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Sample records for medial rectus muscle

  1. Ultrastructure of medial rectus muscles in patients with intermittent exotropia.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Wang, X; Ren, H; Liu, G; Lu, P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To study the ultrastructure of the medial rectus in patients with intermittent exotropia at different ages.PATIENTS AND METHODS The medial recti were harvested surgically from 20 patients with intermittent exotropia. Patients were divided into adolescent (age<18 years, n=10) and adult groups (age >18 years, n=10). The normal control group included five patients without strabismus and undergoing eye enucleation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy were used to visualize the medial recti. Western blot was used to determine the levels of myosin and actin.RESULTS Varying fiber thickness, atrophy, and misalignment of the medial recti were visualized under optical microscope in patients with exotropia. Electron microscopy revealed sarcomere destruction, myofilament disintegration, unclear dark and light bands, collagen proliferation, and fibrosis. The adolescent group manifested significantly higher levels of myosin and actin than the adult group (P<0.05).CONCLUSION Younger patients with intermittent exotropia show stronger contraction of the medial recti compared with older patients. Our findings suggest that childhood was the appropriate time for surgery as the benefit of the intervention was better than in adulthood.

  2. Surgical Responses of Medial Rectus Muscle Recession in Thyroid Eye Disease-Related Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, In Jeong; Lee, Ju-Yeun; Kong, Mingui; Park, Kyung-Ah; Oh, Sei Yeul

    2016-01-01

    We evaluate the surgical outcomes and surgical responses of medial rectus muscle (MR) recession patients with thyroid eye disease (TED)-related esotropia (ET). The surgical dose-response curves 1 week postoperatively and at the final visit were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses were applied to investigate factors influencing surgical dose-response. A total of 43 patients with TED-related ET that underwent MR recession were included. The final success rate was 86.0% and the rate of undercorrection was 14.0%. The surgical dose-response curves of TED-related ET showed a gentle slope compared with those of standard surgical tables. In the univariable model, simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession was the only significant factor influencing surgical dose-response of MR recession in TED-related ET (β = -0.397, P = 0.044). In a model adjusted for age, sex, type of surgery, and preoperative horizontal angle of deviation, simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession showed marginal significance (β = -0.389, P = 0.064). The surgical dose-response curve of TED-related ET was unique. Simultaneous vertical rectus muscle recession was associated with increased surgical dose-response in TED-related ET. PMID:26796354

  3. Comparative techniques of medial rectus muscle retraction for endoscopic exposure of the medial intraconal space.

    PubMed

    Lin, Giant C; Freitag, Suzanne K; Kocharyan, Armine; Yoon, Michael K; Lefebvre, Daniel R; Bleier, Benjamin S

    2016-05-01

    The medial rectus muscle (MRM) is the medial boundary to the intraconal space of the orbit, and retraction of the MRM is oftentimes necessary for endoscopic removal of intraconal tumors, e.g., orbital hemangioma. We evaluated each of the reported methods of MRM retraction for endoscopic orbital surgery and quantified the degree of intraconal exposure conferred by each method. Eight orbits from four cadaver heads were dissected. In each orbit, medial orbital decompression was performed and the MRM was retracted by using four previously described techniques: (1) external MRM retraction at the globe insertion point by using vessel loop (external group), (2) transseptal MRM retraction by using vessel loop (transseptal group), (3) transchoanal retraction of the MRM by using vessel loop (choanal group), and (4) transseptal four-handed technique by using double ball retraction by a second surgeon (transseptal double ball group). The length, height, and area of exposure of the medial intraconal space were quantified and compared. The average ± standard deviation (SD) anterior-posterior exposures for the external group, transseptal group, and transseptal double ball group were 17.51 ± 3.39 mm, 16.59 ± 4.16 mm, and 18.0 ± 15.25 mm, respectively. The choanal group provided significantly less exposure (12.39 ± 3.44 mm, p = 0.049) than the other groups. The average ± SD vertical exposures for the transseptal group, choanal group, and transseptal double ball group were 12.53 ± 4.38 mm, 13.05 ± 5.86 mm, and 13.57 ± 3.74 mm, respectively. The external group provided significantly less exposure (4.51 ± 1.56 mm, p = 0.0072) than the other groups. The transseptal and transseptal double ball groups provided the greatest total access by surface area (58.88 ± 26.96 mm(2) and 62.94 ± 34.74 mm(2), respectively) compared with the external and choanal groups (34.82 ± 23.37 mm(2) and 43.10 ± 23.68 mm(2), respectively). Although the transseptal trajectory of MRM retraction was

  4. A central mesencephalic reticular formation projection to medial rectus motoneurons supplying singly and multiply innervated extraocular muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Bohlen, Martin O; Warren, Susan; May, Paul J

    2017-06-01

    We recently demonstrated a bilateral projection to the supraoculomotor area from the central mesencephalic reticular formation (cMRF), a region implicated in horizontal gaze changes. C-group motoneurons, which supply multiply innervated fibers in the medial rectus muscle, are located within the primate supraoculomotor area, but their inputs and function are poorly understood. Here, we tested whether C-group motoneurons in Macaca fascicularis monkeys receive a direct cMRF input by injecting this portion of the reticular formation with anterograde tracers in combination with injection of retrograde tracer into the medial rectus muscle. The results indicate that the cMRF provides a dense, bilateral projection to the region of the medial rectus C-group motoneurons. Numerous close associations between labeled terminals and each multiply innervated fiber motoneuron were present. Within the oculomotor nucleus, a much sparser ipsilateral projection onto some of the A- and B- group medial rectus motoneurons that supply singly innervated fibers was observed. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated a direct synaptic linkage between anterogradely labeled reticular terminals and retrogradely labeled medial rectus motoneurons in all three groups. These findings reinforce the notion that the cMRF is a critical hub for oculomotility by proving that it contains premotor neurons supplying horizontal extraocular muscle motoneurons. The differences between the cMRF input patterns for C-group versus A- and B-group motoneurons suggest the C-group motoneurons serve a different oculomotor role than the others. The similar patterns of cMRF input to C-group motoneurons and preganglionic Edinger-Westphal motoneurons suggest that medial rectus C-group motoneurons may play a role in accommodation-related vergence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A Subset of Palisade Endings Only in the Medial and Inferior Rectus Muscle in Monkey Contain Calretinin

    PubMed Central

    Lienbacher, Karoline; Ono, Seiji; Fleuriet, Jérome; Mustari, Michael; Horn, Anja K. E.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose To further chemically characterize palisade endings in extraocular muscles in rhesus monkeys. Methods Extraocular muscles of three rhesus monkeys were studied for expression of the calcium-binding protein calretinin (CR) in palisade endings and multiple endings. The complete innervation was visualized with antibodies against the synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa and combined with immunofluorescence for CR. Six rhesus monkeys received tracer injections of choleratoxin subunit B or wheat germ agglutinin into either the belly or distal myotendinous junction of the medial or inferior rectus muscle to allow retrograde tracing in the C-group of the oculomotor nucleus. Double-immunofluorescence methods were used to study the CR content in retrogradely labeled neurons in the C-group. Results A subgroup of palisade and multiple endings was found to express CR, only in the medial and inferior rectus muscle. In contrast, the en plaque endings lacked CR. Accordingly, within the tracer-labeled neurons of the C-group, a subgroup expressed CR. Conclusions The study indicates that two different neuron populations targeting nontwitch muscle fibers are present within the C-group for inferior rectus and medial rectus, respectively, one expressing CR, one lacking CR. It is possible that the CR-negative neurons represent the basic population for all extraocular muscles, whereas the CR-positive neurons giving rise to CR-positive palisade endings represent a specialized, perhaps more excitable type of nerve ending in the medial and inferior rectus muscles, being more active in vergence. The malfunction of this CR-positive population of neurons that target nontwitch muscle fibers could play a significant role in strabismus.

  6. Comparison of results of medial rectus muscle recession using augmentation, Faden procedure, and slanted recession in the treatment of high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio esotropia.

    PubMed

    Gharabaghi, Davoud; Zanjani, Leila Kazemi

    2006-01-01

    According to the literature, accommodative esotropia has an unpredictable course when nonsurgical treatment is considered, especially in cases with a high accommodative convergence/accommodation ratio (AC/A). The aim of this study was to compare the results of augmented recession, slanted recession, and recession with posterior fixation suture of the medial rectus muscles in the treatment of high AC/A esotropia. Twenty-eight children (4 to 14 years old) with high AC/A esotropia with a near-distance disparity greater than 10 PD were included in a prospective, randomized, blinded clinical trial. Nine children underwent recession of both medial rectus muscles and posterior fixation suture (Faden procedure), 9 children underwent augmented recession of the medial rectus muscles, and 10 children underwent slanted recession of both medial rectus muscles. The amount of esodeviation was measured before strabismus surgery and at least 6 months postoperatively. In the augmented recession group, the mean near-distance disparity was reduced from 16.33 +/- 2.17 PD preoperatively to 7.55 +/- 3.87 PD postoperatively (54.21%; P = .056). In the Faden procedure group, it was reduced from 15.22 +/- 4.08 PD to 2.55 +/- 4.03 PD (80.7%; P = .056). In the slanted recession group, it was reduced from 15.50 +/- 4.30 PD to 4.10 +/- 4.80 PD (67.55%; P = .056). The Faden procedure had the best outcome, but slanted recession also was successful. Because of our good results and an easy, non-invasive approach without any additional complications, we recommend slanted recession to treat high AC/A esotropia.

  7. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Christy L; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M; Mustari, Michael J; McLoon, Linda K

    2015-06-01

    Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus.

  8. Treatment of subtotal medial rectus myectomy complicating functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Trotter, W L; Kaw, P; Meyer, D R; Simon, J W

    2000-08-01

    During the past 2 decades, the introduction of functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) has dramatically improved the treatment of sinus disorders. However, a variety of orbital complications have been reported, including optic nerve damage, hemorrhage, infection, compromise of the lacrimal drainage apparatus, and strabismus. At least 10 cases have reported damage to the medial rectus muscle. (1-8) Treatment options for such patients have been limited, especially because most are adults at risk for anterior segment ischemia after transposition of vertical rectus muscles. We describe 2 patients whose medial rectus myectomies were repaired by using nonabsorbable "hang-back" sutures in combination with a botulinum toxin (Botox) injection of the antagonist lateral rectus muscle. Good primary position alignment was achieved in both patients, and one patient was able to regain binocular function. We recommend this surgical approach, especially in patients at increased risk for anterior segment ischemia.

  9. Adaptability of the Immature Ocular Motor Control System: Unilateral IGF-1 Medial Rectus Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Willoughby, Christy L.; Fleuriet, Jérome; Walton, Mark M.; Mustari, Michael J.; McLoon, Linda K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Unilateral treatment with sustained release IGF-1 to one medial rectus muscle in infant monkeys was performed to test the hypothesis that strabismus would develop as a result of changes in extraocular muscles during the critical period of development of binocularity. Methods. Sustained release IGF-1 pellets were implanted unilaterally on one medial rectus muscle in normal infant monkeys during the first 2 weeks of life. Eye position was monitored using standard photographic methods. After 3 months of treatment, myofiber and neuromuscular size, myosin composition, and innervation density were quantified in all rectus muscles and compared to those in age-matched controls. Results. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatments resulted in strabismus for all treated subjects; 3 of the 4 subjects had a clinically significant strabismus of more than 10°. Both the treated medial rectus and the untreated ipsilateral antagonist lateral rectus muscles had significantly larger myofibers. No adaptation in myofiber size occurred in the contralateral functionally yoked lateral rectus or in myosin composition, neuromuscular junction size, or nerve density. Conclusions. Sustained unilateral IGF-1 treatment to extraocular muscles during the sensitive period of development of orthotropic eye alignment and binocularity was sufficient to disturb ocular motor development, resulting in strabismus in infant monkeys. This could be due to altering fusion of gaze during the early sensitive period. Serial measurements of eye alignment suggested the IGF-1-treated infants received insufficient coordinated binocular experience, preventing the establishment of normal eye alignment. Our results uniquely suggest that abnormal signaling by the extraocular muscles may be a cause of strabismus. PMID:26030103

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging in dissociated strabismus complex demonstrates generalized hypertrophy of rectus extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Ghada Z; Suh, Soh Youn; Demer, Joseph L

    2017-06-01

    Dissociated strabismus complex (DSC) is an enigmatic form of strabismus that includes dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) and dissociated horizontal deviation (DHD). We employed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate the extraocular muscles in DSC. We studied 5 patients with DSC and mean age of 25 years (range, 12-42 years), and 15 age-matched, orthotropic control subjects. All patients had DVD; 4 also had DHD. We employed high-resolution, surface coil MRI with thin, 2 mm slices and central target fixation. Volumes of the rectus and superior oblique muscles in the region 12 mm posterior to 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction were measured in quasi-coronal planes in central gaze. Patients with DSC had no structural abnormalities of rectus muscles or rectus pulleys or the superior oblique muscle but exhibited modest, statistically significant increased volume of all rectus muscles ranging from 20% for medial rectus to 9% for lateral rectus (P < 0.05). DSC includes various combinations of sursumduction, excycloduction, and abduction not conforming to Hering's law. We have found modest generalized enlargement of all rectus muscles. DSC is associated with generalized rectus extraocular muscle hypertrophy in the absence of other orbital abnormalities. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Surgical management of strabismus after rupture of the inferior rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Paysse, E A; Saunders, R A; Coats, D K

    2000-06-01

    Rupture of an inferior rectus muscle is an uncommon problem. The resulting absence of infraduction and large hypertropia that result when the muscle cannot be repaired are challenging to manage surgically. We treated 2 patients who had traumatic rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. Both patients underwent an inferior transposition of the inferior halves of the medial and lateral rectus muscles without disinsertion (modified Jensen transposition procedure). Both patients had a persistent small overcorrection in the primary gaze position. One patient was treated with a second strabismus surgery consisting of a recession of the contralateral superior rectus muscle; the other was treated with prism glasses. Both achieved restoration of depression to approximately 40 degrees and single binocular vision in the primary position at distance, near, and in the reading position. This modified Jensen transposition procedure of the horizontal rectus muscles appears to be highly effective in the treatment of the hypertropia and infraduction deficit produced by rupture of the inferior rectus muscle. It also appears to be suitable for use in situations when other rectus muscles are absent or unavailable for surgical manipulation.

  12. Astigmatic Changes after Horizontal Rectus Muscle Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung Woo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the changes of refractive astigmatism after horizontal rectus muscle surgery in intermittent exotropic children. Methods Sixty-nine exotropic patients were retrospectively reviewed. Of those, 35 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession (BLR group, 35 eyes) and 34 patients received unilateral lateral rectus recession and medial rectus resection (R&R group, 34 eyes). Non-cycloplegic refractions were measured until 6 months postoperatively. Spherical equivalent (SE), J0 and J45 using power vectors were calculated to determine and compare the changes of refractive astigmatism and axis in both groups. Results SE significantly decreased after surgery for the first week and did not changed thereafter in both groups (p = 0.000 and p = 0.018, respectively). In BLR group, J0 showed significant changes at the first week and 1 month after surgery (p = 0.005 and p = 0.016, respectively), but in R&R group, J0 changed significantly between 1 week and 3 months postoperatively (p = 0.023 and p = 0.016, respectively). J45 did not change significantly as time passed in both groups (all p > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the magnitude of changes in SE, J0 and J45 between the two groups after the 6-month follow-up (p = 0.500, p = 0.244 and p = 0.202, respectively). Conclusions Horizontal rectus muscle surgery in intermittent exotropic children tends to induce a statistically significant change in astigmatism in the with-the-rule direction and myopic shift in SE. This astigmatism change seems to occur within the first 3 months after surgery. Thus, astigmatism induced by surgery should be checked and corrected at least 3 months after horizontal strabismus surgery. PMID:23204799

  13. Outcomes After Superior Rectus Transposition and Medial Rectus Recession Versus Vertical Recti Transposition for Sixth Nerve Palsy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeon-Hee; Lambert, Scott R

    2017-05-01

    To compare the effectiveness of superior rectus transposition and medial rectus recession (SRT/MRc) vs inferior and superior rectus transposition (VRT) for acquired sixth nerve palsy. Consecutive, interventional case series. The medical records of a consecutive series of patients with acquired sixth nerve palsy who underwent VRT or SRT/MRc by a single surgeon were reviewed. The preoperative and postoperative findings were compared between the 2 groups. Eight patients (mean age, 46.8 years) underwent SRT/MRc and 8 patients underwent VRT (mean age, 51.1 years). Lateral fixation was performed on all but 4 patients in the VRT group. Preoperative esotropia in primary position and abduction deficit were similar in both groups (SRT/MRc, 41.9 prism diopter [PD], -4.6; VRT, 55.6 PD, -4.5; P = .195, 1.0). The SRT/MRc group underwent a mean MR recession of 6 (range, 5-7) mm. Four patients in the VRT later underwent MR recession (mean 5.3 mm, range 5-6 mm). In addition, 5 patients in the VRT group had 1 or more botulinum toxin injections in the medial rectus muscle. No additional procedures were performed in the SRT/MR group. Fewer additional procedures were performed with SRT/MR (SRT/MR, 0; VRT, 1.8 ± 1.2; P < .010). At last follow-up, residual esotropia (SRT/MRc, 7.1 PD; VRT, 10.3 PD; P = .442) was similar in both groups, but abduction was better in the SRT/MRc group (SRT/MR, -3.0 ± 0.7; VRT, -3.8 ± 0.4; P = .038). There were no new persistent vertical deviations or torsional diplopia. Final outcomes were similar with SRT/MRc vs VRT. However, fewer additional surgical procedures were needed with SRT/MR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Isolated Medial Rectus Nuclear Palsy as a Rare Presentation of Midbrain Infarction.

    PubMed

    Al-Sofiani, Mohammed; Lee Kwen, Peterkin

    2015-10-08

    Diplopia is a common subjective complaint that can be the first manifestation of a serious pathology. Here, we report a rare case of midbrain infarction involving the lateral subnucleus of the oculomotor nuclear complex presenting as diplopia, with no other stroke manifestations. An 83-year-old right-handed white man with past medical history of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department (ED) with diplopia and unsteadiness. Two days prior to admission, the patient woke up with constant horizontal diplopia and unsteadiness, which limited his daily activities and led to a fall at home. He denied any weakness, clumsiness, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, fever, or chills. Ocular exam showed a disconjugate gaze at rest, weakness of the left medial rectus muscle, impaired convergence test, and bilateral 3-mm reactive pupils. The diplopia resolved by closing either eye. The remaining extraocular muscles and other cranial nerves were normal. There was no nystagmus, ptosis, or visual field deficit. Sensation, muscle tone, and strength were normal in all extremities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed a tiny focus of restricted diffusion in the left posterior lateral midbrain. A thorough history and physical examination is essential to diagnose and manage diplopia. Isolated extraocular palsy is usually thought to be caused by orbital lesions or muscular diseases. Here, we report a case of midbrain infarction manifested as isolated medial rectus palsy.

  15. [Foster Modification of Full Tendon Transposition of Vertical Rectus Muscles for Sixth Nerve Palsy].

    PubMed

    Heede, Santa

    2018-04-11

    Since 1907 a variety of muscle transposition procedures for the treatment of abducens nerve palsy has been established internationally. Full tendon transposition of the vertical rectus muscle was initially described by O'Connor 1935 and then augmented by Foster 1997 with addition of posterior fixation sutures on the vertical rectus muscle. Full tendon transposition augmented by Foster belongs to the group of the most powerful surgical techniques to improve the abduction. Purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of full tendon vertical rectus transposition augmented with lateral fixation suture for patients with abducens nerve palsy. Full tendon transpositions of vertical rectus muscles augmented with posterior fixation suture was performed in 2014 on five patients with abducens nerve palsy. Two of the patients received Botox injections in the medial rectus muscle: one of them three months after the surgery and another during the surgery. One of the patients had a combined surgery of the horizontal muscles one year before. On three of the patients, who received a pure transposition surgery, the preoperative deviation at the distance (mean: + 56.6 pd; range: + 40 to + 80 pd) was reduced by a mean of 39.6 pd (range 34 to 50 pd), the abduction was improved by a mean of 3 mm (range 2 to 4 mm). The other two patients, who received besides the transposition procedure additional surgeries of the horizontal muscles, the preoperative deviation at the distance (+ 25 and + 126 pd respectively) was reduced by 20 and 81 pd respectively. The abduction was improved by 4 and 8 mm respectively. After surgery two patients developed a vertical deviation with a maximum of 4 pd. None of the patients had complications or signs of anterior segment ischemia. The elevation and/or depression was only marginally affected. There was no diplopia in up- or downgaze. Full tendon transposition of vertical rectus muscles, augmented with lateral posterior fixation suture is

  16. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach.

    PubMed

    Pineles, Stacy L; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L; Velez, Federico G

    2012-08-01

    To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from -4 to +4), was evaluated. Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from -4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to -2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34(Δ) ± 14(Δ)-15(Δ) ± 9(Δ) (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47(Δ) ± 20(Δ)-20(Δ) ± 22(Δ) (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Traumatic longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Jessica; Demer, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital floor fractures and associated injuries can cause strabismus. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with incomitant strabismus following orbital reconstruction after a high-impact baseball injury. Multipositional, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle by an orbital floor implant that separated its orbital and global layers. PMID:21463958

  18. Two horizontal rectus eye muscle surgery combined with botulinum toxin for the treatment of very large angle esotropia. A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif O

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a proposed new protocol for the primary treatment for very large angle esotropia: two muscle horizontal rectus muscle surgery with simultaneous botulinum toxin A injection in a small pilot study. Eight patients who had esotropia at near (ET') greater than 60 prism diopters (in actuality 70 to 100 prism diopters ET') underwent 2 muscle horizontal rectus surgery with simultaneous botulinum toxin A injection of the medial rectus intraoperatively. This was the only surgical procedure for all patients included in this report. Seven patients underwent bilateral medial rectus recession and bilateral injection, and one patient underwent a unilateral medial rectus recession / lateral rectus resection procedure with unilateral medial rectus injection. Postoperatively, 6 of the 8 patients demonstrated residual esotropia at near of less than 10 prism diopters and were considered "successful" by the conventional criteria of binocular alignment within 8 prism diopters of orthotropia. Two undercorrections occurred in patients with 100 and 85 prism diopters of preop ET' respectively. But 3 other patients with such large deviations had satisfactory results. All patients and families were satisfied with postoperative binocular alignment, so no further surgery was undertaken. The patient who underwent unilateral surgery had the least surgical effect and was the largest undercorrection, probably because only one medial rectus received a Botox injection. Considering only the bilateral cases, results were "successful" in 6 of 7 cases. Most patients suffered an extended period of Botox induced exotropia in the postop' period before recovery from the paresis. One patient had a transient, successfully treated, postoperative strabismic amblyopia while exotropic. Bilateral medial rectus recession with simultaneous botulinum injection is a safe and effective primary surgical procedure for very large angle esotropia. A more extensive study is indicated to

  19. Comparison between medial rectus pulley fixation and augmented recession in children with convergence excess and variable-angle infantile esotropia.

    PubMed

    Fouad, Heba M; Abdelhakim, Mohamad A; Awadein, Ahmed; Elhilali, Hala

    2016-10-01

    To compare the outcomes of medial rectus (MR) muscle pulley fixation and augmented recession in children with convergence excess esotropia and variable-angle infantile esotropia. This was a prospective randomized interventional study in which children with convergence excess esotropia or variable-angle infantile esotropia were randomly allocated to either augmented MR muscle recession (augmented group) or MR muscle pulley posterior fixation (pulley group). In convergence excess, the MR recession was based on the average of distance and near angles of deviation with distance correction in the augmented group, and on the distance angle of deviation in the pulley group. In variable-angle infantile esotropia, the MR recession was based on the average of the largest and smallest angles in the augmented group and on the smallest angle in the pulley group. Pre- and postoperative ductions, versions, pattern strabismus, smallest and largest angles of deviation, and angle disparity were analyzed. Surgery was performed on 60 patients: 30 underwent bilateral augmented MR recession, and 30 underwent bilateral MR recession with pulley fixation. The success rate was statistically significantly higher (P = 0.037) in the pulley group (70%) than in the augmented group (40%). The postoperative smallest and largest angles and the angle disparity were statistically significantly lower in the pulley group than the augmented group (P < 0.01). Medial rectus muscle pulley fixation is a useful surgical step for addressing marked variability of the angle in variable angle esotropia and convergence excess esotropia. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Myositis with antimitochondrial antibodies diagnosed by rectus abdominis muscle biopsy.

    PubMed

    Uenaka, Takeshi; Kowa, Hisatomo; Sekiguchi, Kenji; Nagata, Kakuya; Ohtsuka, Yoshihisa; Kanda, Fumio; Toda, Tatsushi

    2013-05-01

    Antimitochondrial antibodies are autoantibodies detected in 90% of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients. Some PBC cases are complicated by myositis, which is difficult to confirm due to minimal histological evidence of inflammation in limb muscles. Our aim was to determine the extent of inflammatory changes in a truncal muscle biopsy specimen from a PBC patient. A 48-year-old woman with a 5-year history of atrial fibrillation and chronic heart failure was evaluated for elevated serum creatine kinase level. Antimitochondrial M2 antibodies were detected, and PBC was diagnosed. A biceps brachii biopsy specimen showed mild, non-specific myogenic changes; a second biopsy was performed on the rectus abdominis muscle, which showed typical inflammatory changes. Myositis with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies was confirmed. In myositis patients with antimitochondrial M2 antibodies, muscles of the extremities are involved to a lesser extent. Radiological and histological examination focusing on truncal muscles, including a biopsy, is important. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Heterogeneous neuromuscular activation within human rectus femoris muscle during pedaling.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kohei; Kouzaki, Motoki; Moritani, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the effect of workload and the use of pedal straps on the spatial distribution of neuromuscular activation within the rectus femoris (RF) muscle during pedaling movements. Eleven healthy men performed submaximal pedaling exercises on an electrically braked ergometer at different workloads and with or without pedal straps. During these tasks, surface electromyograms (SEMGs) were recorded from the RF using 36 electrode pairs, and central locus activation (CLA) was calculated along the longitudinal line of the muscle. CLA moved markedly, indicating changes in spatial distribution of SEMG within the muscle, during a crank cycle under all conditions (P < 0.05). There were significant differences in CLA among different workloads and between those with and without pedal straps (P < 0.05). These results suggest that neuromuscular activation within the RF is regulated regionally by changes in workload and the use of pedal straps during pedaling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Histologic consequences of inferior oblique anastomosis to denervated lateral rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, S; Madhat, M; Baker, R S

    1987-01-01

    Secondary muscular neurotization has been proposed as a means of restoring contractility to paretic extraocular muscle. We studied this technique by anastomosing healthy inferior oblique muscle to lateral rectus muscle that had been denervated either orbitally or intracranially in 20 dogs. Nerve and muscle fiber growth from the inferior oblique to the lateral rectus was demonstrated but no new neuromuscular junctions were formed. Regeneration of the lesioned sixth nerve occurred frequently and may explain the restoration of function claimed after this procedure.

  3. Abdominal rectus muscle atrophy and midline shift after colostomy creation.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Lucas; Deerenberg, Eva B; van Dijk, Sven M; Lamme, Bas; Koning, Anton H; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Jeekel, Johannes; Lange, Johan F

    2014-04-01

    Incisional hernia (IH) can be attributed to multiple factors. The presence of a parastomal hernia has shown to be a risk factor for IH after midline laparotomy. Our hypothesis is that this increased risk of IH may be caused by changes in biomechanical forces, such as midline shift to the contralateral side of the colostomy owing to decreased restraining forces at the site of the colostomy, and left abdominal rectus muscle (ARM) atrophy owing to intercostal nerve damage. Patients were selected if they underwent end-colostomy via open operation between 2004 and 2011. Patients were eligible if computed tomography (CT) had been performed postoperatively. If available, preoperative CTs were collected for case-control analyses. Midline shift was measured using V-scope application in the I-space, a CAVE-like virtual reality system. For the ARM atrophy hypothesis, measurements of ARM were performed at the level of colostomy, and 3 and 8 cm cranial and caudal of the colostomy. Postoperative CT were available for 77 patients; of these patients, 30 also had a preoperative CT. Median follow-up was 19 months. A mean shift to the right side was identified after preoperative and postoperative comparison; from -1.3 ± 4.6 to 2.1 ± 9.3 (P = .043). Furthermore, during rectus muscle measurements, a thinner left ARM was observed below the level of colostomy. Creation of a colostomy alters the abdominal wall. Atrophy of the left ARM was seen caudal to the level of the colostomy, and a midline shift to the right side was evident on CT. These changes may explain the increased rate of IH after colostomy creation. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Referred pain elicited by manual exploration of the lateral rectus muscle in chronic tension-type headache.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, Maria Luz; Gerwin, Robert D; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the presence of referred pain elicited by manual examination of the lateral rectus muscle in patients with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). A case-control blinded study. It has been found previously that the manual examination of the superior oblique muscle can elicit referred pain to the head in some patients with migraine or tension-type headache. However, a referred pain from other extraocular muscles has not been investigated. Fifteen patients with CTTH and 15 healthy subjects without headache history were included. A blinded assessor performed a manual examination focused on the search for myofascial trigger points (TrPs) in the right and left lateral rectus muscles. TrP diagnosis was made when there was referred pain evoked by maintained pressure on the lateral corner of the orbit (anatomical projection of the lateral rectus muscle) for 20 seconds, and increased referred pain while the subject maintained a medial gaze on the corresponding side (active stretching of the muscle) for 15 seconds. On each side, a 10-point numerical pain rate scale was used to assess the intensity of referred pain at both stages of the examination. Ten patients with CTTH (66.6%) had referred pain that satisfied TrPs diagnostic criteria, while only one healthy control (0.07%) reported referred pain upon the examination of the lateral rectus muscles (P < 0.001). The elicited referred pain was perceived as a deep ache located at the supraorbital region or the homolateral forehead. Pain was evoked on both sides in all subjects with TrPs, with no difference in pain intensity between the right and the left. The average pain intensity was significantly greater in the patient group (P < 0.001). All CTTH patients with referred pain recognized it as the frontal pain that they usually experienced during their headache attacks, which was consistent with active TrPs. In some patients with CTTH, the manual examination of lateral rectus muscle TrPs elicits a referred pain that

  5. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle flap to fill a retroperitoneal defect following blast injury.

    PubMed

    Talarczyk, Matthew R; Ricci, Michael A

    2009-02-01

    Wartime injuries from explosive devices have created the need for atypical responses to devastating and unusual injuries. We report a case of an explosive abdominal injury that produced a huge defect in the posterior abdominal wall which was ultimately repaired with a rectus abdominus flap, an usual use of this versatile muscle flap. The rectus abdominus muscle may be another tool available for the repair of wartime injuries.

  6. Diastasis of rectus abdominis muscles in low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Doubkova, Lucie; Andel, Ross; Palascakova-Springrova, Ingrid; Kolar, Pavel; Kriz, Jiri; Kobesova, Alena

    2018-02-06

    Abdominal muscles are important spinal stabilizers and its poor coordination, as seen in diastasis of rectus abdominis (DRA), may contribute to chronic low back pain (LBP). However, this has not yet been studied directly. To conduct a pilot study to examine the association between DRA and LBP. Using a digital caliper, standard clinical DRA measurement was performed in 55 participants with and 54 without chronic LBP. Participants were on average 55 years old, 69 (63%) were women. Among the 16 participants with DRA, 11 (69%) had chronic LBP; among the 93 participants without DRA, 44 (47%) had LBP. Among men, 7 of 9 (77%) with DRA had LBP and 14 of 31 (45%) without DRA had LBP. Among women, 4 of 7 (57%) with DRA had LBP and 30 of 62 (48%) without DRA had LBP. BMI was the strongest correlate of DRA and may explain the relation between DRA and chronic LBP. DRA and LBP may be interrelated, especially among men. This may be a function of greater BMI in individuals with chronic LBP. Understanding the association between DRA, LBP, and BMI may have important implications for treatment of LBP and for intervention.

  7. Sliding myofascial flap of the rectus abdominus muscles for the closure of recurrent ventral hernias.

    PubMed

    DiBello, J N; Moore, J H

    1996-09-01

    Despite a reported incidence of up to 11 percent of incisional/ventral hernias following celiotomies, there is no universally applicable preventive or reconstructive technique in practice. Among patients undergoing repair of ventral incisional herniation, the reported recurrence rates are typically in the 30- to 50-percent range. This study concentrates on the patient with a large, recurrent abdominal incisional hernia in whom conventional surgical repair has failed. We report our recent 4-year experience with the use of "components separation" of the myofascial layers of the abdominal wall for repair of these recurrent herniations. During 4-year period, 35 patients with large, recurrent ventral hernias underwent repair by the same surgeon (J. H. M.) using the method described below. Abdominal defects as large as 875 cm2 were repaired, with a median defect size of 255 cm2. The repair was based on the compound flap of the rectus muscle with its attached internal oblique-transversus abdominus muscle with advancement to the midline to recreate the linea alba. Any repairs that were attenuated were supported with either ePTFE (8.6 percent) or Vicryl mesh (34 percent). The study group consisted of 35 patients, 34 percent male and 66 percent female; mean age was 55 years. Length of follow-up ranged from 1 to 43 months, with a mean follow-up of 22 months. Overall recurrence rate for herniation was 8.5 percent (3/35). Additional complications, namely seroma, wound infection, and hematoma, occurred at rates of 2.8, 5.7, and 5.7 percent, respectively. There were no mortalities. The compound flap of the rectus and internal oblique-transversus can be advanced medially to recreate the linea alba to provide dynamic, stable support for defects as large as 875 cm2. A recurrence rate of 8.5 percent was achieved in a relatively high-risk population with acceptable morbidity and no mortalities. In our 4-year experience, the sliding rectus abdominus myofascial flap has proved to be a

  8. Rectus Muscle Reapproximation at Cesarean Delivery and Postoperative Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lyell, Deirdre J.; Naqvi, Mariam; Wong, Amy; Urban, Renata; Carvalho, Brendan

    2017-01-01

    Objective  Rectus muscle reapproximation at cesarean delivery (CD) is performed frequently by some obstetricians; however, the effect on postoperative pain is unclear. To this end, we investigated whether rectus muscle reapproximation increases postoperative pain. Materials and Methods  This is a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial of women undergoing primary CD with singleton or twin pregnancy at >35 weeks' gestation. Women were randomized to rectus muscle reapproximation with three interrupted sutures or no reapproximation. Exclusion criteria were prior cesarean, prior laparotomy, vertical skin incision, active labor, chronic analgesia use, allergy to opioid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and body mass index ≥ 40. Intra- and postoperative pain management was standardized within the study protocol. The primary outcome was a combined movement pain and opioid use score averaged over the 72-hour study period, called the Silverman integrated assessment. Movement pain scores were assessed at 24, 48, and 72 postoperative hours. Results  In total, 63 women were randomized, of whom 35 underwent rectus muscle reapproximation and 28 did not. Demographic and obstetric variables were similar between groups. Silverman integrated assessment scores during the 72-hour postoperative period were higher in the rectus muscle reapproximation group (15 ± 100% vs. –31 ± 78% difference from the mean; p  = 0.04). Operative times were similar between groups (63 ± 15 vs. 65 ± 15 minutes; p  = 0.61), and there were no surgical complications in either group. Maternal satisfaction with analgesia at 72 hours was high in both groups (85% [73–90] rectus muscle reapproximation vs. 90% [75–100]; p  = 0.16). Conclusion  Rectus muscle reapproximation increased immediate postoperative pain without differences in operative time, surgical complications, or maternal satisfaction. Benefits of rectus muscle reapproximation

  9. Use of the rectus abdominis muscle for abdominal stoma sphincter construction: an anatomical feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Bardoel, J W; Stadelmann, W K; Tobin, G R; Werker, P M; Stremel, R W; Kon, M; Barker, J H

    2000-02-01

    Permanent fecal abdominal stomas significantly decrease quality of life. Previous attempts to create continent stomas by using dynamic myoplasty procedures have resulted in disappointing outcomes, primarily owing to denervation atrophy of the muscle flap that was used in the creation of the sphincter and because of muscle fatigue resulting from continuous electrical stimulation that is received by the flap to force contraction. On the basis of these problems, we designed two separate studies: an anatomical study addressing flap denervation and a functional study addressing muscle fatigue. The present study addresses the first topic and was designed to develop a rectus abdominis muscle flap into a sphincter that was anatomically situated to create a stoma while preserving as much innervation as possible. In 24 rectus abdominis muscles of human cadavers, the neurovascular anatomy was defined, then the anatomical feasibility of two different muscle flap configurations was considered. The flaps investigated were the peninsula flap and island flap designs, with both using the most caudal segment of the rectus abdominis muscle in construction of the sphincter. Neither flap design required the killing of a nerve for stoma sphincter creation, resulting in minimal muscle denervation. The conclusion of our comparison was that the above, in conjunction with other features of the island flap design, such as muscle overlap after sphincter formation and abdominal wall positioning of the sphincter, made the island flap design better suited to stoma sphincter construction.

  10. Dynamic rectus abdominis muscle sphincter for stoma continence: an acute functional study in a dog model.

    PubMed

    Bardoel, J W; Stadelmann, W K; Perez-Abadia, G A; Galandiuk, S; Zonnevijlle, E D; Maldonado, C; Stremel, R W; Tobin, G R; Kon, M; Barker, J H

    2001-02-01

    Fecal stomal incontinence is a problem that continues to defy surgical treatment. Previous attempts to create continent stomas using dynamic myoplasty have had limited success due to denervation atrophy of the muscle flap used in the creation of the sphincter and because of muscle fatigue resulting from continuous electrical stimulation. To address the problem of denervation atrophy, a stomal sphincter was designed using the most caudal segment of the rectus abdominis muscle, preserving its intercostal innervation as well as its vascular supply. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether this rectus abdominis muscle island flap sphincter design could maintain stomal continence acutely. In this experiment, six dogs were used to create eight rectus abdominis island flap stoma sphincters around a segment of distal ileum. Initially, the intraluminal stomal pressures generated by the sphincter using different stimulation frequencies were determined. The ability of this stomal sphincter to generate continence at different intraluminal bowel pressures was then assessed. In all cases, the rectus abdominis muscle sphincter generated peak pressures well above those needed to maintain stomal continence (60 mmHg). In addition, each sphincter was able to maintain stomal continence at all intraluminal bowel pressures tested.

  11. Medial rectus Faden operations with or without recession for partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation ratio.

    PubMed

    Akar, Serpil; Gokyigit, Birsen; Sayin, Nihat; Demirok, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Omer Faruk

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the results of Faden operations on the medial rectus (MR) muscles with or without recession for the treatment of partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC : A) ratio and to determine whether there was a decrease in the effects of posterior fixation over time. In this retrospective study, 108 of 473 patients who underwent surgery for partially accommodative esotropia with a high AC : A ratio received Faden operations on both MR muscles, and 365 received symmetric MR muscle recessions combined with a Faden operation. For the Faden operation, a satisfactory outcome of 76.9% at 1 month postoperation, decreased to 71.3% by the final follow-up visit (mean 4.8 years). A moderate positive correlation was observed between the increase in the postoperative near deviation and postoperative time. For the Faden operations combined with MR recession, a satisfactory outcome of 78.9% at 1 month post-operation, decreased to 78.4% by the final follow-up visit. A Faden operation of the MR muscles with or without recession is an effective surgical option for treating partially accommodative esotropia associated with a high AC : A ratio. For Faden operations of the MR muscles without recession, the effects of the posterior fixation decline over time.

  12. One stage vertical rectus muscle recession using adjustable sutures under local anaesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Rauz, S; Govan, J A

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To assess the results of visual axis alignment following one stage adjustable suture surgery to correct vertical diplopia. METHOD: Eight patients with a mean age of 44.9 years (range 16-80 years) complaining of vertical diplopia underwent rectus muscle recession under local anaesthesia with intraoperative adjustment of sutures. Diplopia was secondary to superior oblique paresis in four patients, dysthyroid eye disease in two patients, superior rectus paresis in one patient, and one developed a consecutive deviation after previous squint surgery. The surgery consisted of seven single muscle recessions (six inferior recti and one superior rectus) and one two muscle recession (inferior and lateral recti). The surgery was performed under topical anaesthesia supplemented with a subconjunctival injection of local anaesthetic over the muscle insertions. RESULTS: The patients remained comfortable throughout their surgery. All had a reduction in their vertical deviation. Six were asymptomatic and were eventually discharged. One had residual diplopia which was well tolerated without further intervention. One had persistent troublesome diplopia which was corrected by temporary Fresnel prisms. He became asymptomatic after further surgery of a 1 mm inferior rectus advancement. CONCLUSION: One stage adjustable suture surgery is recommended in all cases of strabismus surgery when postoperative results would otherwise be unpredictable. PMID:8949715

  13. Donor-Site Complications and Remnant of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Status after Transverse Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chirappapha, Prakasit; Trikunagonvong, Noppadol; Rongthong, Sasiprapa; Lertsithichai, Panuwat; Sukarayothin, Thongchai; Leesombatpaiboon, Monchai; Panawattanakul, Rujira; Thaweepworadej, Panya

    2017-01-01

    Background: Transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap reconstruction after mastectomy in breast cancer patients has become one of the milestones in breast reconstruction. There are several techniques that have been used in an attempt to minimize untoward complications. We present the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique that focuses on the anatomy of arcuate line and the closure of the anterior abdominal wall techniques with mesh and determine factors associated with its complications and outcomes. Methods: We retrospectively and prospectively review the results of 30 pedicled TRAM flaps that were performed between November 2013 and March 2016, focusing on outcomes and complications. Results: Among the 30 pedicled TRAM flap procedures in 30 patients, there were complications in 5 patients (17%). Most common complications were surgical-site infection (7%). After a median follow-up time of 15 months, no patient developed abdominal wall hernia or bulging in daily activities in our study, but 6 patients (20%) had asymptomatic abdominal wall bulging when exercised. Significant factors related to asymptomatic exercised abdominal wall bulging included having a body mass index of more than 23 kg/m2. Conclusion: Pedicled TRAM flap by using the technique of the whole muscle with partial sheath-sparing technique combined with reinforcement above the arcuate line with mesh can reduce the occurrence of abdominal bulging and hernia. PMID:28740793

  14. A Case of Blunt Trauma of the Eyeball Associated With an Inferior Oblique Muscle and an Inferior Rectus Muscle Rupture.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Keisuke; Kashima, Tomoyuki; Miura, Fumihide; Hiroe, Takashi; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Rupture of the extraocular muscle in the absence of significant injury to the eyeball and adnexa is uncommon. The authors report a case of blunt trauma of the eyeball associated with an inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle rupture. A 55-year-old man slipped and fell down hitting his eye on an extended windshield wiper blade. Although he had treatment in the emergency room, he complained of diplopia in the primary position 1 day postoperatively. After noticing ruptures of the inferior oblique muscle and an inferior rectus muscle during exploratory surgery, the authors carefully repaired it. Diplopia in the primary position had disappeared within 1 month after the operation and by 6 months postoperatively. The movement of the eye had almost completely recovered.

  15. Rectus abdominis muscle injuries in elite handball players: management and rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Balius, Ramon; Pedret, Carles; Pacheco, Laura; Gutierrez, Josep Antoni; Vives, Joan; Escoda, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Muscle injuries generally occur in two-joint muscles with a high percentage of type II fibers during the performance of eccentric activity. Some muscle injuries, such as those located in the adductor longus, a monoarticular muscle, as well as rectus abdominis do not fully comply with these requirements. This study examines five cases of elite handball players with ruptured rectus abdominals. Sonographically, lesions in rectus abdominis are shown as a disruption of the fibrillar pattern with a hematic suffusion that invades the entire lesion. In some of the cases, the ultrasound study was complemented with a MRI. A unified rehabilitation protocol was applied and the return to play time of each handball player ranged between 16 and 22 days, with an average of 18.2 days. Follow-up at 15 months showed no evidence of re-injury or residual discomfort and all of them are playing at their highest level. The aim of this study was to illustrate a feature of handball injury that, as in tennis and volleyball, is uncommon and so far has not been specifically reported. The phenomenon of contralateral abdominal hypertrophy in handball appears in the dominant arm as in tennis and volleyball. PMID:24198573

  16. Soccer Attenuates the Asymmetry of Rectus Abdominis Muscle Observed in Non-Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Idoate, Fernando; Calbet, Jose A. L.; Izquierdo, Mikel; Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the rectus abdominis muscle (RA) in professional soccer players. Methods The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 15 professional male soccer players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Results Soccer players had 26% greater RA volume than controls (P<0.05), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (28% greater volume, P<0.05) and non-dominant (25% greater volume, P<0.01) sides, after adjusting for age, length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. Total volume of the dominant side was similar to the contralateral in soccer players (P = 0.42) and in controls (P = 0.75) (Dominant/non-dominant = 0.99, in both groups). Segmental analysis showed a progressive increase in the degree of side-to-side asymmetry from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis in soccer players (r = 0.80, P<0.05) and in controls (r = 0.75, P<0.05). The slope of the relationship was lower in soccer players, although this trend was not statistically significant (P = 0.14). Conclusions Professional soccer is associated with marked hypertrophy of the rectus abdominis muscle, which achieves a volume that is 26% greater than in non-active controls. Soccer induces the hypertrophy of the non-dominant side in proximal regions and the dominant side in regions closer to pubic symphysis, which attenuates the pattern of asymmetry of rectus abdominis observed in non-active population. It remains to be determined whether the hypertrophy of rectus abdominis in soccer players modifies the risk of injury. PMID:21541351

  17. Specific fibre composition and metabolism of the rectus abdominis muscle of bovine Charolais cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An important variability of contractile and metabolic properties between muscles has been highlighted. In the literature, the majority of studies on beef sensorial quality concerns M. longissimus thoracis. M. rectus abdominis (RA) is easy to sample without huge carcass depreciation and may appear as an alternative to M. longissimus thoracis for fast and routine physicochemical analysis. It was considered interesting to assess the muscle fibres of M. rectus abdominis in comparison with M. longissimus thoracis (LT) and M. triceps brachii (TB) on the basis of metabolic and contractile properties, area and myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC) proportions. Immuno-histochemical, histochemical, histological and enzymological techniques were used. This research concerned two populations of Charolais cattle: RA was compared to TB in a population of 19 steers while RA was compared to LT in a population of 153 heifers. Results RA muscle had higher mean fibre areas (3350 μm2 vs 2142 to 2639 μm2) than the two other muscles. In RA muscle, the slow-oxidative fibres were the largest (3957 μm2) and the fast-glycolytic the smallest (2868 μm2). The reverse was observed in TB muscle (1725 and 2436 μm2 respectively). In RA muscle, the distinction between fast-oxidative-glycolytic and fast-glycolytic fibres appeared difficult or impossible to establish, unlike in the other muscles. Consequently the classification based on ATPase and SDH activities seemed inappropriate, since the FOG fibres presented rather low SDH activity in this muscle in comparison to the other muscles of the carcass. RA muscle had a higher proportion of I fibres than TB and LT muscles, balanced by a lower proportion either of IIX fibres (in comparison to TB muscle) or of IIA fibres (in comparison to LT muscle). However, both oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were lower in RA than in TB muscle, although the LDH/ICDH ratio was higher in RA muscle (522 vs 340). Oxidative enzyme activities were

  18. Abdominal rectus muscle pyomyositis: Report of a case and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Fountoukis, Tilemachos; Tsatsanidis, Nikolaos; Tilkeridou, Maria; Konstantinou, Ioannis; Fytas, Pantelis; Skandalos, Ioannis

    2018-01-01

    Pyomyositis is an uncommon primary bacterial infection of skeletal muscles, usually caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Predisposing factors for pyomyositis include immunodeficiency, trauma, injection drug use, concurrent infection and malnutrition. The diagnosis, staging of the disease and differential diagnosis are established by ultrasound, CT and MRI. Treatment involves surgical drainage and antibiotic therapy. We report a case of abdominal rectus muscle pyomyositis, which constitutes, as far as we know, the second reported in bibliography, while Prevotella disiens is firstly reported as causative agent. PMID:29721242

  19. Large asymmetric hypertrophy of rectus abdominis muscle in professional tennis players.

    PubMed

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Idoate, Fernando; Dorado, Cecilia; Alayón, Santiago; Calbet, Jose A L

    2010-12-31

    To determine the volume and degree of asymmetry of the musculus rectus abdominis (RA) in professional tennis players. The volume of the RA was determined using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 8 professional male tennis players and 6 non-active male control subjects. Tennis players had 58% greater RA volume than controls (P = 0.01), due to hypertrophy of both the dominant (34% greater volume, P = 0.02) and non-dominant (82% greater volume, P = 0.01) sides, after accounting for age, the length of the RA muscle and body mass index (BMI) as covariates. In tennis players, there was a marked asymmetry in the development of the RA, which volume was 35% greater in the non-dominant compared to the dominant side (P<0.001). In contrast, no side-to-side difference in RA volume was observed in the controls (P = 0.75). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry increased linearly from the first lumbar disc to the pubic symphysis (r = 0.97, P<0.001). Professional tennis is associated with marked hypertrophy of the musculus rectus abdominis, which achieves a volume that is 58% greater than in non-active controls. Rectus abdominis hypertrophy is more marked in the non-dominant than in the dominant side, particularly in the more distal regions. Our study supports the concept that humans can differentially recruit both rectus abdominis but also the upper and lower regions of each muscle. It remains to be determined if this disequilibrium raises the risk of injury.

  20. The effect of bridge exercise method on the strength of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels.

    PubMed

    Kang, Taewook; Lee, Jaeseok; Seo, Junghoon; Han, Dongwook

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this research is to investigate the effect of the method of bridge exercise on the change of rectus abdominis muscle and the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles while doing treadmill walking with high heels. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this research are healthy female students consisting of 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a supine group, 10 persons performing bridge exercises in a prone group, and 10 persons in a control group while in S university in Busan. Bridge exercise in supine position is performed in hook lying position. Bridge exercise in prone position is plank exercise in prostrate position. To measure the strength of rectus abdominis muscle, maintaining times of the posture was used. To measure the muscle activity of paraspinal muscles, EMG (4D-MT & EMD-11, Relive, Korea) was used. [Results] The strength of rectus abdominis muscle of both bridge exercises in the supine group and bridge exercises in the prone group increases significantly after exercise. The muscle activity of paraspinal muscle such as thoracic parts and lumbar parts in bridge exercises in the prone group decreases statistically while walking on a treadmill with high heels. Muscle activity of thoracic parts paraspinal muscle and bridge exercises in the supine group decreased significantly. [Conclusion] According to this study, we noticed that bridge exercise in a prone position is desirable for women who prefer wearing high heels as a back pain prevention exercise method.

  1. Adjustable Augmented Rectus Muscle Transposition Surgery with or Without Ciliary Vessel Sparing for Abduction Deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Hendler, Karen; Pineles, Stacy L.; Demer, Joseph L.; Yang, Dawn; Velez, Federico G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is useful in abduction deficiencies. Posterior fixation sutures enhance the effect of VRT, but usually preclude the use of adjustable sutures. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles allows for an adjustable technique that can reduce induced vertical deviations and overcorrections. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients undergoing adjustable partial or full tendon VRT augmented by resection of the transposed muscles. Ciliary vessels were preserved in most of the patients by either splitting the transposed muscle or by dragging the transposed muscle without disrupting the muscle insertion. Results Seven patients with abducens palsy and one with esotropic Duane syndrome were included. Both vertical rectus muscles were symmetrically resected by 3–5 mm. Preoperative central gaze esotropia of 30.6 ± 12.9Δ (range, 17–50Δ) decreased to 10.6 ± 8.8Δ (range, 0–25Δ) at the final visit (p = 0.003). Three patients required postoperative adjustment by recession of one of the transposed muscles due to an induced vertical deviation (mean 9.3Δ reduced to 0Δ), coupled with overcorrection (mean exotropia 11.3Δ reduced to 0 in two patients and exophoria 2Δ in one patient). At the final follow-up visit 3.8 ± 2.6 months postoperatively, one patient had a vertical deviation <4Δ, and none had overcorrection or anterior segment ischemia. Three patients required further surgery for recurrent esotropia. Conclusions Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles can be performed with adjustable sutures and vessel-sparing technique. This allows for postoperative control of overcorrections and induced vertical deviations as well as less risk of anterior segment ischemia. PMID:24738948

  2. Adjustable augmented rectus muscle transposition surgery with or without ciliary vessel sparing for abduction deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hendler, Karen; Pineles, Stacy L; Demer, Joseph L; Yang, Dawn; Velez, Federico G

    2014-06-01

    Vertical rectus transposition (VRT) is useful in abduction deficiencies. Posterior fixation sutures enhance the effect of VRT, but usually preclude the use of adjustable sutures. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles allows for an adjustable technique that can reduce induced vertical deviations and overcorrections. We retrospectively reviewed the records of all patients undergoing adjustable partial or full tendon VRT augmented by resection of the transposed muscles. Ciliary vessels were preserved in most of the patients by either splitting the transposed muscle or by dragging the transposed muscle without disrupting the muscle insertion. Seven patients with abducens palsy and one with esotropic Duane syndrome were included. Both vertical rectus muscles were symmetrically resected by 3-5 mm. Preoperative central gaze esotropia of 30.6 ± 12.9Δ (range, 17-50Δ) decreased to 10.6 ± 8.8Δ (range, 0-25Δ) at the final visit (p = 0.003). Three patients required postoperative adjustment by recession of one of the transposed muscles due to an induced vertical deviation (mean 9.3Δ reduced to 0Δ), coupled with overcorrection (mean exotropia 11.3Δ reduced to 0 in two patients and exophoria 2Δ in one patient). At the final follow-up visit 3.8 ± 2.6 months postoperatively, one patient had a vertical deviation <4Δ, and none had overcorrection or anterior segment ischemia. Three patients required further surgery for recurrent esotropia. Augmentation of VRT by resection of the transposed muscles can be performed with adjustable sutures and vessel-sparing technique. This allows for postoperative control of overcorrections and induced vertical deviations as well as less risk of anterior segment ischemia.

  3. Low-Grade Myxofibrosarcoma of the Rectus Abdominus Muscle Infiltrating into Abdominal Cavity: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Tadashi; Sakakibara, Shunsuke; Moriwaki, Aya; Kawamoto, Teruya; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ishimura, Takeshi; Hashikawa, Kazunobu; Terashi, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a relatively rare tumor that is histologically characterized by myxoid stroma and spindle cell proliferation. This tumor most commonly arises as a slow growing, enlarging painless mass in the extremities of elderly patients. Methods: We report a case of a primary, low-grade MFS in the rectus abdominis muscle infiltrating the abdominal cavity of a 75-year-old man. Results: The patient underwent a wide excision of the right abdominal wall mass with a 3-cm surgical margin from the scar due to a biopsy. The tumor infiltrated the urinary bladder, peritoneum, and external iliac vessels. Twenty-six months after the initial operation, he had recurrences in his abdominal wall, urinary bladder, and right iliac vessels. Conclusions: To our knowledge, primary MFS of the muscle in the abdomen has not been documented previously. Although this case was histopathologically classified as a low-grade tumor, it infiltrated the abdominal cavity. The tumor is suspected to have penetrated the abdominal cavity below the linea arcuata, which lacks the posterior sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle; from there, it could easily spread without being blocked by any biological barriers.

  4. Rectus femoris muscle flap based on proximal insertion mobilization to cover a groin infected vascular graft.

    PubMed

    Silvestre, Luís; Pedro, Luís Mendes; Fernandes e Fernandes, Ruy; Silva, Emanuel; Fernandes e Fernandes, José

    2015-10-01

    The rectus femoris (RF) muscle flap, which is widely used to cover groin infected vascular grafts, is usually harvested through distal tendon division and an extensive muscle elevation and transposition into the groin wound defect. A case of a vascular prosthetic graft infection in the groin was successfully controlled after coverage with an RF flap that was harvested based on proximal portion mobilization instead of the conventional distal one. This case suggests that the RF muscle flap based on proximal insertion mobilization is a feasible, effective, technically simpler, and less invasive alternative to cover infected vascular grafts in the groin. Copyright © 2015 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The structure of the external rectus eye muscles of the carpet shark Cephaloscyllium isabella.

