpoint was the rate of meniscus healing in the two groups. The secondary endpoints were changes in the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score, Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), and analog scale (VAS) in the two groups at 42 months. Results After 18 weeks, the meniscus healing rate was significantly higher in the PRP-treated group than in the control group (85% versus 47%, P = 0.048). Functional outcomes were significantly better 42 months after treatment than at baseline in both groups. The IKDC score, WOMAC, and KOOS were significantly better in the PRP-treated group than in the control group. No adverse events were reported during the study period. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that PRP augmentation in meniscus repair results in improvements in both meniscus healing and functional outcome. PMID:29713647

  15. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  16. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  17. Rearfoot alignment and medial longitudinal arch configurations of runners with symptoms and histories of plantar fasciitis

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ana Paula; Trombini-Souza, Francis; Tessutti, Vitor; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; de Camargo Neves Sacco, Isabel; João, Sílvia Maria Amado

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare rearfoot alignment and medial longitudinal arch index during static postures in runners, with and without symptoms and histories of plantar fasciitis (PF). INTRODUCTION: PF is the third most common injury in runners but, so far, its etiology remains unclear. In the literature, rearfoot misalignment and conformations of the longitudinal plantar arch have been described as risk factors for the development of PF. However, in most of the investigated literature, the results are still controversial, mainly regarding athletic individuals and the effects of pain associated with these injuries. METHODS: Forty-five runners with plantar fasciitis (30 symptomatic and 15 with previous histories of injuries) and 60 controls were evaluated. Pain was assessed by a visual analogue scale. The assessment of rearfoot alignment and the calculations of the arch index were performed by digital photographic images. RESULTS: There were observed similarities between the three groups regarding the misalignments of the rearfoot valgus. The medial longitudinal arches were more elevated in the group with symptoms and histories of PF, compared to the control runners. CONCLUSIONS: Runners with symptoms or histories of PF did not differ in rearfoot valgus misalignments, but showed increases in the longitudinal plantar arch during bipedal static stance, regardless of the presence of pain symptoms. PMID:21808870

  18. MR imaging of post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries confined to the femoral trochlea. Arthroscopic correlation and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Huegli, Rolf W; Moelleken, Sonja M C; Stork, Alexander; Bonel, Harald M; Bredella, Miriam A; Meckel, Stephan; Genant, Harry K; Tirman, Phillip F J

    2005-01-01

    To assess and describe post-traumatic articular cartilage injuries isolated to the trochlear groove and provide insight into potential mechanism of injury. We retrospectively evaluated MR imaging findings of all knee MRIs performed at our institution over the last 2 years (2450). Thirty patients met the criteria of a cartilage injury confined to the trochlear groove. In 15 cases, which were included in our study, arthroscopic correlation was available. Each plane was evaluated and graded for the presence and appearance of articular cartilage defects using a standard arthroscopic grading scheme adapted to MR imaging. Any additional pathological derangement was documented and information about the mechanism of injury was retrieved by chart review. In all cases the cartilaginous injury was well demonstrated on MRI. In 13 patients additional pathological findings could be observed. The most frequently associated injury was a meniscal tear in nine patients. In eight cases, the arthroscopic grading of the trochlear injury matched exactly with the MRI findings. In the remaining seven cases, the discrepancy between MRI and arthroscopy was never higher than one grade. In 13 out of 15 of patients trauma mechanism could be evaluated. Twelve patients suffered an indirect twisting injury and one suffered a direct trauma to their knee. The findings of this study demonstrate that MR imaging allows reliable grading of isolated injury to the trochlear groove cartilage and assists in directing surgical diagnosis and treatment. These injuries may be the only hyaline cartilage injury in the knee and meniscal tears are a frequently associated finding. Therefore, it is important to search specifically for cartilage injuries of the trochlear groove in patients with anterior knee pain, even if other coexistent pathology could potentially explain the patient's symptoms.

  19. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Evidence-Based Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Debbie I

    2008-01-01

    Reference: Thacker SB, Gilchrist J, Stroup DF, Kimsey CD. The prevention of shin splints in sports: a systematic review of literature. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(1):32–40. Clinical Question: Among physically active individuals, which medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) prevention methods are most effective to decrease injury rates? Data Sources: Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE (1966–2000), Current Contents (1996–2000), Biomedical Collection (1993–1999), and Dissertation Abstracts. Reference lists of identified studies were searched manually until no further studies were identified. Experts in the field were contacted, including first authors of randomized controlled trials addressing prevention of MTSS. The Cochrane Collaboration (early stage of Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) was contacted. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria included randomized controlled trials or clinical trials comparing different MTSS prevention methods with control groups. Excluded were studies that did not provide primary research data or that addressed treatment and rehabilitation rather than prevention of incident MTSS. Data Extraction: A total of 199 citations were identified. Of these, 4 studies compared prevention methods for MTSS. Three reviewers independently scored the 4 studies. Reviewers were blinded to the authors' names and affiliations but not the results. Each study was evaluated independently for methodologic quality using a 100-point checklist. Final scores were averages of the 3 reviewers' scores. Main Results: Prevention methods studied were shock-absorbent insoles, foam heel pads, Achilles tendon stretching, footwear, and graduated running programs. No statistically significant results were noted for any of the prevention methods. Median quality scores ranged from 29 to 47, revealing flaws in design, control for bias, and statistical methods. Conclusions: No current evidence supports any single prevention method for MTSS. The most