    PubMed Central

    Housley, G D; Montgomery, J C

    1984-01-01

    The external rectus muscles of the carpet shark Cephaloscyllium isabella contain two types of muscle fibre. A core of large white fibres which have regular myofibrils with extensive sarcoplasmic reticulum, triads located at the Z disc and a pronounced H band and M line. Mitochondria are frequent but tend to be smaller and less abundant than mitochondria of the smaller red fibre type. The red fibres which surround the central region are rich in mitochondria, have little sarcoplasmic reticulum and triads which are infrequent and dispersed. Sarcomere banding of red fibres is characterised by a faint H band and M line while the Z disc is thick in comparison with that found on the white muscle fibre sarcomere. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:6746403

  6. Comparison of surgically induced astigmatism in patients with horizontal rectus muscle recession

    PubMed Central

    Çakmak, Harun; Kocatürk, Tolga; Dündar, Sema Oruç

    2014-01-01

    AIM To compare surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) following horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery between suspension recession with both the “hang-back” technique and conventional recession technique. METHODS Totally, 48 eyes of 24 patients who had undergone horizontal rectus muscle recession surgery were reviewed retrospectively. The patients were divided into two groups. Twelve patients were operated on by the hang-back technique (Group 1), and 12 by the conventional recession technique (Group 2). SIA was calculated on the 1st wk, 1st and in the 3rd mo after surgery using the SIA calculator. RESULTS SIA was statistically higher in the Group 1 all postoperative follow-up. SIA was the highest in the 1st wk, and decreased gradually in both groups. CONCLUSION The suspension recession technique induced much more SIA than the conventional recession technique. This difference also continued in the following visits. Therefore, the refractive power should be checked postoperatively in order to avoid refractive amblyopia. Conventional recession surgery should be the preferred method so as to minimize the postoperative refractive changes in patients with amblyopia. PMID:25161948

  7. Desmoid tumors of the right rectus abdominus muscle in postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Carmen; Hurtubis, Cheryl; Singh, Meenakshi; Robinson, William

    2009-06-01

    Desmoid tumors are benign neoplasms that most often arise from muscle aponeurosis and have been associated with both trauma and pregnancy. The etiology of desmoids has not been determined. We present here four almost identical cases with desmoids occurring in the same location, the right rectus abdominus muscle in young post partum females. All were over the age of 30 at the time of diagnosis. Three of them had previously used oral contraceptive agents for an average of 3 years. None had a history of trauma to the area of involvement. Three had early surgical resection and one was treated with tamoxifen and imatinib without response and then had surgical resection. All four patients are disease free at a median follow-up of 2.5 years. The possible etiology of desmoids tumors in this location in postpartum females is discussed.

  8. Anatomic and physiological characteristics of the ferret lateral rectus muscle and abducens nucleus.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Keith N; McClung, J Ross; Goldberg, Stephen J; Shall, Mary S

    2007-11-01

    The ferret has become a popular model for physiological and neurodevelopmental research in the visual system. We believed it important, therefore, to study extraocular whole muscle as well as single motor unit physiology in the ferret. Using extracellular stimulation, 62 individual motor units in the ferret abducens nucleus were evaluated for their contractile characteristics. Of these motor units, 56 innervated the lateral rectus (LR) muscle alone, while 6 were split between the LR and retractor bulbi (RB) muscle slips. In addition to individual motor units, the whole LR muscle was evaluated for twitch, tetanic peak force, and fatigue. The abducens nucleus motor units showed a twitch contraction time of 15.4 ms, a mean twitch tension of 30.2 mg, and an average fusion frequency of 154 Hz. Single-unit fatigue index averaged 0.634. Whole muscle twitch contraction time was 16.7 ms with a mean twitch tension of 3.32 g. The average fatigue index of whole muscle was 0.408. The abducens nucleus was examined with horseradish peroxidase conjugated with the subunit B of cholera toxin histochemistry and found to contain an average of 183 motoneurons. Samples of LR were found to contain an average of 4,687 fibers, indicating an LR innervation ratio of 25.6:1. Compared with cat and squirrel monkeys, the ferret LR motor units contract more slowly yet more powerfully. The functional visual requirements of the ferret may explain these fundamental differences.

  9. Sonomyographic responses during voluntary isometric ramp contraction of the human rectus femoris muscle.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Guo, Jing-Yi; Zhu, Zhenyu; Chan, Shing-Chow; Zhang, Zhiguo

    2012-07-01

    This paper aims to investigate the relationship between torque and muscle morphological change, which is derived from ultrasound image sequence and termed as sonomyography (SMG), during isometric ramp contraction of the rectus femoris (RF) muscle, and to further compare SMG with the electromyography (EMG) and mechanomyography (MMG), which represent the electrical and mechanical activities of the muscle. Nine subjects performed isometric ramp contraction of knee up to 90% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) at speeds of 45, 22.5 and 15% MVC/s, and EMG, MMG and ultrasonography were simultaneously recorded from the RF muscle. Cross-sectional area, which was referred to as SMG, was automatically extracted from continuously captured ultrasound images using a newly developed image tracking algorithm. Polynomial regression analyses were applied to fit the EMG/MMG/SMG-to-torque relationships, and the regression coefficients of EMG, MMG, and SMG were compared. Moreover, the effect of contraction speed on SMG/EMG/MMG-to-torque relationships was tested by pair-wise comparisons of the mean relationship curves at different speeds for EMG, MMG and SMG. The results show that continuous SMG could provide important morphological parameters of continuous muscle contraction. Compared with EMG and MMG, SMG exhibits different changing patterns with the increase of torque during voluntary isometric ramp contraction, and it is less influenced by the contraction speed.

  10. Surface electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles during forced expiration in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Ito, Kenichi; Nonaka, Koji; Ogaya, Shinya; Ogi, Atsushi; Matsunaka, Chiaki; Horie, Jun

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to characterize rectus abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscle activity in healthy adults under expiratory resistance using surface electromyography. We randomly assigned 42 healthy adult subjects to 3 groups: 30%, 20%, and 10% maximal expiratory intraoral pressure (PEmax). After measuring 100% PEmax and muscle activity during 100% PEmax, the activity and maximum voluntary contraction of each muscle during the assigned experimental condition were measured. At 100% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.01) and internal oblique (p<0.01) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. Furthermore, at 20% and 30% PEmax, the external oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) and the internal oblique (p<0.05 and<0.01, respectively) showed significantly elevated activity compared with the rectus abdominis muscle. At 10% PEmax, no significant differences were observed in muscle activity. Although we observed no significant difference between 10% and 20% PEmax, activity during 30% PEmax was significantly greater than during 20% PEmax (external oblique: p<0.05; internal oblique: p<0.01). The abdominal oblique muscles are the most active during forced expiration. Moreover, 30% PEmax is the minimum intensity required to achieve significant, albeit very slight, muscle activity during expiratory resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Laparoscopic mesh repair of transverse rectus abdominus muscle and deep inferior epigastric flap harvest site hernias.

    PubMed

    Ravipati, Nagesh B; Pockaj, Barbara A; Harold, Kristi L

    2007-08-01

    The transverse rectus abdominus muscle (TRAM) flap is one of the treatment options for breast reconstruction. TRAM flap reconstruction donor site herniation rates range from 1% to 8.8%. Traditionally, these hernias were treated by an open primary repair with or without the addition of onlay mesh. We report laparoscopic approach to treat TRAM and deep inferior epigastric perforator flap (DIEP) harvest site hernias with mesh. We treated 5 patients, 4 from TRAM and 1 from DIEP flap harvest site hernias during the period of October 2003 to January 2006. Two of these patients underwent previous open mesh repair with recurrence. All of these patients underwent laparoscopic hernia repair using polytetrafluoroethylene dual mesh. Follow-up ranged 6 to 31 months without any recurrences. Laparoscopic mesh repair of ventral hernias located at TRAM and DIEP flap harvest sites can be performed safely and with a low rate of recurrence.

  12. A study of the effect of pregnancy on muscle fibers of the rectus abdominis muscle of the rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, W D

    1979-11-01

    Samples of the rectus abdominis muscle were taken from Sprague-Dawley rats at 0, 3, 6, 6, 12, 15, 18, and 21 days of pregnancy, and at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days of postpartum. Sections were incubated for actomyosin adenosine triphosphatase activity following preincubation at a basic pH. Muscle fibers within a unit area of each sample were identified as to fiber type according to their enzyme activity, and the population of each type counted. The proportion of each fiber type was calculated and the diameter of 24 fibers of each type measured. No changes were noted in the muscle fiber proportions through the course of the experiment. Differential changes in muscle fiber diameters were noted in each of the three muscle fiber types. Slow oxidative fibers underwent an increase in diameter through the last half of pregnancy. The diameter was further increased as stretch of the muscle was released after birth, and did not decrease in the postpartum period. Fast glycolytic fibers decreased in diameter during the last half of pregnancy, but returned to the prepregnancy diameter in the first postpartum day. The diameter of the fast oxidative glycolytic fibers remained unchanged through the course of pregnacy and in the postpartum period.

  13. Validating the use of rectus muscle fragment welding to control presacral bleeding during rectal mobilization.

    PubMed

    Ayuste, Edwardo; Roxas, Manuel Francisco T

    2004-01-01

    The incidence of presacral bleeding during rectal mobilization is low, but such bleeding may be massive and even fatal. Haemostasis can be difficult to achieve using conventional methods because of the complex interlacing of the venous network at the sacral periosteum. Historically, pelvic packing and metallic thumbtacks have been the more commonly used methods in our institution. However, the need for repeat surgery to remove the packs and the difficulties encountered in tack application have forced us to explore other methods. In 1994, the procedure termed muscle fragment welding, which uses electrocautery through a rectum muscle fragment, was introduced to control presacral bleeding. From January 1999 to February 2002, six of 416 patients undergoing pelvic surgery in our institution developed massive presacral haemorrhage and therefore, this technique was used. Haemostasis was immediate and permanent. No major untoward postoperative events such as re-bleeding or infection were noted. One cas developed a second-degree burn in the right elbow due to a misplaced ground conduction plate. Rectus muscle fragment welding is , in our experience, an effective and practical method of controlling presacral haemorrhage.

  14. Gene expression in the rectus abdominus muscle of patients with and without pelvic organ prolapse.

    PubMed

    Hundley, Andrew F; Yuan, Lingwen; Visco, Anthony G

    2008-02-01

    The objective of the study was to compare gene expression in a group of actin and myosin-related proteins in the rectus muscle of 15 patients with pelvic organ prolapse and 13 controls. Six genes previously identified by microarray GeneChip analysis were examined using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis, including 2 genes showing differential expression in pubococcygeus muscle. Samples and controls were run in triplicate in multiplexed wells, and levels of gene expression were analyzed using the comparative critical threshold method. One gene, MYH3, was 3.2 times overexpressed in patients with prolapse (P = .032), but no significant differences in expression were seen for the other genes examined. An age-matched subset of 9 patients and controls showed that MYH3 gene expression was no longer significantly different (P = .058). Differential messenger ribonucleic acid levels of actin and myosin-related genes in patients with pelvic organ prolapse and controls may be limited to skeletal muscle from the pelvic floor.

  15. Maximal subtotal extirpation of the horizontal rectus extraocular muscles for the treatment of nystagmus with no null point. A report of four successful human cases.

    PubMed

    Sinskey, Robert M; Eshete, Almaz

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the visual and restoration of normal appearance results of maximal excision of the horizontal rectus muscles in nystagmus patients. Menelik II Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and the Sinskey Eye Institute, Santa Monica, California. The medial and lateral rectus muscles were extirpated as far back as possible with an enucleation snare in four patients with horizontal nystagmus. A complete eye examination was performed pre- and postoperatively. Using a camcorder, ocular movements were recorded before surgery, and at postop; days 1 and 40, and months 1, 3 and 10. All four patients had a marked reduction in both abnormal and normal horizontal eye movement, and improvement in objective visual acuity. Postoperative residual intermittent fine horizontal movement was recorded in the left eye in a 6 year old and in both eyes of a 41 year old patient. A residual rotary component was recorded in a 15 year-old patient. The 6 and 9 year-old patients each developed a moderate exotropia. The 15 and 41 year-old patients maintained binocular fusion with some residual ability to converge. Vision increased subjectively in all cases. Subtotal myectomy of the horizontal muscles in horizontal nystagmus with no null point was very effective in improving and/or eliminating horizontal eye movement. Restoration of normal or near normal appearance and improvement in visual acuity occurred in all cases. None of the patients complained of their loss of horizontal gaze and eye movement. More complete myectomy of the muscles should produce total elimination of both normal and abnormal horizontal eye movement including nystagmus.

  16. Impaired mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and supercomplex assembly in rectus abdominis muscle of diabetic obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Antoun, Ghadi; McMurray, Fiona; Thrush, A Brianne; Patten, David A; Peixoto, Alyssa C; Slack, Ruth S; McPherson, Ruth; Dent, Robert; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction has been documented in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; however, specific respiratory defects and their mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the current study was to examine oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport chain (ETC) supercomplex assembly in rectus abdominis muscles of 10 obese diabetic and 10 obese non-diabetic individuals. Twenty obese women undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery were recruited for this study. Muscle samples were obtained intraoperatively and subdivided for multiple analyses, including high-resolution respirometry and assessment of supercomplex assembly. Clinical data obtained from referring physicians were correlated with laboratory findings. Participants in both groups were of a similar age, weight and BMI. Mitochondrial respiration rates were markedly reduced in diabetic vs non-diabetic patients. This defect was observed during maximal ADP-stimulated respiration in the presence of complex I-linked substrates and complex I- and II-linked substrates, and during maximal uncoupled respiration. There were no differences in fatty acid (octanoyl carnitine) supported respiration, leak respiration or isolated activity of cytochrome c oxidase. Intriguingly, significant correlations were found between glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and maximal respiration or respiration supported by complex I, complex I and II or fatty acid. In the muscle of diabetic patients, blue native gel electrophoresis revealed a striking decrease in complex I, III and IV containing ETC supercomplexes. These findings support the hypothesis that ETC supercomplex assembly may be an important underlying mechanism of muscle mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Analysis of fiber type transformation and histology in chronic electrically stimulated canine rectus abdominis muscle island-flap stomal sphincters.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, Ramsey K; Bardoel, Janou W J M; Maldonado, Claudio; Barker, John H; Stadelmann, Wayne K

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic skeletal muscle flaps are designed to perform a specific functional task through contraction and relaxation of their muscle fibers. The most commonly used dynamic skeletal flaps today are for cardiomyoplasty and anal or urinary myoplasty. Low-frequency chronic stimulation of these flaps enables them to use their intrinsic energy stores in a more efficient manner through aerobic metabolic pathways for increased endurance and improved work capacity. The purpose of this study was to (1) determine whether fiber type transformation from fatigue-prone (type II) muscle fibers to fatigue-resistant (type I) muscle fibers could be demonstrated in the authors' chronic canine stomal sphincter model where the rectus abdominis muscle was used to create a functional stomal sphincter, (2) assess whether there is any correlation between the degree of muscle fiber type transformation and the continence times, and (3) examine the long-term effects of the training regimens on the skeletal muscle fibers through histologic and volumetric analysis. Eight dynamic island-flap sphincters were created from a part of the rectus abdominis muscle in mongrel dogs by preserving the deep inferior epigastric vascular pedicle and the most caudal investing intercostal nerve. The muscular sphincters were wrapped around a blind loop of distal ileum and trained with pacing electrodes. Two different training protocols were used. In group A (n = 4), a preexisting anal dynamic graciloplasty training protocol was used. A revised protocol was used in group B (n = 4). Muscle biopsy specimens were obtained before and after training from the rectus abdominis muscle sphincter. Fiber type transformation was assessed using a monoclonal antibody directed against the fatigue-prone type II fibers. Pretraining and posttraining skeletal muscle specimens were examined histologically. A significant fiber type conversion was achieved in both group A and group B animals, with each group achieving greater than 50

  18. Muscle activity in upper and lower rectus abdominus during abdominal exercises.

    PubMed

    Sarti, M A; Monfort, M; Fuster, M A; Villaplana, L A

    1996-12-01

    To compare the intensity of the upper versus lower rectus abdominis (RA) muscle activity provoked by each of two different abdominal exercises and to contrast the intensity of contraction elicited by two different abdominal exercises on each RA muscle portion. Nonrandomized control trial. Kinesiology laboratory in a university medicine faculty. Convenience sample of 33 healthy volunteers. Subjects who had practiced endurance or strength training activities (1.5 hours 3 days a week for 3 years) and those who had not accomplished that criterion comprised a high and a low physical activity group, respectively. Each of these two groups was divided by the ability to perform the exercises into two subgroups: correct and incorrect performers (cp, ic). Average surface iEMG was compared between upper and lower RA and on each muscle portion performing curl-up (CU) and posterior pelvic tilt (PT) exercises. The coefficient of variation, a two-way analysis of variance, and the t test were calculated. The upper RA showed significantly greater activity during performance of CU exercise by the cp subgroups of both high (t = 2.14302, 95%) and low (t = 2.35875, 95%) activity groups. Only the cp subgroup of the high activity group showed that PT was significantly more strenuous than CU exercise on lower RA (t = -2.06467, 95%). Among correct performers, CU produces greater activity on upper RA. For persons who have a high level of activity, PT is more strenuous than CU on lower RA. Among incorrect performers, either exercise indistinctly activates the muscle portions.

  19. Intramuscular Distribution of the Abducens Nerve in the Lateral Rectus Muscle for the Management of Strabismus.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun Jin; Lee, Shin-Hyo; Shin, Kang-Jae; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2018-06-01

    To elucidate the intramuscular distribution and branching patterns of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus (LR) muscle so as to provide anatomical confirmation of the presence of compartmentalization, including for use in clinical applications such as botulinum toxin injections. Thirty whole-mount human cadaver specimens were dissected and then Sihler's stain was applied. The basic dimensions of the LR and its intramuscular nerve distribution were investigated. The distances from the muscle insertion to the point at which the abducens nerve enters the LR and to the terminal nerve plexus were also measured. The LR was 46.0 mm long. The abducens nerve enters the muscle on the posterior one-third of the LR and then typically divides into a few branches (average of 1.8). This supports a segregated abducens nerve selectively innervating compartments of the LR. The intramuscular nerve distribution showed a Y-shaped ramification with root-like arborization. The intramuscular nerve course finished around the middle of the LR (24.8 mm posterior to the insertion point) to form the terminal nerve plexus. This region should be considered the optimal target site for botulinum toxin injections. We have also identified the presence of an overlapping zone and communicating nerve branches between the neighboring LR compartments. Sihler's staining is a useful technique for visualizing the entire nerve network of the LR. Improving the knowledge of the nerve distribution patterns is important not only for researchers but also clinicians to understand the functions of the LR and the diverse pathophysiology of strabismus.

  20. Penile enhancement with rectus muscle fascia and testicular tunica vaginalis grafts: an experimental animal study.

    PubMed

    Bagbanci, Sahin; Dadali, Mumtaz; Emir, Levent; Aydogmus, Yasin; Ozer, Elif

    2015-06-01

    To enhance rat penises experimentally with rectus muscle fascia (RMF) and testicular tunica vaginalis grafts (TVG). Twelve Wistar albino rats were distributed into two equal Groups, A and B. There were six rats in each group. RMF and TVG were used to enhance rat penises in Groups A and B, respectively. Circumferences of the penises were measured preoperatively and at three different times after the operation. Two, two and eight rats were killed 10 days, 1 month and 2 months after the operation, respectively, for histopathological examinations. When we compared the measurements of preoperative and immediately postoperative circumferences, the mean increase was 23.4 ± 2.9 % in Group A and 19.9 ± 1.7 % in Group B. According to paired t test, the difference was significant (p < 0001), but the comparison between preoperative and postoperative first-month measurements was not found to be significant (p > 0.05). Histological examinations revealed an intensive inflammatory process at 10 days after the operation. Grafts were found to be totally absorbed in the first- and second-month examinations. In our study, implanted TVG and RMF could not survive because of insufficient vascularization and failure to maintain satisfactory surgical success. More studies are needed to increase the effectiveness of surgical techniques.

  1. Detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yong Seok; Kim, In-Beom; Shin, Sun Young

    2017-10-01

    The aims of this study were to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle (LRM) and the intramuscular innervation pattern using Sihler staining. In this cohort study, 32 eyes of 16 cadavers were assessed. Dissection was performed from the LRM origin to its insertion. The following distances were measured: from LRM insertion to the bifurcation point of the abducens nerve, from LRM insertion to the entry site of the superior branch or inferior branch, from the upper border of the LRM to the entry site of the superior branch, from the lower border of LRM to the entry site of inferior branch, and the widths of the main trunk and superior and inferior branches. The single trunk of the abducens nerve divided into two branches 37 mm from insertion of the LRM, and 22 of 32 (68.8%) orbits showed only two superior and inferior branches with no subdivision. The superior branch entered the LRM more anteriorly (P = 0.037) and the superior branch was thinner than the inferior branch (P = 0.040). The most distally located intramuscular nerve ending was observed at 52.9 ± 3.5% of the length of each muscle. Non-overlap between the superior and inferior intramuscular arborization of the nerve was detected in 27 of 32 cases (84.4%). Five cases (15.6%) showed definite overlap of the superior and inferior zones. This study revealed the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the LRM and provides helpful information to understand abducens nerve palsy. Clin. Anat. 30:873-877, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Rectus femoris muscle atrophy and recovery caused by preoperative pretibial traction in femoral shaft fractures-comparison between traction period.

    PubMed

    Shim, D-G; Kwon, T-Y; Lee, K-B

    2017-09-01

    Skeletal traction is performed to temporarily stabilize fracture sites before surgery in patients with femoral fracture. To date, however, there is no study evaluating the difference in the degree of the recovery, of the muscle strength, as well as muscle atrophy following skeletal traction. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of recovery of rectus femoris muscle strength after surgery in association with muscle atrophy by analyzing the duration of preoperative tibial traction, age and sex in patients with femoral fracture. Rectus femoris muscle atrophy will progress depending on the duration of preoperative tibial traction, age and sex in patients with femoral fracture. Thirty-one patients who underwent preoperative pretibial skeletal traction and intramedullary nailing were divided into two groups according to the traction period: group A (n=12) with a duration of traction of <7 days (mean: 4.08±1.78 days) and group B (n=19) ≥7 days (mean: 13.63±7.17 days). The degree of muscle atrophy and recovery were compared between the two groups, according to age and gender. The degree of muscle atrophy was measured by the difference in thickness of the rectus femoris between pre- and post-traction using ultrasound. The degree of muscle recovery was evaluated by the Q-setting and heel off time. Clinical outcome was evaluated by the non-union rate and Lysholm score. The degree of muscle atrophy was 0.99±0.14mm in group A and 2.22±0.11mm in group B (P<0.001). The Q-setting time was 4.83±0.94 days in group A and 6.56±1.38 days in group B (P=0.001). Heel off time was also shorter in group A at 2.58±0.90 days, taking 3.72±1.27 days in group B (P=0.012). The recovery rate in the rectus femoris was significantly higher in group A than in group B (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in non-union rate between group A and B (P=0.672) but the mean Lysholm score at the last follow-up was significantly higher in group A than in group B (P=0

  3. Analysis of chronic morphologic changes of small bowel in electrically stimulated canine island-flap rectus abdominis muscle stomal sphincters.

    PubMed

    Majzoub, R K; Bardoel, J W; Ackermann, D; Maldonado, C; Barker, J; Stadelmann, W K

    2001-11-01

    Dynamic myoplasty to achieve fecal continence has been used in humans with varying results. A potential complication of the use of dynamic skeletal sphincters to attain fecal continence is the development of ischemic strictures within the bowel encircled by the functional sphincter. This study examines the histologic changes present in the bowel wall used to create a functional dynamic island-flap stomal sphincter in a chronic canine model. The rectus abdominis muscles of canines were used to create island-flap stomal sphincters. Eight dynamic island-flap stomal sphincters were created from the rectus abdominis muscles in mongrel dogs by wrapping them around a blind loop of distal ileum that was no longer in continuity with the terminal small bowel. Temporary pacing electrodes were secured intramuscularly near the intercostal nerve entry point and connected to a subcutaneously placed pulse stimulator. Two different training protocols resulting in different contractile properties were used: Program A (n = 4) and Program B (n = 4). The island-flap sphincters were trained over 3 months to generate stomal intraluminal pressures of more than 60 mmHg in all animals. The intact sphincters, normal bowel, and contralateral stomal bowel were obtained when the animals were killed. Specimens were processed with paraffin embedding, sectioned, and stained with trichrome and hematoxylin-and-eosin stains. Measurements of the different bowel layers were made with a micrometer. The muscular sphincters were biopsied before and after training. Fiber-type histochemistry was performed with a monoclonal antibody to the fast isoforms of myosin. Pretrained and posttrained skeletal muscle specimens were examined histologically. The bowel wall within the functional dynamic stomal sphincter did not exhibit any significant architectural changes related to ischemic fibrosis or mucosal damage. A significant fiber-type conversion was achieved in both training groups with Programs A and B, with a

  4. Pedicled rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap sling the bulbar urethra for treatment for male-acquired urinary incontinence: report of ten cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yue-Min; Zhang, Xin-Ru; Xie, Hong; Song, Lu-Jie; Feng, Chao; Fei, Xiao-Fang

    2014-03-01

    Male urinary incontinence is relatively common complication of radical prostatectomy and of posterior urethroplasty following traumatic pelvic fracture. Here, we investigate the use of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle and fascia flap sling of the bulbar urethra for treatment for male-acquired urinary incontinence. Ten patients with acquired urinary incontinence were included in the study. Urinary incontinence was secondary to TURP in three patients and was secondary to posterior urethroplasty performed following traumatic pelvic fracture in seven patients. Pedicled rectus abdominalis muscle and fascial flaps, approximately 2.5 cm wide and 15 cm long, were isolated. The flaps were inserted into a perineal incision through a subcutaneous tunnel. The free end of the flap was sectioned to form two muscle strips, each 3 cm in length, and inserted into the space between bulbar urethra and corpus cavernosa. After adequate sling tension had been achieved, the two strips of muscle were anastomosed around the bulbar urethra using a 2-zero polyglactin suture. The patients were followed up for between 12 and 82 months (mean 42.8 months). Complete continence was achieved with good voiding in seven of the 10 patients. In other three patients achieved good voiding following catheter removal, but incontinence was only moderately improved. A pedicled rectus muscle fascial sling of the bulbar urethra is an effective and safe treatment for male patients with mild to moderate acquired urinary incontinence, but it may not be suitable for severe incontinence or for patients with weak rectus abdominalis muscles.

  5. [Contralateral Recession of the Inferior Oblique Muscle in Grave's Disease Patients with Mild M. rectus inferior fibrosis].

    PubMed

    Eckstein, A; Raczynski, S; Dekowski, D; Esser, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose effect and the resulting binocular single vision for inferior oblique muscle recession in patients with Grave's orbitopathy. The evaluation covered all patients (n = 13) between 2010-2013 treated with recession of the inferior oblique muscle for vertical deviation caused by inferior fibrosis of the contralateral eye. The inclusion criterion was a small vertical squint angle with excyclotorsion. The corrected vertical squint angle was 3.75° [7 pdpt] (median, min 1.5° [3 pdpt], max 8° [16 pdpt]) in primary position and 5.5° in adduction [11pdpt] (median, min 3°[6 pdpt], max 9°[18pdpt]). Excyclotorsion was 4° [8 pdpt] (median, min 1° [2 pdpt], max 9° [18 pdpt]). Elevation was only slightly impaired and the side difference was 5° (median). The recession distance was preoperatively determined: 0.5° squint angle reduction per mm recession distance (calculation from patients who received surgery before 2010). Inferior oblique recession generated a good field of binocular single vision (BSV) for all patients. All patients reached BSV in the central area (20°) and within 30° of downgaze. Sixty nine percent of the patients were completely diplopia free in downgaze. Diplopia persisted in more than half of the patients in up gaze outside 15°. Squint reduction was 0.5° [1 pdpt] [0.45-0.67]/per mm recession distance in primary position and 0.65° [1.3 pdpt] [0.55-0.76]/per mm for the vertical deviation in adduction. Excyclotorsion was reduced to ≤ 2° in 77 % of the patients. Inferior oblique muscle recession can be very successfully performed on the contralateral eye in patients with mild inferior rectus muscle fibrosis. Surgery at the contralateral yoke muscle prevents the risk of overeffect with resulting diplopia in downgaze, which could occur if small distance recession had been performed at the inferior rectus muscle. An overeffect in relation to inferior oblique recession will only

  6. The effects of onabotulinum toxin A injection into rectus femoris muscle in hemiplegic stroke patients with stiff-knee gait: a placebo-controlled, nonrandomized trial.

    PubMed

    Tok, Fatih; Balaban, Birol; Yaşar, Evren; Alaca, Rdvan; Tan, Arif Kenan

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to compare the efficacy of onabotulinum toxin A (onabot) injection into the rectus femoris muscle with that of placebo in the treatment of hemiplegic stroke patients presenting with stiff-knee gait. Twenty-five chronic hemiparetic stroke patients presenting with a stiff-knee gait were included in this study. Fifteen patients received 100-125 U of onabot, and 10 patients received placebo into the rectus femoris muscle. Three-dimensional gait analysis, energy expenditure, 10-m and 6-min walk tests, and spasticity level of the rectus femoris were evaluated at baseline and 2 mos posttreatment. The mean age of patients who received onabot was 53.86 ± 14.74 yrs and of those who received placebo was 59.00 ± 8.11 yrs. At study onset, groups were similar with respect to all parameters (P > 0.05). We observed significant improvement in knee flexion (7 degrees average) during swing and a reduction in energy cost of 0.8-J/kg per meter response to injection of 100-125 U of onabot into the rectus femoris muscle. Onabot treatment significantly reduced muscle tone and improved knee kinematics, energy expenditure during walking, and functional assessments at 2 mos (P < 0.05); however, placebo had no effects on these parameters. Moreover, maximum knee flexion at swing and energy expenditure in the onabot group was significantly better than placebo at 2 mos (P < 0.05). Our results showed the superiority of onabot over placebo in increasing knee flexion during swing phase and decreasing energy expenditure. The application of onabot into the rectus femoris muscle in stroke patients who presented with stiff-knee gait may be a treatment option to provide independent, safe, and less tiring ambulation.

  7. Intra-abdominal pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flap for treatment of high-output enterocutaneous fistulae: case reports and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Carey, Joseph N; Sheckter, Clifford C; Watt, Andrew J; Lee, Gordon K

    2013-08-01

    Despite advances in nutritional supplementation, sepsis management, percutaneous drainage and surgical technique, enterocutaneous fistulae remain a considerable source of morbidity and mortality. Use of adjunctive modalities including negative pressure wound therapy and fibrin glue have been shown to improve the rapidity of fistula closure; however, the overall rate of closure remains poor. The challenge of managing chronic, high-output proximal enterocutaneous fistulae can be successfully achieved with appropriate medical management and intra-abdominal placement of pedicled rectus abdominis muscle flaps. We report two cases of recalcitrant high output enterocutaneous fistulae that were treated successfully with pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps. Indications for pedicled intra-abdominal rectus muscle flaps include persistent patency despite a reasonable trial of non-operative intervention, failure of traditional operative interventions (serosal patch, Graham patch), and persistent electrolyte and nutritional abnormalities in the setting of a high-output fistula. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Isolated endometriosis on the rectus abdominis muscle in women without a history of abdominal surgery: a rare and intriguing finding.

    PubMed

    Granese, Roberta; Cucinella, Gaspare; Barresi, Valeria; Navarra, Giuseppe; Candiani, Massimo; Triolo, Onofrio

    2009-01-01

    We report 2 rare cases of endometriosis on the rectus abdominal muscle diagnosed incidentally during an operation for inguinal hernia repair in women with no surgical history. Two women sought medical attention for a mass found in the pubic abdominal wall. Only 1 woman reported occasional pain. At physical examination in both women, an ovoid swelling in the right pubic area was felt. One woman experienced pain on palpation, and one reported slight discomfort. Ultrasonography demonstrated a heterogeneous hypoechogenic formation with indistinct edges; diagnosis was difficult. Routine clinical and instrumental (pelvic ultrasonography) gynecologic examination in both patients performed shortly before hospitalization had not revealed any macroscopic focus of endometriosis in the pelvic region. At surgery, a lesion consistent with the diagnosis of endometriosis was found, which was confirmed at histologic analysis. These cases could represent the consolidation of different theories of endometriosis diffusion. We suggest including endometriosis in the differential diagnosis of a symptomatic mass in the abdominal wall in women with and without a surgical history.

  9. Evaluation of the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as a blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap in dogs.

    PubMed

    Degner, D A; Walshaw, R; Arnoczky, S P; Smith, R J; Patterson, J S; Degner, L A; Hamaide, A; Rosenstein, D

    1996-01-01

    This study evaluates the cranial rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap as the sole blood supply for the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. This flap was composed of a cranially based rectus abdominus muscle pedicle flap that was attached to the caudal superficial epigastric island skin flap (including mammary glands 2 to 5) via the pudendoepigastric trunk. Selective angiography of the cranial epigastric artery in eight cadaver dogs proved that the arterial vasculature in the cranial rectus abdominus was contiguous with that in the caudal superficial epigastric skin flap. In the live dog study, three of six of the flaps failed because of venous insufficiency. Necrosis of mammary gland 2 occurred in two of six flaps. One of six flaps survived with the exception of the cranial most aspect of mammary gland 2. Angiography of the cranial epigastric artery proved that arterial blood supply to these flaps was intact. Histological evaluation of the failed flaps showed full-thickness necrosis of the skin and subcutaneous tissues, the presence of severe congestion, and venous thrombosis. Retrograde venous blood flow through the flap was inconsistent, and hence resulted in failure of this myocutaneous flap. Use of this flap for clinical wound reconstruction cannot be recommended.

  10. Effects of exercise on diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle in the antenatal and postnatal periods: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, D R; van de Water, A T M; Peiris, C L

    2014-03-01

    Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM) is common during and after pregnancy, and has been related to lumbopelvic instability and pelvic floor weakness. Women with DRAM are commonly referred to physiotherapists for conservative management, but little is known about the effectiveness of such strategies. To determine if non-surgical interventions (such as exercise) prevent or reduce DRAM. EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, PUBMED, AMED and PEDro were searched. Studies of all designs that included any non-surgical interventions to manage DRAM during the ante- and postnatal periods were included. Methodological quality was assessed using a modified Downs and Black checklist. Meta-analysis was performed using a fixed effects model to calculate risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) where appropriate. Eight studies totalling 336 women during the ante- and/or postnatal period were included. The study design ranged from case study to randomised controlled trial. All interventions included some form of exercise, mainly targeted abdominal/core strengthening. The available evidence showed that exercise during the antenatal period reduced the presence of DRAM by 35% (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.92), and suggested that DRAM width may be reduced by exercising during the ante- and postnatal periods. The papers reviewed were of poor quality as there is very little high-quality literature on the subject. Based on the available evidence and quality of this evidence, non-specific exercise may or may not help to prevent or reduce DRAM during the ante- and postnatal periods. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro effect of adenosine agonist GR79236 on the insulin sensitivity of glucose utilisation in rat soleus and human rectus abdominus muscle.

    PubMed

    Webster, J M; Heseltine, L; Taylor, R

    1996-06-07

    The dose-response effects of a new adenosine agonist, GR79236, were examined in isolated rat soleus muscle strips and human rectus abdominus muscle strips. Effects on the insulin sensitivity of carbohydrate metabolism were examined, in particular upon insulin stimulated glycogen synthesis and glycolytic flux. In the presence of adenosine deaminase (ADA), GR79236 increased insulin sensitivity of pyruvate release from rat soleus muscle strips by 24% from 82.5 +/- 10.0 to 102.5 +/- 10.0 (P < 0.01), by 27% to 105.0 +/- 12.5 (P < 0.01) and by 24% to 102.5 +/- 10.0 (P < 0.01) nmol/25 mg per h at 0.1 and 10 microM GR79236, respectively. Rates of lactate release followed a similar but non-significant trend. Addition of GR79236 in the presence of ADA had no effect on rates of glycogen synthesis. Insulin stimulated rates of pyruvate or lactate release or of glycogen synthesis were unaffected by the addition of adenosine deaminase or GR79236 in human rectus abdominus muscle strips. Adenosine agonists may act indirectly to modulate insulin sensitivity of carbohydrate metabolism.

  12. Association of cross-sectional area of the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle with active trigger points in chronic tension-type headache: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pareja, Juan A

    2008-03-01

    To investigate whether cross-sectional area (CSA) of the suboccipital muscles was associated with active trigger points (TrPs) in chronic tension-type headache (CTTH). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine was performed in 11 females with CTTH aged from 26 to 50 yrs old. CSA for both rectus capitis posterior minor (RCPmin) and rectus capitis posterior major (RCPmaj) muscles were measured from axial T1-weighted images, using axial MRI slices aligned parallel to the C2/3 intervertebral disc. A headache diary was kept for 4 wks to record the pain history. TrPs in the suboccipital muscle were identified by eliciting referred pain to palpation, and increased referred pain with muscle contraction. TrPs were considered active if the elicited referred pain reproduced the head pain pattern and features of the pattern seen during spontaneous headache attacks. Active TrPs were found in six patients (55%), whereas the remaining five patients showed latent TrPs. CSA of the RCPmin was significantly smaller (F = 13.843; P = 0.002) in the patients with active TrPs (right side: 55.9 +/- 4.4 mm; left side: 61.1 +/-: 3.8 mm) than in patients with latent TrPs (right side: 96.9 +/- 14.4 mm; left side: 88.7 +/- 9.7 mm). No significant differences were found for CSA of the RCPmaj between the patients with either active or latent TrP (P > 0.5). It seems that muscle atrophy in the RCPmin, but not in the RCPmaj, was associated with suboccipital active TrPs in CTTH, although studies with larger sample sizes are now required. It may be that nociceptive inputs in active TrPs could lead to muscle atrophy of the involved muscles. Muscle disuse or avoidance behavior can also be involved in atrophy.

  13. Avoiding Complications in Abdominal Wall Surgery: A Mathematical Model to Predict the Course of the Motor Innervation of the Rectus Abdominis.

    PubMed

    Tessone, Ariel; Nava, Maurizio; Blondeel, Phillip; Spano, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Ever since its introduction, the transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap has become the mainstay of autologous breast reconstruction. However, concerns regarding donor site morbidity due to the breach of abdominal wall musculature integrity soon followed. Muscle-sparing techniques, eventually eliminating the muscle from the flap all-together with the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator flap, did not eliminate the problem of abdominal wall weakness. This led to the conclusion that motor innervation might be at fault. Studies have shown that even in the presence of an intact rectus abdominis muscle, and an intact anterior rectus sheath, denervation of the rectus abdominis muscle results in significant abdominal wall weakness leading to superior and inferior abdominal bulges, and abdominal herniation. Our aim was to establish a mathematical model to predict the location of the motor innervation to the rectus abdominis muscle, and thus provide surgeons with a tool that will allow them to reduce abdominal morbidity during deep inferior epigastric artery perforator and free muscle-sparing transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous surgery. We dissected 42 cadaveric hemiabdomens and mapped the course of the thoracolumbar nerves. We then standardized and analyzed our findings and presented them as a relative map which can be adjusted to body type and dimensions. Our dissections show that the motor innervation is closely related to the lateral vascular supply. Thus, when possible, we support the preferred utilization of the medial vascular supply, and the preservation of the lateral supply and motor innervation.

  14. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall of a Chronically Infected Postoperative Wound with a Rectus Abdominis Myofascial Splitting Flap

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Sung Kyu; Kang, Seok Joo; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Young Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Background If a chronically infected abdominal wound develops, complications such as peritonitis and an abdominal wall defect could occur. This could prolong the patient's hospital stay and increase the possibility of re-operation or another infection as well. For this reason, a solution for infection control is necessary. In this study, surgery using a rectus abdominis muscle myofascial splitting flap was performed on an abdominal wall defect. Methods From 2009 to 2012, 5 patients who underwent surgery due to ovarian rupture, cesarean section, or uterine myoma were chosen. In each case, during the first week after operation, the wound showed signs of infection. Surgery was chosen because the wounds did not resolve with dressing. Debridement was performed along the previous operation wound and dissection of the skin was performed to separate the skin and subcutaneous tissue from the attenuated rectus muscle and Scarpa's fascial layers. Once the anterior rectus sheath and muscle were adequately mobilized, the fascia and muscle flap were advanced medially so that the skin defect could be covered for reconstruction. Results Upon 3-week follow-up after a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap operation, no major complication occurred. In addition, all of the patients showed satisfaction in terms of function and esthetics at 3 to 6 months post-surgery. Conclusions Using a rectus abdominis myofascial splitting flap has many esthetic and functional benefits over previous methods of abdominal defect treatment, and notably, it enabled infection control by reconstruction using muscle. PMID:23362477

  15. The alteration of extraocular muscle arc after hang-back recession in animal experiments.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kim, S

    1996-01-01

    We did an animal experimental study to investigate the extraocular muscle arc after hang-back recession on horizontal rectus muscles of five dogs. Two tiny sutures using 8-0 nylon were made on the sclera 8-10 mm posterior to the muscle insertion along the upper and lower margins of the right lateral rectus and left medial rectus to compare the altered muscle arc with the original muscle arc. Hang-back recession was performed on the horizontal rectus muscles and three months later we investigated the change in the muscle arc. Four of the 10 muscles operated showed no change, four were displaced upward (mean +/- SD; 1.00 +/- 0.16 mm) and two were displaced downward (1.00 +/- 0.00 mm). The average displacement was 0.60 +/- 0.52 mm. The alteration of muscle arc after hang-back recession thus seems insignificant.

  16. Associations among Protein Biomarkers and pH and Color Traits in Longissimus thoracis and Rectus abdominis Muscles in Protected Designation of Origin Maine-Anjou Cull Cows.

    PubMed

    Gagaoua, Mohammed; Couvreur, Sébastien; Le Bec, Guillain; Aminot, Ghislain; Picard, Brigitte

    2017-05-03

    This study investigated the relationships among a list of 23 protein biomarkers with CIE-L*a*b* meat color traits and ultimate pH on Longissimus thoracis (LT) and Rectus abdominis (RA) muscles of 48 protected designation of origin Maine-Anjou cows. The technological parameters were correlated with several biomarkers and were in some cases muscle-dependent. More biomarkers were related to pHu in LT than in RA muscle. Some consistencies were found, by the common correlation of pHu with MyHC-IIa and MyHC-IIx. The pHu of the LT muscle was also correlated with other cytoskeletal entities and proteins belonging to metabolism and cellular stress. In contrast to the relationships found between biomarkers and LT pHu, more proteins were related to the instrumental color coordinates in RA than in LT muscle. The regression equations were parameter- and muscle-dependent. Certain of the retained proteins explained more than one color coordinate. Hsp70-Grp75 was positive in the models of L*, a*, b*, and C* of LT and of b* in the RA muscle. Further heat shock proteins were strongly related with the meat color coordinates in both muscles. The involvement of metabolic enzymes and myofibrillar proteins in the meat color development was also verified in this experiment. This study confirmed once again the importance of numerous biological pathways in beef color.

  17. Dynamic Article: Tandem Robotic Technique of Extralevator Abdominoperineal Excision and Rectus Abdominis Muscle Harvest for Immediate Closure of the Pelvic Floor Defect.

    PubMed

    Singh, Puneet; Teng, Edward; Cannon, Lisa M; Bello, Brian L; Song, David H; Umanskiy, Konstantin

    2015-09-01

    Extralevator abdominoperineal excision for distal rectal cancers involves cylindrical excision of the mesorectum with wide division of the levator ani muscles. Although this technique has been shown to decrease local cancer recurrence and improve survival, it leaves the patient with a considerable pelvic floor defect that may require reconstruction. We developed an innovative technique of robotic extralevator abdominoperineal excision combined with robotic harvest of the rectus abdominis muscle flap for immediate reconstruction of the pelvic floor defect. This was a retrospective review pilot study. This study was conducted at a tertiary care cancer center. Three patients who underwent robotic extralevator abdominoperineal excision with robotic rectus abdominis flap harvest for distal rectal adenocarcinoma were included. Intraoperative and postoperative outcomes included operative time, intraoperative complications, length of hospital stay, wound complications, incidence of perineal hernia, persistent pain, and functional limitations. Three patients underwent this procedure. The median operative time was 522 minutes with median hospital stay of 6 days. One patient experienced perineal wound complication requiring limited incision and drainage followed by complete healing of the wound by secondary intention. The other 2 patients did not experience any wound complications. Longest follow-up was 16 months. None of the patients developed perineal hernias during this time period. The small sample size and retrospective nature were limitations. This technique confers multiple advantages including improved visualization and dexterity within the pelvis and accurate wide margins at the pelvic floor. An incisionless robotic flap harvest with preservation of the anterior rectus sheath obviates the risk of ventral hernia while providing robust tissue closure of the radiated abdominoperineal excision wound. This technique may result in faster postoperative recovery, decreased

  18. How does passive lengthening change the architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius muscle?

    PubMed

    Bolsterlee, Bart; D'Souza, Arkiev; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2017-04-01

    There are few comprehensive investigations of the changes in muscle architecture that accompany muscle contraction or change in muscle length in vivo. For this study, we measured changes in the three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius at the whole muscle level, the fascicle level and the fiber level using anatomical MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Data were obtained from eight subjects under relaxed conditions at three muscle lengths. At the whole muscle level, a 5.1% increase in muscle belly length resulted in a reduction in both muscle width (mean change -2.5%) and depth (-4.8%). At the fascicle level, muscle architecture measurements obtained at 3,000 locations per muscle showed that for every millimeter increase in muscle-tendon length above the slack length, average fascicle length increased by 0.46 mm, pennation angle decreased by 0.27° (0.17° in the superficial part and 0.37° in the deep part), and fascicle curvature decreased by 0.18 m -1 There was no evidence of systematic variation in architecture along the muscle's long axis at any muscle length. At the fiber level, analysis of the diffusion signal showed that passive lengthening of the muscle increased diffusion along fibers and decreased diffusion across fibers. Using these measurements across scales, we show that the complex shape changes that muscle fibers, whole muscles, and aponeuroses of the medial gastrocnemius undergo in vivo cannot be captured by simple geometrical models. This justifies the need for more complex models that link microstructural changes in muscle fibers to macroscopic changes in architecture. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Novel MRI and DTI techniques revealed changes in three-dimensional architecture of the human medial gastrocnemius during passive lengthening. Whole muscle belly width and depth decreased when the muscle lengthened. Fascicle length, pennation, and curvature changed uniformly or near uniformly along the muscle during passive lengthening

  19. Rib Diced Cartilage-Fascia Grafting in Dorsal Nasal Reconstruction: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Wrapping With Rectus Muscle Fascia vs Deep Temporal Fascia.

    PubMed

    As'adi, Kamran; Salehi, Seyed Hamid; Shoar, Saeed

    2014-08-01

    Rib cartilage is an abundant source for cartilage grafts when significant dorsal nasal augmentation or structural support is indicated. Diced cartilage wrapped in fascia was developed to counteract warping, visibility, and displacement of rib cartilage as a dorsal solid graft. The technique for wrapping diced cartilage has evolved during the past several years. The authors compared 2 distinct fascial sleeves for wrapping rib diced cartilage in the treatment of patients who required major dorsal nasal augmentation. Thirty-six patients who planned to undergo major dorsal nasal reconstruction with diced costal rib cartilage were assigned randomly to 1 of 2 groups: the intervention group, which received grafts wrapped with rectus muscle fascia from the rib cartilage harvesting site, or the control group, which received deep temporal fascia harvested separately. Outcomes were compared between the groups. Patients in the intervention group had significantly shorter operating times, significantly higher average satisfaction scores, and significantly shorter postoperative hospital stays than did patients in the control group. Harvesting rectus muscle fascia for wrapping diced rib cartilage is a feasible and reliable technique in dorsal nasal reconstruction surgery. It is associated with favorable outcomes and a high level of patient satisfaction. 4. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  20. Complete resection of a rectus abdominis muscle invaded by desmoid tumors and subsequent management with an abdominal binder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Tatsuhiko

    2018-02-07

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is characterized by desmoid tumors, which are benign soft tissue tumors that can be locally aggressive but typically do not metastasize. Desmoid tumors can manifest anywhere in the body, and those in the abdominal cavity account for approximately 30 to 50% of all such tumors. Complete resection with free margins has been the standard treatment, but non-surgical therapies have been implemented recently. However, if tumors are strongly invasive and/or persistently recur, radical surgical resection with free margins remains the primary treatment. Unfortunately, radical resection may cause large abdominal defects and hinder reconstruction. Several reports and recommendations have addressed this issue; however, to the best of our knowledge, few reports have described complete resection and the subsequent reconstruction of the rectus abdominis muscle. A 35-year-old Asian woman presented at our hospital with a chief complaint of abdominal pain. She had abdominal desmoid tumors that required complete resection of her rectus abdominis muscle. Due to necrosis in her own reconstructed tissue, we failed to cover her anterior abdominal wall; thus, we used an abdominal binder as a substitute material to avoid exacerbating the incisional hernia and help her generate intra-abdominal pressure. This case report may be informative and helpful for the treatment of patients with desmoid tumors, as managing desmoid-type fibromatosis is difficult.

  1. Early complications, pain, and quality of life after reconstructive surgery for abdominal rectus muscle diastasis: a 3-month follow-up.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, P; Gunnarsson, U; Strigård, K; Stark, B

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate early complications following retromuscular mesh repair with those after dual layer suture of the anterior rectus sheath in a randomised controlled clinical trial for abdominal rectus muscle diastasis (ARD). Patients with an ARD wider than 3 cm and clinical symptoms related to the ARD were included in a prospective randomised study. They were assigned to either retromuscular inset of a lightweight polypropylene mesh or to dual closure of the anterior rectus fascia using Quill self-locking technology. All patients completed a validated questionnaire for pain assessment (Ventral Hernia Pain Questionnaire, VHPQ) and for quality of life (SF36) prior to and 3 months after surgery. The most frequently seen adverse event was minor wound infection. Of the patients, 14/57 had a superficial wound infection; five related to Quill and nine to mesh repair. No deep wound infections were reported. Patient rating for subjective muscular improvement postoperatively was better in the mesh technique group with a mean of 6.9 (range 0-10) compared to a mean of 4.8 (range 0-10) in the Quill group (p=0.01). The pre- and post-operative SF36 scores improved in both groups. There was no significant difference between the two surgical techniques in terms of early complications and perceived pain at the 3-month follow-up. Both techniques may be considered equally reliable for ARD repair in terms of adverse outcomes during the early postoperative phase, even though patients operated with a mesh experienced better improvement in muscular strength. ClinicalTrial.gov: 2009/227-31/3/PE/96. Copyright © 2014 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Fate of Iliopsoas Muscle in the Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip by Medial Approach. Part 1: MRI Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Duran, Semra; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    There has been little information about the long-term status of the iliopsoas, which is the main flexor of the hip, after iliopsoas tenotomy in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The aim of this study was to assess the status of the iliopsoas muscle and other flexors and extensors of the hip in long-term follow-up with magnetic resonance imaging after complete iliopsoas tenotomy in patients with unilateral DDH treated with open reduction with a medial approach. The study included 20 patients who underwent open reduction with a medial approach for unilateral DDH and had long-term follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging assessment of iliopsoas, rectus femoris, tensor fasia lata, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles was applied and the muscles of the hip that was operated on were compared with the unoperated hip. In addition, the iliopsoas muscle was examined for reattachment and the effect of reattachment was evaluated. The mean age at the time of operation was 10.53±3.61 months (range, 5 to 18 mo), and mean follow-up was 16.65±2.16 years (range, 13 to 20 y). Spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas was observed in 18 patients (90%), either in the lesser trochanter (65%) or the superior part of it (25%). There was no significant difference between the hips that were operated on and those that were not with regard to the mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles. The CSA of the tensor fascia lata, rectus femoris, sartorius, and gluteus maximus muscles showed no significant difference (P>0.05); however, CSA of iliopsoas muscle was significantly reduced in the operated hip (P<0.001). Although the iliopsoas tendon was atrophied after complete iliopsoas tenotomy, it was reattached in 90% of the patients spontaneously in long-term follow-up. There was no statistically significant compensatory hypertrophy in any muscles in response to iliopsoas atrophy. Level IV-Therapeutic.

  3. Retroperitoneal and rectus sheath hematomas.

    PubMed

    Kasotakis, George

    2014-02-01

    The retroperitoneum is rich in vascular structures and can harbor large hematomas, traumatic or spontaneous. The management of retroperitoneal hematomas depends on the mechanism of injury and whether they are pulsatile/expanding. Rectus sheath hematomas are uncommon abdominal wall hematomas secondary to trauma to the epigastric arteries of the rectus muscle. The common risk factors include anticoagulation, strenuous exercise, coughing, coagulation disorders, and invasive procedures on/through the abdominal wall. The management is largely supportive, with the reversal of anticoagulation and transfusions; angioembolization may be necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Concurrent Spontaneous Hematomas of the Rectus Sheath and Psoas Muscle in Patients Undergoing Anticoagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Basile, Antonio; Medina, Jose Garcia; Mundo, Elena

    We report a case of concurrent rectus sheath and psoas hematomas in a patient undergoing anticoagulant therapy, treated by transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) of inferior epigastric and lumbar arteries. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated signs of active bleeding in two hematomas of the anterior and posterior abdominal walls. Transfemoral arteriogram confirmed the extravasation of contrast from the right inferior epigastric artery (RIEA). Indirect signs of bleeding were also found in a right lumbar artery (RLA). We successfully performed TAE of the feeding arteries. There have been few reports in the literature of such spontaneous hemorrhages in patients undergoing anticoagulation, successfully treatedmore » by TAE.« less

  5. Shifting gears: dynamic muscle shape changes and force-velocity behavior in the medial gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Dick, Taylor J M; Wakeling, James M

    2017-12-01

    When muscles contract, they bulge in thickness or in width to maintain a (nearly) constant volume. These dynamic shape changes are tightly linked to the internal constraints placed on individual muscle fibers and play a key functional role in modulating the mechanical performance of skeletal muscle by increasing its range of operating velocities. Yet to date we have a limited understanding of the nature and functional implications of in vivo dynamic muscle shape change under submaximal conditions. This study determined how the in vivo changes in medial gastrocnemius (MG) fascicle velocity, pennation angle, muscle thickness, and subsequent muscle gearing varied as a function of force and velocity. To do this, we obtained recordings of MG tendon length, fascicle length, pennation angle, and thickness using B-mode ultrasound and muscle activation using surface electromyography during cycling at a range of cadences and loads. We found that that increases in contractile force were accompanied by reduced bulging in muscle thickness, reduced increases in pennation angle, and faster fascicle shortening. Although the force and velocity of a muscle contraction are inversely related due to the force-velocity effect, this study has shown how dynamic muscle shape changes are influenced by force and not influenced by velocity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY During movement, skeletal muscles contract and bulge in thickness or width. These shape changes play a key role in modulating the performance of skeletal muscle by increasing its range of operating velocities. Yet to date the underlying mechanisms associated with muscle shape change remain largely unexplored. This study identified muscle force, and not velocity, as the mechanistic driving factor to allow for muscle gearing to vary depending on the contractile conditions during human cycling. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Development of medial pterygoid muscle fibers in rabbits fed with a liquid diet.

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Kozue; Morita, Takumi; Takasu, Hiroki; Saito, Keisuke; Fujiwara, Takuya; Hiraba, Katsunari; Goto, Shigemi

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the influence of decreased functional load on the medial pterygoid muscle during mastication in rabbits fed with a liquid-diet. Medial pterygoid muscles from 54 rabbits (solid- and liquid-diet groups, n=48; unweaned group, n=6) were histochemically examined at 4, 9, 12, 18, and 33 weeks after birth. Six fiber types (I, IC, IIC, IIA, IIAB, and IIB) were distinguished via mATPase staining. Significant increases in the diameters of all fiber types were seen up to 33 weeks of age in the solid-diet group; however, no significant increase was noted in fiber types I and IC, from 4 to 33 weeks of age, in the liquid-diet group. The proportion of slow fibers increased up to 12 weeks followed by an increase in the number of fast fibers in the solid-diet group, whereas in the liquid-diet group, the number of slow fiber declined after weaning. Liquid-diet consumption caused muscle fiber atrophy and an increase in the number of fast fibers during early developmental stages after weaning. Furthermore, the growth pattern of the medial pterygoid muscle in the liquid-diet group was different from that in the solid-diet group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrates compartmental muscle mechanisms of human vertical fusional vergence

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Vertical fusional vergence (VFV) normally compensates for slight vertical heterophorias. We employed magnetic resonance imaging to clarify extraocular muscle contributions to VFV induced by monocular two-prism diopter (1.15°) base-up prism in 14 normal adults. Fusion during prism viewing requires monocular infraduction. Scans were repeated without prism, and with prism shifted contralaterally. Contractility indicated by morphometric indexes was separately analyzed in medial and lateral vertical rectus and superior oblique (SO) putative compartments, and superior and inferior horizontal rectus extraocular muscle putative compartments, but in the whole inferior oblique (IO). Images confirmed appropriate VFV that was implemented by the inferior rectus (IR) medial compartment contracting ipsilateral and relaxing contralateral to prism. There was no significant contractility in the IR lateral compartment. The superior but not inferior lateral rectus (LR) compartment contracted significantly in the prism viewing eye, but not contralateral to prism. The IO contracted ipsilateral but not contralateral to the prism. In the infraducting eye, the SO medial compartment relaxed significantly, while the lateral compartment was unchanged; contralateral to prism, the SO lateral compartment contracted, while the medial compartment was unchanged. There was no contractility in the superior or medial rectus muscles in either eye. There was no globe retraction. We conclude that the vertical component of VFV is primarily implemented by IR medial compartment contraction. Since appropriate vertical rotation is not directly implemented, or is opposed, by associated differential LR and SO compartmental activity, and IO contraction, these actions probably implement a torsional component of VFV. PMID:25589593

  8. Myositis ossificans traumatica of the medial pterygoid muscle following a third molar extraction.

    PubMed

    Torres, A M; Nardis, A C; da Silva, R A; Savioli, C

    2015-04-01

    Myositis ossificans (MO) is a rare disease involving heterotopic ossification in the muscle or soft tissue. Myositis ossificans traumatica (MOT) disease presents as a calcification within the injured muscle, resulting from a single or repetitive injury. There are few reports of MOT in the masticatory muscles. The case of a patient with MOT in the medial pterygoid muscle caused by a complication related to the extraction of an erupted upper third molar is reported. The major symptom was severe trismus. Despite surgical treatment, the disease relapsed. MOT can lead to serious consequences for the patient. Its aetiopathogenesis needs to be better understood, so that the most appropriate treatment is established and relapses are minimized. This will improve the quality of life of these patients. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Motor units in the human medial gastrocnemius muscle are not spatially localized or functionally grouped.

    PubMed

    Héroux, Martin E; Brown, Harrison J; Inglis, J Timothy; Siegmund, Gunter P; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-08-15

    Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories or regions, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. We used intramuscular recordings to measure the territory of muscle fibres from MG MUs and determine whether these MUs are grouped by recruitment threshold or joint action (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion). The territory of MUs from the MG muscle varied from somewhat localized to highly distributed, with approximately half the MUs spanning at least half the length and width of the muscle. There was also no evidence of regional muscle activity based on MU recruitment thresholds or joint action. The CNS does not have the means to selectively activate regions of the MG muscle based on task requirements. Human medial gastrocnemius (MG) motor units (MUs) are thought to occupy small muscle territories, with low-threshold units preferentially located distally. In this study, subjects (n = 8) performed ramped and sustained isometric contractions (ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion; range: ∼1-40% maximal voluntary contraction) and we measured MU territory size with spike-triggered averages from fine-wire electrodes inserted along the length (seven electrodes) or across the width (five electrodes) of the MG muscle. Of 69 MUs identified along the length of the muscle, 32 spanned at least half the muscle length (≥ 6.9 cm), 11 of which spanned all recording sites (13.6-17.9 cm). Distal fibres had smaller pennation angles (P < 0.05), which were accompanied by larger territories in MUs with fibres located distally (P < 0.05). There was no distal-to-proximal pattern of muscle activation in ramp contraction (P = 0.93). Of 36 MUs identified across the width of the muscle, 24 spanned at least half the muscle width (≥ 4.0 cm), 13 of which spanned all recording sites (8.0-10.8 cm). MUs were not localized (length or width) based on recruitment threshold or contraction type, nor was there a

  10. Adjustable sutures: experimental assessment of final muscle position.

    PubMed

    Climenhaga, H W; Pearce, W G

    1984-08-01

    The likelihood of forward "creep" of muscles recessed with the use of adjustable loops of suture in the correction of strabismus was investigated. Twelve orthotropic dogs underwent both regular and loop recessions of the lateral and medial rectus muscles; the data for two of the dogs were excluded because of loss of muscles. Three months later it was found that in the majority of cases the recessed muscles had minimally advanced from the position of surgical placement. Although the type of recession made little difference to the results, the mean forward creep was much greater for the medial rectus muscles (1.55 +/- 0.68 mm [p less than 0.01] and 2.00 +/- 2.44 mm [p = 0.09] for those undergoing regular and loop recessions respectively) than for the lateral rectus muscles (0.35 +/- 0.58 mm and 0.60 +/- 0.62 mm respectively). During the operations the amount of contraction of the medial rectus muscle had been noted to vary. It is likely that in some instances the tension on the suture loops was insufficient to hold them taut, and the muscles therefore adhered to the sclera at variable sites. Hence, adequate intrinsic muscle tone may be important for predictable clinical results of loop recession.

  11. Succinylcholine activation of human horizontal eye muscles.

    PubMed

    Lennerstrand, Gunnar; Bolzani, Roberto; Tian, Suna; Benassi, Mariagrazia; Fusari, Maurizio; Campos, Emilio; Schiavi, Costantino

    2010-12-01

    Succinylcholine (Sch) can induce contracture in slow, multiply innervated muscle fibres of the extraocular muscles in animals of different species. Slow muscle fibres also exist in human eye muscle but their physiological properties have not been studied. Isometric tension development was recorded in the lateral and medial rectus muscles in 12 patients operated under general anaesthesia. A strain gauge probe was attached with 5-0 silk sutures to the muscle tendon. Recordings were made in 12 eye muscles with the tendon attached to the globe and in four muscles detached from the globe. Muscle activation was produced by i.v. injection of Sch at a dose of 0.2-0.3 mg/kg bodyweight.   A single injection of Sch induced slow contractures lasting for several minutes. In the muscles attached to the globe, mean maximal isometric tension was 12.2 g in the lateral rectus and 12.8 g in the medial rectus. Similar tension was shown in the muscles detached from the globe. The contracture of eye muscles in response to Sch showed characteristics typical of slow muscle fibre activation in amphibian and avian muscle and confirmed the participation of slow fibre systems in ocular motor control. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Acta Ophthalmol.

  12. Rectus Pulley Displacements without Abnormal Oblique Contractility Explain Strabismus in Superior Oblique Palsy.

    PubMed

    Suh, Soh Youn; Le, Alan; Clark, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated whether rectus pulleys are significantly displaced in superior oblique (SO) palsy and whether displacements account for strabismus patterns. Prospective case-control study. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with SO palsy based on atrophy of the SO muscle on MRI and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. High-resolution, surface coil MRI scans were obtained in multiple, contiguous, quasicoronal planes during monocular central gaze fixation. Pulley locations in oculocentric coordinates in the following subgroups of patients with SO palsy were compared with normal results in subgroups of patients with SO palsy: unilateral versus bilateral, congenital versus acquired, and isotropic (round) versus anisotropic (elongated) SO atrophy. Expected effects of pulley displacements were modeled using Orbit 1.8 (Eidactics, San Francisco, CA) computational simulation. Rectus pulley positions and ocular torsion. Rectus pulleys typically were displaced in SO palsy. In unilateral SO palsy, on average the medial rectus (MR) pulley was displaced 1.1 mm superiorly, the superior rectus (SR) pulley was displaced 0.8 mm temporally, and the inferior rectus (IR) pulley was displaced 0.6 mm superiorly and 0.9 mm nasally from normal. Displacements were similar in bilateral SO palsy, with the SR pulley additionally displaced 0.9 mm superiorly. However, the lateral rectus pulley was not displaced in either unilateral or bilateral SO palsy. The SR and MR pulleys were displaced in congenital SO palsy, whereas the IR and MR pulleys were displaced in acquired palsy. Pulley positions did not differ between isotropic and anisotropic palsy or between patients with cyclotropia of less than 7° versus cyclotropia of 7° or more. Simulations predicted that the observed pulley displacements alone could cause patterns of incomitant strabismus typical of SO palsy, without requiring any abnormality of SO or inferior oblique strength

  13. Morphological and histomorphometric evaluation of the ventral rectus sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle, fascia lata and pectoral fascia. The beginning of a morphological information bank of human fascias.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Soto-Domínguez, Adolfo; García-Juárez, Jaime; Cardenas-Serna, Marcela; Esparza-Hernández, Claudia N; Carreño-Salcedo, Sofía Alejandra; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, Roberto; Loera-Arias, María de Jesús; Saucedo-Cárdenas, Odila; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E; Guzmán-López, Santos

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the morphological and histomorphometric characteristics of the pectoral fascia, fascia lata and ventral rectus sheath. Twenty cadaveric samples of these fascias were analyzed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, orcein, Van Gieson, Masson's trichrome and Verhoeff¨s stain (1200 slides in total). Morphological evaluation, semiquantitative, morphometric and microdensitometric analysis of elastic fibers present in each of the tissues and a morphometrical analysis of tissue thickness were performed. The mean value of the pectoral fascia thickness was 612±68.13 μm; 84±246 μm for the fascia lata and 584±92 μm for the ventral rectus sheath. The area occupied by the elastic fibers in the pectoral fascia was 12.24±5.84%; 6,54±3.85% for the fascia lata and 11.11±5.26% for the ventral rectus sheath. There were no statistically significant differences when comparing the mean values between the pectoral fascia and the ventral rectus sheath (p=0.07). There were statistically significant differences when comparing the fascia lata to the pectoral fascia and the ventral rectus sheath (p≤0.001). This study reports other morphological characteristics not described in previous histological studies of the analyzed tissues. The results of the morphometric and densitometric analysis in this study reveal that the fascia lata has the fewest elastic fibers of all the tissues analyzed, and the pectoral fascia has the most. These results will be useful for the beginning of a morphological information bank of human fascias.

  14. Palisade Endings of Extraocular Muscles Develop Postnatally Following Different Time Courses.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Roland; Streicher, Johannes; Davis-López de Carrizosa, María A; de la Cruz, Rosa R; Pastor, Angel M

    2017-10-01

    To analyze in a frontal-eyed mammal (cat) the postnatal development of palisade endings in extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to compare the spatiotemporal and quantitative patterns of palisade endings among individual rectus muscles. Cats of different ages ranging from birth to adult stage were studied. EOM whole-mount preparations were fluorescently labeled using six combinations of triple staining and analyzed in the confocal laser scanning microscope. Palisade endings developed postnatally and passed in each rectus muscle through the same, three developmental steps but in a heterochronic sequence and to a different final density per muscle. Specifically, palisade ending development was first completed in the medial rectus and later in the inferior, lateral, and superior rectus. The highest density of palisade endings was observed in the medial rectus and the lowest in the lateral rectus whereas values for the inferior and superior rectus were in between. Palisade endings expressed high levels of growth associated protein 43 during development and were supplied by axons that established motor terminals. Cats open their eyes 7 to 10 days after birth and later develop a complex three-dimensional visuomotor climbing and jumping behavior depending on accurate binocular vision and fine tuning of the ocular movements. Our findings indicate that palisade ending development correlates with important landmarks in visuomotor behavior and provide support for our previous notion that palisade endings play an important role for convergence eye movements in frontal-eyed species.

  15. The Acute Effects of Static and Cyclic Stretching on Muscle Stiffness and Hardness of Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Noriaki; Urabe, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Shogo; Sakai, Shogo; Fujishita, Hironori; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Asaeda, Makoto; Hirata, Kazuhiko; Mikami, Yukio; Kimura, Hiroaki

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the acute effects of static stretching (SS) and cyclic stretching (CS) on muscle stiffness and hardness of the medial gastrocnemius muscle (MG) by using ultrasonography, range of motion (ROM) of the ankle joint and ankle plantar flexor. Twenty healthy men participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to SS, CS and control conditions. Each session consisted of a standard 5-minute cycle warm-up, accompanied by one of the subsequent conditions in another day: (a) 2 minutes static stretching, (b) 2 minutes cyclic stretching, (c) control. Maximum ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM max) and normalized peak torque (NPT) of ankle plantar flexor were measured in the pre- and post-stretching. To assess muscle stiffness, muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement (the length changes in tendon and muscle) and MTJ angle (the angle made by the tendon of insertion and muscle fascicle) of MG were measured using ultrasonography at an ankle dorsiflexion angle of -10°, 0°, 10° and 20° before and after SS and CS for 2 minutes in the pre- and post-stretching. MG hardness was measured using ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE). The results of this study indicate a significant effect of SS for ROM maximum, MTJ angle (0°, 10°, 20°) and RTE (10°, 20°) compared with CS (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in MTJ displacement between SS and CS. CS was associated with significantly higher NPT values than SS. This study suggests that SS of 2 minutes' hold duration significantly affected muscle stiffness and hardness compared with CS. In addition, CS may contribute to the elongation of muscle tissue and increased muscle strength.

  16. Muscle stiffness of posterior lower leg in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saeki, J; Nakamura, M; Nakao, S; Fujita, K; Yanase, K; Ichihashi, N

    2018-01-01

    Previous history of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a risk factor for MTSS relapse, which suggests that there might be some physical factors that are related to MTSS development in runners with a history of MTSS. The relationship between MTSS and muscle stiffness can be assessed in a cross-sectional study that measures muscle stiffness in subjects with a history of MTSS, who do not have pain at the time of measurement, and in those without a history of MTSS. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear elastic modulus, which is an index of muscle stiffness, of all posterior lower leg muscles of subjects with a history of MTSS and those with no history and investigate which muscles could be related to MTSS. Twenty-four male collegiate runners (age, 20.0±1.7 years; height, 172.7±4.8 cm; weight, 57.3±3.7 kg) participated in this study; 14 had a history of MTSS, and 10 did not. The shear elastic moduli of the lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior were measured using shear wave elastography. The shear elastic moduli of the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior were significantly higher in subjects with a history of MTSS than in those with no history. However, there was no significant difference in the shear elastic moduli of other muscles. The results of this study suggest that flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior stiffness could be related to MTSS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Laparoscopic Harvest of the Rectus Abdominis for Perineal Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Agochukwu, Nneamaka; Bonaroti, Alisha; Beck, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Summary: The rectus abdominis is a workhorse flap for perineal reconstruction, in particular after abdominoperineal resection (APR). Laparoscopic and robotic techniques for abdominoperineal surgery are becoming more common. The open harvest of the rectus abdominis negates the advantages of these minimally invasive approaches. (Sentence relating to advantages of laparoscopic rectus deleted here.) We present our early experience with laparoscopic harvest of the rectus muscle for perineal reconstruction. Three laparoscopic unilateral rectus abdominis muscle harvests were performed for perineal reconstruction following minimally invasive colorectal and urological procedures. The 2 patients who underwent APR also had planned external perineal skin reconstruction with local flaps. (Sentence deleted here to shorten abstract.) All rectus muscle harvests were performed laparoscopically. Two were for perineal reconstruction following laparoscopic APR, and 1 was for anterior vaginal wall reconstruction. This was done with 4 ports positioned on the contralateral abdomen. The average laparoscopic harvest time was 60–90 minutes. The rectus muscle remained viable in all cases. One patient developed partial necrosis of a posterior thigh fasciocutaneous flap after cancer recurrence. There were no pelvic abscesses, or abdominal wall hernias. Laparoscopic harvest of the rectus appears to be a cost-effective, reliable, and reproducible procedure for perineal with minimal donor-site morbidity. Larger clinical studies are needed to further establish the efficacy and advantages of the laparoscopic rectus for perineal reconstruction. PMID:29263976

  18. An alternative treatment modality in closing bladder exstrophy: use of rectus abdominus muscle flap--preliminary results in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Büyükünal, S N; Kaner, G; Celayir, S

    1989-06-01

    The aim of this study was to find a new alternate method for bladder exstrophies with small capacity and inelasticity, and to resolve complications of other bladder augmentation techniques. In 50 Wistar albino rats, a large bladder defect was created excising at least one half of their original bladder, keeping the peritrigonal zone intact. In each rat, a 2.5 x 1-cm inferiorly based rectus abdominus muscle flap was prepared from the lower abdominal quadrant. This flap was then rotated to cover the bladder defect. The inner layer formed by the peritoneum was sutured to the edges of the bladder defect by 6-0 separate sutures. The post-operative radiologic and scintigraphic examination of the urinary system done at different intervals showed no difference from that of normal rats. The only observed disadvantage of this technique was the formation of calculi in the bladder in 8/50 rats in the late post-operative period. Post-mortem histopathologic investigations performed at different intervals showed the inner layer of the flap to be completely covered by the transitional urinary epithelium of the bladder. We think this technique is easy to perform, non-time-consuming, and has a low complication rate. It may be useful in infants with small, noncompliant, inelastic bladder exstrophies.

  19. Rectus sheath hematoma: three case reports

    PubMed Central

    Kapan, Selin; Turhan, Ahmet N; Alis, Halil; Kalayci, Mustafa U; Hatipoglu, Sinan; Yigitbas, Hakan; Aygun, Ersan

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon cause of acute abdominal pain. It is an accumulation of blood in the sheath of the rectus abdominis, secondary to rupture of an epigastric vessel or muscle tear. It could occur spontaneously or after trauma. They are usually located infraumblically and often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen, inflammatory diseases or tumours of the abdomen. Case presentation We reported three cases of rectus sheath hematoma presenting with a mass in the abdomen and diagnosed by computerized tomography. The patients recovered uneventfully after bed rest, intravenous fluid replacement, blood transfusion and analgesic treatment. Conclusion Rectus sheath hematoma is a rarely seen pathology often misdiagnosed as acute abdomen that may lead to unnecessary laparotomies. Computerized tomography must be chosen for definitive diagnosis since ultrasonography is subject to error due to misinterpretation of the images. Main therapy is conservative management. PMID:18221529

  20. [Slipped superior rectus in Grave's orbitopathy. A case report].

    PubMed

    Spielmann, A C

    2007-02-01

    Superior rectus slippage after its surgical recession is characterized by short-term progressive overcorrection. Similarities with inferior rectus slippage are pronounced, especially a history of Grave's orbitopathy and the use of an adjustable suture. In the present clinical case, upper eyelid retraction and a history of upper eyelid elevator muscle surgery might be specific risk factors, due to the close anatomical links between the superior rectus and the upper eyelid elevator.

  1. Combined lateral rectus augmented transposition and inferior rectus recession for monocular elevation deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jayakumar, Manjula; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Agarwal, Amar

    2018-04-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old woman who presented with a drooping right upper eyelid and smaller-appearing right eye, evident since birth. Her visual acuity was 20/30 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. In primary gaze she had a hypotropia of 25 Δ , with a marked elevation limitation and associated true upper lid ptosis of 3 mm. Under local anesthesia, the lateral rectus muscle was transposed to the superior rectus muscle and was augmented by a nonabsorbable suture attaching the superior rectus muscle and lateral rectus muscle 8 mm posterior to the insertion, accompanied by an inferior rectus recession. One year after surgery she was orthophoric in primary position and showed improvement in elevation. The surgical procedure can be performed at the same time as the inferior rectus recession and reduces the risk of anterior segment ischemia. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of a pelvic wedge and belt on the medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a pelvic wedge and belt and investigated their effects on the selective activation of medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine adults were enrolled. The participants performed exercises without and with the pelvic wedge and belt, and the electromyographic activities of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles were recorded. [Results] The activity of the medial hamstring was increased significantly when using the pelvic wedge and belt, while the activity of the lateral hamstring did not differ significantly. [Conclusion] The pelvic wedge and belt provide a self-locked position during knee flexion in the prone position. Prone knee flexion in this position is an effective self-exercise for balanced strengthening of the medial hamstring.

  3. Effect of a pelvic wedge and belt on the medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Won-gyu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] This study developed a pelvic wedge and belt and investigated their effects on the selective activation of medial and lateral hamstring muscles during knee flexion. [Subjects and Methods] Nine adults were enrolled. The participants performed exercises without and with the pelvic wedge and belt, and the electromyographic activities of the medial and lateral hamstring muscles were recorded. [Results] The activity of the medial hamstring was increased significantly when using the pelvic wedge and belt, while the activity of the lateral hamstring did not differ significantly. [Conclusion] The pelvic wedge and belt provide a self-locked position during knee flexion in the prone position. Prone knee flexion in this position is an effective self-exercise for balanced strengthening of the medial hamstring. PMID:28210048

  4. Muscle contributions to medial tibiofemoral compartment contact loading following ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus and gracilis tendon grafts.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Jason M; Saxby, David J; Killen, Bryce A; Pizzolato, Claudio; Vertullo, Christopher J; Barrett, Rod S; Lloyd, David G

    2017-01-01

    The muscle-tendon properties of the semitendinosus (ST) and gracilis (GR) are substantially altered following tendon harvest for the purpose of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). This study adopted a musculoskeletal modelling approach to determine how the changes to the ST and GR muscle-tendon properties alter their contribution to medial compartment contact loading within the tibiofemoral joint in post ACLR patients, and the extent to which other muscles compensate under the same external loading conditions during walking, running and sidestep cutting. Motion capture and electromyography (EMG) data from 16 lower extremity muscles were acquired during walking, running and cutting in 25 participants that had undergone an ACLR using a quadruple (ST+GR) hamstring auto-graft. An EMG-driven musculoskeletal model was used to estimate the medial compartment contact loads during the stance phase of each gait task. An adjusted model was then created by altering muscle-tendon properties for the ST and GR to reflect their reported changes following ACLR. Parameters for the other muscles in the model were calibrated to match the experimental joint moments. The medial compartment contact loads for the standard and adjusted models were similar. The combined contributions of ST and GR to medial compartment contact load in the adjusted model were reduced by 26%, 17% and 17% during walking, running and cutting, respectively. These deficits were balanced by increases in the contribution made by the semimembranosus muscle of 33% and 22% during running and cutting, respectively. Alterations to the ST and GR muscle-tendon properties in ACLR patients resulted in reduced contribution to medial compartment contact loads during gait tasks, for which the semimembranosus muscle can compensate.

  5. Anatomical study of the opossum (Didelphis albiventris) extraocular muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Matheus, S M; Soares, J C; da Silva, A M; Seullner, G

    1995-01-01

    The anatomy of the extraocular muscles was studied in 10 adult opossums (Didelphis albiventris) of both sexes. Eight extraocular muscles were identified: 4 rectus muscles, 2 oblique muscles, the levator palpebrae superioris and the retractor ocular bulbi. The rectus muscles originate very close one to another between the orbital surfaces of the presphenoid and palatine bones. These muscles diverge on the way to their insertion which occurs at about 2 mm from the limbus. The levator palpebrae superioris originates with the dorsal rectus and is positioned dorsally in relation to it. The retractor ocular bulbi forms a cone which embraces the optic nerve and is located internally in relation to the rectus muscles. The dorsal oblique originates on the presphenoid bone and after a tendinous trajectory through a trochlea on the medial wall of the orbit, inserts into the ocular bulb. The only muscle arising from the anterior orbital floor is the ventral oblique. The main nerve supply for these muscles is the oculomotor, except for the dorsal oblique which is innervated by the trochlear nerve, and the lateral rectus which is innervated by the abducens nerve. The retractor ocular bulbi receives branches from the inferior division of the oculomotor nerve and some branches from the abducens nerve. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7649843

  6. [Autodermal plastics and transposition of musculus rectus abdominus for giant postoperative hernias].

    PubMed

    Ianov, V N

    2000-01-01

    For reduction of postoperative hernia relapses rate the technique of the autodermal plastics and transposition of musculus rectus abdominalis (MRA) was developed. This technique consists of two-sided transection of the lateral abdominal muscles (oblique and transverse) on the pararectal line, transposition of MRA together with their sheaths medially by autodermal continuous lacing to complete adaptation of the edges. Closing of the lateral muscle-aponeurotic defects was carried out with use of the double autodermal grafts which were prepared by Yanov's technique. This technique is indicated for giant postoperative hernias and pronounced diastase of the MRA in people with well developed abdominal muscles. This technique was used in 11 patients without complications after surgery. Long-term results are available for all the patients. The relapses were absent. The technique, developed by us, provides first of all restoration of physiological function of the MRA, and also closing of the abdominal wall muscle-aponeurotic defect.

  7. Properties of single motor units in medial gastrocnemius muscles of adult and old rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kadhiresan, V A; Hassett, C A; Faulkner, J A

    1996-01-01

    1. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of motor unit remodelling in the deficit that develops in the maximum isometric tetanic force (Fo) of whole medial gastrocnemius (MGN) muscles in old compared with adult rats. The Fo values and morphological data were determined for MGN muscles and eighty-two single motor units in muscles of adult (10-12 months) and sixty-two units in those of old (24-26 months) F344 rats. During an unfused tetanus, fast and slow (S) motor units were identified by the presence and absence of sag, respectively. Fast-fatigable (FF) and fast-fatigue-resistant (FR) units were classified by fatigue indices less than or greater than 0.50, respectively. 2. For old rats, whole MGN muscle Fo was 29% less than the value of 11.2 N measured for adult rats. The deficit in whole muscle Fo of old rats resulted from equivalent decreases in the number of motor units, 16% smaller than the adult value of ninety-seven, and in the mean motor unit Fo value, 14% less than the adult value of 117 mN. 3. With ageing, little motor unit remodelling occurred in FR units, whereas the S and FF motor units demonstrated dramatic, but opposing, changes. For S units, the number of units remained constant, but the number of fibres per motor unit increased 3-fold from 57 to 165. In contrast, the number of FF units decreased by 34% and the number of fibres per motor unit of the remaining units decreased to 86% of the adult value of 333. The age-related remodelling of motor units appeared to involve denervation of fast muscle fibres with reinnervation of denervated fibres by axonal sprouting from slow fibres. PMID:8782115

  8. Kestenbaum procedure on the vertical rectus muscles with simultaneous compensation of the induced cyclodeviation for nystagmus patients with chin-up or chin-down head posture.

    PubMed

    Schild, A M; Fricke, J; Rüssmann, W; Neugebauer, A

    2009-10-01

    Kestenbaum surgery is performed for nystagmus-related abnormal head posture, and symmetrically changes the position of both eyes to shift the null point to the primary position. Most patients with infantile nystagmus have their null point zone in a lateral gaze position. Less frequently, surgery can be performed to reduce chin-up or chin-down head posture. We report indications for, and the results of eight consecutive interventions performed according to the Kestenbaum principle for the reduction of a chin-up or chin-down head posture. In a retrospective study, the clinical findings for eight patients who consecutively underwent treatment in the University Eye Hospital of Cologne between 2001 and 2007 were investigated. The patients were aged 6 to 16 years; median age was 6.5 years. For all patients, surgery was to correct a chin-up or chin-down head posture due to infantile nystagmus. Preoperatively, five patients showed a chin-down, three a chin-up head posture. All vertical rectus muscles were recessed or tucked between 6 and 7 mm; the resulting cyclodeviation was reduced by an intervention on the superior oblique muscles (6 to 8 mm tucking, in the case of chin-down, or recession in the case of chin-up head posture). Surgery was successful in seven of the eight patients, with a reduction of the vertical head posture to less than 10 degrees. In the cases of chin-down posture, head posture was reduced to between 0 degrees and a maximum of 20 degrees in one case postoperatively (before the operation 20 degrees to 35 degrees ); in the cases of chin-up posture, to less than 8 degrees (before the operation 25 degrees to 35 degrees). One case showed no postoperative improvement in chin-down posture but a head turn to the left of up to 20 degrees; another case had a remaining chin-up posture of 8 degrees with a right turn of 15 degrees . Binocular vision was better or the same in all cases after surgery. For nystagmus patients with chin-up or chin-down head posture

  9. Measurement methods to assess diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM): A systematic review of their measurement properties and meta-analytic reliability generalisation.

    PubMed

    van de Water, A T M; Benjamin, D R

    2016-02-01

    Systematic literature review. Diastasis of the rectus abdominis muscle (DRAM) has been linked with low back pain, abdominal and pelvic dysfunction. Measurement is used to either screen or to monitor DRAM width. Determining which methods are suitable for screening and monitoring DRAM is of clinical value. To identify the best methods to screen for DRAM presence and monitor DRAM width. AMED, Embase, Medline, PubMed and CINAHL databases were searched for measurement property studies of DRAM measurement methods. Population characteristics, measurement methods/procedures and measurement information were extracted from included studies. Quality of all studies was evaluated using 'quality rating criteria'. When possible, reliability generalisation was conducted to provide combined reliability estimations. Thirteen studies evaluated measurement properties of the 'finger width'-method, tape measure, calipers, ultrasound, CT and MRI. Ultrasound was most evaluated. Methodological quality of these studies varied widely. Pearson's correlations of r = 0.66-0.79 were found between calipers and ultrasound measurements. Calipers and ultrasound had Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of 0.78-0.97 for test-retest, inter- and intra-rater reliability. The 'finger width'-method had weighted Kappa's of 0.73-0.77 for test-retest reliability, but moderate agreement (63%; weighted Kappa = 0.53) between raters. Comparing calipers and ultrasound, low measurement error was found (above the umbilicus), and the methods had good agreement (83%; weighted Kappa = 0.66) for discriminative purposes. The available information support ultrasound and calipers as adequate methods to assess DRAM. For other methods limited measurement information of low to moderate quality is available and further evaluation of their measurement properties is required. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of plantar intrinsic muscle training on medial longitudinal arch morphology and dynamic function.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Edward P; Cook, Patrick G

    2013-10-01

    A specific training program emphasizing the neuromuscular recruitment of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, colloquially referred to as "short foot" exercise (SFE) training, has been suggested as a means to dynamically support the medial longitudinal arch (MLA) during functional tasks. A single-group repeated measures pre- and post-intervention study design was utilized to determine if a 4-week intrinsic foot muscle training program would impact the amount of navicular drop (ND), increase the arch height index (AHI), improve performance during a unilateral functional reaching maneuver, or the qualitative assessment of the ability to hold the arch position in single limb stance position in an asymptomatic cohort. 21 asymptomatic subjects (42 feet) completed the 4-week SFE training program. Subject ND decreased by a mean of 1.8 mm at 4 weeks and 2.2 mm at 8 weeks (p < 0.05). AHI increased from 28 to 29% (p < 0.05). Intrinsic foot muscle performance during a static unilateral balancing activity improved from a grade of fair to good (p < 0.001) and subjects experienced a significant improvement during a functional balance and reach task in all directions with the exception of an anterior reach (p < 0.05). This study offers preliminary evidence to suggest that SFE training may have value in statically and dynamically supporting the MLA. Further research regarding the value of this exercise intervention in foot posture type or pathology specific patient populations is warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of thyroid eye disease and other factors in the overcorrection of hypotropia following unilateral adjustable suture recession of the inferior rectus (an American Ophthalmological Society thesis).

    PubMed

    Kerr, Natalie C

    2011-12-01

    Overcorrection of hypotropia subsequent to adjustable suture surgery following inferior rectus recession is undesirable, often resulting in persistent diplopia and reoperation. I hypothesized that overcorrection shift after suture adjustment may be unique to thyroid eye disease, and the use of a nonabsorbable suture may reduce the occurrence of overcorrection. A retrospective chart review of adult patients who had undergone eye muscle surgery with an adjustable suture technique was performed. Overcorrection shifts that occurred between the time of suture adjustment and 2 months postoperatively were examined. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, Anderson-Darling tests, generalized Pareto distributions, odds ratios, and Fisher tests were performed for two overcorrection shift thresholds (>2 and >5 prism diopters [PD]). Seventy-seven patients were found: 34 had thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, 30 had no thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, and 13 patients had thyroid eye disease and medial rectus recession. Eighteen cases exceeded the 2 PD threshold, and 12 exceeded the 5 PD threshold. Statistical analyses indicated that overcorrection was associated with thyroid eye disease (P=6.7E-06), inferior rectus surgery (P=6.7E-06), and absorbable sutures (>2 PD: OR=3.7, 95% CI=0.4-35.0, P=0.19; and >5 PD: OR=6.0, 95% CI=1.1-33.5, P=0.041). After unilateral muscle recession for hypotropia, overcorrection shifts are associated with thyroid eye disease, surgery of the inferior rectus, and use of absorbable sutures. Surgeons performing unilateral inferior rectus recession on adjustable suture in the setting of thyroid eye disease should consider using a nonabsorbable suture to reduce the incidence of postoperative overcorrection.

  12. The Role of Thyroid Eye Disease and Other Factors in the Overcorrection of Hypotropia Following Unilateral Adjustable Suture Recession of the Inferior Rectus (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Natalie C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Overcorrection of hypotropia subsequent to adjustable suture surgery following inferior rectus recession is undesirable, often resulting in persistent diplopia and reoperation. I hypothesized that overcorrection shift after suture adjustment may be unique to thyroid eye disease, and the use of a nonabsorbable suture may reduce the occurrence of overcorrection. Methods A retrospective chart review of adult patients who had undergone eye muscle surgery with an adjustable suture technique was performed. Overcorrection shifts that occurred between the time of suture adjustment and 2 months postoperatively were examined. Descriptive statistics, linear regression, Anderson-Darling tests, generalized Pareto distributions, odds ratios, and Fisher tests were performed for two overcorrection shift thresholds (>2 and >5 prism diopters [PD]). Results Seventy-seven patients were found: 34 had thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, 30 had no thyroid eye disease and inferior rectus recession, and 13 patients had thyroid eye disease and medial rectus recession. Eighteen cases exceeded the 2 PD threshold, and 12 exceeded the 5 PD threshold. Statistical analyses indicated that overcorrection was associated with thyroid eye disease (P=6.7E-06), inferior rectus surgery (P=6.7E-06), and absorbable sutures (>2 PD: OR=3.7, 95% CI=0.4–35.0, P=0.19; and >5 PD: OR=6.0, 95% CI=1.1–33.5, P=0.041). Conclusions After unilateral muscle recession for hypotropia, overcorrection shifts are associated with thyroid eye disease, surgery of the inferior rectus, and use of absorbable sutures. Surgeons performing unilateral inferior rectus recession on adjustable suture in the setting of thyroid eye disease should consider using a nonabsorbable suture to reduce the incidence of postoperative overcorrection. PMID:22253487

  13. Medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon unit, fascicle, and tendon interaction during walking in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lee; Carty, Chris; Modenese, Luca; Walsh, John; Boyd, Roslyn; Lichtwark, Glen

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates the in vivo function of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscle-tendon units (MTU), fascicles, and tendons during walking in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and an equinus gait pattern. Fourteen children with CP (9 males, 5 females; mean age 10y 6mo, standard deviation [SD] 2y 11mo; GMFCS level I=8, II=6), and 10 typically developing (6 males, 4 females; mean age 10y, SD 2y 1mo) undertook full body 3D gait analysis and simultaneous B-mode ultrasound images of the medial gastrocnemius and soleus fascicles during level walking. Fascicle lengths were analysed using a semi-automated tracking algorithm and MTUs using OpenSim. Statistical parametric mapping (two-sample t-test) was used to compare differences between groups (p<0.05). In the CP group medial gastrocnemius fascicles lengthened during mid-stance gait and remained longer into late-stance compared to the typically developing group (p<0.001). CP medial gastrocnemius fascicles shortened less during stance (1.16mm [SD 1.47mm]) compared to the typically developing group (4.48mm [SD 1.94mm], p<0.001). In the CP group the medial gastrocnemius and soleus MTU and tendon were longer during early- and mid-stance (p<0.001). Ankle power during push-off (p=0.015) and positive work (p<0.002) and net work (p<0.001) were significantly lower in the CP group. Eccentric action of the CP medial gastrocnemius muscle fascicles during mid-stance walking is consistent with reduced volume and neuromuscular control of impaired muscle. Reduced ankle push-off power and positive work in the children with CP may be attributed to reduced active medial gastrocnemius fascicle shortening. These findings suggest a reliance on passive force generation for forward propulsion during equinus gait. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  14. Extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma of the rectus sheath.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D B; Breidahl, W; Newman, J S; Devaney, K; Yahanda, A

    1997-08-01

    Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas (MSCs) are a rare form of chondrosarcoma which usually arise in bone. Extraskeletal chondrosarcomas constitute a minority (14-25%) of MSCs. We describe the imaging features of an extraskeletal mesenchymal chondrosarcoma that arose from the rectus abdominus muscle.

  15. Selective activation of human soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles during walking in water.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, T; Satoh, T; Nakazawa, K; Komeda, T; Yano, H

    2000-07-01

    During walking in water (WW) the vertical component of ground reaction forces decreases, while the greater propulsive force is required to move forward against the greater resistance of water. In such reduced gravity environment, Hutchison et al. (1989) have demonstrated that the relative activation of rat medial gastrocnemius (MGAS) increased compared to that of the soleus (SOL) during swimming, suggesting different effects of peripheral information on motoneuron excitability of these muscles. It is conceivable that both buoyancy and resistance of water have different effects on the activation patterns of triceps surae muscles during WW, since the reduced weight in water might decrease the peripheral inflow relating load information while greater volitional command might be needed to propel a body forward against the water resistance. The present study was designed to assess each peripheral inflow and efferent input by adjusting the load and walking speed voluntarily during WW. The aim of this study is to investigate the dissociative activation pattern between the SOL and the MGAS during WW.

  16. What happens to the rectus abdominus fascia after laparoscopic ventral hernia repair?

    PubMed

    Sickle, K R Van; Baghai, M; Mattar, S G; Bowers, S P; Ramaswamy, A; Swafford, V; Smith, C D; Ramshaw, B J

    2005-12-01

    One criticism of laparoscopic ventral hernia repair (LVH) is that the rectus muscles are not re-approximated to the midline, and the effect of LVH repair on the fascial edges is unclear. Progressive migration of the fascial edges toward the midline has been observed anecdotally, but objective evidence remains limited. The purpose of this study is to observe the effect of LVH repair on the rectus abdominus fascia. Patients undergoing LVH repair with defects > 10 cm in horizontal diameter were identified prospectively and enrolled. All were repaired laparoscopically with intraperitoneal placement of mesh (DualMesh, W.L. Gore and Associates) using a standard approach. Radio-opaque clips were placed at the fascial edges intraoperatively to mark the defect, and plain abdominal films were taken postoperatively (Time 1) to establish the initial distance between clips (measured in cm). A subsequent follow-up film was taken (Time 2), and the difference in clip distance per patient was recorded. Results were analyzed using a chi-squared test. Twelve patients qualified for analysis and their results were compared. Mean fascial defect size was 15.1 cm (range 8.3-22.0). With respect to change in clip distance from Times 1 to 2, three events were observed: (1) Diminished (i.e. medialized), (2) Enlarged, or (3) No Change. Ten patients (83%) medialized, one patient enlarged, and one patient showed no change (chi2 (d.f. = 2) 9.17, p < 0.0023). Medialization of the rectus abdominus fascia occurs in the majority of patients undergoing LVH repair. Causes for this phenomenon are unclear: however eliminating intrabdominal pressure with intraperitoneal mesh placement likely plays a role.

  17. Ankle and toe muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Junya; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nakao, Sayaka; Fujita, Kosuke; Yanase, Ko; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    A high proportion of flexor digitorum longus attachment is found at the posteromedial border of the tibia, which is the most common location of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Therefore, plantar flexion strength of the lesser toes could be related to MTSS; however, the relationship between MTSS and muscle strength of the hallux and lesser toes is not yet evaluated due to the lack of quantitative methods. This study investigated the muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of MTSS by using a newly developed device to measure the muscle strength of the hallux, lesser toes, and ankle. This study comprised 27 collegiate male runner participants (20.0 ± 1.6 years, 172.1 ± 5.1 cm, 57.5 ± 4.0 kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque of the plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion of the ankle were measured by using an electric dynamometer. MVIC torque of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and 2nd-5th MTPJ were measured by using a custom-made torque-measuring device. MVIC torques were compared between runners with and without a history of MTSS. MVIC torque of the 1st MTPJ plantar flexion was significantly higher in runners with a history of MTSS than in those without it. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the MVIC torque values of the 2nd-5th MTPJ plantar flexion and each MVIC torque of the ankle between runners with and without a history of MTSS. A history of MTSS increased the isometric FHL strength.

  18. Bilateral pedicled myocutaneous vertical rectus abdominus muscle flaps to close vesicovaginal and pouch-vaginal fistulas with simultaneous vaginal and perineal reconstruction in irradiated pelvic wounds.

    PubMed

    Horch, Raymund E; Gitsch, G; Schultze-Seemann, W

    2002-09-01

    Chronic postoperative pouch-vaginal and vesicovaginal fistulas after hysterectomy and irradiation to treat advanced cervical cancer do not respond to conventional treatment because of the low vascularity in the irradiated area. We present the successful repair of these complications in a female patient, in whom several vaginal and abdominal approaches had been tried and had resulted not only in failure but also in tissue loss and fibrosis and persisting fistulas. First, a synchronous vaginoabdominal approach using a vertical myocutaneous distally based rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was used successfully to close a pouch-vaginal fistula and simultaneously reconstruct the posterior vaginal wall. In a second approach, the persisting vesicovaginal fistula was closed by a right rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap while simultaneously reconstructing the anterior vaginal wall, closing the enterocutaneous stoma and performing an appendicovesicostomy as a continence channel for catheterization. Despite unfavorable local wound situations, including an enterocutaneous stoma through the rectus abdominis and various previous incision lines, the transfer of axially well-vascularized tissue can solve these problem wounds. Consecutive bilateral use of the rectus abdominis flap may be necessary to deal with extensive pelvic wounds. This technique should be considered as one repair modality in irradiated pelvic wounds with fistulas. Previous enterostomy is not a contraindication to the use of this flap.

  19. Fetal development of deep back muscles in the human thoracic region with a focus on transversospinalis muscles and the medial branch of the spinal nerve posterior ramus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tatsuo; Koizumi, Masahiro; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Jeong Hyun; Wang, Bao Jian; Murakami, Gen; Cho, Baik Hwan

    2011-01-01

    Fetal development of human deep back muscles has not yet been fully described, possibly because of the difficulty in identifying muscle bundle directions in horizontal sections. Here, we prepared near-frontal sections along the thoracic back skin (eight fetuses) as well as horizontal sections (six fetuses) from 14 mid-term fetuses at 9–15 weeks of gestation. In the deep side of the trapezius and rhomboideus muscles, the CD34-positive thoracolumbar fascia was evident even at 9 weeks. Desmin-reactivity was strong and homogeneous in the superficial muscle fibers in contrast to the spotty expression in the deep fibers. Thus, in back muscles, formation of the myotendinous junction may start from the superficial muscles and advance to the deep muscles. The fact that developing intramuscular tendons were desmin-negative suggested little possibility of a secondary change from the muscle fibers to tendons. We found no prospective spinalis muscle or its tendinous connections with other muscles. Instead, abundant CD68-positive macrophages along the spinous process at 15 weeks suggested a change in muscle attachment, an event that may result in a later formation of the spinalis muscle. S100-positive intramuscular nerves exhibited downward courses from the multifidus longus muscle in the original segment to the rotatores brevis muscles in the inferiorly adjacent level. The medial cutaneous nerve had already reached the thoracolumbar fascia at 9 weeks, but by 15 weeks the nerve could not penetrate the trapezius muscle. Finally, we propose a folded myotomal model of the primitive transversospinalis muscle that seems to explain a fact that the roofing tile-like configuration of nerve twigs in the semispinalis muscle is reversed in the multifidus and rotatores muscles. PMID:21954879

  20. A new teaching model for demonstrating the movement of the extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Joe; Refsland, Jason; Iovino, Lee; Holley, Gary; Laws, Tyler; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    The extraocular muscles consist of the superior, inferior, lateral, and medial rectus muscles and the superior and inferior oblique muscles. This study aimed to create a new teaching model for demonstrating the function of the extraocular muscles. A coronal section of the head was prepared and sutures attached to the levator palpebral superioris muscle and six extraocular muscles. Tension was placed on each muscle from a posterior approach and movement of the eye documented from an anterior view. All movements were clearly seen less than that of the inferior rectus muscle. To our knowledge, this is the first cadaveric teaching model for demonstrating the movements of the extraocular muscles. Clin. Anat. 30:733-735, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Role of the medial medullary reticular formation in relaying vestibular signals to the diaphragm and abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mori, R. L.; Bergsman, A. E.; Holmes, M. J.; Yates, B. J.

    2001-01-01

    Changes in posture can affect the resting length of respiratory muscles, requiring alterations in the activity of these muscles if ventilation is to be unaffected. Recent studies have shown that the vestibular system contributes to altering respiratory muscle activity during movement and changes in posture. Furthermore, anatomical studies have demonstrated that many bulbospinal neurons in the medial medullary reticular formation (MRF) provide inputs to phrenic and abdominal motoneurons; because this region of the reticular formation receives substantial vestibular and other movement-related input, it seems likely that medial medullary reticulospinal neurons could adjust the activity of respiratory motoneurons during postural alterations. The objective of the present study was to determine whether functional lesions of the MRF affect inspiratory and expiratory muscle responses to activation of the vestibular system. Lidocaine or muscimol injections into the MRF produced a large increase in diaphragm and abdominal muscle responses to vestibular stimulation. These vestibulo-respiratory responses were eliminated following subsequent chemical blockade of descending pathways in the lateral medulla. However, inactivation of pathways coursing through the lateral medulla eliminated excitatory, but not inhibitory, components of vestibulo-respiratory responses. The simplest explanation for these data is that MRF neurons that receive input from the vestibular nuclei make inhibitory connections with diaphragm and abdominal motoneurons, whereas a pathway that courses laterally in the caudal medulla provides excitatory vestibular inputs to these motoneurons.

  2. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (p<0.01). Eighteen (60%) patients had ptosis, six (20%) of whom had bilateral ptosis. Diagnosing myasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Runx2 Expression in Smooth Muscle Cells Is Required for Arterial Medial Calcification in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Mu-En; Chen, Theodore; Leaf, Elizabeth M.; Speer, Mei Y.; Giachelli, Cecilia M.

    2016-01-01

    Arterial medial calcification (AMC) is a hallmark of aging, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) transition to an osteogenic phenotype is a common feature of AMC, and is preceded by expression of runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), a master regulator of bone development. Whether SMC-specific Runx2 expression is required for osteogenic phenotype change and AMC remains unknown. We therefore created an improved targeting construct to generate mice with floxed Runx2 alleles (Runx2f/f) that do not produce truncated Runx2 proteins after Cre recombination, thereby preventing potential off-target effects. SMC-specific deletion using SM22–recombinase transgenic allele mice (Runx2ΔSM) led to viable mice with normal bone and arterial morphology. After vitamin D overload, arterial SMCs in Runx2f/f mice expressed Runx2, underwent osteogenic phenotype change, and developed severe AMC. In contrast, vitamin D–treated Runx2ΔSM mice had no Runx2 in blood vessels, maintained SMC phenotype, and did not develop AMC. Runx2 deletion did not affect serum calcium, phosphate, fibroblast growth factor-23, or alkaline phosphatase levels. In vitro, Runx2f/f SMCs calcified to a much greater extent than those derived from Runx2ΔSM mice. These data indicate a critical role of Runx2 in SMC osteogenic phenotype change and mineral deposition in a mouse model of AMC, suggesting that Runx2 and downstream osteogenic pathways in SMCs may be useful therapeutic targets for treating or preventing AMC in high-risk patients. PMID:25987250

  4. Rectus sheath catheters for continuous analgesia after upper abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Cornish, Philip; Deacon, Alf

    2007-01-01

    The segmental nerves T6-T11 pass through and innervate the rectus abdominis muscle and overlying skin. The arcuate lines compartmentalize the rectus, but they are deficient posteriorly and hence a catheter tunnelled into the posterior sheath can be used to achieve an effective continuous analgesic block. Volume is important to fill the compartment. It is a simple surgical procedure that has several advantages and appears a viable alternative to epidural analgesia.

  5. Correlation between extraocular muscle size and motility restriction in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Dagi, Lora R; Zoumalan, Christopher I; Konrad, Hindola; Trokel, Stephen L; Kazim, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Evaluate the relationship between extraocular muscle (EOM) size, measured by computed tomography, and ocular motility in thyroid eye disease (TED). This case series is based on a retrospective review of the records of 54 patients (108 orbits) with TED. Main outcome measures included EOM size and degree of motility restriction. The average diameter of each rectus muscle was compared with published norms. Four subpopulations based on Age (< 40 or ≥ 40 years) and State of thyroid eye disease (active or stable) were studied. Versions were measured by the corneal light reflex method. The trend of muscle diameter versus motility restriction was evaluated. The average EOM diameter was greater than the norm in the study cohort and 4 subpopulations. The average diameter was largest in the Older and Active TED subpopulations. The inferior rectus and medial rectus were most frequently restricted in the study cohort and 4 subpopulations. The medial rectus had the strongest trend between increasing diameter and motility restriction, followed by the inferior rectus and the superior muscle group (comprised of the superior rectus and levator palpebrae superioris). However, there was a general lack of strong correlation between the diameter of the rectus muscles and their respective motility, especially in the Younger subpopulation. EOM diameters are larger and have more restricted motility in the Older and Active TED subpopulations. Contrary to prior publications, the correlation between EOM diameters and motility was weak, especially in the Younger subpopulation. These findings suggest that the pathophysiology of EOM enlargement is different based upon the age of the patient and the activity of the orbitopathy.

  6. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening

    PubMed Central

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G.; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda M.; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children. PMID:27861523

  7. Knee Moment-Angle Characteristics and Semitendinosus Muscle Morphology in Children with Spastic Paresis Selected for Medial Hamstring Lengthening.

    PubMed

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2016-01-01

    To increase knee range of motion and improve gait in children with spastic paresis (SP), the semitendinosus muscle (ST) amongst other hamstring muscles is frequently lengthened by surgery, but with variable success. Little is known about how the pre-surgical mechanical and morphological characteristics of ST muscle differ between children with SP and typically developing children (TD). The aims of this study were to assess (1) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology in children with SP selected for medial hamstring lengthening differ from TD children, as well as (2) how knee moment-angle characteristics and ST morphology are related. In nine SP and nine TD children, passive knee moment-angle characteristics and morphology of ST (i.e. fascicle length, muscle belly length, tendon length, physiological cross-sectional area, and volume) were assessed by hand-held dynamometry and freehand 3D ultrasound, respectively. At net knee flexion moments above 0.5 Nm, more flexed knee angles were found for SP compared to TD children. The measured knee angle range between 0 and 4 Nm was 30% smaller in children with SP. Muscle volume, physiological cross-sectional area, and fascicle length normalized to femur length were smaller in SP compared to TD children (62%, 48%, and 18%, respectively). Sixty percent of the variation in knee angles at 4 Nm net knee moment was explained by ST fascicle length. Altered knee moment-angle characteristics indicate an increased ST stiffness in SP children. Morphological observations indicate that in SP children planned for medial hamstring lengthening, the longitudinal and cross-sectional growth of ST muscle fibers is reduced. The reduced fascicle length can partly explain the increased ST stiffness and, hence, a more flexed knee joint in these SP children.

  8. Limb muscle quality and quantity in elderly adults with dynapenia but not sarcopenia: An ultrasound imaging study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Jan, Wei Han; Han, Der-Sheng

    2018-03-28

    Dynapenia is prevalent in people with reduced skeletal muscle mass, i.e. sarcopenia, but a certain population develops muscle strength loss despite having normal skeletal muscle volume. To date, studies investigating muscle quality and quantity in groups with dynapenia but not sarcopenia are limited. Echogenicity and thickness of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, rectus femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles were measured using high-resolution ultrasonography in 140 community-dwelling elderly adults. Participants with decreased handgrip strength but normal muscular volume were diagnosed as having dynapenia without sarcopenia. A multivariate regression model was used to analyze the association between dynapenia and ultrasound indicators of the sampled muscle expressed as odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 140 participants were recruited for the study, 12.6% (n = 18) of whom had dynapenia. The dynapenia group had a higher mean age, higher proportion of women, slower fast gait speed, reduced handgrip strength, and decreased thicknesses of the biceps brachii, rectus femoris, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, dynapenia was associated with older age (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.33), higher body mass index (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.05 to 1.64), and decreased thicknesses of the rectus femoris (OR, 0.01; 95% CI, <0.01 to 0.24) and medial gastrocnemius muscles (OR, 0.03; 95% CI, <0.01 to 0.61). Dynapenia without sarcopenia is associated with decreased thicknesses of the rectus femoris and medial gastrocnemius muscles, an association that remains significant after adjustment for demographics, body composition, and physical performance. Ultrasound measurements of lower-limb muscle thickness can be considered an auxiliary criterion for evaluating dynapenia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rectus Femoris Tendon Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zini, Raul; Panascì, Manlio; Papalia, Rocco; Franceschi, Francesco; Vasta, Sebastiano; Denaro, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since it was developed, hip arthroscopy has become the favored treatment for femoroacetabular impingement. Due to recent considerable improvements, the indications for this technique have been widely extended. Injuries of the rectus femoris tendon origin, after an acute phase, could result in a chronic tendinopathy with calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition, leading to pain and loss of function. Traditionally, this condition is addressed by local injection of anesthetic and corticosteroids or, when conservative measures fail, by open excision of the calcific lesion by an anterior approach. Purpose: To assess whether arthroscopic excision of calcification of the proximal rectus is a safe and effective treatment. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Outcomes were studied from 6 top amateur athletes (age range, 30-43 years; mean, 32.6 years) affected by calcification of the proximal rectus who underwent arthroscopic excision of the calcification. Patients were preoperatively assessed radiographically, and diagnosis was confirmed by a 3-dimensional computed tomography scan. To evaluate the outcome, standardized hip rating scores were used pre- and postoperatively (at 6 and 12 months): the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Oxford Hip Score, and Modified Harris Hip Score. Moreover, visual analog scales (VAS) for pain, sport activity level (SAL), and activities of daily living (ADL) were also used. Results: One year after surgery, all patients reported satisfactory outcomes, with 3 of 6 rating their return-to-sport level as high as preinjury level, and the remaining 3 with a percentage higher than 80%. Five patients ranked their ability to carry on daily activities at 100%. Statistical analysis showed significant improvement of the Oxford Hip Score, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and all 3 VAS subscales (pain, SAL, and ADL) from pre- to latest postoperative assessment (P < .05). Conclusion: Arthroscopic excision of

  10. Rectus sheath hematoma of the abdomen. Case report.

    PubMed

    Villena-Tovar, José Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma in the vast number of cases is due to an inferior epigastric artery tear occasionally due to trauma (not considered serious) or alterations in coagulation or use of anticoagulant therapy. It is an unlikely and difficult to diagnose pathology. We present the case of a 61-year-old female patient. The patient presented in emergency service with sudden abdominal pain caused by coughing as a result of an upper respiratory tract infection. The culmination was a spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. Rectus sheath hematoma is a diagnosis to consider in a previously asymptomatic patient who presents with clinical features of acute pain and appearance of increase of volume in the abdominal wall involving the rectus muscles.

  11. Rectus sheath haematoma: a rare masquerader for abdominal pain.

    PubMed

    Changal, Khalid Hamid; Saleem, Saad; Ghous, Ghulam

    2017-04-13

    Rectus sheath haematoma is a rare cause of abdominal pain. It can be easily confused for other causes of acute abdomen and may even lead to unnecessary laparotomies. Our patient has the rectus sheath haematoma because of violent coughing and on presentation had no obvious clinical sign pointing to the same. Diagnosis was made by a CT scan of the abdomen, and patient was treated conservatively. Rectus sheath haematomas are usually present on the posterior aspect of the rectus muscles and thus may not be clinically appreciable. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Long-term Outcomes After Same Amount of Bilateral Rectus Muscle Recession for Intermittent Exotropia With the Same Angle of Deviation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeng-Jin; Kim, Seong-Joon; Yu, Young Suk

    2018-06-18

    To evaluate long-term outcomes of homogenous bilateral rectus recession in patients with the same preoperative angle of deviation in intermittent exotropia and investigate factors associated with surgical outcomes. In this retrospective review, patients with the same preoperative angle of deviation who underwent bilateral 6-mm lateral rectus recession between January 2008 and January 2014 were observed for 2 or more years. Patients were classified into two groups based on deviation angle: success (orthophoria or exodeviation < 10 prism diopters [PD]) or recurrence (exodeviation ≥ 10 PD). Preoperative and postoperative ophthalmologic factors were compared between groups. The success and recurrence groups contained 50 and 49 patients, respectively. Preoperative maximum angle of deviation was 29.0 ± 1.8 PD at distance in the success group and 28.9 ± 1.8 PD in the recurrence group. Deviation at the 2-year follow-up was 3.7 ± 3.7 and 18.3 ± 5.3 PD in the success and recurrence groups, respectively (P < .001). Preoperative factors were not significantly different between groups except for presence of lateral incomitance; success group patients presented more lateral incomitance (P = .035). The success group also presented more esodeviation just after the operation and showed a more stable course during follow-up. Surgical outcomes of patients with 10 PD or more of esodeviation 1 week postoperatively were significantly more favorable than patients with less than 10 PD of esodeviation (P = .027, log-rank test). Presence of lateral incomitance and early postoperative overcorrection were significantly associated with favorable surgical outcome and should be considered when planning intermittent exotropia surgery. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 201X;XX(X):XXXX.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Extraocular muscle proprioception and eye position.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Draicchio, F; Errico, P; Santarelli, R; Manni, E

    1995-03-01

    In the lamb, acute unilateral section of the ophthalmic branch induced in the ipsilateral eye occasional oscillations of the resting position and misalignment of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) with respect to the stimulus. Additional electrolytic lesion of the cells innervating the proprioceptors of the medial rectus muscle, or of the lateral rectus muscle in the contralateral semilunar ganglion, provoked a 4 degrees-7 degrees consensual eye deviation towards and away from the lesioned side, respectively. The optokinetic beating field was similarly deviated. Under these experimental conditions, HVOR showed enhanced gain and marked misalignment in both eyes. Therefore, the selective suppression of muscular proprioceptive input deviated both eyes towards the direction opposite to the muscle whose gangliar proprioceptive representation has been destroyed.

  14. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Alla, Venkata M; Karnam, Showri M.; Kaushik, Manu; Porter, Joann

    2010-01-01

    Abdominal wall pathology is a frequently overlooked cause of acute abdomen. Increasing use of antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapies has led to an increase in the incidence of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (RSH). A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosis as it can closely mimic other causes of acute abdomen. Herein, we report a case of RSH presenting with abdominal pain in which there was a significant delay in diagnosis. We wish to highlight the need to increase awareness among primary and emergency physicians about considering RSH in the initial differential diagnoses of abdominal pain. PMID:20411082

  15. Motor unit recruitment and firing rate in medial gastrocnemius muscles during external perturbations in standing in humans.

    PubMed

    Pollock, C L; Ivanova, T D; Hunt, M A; Garland, S J

    2014-10-01

    There is limited investigation of the interaction between motor unit recruitment and rate coding for modulating force during standing or responding to external perturbations. Fifty-seven motor units were recorded from the medial gastrocnemius muscle with intramuscular electrodes in response to external perturbations in standing. Anteriorly directed perturbations were generated by applying loads in 0.45-kg increments at the pelvis every 25-40 s until 2.25 kg was maintained. Motor unit firing rate was calculated for the initial recruitment load and all subsequent loads during two epochs: 1) dynamic response to perturbation directly following each load drop and 2) maintenance of steady state between perturbations. Joint kinematics and surface electromyography (EMG) from lower extremities and force platform measurements were assessed. Application of the external loads resulted in a significant forward progression of the anterior-posterior center of pressure (AP COP) that was accompanied by modest changes in joint angles (<3°). Surface EMG increased more in medial gastrocnemius than in the other recorded muscles. At initial recruitment, motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop was significantly lower than during subsequent load drops or during the steady state at the same load. There was a modest increase in motor unit firing rate immediately after the load drop on subsequent load drops associated with regaining balance. There was no effect of maintaining balance with increased load and forward progression of the AP COP on steady-state motor unit firing rate. The medial gastrocnemius utilized primarily motor unit recruitment to achieve the increased levels of activation necessary to maintain standing in the presence of external loads. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The effects of a multisensory dynamic balance training on the thickness of lower limb muscles in ultrasonography in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Nam, Seung-Min; Kim, Won-Hyo; Yun, Chang-Kyo

    2017-04-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to investigate the effects of multisensory dynamic balance training on muscles thickness such as rectus femoris, anterior tibialis, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy by using ultrasonography. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen children diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy were divided randomly into the balance training group and control group. The experimental group only received a multisensory dynamic balance training, while the control group performed general physiotherapy focused balance and muscle strengthening exercise based Neurodevelopmental treatment. Both groups had a therapy session for 30 minutes per day, three times a week for six weeks. The ultrasonographic muscle thickness were obtained in order to compare and analyze muscle thickness before and after in each group. [Result] The experimental group had significant increases in muscle thickness in the rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius and lateral gastrocnemius muscles. The control group had significant increases in muscle thickness in the tibialis anterior. The test results of the rectus femoris, medial gastrocnemius and lateral gastrocnemius muscle thickness values between the groups showed significant differences. [Conclusion] In conclusion, a multisensory dynamic balance training can be recommended as a treatment method for patients with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy.

  17. Muscular activity of lower limb muscles associated with working on inclined surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ming-Lun; Kincl, Laurel; Lowe, Brian; Succop, Paul; Bhattacharya, Amit

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated effects of visual cues, muscular fatigue, task performance and experience of working on inclined surfaces on activity of postural muscles in the lower limbs associated with maintaining balance on three inclined surfaces—0°, 14° and 26°. Normalized electromyographic (NEMG) data were collected on 44 professional roofers bilaterally from the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialii anterior, and gastrocnemii medial muscle groups. The 50th and 95th percentile normalized EMG amplitudes were used as EMG variables. Results showed that inclination angle and task performance caused a significant increase in the NEMG amplitudes of all postural muscles. Visual cues were significantly associated with a decrease in the 95th percentile EMG amplitude for the right gastrocnemius medial and tibialis anterior. Fatigue was related to a significant decrease in the NEMG amplitude for the rectus femoris. Experience of working on inclined surfaces did not have a significant effect on the NEMG amplitude. PMID:25331562

  18. Risk factors for consecutive exotropia after vertical rectus transposition for esotropic Duane retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velez, Federico G; Laursen, Jessica K; Pineles, Stacy L

    2011-08-01

    To define risk factors for postoperative exotropia after vertical rectus transposition (VRT) for Duane syndrome. The records of patients with Duane syndrome who underwent augmented VRT were retrospectively reviewed; those with postoperative exotropia (study group) were compared with those with postoperative esotropia/orthotropia (controls). A total of 51 patients were included, of whom 14 were exotropic postoperatively. Of the 14, 6 became exotropic after augmented VRT, and 8 who were initially esotropic became exotropic after subsequent medial rectus muscle (MR) recession. Study subjects were significantly younger (2 ± 2 years vs 6 ± 10 years, P = 0.04) and demonstrated less restriction on intraoperative forced duction testing than control subjects. Subjects who became exotropic after MR muscle recession had significantly less esotropia at near (5.2(Δ) ± 6.5(Δ) vs 18.4 (Δ) ± 7.9(Δ) esotropia, respectively; P = 0.005) and in adduction (1(Δ) ± 2(Δ) exotropia vs 3(Δ) ± 4(Δ) esotropia, respectively; P = 0.02) than control patients who also underwent VRT and MR muscle recession. Forced duction testing was also significantly different among these groups (P = 0.03). Risk factors for exotropia after augmented VRT include younger age and less restriction on forced duction testing. Additional risk factors for exotropia after VRT and subsequent MR muscle recession include preoperative exotropia in adduction and smaller deviation at near. These factors may be useful in distinguishing patients at risk, allowing for consideration of less powerful procedures. Copyright © 2011 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Operative correction of abdominal rectus diastasis (ARD) reduces pain and improves abdominal wall muscle strength: A randomized, prospective trial comparing retromuscular mesh repair to double-row, self-retaining sutures.

    PubMed

    Emanuelsson, Peter; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Dahlstrand, Ursula; Strigård, Karin; Stark, Birgit

    2016-11-01

    The primary aim of this prospective, randomized, clinical, 2-armed trial was to evaluate the risk for recurrence using 2 different operative techniques for repair of abdominal rectus diastasis. Secondary aims were comparison of pain, abdominal muscle strength, and quality of life and to compare those outcomes to a control group receiving physical training only. Eighty-six patients were enrolled. Twenty-nine patients were allocated to retromuscular polypropylene mesh and 27 to double-row plication with Quill technology. Thirty-two patients participated in a 3-month training program. Diastasis was evaluated with computed tomography scan and clinically. Pain was assessed using the ventral hernia pain questionnaire, a quality-of-life survey, SF-36, and abdominal muscle strength using the Biodex System-4. One early recurrence occurred in the Quill group, 2 encapsulated seromas in the mesh group, and 3 in the suture group. Significant improvements in perceived pain, the ventral hernia pain questionnaire, and quality of life appeared at the 1-year follow-up with no difference between the 2 operative groups. Significant muscular improvement was obtained in all groups (Biodex System-4). Patient perceived gain in muscle strength assessed with a visual analog scale improved similarly in both operative groups. This improvement was significantly greater than that seen in the training group. Patients in the training group still experienced bodily pain at follow-up. There was no difference between the Quill technique and retromuscular mesh in the effect on abdominal wall stability, with a similar complication rate 1 year after operation. An operation improves functional ability and quality of life. Training strengthens the abdominal muscles, but patients still experience discomfort and pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute abdominal rhabdomyolysis after body building exercise: is there a "rectus abdominus syndrome?".

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H P; Bersch, W; Feustel, H P

    1983-01-01

    Report of a 19-year-old man who was admitted to the hospital after vigorous exercise with signs of the "acute abdomen" syndrome. Since intestinal reasons for the complaints were excluded, a myocardial infarction was considered. However, the excessively increased serum CK levels indicated a disorder of the voluntary muscles. A biopsy taken from the rectus abdominis revealed typical features of acute rhabdomyolysis, which was obviously restricted to the rectus abdominis. Together with a somewhat later observed autopsy case of a young male with acute abdominal rhabdomyolysis, also restricted to the rectus abdominis, this case gives rise to discuss, whether there exists a "rectus abdominis syndrome" analogous to the anterior tibial syndrome.

  1. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Muscles Located at the Site of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ato Ampomah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the location of the MTSS pain (posteromedial border of tibia) and the muscles that originate from that site. Method. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy of the School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, and involved the use of 22 cadaveric legs (9 paired and 4 unpaired) from 11 males and 2 females. Findings. The structures that were thus observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia were the soleus, the flexor digitorum longus, and the deep crural fascia. The soleus and flexor digitorum longus muscles were observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia. The tibialis posterior muscle had no attachment to this site. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that if traction is the cause of MTSS then soleus and the flexor digitorum muscles and not the tibialis posterior muscle are the likely cause of MTSS. PMID:27066291

  2. Changes in contractile properties and action potentials of motor units in the rat medial gastrocnemius muscle during maturation.

    PubMed

    Dobrzynska, Z; Celichowski, J

    2016-02-01

    The early phase of development of muscles stops following the disappearance of embryonic and neonatal myosin and the elimination of polyneuronal innervation of muscle fibres with the formation of motor units (MUs), but later the muscle mass still considerably increases. It is unknown whether the three types are visible among newly formed MUs soon after the early postnatal period and whether their proportion is similar to that in adult muscle. Moreover, the processes responsible for MU-force regulation by changes in motoneuronal firing rate as well as properties of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) during maturation are unknown. Three groups of Wistar rats were investigated - 1 month old, 2 months old and the adult, 9 months old. The basic contractile properties and action potentials of MUs in the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle were analysed. The three types of MUs were distinguishable in all age groups, but higher proportion of slow MUs was noticed in young rats (29%, 18% and 11% in 1, 2 and 9 months rats, respectively). The fatigue index for fast fatigable MUs in 1 month old rats was about 2 times higher than in 9 months old rats. The twitch time parameters of fast MUs were shortened during the maturation; for these units, the force-frequency curves in young rats were shifted towards lower frequencies, which suggested that fast motoneurons of young animals generate lower firing rates. Higher twitch-to-tetanus ratios noted for the three MU types in young rats suggested the smaller role of rate coding in force regulation processes, and the higher role of MU recruitment in young rats. No significant differences in MUAP parameters between two groups of young and adult animals were observed. Concluding, the maturation process evokes deeper changes in fast MUs than in slow ones.

  3. Lack of Effect of Ankle Position During the Nordic Curl on Muscle Activity of the Biceps Femoris and Medial Gastrocnemius.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Regan, Amy; Herrington, Lee; Thomas, Chris; McMahon, John; Jones, Paul

    2017-05-01

    Regular performance (~2×/wk) of Nordic curls has been shown to increase hamstring strength and reduce the risk of hamstring strain injury, although no consensus on ankle position has been provided. To compare the effects of performing Nordic curls, with the ankle in a dorsiflexed (DF) or plantar-flexed (PF) position, on muscle activity of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial gastrocnemius (MG). 15 male college athletes (age 22.6 ± 2.1 y, height 1.78 ± 0.06 m, body mass 88.75 ± 8.95 kg). A repeated-measures design was used, with participants performing 2 sets of 3 repetitions of both variations of Nordic curls, while muscle activity was assessed via surface electromyography (EMG) of the BF and MG. Comparisons of muscle activity were made by examining the normalized EMG data as the percentage of their maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Paired-samples t test revealed no significant difference in normalized muscle activity of the BF (124.5% ± 6.2% vs 128.1 ± 5.0%, P > .05, Cohen d = 0.64, power = .996) or MG (82.1% ± 3.9% vs 83.5 ± 4.8%, P > .05, Cohen d = 0.32, power = .947) during the Nordic curls in a PF or DF position, respectively. Ankle position does not influence muscle activity during the Nordic curl; however, performance of Nordic curls with the ankle in a DF position may be preferential, as this replicates the ankle position during terminal leg swing during running, which tends to be the point at which hamstring strains have been reported.

  4. Gemcitabine-induced rectus abdominus radiation recall.

    PubMed

    Fakih, Marwan G

    2006-05-09

    Radiation recall has been described in the context of gemcitabine chemotherapy. However, this phenomenon has been largely limited to skin. We hereby report a case of radiation recall dermatitis and myositis occurring on gemcitabine monotherapy, five months after completing chemoradiation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer. Radiation recall resolved spontaneously with withdrawal of gemcitabine. This is the second case report that describes gemcitabine-induced radiation recall in rectus abdominus muscles after gemcitabine-based radiation therapy. Given the wide use of gemcitabine following chemoradiation for pancreatic cancer, providers should be aware of this potential complication.

  5. Rectus abdominis atrophy after ventral abdominal incisions: midline versus chevron.

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, Y; Poli, E; Talamonti, M S; Haggerty, S P; Linn, J G; Ujiki, M B

    2017-08-01

    Although many outcomes have been compared between a midline and chevron incision, this is the first study to examine rectus abdominis atrophy after these two types of incisions. Patients undergoing open pancreaticobiliary surgery between 2007 and 2011 at our single institution were included in this study. Rectus abdominis muscle thickness was measured on both preoperative and follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans to calculate percent atrophy of the muscle after surgery. At average follow-up of 24.5 and 19.0 months, respectively, rectus abdominis atrophy was 18.9% greater in the chevron (n = 30) than in the midline (n = 180) group (21.8 vs. 2.9%, p < 0.0001). Half the patients with a chevron incision had >20% atrophy at follow-up compared with 10% with a midline incision [odds ratio (OR) 9.0, p < 0.0001]. No significant difference was observed in incisional hernia rates or wound infections between groups. In this study, chevron incisions resulted in seven times more atrophy of the rectus abdominis compared with midline incisions. The long-term effects of transecting the rectus abdominis and disrupting its innervation creates challenging abdominal wall pathology. Atrophy of the abdominal wall can not be readily fixed with an operation, and this significant side effect of a transverse incision should be factored into the surgeon's decision-making process when choosing a transverse over a midline incision.

  6. Acquired simulated brown syndrome following surgical repair of medial orbital wall fracture.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jong-uk; Lim, Hyun Taek

    2005-03-01

    Simulated Brown syndrome is a term applied to a myriad of disorders that cause a Brown syndrome-like motility. We encountered a case of acquired simulated Brown syndrome in a 41-year-old man following surgical repair of fractures of both medial orbital walls. He suffered from diplopia in primary gaze, associated with hypotropia of the affected eye. We performed an ipsilateral recession of the left inferior rectus muscle as a single-stage intraoperative adjustment procedure under topical anesthesia, rather than the direct approach to the superior oblique tendon. Postoperatively, the patient was asymptomatic in all diagnostic gaze positions.

  7. Effect of ageing on the force development in tetanic contractions of motor units in rat medial gastrocnemius muscle.

    PubMed

    Łochyński, Dawid; Kaczmarek, Dominik; Krutki, Piotr; Celichowski, Jan

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ageing on the rate of force generation of motor units, and the mechanical efficiency of contraction produced by a doublet discharge. The study was carried out on isolated motor units of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle of young (5-10 mo) and two groups of old (24-25 and 28-30 mo) Wistar rats. Motor units were classified into the fast fatigable (FF), fast resistant (FR) and slow (S) ones. The force output and rate of force development were determined for non-doublet unfused tetanic contractions evoked by a series of a constant-rate trains of pulses and corresponding doublet contractions starting with an initial brief interpulse interval of 5 ms, and for maximal tetanic contraction. In FF motor units the rate of force development and the force produced by the doublet discharge increased transiently at the age of 24-25 mo, while in S and FR motor units this increase was observed at the age of 28-30 mo. Age-related decrease in the rate of force development of skeletal muscle cannot be attributed to a decline in efficiency of force production by functioning motor units. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Role of Superior Oblique Posterior Tenectomy Along With Inferior Rectus Recessions for the Treatment of Chin-up Head Positioning in Patients With Nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Escuder, Anna G; Ranka, Milan P; Lee, Kathy; Nam, Julie N; Steele, Mark A

    2018-05-29

    To evaluate the clinical outcomes of bilateral superior oblique posterior 7/8th tenectomy with inferior rectus recession on improving chin-up head positioning in patients with horizontal nystagmus. Medical records were reviewed from 2007 to 2017 for patients with nystagmus and chin-up positioning of 15° or more who underwent combined bilateral superior oblique posterior 7/8th tenectomy with an inferior rectus recession of at least 5 mm. Thirteen patients (9 males and 4 females) were included, with an average age of 7.3 years (range: 1.8 to 15 years). Chin-up positioning ranged from 15° to 45° degrees (average: 30°). Three patients had prior horizontal muscle surgeries, 1 for esotropia and 2 for horizontal null zones causing anomalous face turns. Ten patients underwent other concomitant eye muscle surgery: 3 had esotropia, 1 had exotropia, and 2 had biplanar nystagmus null point requiring a horizontal Anderson procedure. Four patients underwent simultaneous bilateral medial rectus tenotomy and reattachment. All patients had improved chin-up positioning. Eight patients had complete resolution, whereas 5 had minimal residual chin-up positioning. Three patients developed an eccentric horizontal gaze null point with compensatory anomalous face turn with onset 2 weeks, 2 years, and 3 years postoperatively. Average follow-up was 42.7 months. No postoperative pattern deviations, cyclodeviations, or inferior oblique overaction were seen. No surgical complications were noted. Bilateral superior oblique posterior 7/8th tenectomy in conjunction with bilateral inferior rectus recession is a safe and effective procedure for improving chin-up head positioning in patients with horizontal nystagmus with a down gaze null point. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 201X;XX(X):XX-XX.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Recruitment of motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle during human quiet standing: is recruitment intermittent? What triggers recruitment?

    PubMed Central

    Loram, Ian D.; Muceli, Silvia; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and the rate of discharge of motor units are determinants of muscle force. Within a motoneuron pool, recruitment and rate coding of individual motor units might be controlled independently, depending on the circumstances. In this study, we tested whether, during human quiet standing, the force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is predominantly controlled by recruitment or rate coding. If MG control during standing was mainly due to recruitment, then we further asked what the trigger mechanism is. Is it determined internally, or is it related to body kinematics? While seven healthy subjects stood quietly, intramuscular electromyograms were recorded from the MG muscle with three pairs of wire electrodes. The number of active motor units and their mean discharge rate were compared for different sway velocities and positions. Motor unit discharges occurred more frequently when the body swayed faster and forward (Pearson R = 0.63; P < 0.0001). This higher likelihood of observing motor unit potentials was explained chiefly by the recruitment of additional units. During forward body shifts, the median number of units detected increased from 3 to 11 (P < 0.0001), whereas the discharge rate changed from 8 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) to 10 ± 0.9 pulses/s (P = 0.001). Strikingly, motor units did not discharge continuously throughout standing. They were recruited within individual, forward sways and intermittently, with a modal rate of two recruitments per second. This modal rate is consistent with previous circumstantial evidence relating the control of standing to an intrinsic, higher level planning process. PMID:21994258

  10. Recruitment of motor units in the medial gastrocnemius muscle during human quiet standing: is recruitment intermittent? What triggers recruitment?

    PubMed

    Vieira, Taian M M; Loram, Ian D; Muceli, Silvia; Merletti, Roberto; Farina, Dario

    2012-01-01

    The recruitment and the rate of discharge of motor units are determinants of muscle force. Within a motoneuron pool, recruitment and rate coding of individual motor units might be controlled independently, depending on the circumstances. In this study, we tested whether, during human quiet standing, the force of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is predominantly controlled by recruitment or rate coding. If MG control during standing was mainly due to recruitment, then we further asked what the trigger mechanism is. Is it determined internally, or is it related to body kinematics? While seven healthy subjects stood quietly, intramuscular electromyograms were recorded from the MG muscle with three pairs of wire electrodes. The number of active motor units and their mean discharge rate were compared for different sway velocities and positions. Motor unit discharges occurred more frequently when the body swayed faster and forward (Pearson R = 0.63; P < 0.0001). This higher likelihood of observing motor unit potentials was explained chiefly by the recruitment of additional units. During forward body shifts, the median number of units detected increased from 3 to 11 (P < 0.0001), whereas the discharge rate changed from 8 ± 1.1 (mean ± SD) to 10 ± 0.9 pulses/s (P = 0.001). Strikingly, motor units did not discharge continuously throughout standing. They were recruited within individual, forward sways and intermittently, with a modal rate of two recruitments per second. This modal rate is consistent with previous circumstantial evidence relating the control of standing to an intrinsic, higher level planning process.

  11. Rectus abdominis diastasis.

    PubMed

    Akram, Javed; Matzen, Steen Henrik

    2014-06-01

    Because of the lack of agreement on when rectus diastasis (RD) is pathologic, the aim was to investigate indications for surgical repair. This study presents classifications of RD, current knowledge on the relation to pregnancy, and conservative and surgical management. A systematic search in Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane, and Cinahl revealed 437 studies. Inclusion criteria were applied according to the above mentioned subjects of interest. In total 28 studies were included, representing 3725 patients, 11 of these by assessing reference lists of included studies. Only one RCT was found; most studies were case-series lacking statistical analysis. RD was common in post-partum women. Antepartum activity level may have a protective effect on RD and exercise may improve post-partum symptoms of RD. Repair was done during abdominoplasty or laparoscopically. The patient-satisfaction was high and long-term recurrence was reported by one study, while five reported no recurrence. Overall major complications were few, while minor complications were primarily seroma and wound complications. RD is by itself not a true hernia and, therefore, not associated with the risk of strangulation. Repair is mostly done due to cosmetic reasons. The condition does not necessarily require repair, and conservative management may be an alternative. If done, the protrusion of the abdomen, rather than the diastasis itself should influence the decision of repair. It is recommended that future studies use the established classifications (e.g. Beer, Rath, or Nahas) when reporting RD and long-term outcome of treatment. Comparison of surgical techniques and studies that address and compare conservative management with surgery are needed.

  12. Unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy and abnormal enhancement of extraocular muscles on magnetic resonance imaging of orbit after the ingestion of methanol.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tae Nyoung; Kim, Sun Wook; Park, Yoo Seok; Park, Incheol

    2010-05-01

    Methanol is generally known to cause visual impairment and various systemic manifestations. There are a few reported specific findings for methanol intoxication on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. A case is reported of unilateral blindness with third cranial nerve palsy oculus sinister (OS) after the ingestion of methanol. Unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve were confirmed by fundoscopy, flourescein angiography, visual evoked potential and electroretinogram. The optic nerve and extraocular muscles (superior rectus, medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscle) were enhanced by gadolinium-DTPA on MRI of the orbit. This is the first case report of permanent monocular blindness with confirmed unilateral damage of the retina and optic nerve, combined with third cranial nerve palsy after methanol ingestion.

  13. Effect of angular velocity on soleus and medial gastrocnemius H-reflex during maximal concentric and eccentric muscle contraction.

    PubMed

    Duclay, Julien; Robbe, Alice; Pousson, Michel; Martin, Alain

    2009-10-01

    At rest, the H-reflex is lower during lengthening than shortening actions. During passive lengthening, both soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) H-reflex amplitudes decrease with increasing angular velocity. This study was designed to investigate whether H-reflex amplitude is affected by angular velocity during concentric and eccentric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Experiments were performed on nine healthy men. At a constant angular velocity of 60 degrees /s and 20 degrees /s, maximal H-reflex and M-wave potentials were evoked at rest (i.e., H(max) and M(max), respectively) and during concentric and eccentric MVC (i.e., H(sup) and M(sup), respectively). Regardless of the muscle, H(max)/M(max) was lower during lengthening than shortening actions and the H(sup)/M(sup) ratio was higher than H(max)/M(max) during lengthening actions. Whereas no action type and angular velocity effects on the MG H(sup)/M(sup) were found, the SOL H(sup)/M(sup) was lower during eccentric than concentric MVC and this depression was increased with higher angular velocity. Our findings indicate that the depression of the H-reflex amplitude during eccentric compared to concentric MVC depends mainly on the amount of inhibition induced by lengthening action. In conclusion, H-reflex should be evoked during both passive and active dynamic trials to evaluate the plasticity of the spinal loop.

  14. Effect of orbital bony decompression for Graves' orbitopathy on the volume of extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Alsuhaibani, Adel H; Carter, Keith D; Policeni, Bruno; Nerad, Jeffrey A

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the change in the rectus muscle volume following orbital bony wall decompression for Graves' orbitopathy. We used a computer program (syngo Volume Evaluation) to measure the rectus muscles from the digital preoperative and postoperative orbital CT. Of the 25 patients (20 women and five men; mean age 46 (range 18-64) years) enrolled in the study. A significant increase (mean 0.23 ml (16.5%) of preoperative volume; p=0.005) in the volume of the medial rectus muscle (MRM) was detected postoperatively, whereas no significant changes were found in the volume of the other rectus muscles and between eyes that underwent surgery in the active and inactive phases of the disease. A significant negative association was observed between the time of postoperative CT scans and the change in the MRM volume (p=0.0004) (a mean increase of 68% of preoperative MRM volume for those measured between 3 and 9 months, and a mean decrease in the volume of 50% for those measured between 41 and 50 months). The change in the volume of the MRM may partly explain the variability in the proptosis reduction following orbital decompression.

  15. Generalized racemose livedo with cerebrovascular lesions (Sneddon syndrome): an occlusive arteriolopathy due to proliferation and migration of medial smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Marsch, W C; Muckelmann, R

    1985-06-01

    We describe two cases of livedo racemosa generalisata with cerebrovascular defects (Sneddon syndrome). The histology is characterized by a proliferation and migration of medial smooth muscle cells in ascending arterioles of the upper subcutis and deep dermis. Migrating smooth muscle cells with a high content of intermediate filaments colonize the sub-endothelial intimal space, with subsequent narrowing of the vessel lumen. Since the discoloration of the skin is provoked by a reactive dilatation of venules, the biopsy should be performed in the adjacent normal-looking skin, taking in the upper subcutis.

  16. Effects of flexor-pronator muscle loading on valgus stability of the elbow with an intact, stretched, and resected medial ulnar collateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Udall, John H; Fitzpatrick, Michael J; McGarry, Michelle H; Leba, Thu-Ba; Lee, Thay Q

    2009-01-01

    The medial ulnar collateral ligament (MUCL) is an important passive stabilizer to the valgus stresses that athletes experience during overhead throwing motion. However, the role of the flexor-pronator muscles as active stabilizers to valgus stress is not well defined in the literature. The objectives of this study were to quantify the relative contribution of the individual flexor-pronator muscles to valgus stability of the elbow and how this relationship was affected by ligament status. A custom elbow testing system and Microscribe 3DLX were used for biomechanical testing. Flexor-pronator muscles were loaded to simulate contraction, and the valgus angle of the elbow was measured in eight cadaveric specimens at 30 degrees , 60 degrees , and 90 degrees of elbow flexion with 3 different valgus torques applied to the forearm. Loads based on muscle cross-sectional area were applied to the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU), flexor digitorum superficialis (FDS), and pronator teres (PT). The effect of each muscle was evaluated by unloading the individual muscle while the other 2 remained loaded, resulting in 5 loading conditions: no muscles loaded, all muscles loaded, unloaded FCU, unloaded FDS, and unloaded PT. Valgus angle was measured for 3 MUCL ligament conditions: intact, stretched, and cut. The effect of muscle loading on valgus angle was similar for each ligament condition. Loading the flexor-pronator muscles significantly decreased valgus angle of the elbow in all testing conditions (P < .01). Unloading the FDS significantly increased valgus angle compared to all muscles loaded in all testing conditions (P < .016). Unloading the FCU and PT significantly increased valgus angle in less than half of the testing conditions. The FDS, PT, and FCU are all active stabilizers of the elbow to valgus stress. The FDS is the biggest contributor amongst the flexor-pronator muscles.

  17. Rectus abdominis overuse injury in a tennis athlete treated with traumeel.

    PubMed

    Natsis, Konstantinos; Lyrtzis, Christos; Papathanasiou, Efthymia; Anastasopoulos, Nikos

    2012-01-01

    Rectus abdominis injuries are common in tennis players at all levels of competition. Traumeel(®) injection can be used for treatment of muscle strains and hematomas. A 21-year-old female tennis athlete was injured on the non-dominant rectus abdominis during the cocking phase of the service motion. She suffered from pain and tenderness. One week later, during a serve, she experienced severe pain on the contralateral side of her abdomen. Conservative treatment was performed by the team physician with rest, ice therapy and analgesics for 20 days, but she had recurrent injuries. The ultrasonography and MRI showed hematoma of the rectus abdominis muscle. She was treated with 2 injections of Traumeel(®) on the 2(nd), 4(th), 6(th) post-traumatic day and received 1 injection on the 10(th) post-traumatic day. She also modified her serve technique. On the fourth post-treatment week the athlete had pain-free function and both the MRI appearance and the size of rectus abdominal muscle were normal. She returned to her sport activities. There is no recurrence of her injury 2 years later. Rectus abdominis hematoma must be diagnosed early. Traumeel(®) injections are effective, safe and well-tolerated for the treatment of overuse injury of the rectus abdominis following strain.

  18. Congenital Partial Absence of Trapezius with Variant Pattern of Rectus Sheath.

    PubMed

    Tigga, Sarika Rachel; Goswami, Preeti; Khanna, Jugesh

    2016-04-01

    Musculocutaneous pedicled/free flaps are an essential prerequisite for reconstructive surgery. Amongst the trunk muscles commonly harvested for flaps, the trapezius and rectus abdominis provide satisfactory coverage for cranial and trunk defects. unilateral/bilateral or partial congenital absence of trapezius muscle is well documented and may result in muscular imbalances compromising posture and limb movements. During routine cadaveric dissection, we encountered a case of bilateral partial absence of occipital part of the trapezius muscle. Concurrently, the ventral abdominal musculature displayed the aponeurosis of transversus abdominis muscle solely forming the posterior wall of the rectus sheath. These conjointly occurring anomalies advocate a compensatory strengthening of the anterior wall of rectus sheath in response to the congenital absence of occipital part of the trapezius, probably to counteract the postural instability. The present study focuses on recognition of compensatory mechanisms resulting from congenital variations as identification of such processes may prevent chronic debilitating conditions.

  19. Rectus abdominus free flap in the reconstruction of the orbit following subtotal exenteration.

    PubMed

    Weichel, Eric D; Eiseman, Andrew S; Casler, John D; Bartley, George B

    2011-01-01

    An 18-year-old woman with recurrent embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma underwent a right subtotal exenteration sparing the eyelids and conjunctiva to remove the tumor. A rectus abdominus muscle free flap was secured to the right temporalis muscle. The temporalis muscle was then advanced into the temporal fossa defect and the rectus abdominus flap placed into the right orbital cavity and right maxillary sinus. An ocular conformer was then placed and a lateral tarsorrhaphy was performed. This surgical technique provides rapid socket rehabilitation with good cosmesis and enables the use of a standard ocular prosthesis.

  20. [Effects of surgery on muscles on clinical and radiographic findings in the hip joint region in cerebral palsy patients].

    PubMed

    Schejbalová, A; Havlas, V

    2008-10-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Isolated or combined surgical procedures on muscles around the hip joint are currently indicated by many authors. In cerebral palsy patients they are regarded as essential intervention. MATERIAL In the years 2005-2007, surgery in the hip joint region was essential for 150 children between 3 and 18 years of age. At the time of surgery, the patients' locomotion ranged from stage 1 to stage 7 of the Vojta system. METHODS The outcome was evaluated by clinical and radiographic examination at 2 and 6 months post-operatively and hip migration percentage and Wiberg's CE angle were measured. RESULTS The best clinical and radiographic outcomes were achieved in children younger than 6 years of age. On the other hand, isolated transfer of the distal rectus femoris muscle significantly affected pelvis anteflexion in adolescent patients. The most marked decrease in migration percentage was found after adductor tenotomy combined with surgery on the iliopsoas muscle (55.6 %) or when the two procedures were combined with distal rectus femoris transfer. DISCUSSION Combined surigical procedures, i.e., adductor tenotomy, surgery on the iliopsoas muscle or rectus femoris muscle and medial hamstrings, with fixation using an abduction modified Atlanta brace, are effective in patients with marked lateral hip migration who are younger that 6 years. Isolated adductor tenotomy and distal transfer of the rectus femoris muscle markedly improve standing position in walking patients. CONCLUSION An appropriate combination of surgical procedures on muscles in the hip region and on medial hamstrings can significantly improve the patient's locomotion and, if lateral migration is present, help to avoid surgery on bones.

  1. Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in children with umbilical hernia: Case series.

    PubMed

    Alsaeed, Abdul Hamid; Thallaj, Ahmed; Khalil, Nancy; Almutaq, Nada; Aljazaeri, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Umbilical hernia repair, a common day-case surgery procedure in children, is associated with a significant postoperative pain. The most popular peripheral nerve blocks used in umbilical hernia repair are rectus sheath infiltration and caudal block. The rectus sheath block may offer improved pain relief following umbilical hernia repair with no undesired effects such as lower limb motor weakness or urinary retention seen with caudal block which might delay discharge from the hospital. Ultrasound guidance of peripheral nerve blocks has reduced the number of complications and improved the quality of blocks. The aim of this case series is to assess the post rectus sheath block pain relief in pediatric patients coming for umbilical surgery. Twenty two (22) children (age range: 1.5-8 years) scheduled for umbilical hernia repair were included in the study. Following the induction of general anesthesia, the ultrasonographic anatomy of the umbilical region was studied with a 5-16 MHz 50 mm linear probe. An ultrasound-guided posterior rectus sheath block of both rectus abdominis muscles (RMs) was performed (total of 44 punctures). An in-plain technique using Stimuplex A insulated facet tip needle 22G 50mm. Surgical conditions, intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, and postoperative analgesia by means of the modified CHEOPS scale were evaluated. ultrasonograghic visualization of the posterior sheath was possible in all patients. The ultrasound guided rectus sheath blockade provided sufficient analgesia in all children with no need for additional analgesia except for one patient who postoperatively required morphine 0.1 mg/kg intravenously. There were no complications. Ultrasound guidance enables performances of an effective rectus sheath block for umbilical hernia. Use of the Stimuplex A insulated facet tip needle 22G 50mm provides easy, less traumatic skin and rectus muscle penetration and satisfactory needle visualiza.

  2. Effect of Transducer Orientation on Errors in Ultrasound Image-Based Measurements of Human Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle Fascicle Length and Pennation

    PubMed Central

    Gandevia, Simon C.; Herbert, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is often used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles in human muscles in vivo. Theoretically the most accurate measurements are made when the transducer is oriented so that the image plane aligns with muscle fascicles and, for measurements of pennation, when the image plane also intersects the aponeuroses perpendicularly. However this orientation is difficult to achieve and usually there is some degree of misalignment. Here, we used simulated ultrasound images based on three-dimensional models of the human medial gastrocnemius, derived from magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images, to describe the relationship between transducer orientation and measurement errors. With the transducer oriented perpendicular to the surface of the leg, the error in measurement of fascicle lengths was about 0.4 mm per degree of misalignment of the ultrasound image with the muscle fascicles. If the transducer is then tipped by 20°, the error increases to 1.1 mm per degree of misalignment. For a given degree of misalignment of muscle fascicles with the image plane, the smallest absolute error in fascicle length measurements occurs when the transducer is held perpendicular to the surface of the leg. Misalignment of the transducer with the fascicles may cause fascicle length measurements to be underestimated or overestimated. Contrary to widely held beliefs, it is shown that pennation angles are always overestimated if the image is not perpendicular to the aponeurosis, even when the image is perfectly aligned with the fascicles. An analytical explanation is provided for this finding. PMID:27294280

  3. Effect of Transducer Orientation on Errors in Ultrasound Image-Based Measurements of Human Medial Gastrocnemius Muscle Fascicle Length and Pennation.

    PubMed

    Bolsterlee, Bart; Gandevia, Simon C; Herbert, Robert D

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is often used to measure muscle fascicle lengths and pennation angles in human muscles in vivo. Theoretically the most accurate measurements are made when the transducer is oriented so that the image plane aligns with muscle fascicles and, for measurements of pennation, when the image plane also intersects the aponeuroses perpendicularly. However this orientation is difficult to achieve and usually there is some degree of misalignment. Here, we used simulated ultrasound images based on three-dimensional models of the human medial gastrocnemius, derived from magnetic resonance and diffusion tensor images, to describe the relationship between transducer orientation and measurement errors. With the transducer oriented perpendicular to the surface of the leg, the error in measurement of fascicle lengths was about 0.4 mm per degree of misalignment of the ultrasound image with the muscle fascicles. If the transducer is then tipped by 20°, the error increases to 1.1 mm per degree of misalignment. For a given degree of misalignment of muscle fascicles with the image plane, the smallest absolute error in fascicle length measurements occurs when the transducer is held perpendicular to the surface of the leg. Misalignment of the transducer with the fascicles may cause fascicle length measurements to be underestimated or overestimated. Contrary to widely held beliefs, it is shown that pennation angles are always overestimated if the image is not perpendicular to the aponeurosis, even when the image is perfectly aligned with the fascicles. An analytical explanation is provided for this finding.

  4. Should the Ipsilateral Hamstrings Be Used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Case of Medial Collateral Ligament Insufficiency? Biomechanical Investigation Regarding Dynamic Stabilization of the Medial Compartment by the Hamstring Muscles.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Mirco; Michel, Philipp; Raschke, Michael J; Vogel, Nils; Schulze, Martin; Zoll, Alexander; Fink, Christian; Petersen, Wolf; Domnick, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Semitendinosus and gracilis muscles are frequently harvested for autologous tendon grafts for cruciate ligament reconstruction. This study investigated the joint-stabilizing effects of these hamstring muscles in cases of insufficiency of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). First, both the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles can actively stabilize the joint against valgus moments in the MCL-deficient knee. Second, the stabilizing influence of these muscles decreases with an increasing knee flexion angle. Controlled laboratory study. The kinematics was examined in 10 fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees using a robotic/universal force moment sensor system and an optical tracking system. The knee kinematics under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments were determined in the different flexion angles of the (1) MCL-intact and (2) MCL-deficient knee using the following simulated muscle loads: (1) 0-N (idle) load, (2) 200-N semitendinosus (ST) load, and (3) 280-N (200/80-N) combined semitendinosus/gracilis (STGT) load. Cutting the MCL increased the valgus angle under all tested conditions and angles compared with the MCL-intact knee by 4.3° to 8.1° for the 5-N·m valgus moment and 6.5° to 11.9° for the 10-N·m valgus moment ( P < .01). The applied 200-N simulated ST load reduced the valgus angle significantly at 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30° of flexion under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments ( P < .05). At 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion, these values were close to those for the MCL-intact joint under the respective moments (both P > .05). The combined 280-N simulated STGT load significantly reduced the valgus angle in 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments ( P < .05) to values near those for the intact joint (5 N·m: 0°, 10°; 10 N·m: 0°, 10°, 20°; P > .05). In 60° and 90° of flexion, ST and STGT loads did not decrease the resulting valgus angle of the MCL-deficient knee without hamstring loads ( P > .05 vs deficient; P = .0001 vs intact). In this

  5. Vertical muscle transposition with silicone band belting in VI nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    A woman aged 60 years developed a Millard-Gubler syndrome after a diagnosis of a cavernous angioma in the median and paramedian areas of the pons. In this context, she presented a right VI nerve palsy, right conjugate gaze palsy, facial palsy and left hemiparesis. To improve the complete VI nerve palsy, we planned a modified transposition approach, in which procedure we made a partial transposition of vertical rectus with a silicone band that was fixated posteriorly. After the procedure, the patient gained the ability to slightly abduct the right eye. We found no compensatory torticollis in the primary position of gaze. There was also an improvement of elevation and depression movements of the right eye. We obtained satisfactory results with a theoretically reversible technique, which is adjustable intraoperatively with no need of muscle detachment, preventing anterior segment ischaemia and allowing simultaneous recession of the medial rectus muscles, if necessary. PMID:27974341

  6. Bupivacaine injection remodels extraocular muscles and corrects comitant strabismus.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joel M; Scott, Alan B; Danh, Kenneth K; Strasser, Dirk; Sane, Mona

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and anatomic changes resulting from bupivacaine injection into extraocular muscles to treat comitant horizontal strabismus. Prospective, observational clinical series. Thirty-one comitant horizontal strabismus patients. Nineteen patients with esotropia received bupivacaine injections in the lateral rectus muscle, and 12 patients with exotropia received bupivacaine injections in the medial rectus. Sixteen of these, with large strabismus angles, also received botulinum type A toxin injections in the antagonist muscle at the same treatment session. A second treatment was given to 13 patients who had residual strabismus after the first treatment. Clinical alignment measures and muscle volume, maximum cross-sectional area, and shape derived from magnetic resonance imaging, with follow-up examinations for up to 3 years. At an average of 15.3 months after the final treatment, original misalignment was reduced by 10.5 prism diopters (Δ; 6.0°) with residual deviations of 10Δ or less in 53% of patients. A single treatment with bupivacaine alone reduced misalignment at 11.3 months by 4.7Δ (2.7°) with residual deviations of 10Δ or less in 50% of patients. Alignment corrections were remarkably stable over follow-ups for as long as 3 years. Six months after bupivacaine injection, muscle volume had increased by 6.6%, and maximum cross-sectional area had increased by 8.5%, gradually relaxing toward pretreatment values thereafter. Computer modeling with Orbit 1.8 (Eidactics, San Francisco, CA) suggested that changes in agonist and antagonist muscle lengths were responsible for the enduring changes in eye alignment. Bupivacaine injection alone or together with botulinum toxin injection in the antagonist muscle improves eye alignment in comitant horizontal strabismus by inducing changes in rectus muscle structure and length. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Tissue elasticity of in vivo skeletal muscles measured in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography.

    PubMed

    Chino, Kentaro; Kawakami, Yasuo; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure in vivo skeletal muscle elasticity in the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography and then to compare the image stability, measurement values and measurement repeatability between these imaging planes. Thirty-one healthy males participated in this study. Tissue elasticity (shear wave velocity) of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, biceps brachii and rectus abdominis was measured in both the transverse and longitudinal planes using shear wave elastography. Image stability was evaluated by the standard deviation of the colour distribution in the shear wave elastography image. Measurement repeatability was assessed by the coefficient of variance obtained from three measurement values. Image stability of all tested muscles was significantly higher in the longitudinal plane (P<0·001), but measurement repeatability did not differ significantly between the imaging planes (P>0·05), except in the biceps brachii (P = 0·001). Measurement values of the medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps brachii were significantly different between the imaging planes (P<0·001). Image stability and measurement values of shear wave elastography images varied with imaging plane, which indicates that imaging plane should be considered when measuring skeletal muscle tissue elasticity by shear wave elastography. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma: an Overview of 4-Year Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Aktürk, Okan Murat; Kayılıoğlu, Selami Ilgaz; Aydoğan, İhsan; Dinç, Tolga; Yildiz, Baris; Cete, Mükerrem; Erdoğan, Ahmet; Coşkun, Faruk

    2015-12-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is a clinical entity characterized by the presence of blood within rectus abdominis muscle sheath. The aim of this study was to analyze clinical characteristics, diagnostic approach, treatment strategy, and outcomes of patients with rectus sheath hematoma. Patients diagnosed and treated for spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma between March 2010 and March 2014 were included in the study. A total of 10 patients were diagnosed as spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. The mean age was 66.5 ± 16.9 years, and the mean hospital stay was 4.4 ± 1.8 days. There was no mortality. Six patients were using anticoagulant or antiplatelet agents. Eight patients recovered after conservative treatment. Two patients underwent surgery. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is associated with anticoagulant therapy. Cases with abdominal pain and a non-pulsatile abdominal mass particularly in elderly women should be kept in mind. Treatment is mostly based on supportive care to preserve hemodynamic stability.

  9. Spontaneous posterior rectus sheath hernia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ng, Chu Woon; Sandstrom, Anna; Lim, Grace

    2018-04-15

    Hernias of the posterior rectus sheath are very rare abdominal wall hernias with only a handful of cases reported in the literature to date. As an uncommon disease, it is important to recognize and report this case in order to enhance scientific knowledge of this disease. This case report presents a spontaneous posterior rectus sheath herniation in a 79-year-old white man with previous abdominal surgery for appendicitis. His herniation was discovered incidentally during an examination for his chief complaints of lower abdominal pain and diarrhea which were later diagnosed as Salmonella-related gastroenteritis. A computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis showed abdominal wall hernia with loops of small bowel extending into his rectus abdominis muscle. In this case, it was decided to leave the situation alone for now due to no evidence of bowel obstruction and the low risk of this hernia getting strangulated, which otherwise would have warranted urgent surgery. This report adds to the limited stock of available literature on this unusual issue and strengthens the evidence base on the best approach to support informed clinical decision making. The significant clinical implication of such case reports is increased identification rate of rare clinical conditions which otherwise often go unnoticed.

  10. The Fate of the Iliopsoas Muscle in Long-term Follow-up After Open Reduction With a Medial Approach in Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip. Part 2: Isokinetic Muscle Strength Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Serdar; Aksahin, Ertugrul; Ersoz, Murat; Bicimoglu, Ali

    2017-09-01

    The impact on long-term weakness of hip flexion of complete iliopsoas tenotomy during open reduction of developmental hip dysplasia with a medial approach has not yet been fully clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the isokinetic muscle strength (IMS) of hip flexor and extensor muscles in these patients and also to analyze the effect of spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas muscle on IMS measurements. The study included 20 patients. Earlier magnetic resonance imaging examination of all the patients revealed spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas in 18 (90%) patients. IMS measurements were performed at 60 and 150 degrees/s. The peak torque, total work (TW), average power (AP), work fatigue, and agonist to antagonist muscle ratio of the operated and nonoperated hips were recorded separately for flexors and extensors. The effect of iliopsoas reattachment on IMS was also evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 16.65±2.16 (13 to 20) years. Total work (P=0.013) and average power (P=0.009) of the flexor muscles and work fatigue of the extensor muscles (P=0.030) of the operated hip were significantly decreased when compared with the nonoperated hips at 150 degrees/s. There was no significant difference between the flexor muscles of the operated and nonoperated hips (P<0.05) at 60 degrees/s and extensor muscles (P<0.05) at 150 degrees/s. In addition, patients without reattachment had lower IMS in the operated hips. Flexor muscle strength was decreased in the operated hip against low resistance in long-term follow-up after iliopsoas tenotomy. This may reflect that hip muscle strength was decreased after prolonged activities such as sports. However, in forceful activities flexor muscle strength was retained due to iliopsoas reattachment. On the basis of this study we thought that spontaneous reattachment of the iliopsoas tendon substantially preserves muscle strength. Nonetheless possible efforts should be made to surgically reattach the psoas

  11. Medial gastrocnemius muscle growth during adolescence is mediated by increased fascicle diameter rather than by longitudinal fascicle growth

    PubMed Central

    Weide, Guido; Huijing, Peter A; Maas, Josina C; Becher, Jules G; Harlaar, Jaap; Jaspers, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional design, the purpose of this study was to determine how pennate gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle geometry changes as a function of adolescent age. Sixteen healthy adolescent males (aged 10–19 years) participated in this study. GM muscle geometry was measured within the mid-longitudinal plane obtained from a 3D voxel-array composed of transverse ultrasound images. Images were taken at footplate angles corresponding to standardised externally applied footplate moments (between 4 Nm plantar flexion and 6 Nm dorsal flexion). Muscle activity was recorded using surface electromyography (EMG), expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (%MVC). To minimise the effects of muscle excitation, EMG inclusion criteria were set at < 10% of MVC. In practice, however, normalised EMG levels were much lower. For adolescent subjects with increasing ages, GM muscle (belly) length increased due to an increase in the length component of the physiological cross-sectional area measured within the mid-longitudinal plane. No difference was found between fascicles at different ages, but the aponeurosis length and pennation angle increased by 0.5 cm year−1 and 0.5 ° per year, respectively. Footplate angles corresponding to externally applied 0 and 4 Nm plantarflexion moments were not associated with different adolescent ages. In contrast, footplate angles corresponding to externally applied 4 and 6 Nm dorsal flexion moments decreased by 10 ° between 10 and 19 years. In conclusion, we found that in adolescents' pennate GM muscles, longitudinal muscle growth is mediated predominantly by increased muscle fascicle diameter. PMID:25879671

  12. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in vascular smooth muscle cells is upregulated in cystic medial degeneration of annuloaortic ectasia in Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sakomura, Yasunari; Nagashima, Hirotaka; Aoka, Yoshikazu; Uto, Kenta; Sakuta, Akiko; Aomi, Shigeyuki; Kurosawa, Hiromi; Nishikawa, Toshio; Kasanuki, Hiroshi

    2002-09-24

    Cystic medial degeneration (CMD) is a histological abnormality that is common in annuloaortic ectasia (AAE) and aortic dissection with Marfan syndrome. Apoptosis and loss of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is one of the features of CMD, but little is known about its pathogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily, has been reported to show antiproliferative effects on VSMCs as well as anti-inflammatory effects on macrophages. PPARgamma agonist has been recently reported to induce apoptosis of cultured VSMCs. We examined the histopathology of ascending aortas in AAE of Marfan patients (n=21) and control patients (n=6) at surgery. RT-PCR was performed to demonstrate expression of PPARgamma in CMD. Localization of PPARgamma was determined by double immunostaining using antibodies against PPARgamma and cell-specific markers (ie, SMCs, macrophages, and T lymphocytes). PPARgamma expression was upregulated in AAE samples but minimal in control samples by RT-PCR (P=0.07). Immunoreactivity against PPARgamma in numerous nuclei of VSMCs was observed in CMD lesions. Severity of CMD correlated with positive immunoreactivity of PPARgamma in medial VSMCs (P=0.03). No inflammatory cells (ie, macrophages or T lymphocytes) were detected in CMD lesions. PPARgamma expression is upregulated in SMCs of CMD without any inflammatory response. Activated PPARgamma in VSMCs might be involved in the pathogenesis of CMD in Marfan's aortas. Regulation of PPARgamma might lead to clinical implication in protection against progression of AAE.

  13. Thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Tomoyuki; Urata, Teruo; Nemoto, Daisuke; Hitomi, Shigemi

    2017-03-01

    We report a case of thoracic empyema caused by Campylobacter rectus, an organism considered as a periodontal pathogen but rarely recovered from extraoral specimens. The patient fully recovered through drainage of purulent pleural fluid and administration of antibiotics. The present case illustrates that C. rectus can be a cause of not only periodontal disease but also pulmonary infection. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas in dengue hemorrhagic fever: A case report.

    PubMed

    Nelwan, Erni Juwita; Angelina, Frida; Adiwinata, Randy; Matondang, Sahat; Andriono, Prasetyo

    2017-01-01

    Muscle hematomas are rare complications in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). We report a case of 58-year-old-female admitted with dengue fever who developed spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma complicating DHF. She presented with progressive thrombocytopenia with platelet count reaching 13000/μL at its lowest point. There was evidence of plasma leakage and persistent cough during the course of illness. During the recovery phase, she reported severe abdominal pain and developed hematoma in the right rectus sheath, which was confirmed by abdominal computed-tomography scan and serial magnetic resonance imaging. This complication during convalescent period of DHF needs to be recognized so it can be managed appropriately.

  15. Surgical Management of Rectus Femoris Avulsion Among Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Barbosa, Nuno Camelo; Tuteja, Sanesh; Gardon, Roland; Daggett, Matt; Monnot, Damien; Kajetanek, Charles; Thaunat, Mathieu

    2017-01-01

    Background: Rectus femoris injuries are common among athletes, especially in kicking sports such as soccer; however, proximal rectus femoris avulsions in athletes are a relatively rare entity. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to describe and report the results of an original technique of surgical excision of the proximal tendon remnant followed by a muscular suture repair. Our hypothesis was that this technique limits the risk of recurrence in high-level athletes and allows for rapid recovery without loss of quadriceps strength. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Our retrospective series included 5 players aged 31.8 ± 3.9 years with acute proximal rectus femoris avulsion injuries who underwent a surgical resection of the proximal tendon between March 2012 and June 2014. Four of these players had recurrent rectus femoris injuries in the 9 months before surgery, while 1 player had surgery after a first injury. Mean follow-up was 18.2 ± 12.6 months, and minimum follow-up was 9 months. We analyzed the age, sex distribution, physical examination outcomes, type and mechanism of injury, diagnosis, treatment and complications during surgery, postoperative follow-up, and time to return to play. The Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Marx scores were obtained at 3-month follow-up, and isokinetic tests were performed before return to sports. A telephone interview was completed to determine the presence of recurrence at an average follow-up of 18.2 months. Results: At 3-month follow-up, all patients had Marx activity scores of 16 and LEFS scores of 80. Return to the previous level of play occurred at a mean of 15.8 ± 2.6 weeks after surgery, and none of the athletes suffered a recurrence. Isokinetic test results were comparable between both sides. Conclusion: The surgical treatment of proximal rectus femoris avulsions, consisting of resection of the tendinous part of the muscle, is a reliable and safe technique allowing a

  16. Lateral rectus myositis mimicking an abducens nerve palsy in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Haslinda, Abd-Rahim; Shatriah, Ismail; Azhany, Yaakub; Nik-Ahmad-Zuky, Nik-Lah; Yunus, Rohaizan

    2014-01-01

    Myositis is a rare unknown inflammatory disorder of the skeletal muscle tissue. Generalized inflammatory myopathies, polymyositis, and dermatomyositis have been reported during pregnancy. Isolated orbital myositis in pregnancy has not been previously described in the literature. The authors report a case of left isolated orbital myositis in a primigravida at 38 weeks gestation affecting the patient's left lateral rectus muscle. MRI of the orbit was consistent with the diagnosis. She showed remarkable clinical improvement with oral corticosteroids therapy.

  17. Wide abdominal rectus plication abdominoplasty for the treatment of chronic intractable low back pain.

    PubMed

    Oneal, Robert M; Mulka, Joseph P; Shapiro, Paul; Hing, David; Cavaliere, Christi

    2011-01-01

    A previous report demonstrated that the wide abdominal rectus plication abdominoplasty is an effective treatment modality in select patients with low back pain who failed to achieve relief with conservative therapy. The authors studied eight female patients who presented with chronic low back pain and marked lower abdominal wall muscular laxity. All had failed to respond to conservative management for their chronic back pain. They all underwent wide abdominal rectus plication abdominoplasty. Patient selection and details of the procedure are discussed. There were no significant complications in this series, and all the patients had prompt and prolonged alleviation of their back pain. Length of follow-up ranged from 2 to 11 years. Changes in the biomechanics of the lower abdominal musculature as a result of the wide abdominal rectus plication abdominoplasty are discussed in the context of increasing spinal stability, leading to an alleviation of chronic low back pain. An argument is made that this abdominoplasty procedure produces a spine-stabilizing effect by (1) tightening the muscles of the lateral abdominal complex and thus increasing intraabdominal pressure and (2) increasing the efficiency of these muscles so that their effectiveness as spine stabilizers is increased. Even though this is a small series, the fact that all the patients sustained long-term alleviation of their preoperative chronic back pain suggests that the wide abdominal rectus plication abdominoplasty should be considered as an option for patients with weak lower abdominal muscles and intractable low back pain who have failed conservative management.

  18. Blunt transection of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma with associated small and large bowel injury.

    PubMed

    Patel, K; Doolin, R; Suggett, N

    2013-01-01

    Closed rupture of rectus abdominis following seatbelt related trauma is rare. We present the case of a 45 year old female who presented with closed rupture of the rectus abdominis in conjunction with damage to small bowel mesentery and infarction of small and large bowel following a high velocity road traffic accident. Multiple intestinal resections were required resulting in short bowel syndrome and abdominal wall reconstruction with a porcine collagen mesh. Post-operative complications included intra-abdominal sepsis and an enterocutaneous fistula. The presence of rupture of rectus abdominis muscle secondary to seatbelt injury should raise the suspicion of intra-abdominal injury. Our case highlights the need for suspicion, investigation and subsequent surgical management of intra-abdominal injury following identification of this rare consequence of seatbelt trauma. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Medial gastrocnemius muscle stiffness cannot explain the increased ankle joint range of motion following passive stretching in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kalkman, Barbara M; Bar-On, Lynn; Cenni, Francesco; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Bass, Alfie; Holmes, Gill; Desloovere, Kaat; Barton, Gabor J; O'Brien, Thomas D

    2018-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can the increased range of motion seen acutely after stretching in children with cerebral palsy be explained by changes in the stiffness of the medial gastrocnemius fascicles? What is the main finding and its importance? We show, for the first time, that passive muscle and tendon properties are not changed acutely after a single bout of stretching in children with cerebral palsy and, therefore, do not contribute to the increase in range of motion. This contradicts common belief and what happens in healthy adults. Stretching is often used to increase or maintain the joint range of motion (ROM) in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but the effectiveness of these interventions is limited. Therefore, our aim was to determine the acute changes in muscle-tendon lengthening properties that contribute to increased ROM after a bout of stretching in children with CP. Eleven children with spastic CP [age 12.1 (3 SD) years, 5/6 hemiplegia/diplegia, 7/4 gross motor function classification system level I/II] participated. Each child received three sets of five × 20 s passive, manual static dorsiflexion stretches separated by 30 s rest, with 60 s rest between sets. Before and immediately after stretching, ultrasound was used to measure medial gastrocnemius fascicle lengthening continuously over the full ROM and an individual common ROM pre- to post-stretching. Simultaneously, three-dimensional motion of two marker clusters on the shank and the foot was captured to calculate ankle angle, and ankle joint torque was calculated from manually applied torques and forces on a six degrees-of-freedom load cell. After stretching, the ROM was increased [by 9.9 (12.0) deg, P = 0.005]. Over a ROM common to both pre- and post-measurements, there were no changes in fascicle lengthening or torque. The maximal ankle joint torque tolerated by the participants increased [by 2.9 (2.4) N m, P = 0.003], and at this highest passive torque the

  20. Effect of Subspine Decompression on Rectus Femoris Integrity and Iliopsoas Excursion: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    El-Shaar, Rami; Stanton, Michael; Biehl, Scott; Giordano, Brian

    2015-10-01

    To determine the relative influence of anteroinferior iliac spine (AIIS) or subspine decompression on proximal rectus femoris integrity and iliopsoas excursion throughout a physiological range of motion. Nineteen cadaveric hips from 10 specimens were dissected to retain the origin of the rectus femoris direct and indirect heads. The anatomic footprints of the origins were measured with calipers. Serial 5-mm resections of the AIIS were made to determine the extent of proximal tendon disruption that corresponded to each resection. Iliopsoas tendon tracking was also assessed after sequential AIIS decompression by measuring the excursion of the medial border of the iliopsoas tendon as it traveled from its native resting position to the point where it first encountered bony impingement at the AIIS. The mean proximal-distal footprint of the rectus femoris direct head was 17.95 ± 2.99 mm. The mean medial-lateral distance was 11.84 ± 2.34 mm. There was a consistent bare area along the inferior aspect of the AIIS that averaged 4.84 ± 1.42 mm. The average percentage of remaining footprint after each 5-mm resection (5 to 25 mm) was 96%, 65%, 35%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, with statistical significance noted after resections larger than 5 mm (P < .001). The native excursion distance of the iliopsoas tendon was 14.05 mm. With each 5-mm resection, the percentage of excursion before impingement on the AIIS increased by 18%, 45%, 72%, 95%, and 100%, respectively, which was statistically significance after all resections (P < .001). Our study maps the anatomic footprint of the direct head of the rectus femoris tendon and confirms a previously identified bare area along the inferior aspect of the AIIS. Female cadaveric hips had a significantly smaller rectus footprint than male cadavers in our study (P < .001). Subspine decompression greater than 10 mm significantly compromises the rectus femoris origin and should be avoided when performing arthroscopic AIIS decompression. In

  1. Perforator based rectus free tissue transfer for head and neck reconstruction: New reconstructive advantages from an old friend.

    PubMed

    Kang, Stephen Y; Spector, Matthew E; Chepeha, Douglas B

    2017-11-01

    To demonstrate three reconstructive advantages of the perforator based rectus free tissue transfer: long pedicle, customizable adipose tissue, and volume reconstruction without muscle atrophy within a contained space. Thirty patients with defects of the head and neck were reconstructed with the perforator based rectus free tissue transfer. Transplant success was 93%. Mean pedicle length was 13.4cm. Eleven patients (37%) had vessel-poor necks and the long pedicle provided by this transplant avoided the need for vein grafts in these patients. Adipose tissue was molded in 17 patients (57%). Twenty-five patients (83%) had defects within a contained space, such as the orbit, where it was critical to have a transplant that avoided muscle atrophy. The perforator based rectus free tissue transfer provides a long pedicle, moldable fat for flap customization, and is useful in reconstruction of defects within a contained space where volume loss due to muscle atrophy is prevented. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Muscular Activity and Fatigue in Lower-Limb and Trunk Muscles during Different Sit-To-Stand Tests.

    PubMed

    Roldán-Jiménez, Cristina; Bennett, Paul; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I

    2015-01-01

    Sit-to-stand (STS) tests measure the ability to get up from a chair, reproducing an important component of daily living activity. As this functional task is essential for human independence, STS performance has been studied in the past decades using several methods, including electromyography. The aim of this study was to measure muscular activity and fatigue during different repetitions and speeds of STS tasks using surface electromyography in lower-limb and trunk muscles. This cross-sectional study recruited 30 healthy young adults. Average muscle activation, percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, muscle involvement in motion and fatigue were measured using surface electrodes placed on the medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis of the quadriceps (QM), the abdominal rectus (AR), erector spinae (ES), rectus femoris (RF), soleus (SO) and the tibialis anterior (TA). Five-repetition STS, 10-repetition STS and 30-second STS variants were performed. MG, BF, QM, ES and RF muscles showed differences in muscle activation, while QM, AR and ES muscles showed significant differences in MVC percentage. Also, significant differences in fatigue were found in QM muscle between different STS tests. There was no statistically significant fatigue in the BF, MG and SO muscles of the leg although there appeared to be a trend of increasing fatigue. These results could be useful in describing the functional movements of the STS test used in rehabilitation programs, notwithstanding that they were measured in healthy young subjects.

  3. Anatomic footprint of the direct head of the rectus femoris origin: cadaveric study and clinical series of hips after arthroscopic anterior inferior iliac spine/subspine decompression.

    PubMed

    Hapa, Onur; Bedi, Asheesh; Gursan, Onur; Akar, Mehmet Sait; Güvencer, Mustafa; Havitçioğlu, Hasan; Larson, Christopher M

    2013-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to define the anatomy of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) and its relation to the footprint of the rectus femoris tendon and to evaluate on the clinical outcomes after AIIS/subspine decompression. The rectus origin was dissected and detached in 11 male cadaveric hips with a mean age of 54.3 ± 14.3 years (range, 33 to 74 years). The proximal-distal and medial-lateral extent of the footprint and its relation to the AIIS and acetabular rim were evaluated, with the 12-o'clock position defined as directly lateral at the insertion of the indirect head of the rectus tendon and the 1- to 6-o'clock positions defined as anterior acetabular positions. To assess the safety and efficacy of subspine decompression for AIIS deformity, clinical correlation of a series of 163 AIIS decompressions (mean age, 27.8 years; age range, 14 to 52 years) performed from January 2011 to January 2012 was completed, and outcome scores, strength deficits, and ruptures were assessed by manual muscle testing and postoperative radiographs. All patients presented with symptomatic FAI with proximal femoral and/or acetabular deformity and type 2 (131 hips) or type 3 (32 hips) AIIS morphology as defined by Hetsroni et al. The mean proximal-distal and medial-lateral distances for the rectus origin footprint were 2.2 ± 0.1 cm (range, 2.1 to 2.4 cm) and 1.6 ± 0.3 cm (range, 1.2 to 2.3 cm), respectively. There was a characteristic bare area at the anteromedial AIIS. On the clock face, the lateral margin (1-o'clock to 1:30 position) and medial margin (2-o'clock to 2:30 position) of the AIIS and the indirect head of the rectus (12 o'clock) were consistent for all specimens. In the clinical series, 163 AIIS decompressions were performed for symptomatic subspine impingement. The mean modified Harris Hip Score was 63.1 points (range, 21 to 90 points) preoperatively compared with 85.3 points (range, 37 to 100 points) at a mean follow-up of 11.1 ± 4.1 months (range, 6 to

  4. Task-Dependent Intermuscular Motor Unit Synchronization between Medial and Lateral Vastii Muscles during Dynamic and Isometric Squats.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Maurice; Nann, Marius; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Eskofier, Bjoern; Nigg, Benno Maurus

    2015-01-01

    Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity-the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms-for the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL). Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role. Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum. For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15-80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30-60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat. There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the requirements of the movement task at hand.

  5. Task-Dependent Intermuscular Motor Unit Synchronization between Medial and Lateral Vastii Muscles during Dynamic and Isometric Squats

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Maurice; Nann, Marius; von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Eskofier, Bjoern; Nigg, Benno Maurus

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Motor unit activity is coordinated between many synergistic muscle pairs but the functional role of this coordination for the motor output is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term modality of coordinated motor unit activity–the synchronized discharge of individual motor units across muscles within time intervals of 5ms–for the Vastus Medialis (VM) and Lateralis (VL). Furthermore, we studied the task-dependency of intermuscular motor unit synchronization between VM and VL during static and dynamic squatting tasks to provide insight into its functional role. Methods Sixteen healthy male and female participants completed four tasks: Bipedal squats, single-leg squats, an isometric squat, and single-leg balance. Monopolar surface electromyography (EMG) was used to record motor unit activity of VM and VL. For each task, intermuscular motor unit synchronization was determined using a coherence analysis between the raw EMG signals of VM and VL and compared to a reference coherence calculated from two desynchronized EMG signals. The time shift between VM and VL EMG signals was estimated according to the slope of the coherence phase angle spectrum. Results For all tasks, except for singe-leg balance, coherence between 15–80Hz significantly exceeded the reference. The corresponding time shift between VM and VL was estimated as 4ms. Coherence between 30–60Hz was highest for the bipedal squat, followed by the single-leg squat and the isometric squat. Conclusion There is substantial short-term motor unit synchronization between VM and VL. Intermuscular motor unit synchronization is enhanced for contractions during dynamic activities, possibly to facilitate a more accurate control of the joint torque, and reduced during single-leg tasks that require balance control and thus, a more independent muscle function. It is proposed that the central nervous system scales the degree of intermuscular motor unit synchronization according to the

  6. Rectus Sheath Hematoma Associated with Apixaban.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, Kulothungan; Winans, Amanda R McFee; Murthi, Swetha; Ahmad, Mudassar Raees; Kaatz, Scott

    2017-06-07

    Apixaban is an oral anticoagulant that directly inhibits Factor Xa and is indicated for the prophylaxis and treatment of deep venous thrombosis and stroke prevention in non-valvular atrial fibrillation. Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare, life-threatening complication of anticoagulant treatment. We describe a case of an elderly patient on apixaban for the treatment of deep venous thrombosis who developed severe abdominal pain during hospitalization. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed left rectus sheath hematoma. Apixaban was discontinued and the patient was monitored for extension of the hematoma. After 2 days she was discharged home. Outpatient computed tomography 1 month later showed complete resolution of the rectus sheath hematoma. We recommend that clinicians become aware of the potential for rare and serious bleeding complications of anticoagulants and identify the need for early recognition and prompt management.

  7. Experimental definition of latissimus dorsi, gracilis, and rectus abdominus musculocutaneous flaps in the dog.

    PubMed

    Gregory, C R; Gourley, I M; Koblik, P D; Patz, J D

    1988-06-01

    Dissection and injection studies in canine cadavers and in anesthetized dogs were conducted to determine the feasibility of using the latissimus dorsi, gracilis, and rectus abdominus muscles as musculocutaneous free flaps. Lengths of vascular pedicles for the latissimus dorsi (2 +/- 0.8 cm), gracilis (1.8 +/- 0.8 cm), and rectus abdominus (1.9 +/- 0.9-cm cranial deep epigastric, 1.7 +/- 0.5-cm caudal deep epigastric), as well as arterial diameters (1.28 +/- 0.31-mm thoracodorsal for the latissimus dorsi, 1.10 +/- 0.33-mm muscular branch for the gracilis, 1.25 +/- 0.25-mm cranial deep epigastric and 1.26 +/- 0.32-mm caudal deep epigastric for the rectus abdominus) were considered satisfactory for microvascular transfer. Fluorometry demonstrated overlying cutaneous perfusion in all flaps based on their muscle vascular pedicles, with the exception of the rectus abdominus flap based on the caudal deep epigastric artery. In this instance, up to 20% of the cutaneous element had questionable or no perfusion.

  8. An Unusual Complication of EVAR, Spontaneous Rectus Sheath Hematoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sirivanichai, Chusak

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To report a successful conservative management in a case of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma (SRSH) after Endovascular Aneurysmal Repair (EVAR) of infrarenal Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA). Case Presentation: An 84-year-old woman with a 6 cm in diameter infrarenal AAA underwent EVAR at our hospital. During the procedure, intravenous heparin was administered to keep the activated clotting time around 300 seconds. One hour after the procedure, the patient complained of pain on her right side abdomen. Physical examination revealed a tender mass in the right lower abdominal wall. Laboratory studies showed a fall in hemoglobin from 12.7 g/dl to 9.3 g/dl. Ultrasound (US) examination demonstrated an 8 × 5 cm hematoma within the right rectus muscle. Follow-up US examination revealed that the hematoma had enlarged and a computed tomography (CT) examination of the lower abdomen was performed. CT scan showed a smooth-shaped mass within the layers of the anterolateral abdominal wall leading to enlargement of the right rectus abdominis muscle without signs of active bleeding. A conservative management was considered. Result: The clinical course was uneventful with a stable hemodynamic state. The patient was discharged 12 days later and was doing well at the 2 week follow-up. Conclusion: Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is an unusual complication of a patient on anticoagulant therapy during EVAR. A prompt radiological investigation may prevent unnecessary surgical procedures in this unusual complication. PMID:23555371

  9. Vesicovaginal fistula repair with rectus abdominus myofascial interposition flap.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, W Stuart; Gottlieb, Lawrence J; Lucioni, Alvaro; Rapp, David E; Song, David H; Bales, Gregory T

    2008-06-01

    Complex, recurrent vesicovaginal fistulas (VVFs) can be very challenging to repair and often require interposition of nonirradiated, well-vascularized tissue between the urinary system and vagina. We report our experience using a rectus abdominus myofascial (RAM) interposition flap for VVF repair. A retrospective analysis was performed to identify patients who had undergone VVF repair with RAM interposition. Data were collected focusing on preoperative patient characteristics, etiology of VVF, intraoperative parameters, including surgical techniques, and postoperative patient outcomes. We used a RAM interposition flap for VVF repair in 5 patients. All VVFs had developed postoperatively; no patient had received radiotherapy. VVF developed after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) or radical cystectomy in 3 and 2 cases, respectively. Both cases of VVF after radical cystectomy occurred in conjunction with orthotopic diversion (neobladder-vaginal fistula). In 3 patients with post-TAH VVF, a total of five previous failed repairs were attempted before RAM interposition. In 1 patient with a neobladder-vaginal fistula, who had received adjuvant chemotherapy, RAM interposition failed, and the patient ultimately required cutaneous urinary diversion after two subsequent failed attempts at repair (68 months of follow-up). The remaining 4 patients (80%) had no evidence of recurrent VVF or voiding abnormalities at a mean follow-up of 19 months (range 8 to 32). Rectus abdominus muscle can be a successful interposition flap during repair of complex, recurrent VVF. In our experience, this has been successful in most cases, particularly in younger patients with nonmalignant processes.

  10. Restricted Mandibular Movement Attributed to Ossification of Mandibular Depressors and Medial Pterygoid Muscles in Patients With Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: A Report of 3 Cases.

    PubMed

    Okuno, Tetsuko; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Inoue, Akio; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2017-09-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is an extremely rare genetic condition characterized by congenital malformation and progressive heterotopic ossification (HO) caused by a recurrent single nucleotide substitution at position 617 in the ACVR1 gene. As the condition progresses, HO leads to joint ankylosis, breathing difficulties, and mouth-opening restriction, and it can shorten the patient's lifespan. This report describes 3 cases of FOP confirmed by genetic testing in patients with restricted mouth opening. Each patient presented a different onset and degree of jaw movement restriction. The anatomic ossification site of the mandibular joint was examined in each patient using reconstructed computed tomographic (CT) images and 3-dimensional reconstructed CT (3D-CT) images. A 29-year-old woman complained of jaw movement restriction since 13 years of age. 3D-CT image of the mandibular joint showed an osseous bridge, formed by the mandibular depressors that open the mouth, between the hyoid bone and the mentum of the mandible. A 39-year-old man presented with jaw movement restriction that developed at 3 years of age after a mouth injury. 3D-CT image of the jaw showed ankylosis of the jaw from ossification of the mandibular depressors that was worse than in patient 1. CT images showed no HO findings of the masticatory muscles. To the authors' knowledge, these are the first 2 case descriptions of the anatomic site of ankylosis involving HO of the mandibular depressors in the jaw resulting from FOP. In contrast, a 62-year-old bedridden woman with an interincisal distance longer than 10 mm (onset, 39 years of age) had no HO of the mandibular depressors and slight HO of the medial pterygoid muscle on the right and left sides. These findings suggest that restricted mouth opening varies according to the presence or absence of HO of the mandibular depressors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Assessment of Whole Body and Local Muscle Fatigue Using Electromyography and a Perceived Exertion Scale for Squat Lifting

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Imran

    2018-01-01

    This research study aims at addressing the paradigm of whole body fatigue and local muscle fatigue detection for squat lifting. For this purpose, a comparison was made between perceived exertion with the heart rate and normalized mean power frequency (NMPF) of eight major muscles. The sample consisted of 25 healthy males (age: 30 ± 2.2 years). Borg’s CR-10 scale was used for perceived exertion for two segments of the body (lower and upper) and the whole body. The lower extremity of the body was observed to be dominant compared to the upper and whole body in perceived response. First mode of principal component analysis (PCA) was obtained through the covariance matrix for the eight muscles for 25 subjects for NMPF of eight muscles. The diagonal entries in the covariance matrix were observed for each muscle. The muscle with the highest absolute magnitude was observed across all the 25 subjects. The medial deltoid and the rectus femoris muscles were observed to have the highest frequency for each PCA across 25 subjects. The rectus femoris, having the highest counts in all subjects, validated that the lower extremity dominates the sense of whole body fatigue during squat lifting. The findings revealed that it is significant to take into account the relation between perceived and measured effort that can help prevent musculoskeletal disorders in repetitive occupational tasks. PMID:29670002

  12. Relationship between the Ulnar Nerve and the Branches of the Radial Nerve to the Medial Head of the Triceps Brachii Muscle.

    PubMed

    Sh, Cho; Ih, Chung; Uy, Lee

    2018-05-17

    One branch of the radial nerve to the medial head of the triceps brachii muscle (MHN) has been described as accompanying or joining the ulnar nerve. Mostly two MHN branches have been reported, with some reports of one; however, the topographical anatomy is not well documented. We dissected 52 upper limbs from adult cadavers and found one, two, and three MHN branches in 9.6%, 80.8%, and 9.6% of cases, respectively. The MHN accompanying the ulnar nerve was always the superior MHN. The relationship between the ulnar nerve and the MHN was classified into four types according to whether the MHN was enveloped along with the ulnar nerve in the connective tissue sheath and whether it was in contact with the ulnar nerve. It contacted the ulnar nerve in 75.0% of cases and accompanied it over a mean distance of 73.6 mm (range 36-116 mm). In all cases in which the connective tissue sheath enveloped the branch of the MHN and the ulnar nerve, removing the sheath confirmed that the MHN branch originated from the radial nerve. The detailed findings and anatomical measurements of the MHN in this study will help in identifying its branches during surgical procedures. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reconstruction of maxillary defect with musculo-adipose rectus free flap.

    PubMed

    Low, Tsu-Hui Hubert; Lindsay, Andrew; Clark, Jonathan; Chai, Francis; Lewis, Richard

    2017-02-01

    The rectus myocutaneous free flap (RMFF) is used for medium to large maxillectomy defects. However, in patients with central obesity the inset could be difficult due to the bulk from excessive layer of adipose tissue. We describe a modification of the RMFF for patients with excessive central obesity with a flap consisting of adipose tissue with minimal rectus muscle; the musculo-adipose rectus free flap (MARF). Five cases of MARF reconstruction were performed between 2003 and 2013, with patients' body mass indexes ranging from 29.0 to 41.2 kg/m 2 . All patients had sinonasal tumor, of which three were adenoid cystic carcinoma, one squamous cell carcinoma, and one melanoma. Four patients had Codeiro IIIb defects and one had Codeiro II defect. Using the MARF technique, the maxillectomy defect was obliterated with vascularized adipose tissue overlying the rectus muscle and was trimmed to fit the maxillectomy defect. The adipose tissue was allowed to granulate and mucosalize. The volume of adipose tissue harvested was between 120 and 160 mL. All flaps survived with no requirement for re-exploration. Complete oro-nasal separation was achieved in all patients. The time to commencement of oral intake ranges from 5 to 15 days. One patient developed seroma and one developed wound breakdown on the donor site. The length of stay at the hospital ranges from 9 to 22 days. On follow-up ranging 7.5-32.8 months, two patients died from their malignancies. The other three patients were able to tolerate oral soft diet. The MARF may be considered as an alternative to myocutaneous rectus free flap particularly for the reconstruction of maxillary defects in patients with central obesity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 37:137-141, 2017. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Compartmental Innervation of the Superior Oblique Muscle in Mammals.

    PubMed

    Le, Alan; Poukens, Vadims; Ying, Howard; Rootman, Daniel; Goldberg, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L

    2015-10-01

    Intramuscular innervation of mammalian horizontal rectus extraocular muscles (EOMs) is compartmental. We sought evidence of similar compartmental innervation of the superior oblique (SO) muscle. Three fresh bovine orbits and one human orbit were dissected to trace continuity of SO muscle and tendon fibers to the scleral insertions. Whole orbits were also obtained from four humans (two adults, a 17-month-old child, and a 33-week stillborn fetus), two rhesus monkeys, one rabbit, and one cow. Orbits were formalin fixed, embedded whole in paraffin, serially sectioned in the coronal plane at 10-μm thickness, and stained with Masson trichrome. Extraocular muscle fibers and branches of the trochlear nerve (CN4) were traced in serial sections and reconstructed in three dimensions. In the human, the lateral SO belly is in continuity with tendon fibers inserting more posteriorly on the sclera for infraducting mechanical advantage, while the medial belly is continuous with anteriorly inserting fibers having mechanical advantage for incycloduction. Fibers in the monkey superior SO insert more posteriorly on the sclera to favor infraduction, while the inferior portion inserts more anteriorly to favor incycloduction. In all species, CN4 bifurcates prior to penetrating the SO belly. Each branch innervates a nonoverlapping compartment of EOM fibers, consisting of medial and lateral compartments in humans and monkeys, and superior and inferior compartments in cows and rabbits. The SO muscle of humans and other mammals is compartmentally innervated in a manner that could permit separate CN4 branches to selectively influence vertical versus torsional action.

  15. Rectus sheath hematoma caused by non-contact strenuous exercise mimicking acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Je Hyeok; Kim, Tae Han; Cha, Sung Jae; Kim, Seung Ho

    2010-09-01

    A healthy 26-year-old man visited the Emergency Department due to right lower quadrant pain of 2 days' duration that developed after wakeboarding. There was no history of direct trauma to the abdomen. Physical examination revealed tenderness and rebound tenderness on the right lower quadrant area. There was no palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen was undertaken to discern the causes of acute abdomen, including acute appendicitis. CT revealed a small-size rectus sheath hematoma beneath the lower end of the right rectus muscle. The patient was admitted for supportive care including pain control and was discharged with improvement after 5 days. Rectus sheath hematoma can be caused by not only a direct blow but also non-contact strenuous exercise, for example, wakeboarding in this case. Although the majority of rectus sheath hematomas are self-limiting, some can cause peritoneal irritation signs, mimicking acute abdomen, and eventually lead to unnecessary laparotomy without clinical suspicion and ancillary tests including CT scan and ultrasonography. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Improvements in Vertebral-Column Angles and Psychological Metrics After Abdominoplasty With Rectus Plication.

    PubMed

    Temel, Metin; Türkmen, Arif; Berberoğlu, Ömer

    2016-05-01

    Substantial fluctuations in body weight can result in diastasis recti and weakening of the connections between the lateral abdominal muscles and the rectus sheath. The authors sought to determine the postural and psychological effects of abdominoplasty with vertical rectus plication. Forty women with substantial back and lumbar pain owing to abdominal lipodystrophy were evaluated in a prospective study. Preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, patients underwent bidirectional radiography of the thoracic and lumbar regions. A visual analog scale (VAS), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) were applied to assess physical, psychological, and quality-of-life changes following surgery. Significant improvements in posture, assessed in terms of lumbar lordosis, thoracic kyphosis, and the lumbosacral angle, were observed 6 months after abdominoplasty with rectus plication. Results of the VAS and BDI indicated significant improvements in pain and quality of life, respectively. Results of the NHP indicated significant postoperative improvements in fatigue, pain, and sleep. Abdominoplasty with rectus plication improves posture by tightening the thoracolumbar fascia. In selected patients, abdominoplasty can reduce back and lumbar pain, thereby improving quality of life. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase in Smooth Muscle Cells Maintains Genome Integrity, Resists Aortic Medial Degeneration, and Is Suppressed in Human Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Disease.

    PubMed

    Watson, Alanna; Nong, Zengxuan; Yin, Hao; O'Neil, Caroline; Fox, Stephanie; Balint, Brittany; Guo, Linrui; Leo, Oberdan; Chu, Michael W A; Gros, Robert; Pickering, J Geoffrey

    2017-06-09

    The thoracic aortic wall can degenerate over time with catastrophic consequences. Vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can resist and repair artery damage, but their capacities decline with age and stress. Recently, cellular production of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + ) via nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) has emerged as a mediator of cell vitality. However, a role for Nampt in aortic SMCs in vivo is unknown. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system exists within the aortic media and is required for aortic health. Ascending aortas from patients with dilated aortopathy were immunostained for NAMPT, revealing an inverse relationship between SMC NAMPT content and aortic diameter. To determine whether a Nampt-NAD + control system in SMCs impacts aortic integrity, mice with Nampt -deficient SMCs were generated. SMC- Nampt knockout mice were viable but with mildly dilated aortas that had a 43% reduction in NAD + in the media. Infusion of angiotensin II led to aortic medial hemorrhage and dissection. SMCs were not apoptotic but displayed senescence associated-ß-galactosidase activity and upregulated p16, indicating premature senescence. Furthermore, there was evidence for oxidized DNA lesions, double-strand DNA strand breaks, and pronounced susceptibility to single-strand breakage. This was linked to suppressed poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity and was reversible on resupplying NAD + with nicotinamide riboside. Remarkably, we discovered unrepaired DNA strand breaks in SMCs within the human ascending aorta, which were specifically enriched in SMCs with low NAMPT. NAMPT promoter analysis revealed CpG hypermethylation within the dilated human thoracic aorta and in SMCs cultured from these tissues, which inversely correlated with NAMPT expression. The aortic media depends on an intrinsic NAD + fueling system to protect against DNA damage and premature SMC senescence, with relevance to human thoracic aortopathy. © 2017 American Heart

  18. Muscle Activation during Gait in Children with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Ropars, Juliette; Lempereur, Mathieu; Vuillerot, Carole; Tiffreau, Vincent; Peudenier, Sylviane; Cuisset, Jean-Marie; Pereon, Yann; Leboeuf, Fabien; Delporte, Ludovic; Delpierre, Yannick; Gross, Raphaël; Brochard, Sylvain

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to investigate changes in muscle activity during gait in children with Duchenne muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Dynamic surface electromyography recordings (EMGs) of 16 children with DMD and pathological gait were compared with those of 15 control children. The activity of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), medial hamstrings (HS), tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius soleus (GAS) muscles was recorded and analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. The overall muscle activity in the children with DMD was significantly different from that of the control group. Percentage activation amplitudes of RF, HS and TA were greater throughout the gait cycle in the children with DMD and the timing of GAS activity differed from the control children. Significantly greater muscle coactivation was found in the children with DMD. There were no significant differences between sides. Since the motor command is normal in DMD, the hyper-activity and co-contractions likely compensate for gait instability and muscle weakness, however may have negative consequences on the muscles and may increase the energy cost of gait. Simple rehabilitative strategies such as targeted physical therapies may improve stability and thus the pattern of muscle activity.

  19. Palisade Endings Are a Constant Feature in the Extraocular Muscles of Frontal-Eyed, But Not Lateral-Eyed, Animals.

    PubMed

    Blumer, Roland; Maurer-Gesek, Barbara; Gesslbauer, Bernhard; Blumer, Michael; Pechriggl, Elisabeth; Davis-López de Carrizosa, María A; Horn, Anja K; May, Paul J; Streicher, Johannes; de la Cruz, Rosa R; Pastor, Ángel M

    2016-02-01

    To test whether palisade endings are a general feature of mammalian extraocular muscles (EOMs). Thirteen species, some frontal-eyed (human, monkey, cat, and ferret), and others lateral-eyed (pig, sheep, calf, horse, rabbit, rat, mouse, gerbil, and guinea pig) were analyzed. Palisade endings were labeled by using different combinations of immunofluorescence techniques. Three-dimensional reconstructions of immunolabeled palisade endings were done. In all frontal-eyed species, palisade endings were a consistent feature in the rectus EOMs. Their total number was high and they exhibited an EOM-specific distribution. In particular, the number of palisade endings in the medial recti was significantly higher than in the other rectus muscles. In the lateral-eyed animals, palisade endings were infrequent and, when present, their total number was rather low. They were only found in ungulates (sheep, calf, pig, and horse) and in rabbit. In rodents (rat, guinea pig, mouse, and gerbil) palisade endings were found infrequently (e.g., rat) or were completely absent. Palisade endings in frontal-eyed species and in some lateral-eyed species (pig, sheep, calf, and horse) had a uniform morphology. They generally lacked α-bungarotoxin staining, with a few exceptions in primates. Palisade endings in other lateral-eyed species (rabbit and rat) exhibited a simplified morphology and bound α-bungarotoxin. Palisade endings are not a universal feature of mammalian EOMs. So, if they are proprioceptors, not all species require them. Because in frontal-eyed species, the medial rectus muscle has the highest number of palisade endings, they likely play a special role in convergence.

  20. Palisade Endings Are a Constant Feature in the Extraocular Muscles of Frontal-Eyed, But Not Lateral-Eyed, Animals

    PubMed Central

    Blumer, Roland; Maurer-Gesek, Barbara; Gesslbauer, Bernhard; Blumer, Michael; Pechriggl, Elisabeth; Davis-López de Carrizosa, María A.; Horn, Anja K.; May, Paul J.; Streicher, Johannes; de la Cruz, Rosa R.; Pastor, Ángel M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To test whether palisade endings are a general feature of mammalian extraocular muscles (EOMs). Methods Thirteen species, some frontal-eyed (human, monkey, cat, and ferret), and others lateral-eyed (pig, sheep, calf, horse, rabbit, rat, mouse, gerbil, and guinea pig) were analyzed. Palisade endings were labeled by using different combinations of immunofluorescence techniques. Three-dimensional reconstructions of immunolabeled palisade endings were done. Results In all frontal-eyed species, palisade endings were a consistent feature in the rectus EOMs. Their total number was high and they exhibited an EOM-specific distribution. In particular, the number of palisade endings in the medial recti was significantly higher than in the other rectus muscles. In the lateral-eyed animals, palisade endings were infrequent and, when present, their total number was rather low. They were only found in ungulates (sheep, calf, pig, and horse) and in rabbit. In rodents (rat, guinea pig, mouse, and gerbil) palisade endings were found infrequently (e.g., rat) or were completely absent. Palisade endings in frontal-eyed species and in some lateral-eyed species (pig, sheep, calf, and horse) had a uniform morphology. They generally lacked α-bungarotoxin staining, with a few exceptions in primates. Palisade endings in other lateral-eyed species (rabbit and rat) exhibited a simplified morphology and bound α-bungarotoxin. Conclusions Palisade endings are not a universal feature of mammalian EOMs. So, if they are proprioceptors, not all species require them. Because in frontal-eyed species, the medial rectus muscle has the highest number of palisade endings, they likely play a special role in convergence. PMID:26830369

  1. Neurotomy of the rectus femoris nerve: Short-term effectiveness for spastic stiff knee gait: Clinical assessment and quantitative gait analysis.

    PubMed

    Gross, R; Robertson, J; Leboeuf, F; Hamel, O; Brochard, S; Perrouin-Verbe, B

    2017-02-01

    Stiff knee gait is a troublesome gait disturbance related to spastic paresis, frequently associated with overactivity of the rectus femoris muscle in the swing phase of gait. The aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of rectus femoris neurotomy for the treatment of spastic stiff-knee gait in patients with hemiparesis. An Intervention study (before-after trial) with an observational design was carried out in a university hospital. Seven ambulatory patients with hemiparesis of spinal or cerebral origin and spastic stiff-knee gait, which had previously been improved by botulinum toxin injections, were proposed a selective neurotomy of the rectus femoris muscle. A functional evaluation (Functional Ambulation Classification and maximal walking distance), clinical evaluation (spasticity - Ashworth scale and Duncan-Ely test, muscle strength - Medical Research Council scale), and quantitative gait analysis (spatiotemporal parameters, stiff knee gait-related kinematic and kinetic parameters, and dynamic electromyography of rectus femoris) were performed as outcome measures, before and 3 months after rectus femoris neurotomy. Compared with preoperative values, there was a significant increase in maximal walking distance, gait speed, and stride length at 3 months. All kinematic parameters improved, and the average early swing phase knee extension moment decreased. The duration of the rectus femoris burst decreased post-op. This study is the first to show that rectus femoris neurotomy helps to normalise muscle activity during gait, and results in improvements in kinetic, kinematic, and functional parameters in patients with spastic stiff knee gait. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Augmented superior rectus transposition procedure in Duane retraction syndrome compared with sixth nerve palsy.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Mohammadreza; Shomali, Setareh; Mirmohammadsadeghi, Arash; Fard, Masoud Aghsaei

    2018-05-01

    Superior rectus transposition (SRT) with medial rectus recession has been used for the treatment of sixth nerve palsy and esotropic Duane retraction syndrome (DRS). The purpose of this study was to compare the results of augmented SRT (with scleral fixation) without medial rectus recession in DRS and sixth nerve palsy. Patients with unilateral esotropic DRS (DRS group) and sixth nerve palsy were included in this prospective, comparative study and underwent SRT. Preoperative forced duction testing was negative or slightly positive in both groups. Prospective measurements were compared between the two groups. There were 11 patients in the DRS group and 11 patients in the sixth nerve palsy group. The mean preoperative esotropia decreased from 20.9 ± 6.0 prism diopter (PD) at far to 13.2 ± 5.8 PD in the DRS group (P = 0.003). The same measurement improved from 28.0 ± 8.5 PD to 8.4 ± 7.3 PD in the sixth nerve palsy group (P = 0.003). In the sixth nerve palsy group, the improvement in primary gaze esotropia and abnormal head posture was more than the DRS group (Both P < 0.001).The average dose effect for SRT was 7.8 ± 2.2 PD in the DRS group and 19.2 ± 4.6 PD in the sixth nerve palsy group. Although objective intorsion was significantly induced after SRT, subjective torsion was not significant after surgery in both groups. SRT appears to be more effective in improving primary gaze deviation and head posture in sixth nerve palsy compared with DRS. Subjective torsional and vertical diplopia were rare in both groups.

  3. Ultrasound-Based Detection of Low Muscle Mass for Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Minetto, Marco A; Caresio, Cristina; Menapace, Tommaso; Hajdarevic, Arnel; Marchini, Andrea; Molinari, Filippo; Maffiuletti, Nicola A

    2016-05-01

    To establish muscle-specific cut-off values for ultrasound-based detection of low muscle mass, and to assess its prevalence in a population of frail older subjects when applying the cut-points of different muscles and those of different sarcopenic indices. Cross-sectional study. Geriatric outpatient clinic and clinical research laboratory. A total of 44 older adults (30 women and 14 men, mean age 82 years, range 67-93 years) and 60 younger individuals (30 women and 30 men, mean age 26 years, range 20-36 years) participated. Body composition and thickness of 4 lower limb muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius) were respectively assessed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography. Site-specific cut-points for ultrasound-based assessment of low muscle mass (muscle thickness values 2 standard deviations below the gender-specific means of our sample of younger subjects) and comparative prevalence rates of low muscle mass. The following site-specific cut-points for muscle thickness were identified: rectus femoris: 20 mm in men and 16 mm in women; vastus lateralis: 17 mm in men and 15 mm in women; tibialis anterior: 23 mm in men and 22 mm in women; and medial gastrocnemius: 13 mm in both men and women. The prevalence of low muscle mass in older adults was highly dependent on the muscle being investigated; it varied from 86% for thigh muscles to 30% for leg muscles. Moreover, the prevalence of low muscle mass was highly dependent on the applied diagnostic criterion and on the adopted cut-off value; it ranged from 2% to 75% for different BIA-derived criteria. We suggest that muscle ultrasonography provides physiatrists with a practical and accurate tool for identifying individuals with low muscle mass. However, the usability of cut-off values established in our group of healthy younger subjects of white ethnicity to identify low muscle mass in older individuals of different ethnic groups remains to be

  4. Structural functional associations of the orbit in thyroid eye disease: Kalman filters to track extraocular rectal muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nelson, Katrina; Mundy, Kevin; Luo, Yifu; Harrigan, Robert L.; Damon, Steve; Fabbri, Daniel; Mawn, Louise; Landman, Bennett

    2016-03-01

    Pathologies of the optic nerve and orbit impact millions of Americans and quantitative assessment of the orbital structures on 3-D imaging would provide objective markers to enhance diagnostic accuracy, improve timely intervention, and eventually preserve visual function. Recent studies have shown that the multi-atlas methodology is suitable for identifying orbital structures, but challenges arise in the identification of the individual extraocular rectus muscles that control eye movement. This is increasingly problematic in diseased eyes, where these muscles often appear to fuse at the back of the orbit (at the resolution of clinical computed tomography imaging) due to inflammation or crowding. We propose the use of Kalman filters to track the muscles in three-dimensions to refine multi-atlas segmentation and resolve ambiguity due to imaging resolution, noise, and artifacts. The purpose of our study is to investigate a method of automatically generating orbital metrics from CT imaging and demonstrate the utility of the approach by correlating structural metrics of the eye orbit with clinical data and visual function measures in subjects with thyroid eye disease. The pilot study demonstrates that automatically calculated orbital metrics are strongly correlated with several clinical characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the superior, inferior, medial and lateral rectus muscles obtained using Kalman filters are each correlated with different categories of functional deficit. These findings serve as foundation for further investigation in the use of CT imaging in the study, analysis and diagnosis of ocular diseases, specifically thyroid eye disease.

  5. Activity of Lower Limb Muscles During Squat With and Without Abdominal Drawing-in and Pilates Breathing.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Alexandre C; Martins, Fábio M; Silva, Angélica F; Coelho, Ana C; Intelangelo, Leonardo; Vieira, Edgar R

    2017-11-01

    Barbosa, AC, Martins, FM, Silva, AF, Coelho, AC, Intelangelo, L, and Vieira, ER. Activity of lower limb muscles during squat with and without abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3018-3023, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing on the activity of lower limb muscles during squats. Adults (n = 13, 22 ± 3 years old) with some Pilates experience performed three 60° squats under each of the following conditions in a random order: (I) normal breathing, (II) drawing-in maneuver with normal breathing, and (III) drawing-in maneuver with Pilates breathing. Peak-normalized surface electromyography of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior during the knee flexion and extension phases of squat exercises was analyzed. There were significant differences among the conditions during the knee flexion phase for the rectus femoris (p = 0.001), biceps femoris (p = 0.038), and tibialis anterior (p = 0.001), with increasing activation from conditions I to III. For the gastrocnemius medialis, there were significant differences among the conditions during the knee extension phase (p = 0.023), with increased activity under condition I. The rectus and biceps femoris activity was higher during the extension vs. flexion phase under conditions I and II. The tibialis anterior activity was higher during the flexion compared with the extension phase under all conditions, and the medial gastrocnemius activity was higher during the extension phase under condition I. Doing squats with abdominal drawing-in and Pilates breathing resulted in increased rectus, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior activity during the flexion phase, increasing movement stability during squat exercises.

  6. Investigations of ocular changes, extraocular muscle thickness, and eye movements in Graves' ophthalmopathy.

    PubMed

    Jankauskiene, Jūrate; Imbrasiene, Daiva

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate ocular changes, to measure the thickness of extraocular muscles, and to assess eye movements in patients with active Graves' ophthalmopathy. We examined 27 patients (18 women and 9 men) with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Their age ranged from 17 to 59 years; mean age was 42.7+/-2.9 years. The control group consisted of 30 healthy persons aged 43.6+/-2.6 years. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmic examination including best-corrected Snellen visual acuity testing, measurements of proptosis using Hertel exophthalmometer, echography using A/B mode Mentor Advent ultrasonic diagnostic imaging system, ocular motility, slit-lamp and ophthalmoscopic examination. The examination showed a significant increase of proptosis, periorbital edema in 66.67%, chemosis in 59.26%, injection of conjunctiva in 45.15% of patients. The majority of patients with infiltrative form of Graves' ophthalmopathy had a significant enlargement of medial rectus muscle (from 5.0 to 5.9 mm in 46.3%, from 6.0 to 6.9 mm in 22.22% of eyes) and inferior rectus muscle thickness (from 5.0 to 5.9 mm in 33.33%, from 6.0 to 6.9 mm in 24.07% of eyes), disturbances in upward (less than 30 degrees in 62.96%) and lateral eye movements (from 30 to 50 degrees in 77.78%). The results of ocular examination showed an increase of proptosis, periorbital edema, chemosis and injection of conjunctiva in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Ultrasound investigations showed a marked increase in the volume of medial and inferior eye muscle. In patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy, the changes in ocular motility (upward and lateral gaze) were detected.

  7. Validity and reliability of rectus femoris ultrasound measurements: Comparison of curved-array and linear-array transducers.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Kendra; Mampilly, Jobby; Laghi, Franco A; Goyal, Amit; Collins, Eileen G; McBurney, Conor; Jubran, Amal; Tobin, Martin J

    2014-01-01

    Muscle-mass loss augers increased morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Muscle-mass loss can be assessed by wide linear-array ultrasound transducers connected to cumbersome, expensive console units. Whether cheaper, hand-carried units equipped with curved-array transducers can be used as alternatives is unknown. Accordingly, our primary aim was to investigate in 15 nondisabled subjects the validity of measurements of rectus femoris cross-sectional area by using a curved-array transducer against a linear-array transducer-the reference-standard technique. In these subjects, we also determined the reliability of measurements obtained by a novice operator versus measurements obtained by an experienced operator. Lastly, the relationship between quadriceps strength and rectus area recorded by two experienced operators with a curved-array transducer was assessed in 17 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In nondisabled subjects, the rectus cross-sectional area measured with the curved-array transducer by the novice and experienced operators was valid (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]: 0.98, typical percentage error [%TE]: 3.7%) and reliable (ICC: 0.79, %TE: 9.7%). In the subjects with COPD, both reliability (ICC: 0.99) and repeatability (%TE: 7.6% and 9.8%) were high. Rectus area was related to quadriceps strength in COPD for both experienced operators (coefficient of determination: 0.67 and 0.70). In conclusion, measurements of rectus femoris cross-sectional area recorded with a curved-array transducer connected to a hand-carried unit are valid, reliable, and reproducible, leading us to contend that this technique is suitable for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

  8. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap for oral reconstruction in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lanz, O I

    2001-12-01

    A five-month-old intact/male Boxer dog was presented 5-days following bite wound trauma to the maxillary region resulting in an oronasal fistula extending from the maxillary canine teeth to the soft palate. Multiple surgical procedures using local, buccal mucosal flaps failed to repair the oronasal fistula. Free tissue transfer of the rectus abdominis myoperitoneal flap using microvascular surgical techniques was successful in providing soft tissue reconstruction of the hard palate area. Complications of these surgical techniques included muscle contraction and subsequent muzzle distortion. Small, refractory oronasal fistulae at the perimeter of the myoperitoneal flap were repaired by primary wound closure.

  9. The influence in airforce soldiers through wearing certain types of army-issue footwear on muscle activity in the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Kundt, Guenther; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the shape and material of the military footwear worn by soldiers on muscle activity in the lower extremities, and whether such footwear could explain specific strain complaints and traumatic lesions in the region of the lower extremities.37 soldiers (one woman, 36 men) aged between 20 and 53 years underwent a dynamic electromyography (EMG) analysis. Wearing - one pair at a time - five different types of shoes, the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill, where an EMG of the following muscles was taken: M. tibialis anterior, M. gastrocnemius mediales, M. gastrocnemius laterales, M. peroneus longus and M. rectus femoris.When the subjects wore old-fashioned outdoor jogging shoes increased muscle activity was observed in the region of the M. peroneus longus. This can be interpreted as a sign of the upper ankle joint requiring increased support and thus explain the higher susceptibility to sprains experienced in connection with these shoes. When the subjects wore combat boots, increased activity was observed in the region of the Mm. tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The specific activity differences that were observed in particular muscles may have influence in the occurrence of certain disorders, especially in untrained recruits. This can be linked to various strain-related disorders such as shin splints and patellofemoral pain. The data obtained using EMG can provide information about the likelihood of a clustering of the complaints experienced by soldiers during training or active service.

  10. The Influence in Airforce Soldiers Through Wearing Certain Types of Army-Issue Footwear on Muscle Activity in the Lower Extremities

    PubMed Central

    Schulze, Christoph; Lindner, Tobias; Schulz, Katharina; Finze, Susanne; Kundt, Guenther; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to analyse the influence of the shape and material of the military footwear worn by soldiers on muscle activity in the lower extremities, and whether such footwear could explain specific strain complaints and traumatic lesions in the region of the lower extremities. 37 soldiers (one woman, 36 men) aged between 20 and 53 years underwent a dynamic electromyography (EMG) analysis. Wearing – one pair at a time - five different types of shoes, the subjects were asked to walk on a treadmill, where an EMG of the following muscles was taken: M. tibialis anterior, M. gastrocnemius mediales, M. gastrocnemius laterales, M. peroneus longus and M. rectus femoris. When the subjects wore old-fashioned outdoor jogging shoes increased muscle activity was observed in the region of the M. peroneus longus. This can be interpreted as a sign of the upper ankle joint requiring increased support and thus explain the higher susceptibility to sprains experienced in connection with these shoes. When the subjects wore combat boots, increased activity was observed in the region of the Mm. tibialis anterior and rectus femoris. The specific activity differences that were observed in particular muscles may have influence in the occurrence of certain disorders, especially in untrained recruits. This can be linked to various strain-related disorders such as shin splints and patellofemoral pain. The data obtained using EMG can provide information about the likelihood of a clustering of the complaints experienced by soldiers during training or active service. PMID:21886685

  11. Changes in muscle activation patterns when running step rate is increased.

    PubMed

    Chumanov, Elizabeth S; Wille, Christa M; Michalski, Max P; Heiderscheit, Bryan C

    2012-06-01

    Running with a step rate 5-10% greater than one's preferred can substantially reduce lower extremity joint moments and powers, and has been suggested as a possible strategy to aid in running injury management. The purpose of this study was to examine how neuromuscular activity changes with an increase in step rate during running. Forty-five injury-free, recreational runners participated in this study. Three-dimensional motion, ground reaction forces, and electromyography (EMG) of 8 muscles (rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius, tibialis anterior, medial and lateral hamstrings, and gluteus medius and maximus) were recorded as each subject ran at their preferred speed for three different step rate conditions: preferred, +5% and +10% of preferred. Outcome measures included mean normalized EMG activity for each muscle at specific periods during the gait cycle. Muscle activities were found to predominantly increase during late swing, with no significant change in activities during the loading response. This increased muscle activity in anticipation of foot-ground contact likely alters the landing posture of the limb and the subsequent negative work performed by the joints during stance phase. Further, the increased activity observed in the gluteus maximus and medius suggests running with a greater step rate may have therapeutic benefits to those with anterior knee pain. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Atelectasis after free rectus transfer and abdominal wall reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lo, Jamie O; Weber, Stephen M; Andersen, Peter E; Gross, Neil D; Gosselin, Marc; Wax, Mark K

    2008-10-01

    Atelectasis is commonly encountered in patients undergoing rectus abdominus tissue transfer. Primary closure of the anterior rectus sheath may contribute to this process. Augmentation of the closure with mesh may decrease the incidence of Atelectasis. In this retrospective review 32 patients with preoperative and postoperative augmentation were compared to 23 who had primary closure of the anterior rectus sheath. Augmentation consisted of acellular dermis (25) or mesh (7). Postoperative atelectasis was radiographically detected in: 91% (n=29) of augmented patients versus 83% (n=19) of primary closure patients. Major atelectasis in 41% (n=13) of augmented patients versus 61% (n=14) of primary closure patients p<.05. The incidence of atelectasis was independent of skin flap size and operative times. The use of acellular dermis or mesh to augment the abdominal wall appears to reduce the high incidence of postoperative atelectasis following rectus-free flap harvest. Copyright (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 2008.

  13. Posterior rectus sheath hernia causing intermittent small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Lenobel, Scott; Lenobel, Robert; Yu, Joseph

    2014-09-01

    A posterior rectus sheath hernia is an abdominal wall hernia that is rarely encountered. Owing to its rarity, it can be easily overlooked in the setting of a patient presenting with abdominal pain. We report a case of a posterior rectus sheath hernia that caused intermittent small bowel obstruction. The unusual aspects of this case are that the defect was large, measuring 6 cm in the transverse diameter, and that it contained small bowel within a large portion of the rectus sheath. Because the defect was large and affected nearly the entire posterior rectus sheath, it was difficult to discern on computed tomography until a small bowel obstruction developed. In this case, a limited awareness of this clinical entity contributed to the delay in diagnosis.

  14. [Ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block for upper abdominal surgery].

    PubMed

    Osaka, Yoshimune; Kashiwagi, Masanori; Nagatsuka, Yukio; Oosaku, Masayoshi; Hirose, Chikako

    2010-08-01

    Upper abdominal surgery leads to severe postoperative pain. Insufficient postoperative analgesia accompanies a high incidence of complications. Therefore, postoperative analgesia is very important. The epidural analgesia has many advantages. However it has a high risk of epidural hematoma in anticoagulated patients. Rectus sheath block provided safer and more reliable analgesia in recent years, by the development of ultrasound tools. We experienced two cases of the rectus sheath block in upper abdominal surgery under ultrasound guidance. Ultrasound guided rectus sheath block can reduce the risk of peritoneal puncture, bleeding, and other complications. Rectus sheath block is very effective to reduce postoperative pain in upper abdominal surgery as an alternative method to epidural anesthesia in anticoagulated patients.

  15. Posterior Rectus Sheath Hernia Causing Intermittent Small Bowel Obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Lenobel, Scott; Lenobel, Robert; Yu, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    A posterior rectus sheath hernia is an abdominal wall hernia that is rarely encountered. Owing to its rarity, it can be easily overlooked in the setting of a patient presenting with abdominal pain. We report a case of a posterior rectus sheath hernia that caused intermittent small bowel obstruction. The unusual aspects of this case are that the defect was large, measuring 6 cm in the transverse diameter, and that it contained small bowel within a large portion of the rectus sheath. Because the defect was large and affected nearly the entire posterior rectus sheath, it was difficult to discern on computed tomography until a small bowel obstruction developed. In this case, a limited awareness of this clinical entity contributed to the delay in diagnosis. PMID:25426248

  16. Investigation of the Expression of Myogenic Transcription Factors, microRNAs and Muscle-Specific E3 Ubiquitin Ligases in the Medial Gastrocnemius and Soleus Muscles following Peripheral Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wiberg, Rebecca; Jonsson, Samuel; Novikova, Liudmila N.; Kingham, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Despite surgical innovation, the sensory and motor outcome after a peripheral nerve injury remains incomplete. One contributing factor to the poor outcome is prolonged denervation of the target organ, leading to apoptosis of both mature myofibres and satellite cells with subsequent replacement of the muscle tissue with fibrotic scar and adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the expression of myogenic transcription factors, muscle specific microRNAs and muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases at several time points following denervation in two different muscles, the gastrocnemius (containing predominantly fast type fibres) and soleus (slow type) muscles, since these molecules may influence the degree of atrophy following denervation. Both muscles exhibited significant atrophy (compared with the contra-lateral sides) at 7 days following either a nerve transection or crush injury. In the crush model, the soleus muscle showed significantly increased muscle weights at days 14 and 28 which was not the case for the gastrocnemius muscle which continued to atrophy. There was a significantly more pronounced up-regulation of MyoD expression in the denervated soleus muscle compared with the gastrocnemius muscle. Conversely, myogenin was more markedly elevated in the gastrocnemius versus soleus muscles. The muscles also showed significantly contrasting transcriptional regulation of the microRNAs miR-1 and miR-206. MuRF1 and Atrogin-1 showed the highest levels of expression in the denervated gastrocnemius muscle. This study provides further insights regarding the intracellular regulatory molecules that generate and maintain distinct patterns of gene expression in different fibre types following peripheral nerve injury. PMID:26691660

  17. Right Lower Quadrant Pain in a Young Female: Ultrasound Diagnosis of Rectus Abdominis Tear.

    PubMed

    Minardi, Joseph; Shaver, Erica; Monseau, Aaron; Pratt, Adam; Layman, Shelley M

    2015-11-01

    Right lower quadrant pain in young females presents a frequent diagnostic challenge for emergency physicians, with a broad differential and several important diagnoses. Using an "ultrasound first" imaging strategy can help decrease the use of computed tomography scans, with associated savings in radiation exposure, cost, and other resource use. We report a case of right lower quadrant pain in a young woman. After her initial history and physical examination, appendicitis was the leading differential. A bedside ultrasound was performed, leading to the uncommon diagnosis of rectus abdominis muscle tear. The sonographic findings of a muscle tear include increase in size, loss of linear, homogeneous architecture, and decreased echogenicity. Making this diagnosis at the bedside using ultrasound obviated the need for further imaging, avoiding unnecessary radiation exposure, and decreasing emergency department length of stay and overall cost, while leading to a tailored treatment plan. Why Should an Emergency Physician Be Aware of This? Rectus abdominis tear is a cause of right lower quadrant pain that may mimic appendicitis and should be considered in patients with this complaint. The ability to make this diagnosis with bedside ultrasound may assist in several important patient-oriented outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Somatotopic organization of primary afferent perikarya of the guinea-pig extraocular muscles in the trigeminal ganglion: a post-mortem DiI-tracing study.

    PubMed

    Aigner, M; Robert Lukas, J; Denk, M; Ziya-Ghazvini, F; Kaider, A; Mayr, R

    2000-04-01

    Apart from the somatotopic organization of the trigeminal ganglion (TG) into the ophthalmic, maxillary and mandibular divisions along the mediolateral axis, there exist further somatotopic organizations within these three divisions. According to literature, the cell organization in the TG and the somatotopy in the brainstem develop together, formed by naturally occurring cell death in the TG. Thus, the somatotopy of the primary afferent trigeminal perikarya is of special interest. The aim of this study was to investigate the location of the primary afferent perikarya of the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in the TG of guinea-pig. The primary afferent perikarya were labeled by post-mortem application of the carbocyanine DiI on the oculomotor nerve branches near their entrance into the single EOMs. The DiI-positive perikarya were found musculo-somatically organized in the ipsilateral ophthalmic part of the TG at a wide range along the dorsoventral axis, expressing an overlap of the representation areas. The primary afferent perikarya of the superior rectus and the superior oblique muscles were mainly localized in the dorsal part of the ganglion while those of the inferior rectus and the inferior oblique muscle mainly in ventral part. The lateral and the medial rectus were predominantly represented in between. An organization along the mediolateral axis of the TG was not observed. Although guinea-pigs lack classical EOM proprioceptors, the somatotopic representation of the extraocular muscle primary afferent perikarya in the TG found in this study is in line with findings in species with well known encapsulated proprioceptors within the EOMs.

  19. Minimal Invasive Linea Alba Reconstruction for the Treatment of Umbilical and Epigastric Hernias with Coexisting Rectus Abdominis Diastasis.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Gernot; Fischer, Ines; Kaltenböck, Richard; Schrittwieser, Rudolf

    2018-04-05

    Patients with umbilical or epigastric hernias benefit from mesh- based repairs, and even more so if a concomitant rectus diastasis (RD) is present. The ideal technique is, however, still under debate. In this study we introduce the minimal invasive linea alba reconstruction (MILAR) with the supraaponeurotic placement of a fully absorbable synthetic mesh. Midline reconstruction with anterior rectus sheath repair and mesh augmentation by an open approach is a well-known surgical technique for ventral hernia repair. Between December 1, 2016, and November 30, 2017, 20 patients with symptomatic umbilical and/or epigastric hernias, and coexisting RD underwent a minimally invasive complete reconstruction of the midline through a small access route. The inner part of both incised and medialized anterior rectus sheaths was replaced by a fully absorbable synthetic mesh placed in a supraaponeurotic position. Patients were hospitalized for an average of 4 days and the mean operating time was 79 minutes. The mean hernia defect size was 1.5 cm in diameter and the mean mesh size was recorded as 15.8 cm in length and 5.2 cm in width. Two patients sustained surgical postoperative complications in terms of symptomatic seroma occurrences with successful interventional treatment.The early results (mean follow-up period of 5 months) showed no recurrences and only 1 patient reported occasional pain following exertion without rest. MILAR is a modification of the recently published endoscopic linea alba reconstruction restoring the normal anatomy of the abdominal wall. A new linea alba is formed with augmentation of autologous tissue consisting of the plicated anterior rectus sheaths. Supraaponeurotic placement of a fully absorbable synthetic mesh eliminates potential long-term mesh-associated complications. Regarding MILAR, there is no need for endoscopic equipment due to the uniquely designed flexible lighted retractors, meaning one assistant less is required.

  20. Short beveled sharp cutting needle is superior to facet tip needle for ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in children with umbilical hernia: a case series.

    PubMed

    Alsaeed, A; Thallaj, A; Alzahrani, T; Khalil, N; Aljazaeri, A

    2014-10-01

    The most common peripheral nerve blocks used in umbilical hernia repair are rectus sheath block and regional block (caudal block). Ultrasound guidance of peripheral nerve blocks has reduced the number of complications and improved the quality of blocks. The aim of this study is to assess the post rectus sheath block pain relief in pediatric patients coming for umbilical surgery, and to evaluate the easiness of soft tissue puncture and ultrasonic appearance of two different needle types. Twenty two (22) pediatric patients (age range: 1.5-8 years) scheduled for umbilical hernia repair were included in the study. Following the induction of general anesthesia, the ultrasonographic anatomy of the umbilical region was studied with a 5-16 MHz linear probe. An ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in the lateral edge of both rectus abdominis muscles (RMs) was performed (total of 44 punctures). A 22 gauge short beveled sharp cutting needle 1.1 x 30 mm needle A (BD Insyte--W, Vialon material. Spain) was used in one side, and a Stimuplex A insulated Needle 22G 50mm (needle B) was used on the other side. Surgical conditions, intraoperative hemodynamic parameters, and postoperative analgesia were evaluated. Ultrasonograghic visualization of the posterior sheath was possible in all patients. Needle A scored 72.7% of excellent needle tip and shaft view (16 out of 22) compared to 63.63% for needle B (14 out of 22). None of the needles scored poor view. The ultrasound guided rectus sheath blockade provided sufficient analgesia in all children with no need for additional analgesia except for one child who postoperatively requested morphine 0.1 mg/kg intravenously in recovery room. There were no complications. Ultrasound guidance enables performances of an effective rectus sheath block for umbilical hernia in the lateral edge of the rectus muscle. Use of the sharp short beveled needle of 22 gauge intravenous (IV) cannula stylet provides easy, less traumatic skin and rectus muscle

  1. Campylobacter gracilis and Campylobacter rectus in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, J F; Rôças, I N

    2003-03-01

    A species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was used to investigate the occurrence of Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus in primary root canal infections. Samples were collected from 57 single-rooted teeth with carious lesions, necrotic pulps and radiographic evidence of periradicular disease. Twenty-eight cases were diagnosed as chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions, 12 cases as acute apical periodontitis, and 17 cases as acute periradicular abscess. DNA was extracted from the samples and initially amplified using universal 16S rDNA primers. A second round of amplification using the first PCR products was performed to specifically detect C. gracilis or C. rectus in the samples. Campylobacter gracilis and C. rectus were, respectively, detected in 21.4 (6 of 28) and 30% (6 of 20) of the root canals associated with chronic asymptomatic periradicular lesions. Campylobacter gracilis was found in 16.7% (2 of 12) of the cases diagnosed as acute apical periodontitis, whilst C. rectus was found in 33.3% (two of six cases). In the abscessed cases, C. gracilis and C. rectus were detected in 23.5 (4 of 17) and 11.8% (2 of 17) of the cases, respectively. No association of these species with clinical symptoms was observed (P > 0.01) In general, species-specific nPCR allowed the detection of C. gracilis in 21.1% (12 of 57) and C. rectus in 23.3% (10 of 43)of the samples taken from primary endodontic infections. Findings confirmed the assertion that both C. gracilis and C. rectus participate in infections of endodontic origin and suggest a pathogenetic role with regard to periradicular diseases.

  2. Proximal Rectus Femoris Avulsion: Ultrasonic Diagnosis and Nonoperative Management

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Stephan; Jantz, David; Hurdle, Mark F.; Taylor, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present a case of ultrasonic diagnosis and nonoperative management of a complete proximal rectus femoris avulsion in a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division 1 soccer goalkeeper. Background While delivering a goal kick, a previously uninjured 24-year-old collegiate soccer goalkeeper had the sudden onset of right anterior thigh pain. He underwent rehabilitation with rapid resolution of his presenting pain but frequent intermittent recurrence of anterior thigh pain. After he was provided a definitive diagnosis with musculoskeletal ultrasound, he underwent an extended period of rehabilitation and eventually experienced complete recovery without recurrence. Differential Diagnosis Rectus femoris avulsion, rectus femoris strain or partial tear, inguinal hernia, or acetabular labral tear. Treatment Operative and nonoperative options were discussed. In view of the player's recovery, nonoperative options were pursued with a good result. Uniqueness Complete proximal rectus femoris avulsions are rare. Our case contributes to the debate on whether elite-level kicking and running athletes can return to full on-field performance without surgery. Conclusions Complete proximal rectus femoris avulsions can be treated effectively using nonoperative measures with good preservation of function even in the elite-level athlete. In addition, musculoskeletal ultrasound is an excellent tool for on-site evaluation and may help guide prognosis and management. PMID:25978099

  3. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma in pregnancy and a systematic anatomical workup of rectus sheath hematoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Eckhoff, Kerstin; Wedel, Thilo; Both, Marcus; Bas, Kayhan; Maass, Nicolai; Alkatout, Ibrahim

    2016-10-19

    Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare clinical diagnosis, particularly in pregnancy. Due to unspecific symptoms, misdiagnosis is likely and could potentially endanger a patient as well as her fetus. A 26-year-old white woman presented with mild right-sided abdominal pain, which increased during palpation and movement, at 26 + 3 weeks' gestational age. Ultrasound imaging initially showed a round and well-demarcated structure, which appeared to be in contact with her uterine wall, leading to a suspected diagnosis of an infarcted leiomyoma. However, she reported increasing levels of pain and laboratory tests showed a significant drop in her initially normal hemoglobin level. A magnetic resonance imaging scan finally revealed a large type III rectus sheath hematoma on the right side. Because of progressive blood loss into her rectus sheath under conservative therapy, with a significant further decrease in her hemoglobin levels, surgical treatment via right-sided paramedian laparotomy was initiated. During the operation the arterial bleed could be ligated. She eventually achieved complete convalescence and delivered a healthy newborn spontaneously after 40 weeks of gestation. This case report highlights the clinical and diagnostic features of rectus sheath hematoma and shows the anatomical aspects of the rectus sheath, simplifying early and correct diagnosis.

  4. Abdominal foreign body: late presentation as a rectus sheath abscess.

    PubMed

    Noushif, M; Sivaprasad, S; Prashanth, A

    2011-05-01

    Intra-abdominal ingested foreign bodies are usually an incidental finding, typically encountered in mentally challenged patients. We present the case of a 65-year-old mentally sound woman who presented with recurrent abdominal pain and a lump in the hypogastrium. Evaluation revealed a rectus sheath abscess extending to the peritoneum, with a foreign body in situ. On enquiry, the patient revealed that she had accidentally ingested a tailoring needle 17 years ago. This case illustrates an unusual presentation of an ingested foreign body as a rectus sheath abscess after a long duration.

  5. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma: The utility of CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Pierro, Antonio; Cilla, Savino; Modugno, Pietro; Centritto, Enrico Maria; De Filippo, Carlo Maria; Sallustio, Giuseppina

    2018-04-01

    We described the utility of computed tomography (CT) angiography in detection of bleeding vessels for a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization of the spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma. A 70-year-old woman comes to our attention with acute abdominal pain and a low hemoglobin level. An unenhanced CT was performed demonstrating a large rectus sheath hematoma. A conservative management was initially established. Despite this therapy, the abdominal pain increased together with a further decrease of hemoglobin values. A CT angiography was then performed, demonstrating an active bleeding within the hematoma and addressing the patient to a rapid percutaneous arterial embolization.

  6. Purification and characterization of Campylobacter rectus surface layer proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Nitta, H; Holt, S C; Ebersole, J L

    1997-01-01

    Campylobacter rectus is a putative periodontopathogen which expresses a proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) external to the outer membrane. S-layers are considered to play a protective role for the microorganism in hostile environments. The S-layer proteins from six different C. rectus strains (five human isolates and a nonhuman primate [NHP] isolate) were isolated, purified, and characterized. The S-layer proteins of these strains varied in molecular mass (ca. 150 to 166 kDa) as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. They all reacted with monospecific rabbit antiserum to the purified S-layer of C. rectus 314, but a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated a strong antigenic relationship among the five human strains, while the NHP strain, 6250, showed weaker reactivity. Amino acid composition analysis showed that the S-layers of four C. rectus strains contained large proportions of acidic amino acids (13 to 27%) and that >34% of the amino acid residues were hydrophobic. Amino acid sequence analysis of six S-layer proteins revealed that the first 15 amino-terminal amino acids were identical and showed seven residues of identity with the amino-terminal sequence of the Campylobacter fetus S-layer protein SapA1. CNBr peptide profiles of the S-layer proteins from C. rectus 314, ATCC 33238, and 6250 confirmed that the S-layer proteins from the human strains were similar to each other and somewhat different from that of the NHP isolate (strain 6250). However, the S-layer proteins from the two human isolates do show some structural heterogeneity. For example, there was a 17-kDa fragment unique to the C. rectus 314 S-layer. The amino-terminal sequence of this peptide had homology with the C. rectus 51-kDa porin and was composed of nearly 50% hydrophobic residues. Thus, the S-layer protein from C. rectus has structural heterogeneity among different human strains and immunoheterogeneity with the NHP strain. PMID:9009300

  7. Extracorporeal shockwave therapy on muscle tissue: the effects on healthy athletes.

    PubMed

    Notarnicola, A; Covelli, I; Maccagnano, G; Marvulli, R; Mastromauro, L; Ianieri, G; Boodhoo, S; Turitto, A; Petruzzella, L; Farì, G; Bianchi, F P; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) on muscle rheological and functional properties in a population of young athletes. Thirty-two football and basketball players were recruited and randomized into two groups. The athletes underwent three sessions of therapy administered every five days to the thigh muscles. The treatment consisted of ESWT (electromagnetic generator, Energy Flux Density=0.03 mJ/mm2) or a placebo treatment bilaterally on the quadricep and femoral bicep muscles. Monitoring was carried out at recruitment (T0), at the end of treatment (15 days, T1) and at 30 days (T2) with myometric evaluation (measuring elasticity, stiffness and muscular tone) and electromiography exam (recording the Motor Unit Amplitude Potential values). The results showed a significant increase in the treated athletes in the elasticity (lateral vastus muscle, p=0.007), in muscular tone (femoral rectus, p=0.031) and in muscular recruitment (the lateral vastus, p<0.005; medial vastus muscle, p=0.055). These results could represent a translational interpretation of the known biological effect on connective tissue: an increase in blood flow, oxygenation, metabolic process activation and proliferative effect. The effects found may represent the justification for verifying the usefulness of using of shockwave therapy to reduce muscular fatigue and improve performance during the sport season.

  8. Lumbar spinal loads and muscle activity during a golf swing.

    PubMed

    Lim, Young-Tae; Chow, John W; Chae, Woen-Sik

    2012-06-01

    This study estimated the lumbar spinal loads at the L4-L5 level and evaluated electromyographic (EMG) activity of right and left rectus abdominis, external and internal obliques, erector spinae, and latissimus dorsi muscles during a golf swing. Four super VHS camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain three-dimensional (3D) kinematics and kinetics of golf swings performed by five male collegiate golfers. Average EMG levels for different phases of golf swing were determined. An EMG-assisted optimization model was applied to compute the contact forces acting on the L4-L5. The results revealed a mean peak compressive load of over six times the body weight (BW) during the downswing and mean peak anterior and medial shear loads approaching 1.6 and 0.6 BW during the follow-through phases. The peak compressive load estimated in this study was high, but less than the corresponding value (over 8 BW) reported by a previous study. Average EMG levels of different muscles were the highest in the acceleration and follow-through phases, suggesting a likely link between co-contractions of paraspinal muscles and lumbar spinal loads.

  9. Medial elbow pain

    PubMed Central

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A.

    2017-01-01

    Medial elbow pain is uncommon when compared with lateral elbow pain. Medial epicondylitis is an uncommon diagnosis and can be confused with other sources of pain. Overhead throwers and workers lifting heavy objects are at increased risk of medial elbow pain. Differential diagnosis includes ulnar nerve disorders, cervical radiculopathy, injured ulnar collateral ligament, altered distal triceps anatomy or joint disorders. Children with medial elbow pain have to be assessed for ‘Little League elbow’ and fractures of the medial epicondyle following a traumatic event. This paper is primarily focused on the differential diagnosis of medial elbow pain with basic recommendations on treatment strategies. Cite this article: EFORT Open Rev 2017;2:362-371. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.2.160006 PMID:28932488

  10. The Effect of Rectus Sheath Block as a Supplement of General Anesthesia on Postoperative Analgesia in Adult Patient Undergoing Umbilical Hernia Repair.

    PubMed

    Kartalov, Andrijan; Jankulovski, Nikola; Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Zdravkovska, Milka; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Tolevska, Marija; Naumovski, Filip; Srceva, Marija; Petrusheva, Aleksandra Panovska; Selmani, Rexhep; Sivevski, Atanas

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasound guided rectus sheath block can block the ventral rami of the 7th to 12th thoracolumbar nerves by injection of local anesthetic into the space between the rectus muscle and posterior rectus sheath. The aim of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of the bilateral ultrasound guided rectus sheath block as supplement of general anesthesia on patents undergoing elective umbilical hernia repair. After the hospital ethics committee approval, 60 (ASA I-II) adult patients scheduled for umbilical hernia repair were included in this study. The group I (n=30) patents received only general anesthesia. In the group II (n = 30) patents after induction of general anesthesia received a bilateral ultrasound guided rectus sheath block with 40 ml of 0.25% bupivacaine. In this study we assessed demographic and clinical characteristics, pain score - VAS at rest at 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 hours after operation and total analgesic consumption of morphine dose over 24-hours. There were statistically significant differences in VAS scores between the groups I and II at all postoperative time points - 2hr, 4 hr, 6 hr, 12 hr and 24 hr. (P < 0.00001). The cumulative 24 hours morphine consumption after the operation was significantly lower in the group II (mean = 3.73 ± 1. 41) than the group I (mean = 8.76 ± 2.41). This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.00076). The ultrasound guided rectus sheath block used for umbilical hernia repair could reduce postoperative pain scores and the amount of morphine consumption in 24 hours postoperative period.

  11. Rare case of losartan-induced cough complicated by rectus sheath haematoma: in a patient on rivaroxaban therapy.

    PubMed

    Talari, Goutham; Talari, Preetham; Sweigart, Joseph; Ahmed, Sadiq

    2016-12-23

    Spontaneous rectus sheath haematomas and cough secondary to losartan are individually rare conditions. Abdominal wall haematomas present with abdominal pain and abdominal mass. Most patients are managed conservatively; Surgery or embolisation is indicated for shock, infection, rupture into the peritoneum or intractable pain. This is a man aged 65 years presented with dry cough and right-sided abdominal pain. He started losartan a few weeks prior to the onset of cough and had been on rivaroxaban for prior deep venous thrombosis. The right side of his abdomen was distended, bruised and tender. His haemoglobin dropped from 13.3to 9.5 g/dL. CT abdomen/pelvis showed a large 14.5×9.1×4.5 cm haematoma within the right lateral rectus muscle. His only risk factor for developing rectus sheath haematoma was cough in the setting of anticoagulation. Dry cough due to angiotensin receptor blockers is rare, but can have very serious consequences. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. The effect of age and knee osteoarthritis on muscle activation patterns and knee joint biomechanics during dual belt treadmill gait.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, Derek; Baker, Matthew; Wong, Ivan; Stanish, William

    2017-06-01

    To compare a group of individuals with moderate medial compartment knee osteoarthritis (OA) to both an age-matched asymptomatic group of older adults and younger adults to determine whether differences in knee joint muscle activation patterns and joint biomechanics exist during gait between these three groups. 20 young adults, 20 older adults, and 40 individuals with moderate knee OA were recruited. Using standardized procedures, surface electromyograms were recorded from the vastus lateralis and medialis, rectus femoris and the medial and lateral hamstrings. All individuals walked on a dual belt instrumented treadmill while segment motions and ground reaction forces were recorded. Sagittal plane motion and net external sagittal and frontal plane moments were calculated. Discrete measures and principal component analyses extracted amplitude and temporal waveform features. Analysis of Variance models using Bonferroni corrections determined between and within group differences in these gait features (α=0.05). Individuals with knee OA have distinct biomechanics and muscle activation patterns when compared to age-matched asymptomatic adults and younger adults whereas differences between the young and older adults were few and included only measures of muscle activation amplitude. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relative Activity of Abdominal Muscles during Commonly Prescribed Strengthening Exercises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Gilbert M.; Hyde, Jennifer E.; Uhrlaub, Michael B.; Wendel, Cara L.; Karst, Gregory M.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the relative electromyographic (EMG) activity of upper and lower rectus abdominis (LRA) and external oblique (EOA) muscles during five abdominal strengthening exercises. Isometric and dynamic EMG data indicated that abdominal strengthening exercises activated various abdominal muscle groups. For the LRA and EOA muscle groups, there were…

  14. Why Do Abdominal Muscles Sometimes Separate during Pregnancy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscles that meet in the middle of the abdomen (rectus muscles) to become separated by an abnormal distance — ... to sitting up. Diastasis recti can weaken the abdominal muscles, causing lower back pain and making it difficult to lift objects or ...

  15. Responses of adventitial CD34+ vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells and medial smooth muscle cells to carotid injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yan; Wu, Yan; Zheng, Yong; Ao, Feng; Kang, Kai; Wan, Yu; Song, Jian

    2016-12-01

    Cell culture and carotid injury studies with SD rats were performed to investigate the roles of CD34 + vascular wall-resident stem/progenitor cells (VRS/Pcs) and vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in neointimal formation. In vitro, the media-isolated SM MHC + SMCs occupied 93.92±8.62% of total BrdU + cells, whereas the CD34 + cells, only 2.61±0.82%, indicating that the cell expansion in SMC culture was attributed to SM MHC + SMCs. The adventitia-isolated CD34 + VRS/Pcs responded to PDGF-BB by differentiating into SMC-like cells which expressed SM22α (an early stage SMC marker), but seldom SM MHC (a late stage SMC marker). In carotid injury model, the CD34 + VRS/Pcs differentiated SMC-like cells migrated in very few numbers into only the outer layer of the media, and this was further confirmed by a cell tracking analysis. While the neointimal cells were consistently SM MHC + and CD34 - SMCs during whole course of the post-injury remodeling. Thus it is speculated that the adventitial CD34 + VRS/Pcs, at least in rat model, do not directly participate in neointimal formation, but function to maintain homeostasis of the media during injury-induced vascular wall remodeling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Treatment of elbow osteomyelitis with an interposition arthroplasty using a rectus abdominis free flap.

    PubMed

    Jaiswal, Rohit; Busse, Brittany; Allen, Robert; Sahar, David

    2015-05-01

    Osteomyelitis of the elbow may be a complex clinical problem. Treatment goals include the eradication of infection and preservation of maximal joint function. Bony debridement may be necessary in addition to elbow joint arthroplasty. The use of synthetic material or allograft as the arthroplasty material may be contraindicated in the setting of infection. The use of free muscle transfer as an arthroplasty medium has not been well described. A 22-year-old paraplegic man developed recurrent osteomyelitis of the right elbow, necessitating extensive bony debridement by the orthopedic surgery team. Reconstruction arthroplasty was performed using a free rectus abdominis muscle flap as the arthroplasty material to serve as a source of biologically active, well-vascularized arthroplasty medium in the presence of ongoing infection. A successful free muscle flap arthroplasty was performed. External fixation and physical therapy were implemented postoperatively. The patient had resolution of osteomyelitis and excellent functional use of the elbow for activities of daily living and wheelchair motion. Elbow arthroplasty in the setting of active infection may be accomplished by means of free tissue muscle transfer. Elimination of infection and acceptable joint function may be possible with this form of reconstruction.

  17. In-shoe plantar pressure distribution and lower extremity muscle activity patterns of backward compared to forward running on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Sterzing, Thorsten; Frommhold, Clivia; Rosenbaum, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Backward locomotion in humans occurs during leisure, rehabilitation, and competitive sports. Little is known about its general biomechanical characteristics and how it affects lower extremity loading as well as muscle coordination. Thus, the purpose of this research was to analyze in-shoe plantar pressure patterns and lower extremity muscle activity patterns for backward compared to forward running. On a treadmill, nineteen runners performed forward running at their individually preferred speed, followed by backward running at 70% of their self-selected forward speed. In-shoe plantar pressures of nine foot regions and muscular activity of nine lower extremity muscles were recorded simultaneously over a one-minute interval. Backward and forward running variables were averaged over the accumulated steps and compared with Wilcoxon-signed rank tests (p<.05). For backward compared to forward running, in-shoe plantar pressure distribution showed a load increase under metatarsal heads I and II, as well as under the medial midfoot. This was indicated by higher maximum forces and peak pressures, and by longer contact times. Muscle activity showed significantly higher mean amplitudes during backward running in the semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and gluteus medius during stance, and in the rectus femoris during swing phase, while significantly lower mean amplitudes were observed in the tibialis anterior during swing phase. Observations indicate plantar foot loading and muscle activity characteristics that are specific for the running direction. Thus, backward running may be used on purpose for certain rehabilitation tasks, aiming to strengthen respective lower extremity muscles. Furthermore, the findings are relevant for sport specific backward locomotion training. Finally, results provide an initial baseline for innovative athletic footwear development aiming to increase comfort and performance during backward running. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All

  18. Change in skeletal muscle stiffness after running competition is dependent on both running distance and recovery time: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Seyedali; Newman, Cassidy; Cortes, Daniel H

    2018-01-01

    Long-distance running competitions impose a large amount of mechanical loading and strain leading to muscle edema and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Damage to various muscle fibers, metabolic impairments and fatigue have been linked to explain how DOMS impairs muscle function. Disruptions of muscle fiber during DOMS exacerbated by exercise have been shown to change muscle mechanical properties. The objective of this study is to quantify changes in mechanical properties of different muscles in the thigh and lower leg as function of running distance and time after competition. A custom implementation of Focused Comb-Push Ultrasound Shear Elastography (F-CUSE) method was used to evaluate shear modulus in runners before and after a race. Twenty-two healthy individuals (age: 23 ± 5 years) were recruited using convenience sampling and split into three race categories: short distance (nine subjects, 3-5 miles), middle distance (10 subjects, 10-13 miles), and long distance (three subjects, 26+ miles). Shear Wave Elastography (SWE) measurements were taken on both legs of each subject on the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), soleus, lateral gastrocnemius (LG), medial gastrocnemius (MG), biceps femoris (BF) and semitendinosus (ST) muscles. For statistical analyses, a linear mixed model was used, with recovery time and running distance as fixed variables, while shear modulus was used as the dependent variable. Recovery time had a significant effect on the soleus ( p  = 0.05), while running distance had considerable effect on the biceps femoris ( p  = 0.02), vastus lateralis ( p  < 0.01) and semitendinosus muscles ( p  = 0.02). Sixty-seven percent of muscles exhibited a decreasing stiffness trend from before competition to immediately after competition. The preliminary results suggest that SWE could potentially be used to quantify changes of muscle mechanical properties as a way for measuring recovery procedures for runners.

  19. Functional reconstruction of glossectomy defects: the vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous neotongue.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Nicholas T; DeLacure, Mark D; Saadeh, Pierre B

    2008-07-01

    The vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous (VRAM) flap is a valuable option for tongue reconstruction. However, the traditional inset (skin to remaining oral mucosa) obviates a more anatomic reconstruction. Eight patients underwent total or subtotal glossectomy with VRAM reconstruction. The muscle inset was supported at the inferior mandibular border attached to the remaining lingual mucosa or gingiva. The neotongue, consisting of skin and subcutaneous fat, was sutured posteriorly to the remaining tongue base, and the other surfaces were trimmed and left unsutured. Reconstruction was successful in all patients. The neotongue assumed palatal configuration, and within 2 weeks uniform granulation tissue followed by mucosalization occurred. One year postoperatively, all patients tolerated ad lib diets, spoke intelligibly, were gastrostomy tube and tracheotomy free and had no evidence of aspiration. This neotongue sits on the mandible under voluntary control, permitting effective obturation against the hard palate and providing successful speech and swallowing.

  20. Workhorse Flaps in Chest Wall Reconstruction: The Pectoralis Major, Latissimus Dorsi, and Rectus Abdominis Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Karim; Mardini, Samir; Evans, Karen K.; Carlsen, Brian T.; Arnold, Phillip G.

    2011-01-01

    Large and life-threatening thoracic cage defects can result from the treatment of traumatic injuries, tumors, infection, congenital anomalies, and radiation injury and require prompt reconstruction to restore respiratory function and soft tissue closure. Important factors for consideration are coverage with healthy tissue to heal a wound, the potential alteration in respiratory mechanics created by large extirpations or nonhealing thoracic wounds, and the need for immediate coverage for vital structures. The choice of technique depends on the size and extent of the defect, its location, and donor site availability with consideration to previous thoracic or abdominal operations. The focus of this article is specifically to describe the use of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, and rectus abdominis muscle flaps for reconstruction of thoracic defects, as these are the workhorse flaps commonly used for chest wall reconstruction. PMID:22294942

  1. Extensive Chest Wall Tissue Loss and its Management by Vertical Rectus Abdominis Myocutaneous Flap

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sandip Kanti; Bain, Jayanta; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Majumdar, Bijay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Extensive electric burn around the chest in children is rare and this type of injury always poses a great challenge for its management. A 12-year-old male child with extensive electric burn of the chest wall was admitted to hospital. It was a neglected case of 9 days old burn; the young boy was in critical condition having systemic features of toxemia with widespread necrosis of the skin, subcutaneous tissues, and muscles along with exposed bones (ribs and sternum) with the risk of impending rupture of pleura through the exposed intercostal spaces. After initial resuscitation, a thorough debridement of all necrotic tissues was done. Thereafter, a superiorly based vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap was harvested to cover the exposed bones and intercostal spaces. The remaining raw areas were skin grafted. The child made an excellent recovery with good outcome. PMID:28082777

  2. Effects of whole-body vibration on muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance in stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Marín, Pedro J; Ferrero, Cristina M; Menéndez, Héctor; Martín, Juan; Herrero, Azael J

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of whole-body vibration on lower limb muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance in stroke patients during a period of 3 mos. The inclusion criteria were having had ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke at least 6 mos before the study and a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of greater than 1 and less than 20. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: an experimental group (n = 11, six men and five women; age, 62.4 ± 10.7 yrs; height, 1.64 ± 0.07 m; mass, 69.4 ± 12.9 kg) and a sham group (n = 9, five men and four women; age, 64.4 ± 7.6 yrs; height, 1.62 ± 0.07 m; mass, 75.0 ± 15.8 kg). The experimental group received a whole-body vibration treatment, with an increase in frequency, sets, and time per set during 17 sessions. The sham group performed the same exercises as that of the experimental group but was not exposed to vibration. Outcome variables included the muscle architecture (the rectus femoris, the vastus lateralis, and the medial gastrocnemius), the maximal isometric voluntary contraction of the knee extensors, and the Berg Balance Scale. There were no significant differences between the groups on the primary outcomes of lower limb muscle architecture, muscle strength, and balance. It seems that whole-body vibration exercise does not augment the increase in neuromuscular performance and lower limb muscle architecture induced by isometric exercise alone in stroke patients.

  3. [Radical hysterectomy in a patient with Steinert disease: spinal anaesthesia, ketamine and TAP and rectus sheath blocks].

    PubMed

    Armendáriz-Buil, I; Marenco-Arellano, V

    2015-01-01

    The case of a patient with Steinert disease who underwent surgery for radical hysterectomy is presented. Because of her advanced disease, she suffered from chronic respiratory failure which required non-invasive ventilation (NIV) at night. Spinal anaesthesia was chosen as an anaesthetic treatment. At the time of aortic lymphadenectomy, the patient reported moderate pain at hypogastrium, which was well controlled with boluses of 10 mg of ketamine. Postoperatively, opioid administration was avoided by applying abdominal wall blocks: transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block and sheath of rectus abdominis muscle block. The evolution of the patient was satisfactory and she was discharged on the fifth day after surgery.

  4. Ultrasonographic assessment of the quadriceps muscle and femoral cartilage in transtibial amputees using different prostheses.

    PubMed

    Şahin Onat, Şule; Malas, Fevziye Ünsal; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna; Akkaya, Nuray; Kara, Murat; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-08-01

    In patients with lower limb amputations, gait alteration, increased loading on the intact extremity, and use of prosthesis may lead to joint degeneration. To explore the effects of prosthesis type on quadriceps muscle and distal femoral cartilage thicknesses in transtibial amputees. A cross-sectional study. A total of 38 below-knee amputees were enrolled in the study, of which 13 patients were using vacuum system type prosthesis and 25 patients were using silicon liner pin system prosthesis. Patients' femoral cartilage and quadriceps muscle thickness measurements were performed using musculoskeletal ultrasound. When compared with the intact sides, cartilage and rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, and vastus medialis muscle thickness values were significantly decreased on the amputee sides (all p < 0.05). Clinical characteristics and ultrasound measurements were similar between the two groups except the lateral and medial femoral condyle thicknesses, thinner in the silicon liner pin system users (both p < 0.05). The distal femoral cartilage and quadriceps muscle thicknesses were found to be decreased on the amputated sides, and the negative impact on the cartilage seemed to be worse in the silicon liner pin system users. This study might provide another argument as regards the preference of vacuum system type prosthesis to prevent possible knee osteoarthritis due to cartilage thinning in adult transtibial amputees. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2015.

  5. Effect of armor and carrying load on body balance and leg muscle function.

    PubMed

    Park, Huiju; Branson, Donna; Kim, Seonyoung; Warren, Aric; Jacobson, Bert; Petrova, Adriana; Peksoz, Semra; Kamenidis, Panagiotis

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of weight and weight distribution of body armor and load carriage on static body balance and leg muscle function. A series of human performance tests were conducted with seven male, healthy, right-handed military students in seven garment conditions with varying weight and weight distributions. Static body balance was assessed by analyzing the trajectory of center of plantar pressure and symmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Leg muscle functions were assessed by analyzing the peak electromyography amplitude of four selected leg muscles during walking. Results of this study showed that uneven weight distribution of garment and load beyond an additional 9 kg impaired static body balance as evidenced by increased sway of center of plantar pressure and asymmetry of weight bearing in the feet. Added weight on non-dominant side of the body created greater impediment to static balance. Increased garment weight also elevated peak EMG amplitude in the rectus femoris to maintain body balance and in the medial gastrocnemius to increase propulsive force. Negative impacts on balance and leg muscle function with increased carrying loads, particularly with an uneven weight distribution, should be stressed to soldiers, designers, and sports enthusiasts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Leg Muscle Involvement in Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: Comparison between Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Types 1 and 2.

    PubMed

    Mair, Dorothea; Huegens-Penzel, Monika; Kress, Wolfram; Roth, Christian; Ferbert, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) presents with 2 genetically distinct types. We describe for the first time the MRI patterns of leg muscle involvement in type 2 and compare it with type 1. The intramuscular fat content was assessed on lower extremity axial T1-weighted MRI scans in 6 FSHD1 and 5 FSHD2 patients. Overall, the muscle involvement profile did not differ substantially between FSHD1 and FSHD2. In the thigh, the dorsomedial compartment including the semimembranosus, semitendinosus and adductor magnus was the most affected. The quadriceps was mostly spared, but isolated involvement of the rectus femoris was common. Fat infiltration in the distal soleus and the medial gastrocnemius with sparing of the lateral gastrocnemius was a common finding; involvement of the tibialis anterior was less frequent. A proximal-to-distal increase in fat content was frequently present in some muscles. Muscle involvement appears to be independent of type, confirming a similar pathophysiological pathway in FSHD1 and FSHD2. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Thigh Muscle Activity, Knee Motion, and Impact Force During Side-Step Pivoting in Agility-Trained Female Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilderman, Danielle R; Ross, Scott E; Padua, Darin A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Improving neuromuscular control of hamstrings muscles might have implications for decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. Objective: To examine the effects of a 6-week agility training program on quadriceps and hamstrings muscle activation, knee flexion angles, and peak vertical ground reaction force. Design: Prospective, randomized clinical research trial. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty female intramural basketball players with no history of knee injury (age  =  21.07 ± 2.82 years, height  =  171.27 ± 4.66 cm, mass  =  66.36 ± 7.41 kg). Intervention(s): Participants were assigned to an agility training group or a control group that did not participate in agility training. Participants in the agility training group trained 4 times per week for 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used surface electromyography to assess muscle activation for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, medial hamstrings, and lateral hamstrings for 50 milliseconds before initial ground contact and while the foot was in contact with the ground during a side-step pivot maneuver. Knee flexion angles (at initial ground contact, maximum knee flexion, knee flexion displacement) and peak vertical ground reaction force also were assessed during this maneuver. Results: Participants in the training group increased medial hamstrings activation during ground contact after the 6-week agility training program. Both groups decreased their vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during ground contact. Knee flexion angles and peak vertical ground reaction force did not change for either group. Conclusions: Agility training improved medial hamstrings activity in female intramural basketball players during a side-step pivot maneuver. Agility training that improves hamstrings activity might have implications for reducing anterior cruciate ligament sprain injury associated with side-step pivots. PMID

  8. Muscle activity adapts to anti-gravity posture during pedalling in persons with post-stroke hemiplegia.

    PubMed

    Brown, D A; Kautz, S A; Dairaghi, C A

    1997-05-01

    With hemiplegia following stroke, a person's movement response to anti-gravity posture often appears rigid and inflexible, exacerbating the motor dysfunction. A major determinant of pathological movement in anti-gravity postures is the failure to adapt muscle-activity patterns automatically to changes in posture. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the impaired motor performance observed when persons with hemiplegia pedal in a horizontal position is exacerbated at more vertical anti-gravity body orientations. Twelve healthy elderly subjects and 17 subjects with chronic (> 6 months) post-stroke hemiplegia participated in the study. Subjects pedalled a modified ergometer at different body orientations (from horizontal to vertical), maintaining the same workload, cadence, and hip and knee kinematics. Pedal reaction forces, and crank and pedal kinematics, were measured and then used to calculate the work done by each leg and their net positive and negative components. The EMG was recorded from four leg muscles (tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris). The main result from this study was that impaired plegic leg performance, as measured by net negative work done by the plegic leg and abnormal early rectus femoris activity, was exacerbated at the most vertical body orientations. However, contrary to the belief that muscle activity cannot adapt to anti-gravity postures, net positive work increased appropriately and EMG activity in all muscles showed modulated levels of activity similar to those in elderly control subjects. These results support the hypothesis that increased verticality exacerbates the already impaired movement performance. Yet, much of the motor response to verticality was flexible and appropriate, given the mechanics of the task.

  9. [Effect of biological electric stimulation on free muscle transfer].

    PubMed

    Yuang, F; Guan, W; Cao, Y

    1997-01-01

    The rectus femoris muscles of rabbits were used as muscle model. The electrical stimulation which resembled the normal motor-unit activity was used to observe its effects on free transferred muscle. After three months, the moist muscle weight (MW), its maximum cross-section area, its contractility and its histochemical characteristics were examined. The results showed that the function and morphology of the muscles were well preserved. These findings might encourage its clinical application.

  10. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    PubMed

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  11. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Individuals Displaying Excessive Medial Knee Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; Bell, David R.; Clark, Micheal A.

    2012-01-01

    Context Knee-valgus motion is a potential risk factor for certain lower extremity injuries, including anterior cruciate ligament injury and patellofemoral pain. Identifying neuromuscular characteristics associated with knee-valgus motion, such as hip and lower leg muscle activation, may improve our ability to prevent lower extremity injuries. Objective We hypothesized that hip and lower leg muscle-activation amplitude would differ among individuals displaying knee valgus (medial knee displacement) during a double-legged squat compared with those who did not display knee valgus. We further suggested that the use of a heel lift would alter lower leg muscle activation and frontal-plane knee motion in those demonstrating medial knee displacement. Design Descriptive laboratory study. Setting Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants A total of 37 healthy participants were assigned to the control (n = 19) or medial-knee-displacement (n = 18) group based on their double-legged squat performance. Main Outcome Measure(s) Muscle-activation amplitude for the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, adductor magnus, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was measured during 2 double-legged squat tasks. The first task consisted of performing a double-legged squat without a heel lift; the second consisted of performing a double-legged squat task with a 2-in (5.08-cm) lift under the heels. Results Muscle-activation amplitude for the hip adductor, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior was greater in those who displayed knee valgus than in those who did not (P < .05). Also, use of heel lifts resulted in decreased activation of the gluteus maximus, hip adductor, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles (P < .05). Use of heel lifts also eliminated medially directed frontal-plane knee motion in those displaying medial knee displacement. Conclusions Medial knee displacement during squatting tasks appears to be associated with increased hip-adductor activation and

  12. Effect of virtual reality exercise using the nintendo wii fit on muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults.

    PubMed

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-02-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a week for six weeks. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), erector spinae (ES), and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles. [Results] VREG showed significant within group differences in TA and MG muscle activities, while the SEG showed a significant difference in the muscle activity of the MG. [Conclusion] Virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit was an effective intervention for the muscle activities of the TA and MG of normal adults.

  13. Effect of Virtual Reality Exercise Using the Nintendo Wii Fit on Muscle Activities of the Trunk and Lower Extremities of Normal Adults

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jungseo; Lee, Daehee; Lee, Sangyong

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study aimed to determine the effect of virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit on the muscle activities of the trunk and lower extremities of normal adults. [Subjects] The subjects of the study were 24 normal adults who were divided into a virtual reality exercise group (VREG, n=12) and a stable surface exercise group (SEG, n=12). [Methods] The exercises of the VREG using the Nintendo Wii Fit and the SEG using a stable surface were conducted three times a week for six weeks. Electromyography was used to measure the muscle activities of the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), erector spinae (ES), and rectus abdominal (RA) muscles. [Results] VREG showed significant within group differences in TA and MG muscle activities, while the SEG showed a significant difference in the muscle activity of the MG. [Conclusion] Virtual reality exercise using the Nintendo Wii Fit was an effective intervention for the muscle activities of the TA and MG of normal adults. PMID:24648647

  14. Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of a postpartum rectus sheath haematoma.

    PubMed

    Elmoghrabi, Adel; Mohamed, Mohamed; McCann, Michael; Sachwani-Daswani, Gul

    2016-03-09

    A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute severe abdominal pain at 4 days postpartum. CT of the abdomen revealed a type II rectus sheath haematoma for which she was initially treated conservatively and discharged. A few hours later, she returned to the ED with a picture suggestive of peritonitis. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed and revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured area on the posterior rectus sheath. Approximately 2 L of blood was aspirated. Haemostatic control was achieved and closed suction drains secured in position. The patient was discharged in stable condition on postadmission day 6. She continued to follow-up on an outpatient basis and was doing well 3 months postoperatively. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  15. Spontaneous intraperitoneal rupture of a postpartum rectus sheath haematoma

    PubMed Central

    Elmoghrabi, Adel; McCann, Michael; Sachwani-Daswani, Gul

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old woman presented to the emergency department (ED) with acute severe abdominal pain at 4 days postpartum. CT of the abdomen revealed a type II rectus sheath haematoma for which she was initially treated conservatively and discharged. A few hours later, she returned to the ED with a picture suggestive of peritonitis. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed and revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured area on the posterior rectus sheath. Approximately 2 L of blood was aspirated. Haemostatic control was achieved and closed suction drains secured in position. The patient was discharged in stable condition on postadmission day 6. She continued to follow-up on an outpatient basis and was doing well 3 months postoperatively. PMID:26961567

  16. Rectus sheath haematoma following exercise testing: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Exercise testing is a safe diagnostic procedure which is widely used in the evaluation of patients suspected of having coronary heart disease or for the assessment of the prognosis in patients with established disease. Its complications are mainly cardiac disorders. Here, we report a rectus sheath haematoma as a complication of this procedure in a patient with acute coronary syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of rectus sheath haematoma in association with exercise testing. Case presentation A 72-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted for acute coronary syndrome. She received conservative treatment including low molecular weight heparin and anti-platelet agents. On the fifth day of her hospital stay, she underwent an exercise test, where no ischaemic response occurred. Several hours later, she experienced pain in the left side of her abdomen. Subsequent investigations revealed a rectus sheath haematoma. The patient underwent surgical haematoma evacuation. A few days later, re-operation was performed for recurrent bleeding in the abdominal wall. The patient had several characteristics known to increase the risk of bleeding during treatment for acute coronary syndrome. Conclusion Awareness of this possible consequence of exercise testing is important for preventing and treating it correctly. For prevention, an assessment of the bleeding risk of the individual patient is necessary before the test, and excessive anticoagulation must be avoided. PMID:20338023

  17. Laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal approach for umbilical hernia with rectus diastasis.

    PubMed

    Capitano, Sante

    2017-08-01

    Rectus diastasis, when coexistent with umbilical hernia, can benefit from mesh-based repair of the midline. Laparoscopic correction of an umbilical hernia involves the placement of a mesh in the peritoneal cavity, but this comes with the risk of bowel complications. However, newly developed dual-sided composite meshes have helped to reduce this risk. Four men and three women with umbilical hernia and rectus diastasis were treated with laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal repair. Composite mesh with a hydrophilic 3-D polyester textile on the parietal side and an absorbable collagen barrier on the peritoneal side were placed in the preperitoneal pocket after hernial sac reduction. Mean hernia size was 2.5 cm, and no recurrences were observed during the mean follow-up period of 9.2 months. The laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal approach for umbilical hernia and rectus diastasis may be a safe surgical option when trying to avoid potential complications related to intra-abdominal mesh positioning. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Neuromuscular response of hip-spanning and low back muscles to medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation during gait.

    PubMed

    Solomonow-Avnon, Deborah; Levin, Daniel; Elboim-Gabyzon, Michal; Rozen, Nimrod; Peled, Eli; Wolf, Alon

    2016-06-01

    Footwear-generated medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation has been shown to have potential positive effects on gait parameters of hip osteoarthritis patients, ultimately reducing maximum joint reaction forces. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation on muscle activity of hip-spanning and back muscles during gait in bilateral hip osteoarthritis patients. Foot center of pressure was shifted along the medio-lateral foot axis using a foot-worn biomechanical device allowing controlled center of pressure manipulation. Sixteen female bilateral hip osteoarthritis patients underwent electromyography analysis while walking in the device set to three parasagittal configurations: neutral (control), medial, and lateral. Seven hip-spanning muscles (Gluteus Medius, Gluteus Maximus, Tensor Fascia Latae, Rectus Femoris, Semitendinosis, Biceps Femoris, Adductor Magnus) and one back muscle (Erector Spinae) were analyzed. Magnitude and temporal parameters were calculated. The amplitude and temporal parameter varied significantly between foot center of pressure positions for 5 out of 8 muscles each for either the more or less symptomatic leg in at least one subphase of the gait cycle. Medio-lateral foot center of pressure manipulation significantly affects neuromuscular pattern of hip and back musculature during gait in female hip bilateral osteoarthritis patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of constrained weight shift on the static balance and muscle activation of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Kyung Woo; Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Na Kyung; Kwon, Jung Won; Son, Sung Min

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of constrained weight shift induced by shoe lift beneath the unaffected lower extremity, on balance functions and electromyography of the affected lower extremity of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve patients with unilateral stroke were recruited as volunteers for this study. The subjects were repeatedly measured in a randomized order under three conditions: no-shoe lift, and shoe lifts of 5 mm and 10 mm heights beneath the unaffected lower extremity. [Results] Standing with a 10 mm shoe lift for the unaffected lower extremity decreased the mean velocity of mediolateral sway compared to no-shoe lift. Regarding the velocity of anteroposterior sway, standing with 5 mm and 10 mm shoe lifts decreased the mean velocity of anteroposterior sway. The muscle activation of the affected lower extremity was not significantly different among the no-shoe lift, 5 mm shoe lift and 10 mm shoe lift conditions; however, the muscle activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and medial gastrocnemius of the affected lower extremity progressively improved with increasing height of the shoe lift. [Conclusion] A constrained weight shift to the affected side elicited by a shoe insole of 10 mm height on the unaffected side can improve the static standing balance of stroke patients, and it resulted in 14–24% increases in the muscle activities of the affected leg. PMID:25931729

  20. Architecture and fiber type of the pyramidalis muscle.

    PubMed

    Lovering, Richard M; Anderson, Larry D

    2008-12-01

    The paired pyramidalis muscles are small triangular-shaped muscles that lie between the anterior surface of the rectus abdominus and the posterior surface of the rectus sheath. The precise function of pyramidalis muscles is unclear, but together the muscles are thought to tense the linea alba. The muscles are not always present, or are often unilateral, and vary greatly in size. Their wider inferior margins attach to the pubic symphyses and pubic crests, whereas their narrow superior margins attach to the linea alba. The gross anatomy and innervation of the pyramidalis muscles has been described by others, but their architecture and fiber type have not been determined in previous publications. The purpose of the present paper was therefore to investigate these parameters and place the findings into context for the literature available on this muscle. An example of bilateral pyramidalis muscles was recently encountered in a male cadaver that provided ample tissue for an analysis of its architecture and fiber type. The muscle mass, muscle length, fiber length, and pennation angle of muscle fibers were measured to ascertain physiological cross-sectional area and thereby estimate force production. Fiber type composition was also examined using immunofluorescent labeling. The results show that this is a muscle of mixed fiber type composition, similar to the rectus abdominus, and that the estimated forces generated by this muscle are relatively small.

  1. Functional Improvement Following Diastasis Rectus Abdominus Repair in an Active Duty Navy Female.

    PubMed

    Gallus, Katerina M; Golberg, Kathy F; Field, Robert

    2016-08-01

    Return to physical activity following childbirth can be a difficult process complicated by structural changes during pregnancy. A common problem is the development of a diastasis of the rectus abdominus (DRA), defined as a horizontal separation of the abdominus muscles at the linea alba. Recent data indicate that the greater the distance of separation of the muscle, the worse the functional ability. We describe a 24-year-old active duty U.S. Navy female G1P2 with a diagnosis of DRA. At 2 months postpartum, she was referred to physical therapy because of back pain and inability to meet baseline activities of daily living. After 4 months of physical therapy, she was unable to complete curl ups as required by U.S. Navy physical fitness standards. Abdominoplasty with imbrication of the abdominal wall diastasis was performed followed by additional physical therapy, after which she returned to baseline functioning. The restoration of functional ability postoperatively suggests there is a therapeutic indication for surgical correction of DRA. In high-functioning military patients with DRA who fail to return to baseline level of activity following a trial of physical therapy, surgical intervention should be considered to obtain the optimal functional ability. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  2. Cortical motor representation of the rectus femoris does not differ between the left and right hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Ward, Sarah; Bryant, Adam L; Pietrosimone, Brian; Bennell, Kim L; Clark, Ross; Pearce, Alan J

    2016-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) involves non-invasive magnetic stimulation of the brain, and can be used to explore the corticomotor excitability and motor representations of skeletal muscles. However there is a lack of motor mapping studies in the lower limb and few conducted in healthy cohorts. The cortical motor representations of muscles can vary between individuals in terms of center position and area despite having a general localized region within the motor cortex. It is important to characterize the normal range for these variables in healthy cohorts to be able to evaluate changes in clinical populations. TMS was used in this cross-sectional study to assess the active motor threshold (AMT) and cortical representation area for rectus femoris in 15 healthy individuals (11M/4F 27.3±5.9years). No differences were found between hemispheres (Left vs. Right P=0.130) for AMT. In terms of y-axis center position no differences were found between hemispheres (Left vs. Right P=0.539), or for the x-axis center position (Left vs. Right P=0.076). Similarly, no differences in calculated area of the motor representation were found (Left vs. Right P=0.699) indicating symmetry between hemispheres. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Ipsilateral Medial and Lateral Discoid Meniscus with Medial Meniscus Tear

    PubMed Central

    Shimozaki, Kengo; Nakase, Junsuke; Ohashi, Yoshinori; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Discoid meniscus is a well-documented knee pathology, and there are many cases of medial or lateral discoid meniscus reported in the literature. However, ipsilateral concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus is very rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we report a case of concurrent medial and lateral discoid meniscus. Case Report: A 27-year-old Japanese man complained of pain on medial joint space in his right knee that was diagnosed as a complete medial and lateral discoid meniscus. In magnetic resonance imaging, although the lateral discoid meniscus had no tear, the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. Arthroscopic examination of his right knee similarly revealed that the medial discoid meniscus had a horizontal tear. In addition, the discoid medial meniscus also had an anomalous insertion to the anterior cruciate ligament, and there was also mild fibrillation of the medial tibial cartilage surface. We performed arthroscopic partial meniscectomy for the torn medial discoid meniscus but not for the asymptomatic lateral discoid meniscus. The latest follow-up at 18 months indicated satisfactory results. Conclusion: We report a rare case of ipsilateral medial and lateral discoid meniscus with medial meniscus tear. The medial discoid meniscus with tear was treated with partial meniscectomy, whereas the lateral discoid meniscus without tear was only followed up. PMID:28164045

  4. Diagnostic and management of spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Alex; Ruiz, Jessica; Perello, Rafael; Valverde, Marta; Ramos, Javier; Garzo, Luïsa

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon and often misdiagnosed cause of abdominal pain. The aim of this study is to describe our experience in their management. Retrospective analysis of the characteristics and outcomes of the spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas diagnosed over the last 12years was conducted. 24 patients were included (66% women; mean age: 74years; range: 54-87). All cases presented predisposing factors mainly anticoagulant therapy in 21 (87.5%) patients, hypertension in 19 (79.1%) and abdominal surgery in 12 (50%) cases. Eighteen (75%) referred triggering factors like coughing being the most common one, present in 17 (70.8%) patients. The main clinical findings were abdominal pain in 21 (87.5%) cases and the existence of an abdominal mass in 20 (83.3%). The diagnosis was confirmed by abdominal ultrasonography and/or computerized tomography in 23 (95.8%) patients. Nineteen cases (79.1%) responded to conservative management while 5 (20.8%) required interventional treatment, which consisted in an arteriography with selective embolization of the epigastric arteries in all cases. Four (80%) of the patients needing interventional treatment were receiving low molecular weight heparin. Nine (37.5%) patients developed hypovolemic shock and 1 (4%) died. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematomas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abdominal pain, particularly in elderly women under anticoagulant therapy with onset of symptoms after a bout of cough. Most cases respond to conservative management, although those related to low molecular weight heparin might require interventional treatment; arteriography with selective embolization of the epigastric arteries is the first therapeutic option. Copyright © 2013 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rectus sheath catheter infusions for post-operative pain management.

    PubMed

    Layzell, Mandy

    2014-06-24

    Managing pain following major abdominal surgery remains a challenge. Traditionally, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) or epidural analgesia have been used, which have improved post-operative pain and the patient experience, but have presented some problems in recovery. PCA can cause adverse effects, including sedation, nausea, vomiting, and prolonged gastric ileus. While epidurals do have some advantages over PCA, there are risks involved related to catheter insertion and adverse effects, such as hypotension and motor blocks which limit mobility. This article examines rectus sheath catheter infusions, a relatively new and alternative technique to epidural analgesia, and presents some early audit data related to pain scores, analgesic use and mobility.

  6. Predictive Factors in the Outcome of Surgical Repair of Abdominal Rectus Diastasis.

    PubMed

    Strigård, Karin; Clay, Leonard; Stark, Birgit; Gunnarsson, Ulf

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to define the indicators predicting improved abdominal wall function after surgical repair of abdominal rectus diastasis (ARD). Preoperative subjective assessment quantified by the validated Ventral Hernia Pain Questionnaire (VHPQ) was related to relative postoperative functional improvement in abdominal muscle strength. Fifty-seven patients undergoing surgery for ARD completed the VHPQ before surgery. Preoperative pain assessment results were compared with the relative improvement in muscle strength measured with the BioDex system 4. There was a correlation between the relative improvement in muscle strength measured by the BioDex System 4 for flexion at 30 degrees (P = 0.046) and 60 degrees per second (P = 0.004) and the preoperative question, "Do you find it painful to sit for more than 30 minutes?" There was also a correlation between BioDex improvement for flexion at 30 degrees (P = 0.022) and for isometric work load (P = 0.038) and the preoperative question, "Has abdominal pain limited your ability to perform sports activities?" The VHPQ responses also formed a pattern with a fairly good correlation between other BioDex modalities (with the exception of extension at 60 degrees per second) and the response to the question regarding complaints when performing sports. Postoperative visual analog scale ratings of abdominal wall stability correlated to the questions regarding complaints when sitting (P = 0.040) and standing (P = 0.047). No other correlation was seen. VHPQ ratings concerning pain while being seated for more than 30 minutes and pain limiting the ability to perform sports are promising indicators in the identification of patients likely to benefit from surgical correction of their ARD.

  7. Influence of angular velocity on vastus lateralis and rectus femoris oxygenation dynamics during knee extension exercises.

    PubMed

    Denis, Romain; Wilkinson, Jennifer; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes in angular velocity would alter vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF) oxygenation status during maximal isokinetic knee extension exercises. Eleven recreationally active male participants randomly performed ten maximal knee extensions at 30, 60, 120 and 240° s(-1). Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) and total haemoglobin concentration ([tHb]) were acquired from the VL and RF muscles by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Breath-by-breath pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO(2p)) was recorded throughout the tests. Peak torque and VO(2p) significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). Interestingly, RF and VL TOI significantly increased as a function of velocity (P<0·05), whereas [tHb] significantly decreased as a function of velocity (P<0·05). A greater number of muscle fibre recruited at slow velocity, where the torque and VO(2p) were the highest, might explain the lower VL and RF TOI observed herein. Furthermore, the increase in local blood flow (suggested by [tHb] changes) during isokinetic knee extension exercises performed at slow angular velocity might have been induced by a higher intramuscular pressure during the contraction phases as well as a greater microcirculatory vasodilatation during relaxation phases. Implementing slow-velocity isokinetic exercises in rehabilitation or other training programmes could delay the short-term anoxia generated by such exercises and result in muscle metabolism enhancement. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. The medial patellofemoral complex.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Alexander E; Tanaka, Miho J

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the current understanding of the medial patellofemoral complex, including recent anatomic advances, evaluation of indications for reconstruction with concomitant pathology, and surgical reconstruction techniques. Recent advances in our understanding of MPFC anatomy have found that there are fibers that insert onto the deep quadriceps tendon as well as the patella, thus earning the name "medial patellofemoral complex" to allow for the variability in its anatomy. In MPFC reconstruction, anatomic origin and insertion points and appropriate graft length are critical to prevent overconstraint of the patellofemoral joint. The MPFC is a crucial soft tissue checkrein to lateral patellar translation, and its repair or reconstruction results in good restoration of patellofemoral stability. As our understanding of MPFC anatomy evolves, further studies are needed to apply its relevance in kinematics and surgical applications to its role in maintaining patellar stability.

  9. Effect of foot type on knee valgus, ground reaction force, and hip muscle activation in female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Rath, Meghan E; Stearne, David J; Walker, Cameron R; Cox, Jaime C

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which subtalar joint pronation resulting from a supple planus foot affects knee alignment, hip muscle activation and ground reaction force attenuation in female athletes during a broad jump-to-cut maneuver. Twelve National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division II female soccer players (age=19.4±1.4 years, height=1.64±0.05 m, mass=64.10±4.8 kg) were identified as having either supple planus (SP) or rigid feet (RF). Participants completed three broad jump-to-cut trials onto a force plate while EMG and motion data were collected. Muscle activation levels (percentage of maximal voluntary contraction [%MVC]) in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, biceps femoris, and rectus femoris were calculated, and peak vertical and medial shear force, rate of loading, and valgus angle were collected for each trial. Mann-Whitney U tests revealed no statistical significance between foot-type groups, however, effect size statistics revealed practical significance for between-group %MVC biceps femoris (d=1.107), %MVC gluteus maximus (d=1.069), and vertical ground reaction force (d=1.061). Athletes with a SP foot type may experience decreased hip muscle activation associated with increased vertical ground reaction force during a broad jump-to-cut maneuver. This might result in reduced dynamic stability and neuromuscular control during deceleration, potentially increasing the risk of non-contact ACL injury in female soccer players.

  10. Laughing: a demanding exercise for trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Heiko; Rehmes, Ulrich; Kohle, Daniel; Puta, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Social, psychological, and physiological studies have provided evidence indicating that laughter imposes an increased demand on trunk muscles. It was the aim of this study to quantify the activation of trunk muscles during laughter yoga in comparison with crunch and back lifting exercises regarding the mean trunk muscle activity. Muscular activity during laughter yoga exercises was measured by surface electromyography of 5 trunk muscles. The activation level of internal oblique muscle during laughter yoga is higher compared to the traditional exercises. The multifidus, erector spinae, and rectus abdominis muscles were nearly half activated during laughter yoga, while the activation of the external oblique muscle was comparable with the crunch and back lifting exercises. Our results indicate that laughter yoga has a positive effect on trunk muscle activation. Thus, laughter seems to be a good activator of trunk muscles, but further research is required whether laughter yoga is a good exercise to improve neuromuscular recruitment patterns for spine stability.

  11. Change in the antioxidative capacity of extraocular muscles in patients with exotropia.

    PubMed

    Jung, Su Kyung; Choi, Jun Sob; Shin, Sun Young

    2015-04-01

    We compared the oxidative stress and antioxidant capacities of the medial rectus muscles (MRMs) between the patients with constant exotropia and control subjects. A total of 40 MRMs from patients with constant exotropia and 40 MRMs from normal donor eyes (controls) were assessed. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase levels were compared between the two groups using western blot analysis. In addition, the lipofuscin accumulation level was compared between the exotropic and control groups. According to western blot analysis, the nNOS level was significantly higher in the exotropic group than in the control group (P < 0.05). On the other hand, a catalase expression level was higher in the control group than in the exotropic group (P < 0.05). The SOD1 level did not show a significant difference between the two groups. The relative lipofuscin fluorescence intensity was higher in the exotropic group than in the control group (P < 0.001). Based on these findings, the MRMs of patients with exotropia had a redox imbalance status. Further study is needed to investigate whether this imbalance in antioxidant capacity is present in the extraocular muscles of patients with other strabismus.

  12. Laparoscopic transverse rectus abdominus flap delay for autogenous breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kaddoura, I L; Khoury, G S

    1998-01-01

    Laparoscopic ligation of the deep and superficial inferior epigastric vessels was done for ten mastectomized patients who elected to have autogenous reconstruction of their breast. All these patients had at least one indication for the delay which included obesity, smoking, or requirement of a large volume of tissue for their reconstruction. The procedure did not add any morbidity or mortality to our patients and was found to be comparable to the "open" delay in preventing partial tissue loss in all but two patients. We describe the use of a minimally invasive procedure to augment the deep superior epigastric pedicled blood supply for the future transverse rectus abdominus flap. We have found in laparoscopic delay a safe, short procedure that is useful in high risk patients who choose the option of autologous breast reconstruction.

  13. Changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) eigenvalues of skeletal muscle due to hybrid exercise training.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Kemp, Graham J; Isobe, Tomonori; Sato, Eisuke; Hirano, Yuji; Shoda, Junichi; Minami, Manabu

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have proposed the cell membrane as the main water diffusion restricting factor in the skeletal muscle cell. We sought to establish whether a particular form of exercise training (which is likely to affect only intracellular components) could affect water diffusion. The purpose of this study is to characterise prospectively the changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) eigenvalues of thigh muscle resulting from hybrid training (HYBT) in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Twenty-one NAFLD patients underwent HYBT for 30 minutes per day, twice a week for 6 months. Patients were scanned using DTI of the thigh pre- and post-HYBT. Fractional anisotropy (FA), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), the three eigenvalues lambda 1 (λ1), λ2, λ3, and the maximal cross sectional area (CSA) were measured in bilateral thigh muscles: knee flexors (biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranous (SM)) and knee extensors (medial vastus (MV), intermediate vastus (IV), lateral vastus (LV), and rectus femoris (RF)), and compared pre- and post-HYBT by paired t-test. Muscle strength of extensors (P<0.01), but not flexors, increased significantly post-HYBT. For FA, ADC and eigenvalues, the overall picture was of increase. Some (P<0.05 in λ2 and P<0.01 in λ1) eigenvalues of flexors and all (λ1-λ3) eigenvalues of extensors increased significantly (P<0.01) post-HYBT. HYBT increased all 3 eigenvalues. We suggest this might be caused by enlargement of muscle intracellular space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Torque, power and muscle activation of eccentric and concentric isokinetic cycling.

    PubMed

    Green, David J; Thomas, Kevin; Ross, Emma Z; Green, Steven C; Pringle, Jamie S M; Howatson, Glyn

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to establish the effect of cycling mode and cadence on torque, external power output, and lower limb muscle activation during maximal, recumbent, isokinetic cycling. After familiarisation, twelve healthy males completed 6 × 10 s of maximal eccentric (ECC) and concentric (CON) cycling at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, and 120 rpm with five minutes recovery. Vastus lateralis, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris surface electromyography was recorded throughout. As cadence increased, peak torque linearly decreased during ECC (350-248 N·m) and CON (239-117 N·m) and peak power increased in a parabolic manner. Crank angle at peak torque increased with cadence in CON (+13°) and decreased in ECC (-9.0°). At all cadences, peak torque (mean +129 N·m, range 111-143 N·m), and power (mean +871 W, range 181-1406 W), were greater during ECC compared to CON. For all recorded muscles the crank angle at peak muscle activation was greater during ECC compared to CON. This difference increased with cadence in all muscles except the vastus lateralis. Additionally, peak vastus laterallis and biceps femoris activation was greater during CON compared to ECC. Eccentric cycling offers a greater mechanical stimulus compared to concentric cycling but the effect of cadence is similar between modalities. Markers of technique (muscle activation, crank angle at peak activation and torque) were different between eccentric and concentric cycling and respond differently to changes in cadence. Such data should be considered when comparing between, and selecting cadences for, recumbent, isokinetic, eccentric and concentric cycling. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Lower Extremity Muscle Activity During a Women’s Overhand Lacrosse Shot

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Brianna M.; Mercer, John A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe lower extremity muscle activity during the lacrosse shot. Participants (n=5 females, age 22±2 years, body height 162.6±15.2 cm, body mass 63.7±23.6 kg) were free from injury and had at least one year of lacrosse experience. The lead leg was instrumented with electromyography (EMG) leads to measure muscle activity of the rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (GA). Participants completed five trials of a warm-up speed shot (Slow) and a game speed shot (Fast). Video analysis was used to identify the discrete events defining specific movement phases. Full-wave rectified data were averaged per muscle per phase (Crank Back Minor, Crank Back Major, Stick Acceleration, Stick Deceleration). Average EMG per muscle was analyzed using a 4 (Phase) × 2 (Speed) ANOVA. BF was greater during Fast vs. Slow for all phases (p<0.05), while TA was not influenced by either Phase or Speed (p>0.05). RF and GA were each influenced by the interaction of Phase and Speed (p<0.05) with GA being greater during Fast vs. Slow shots during all phases and RF greater during Crank Back Minor and Major as well as Stick Deceleration (p<0.05) but only tended to be greater during Stick Acceleration (p=0.076) for Fast vs. Slow. The greater muscle activity (BF, RF, GA) during Fast vs. Slow shots may have been related to a faster approach speed and/or need to create a stiff lower extremity to allow for faster upper extremity movements. PMID:25114727

  16. Recruitment of the Rhesus soleus and medial gastrocnemius before, during and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, R. R.; Hodgson, J. A.; Aragon, J.; Day, M. K.; Kozlovskaya, I.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1996-01-01

    Electromyograms were recorded from the soleus and medial gastrocnemius muscles and tendon force from the medial gastrocnemius muscle of 2 juvenile Rhesus monkeys before, during and after Cosmos flight 2229 and of ground control animals. Recording sessions were made while the Rhesus were performing a foot pedal motor task. Preflight testing indicated normal patterns of recruitment between the soleus and medial gastrocnemius, i.e. a higher level of recruitment of the soleus compared to the medial gastrocnemius during the task. Recording began two days into the spaceflight and showed that the media gastrocnemius was recruited preferentially over the soleus. This observation persisted throughout the flight and for the 2 week period of postflight testing. These data indicate a significant change in the relative recruitment of slow and fast extensor muscles under microgravity conditions. The appearance of clonic-like activity in one muscle of each Rhesus during flight further suggests a reorganization in the neuromotor system in a microgravity environment.

  17. Effect of age and carcass weight on quality traits of m. rectus abdominis from Charolais heifers.

    PubMed

    Ellies-Oury, M P; Dumont, R; Perrier, G; Roux, M; Micol, D; Picard, B

    2017-04-01

    In practice cattle may be slaughtered at different combinations of age and weight. As each of these factors could affect meat quality traits, the present work aimed to identify which combination can be expected to increase overall meat quality of m. rectus abdominis of Charolais heifers. Totally, 40 heifers were slaughtered either at 26±1 or at 36±1 months of age. Young heifers were sampled at two different carcass weights (349±12 and 394±8 kg). Old heifers were also sampled at two different carcass weights (397±6 and 451±9 kg). The m. rectus abdominis was excised 24 h postmortem to determine metabolic enzyme activities, myosin heavy-chain isoform proportions, lipid contents, collagen content and collagen solubility. Shear force measurements were evaluated on raw and broiled meat after 14 days of ageing. Meat quality traits scored between 0 and 10 by sensory analysis. Increasing slaughter age from 26 to 36 months had no impact on either raw/broiled shear force (0.31⩽P⩽0.47) and/or meat quality traits (0.62⩽P⩽0.91) or on physicochemical properties of heifer's meat samples. Increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 26 months had also impact neither on meat quality traits (0.52⩽P⩽0.91) nor on muscular properties. On the contrary, increasing carcass weight for a similar slaughter age of 36 months had induced a decrease of muscular shear force (raw muscle; P=0.009) and a concomitant decrease of total collagen content (P=0.03). Nevertheless, no significant impact on meat quality traits was revealed by the sensorial panel (0.13⩽P⩽0.49). Metabolic enzyme activities (0.13⩽P⩽0.86) and myosin heavy-chain proportions (0.13⩽P⩽0.96) were not significantly impacted by slaughter age and carcass weight. Thus, the impact of increasing carcass weight and/or slaughter age in young Charolais heifers has a limited impact on meat quality traits and associated muscular characteristics. Modulating heifer's cycles (age and/or carcass weight in

  18. Effects of barbell deadlift training on submaximal motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris.

    PubMed

    Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units.

  19. Effects of Barbell Deadlift Training on Submaximal Motor Unit Firing Rates for the Vastus Lateralis and Rectus Femoris

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Matt S.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations that have studied motor unit firing rates following strength training have been limited to small muscles, isometric training, or interventions involving exercise machines. We examined the effects of ten weeks of supervised barbell deadlift training on motor unit firing rates for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris during a 50% maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) assessment. Twenty-four previously untrained men (mean age  = 24 years) were randomly assigned to training (n = 15) or control (n = 9) groups. Before and following the intervention, the subjects performed isometric testing of the right knee extensors while bipolar surface electromyographic signals were detected from the two muscles. The signals were decomposed into their constituent motor unit action potential trains, and motor units that demonstrated accuracy levels less than 92.0% were not considered for analysis. One thousand eight hundred ninety-two and 2,013 motor units were examined for the vastus lateralis and rectus femoris, respectively. Regression analyses were used to determine the linear slope coefficients (pulses per second [pps]/% MVC) and y-intercepts (pps) of the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. Deadlift training significantly improved knee extensor MVC force (Cohen's d = .70), but did not influence force steadiness. Training had no influence on the slopes and y-intercepts for the mean firing rate and firing rate at recruitment versus recruitment threshold relationships. In agreement with previous cross-sectional comparisons and randomized control trials, our findings do not support the notion that strength training affects the submaximal control of motor units. PMID:25531294

  20. Hypodynamic and hypokinetic condition of skeletal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katinas, G. S.; Oganov, V. S.; Potapov, A. N.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented in regard to the effect of unilateral brachial amputation on the physiological characteristics of two functionally different muscles, the brachial muscle (flexor of the brachium) and the medial head of the brachial triceps muscle (extensor of the brachium), which in rats represents a separate muscle. Hypokinesia and hypodynamia were studied.

  1. Endoscopic Rectus Abdominis and Prepubic Aponeurosis Repairs for Treatment of Athletic Pubalgia.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Dean K; Matsuda, Nicole A; Head, Rachel; Tivorsak, Tanya

    2017-02-01

    Review of the English orthopaedic literature reveals no prior report of endoscopic repair of rectus abdominis tears and/or prepubic aponeurosis detachment. This technical report describes endoscopic reattachment of an avulsed prepubic aponeurosis and endoscopic repair of a vertical rectus abdominis tear immediately after endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for coexistent recalcitrant osteitis pubis as a single-stage outpatient surgery. Endoscopic rectus abdominis repair and prepubic aponeurosis repair are feasible surgeries that complement endoscopic pubic symphysectomy for patients with concurrent osteitis pubis and expand the less invasive options for patients with athletic pubalgia.

  2. Development of estimation system of knee extension strength using image features in ultrasound images of rectus femoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Hiroki; Watanabe, Tsuneo; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Terabayashi, Nobuo; Hara, Takeshi; Muramatsu, Chisako; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    The word "Locomotive syndrome" has been proposed to describe the state of requiring care by musculoskeletal disorders and its high-risk condition. Reduction of the knee extension strength is cited as one of the risk factors, and the accurate measurement of the strength is needed for the evaluation. The measurement of knee extension strength using a dynamometer is one of the most direct and quantitative methods. This study aims to develop a system for measuring the knee extension strength using the ultrasound images of the rectus femoris muscles obtained with non-invasive ultrasonic diagnostic equipment. First, we extract the muscle area from the ultrasound images and determine the image features, such as the thickness of the muscle. We combine these features and physical features, such as the patient's height, and build a regression model of the knee extension strength from training data. We have developed a system for estimating the knee extension strength by applying the regression model to the features obtained from test data. Using the test data of 168 cases, correlation coefficient value between the measured values and estimated values was 0.82. This result suggests that this system can estimate knee extension strength with high accuracy.

  3. Functional anatomy of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle and its connective tissue system.

    PubMed Central

    Ettl, A; Priglinger, S; Kramer, J; Koornneef, L

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: The connective tissue system of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle (LPS) consists of the septa surrounding its muscle sheath, the superior transverse ligament (STL) commonly referred to as 'Whitnall's ligament' and the common sheath which is the fascia between the LPS and the superior rectus muscle (SRM). The anterior band-like component of the common sheath is called transverse superior fascial expansion (TSFE) of the SRM and LPS. It mainly extends from the connective tissue of the trochlea to the fascia of the lacrimal gland. A detailed description of the relation between the LPS and its connective tissue is presented. Furthermore, the course of the LPS in the orbit is described. The study was conducted to provide a morphological basis for biomechanical and clinical considerations regarding ptosis surgery. METHODS: Postmortem dissections were performed in 16 orbits from eight cadavers. The microscopical anatomy was demonstrated in six formalin preserved orbits from six cadavers which had been sectioned in the frontal and sagittal plane and stained with haematoxylin and azophloxin. Surface coil magnetic resonance imaging in the sagittal and coronal plane was performed in five orbits from five normal volunteers using a T1 weighted spin echo sequence. RESULTS: The STL and the TSFE surround the LPS to form a fascial sleeve around the muscle which has attachments to the medial and lateral orbital wall. The TSFE, which is thicker than the STL, blends with Tenon's capsule. The STL and the fascial sheath of the LPS muscle are suspended from the orbital roof by a framework of radial connective tissue septa. MR images show that the TSFE is located between the anterior third of the superior rectus muscle and the segment of the LPS muscle where it changes its course from upwards to downwards. In this area, the LPS reaches its highest point in the orbit (culmination point). The culmination point is located a few millimetres posterior to the equator and

  4. [Palisade endings of extraocular muscles in eyes with congenital nystagmus].

    PubMed

    Shang, Yan-feng; Zhang, Jing; Gong, Hua-qing; Chen, Xia

    2012-09-01

    tip. The PE of medial rectus were richest at the location 3 - 4 mm from tendon insertion. In the cross section, the amount of PE in the CN group was higher than the control group (t = -5.613, P < 0.05). The expression level of ChAT in the CN group was higher than the control group (t = -3.730, P < 0.05). Palisade endings in myotendinous junction of human EOM are cholinergic nerves, which might innervate the contraction of EOM. Significant changes of palisade endings in the EOM of the CN subjects may affect eye movement.

  5. Characteristic MR image finding of squatting exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Eung K; Ryu, Kyung N; Kang, Hye J; Yoon, So H; Park, So Y; Park, Ji S; Jin, Wook

    2017-04-01

    To describe the characteristic MRI appearance of squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis involving the thigh muscles. This study consisted of 10 cases obtained at 3 institutions from 2005 to 2015. A retrospective review was performed to obtain clinical information and MR scans for rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles. MRI was analyzed according to the distribution and degree of muscle involvement; the degree was assessed and graded as normal, mild or prominent. The mean patient age was 20.2 years (range, 15-24 years), and 7 of the 10 patients were male. All patients had history of excessive squatting action, suffered clinically from bilateral thigh pain and were confirmed to have rhabdomyolysis through analysis of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. All of the patients (10/10) exhibited diffuse mild to prominent degree involvement of the anterior thigh muscles according to fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Among the anterior thigh muscles, the rectus femoris was spared in 8 patients (8/10) and mild degree involved in 2 patients (2/10). Thus, no cases exhibited prominent degree involvement of the rectus femoris muscle. Preservation of the rectus femoris muscle on MRI in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis may be useful for differentiating rhabdomyolysis from other aetiologies. Advances in knowledge: Preservation of rectus femoris on MRI is distinguishable finding in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis and reflects the functional anatomy of anterior thigh muscles.

  6. Characteristic MR image finding of squatting exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles

    PubMed Central

    Yeon, Eung K; Kang, Hye J; Yoon, So H; Park, So Y; Park, Ji S; Jin, Wook

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the characteristic MRI appearance of squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis involving the thigh muscles. Methods: This study consisted of 10 cases obtained at 3 institutions from 2005 to 2015. A retrospective review was performed to obtain clinical information and MR scans for rhabdomyolysis of the thigh muscles. MRI was analyzed according to the distribution and degree of muscle involvement; the degree was assessed and graded as normal, mild or prominent. Results: The mean patient age was 20.2 years (range, 15–24 years), and 7 of the 10 patients were male. All patients had history of excessive squatting action, suffered clinically from bilateral thigh pain and were confirmed to have rhabdomyolysis through analysis of serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. All of the patients (10/10) exhibited diffuse mild to prominent degree involvement of the anterior thigh muscles according to fluid-sensitive MR sequences. Among the anterior thigh muscles, the rectus femoris was spared in 8 patients (8/10) and mild degree involved in 2 patients (2/10). Thus, no cases exhibited prominent degree involvement of the rectus femoris muscle. Conclusion: Preservation of the rectus femoris muscle on MRI in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis may be useful for differentiating rhabdomyolysis from other aetiologies. Advances in knowledge: Preservation of rectus femoris on MRI is distinguishable finding in squatting-induced rhabdomyolysis and reflects the functional anatomy of anterior thigh muscles. PMID:28181821

  7. Nonoperative treatment for proximal avulsion of the rectus femoris in professional American football.

    PubMed

    Gamradt, Seth C; Brophy, Robert H; Barnes, Ronnie; Warren, Russell F; Thomas Byrd, J W; Kelly, Bryan T

    2009-07-01

    Avulsion of the rectus femoris origin is a rare injury. The only previous report of this injury in professional American football has been limited to the kicking athlete. To describe the incidence and treatment of proximal rectus femoris avulsion in the National Football League (NFL). Case series; Level of evidence, 4. The NFL Injury Surveillance System (NFLISS) was reviewed for any proximal rectus femoris avulsion injuries from 1986 to 2006, including the type and mechanism of injury, player demographics, method of treatment, and time to return to play. The NFL team physicians and trainers were surveyed as to their experience with these injuries as well. A total of 11 cases of proximal rectus femoris avulsion were identified starting in 1997. These injuries occurred in athletes in a variety of positions. All of these were treated nonoperatively, and the mean return to play was 69.2 days. Rectus femoris avulsions are uncommon injuries in the NFL, occurring about once a year in the entire league (once magnetic resonance imaging facilitated correct diagnosis of these injuries). Conservative treatment of these injuries usually results in return to play after 6 to 12 weeks. Proximal avulsions of the rectus femoris can be treated nonoperatively with a high degree of predictability for return to full, unrestricted participation in professional American football.

  8. Addition of rectus sheath relaxation incisions to emergency midline laparotomy for peritonitis to prevent fascial dehiscence.

    PubMed

    Marwah, Sanjay; Marwah, Nisha; Singh, Mandeep; Kapoor, Ajay; Karwasra, Rajender Kumar

    2005-02-01

    The incidence of fascial dehiscence and incisional hernia after two methods for abdominal wound closure (rectus sheath relaxation incisions and conventional mass closure) was studied in a randomized prospective clinical trial in a consecutive series of 100 patients undergoing midline laparotomy for peritonitis. The two groups were well matched for etiologies of peritonitis, the surgical procedures performed, and the presence of known risk factors for fascial dehiscence. Fifty patients each were randomized either to the conventional continuous mass closure procedure or the rectus sheath relaxation incision technique (designed to increase wound elasticity and decrease tension in the suture line) using identical polypropylene sutures. The incidence of postoperative complications such as duration of ileus, chest infection, and wound infection were not statistically different between the two groups. The intensity of postoperative pain in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group was significantly less. The incidence of wound hematoma was significantly increased in the rectus sheath relaxation incision group. The incidences of fascial dehiscence (16% vs,28%; p < 0.05) and incisional hernia (18% vs, 30%; p < 0.05) were significantly lower after rectus sheath relaxation incisions compared to conventional mass closure. Closure of the midline laparotomy wound in cases of peritonitis using the rectus sheath relaxation technique is safe and less painful, provides increased wound elasticity and decreased tension on the suture line, and significantly decreases the incidence of wound dehiscence.

  9. Laparoscopy in patients following transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Muller, C Y; Coleman, R L; Adams, W P

    2000-07-01

    We report our technique and experience performing laparoscopic pelvic surgery on four women after transverse abdominus rectus myocutaneous flap (TRAM). Examination under anesthesia is performed on all patients in the low lithotomy position parallel with the floor. The abdominal aorta is palpated and outlined. A pneumoperitoneum is created either by umbilical or left upper quadrant Veress placement. Patients with an acceptable umbilical location undergo port placement through the incision of the umbilical relocation. Other options include left upper quadrant or paramedian placement avoiding the ligamentum teres vessels. Lateral operative ports (5 mm) are placed with reference to the transverse incision present, the pelvic pathology, and the location of the umbilicus. Techniques of electrocautery, intra- and extracorporeal suturing and knot tying, and clips are preferred to minimize port size. Following unilateral or bilateral TRAM reconstruction, four consecutive breast cancer survivors underwent successful laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with oophorectomy using the periumbilical incision for trocar placement. The only complication was a superficial skin breakdown from an adhesive allergy that required 6 weeks for complete resolution. Laparoscopic pelvic surgery is feasible in women after TRAM reconstruction. Knowledge of anatomic and physiologic variations related to the TRAM procedure is necessary in planning a safe operation.

  10. Management of patients with rectus sheath hematoma: Personal experience.

    PubMed

    Buffone, Antonino; Basile, Guido; Costanzo, Mario; Veroux, Massimiliano; Terranova, Lorenza; Basile, Antonio; Okatyeva, Valeriya; Cannizzaro, Maria Teresa

    2015-07-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is a rare clinical entity. It can be mistaken for other intra-abdominal disorders, which can result in diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties. This study was undertaken to analyze the clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities, and management of patients affected with RSH. Between January 2008 and June 2011, eight patients (5 men and 3 women with a mean age of 53 years) with RSH were evaluated according to demographic characteristics, clinical and radiological findings, and methods of treatment. Six patients developed RSH after anticoagulant therapy; one after local trauma, and one after laparoscopic intervention. Six patients were treated nonsurgically; one patient underwent embolization of the inferior epigastric artery and one underwent ligation of the bleeding vessel. The average hospital stay was 6 days. There were no mortality or thromboembolic complications. RSH is a rare nonneoplastic entity that is usually associated with abdominal trauma and/or anticoagulant therapy. The gold standard for diagnosis is computed tomography, and ultrasonography can be used in follow-up. The treatment of choice is nonsurgical therapy because RSH is a self-limited condition. Surgical intervention should be reserved for cases with hemodynamic instability. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Epidural abscess treated with a medial supraorbital craniotomy through an incision in the eyebrow. Case report.

    PubMed

    Rosen, David S; Shafizadeh, Stephen; Baroody, Fuad M; Yamini, Bakhtiar

    2008-02-01

    The authors describe a medial supraorbital craniotomy performed through a medial eyebrow skin incision to approach an epidural abscess located in the medial anterior fossa of the skull. An 8-year-old boy presented with fevers and facial swelling. Imaging demonstrated pansinusitis and an epidural fluid collection adjacent to the frontal sinus. A medial supraorbital craniotomy was performed to access and drain the epidural abscess. The supraorbital nerve laterally and the supratrochlear nerve medially were preserved by incising the frontalis muscle vertically, parallel to the course of the nerves, and dissecting the subperiosteal plane to mobilize the nerves. This approach may be a useful access corridor for other lesions located near the medial anterior fossa.

  12. Anteriorization of the Normally Acting Inferior Oblique Muscles to Treat Dissociated Vertical Deviation Associated With Juvenile Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Rehab Rashad

    2017-10-09

    A case of dissociated vertical deviation, ptosis, and juvenile glaucoma is described. J deformity anteriorization of the normally acting inferior oblique muscles was chosen to preserve the superior fornix for glaucoma surgeries by avoiding superior rectus recession and to prevent narrowing of the palpebral fissure by avoiding an inferior rectus tuck. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e63-e66.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Comparative anatomy of the extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays (Batoidea, Myliobatiformes).

    PubMed

    Cunha, Carlo M; Oliveira, Luciano E; Kfoury, José R

    2016-05-01

    Extraocular muscles are classically grouped as four rectus and two oblique muscles. However, their description and potential associations with species behavior are limited. The objective was to characterize extraocular muscles in four Myliobatoidei rays from diverse habitats with divergent behaviors. Heads (10 per species) of Dasyatis hypostigma, Gymnura altavela, Mobula thurstoni and Pteroplatytrygon violacea were decalcified and dissected to characterize and describe extraocular muscles. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate relationships between muscle length and species; for P. violacea, D. hypostigma and G. altavela, these were qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with the general pattern of extraocular muscles in vertebrates. In contrast, for M. thurstoni, the two oblique muscles were completely fused and there was a seventh extraocular muscle, named m. lateral rectus β (both were apparently novel findings in this species). There were also significant differences in eye disposition in the chondrocranium. The PCA axis 1 (rectus muscles) and PCA axis 2 (oblique muscles) accounted for 98.47% of data variability. Extraocular muscles had significant differences in length and important anatomical differences among sampled species that facilitated grouping species according to their life history. In conclusion, extraocular muscles are not uniform in all vertebrate species, thereby providing another basis for comparative studies. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  14. Comparison of Astigmatism Induced by Combined Inferior Oblique Anterior Transposition Procedure and Lateral Rectus Recession Alone

    PubMed Central

    Eum, Sun Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the magnitude and axis of astigmatism induced by a combined inferior oblique (IO) anterior transposition procedure with lateral rectus (LR) recession versus LR recession alone. Methods Forty-six patients were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups: those having concurrent inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA) and intermittent exotropia (group 1, 20 patients) and those having only intermittent exotropia as a control (group 2, 26 patients). Group 1 underwent combined anterior transposition of IO with LR recession and group 2 underwent LR recession alone. Induced astigmatism was defined as the difference between preoperative and postoperative astigmatism using double-angle vector analysis. Cylinder power, axis of induced astigmatism, and spherical equivalent were analyzed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Results Larger changes in the axis of induced astigmatism were observed in group 1, with 4.5° incyclotorsion, than in group 2 at 1 week after surgery (axis, 84.5° vs. 91°; p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant inter-group difference thereafter. Relaxation and rapid regression in the incyclotorsion of induced astigmatism were observed over-time. Spherical equivalent significantly decreased postoperatively at 1 month in both groups, indicating a myopic shift (p = 0.011 for group 1 and p = 0.019 for group 2) but did not show significant differences at 3 months after surgery (p = 0.107 for group 1 and p = 0.760 for group 2). Conclusions Combined IO anterior transposition procedures caused an increased change in the axis of induced astigmatism, including temporary incyclotorsion, during the first week after surgery. However, this significant difference was not maintained thereafter. Thus, combined IO surgery with LR recession does not seem to produce a sustained astigmatic change, which can be a potential risk factor of postoperative amblyopia or

  15. Comparison of Astigmatism Induced by Combined Inferior Oblique Anterior Transposition Procedure and Lateral Rectus Recession Alone.

    PubMed

    Eum, Sun Jung; Chun, Bo Young

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the magnitude and axis of astigmatism induced by a combined inferior oblique (IO) anterior transposition procedure with lateral rectus (LR) recession versus LR recession alone. Forty-six patients were retrospectively analyzed. The subjects were divided into two groups: those having concurrent inferior oblique muscle overaction (IOOA) and intermittent exotropia (group 1, 20 patients) and those having only intermittent exotropia as a control (group 2, 26 patients). Group 1 underwent combined anterior transposition of IO with LR recession and group 2 underwent LR recession alone. Induced astigmatism was defined as the difference between preoperative and postoperative astigmatism using double-angle vector analysis. Cylinder power, axis of induced astigmatism, and spherical equivalent were analyzed at 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months after surgery. Larger changes in the axis of induced astigmatism were observed in group 1, with 4.5° incyclotorsion, than in group 2 at 1 week after surgery (axis, 84.5° vs. 91°; p < 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant inter-group difference thereafter. Relaxation and rapid regression in the incyclotorsion of induced astigmatism were observed over-time. Spherical equivalent significantly decreased postoperatively at 1 month in both groups, indicating a myopic shift ( p = 0.011 for group 1 and p = 0.019 for group 2) but did not show significant differences at 3 months after surgery ( p = 0.107 for group 1 and p = 0.760 for group 2). Combined IO anterior transposition procedures caused an increased change in the axis of induced astigmatism, including temporary incyclotorsion, during the first week after surgery. However, this significant difference was not maintained thereafter. Thus, combined IO surgery with LR recession does not seem to produce a sustained astigmatic change, which can be a potential risk factor of postoperative amblyopia or diplopia compared with LR recession alone.

  16. Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer: management and literature review.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle metastasis from breast cancer is a very rare clinical entity. We describe an extremely rare case of breast cancer metastasis to the rectus abdominis muscle. Our patient, who had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy for breast cancer four years ago, presented with a painful abdominal mass. Computed tomography scans showed a rim-enhancing mass with central hypoatennuation within the sheath of the rectus abdominis muscle. A Fine needle aspiration biopsy was initially performed and the findings were suggestive of malignancy. The muscle lesion was then resected and the histopathological analysis showed metastasis of breast cancer. Through our review of the literature, we found that only two cases of rectus abdominis muscle metastasis from breast cancer have been reported so far. This case highlights the need to rule out muscle metastatic lesions in patients with history of breast cancer presenting with these clinical and imaging characteristics. Differentiation from primary sarcoma is of paramount importance. Skeletal muscle metastases usually indicate an advanced disease associated with poor prognosis. Treatment should be individualized depending on the patient's clinical condition.

  17. Isolated extraocular muscle involvement as the ophthalmic manifestation of leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Kiratli, Hayyam; Balci, Kadriye E; Himmetoğlu, Ciğdem; Uner, Ayşegül

    2009-08-01

    Clinical and imaging features of patients with orbital leukaemia primarily involving extraocular muscles were evaluated. This retrospective case series includes patients with leukaemia whose only ophthalmic manifestation was extraocular muscle enlargement. Demographic data, clinical information on the systemic disease, prominent ocular signs and symptoms, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging characteristics, treatments applied and the outcomes were collected. Five patients were diagnosed as leukaemic infiltration of extraocular muscle between 1995 and 2008. The age at presentation ranged between 3 and 61 years. Acute myeloid leukaemia was the diagnosis in two patients, and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia and biphenotypic acute leukaemia were found in one patient each, respectively. One patient had bilateral involvement. The lateral rectus muscle was affected in four patients and the superior rectus muscle in one case. Restricted ocular motility was the most common finding. In one patient who had no prior history of leukaemia, an incisional biopsy established the diagnosis. All patients received multi-agent chemotherapy. Four patients expired after a rapid decline of the systemic status within a mean period of 7 months. Leukaemic infiltration of extraocular muscles is a rare and late manifestation of the advanced disease associated with relapse and there seems to be a predilection for the lateral rectus muscle. Systemic prognosis remains dismal despite intensive chemotherapy.

  18. Non-neural Muscle Weakness Has Limited Influence on Complexity of Motor Control during Gait

    PubMed Central

    Goudriaan, Marije; Shuman, Benjamin R.; Steele, Katherine M.; Van den Hauwe, Marleen; Goemans, Nathalie; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are neuromuscular disorders characterized by muscle weakness. Weakness in CP has neural and non-neural components, whereas in DMD, weakness can be considered as a predominantly non-neural problem. Despite the different underlying causes, weakness is a constraint for the central nervous system when controlling gait. CP demonstrates decreased complexity of motor control during gait from muscle synergy analysis, which is reflected by a higher total variance accounted for by one synergy (tVAF1). However, it remains unclear if weakness directly contributes to higher tVAF1 in CP, or whether altered tVAF1 reflects mainly neural impairments. If muscle weakness directly contributes to higher tVAF1, then tVAF1 should also be increased in DMD. To examine the etiology of increased tVAF1, muscle activity data of gluteus medius, rectus femoris, medial hamstrings, medial gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior were measured at self-selected walking speed, and strength data from knee extensors, knee flexors, dorsiflexors and plantar flexors, were analyzed in 15 children with CP [median (IQR) age: 8.9 (2.2)], 15 boys with DMD [8.7 (3.1)], and 15 typical developing (TD) children [8.6 (2.7)]. We computed tVAF1 from 10 concatenated steps with non-negative matrix factorization, and compared tVAF1 between the three groups with a Mann-Whiney U-test. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients were used to determine if weakness in specific muscle groups contributed to altered tVAF1. No significant differences in tVAF1 were found between DMD [tVAF1: 0.60 (0.07)] and TD children [0.65 (0.07)], while tVAF1 was significantly higher in CP [(0.74 (0.09)] than in the other groups (both p < 0.005). In CP, weakness in the plantar flexors was related to higher tVAF1 (r = −0.72). In DMD, knee extensor weakness related to increased tVAF1 (r = −0.50). These results suggest that the non-neural weakness in DMD had limited influence on complexity of

  19. Comparative analysis of the pressure profilometry of vesicocutaneous continent catheterizable conduits between patients with and without rectus abdominis neosphincter (Yachia principle).

    PubMed

    Rondon, Atila; Leslie, Bruno; Arcuri, Leonardo Javier; Ortiz, Valdemar; Macedo, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    To assess whether crossing rectus abdominis muscle strips, as proposed by Yachia, would change urinary catheterizable conduit's pressure profilometry, in static and dynamic conditions. Non-randomized selection of 20 continent patients that underwent Macedo's ileum-based reservoir, 10 including Yachia's technique (Study Group) and 10 without this mechanism of continence (Control Group). Demographics and cystometric data were assessed. Conduit's pressure profilometry was obtained by infusing saline through a multichannel catheter, at rest and during Valsalva maneuver. We assessed the pressure: (a) in the bladder; (b) in conduit's proximal segment; and (c) in conduit's distal segment, which is presumably the abdominal wall and crossed muscle strips site. Mean age at surgery was 6.1 years in the Control Group and 7.7 years in the Study Group. There was no statistically significant difference between groups regarding maximum cystometric bladder capacity and leakage point pressure. At rest, the pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in all segments analyzed. During Valsalva maneuver, pressure profilometry showed similar results between groups in bladder and conduit's proximal segment pressure. In this condition, conduit's distal segment pressure in the Study Group (Mean = 72.9 and Peak = 128.7 cmH2 O) was significantly greater (P < 0.05) than conduit's distal segment pressure in the Control Group (Mean = 48.3 and Peak = 65.1 cmH2 O). Crossing muscle strips over the conduit significantly increases the pressure in its distal segment during contraction of the rectus abdominis muscle, which can be important in moments of sudden increase in abdominal pressure in order to keep continence. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Measurement of superficial and deep abdominal muscle thickness: an ultrasonography study.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Nahid; Khademi-Kalantari, Khosro; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Mikaili, Saeed; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2016-08-23

    Real-time ultrasound imaging is a valid method in the field of rehabilitation. The ultrasound imaging allows direct visualization for real-time study of the muscles as they contract over the time. Measuring of the size of each abdominal muscle in relation to the others provides useful information about the differences in structure, as well as data on trunk muscle activation patterns. The purpose of this study was to assess the size and symmetry of the abdominal muscles at rest in healthy adults and to provide a reference range of absolute abdominal muscle size in a relatively large population. A total 156 healthy subjects with the age range of 18-44 years were randomly recruited. The thickness of internal oblique, external oblique, transverse abdominis, and rectus abdominis muscles was measured at rest on both right and left sides using ultrasound. Independent t test was used to compare the mean thickness of each abdominal muscle between males and females. Differences on side-to-side thicknesses were assessed using paired t test. The association between abdominal muscle thicknesses with gender and anthropometric variables was examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient. A normal pattern of increasing order of mean abdominal muscle thickness was found in both genders at both right and left sides: transverse abdominis < external oblique < internal oblique < rectus abdominis. There was a significant difference on the size of transverse abdominis, internal oblique, and external oblique muscles between right and left sides in both genders. Males had significantly thicker abdominal muscles than females. Age was significantly correlated with the thickness of internal oblique, external oblique, and rectus abdominis muscles. Body mass index was also positively correlated with muscle thickness of rectus abdominis and external oblique. The results provide a normal reference range for the abdominal muscles in healthy subjects and may be used as an index to

  1. Evaluation of muscle hyperactivity of the grimacing muscles by unilateral tight eyelid closure and stapedius muscle tone.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Masato; Matsuo, Kiyoshi; Ban, Ryokuya; Nagai, Fumio

    2012-10-01

    Muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles, including the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles that cause crow's feet and a glabellar frown line with ageing, cannot be accurately evaluated by surface observation. In 71 subjects, this study investigated the extent to which grimacing muscles are innervated by the bilateral motor cortices, whether the corticofacial projection to the grimacing muscles affects the facially innervated stapedius muscle tone by measuring static compliance of the tympanic membrane, and whether unilateral tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles changes static compliance. Unilateral tight eyelid closure and its subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position revealed that motor neurons of the orbicularis oculi and corrugator supercilii muscles were innervated by the bilateral motor cortices with weak-to-strong contralateral dominance. The orbicularis oculi, corrugator supercilii, and stapedius muscles innervated by the bilateral motor cortices had increased muscle hyperactivity, which lowered the vertical medial eyebrow position and decreased the static compliance of the tympanic membrane more than those innervated by the unilateral motor cortex. Unilateral enhanced tight eyelid closure with contraction of the grimacing muscles in certain subjects ipsilaterally decreased the static compliance with increased contraction of the stapedius muscle, which probably occurs to immobilise the tympanic membrane and protect the inner ear from loud sound. Evaluation of unilateral tight eyelid closure and the subsequent change in the contralateral vertical medial eyebrow position as well as a measurement of the static compliance for the stapedius muscle tone has revealed muscle hyperactivity of grimacing muscles.

  2. Temporary Medial Upper Eyelid Lagophthalmos after External Dacryocystorhinostomy.

    PubMed

    Haefliger, I O; Meienberg, O; Pimentel de Figueiredo, A R

    2016-04-01

    Background. Report of three cases of medial upper eyelid lagophthalmos as complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy. History and Signs. Shortly after dacryocystorhinostomy (skin incision on the side of the nose), three of ten consecutive patients (28 ± 4 years; mean ± standard deviation), presented with an ipsilateral lagophthalmos of 4 ± 1 mm in voluntary eyelid closure and 6 ± 1 mm in spontaneous blink. The lagophthalmos was due to a selective paresis of the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle of the upper eyelid. Patient 1 complained bitterly of dry eye symptoms and of her lagophthalmos. Patient 2 had mild symptoms but became very concerned after peers made her aware of her asymmetric blink. Patient 3 was asymptomatic and did not notice anything particular. Therapy and Outcome. Lagophthalmos resolved spontaneously within three months after surgery, first by improvement of voluntary eyelid closure and then of spontaneous blinking. Conclusions. Temporary lagophthalmos can occur as a complication of external dacryocystorhinostomy, most likely due to damage of the (only recently described) superficial buccal and/or zygomatic branches of the facial nerve that run upward to cross over the medial ligament and innervate the medial part of the orbicularis oculi muscle. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Rectus sheath hematoma with low molecular weight heparin administration: a case series.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Laura E J; Wortham, Dale C; Litton, Kayleigh M

    2014-09-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma is an uncommon but potentially serious bleeding complication that can occur spontaneously or as a result of anticoagulation administration. Case number one: A 62 year old chronically ill Caucasian female develops a rectus sheath hematoma seven days after hospital discharge. The previous hospitalization included low molecular weight heparin administration for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. The patient ultimately chooses comfort care and expires due to sepsis and respiratory failure. Case number two: A 79 year old Caucasian male develops a rectus sheath hematoma during hospital admission where LMWH is used for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. He is managed conservatively; however, his hematocrit drops from 46 to 25.8%. Case number three: A 44 year old chronically ill Caucasian female is treated with therapeutic low molecular weight heparin for recent deep vein thrombosis during a hospital admission. She develops a large rectus sheath hematoma requiring embolization as well as blood transfusion. We believe this reflects an underreported significant cause of morbidity and mortality with low molecular weight heparin administration. We review the pathophysiology of rectus sheath hematoma as well as its presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. We identify at-risk populations and proposed contributing factors. We also discuss factors leading to underreporting as well as preventive strategies implemented at our institution.

  4. The Retro-Rectus Prosthesis for Core Myofascial Restoration in Cosmetic Abdominoplasty.

    PubMed

    Lincenberg, Sheldon M

    2017-09-01

    The retro-rectus placement of a prosthesis for reinforcement of a hernia repair is a powerful surgical maneuver and results in reduced hernia recurrence rates in the absence of ventral hernia. Fascial reinforcement theoretically should improve columnar support to the spine and enhance athletic activity. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the long-term efficacy of the restoration of the cylindrical lumbar abdominal myofascial complex as an adjunct to cosmetic abdominoplasty. A retrospective evaluation of retro-rectus inlay prosthesis during cosmetic abdominoplasty was undertaken to subjectively assess aesthetic and functional benefits. Six patients with severe anterior fascial laxity presenting for abdominoplasty underwent prosthetic augmentation of the posterior rectus sheath. The prosthesis was measured and contoured to provide structural support to the rectus sheath and linea Alba and to restore normal anatomic features to these structures. All procedures were performed via a traditional low abdominal curvilinear incision for optimum cosmesis. All 6 patients had long-term follow up, ranging from 13 to 40 months. All patients reported improved core strength and relief of back pain. All patients were pleased with the cosmetic results. Retro-rectus prosthetic augmentation for cosmetic abdominoplasty is effective in restoring anatomic relationships and can be used to improve core strength and to enhance aesthetic objectives. 4. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Simultaneous Prosthetic Mesh Abdominal Wall Reconstruction with Abdominoplasty for Ventral Hernia and Severe Rectus Diastasis Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Cheesborough, Jennifer E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Standard abdominoplasty rectus plication techniques may not suffice for severe cases of rectus diastasis. In the authors’ experience, prosthetic mesh facilitates the repair of severe rectus diastasis with or without concomitant ventral hernias. Methods: A retrospective review of all abdominal wall surgery patients treated in the past 8 years by the senior author (G.A.D.) was performed. Patients with abdominoplasty and either rectus diastasis repair with mesh or a combined ventral hernia repair were analyzed. Results: Thirty-two patients, 29 women and three men, underwent mesh-reinforced midline repair with horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty. Patient characteristics included the following: mean age, 53 years; mean body mass index, 26 kg/m2; average width of diastasis or hernia, 6.7 cm; and average surgery time, 151 minutes. There were no surgical-site infections and two surgical-site occurrences—two seromas treated with drainage in the office. After an average of 471 days’ follow-up, none of the patients had recurrence of a bulge or a hernia. Conclusions: For patients with significant rectus diastasis, with or without concomitant hernias, the described mesh repair is both safe and durable. Although this operation requires additional dissection and placement of prosthetic mesh in the retrorectus plane, it may be safely combined with standard horizontal or vertical abdominoplasty skin excision techniques to provide an aesthetically pleasing overall result. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV. PMID:25539311

  6. Between-day reliability of MyotonPRO for the non-invasive measurement of muscle material properties in the lower extremities of patients with a chronic spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chang-Yong; Choi, Hyuk-Jae; Ryu, Jeicheong; Kim, Gyoosuk

    2018-05-17

    Measuring the muscle properties of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCIs) is important to better understand their biomechanical features. In this study, we sought to evaluate the between-day reliability of MyotonPRO, a handheld device that can measure muscle mechanical properties, and assess whether it is reliable to measure muscle properties over time in patients with SCI. Thirteen men with complete SCIs (age 53.9 ± 6.3 years, height 171.0 ± 5.2 cm, weight 66.1 ± 5.8 kg), and injury levels ranging from L1 to T12, were enrolled. Oscillation frequency; logarithmic decrement; dynamic stiffness; mechanical stress relaxation time; and creep of the biceps femoris, medial and lateral gastrocnemius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior, and Achilles tendon were measured on consecutive days using MyotonPRO. The intraclass coefficient for most muscles and the Achilles tendon ranged from 0.53 to 0.99 for all parameters. The percentage standard error of the measurement for many parameters in most muscles and the Achilles tendon was less than 10%. Bland-Altman analysis showed a high agreement for all mechanical properties. No significant differences were observed in any muscle or Achilles tendon properties between days (all p > 0.05). These results indicate that the MyotonPRO is reliable for between-day measurements of the mechanical properties of lower limb muscles and Achilles tendon in patients with SCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Bilateral Vocal Fold Medialization: A Treatment for Abductor Spasmodic Dysphonia.

    PubMed

    Dewan, Karuna; Berke, Gerald S

    2017-11-10

    Abductor spasmodic dysphonia, a difficult-to-treat laryngologic condition, is characterized by spasms causing the vocal folds to remain abducted despite efforts to adduct them during phonation. Traditional treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-botulinum toxin injection into the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle-can be both technically challenging and uncomfortable. Due to the difficulty of needle placement, it is often unsuccessful. The purpose of this investigation is to present a previously undescribed treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia-bilateral vocal fold medialization. A retrospective case review of all cases of abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated in a tertiary care laryngology practice with bilateral vocal fold medialization over a 10-year period was performed. The Voice Handicap Index and the Voice-Related Quality of Life surveys were utilized to assess patient satisfaction with voice outcome. Six patients with abductor spasmodic dysphonia treated with bilateral vocal fold medialization were identified. Disease severity ranged from mild to severe. All six patients reported statistically significant improvement in nearly all Voice Handicap Index and Voice-Related Quality of Life parameters. They reported fewer voice breaks and greater ease of communication. Results were noted immediately and symptoms continue to be well controlled for many years following medialization. Bilateral vocal fold medialization is a safe and effective treatment for abductor spasmodic dysphonia. It is performed under local anesthesia and provides phonation improvement in the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Medial vestibulospinal tract lesions impair sacculo-collic reflexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seonhye; Lee, Hak-Seung; Kim, Ji Soo

    2010-05-01

    The medial vestibulospinal tract (VST) is known to mediate the vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) in the contracting sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM). To determine whether disruption of the medial VST in the medulla impairs formation of VEMP, we measured VEMP in 14 patients with medial medullary infarction (MMI). VEMP was induced by a short tone burst and was recorded in contracting SCM while patients turned their heads forcefully to the contralateral side against resistance. Normative data were obtained from 47 healthy volunteers. Seven patients (50%) had abnormal VEMP in the side of the MMI lesion, absent in two, decreased in four, and delayed in two. One patient showed both decreased and delayed response. Of the seven patients with abnormal VEMP, five had the lesions that extended to the dorsal tegmentum while five of the seven patients with normal VEMP showed restricted anteromedial lesions mainly involving the pyramids. Spontaneous nystagmus (4/7, 57%), gaze-evoked nystagmus (6/7, 86%), and ocular tilt reaction/tilt of the subjective visual vertical (4/7, 57%) were frequently observed in the patients with abnormal VEMP. The abnormal VEMP in patients with infarctions involving the medullary tegmentum supports that VEMP is mediated by the medial VST descending within the medial longitudinal fasciculus.

  9. Benefit of cup medialization in total hip arthroplasty is associated with femoral anatomy.

    PubMed

    Terrier, Alexandre; Levrero Florencio, Francesc; Rüdiger, Hannes A

    2014-10-01

    Medialization of the cup with a respective increase in femoral offset has been proposed in THA to increase abductor moment arms. Insofar as there are potential disadvantages to cup medialization, it is important to ascertain whether the purported biomechanical benefits of cup medialization are large enough to warrant the downsides; to date, studies regarding this question have disagreed. The purpose of this study was to quantify the effect of cup medialization with a compensatory increase in femoral offset compared with anatomic reconstruction for patients undergoing THA. We tested the hypothesis that there is a (linear) correlation between preoperative anatomic parameters and muscle moment arm increase caused by cup medialization. Fifteen patients undergoing THA were selected, covering a typical range of preoperative femoral offsets. For each patient, a finite element model was built based on a preoperative CT scan. The model included the pelvis, femur, gluteus minimus, medius, and maximus. Two reconstructions were compared: (1) anatomic position of the acetabular center of rotation, and (2) cup medialization compensated by an increase in the femoral offset. Passive abduction-adduction and flexion-extension were simulated in the range of normal gait. Muscle moment arms were evaluated and correlated to preoperative femoral offset, acetabular offset, height of the greater trochanter (relative to femoral center of rotation), and femoral antetorsion angle. The increase of muscle moment arms caused by cup medialization varied among patients. Muscle moment arms increase by 10% to 85% of the amount of cup medialization for abduction-adduction and from -35% (decrease) to 50% for flexion-extension. The change in moment arm was inversely correlated (R(2) = 0.588, p = 0.001) to femoral antetorsion (anteversion), such that patients with less femoral antetorsion gained more in terms of hip muscle moments. No linear correlation was observed between changes in moment arm and

  10. Surface-EMG analysis for the quantification of thigh muscle dynamic co-contractions during normal gait.

    PubMed

    Strazza, Annachiara; Mengarelli, Alessandro; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura; Agostini, Valentina; Knaflitz, Marco; Di Nardo, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    The research purpose was to quantify the co-contraction patterns of quadriceps femoris (QF) vs. hamstring muscles during free walking, in terms of onset-offset muscular activation, excitation intensity, and occurrence frequency. Statistical gait analysis was performed on surface-EMG signals from vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), and medial hamstrings (MH), in 16315 strides walked by 30 healthy young adults. Results showed full superimpositions of MH with both VL and RF activity from terminal swing, 80 to 100% of gait cycle (GC), to the successive loading response (≈0-15% of GC), in around 90% of the considered strides. A further superimposition was detected during the push-off phase both between VL and MH activation intervals (38.6±12.8% to 44.1±9.6% of GC) in 21.9±13.6% of strides, and between RF and MH activation intervals (45.9±5.3% to 50.7±9.7 of GC) in 32.7±15.1% of strides. These findings led to identify three different co-contractions among QF and hamstring muscles during able-bodied walking: in early stance (in ≈90% of strides), in push-off (in 25-30% of strides) and in terminal swing (in ≈90% of strides). The co-contraction in terminal swing is the one with the highest levels of muscle excitation intensity. To our knowledge, this analysis represents the first attempt for quantification of QF/hamstring muscles co-contraction in young healthy subjects during normal gait, able to include the physiological variability of the phenomenon. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of lower limb muscle activation with ballet movements (releve and demi-plie) and general movements (heel rise and squat) in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Joong-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to demonstrate therapeutic grounds for rehabilitation exercise approach by comparing and analyzing muscular activities of Ballet movements: the releve movement (RM) and the demi-plie movement (DM). [Methods] Four types of movements such as RM vs. heel rise (HM) and DM vs. squat movement (SM) were randomized and applied in 30 healthy male and female individuals while measuring 10-s lower limb muscular activities (gluteus maximus [GMa], gluteus medius [GMe], rectus femoris [RF], adductor longus [AL], medial gastrocnemius [MG], and lateral gastrocnemius [LG]) by using surface electromyography (EMG). [Results] Significant differences were found in GMa, GMe, AL and MG activities for DM and in all of the six muscles for RM, in particular when the two groups were compared (RM vs HM and DM vs SM). [Conclusion] The RM and DM have a greater effect on lower limb muscular force activities compared to HM and SM and could be recommended as clinical therapeutic exercises for lower limb muscle enhancement.

  12. Comparison of lower limb muscle activation with ballet movements (releve and demi-plie) and general movements (heel rise and squat) in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min-Ju; Kim, Joong-Hwi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to demonstrate therapeutic grounds for rehabilitation exercise approach by comparing and analyzing muscular activities of Ballet movements: the releve movement (RM) and the demi-plie movement (DM). [Methods] Four types of movements such as RM vs. heel rise (HM) and DM vs. squat movement (SM) were randomized and applied in 30 healthy male and female individuals while measuring 10-s lower limb muscular activities (gluteus maximus [GMa], gluteus medius [GMe], rectus femoris [RF], adductor longus [AL], medial gastrocnemius [MG], and lateral gastrocnemius [LG]) by using surface electromyography (EMG). [Results] Significant differences were found in GMa, GMe, AL and MG activities for DM and in all of the six muscles for RM, in particular when the two groups were compared (RM vs HM and DM vs SM). [Conclusion] The RM and DM have a greater effect on lower limb muscular force activities compared to HM and SM and could be recommended as clinical therapeutic exercises for lower limb muscle enhancement. PMID:26957762

  13. Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of the Ferret Lateral Rectus Muscle and Abducena Nucleus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-25

    concerned with maintaining gaze control and the ability to acquire visual targets (36). A great deal has been written on the physiology of EOM in animal...borrows, the need for rapid nystagmus control is reduced. The ferret eyes are more laterally placed than either cats or monkeys which increases the visual...20. Hein A, Courjon JH, Flandrin JM and Arzi M. Optokinetic nystagmus in the ferret: including selected comparisons with the cat. Exp Brain Res 79

  14. Spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma presenting as acute surgical abdomen: an important differential in elderly coagulopathic patients.

    PubMed

    Salemis, Nikolaos S

    2009-06-01

    Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) presenting as acute surgical abdomen is a rare clinical entity. Failing to establish an early diagnosis will probably result in increased morbidity or unnecessary surgical intervention. We describe herein a case of an 85-year-old woman receiving anticoagulants who presented with typical clinical manifestations of acute surgical abdomen and a slightly palpable abdominal mass. Ultrasonography was inconclusive whereas computed tomography scans demonstrated a large right rectus sheath hematoma associated with hemoperitoneum. The patient was treated conservatively with success. It is therefore concluded that RSH must be considered in any elderly patient on anticoagulant therapy who presents with manifestations of acute surgical abdomen.

  15. Arthroscopic excision of heterotopic calcification in a chronic rectus femoris origin injury: a case report

    PubMed Central

    El-Husseiny, M; Sukeik, M; Haddad, FS

    2012-01-01

    Rectus femoris origin injuries in adult athletes are uncommon. In the acute phase, conservative treatment seems to have a favourable outcome, with surgical repair reserved for unsuccessful cases only. However, a group of patients may develop chronic pain and disability after recovery from the acute phase due to heterotopic calcification occurring at the site of injury. Open and arthroscopic excision of such calcifications has been described in the literature although arthroscopic excision of large calcified lesions in the rectus femoris has not been reported previously. A relevant case is presented and discussed. PMID:22507710

  16. A comparison of the effects of epidural and spinal anesthesia with ischemia-reperfusion injury on the rat transverse rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Acar, Yusuf; Bozkurt, Mehmet; Firat, Ugur; Selcuk, Caferi Tayyar; Kapi, Emin; Isik, Fatma Birgul; Kuvat, Samet Vasfi; Celik, Feyzi; Bozarslan, Beri Hocaoglu

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of spinal and epidural anesthesia on a rat transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap ischemia-reperfusion injury model.Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 experimental groups: group I (n = 10), sham group; group II (n = 10), control group; group III (n = 10), epidural group; and group IV (n = 10), spinal group. After the elevation of the transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps, all groups except for the sham group were subjected to normothermic no-flow ischemia for 4 hours, followed by a reperfusion period of 2 hours. At the end of the reperfusion period, biochemical and histopathological evaluations were performed on tissue samples.Although there was no significant difference concerning the malonyldialdehyde, nitric oxide, and paraoxonase levels in the spinal and epidural groups, the total antioxidant state levels were significantly increased, and the total oxidative stress levels were significantly decreased in the epidural group in comparison to the spinal group. The pathological evaluation showed that findings related to inflammation, nuclear change rates and hyalinization were significantly higher in the spinal group compared with the epidural group.Epidural anesthesia can be considered as a more suitable method that enables a decrease in ischemia-reperfusion injuries in the muscle flaps.

  17. An investigation of the application of laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescent dye angiography in pedicle transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Newman, Martin I; Samson, Michel C; Tamburrino, Joseph F; Swartz, Kimberly A; Brunworth, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Pedicle transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (pTRAM) flaps remain the most common method of autologous tissue breast reconstruction. Using pTRAM flaps, complications often arise postoperatively, secondary to inadequate circulation. Tissues from distant angiosomes are associated with poorer perfusion, but this differs among patients. Many modalities have been used to reduce the risk of complications, but none have achieved widespread application. The authors believe that laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescent dye angiography (LA-ICGA) can potentially reduce the risk of complications. In two routine, single-pedicle, ipsilateral pTRAM flaps, LA-ICGA imaging was performed following the division of the distal rectus muscle and deep inferior epigastric pedicle. The resulting images were used to guide design of the flap and debridement. In case 1, good perfusion was observed in zone 1 and part of zone 2. In case 2, good perfusion was observed in zone 1 and 50% of zone 3, with little perfusion in zone 2. In both cases, tissues with poor perfusion were debrided before transfer and inset. In both patients, there were no issues with wound healing, tissue necrosis or fat necrosis. The variability of perfusion of the pTRAM flap among individuals is well appreciated. LA-ICGA helped to determine the limits of good perfusion and, therefore, the limits of tissue to be preserved for transfer and inset. This helped to avoid harvesting poorly perfused tissue that would have almost certainly experienced necrosis and, ultimately, would have reduced the risk of postoperative complications.

  18. Trunk extensor muscle fatigue influences trunk muscle activities.

    PubMed

    Hoseinpoor, Tahere Seyed; Kahrizi, Sedighe; Mobini, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Trunk muscles fatigue is one of the risk factors in workplaces and daily activities. Loads would be redistributed among active and passive tissues in a non-optimal manner in fatigue conditions. Therefore, a single tissue might be overloaded with minimal loads and as a result the risk of injury would increase. The goal of this paper was to assess the electromyographic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles after trunk extensor muscles fatigue induced by cyclic lifting task. This was an experimental study that twenty healthy women participated. For assessing automatic response of trunk extensor and abdominal muscles before and after the fatigue task, electromyographic activities of 6 muscles: thorasic erector spine (TES), lumbar erector spine (LES), lumbar multifidus (LMF), transverse abdominis/ internal oblique (TrA/IO), rectus abdominis (RA) and external oblique (EO) were recorded in standing position with no load and symmetric axial loads equal to 25% of their body weights. Statistical analysis showed that all the abdominal muscles activity decreased with axial loads after performing fatigue task but trunk extensor activity remained constant. Results of the current study indicated that muscle recruitment strategies changed with muscle fatigue and load bearing, therefore risks of tissue injury may increase in fatigue conditions.

  19. Medial meniscus posterior horn avulsion.

    PubMed

    Marzo, John M

    2009-05-01

    Avulsion of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can occur from acute trauma or chronic degeneration, leading to meniscus extrusion, articular cartilage loss, osteophyte formation, and medial joint space narrowing. With meniscus extrusion, the meniscus is unable to resist hoop stresses and cannot shield the adjacent articular cartilage from excessive axial load. Over time, this can lead to symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Patients typically report pain, swelling, mechanical symptoms, and general functional loss. Although nonsurgical care may relieve symptoms, it is unlikely to alter either the natural history of meniscal loss or the fate of the medial compartment. Surgical repair of posterior horn meniscal avulsion is done in an attempt to restore the anatomy and biomechanical function of the meniscus, and to slow or prevent degenerative joint disease. Meniscal transplantation is reserved for salvage situations.

  20. Muscle Activity in Single- vs. Double-Leg Squats.

    PubMed

    DeFOREST, Bradley A; Cantrell, Gregory S; Schilling, Brian K

    Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas) of the left leg (non-dominant, front leg for unilateral squats). Load for BS was 85% one repetition maximum, and RLESS and SS were performed at 50% of BS load. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare all variables for the three exercises, with Bonferroni adjustments for post hoc multiple comparisons, in addition to calculation of standardized mean differences (ES). Muscle activity was similar between exercises except for biceps femoris, which was significantly higher during RLESS than SS during both concentric and eccentric phases (ES = 2.11; p=0.012 and ES= 2.19; p=0.008), and significantly higher during BS than the SS during the concentric phase (ES = 1.78; p=0.029). Vertical displacement was similar between all exercises. Peak vertical force was similar between BS and RLESS and significantly greater during RLESS than SS (ES = 3.03; p=0.001). These findings may be helpful in designing resistance training programs by using RLESS if greater biceps femoris activity is desired.

  1. Muscle Activity in Single- vs. Double-Leg Squats

    PubMed Central

    DeFOREST, BRADLEY A.; CANTRELL, GREGORY S.; SCHILLING, BRIAN K.

    2014-01-01

    Muscular activity, vertical displacement and ground reaction forces of back squats (BS), rear-leg elevated split squats (RLESS) and split squats (SS) were examined. Nine resistance-trained men reported for two sessions. The first session consisted of the consent process, practice, and BS 1-repetition maximum testing. In the second session, participants performed the three exercises while EMG, displacment and ground reaction force data (one leg on plate) were collected. EMG data were collected from the gluteus maximus (GMX), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), and medial gastrocnemius (MGas) of the left leg (non-dominant, front leg for unilateral squats). Load for BS was 85% one repetition maximum, and RLESS and SS were performed at 50% of BS load. Repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare all variables for the three exercises, with Bonferroni adjustments for post hoc multiple comparisons, in addition to calculation of standardized mean differences (ES). Muscle activity was similar between exercises except for biceps femoris, which was significantly higher during RLESS than SS during both concentric and eccentric phases (ES = 2.11; p=0.012 and ES= 2.19; p=0.008), and significantly higher during BS than the SS during the concentric phase (ES = 1.78; p=0.029). Vertical displacement was similar between all exercises. Peak vertical force was similar between BS and RLESS and significantly greater during RLESS than SS (ES = 3.03; p=0.001). These findings may be helpful in designing resistance training programs by using RLESS if greater biceps femoris activity is desired. PMID:27182408

  2. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  3. Muscle mass and composition of the hip, thigh and abdominal muscles in women with and without hip osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Ikezoe, Tome; Tateuchi, Hiroshige; Tsukagoshi, Rui; Akiyama, Haruhiko; So, Kazutaka; Kuroda, Yutaka; Yoneyama, Tomohide; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare muscle mass and composition between individuals with and without hip osteoarthritis. Twenty-four women with hip osteoarthritis (OA group) and 16 healthy women (healthy group) participated in this study. Muscle thickness (MT) and echo intensity (EI) were measured as indices of muscle mass and composition, respectively, using ultrasound imaging. Seven muscles were examined: gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, quadriceps femoris, rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis. MT of only quadriceps femoris in the OA group was significantly thinner than that in the healthy group. EIs of gluteus medius, quadriceps femoris and rectus abdominis were significantly higher in the OA group than those in the healthy group. Thus, actual contractile tissue of gluteus medius and rectus abdominis substantially decreased, although muscle mass was similar, whereas both quantitative and qualitative changes occurred in quadriceps femoris in patients with hip OA. Copyright © 2012 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mammographically detected recurrent nonpalpable carcinoma developing in a transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap. A case report.

    PubMed

    Mund, D F; Wolfson, P; Gorczyca, D P; Fu, Y S; Love, S M; Bassett, L W

    1994-11-15

    Breast reconstruction is performed with increasing frequency and has become important in the treatment of mastectomy patients. The development of recurrent carcinoma after a mastectomy and transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (TRAM) flap procedure is described. The lesion was nonpalpable and was detected by mammography. This case raises questions about the practice of not performing postreconstruction mammography for detection of local recurrence after mastectomy.

  5. A comparison of plasma levobupivacaine concentrations following transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block.

    PubMed

    Yasumura, R; Kobayashi, Y; Ochiai, R

    2016-05-01

    Levobupivacaine is commonly used as the local anaesthetic of choice in peripheral nerve blocks, but its pharmacokinetics have not been fully investigated. We compared the changes in plasma concentrations of levobupivacaine following transversus abdominis plane block and rectus sheath block. Fifty woman undergoing laparoscopy were randomly allocated to receive either a transversus abdominis plane block or an rectus sheath block. In both groups, 2.5 mg.kg(-1) levobupivacaine was administered, and blood samples were obtained 15 min, 30 min, 60 min and 120 min after injection. The mean maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and mean time to reach Cmax (Tmax) as determined by non-linear regression analysis were 1.05 μg.ml(-1) and 32.4 min in the transversus abdominis plane group and 0.95 μg.ml(-1) and 60.9 min in the rectus sheath group, respectively. The plasma concentration of levobupivacaine peaked earlier in the transversus abdominis plane group than in the rectus sheath group and the maximum plasma concentration depended on the dose administered but not the procedure. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  6. [Laparoscopy coupled with classical abdominoplasty in 10 cases of large rectus diastasis].

    PubMed

    Huguier, V; Faure, J-L; Doucet, C; Giot, J-P; Dagregorio, G

    2012-08-01

    In 10 cases of abdominoplasty where an important rectus diastasis had to be corrected, we completed the plication of the rectus sheath included in a classical abdominoplasty with the laparoscopic positioning of an intraperitoneal prosthesis. To assess the middle-term results of this technique and present its advantages and drawbacks. Fifteen patients have been operated from 2007 to 2011 by two surgeon teams. Ten of them have accepted to be included in our survey. All the patients said they were satisfied with their surgery. Four of them reported mild pain during the first postoperative weeks, and two of them mentioned very moderate pain at the time of the survey. The surgeons were not satisfied with the results obtained in two cases. Only one of these two patients accepted revision abdominoplasty with a good result. Laparoscopic positioning of an intraperitoneal prosthesis, coupled with a classical plication of the rectus sheath, gives excellent results in difficult cases of rectus diastasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. [Vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for the closure of perineal wound after abdominoperineal resection of the rectum].

    PubMed

    Orhalmi, J; Vreský, B; Holéczy, P; Jackanin, S; Biath, P

    2009-06-01

    A major source of morbidity after abdominoperineal resection (APR) after neoadjuvant external beam pelvic radiation are perineal wound complications. Wound complications are common for 25-66% of patients overall. There are many of procedures provided to reconstruct the perineal defect after APR e.g. primary closure, secondary closure, superior gluteal artery flap and vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous (VRAM) flap. Our purpose was to describe the effect of VRAM flap on reconstruction of perineal wound. VRAM flaps are ideally suited to bring nonirradiated tissue into defect associated with radical surgical extirpation procedures and irradiated fields. This flap, distally based in the deep inferior epigastric vessels, provides several distinct advantages. It is well perfused by the robust dominant pedicle and the deep inferior epigastric artery and vein. In addition, this flap provides adequate muscle bulk to obliterate pelvic dead space. The skin island can be used for resurfacing the perineal region, including the vaginal wall, and provides versatility for all patterns of resection. VRAM flap provides very good aesthetic and functional results, is technically relatively simple and radically decreases wound complications rate. The additional possibility is pull-through the flap transpelvically intraabdominally instead of pull-through via subcutaneous channel, especially with females.

  8. Sexual dysfunction after colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap.

    PubMed

    Løve, Uffe S; Sjøgren, Pia; Rasmussen, Peter; Laurberg, Søren; Christensen, Henrik K

    2013-02-01

    The use of the vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap in reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection or pelvic exenteration for neoplasia is well documented. However, functional outcomes after vaginal reconstruction, including sexual function, are poorly described. This study aimed to examine sexual function in women following extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy and vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap. This study is a retrospective review of medical records in combination with patient questionnaires. Nonresponders were followed up with a second contact. This study was performed at a tertiary care university medical center (Colorectal Section, Department of Surgery P, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark) All women undergoing pelvic surgery and simultaneous vaginal reconstruction with the use of a vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap between 2004 and 2010 at our department were identified from a patient database. Thirty women who were alive at the time of identification were included in the study. Sexual function before and after surgery was evaluated by the use of the Sexual function Vaginal changes Questionnaire. The main outcome end point was whether the patient was sexually active after vaginal reconstruction. Twenty-six participants (87%) answered the questionnaire. Fifty percent of patients reported an active sex life before surgery. In general, patients reported an unchanged desire for both physical and sexual contact after surgery. However, only 2 patients (14%) reported being sexually active after surgery. This was a retrospective study with a heterogeneous cohort involving several types of cancers and surgical procedures. Factors other than vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction itself may interfere with the sexual function. Extensive pelvic surgery with colpectomy leads to sexual dysfunction even when the vagina is reconstructed with a vertical rectus abdominis

  9. Origin of the direct and reflected head of the rectus femoris: an anatomic study.

    PubMed

    Ryan, John M; Harris, Joshua D; Graham, William C; Virk, Sohrab S; Ellis, Thomas J

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to define the footprint of the direct and reflected heads of the rectus femoris and the relation of the anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) to adjacent neurovascular (lateral circumflex femoral artery and femoral nerve), bony (anterior superior iliac spine [ASIS]), and tendinous structures (iliopsoas). Twelve fresh-frozen cadaveric hip joints from 6 cadavers, average age of 44.5 (±9.9) years, were carefully dissected of skin and fascia to expose the muscular, capsular, and bony structures of the anterior hip and pelvis. Using digital calipers, measurements were taken of the footprint of the rectus femoris on the AIIS, superior-lateral acetabulum and hip capsule, and adjacent anatomic structures. The average dimensions of the footprint of the direct head of the rectus femoris were 13.4 mm (±1.7) × 26.0 mm (±4.1), whereas the dimensions of the reflected head footprint were 47.7 mm (±4.4) × 16.8 mm (±2.2). Important anatomic structures, including the femoral nerve, psoas tendon, and lateral circumflex femoral artery, were noted in proximity to the AIIS. The neurovascular structure closest to the AIIS was the femoral nerve (20.8 ± 3.4 mm). The rectus femoris direct and reflected heads originate over a broad area of the anterolateral pelvis and are in close proximity to critical neurovascular structures, and care must be taken to avoid them during hip arthroscopy. A thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the proximal rectus femoris is valuable for any surgical exposure of the anterior hip joint, particularly arthroscopic subspine decompression and open femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) surgery. Copyright © 2014 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Rectus Sheath Block in Gynaecological Surgery with Pfannenstiel Incision

    PubMed Central

    Cüneyitoğlu, Şule; Türktan, Mediha; Biricik, Ebru; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in gynaecological surgery with Pfannenstiel incision. Methods After the approval of the ethics committee and the patients’ consent, 75 ASA I–II patients who were aged between 20 and 70 years and scheduled for a gynaecological surgery with Pfannenstiel incision were included in this study. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomly divided into three groups. In Group UR patients (n=25), ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block with 0.25% levobupivacaine (0.2 mL kg−1) was performed. In Group SR patients (n=25), surgical rectus sheath block with 0.25% levobupivacaine (0.2 mL kg−1) was applied. In Group T (n=25) patients, tramadol (2 mg kg−1) was intravenously administered 30 min before the end of surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia device was established for postoperative pain relief in all groups. Haemodynamic data and inspired sevoflurane concentration were recorded during the operation. Pain scores, total tramadol consumption, supplemental analgesic requirement and side effects were postoperatively evaluated. Results Demographic characteristics, duration of surgery and haemodynamic parameters were similar between the groups. Inspired sevoflurane concentration (%) and VAS scores were significantly lower in Group UR than those in Groups SR and T. Total tramadol consumption was significantly lower in Groups UR and SR than that in Group T. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects. Conclusion This study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block helps to provide the effective analgesia without any side effects compared with surgical rectus sheath block and intravenous tramadol for gynaecological surgery with Pfannenstiel incision. PMID:27366521

  11. Ultrasound-Guided Rectus Sheath Block in Gynaecological Surgery with Pfannenstiel Incision.

    PubMed

    Cüneyitoğlu, Şule; Türktan, Mediha; Biricik, Ebru; Özcengiz, Dilek

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in gynaecological surgery with Pfannenstiel incision. After the approval of the ethics committee and the patients' consent, 75 ASA I-II patients who were aged between 20 and 70 years and scheduled for a gynaecological surgery with Pfannenstiel incision were included in this study. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomly divided into three groups. In Group UR patients (n=25), ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block with 0.25% levobupivacaine (0.2 mL kg(-1)) was performed. In Group SR patients (n=25), surgical rectus sheath block with 0.25% levobupivacaine (0.2 mL kg(-1)) was applied. In Group T (n=25) patients, tramadol (2 mg kg(-1)) was intravenously administered 30 min before the end of surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia device was established for postoperative pain relief in all groups. Haemodynamic data and inspired sevoflurane concentration were recorded during the operation. Pain scores, total tramadol consumption, supplemental analgesic requirement and side effects were postoperatively evaluated. Demographic characteristics, duration of surgery and haemodynamic parameters were similar between the groups. Inspired sevoflurane concentration (%) and VAS scores were significantly lower in Group UR than those in Groups SR and T. Total tramadol consumption was significantly lower in Groups UR and SR than that in Group T. There was no significant difference in the incidence of side effects. This study demonstrates that ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block helps to provide the effective analgesia without any side effects compared with surgical rectus sheath block and intravenous tramadol for gynaecological surgery with Pfannenstiel incision.

  12. Relationship between abdominal and pelvic floor muscle activation and intravaginal pressure during pelvic floor muscle contractions in healthy continent women.

    PubMed

    Madill, Stéphanie J; McLean, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Activation of the abdominal muscles might contribute to the generation of a strong pelvic floor muscle contraction, and consequently may contribute to the continence mechanism in women. The purpose of this study was to determine the abdominal muscle activation levels and the patterns of muscle activity associated with voluntary pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractions in urinary continent women. Fifteen healthy continent women participated. They performed three maximal contractions of each of the four abdominal muscles and of their PFMs while in supine. Abdominal and PFM activity was recorded using electromyography (EMG), and intravaginal pressure was recorded using a custom modified Femiscan probe. During voluntary maximal PFM contractions, rectus abdominus was activated to 9.61 (+/-7.42)% maximal voluntary electrical activity (MVE), transversus abdominus was activated to 224.30(+/-47.4)% MVE, the external obliques were activated to 18.72(+/-13.33)% MVE, and the internal obliques were activated to 81.47(+/-63.57)% MVE. A clear pattern of activation emerged, whereby the transversus abdominus, internal oblique, and rectus abdominus muscles worked with the PFM in the initial generation of maximal intravaginal pressure. PFM activity predominated in the initial rise in lower vaginal pressure, with later increases in pressure (up to 70% maximum pressure) being associated with the combined activation of the PFM, rectus abdominus, internal obliques, and transverses abdominus. These abdominal muscles were the primary source of intravaginal pressure increases in the latter 30% of the task, whereas there was little increase in PFM activation from this point on. The external oblique muscles showed no clear pattern of activity, but worked at approximately 20% MVE throughout the PFM contractions, suggesting that their role may be predominantly in postural setting prior to the initiation of intravaginal pressure increases. Defined patterns of abdominal muscle activity were found

  13. Medial gastrocnemius myoelectric control of a robotic ankle exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Kinnaird, Catherine R; Ferris, Daniel P

    2009-02-01

    A previous study from our laboratory showed that when soleus electromyography was used to control the amount of plantar flexion assistance from a robotic ankle exoskeleton, subjects significantly reduced their soleus activity to quickly return to normal gait kinematics. We speculated that subjects were primarily responding to the local mechanical assistance of the exoskeleton rather than directly attempting to reduce exoskeleton mechanical power via decreases in soleus activity. To test this observation we studied ten healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at 1.25 m/s while wearing a robotic exoskeleton proportionally controlled by medial gastrocnemius activation. We hypothesized that subjects would primarily decrease soleus activity due to its synergistic mechanics with the exoskeleton. Subjects decreased medial gastrocnemius recruitment by 12% ( p < 0.05 ) but decreased soleus recruitment by 27% ( p < 0.05). In agreement with our hypothesis, the primary reduction in muscle activity was not for the control muscle (medial gastrocnemius) but for the anatomical synergist to the exoskeleton (soleus). These findings indicate that anatomical morphology needs to be considered carefully when designing software and hardware for robotic exoskeletons.

  14. Distance between intramuscular nerve and artery in the extraocular muscles: a preliminary immunohistochemical study using elderly human cadavers.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Kei; Cho, Kwang Ho; Jang, Hyung Suk; Murakami, Gen; Yamamoto, Masahito; Abe, Shin-Ichi

    2017-01-01

    Extraocular muscles are quite different from skeletal muscles in muscle fiber type and nerve supply; the small motor unit may be the most well known. As the first step to understanding the nerve-artery relationship, in this study we measured the distance from the arteriole (25-50 μm in thickness) to the nerve terminal twigs in extraocular muscles. With the aid of immunohistochemistry for nerves and arteries, we examined the arteriole-nerve distance at 10-15 sites in each of 68 extraocular muscles obtained from ten elderly cadavers. The oblique sections were nearly tangential to the muscle plate and included both global and orbital aspects of the muscle. In all muscles, the nerve twigs usually took a course parallel to muscle fibers, in contrast to most arterioles that crossed muscles. Possibly due to polyinnervation, an intramuscular nerve plexus was evident in four rectus and two oblique muscles. The arteriole-nerve distance usually ranged from 300 to 400 μm. However, individual differences were more than two times greater in each of seven muscles. Moreover, in each muscle the difference between sites sometimes reached 1 mm or more. The distance was generally shorter in the rectus and oblique muscles than in the levator palpebrae muscle, which reached statistical significance (p < 0.05). The differences in arteriole-nerve distances between sites within each muscle, between muscles, and between individuals might lead to an individual biological rhythm of fatigue in oculomotor performance.

  15. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  16. Medialized repair for retracted rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Kyu; Jung, Kyu-Hak; Won, Jun-Sung; Cho, Seung-Hyun

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional outcomes of medialized rotator cuff repair and the continuity of repaired tendon in chronic retracted rotator cuff tears. Thirty-five consecutive patients were selected from 153 cases that underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair for more than medium-sized posterosuperior rotator cuff tears between July 2009 and July 2012 performed with the medialized repair. All cases were available for at least 2 years of postoperative follow-up. The visual analog scale of pain, muscle strength, Constant score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and University of California-Los Angeles score were evaluated. At the final follow-up, all clinical outcomes were significantly improved. The visual analog scale score for pain improved from 6 ± 1 preoperatively to 2 ± 1 postoperatively. The range of motion increased from preoperatively to postoperatively: active forward elevation, from 134° ± 49° to 150° ± 16°; active external rotation at the side, from 47° ± 15° to 55° ± 10°; and active internal rotation, from L3 to L1. The shoulder score also improved: Constant score, from 53.5 ± 16.7 to 79 ± 10; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, from 51 ± 15 to 82 ± 8; and University of California-Los Angeles score, from 14 ± 4 to 28 ± 4. The retear cases at the final follow-up were 6 (17%). Medialized repair may be useful in cases in which anatomic bone-to-tendon repair would be difficult because of the excessive tension of the repaired tendon and a torn tendon that does not reach the anatomic insertion. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brief reports: plasma ropivacaine concentrations after ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block in patients undergoing lower abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Wada, Morito; Kitayama, Masato; Hashimoto, Hiroshi; Kudo, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Mihoko; Takada, Norikazu; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    A rectus sheath block can provide postoperative analgesia for midline incisions. However, information regarding the pharmacokinetics of local anesthetics used in this block is lacking. In this study, we detail the time course of ropivacaine concentrations after this block. Thirty-nine patients undergoing elective lower abdominal surgery were assigned to 3 groups receiving rectus sheath block with 20 mL of different concentrations of ropivacaine. Peak plasma concentrations were dose dependent, and there were no significant differences in the times to peak plasma concentrations. The present data also suggested a slower absorption kinetics profile for ropivacaine after rectus sheath block than other compartment blocks.

  18. Ultrasound Assessment of Abdominal Muscle Thickness in Postpartum vs Nulliparous Women.

    PubMed

    Weis, Carol Ann; Triano, John J; Barrett, Jon; Campbell, Michelle D; Croy, Martine; Roeder, Jessica

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect size in measurable change of abdominal musculature morphology using ultrasonography in postpartum women within 1 month of a healthy, vaginal delivery. One hundred fifty-six participants were recruited for this study. B-mode ultrasound imaging was used to measure abdominal muscle thickness on 80 nulliparous women and 76 mothers who had delivered within the past 4 weeks. Measures were taken for the upper and lower rectus abdominus, external and internal obliques, and transversus abdominus at rest. Statistically significant differences were found in the thickness of the rectus abdominus muscle at both sites; upper (P < .0001) and lower (P < .0001) as well as the internal oblique (P < .0001). All 3 muscles were thinner in postpartum participants (8.29 ± 1.83 mm, 8.89 ± 2.29 mm, and 7.06 ± 1.82 mm, respectively) within the first month of delivery than in controls (10.82 ± 1.93 mm, 11.13 ± 2.38 mm, and 8.36 ± 1.87 mm, respectively). Large effect sizes were found for the influence of pregnancy on the rectus muscle segments (1.35 for the upper rectus abdominus and 1.00 for the lower rectus abdominus) and a medium effect size for the internal oblique (0.71). No significant differences were observed in the remaining 2 muscles. This study showed that there are differences in morphology of the abdominal muscles in pregnant women vs nonpregnant controls. The large effect sizes reported may provide the basis for future studies examining relationships between morphology, functional change, and back pain during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. BIOCHEMISTRY OF THE ANTERIOR, MEDIAL, AND POSTERIOR GENIOGLOSSUS IN THE AGED RAT

    PubMed Central

    Schaser, Allison J.; Wang, Hao; Volz, Lana M.; Connor, Nadine P.

    2010-01-01

    Age-related tongue weakness may contribute to swallowing deficits in the elderly. One contributing factor may be an alteration in muscle fiber type properties with aging. However, it is not clear how muscle fiber types within the aged tongue may vary from those found in young adults, or how fiber types may vary across the anteroposterior axis of the extrinsic tongue muscles. We examined myosin heavy chain (MHC) composition of anterior, medial, and posterior sections of the genioglossus muscle (GG) in 10 old male Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats and compared findings to previously reported data from young adult male rats. Significant differences (p< .01) between young adult and old rats were found in the distribution of MHC isoforms along the anteroposterior axis of the muscle. In the anterior, medial, and posterior regions, there was a significantly smaller proportion of type IIb MHC in the old rat GG muscles, while the proportion of type IIx MHC was significantly greater. In the medial region, the proportion of type I MHC was found to be significantly greater in the old rats. Thus, we found a shift to more slowly contracting muscle fibers in the aged rat tongue. PMID:20809174

  20. Effects of a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system on hemiplegic gait and muscle forces

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jing-guang; Rong, Ke; Qian, Zhenyun; Wen, Chen; Zhang, Songning

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern. PMID:26696734

  1. The sternalis muscle in the Bulgarian population: classification of sternales

    PubMed Central

    JELEV, L.; GEORGIEV, G.; SURCHEV, L.

    2001-01-01

    The sternalis muscle (musculus sternalis) is the name usually given to this common anatomical variant, but the terms ‘episternalis’, ‘presternalis’, ‘sternalis brutorum’, ‘rectus thoracis’, ‘rectus sterni’, ‘superficial rectus abdominis’ and ‘japonicus’ have also been used in the literature (for reviews see Le Double, 1879; Calori, 1888; Pichler, 1911; Blees, 1968). According to Turner (1867), Cabrolius was the first, in 1604, to describe sternalis. Nevertheless this muscle is often unknown even in clinical practice (Bailey & Tzarnas, 1999; Vandeweyer, 1999). Thus far, investigations on the incidence of sternalis have been made both in large populations such as the American (Barlow, 1935) and small populations, for example in Taiwan (Shen et al. 1992; Jeng & Su, 1998). In Europe, all studies on the frequency of this muscle have been made amongst subpopulations in Western (e.g. Cunningham, 1888; Le Double, 1890, 1897) and Northern Europe (Gruber, 1860) although the reported frequencies have been quite different. There is a lack of information about sternalis in Eastern European populations. We therefore present data from a study on the incidence of sternalis muscle in Bulgaria. PMID:11554516

  2. The JCR:LA-cp rat: a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis.

    PubMed

    Pung, Yuh Fen; Chilian, William M; Bennett, Martin R; Figg, Nichola; Kamarulzaman, Mohd Hamzah

    2017-03-01

    Although there are multiple rodent models of the metabolic syndrome, very few develop vascular complications. In contrast, the JCR:LA-cp rat develops both metabolic syndrome and early atherosclerosis in predisposed areas. However, the pathology of the normal vessel wall has not been described. We examined JCR:LA control (+/+) or cp/cp rats fed normal chow diet for 6 or 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats developed multiple features of advanced cystic medial necrosis including "cysts," increased collagen formation and proteoglycan deposition around cysts, apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells, and spotty medial calcification. These appearances began within 6 mo and were extensive by 18 mo. JCR:LA-cp rats had reduced medial cellularity, increased medial thickness, and vessel hypoxia that was most marked in the adventitia. In conclusion, the normal chow-fed JCR:LA-cp rat represents a novel rodent model of cystic medial necrosis, associated with multiple metabolic abnormalities, vascular smooth muscle cell apoptosis, and vessel hypoxia. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Triggers for cystic medial necrosis (CMN) have been difficult to study due to lack of animal models to recapitulate the pathologies seen in humans. Our study is the first description of CMN in the rat. Thus the JCR:LA-cp rat represents a useful model to investigate the underlying molecular changes leading to the development of CMN. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Optimizing Muscle Parameters in Musculoskeletal Modeling Using Monte Carlo Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Andrea; Reed, Erik; Cavanagh, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts assigned to long-duration missions experience bone and muscle atrophy in the lower limbs. The use of musculoskeletal simulation software has become a useful tool for modeling joint and muscle forces during human activity in reduced gravity as access to direct experimentation is limited. Knowledge of muscle and joint loads can better inform the design of exercise protocols and exercise countermeasure equipment. In this study, the LifeModeler(TM) (San Clemente, CA) biomechanics simulation software was used to model a squat exercise. The initial model using default parameters yielded physiologically reasonable hip-joint forces. However, no activation was predicted in some large muscles such as rectus femoris, which have been shown to be active in 1-g performance of the activity. Parametric testing was conducted using Monte Carlo methods and combinatorial reduction to find a muscle parameter set that more closely matched physiologically observed activation patterns during the squat exercise. Peak hip joint force using the default parameters was 2.96 times body weight (BW) and increased to 3.21 BW in an optimized, feature-selected test case. The rectus femoris was predicted to peak at 60.1% activation following muscle recruitment optimization, compared to 19.2% activation with default parameters. These results indicate the critical role that muscle parameters play in joint force estimation and the need for exploration of the solution space to achieve physiologically realistic muscle activation.

  4. Reappraisal of the ligament of Henle (ligamentum inguinale internum mediale; Henle, 1871): a topohistological study using Korean foetuses.

    PubMed

    Yang, J D; Hwang, H P; Kim, J H; Murakami, G; Rodríguez-Vázquez, J F; Cho, B H

    2013-05-01

    Ligament of Henle is one of muscle-associated connective tissues of the rectus abdominis muscle, but it has been confused with the conjoint tendon (a common aponeurosis for insertion of the inferomedial end of the obliquus internus and transversus abdominis muscles). To reconsider the inguinal connective tissue structures, we examined 20 mid-term foetuses (10 males and 10 females) at approximately 14-20 weeks of gestation (crown rump length 100-170 mm). In female horizontal sections, we consistently found the ligament of Henle asa wing-like aponeurosis extending from the lateral margin of the rectus tendon behind the superficial inguinal ring. The ligament was separated from and located behind the conjoint tendon. In all male foetuses, instead of the ligament, the conjoint tendon was evident behind the superficial ring and it winded around the posterior aspect of the spermatic cord. Therefore, although a limited number of specimens were examined, the ligament of Henle was likely to be a female-specific structure. The ligament of Henle, if developed well, may provide an arch-like structure suitable for a name "falx inguinalis" instead of the inferomedial end ofthe conjoint tendon. In addition, a covering fascia of the iliopsoas muscle joined the posterior wall of the inguinal canal in male, but not in female, specimens.

  5. Bilateral discoid medial menisci: a rare phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Samal, Puspak; Bhagwat, Kishan; Panigrahi, Tapas; Gopinathan, Nirmalraj

    2014-01-01

    Discoid medial meniscus is a relatively rare pathology of the knee joint, with bilateral cases even rarer. Herein, we report the case of a 25-year-old man diagnosed with discoid medial meniscus in the right knee with a horizontal tear. Increased cupping of the medial condyle of the tibia, widening of the medial joint space and the presence of discoid meniscus in the right knee prompted investigation of the asymptomatic left knee with magnetic resonance imaging. The contralateral asymptomatic knee also showed evidence of discoid medial meniscus. The symptomatic knee was successfully treated by arthroscopic partial meniscectomy, with excellent functional outcome. PMID:25273941

  6. [Effects of acupotomy, electroacupuncture or round-sharp acupuncture needle interventions on expression of Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3 proteins of rectus femoris in rabbits with knee ostarthritis].

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ran; Jin, Ying-Li; Li, Na; Lei, Lin-Dan; Yu, Fei; Li, Yu-Bo; Tao, Lin; Zhang, Qian; Guo, Chang-Qing

    2014-04-01

    To observe the effect of acupotomy, electroacupuncture (EA) or round-sharp acupuncture needle intervention on the expression of Bcl-2,Bax and Caspase-3 proteins in the rectus femoris in rabbits with knee ostarthritis (KOA), so as to explore their mechanisms underlying improvement of braking-induced joint damage from the cellular apoptosis. Forty-five New Zealand rabbits were equally and randomized into control group, model group, acupotomy (AP) group, EA group and round-sharp acupuncture needle (RSAN) group (n = 9 in each group). The knee-joint injury model was established by fixing the left knee joint in extention position with plaster bandage. EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 3 mA, 20 min each time) was applied to the left "Yanglingquan" (GB 34)- "Yinlingquan" (SP 9) and left "Neixiyan" (EX-LE 4)- "Waixiyan"(ST 35) for rabbits in the EA group. The EA treatment was given once daily, 3 times a week, 3 weeks in total. For rabbits of the AP group, a needle-knife was held to insert into the front edge of the midpoint, the starting point and the stopping point of the left medial collateral ligamen, lateral collateral ligament and the patellar ligament of the knee to make a loosening manipulation for 5 times in a session of treatment, once a week, 3 times altogether. For rabbits of the RSAN group, a round-sharp needle was performed in the same way to the needle-knife including the stimulation point, the manipulation method and treatment sessions. At the end of the experiment, the left rectus femoris was taken out for detecting the expression of Bcl-2, Bax and Caspase-3 proteins with Western blot. In comparison with the control group, the passive range of motion (PROM) level was significantly decreased 4, 8 and 12 weeks after modeling (P < 0.01), and the expression levels of Bax and Caspase-3 proteins in the rectus femoris were considerably upregulated in the model group (P < 0.05), while the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was notably down-regulated (P < 0.05) in the model group. Compared with the

  7. Morphological classification and comparison of suboccipital muscle fiber characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Masahito; Kitamura, Kei; Morita, Sumiharu; Nagakura, Ryotaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2017-01-01

    In an attempt to clarify the function of the suboccipital muscles, we performed morphological observation of the suboccipital muscles for variations in the muscle belly and compared the morphology of their muscle fibers in terms of cross-sectional area by immunostaining with anti-myosin heavy chain antibodies. The cadavers of 25 Japanese individuals were used: 22 for morphological examinations and three for histological examinations. Among samples of the rectus capitis posterior major muscle (RCPma) and rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (RCPmi), 86.4% had a typical muscle appearance with a single belly, and 13.6% had an anomalous morphology. None of the samples of the obliquus capitis superior (OCS) or obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscles had an anomalous appearance. Measurement of cross-sectional area revealed that fast-twitch muscle fibers in the RCPma and OCI had a significantly greater cross-sectional area than those of the RCPmi and OCS. The cross-sectional area of intermediate muscle fibers was also significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI. The cross-sectional area of slow-twitch muscle fibers was significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI, and the RCPmi showed a significantly greater cross-sectional area for slow-twitch muscle fibers than did the RCPma, and OCI. Our findings indicate that the RCPmi and OCS exert a greater force than the RCPma and OCI, and act as anti-gravity agonist muscles of the head. Prolonged head extension in individuals with anomalous suboccipital muscle groups could result in dysfunction due to undue stress. PMID:29354295

  8. Morphological classification and comparison of suboccipital muscle fiber characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Masato; Yamamoto, Masahito; Kitamura, Kei; Morita, Sumiharu; Nagakura, Ryotaro; Matsunaga, Satoru; Abe, Shinichi

    2017-12-01

    In an attempt to clarify the function of the suboccipital muscles, we performed morphological observation of the suboccipital muscles for variations in the muscle belly and compared the morphology of their muscle fibers in terms of cross-sectional area by immunostaining with anti-myosin heavy chain antibodies. The cadavers of 25 Japanese individuals were used: 22 for morphological examinations and three for histological examinations. Among samples of the rectus capitis posterior major muscle (RCPma) and rectus capitis posterior minor muscle (RCPmi), 86.4% had a typical muscle appearance with a single belly, and 13.6% had an anomalous morphology. None of the samples of the obliquus capitis superior (OCS) or obliquus capitis inferior (OCI) muscles had an anomalous appearance. Measurement of cross-sectional area revealed that fast-twitch muscle fibers in the RCPma and OCI had a significantly greater cross-sectional area than those of the RCPmi and OCS. The cross-sectional area of intermediate muscle fibers was also significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI. The cross-sectional area of slow-twitch muscle fibers was significantly greater in the OCS than in the RCPma, RCPmi, and OCI, and the RCPmi showed a significantly greater cross-sectional area for slow-twitch muscle fibers than did the RCPma, and OCI. Our findings indicate that the RCPmi and OCS exert a greater force than the RCPma and OCI, and act as anti-gravity agonist muscles of the head. Prolonged head extension in individuals with anomalous suboccipital muscle groups could result in dysfunction due to undue stress.

  9. Muscle Activation During Side-Step Cutting Maneuvers in Male and Female Soccer Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ashley M; Padua, Darin A; Troy Blackburn, J; Prentice, William E; Hirth, Christopher J

    2008-01-01

    Context: Female soccer athletes are at greater risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury than males. Sex differences in muscle activation may contribute to the increased incidence of ACL injuries in female soccer athletes. Objective: To examine sex differences in lower extremity muscle activation between male and female soccer athletes at the National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I level during 2 side-step cutting maneuvers. Design: Cross-sectional with 1 between-subjects factor (sex) and 2 within-subjects factors (cutting task and phase of contact). Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty males (age = 19.4 ± 1.4 years, height = 176.5 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 74.6 ± 6.0 kg) and 20 females (age = 19.8 ± 1.1 years, height = 165.7 ± 4.3 cm, mass = 62.2 ± 7.2 kg). Intervention(s): In a single testing session, participants performed the running-approach side-step cut and the box-jump side-step cut tasks. Main Outcome Measure(s): Surface electromyographic activity of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, medial hamstrings, lateral hamstrings, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus was recorded for each subject. Separate mixed-model, repeated-measures analysis of variance tests were used to compare the dependent variables across sex during the preparatory and loading contact phases of each cutting task. Results: Females displayed greater vastus lateralis activity and quadriceps to hamstrings coactivation ratios during the preparatory and loading phases, as well as greater gluteus medius activation during the preparatory phase only. No significant differences were noted between the sexes for muscle activation in the other muscles analyzed during each task. Conclusions: The quadriceps-dominant muscle activation pattern observed in recreationally active females is also present in female soccer athletes at the Division I level when compared with similarly trained male soccer athletes. The relationship between increased

  10. Rectus sheath haematoma: a serious complication of a commonly administered drug.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Fran; Khalid, Usman; Woolgar, Justin

    2013-04-10

    Ten days after an above knee amputation, this 62-year-old woman became acutely anaemic (haemoglobin drop of 10.4 to 6.2). Clinically, she had no obvious source of bleeding; however, on examination, her abdomen was slightly distended and she was tender over the suprapubic area. A CT scan of her abdomen and pelvis was arranged which showed a large haematoma (17 × 11 cm) arising from the anterior abdominal wall from the deep aspect of the left rectus abdominus, extending across the midline to the right rectus abdominus and deep into the pelvis. This may have been spontaneous or may have been due to direct injury when injecting subcutaneous heparin.

  11. Rectus sheath hematoma due to cough in an elderly patient under antiplatelet therapy.

    PubMed

    Çoşğun, I Güven; Ünal, Yılmaz; Çetin, Mustafa

    2015-04-01

    Abdominal rectus sheath hematoma (ARSH) is a rare clinical condition that can be confused with other causes of acute abdomen. We report an 83-year-old woman receiving antiplatelet medication who presented with ARSH following a cough episode. The patient was hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations. During hospital stay, sudden onset abdominal pain was developed following a severe cough episode. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed ARSH. Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare and often misdiagnosed clinical condition. It is important to be considered for the diagnosis. ARSH should be considered in case of development of acute abdominal pain following cough in receiving anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Rectus sheath haematoma: a serious complication of a commonly administered drug

    PubMed Central

    Parkinson, Fran; Khalid, Usman; Woolgar, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Ten days after an above knee amputation, this 62-year-old woman became acutely anaemic (haemoglobin drop of 10.4 to 6.2). Clinically, she had no obvious source of bleeding; however, on examination, her abdomen was slightly distended and she was tender over the suprapubic area. A CT scan of her abdomen and pelvis was arranged which showed a large haematoma (17×11 cm) arising from the anterior abdominal wall from the deep aspect of the left rectus abdominus, extending across the midline to the right rectus abdominus and deep into the pelvis. This may have been spontaneous or may have been due to direct injury when injecting subcutaneous heparin. PMID:23580671

  13. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle ( myopathic changes ) Tissue death of the muscle (necrosis) Disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessels and affect muscles ( necrotizing vasculitis ) Traumatic muscle damage ...

  14. Pedal macrodactyly: coverage of a large defect with a rectus abdominus free flap.

    PubMed

    Hendrix, C L; Thomson, J G; Blume, P A

    2000-01-01

    The authors report a case of a unique reconstructive approach for an isolated macrodactyly of the lower extremity in an otherwise healthy African male. Surgical treatment included excision and local resection of the affected hypertrophied skin, soft tissue, and bone. A rectus abdominis free-tissue transfer and split-thickness skin graft were used for coverage of the defect. The foot healed without complication, and at 2-year follow-up, the patient had an aesthetically pleasing and fully functional result.

  15. An unanticipated diagnosis with bedside ultrasonography in patients with acute abdominal pain: rectus hematoma

    PubMed Central

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Kaykısız, Eylem Kuday

    2017-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a common presentation in emergency departments, rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is among the rarest diagnosis. Here we present 2 cases of RSH likely caused by coughing due to upper respiratory tract infection. The two described cases were diagnosed by bedside ultrasonography and confirmed as RSH by computed tomography. Review of patient history and use of ultrasonography are important to avoid misdiagnosisof RSH. PMID:28748020

  16. An unanticipated diagnosis with bedside ultrasonography in patients with acute abdominal pain: rectus hematoma.

    PubMed

    Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Kaykısız, Eylem Kuday

    2017-01-01

    Although abdominal pain is a common presentation in emergency departments, rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is among the rarest diagnosis. Here we present 2 cases of RSH likely caused by coughing due to upper respiratory tract infection. The two described cases were diagnosed by bedside ultrasonography and confirmed as RSH by computed tomography. Review of patient history and use of ultrasonography are important to avoid misdiagnosisof RSH.

  17. Associations of passive muscle stiffness, muscle stretch tolerance, and muscle slack angle with range of motion: individual and sex differences.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Naokazu; Hirata, Kosuke; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Yasuda, Osamu; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2018-05-29

    Joint range of motion (ROM) is an important parameter for athletic performance and muscular injury risk. Nonetheless, a complete description of muscular factors influencing ROM among individuals and between men and women is lacking. We examined whether passive muscle stiffness (evaluated by angle-specific muscle shear modulus), tolerance to muscle stretch (evaluated by muscle shear modulus at end-ROM), and muscle slack angle of the triceps surae are associated with the individual variability and sex difference in dorsiflexion ROM, using ultrasound shear wave elastography. For men, ROM was negatively correlated to passive muscle stiffness of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius in a tensioned state and positively to tolerance to muscle stretch in the medial gastrocnemius. For women, ROM was only positively correlated to tolerance to muscle stretch in all muscles but not correlated to passive muscle stiffness. Muscle slack angle was not correlated to ROM in men and women. Significant sex differences were observed only for dorsiflexion ROM and passive muscle stiffness in a tensioned state. These findings suggest that muscular factors associated with ROM are different between men and women. Furthermore, the sex difference in dorsiflexion ROM might be attributed partly to that in passive muscle stiffness of plantar flexors.

  18. Vastus lateralis and rectus femoris echo intensity fail to reflect knee extensor specific tension in middle-school boys.

    PubMed

    Mota, Jacob A; Stock, Matt S; Thompson, Brennan J

    2017-07-26

    The potential dissociation between muscle strength and size has led to interest in the ability to assess muscle quality across the lifespan. We examined the association between echo intensity and specific tension in middle-school boys. Twenty-five boys participated in this study. Sixteen (mean  ±  SD age  =  12  ±  1 years) engaged in a 16-week after-school strength and conditioning program. Nine boys (12  ±  1 years) served as controls. The program involved two 90 min sessions per week of lower-body speed, power, and resistance training. Before and after the intervention, ultrasound imaging was used to quantify vastus lateralis and rectus femoris echo intensity. Specific tension was calculated as voluntary isometric peak torque divided by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived thigh lean mass (Nm kg -1 ). The pretest echo intensity and specific tension data were not significantly correlated (r  =  0.040, p  =  0.850). Training resulted in a small mean increase in specific tension (change  =  1.93 Nm kg -1 ; d  =  0.42). The echo intensity values were not affected by training or maturation (training change  =  -1.13 arbitrary units (A.U.); control  =  0.00 A.U.). Both variables showed no interaction and no group or time main effects. The echo intensity and specific tension change scores were not correlated for all subjects (r  =  -0.080, p  =  0.705) or groups (training r  =  -0.095, p  =  0.727; control r  =  -0.004, p  =  0.992). In middle-school boys, a relationship between echo intensity and the ratio of muscle strength relative to lean mass does not exist.

  19. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems.

    PubMed

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E; Behm, David G; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key PointsCompared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation.A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity.More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation.A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS.

  20. Muscle Activation during Push-Ups with Different Suspension Training Systems

    PubMed Central

    Calatayud, Joaquin; Borreani, Sebastien; Colado, Juan C.; Martín, Fernando F; Rogers, Michael E.; Behm, David G.; Andersen, Lars L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze upper extremity and core muscle activation when performing push-ups with different suspension devices. Young fit male university students (n = 29) performed 3 push-ups each with 4 different suspension systems. Push-up speed was controlled using a metronome and testing order was randomized. Average amplitude of the electromyographic root mean square of Triceps Brachii, Upper Trapezius, Anterior Deltoid, Clavicular Pectoralis, Rectus Abdominis, Rectus Femoris, and Lumbar Erector Spinae was recorded. Electromyographic signals were normalized to the maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). Electromyographic data were analyzed with repeated-measures analysis of variance with a Bonferroni post hoc. Based upon global arithmetic mean of all muscles analyzed, the suspended push-up with a pulley system provided the greatest activity (37.76% of MVIC; p < 0.001). Individually, the suspended push-up with a pulley system also provided the greatest triceps brachii, upper trapezius, rectus femoris and erector lumbar spinae muscle activation. In contrast, more stable conditions seem more appropriate for pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles. Independent of the type of design, all suspension systems were especially effective training tools for reaching high levels of rectus abdominis activation. Key Points Compared with standard push-ups on the floor, suspended push-ups increase core muscle activation. A one-anchor system with a pulley is the best option to increase TRICEP, TRAPS, LUMB and FEM muscle activity. More stable conditions such as the standard push-up or a parallel band system provide greater increases in DELT and PEC muscle activation. A suspended push-up is an effective method to achieve high muscle activity levels in the ABS. PMID:25177174

  1. Design, development and testing of a low-cost sEMG system and its use in recording muscle activity in human gait.

    PubMed

    Supuk, Tamara Grujic; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanic; Cic, Maja

    2014-05-07

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is an important measurement technique used in biomechanical, rehabilitation and sport environments. In this article the design, development and testing of a low-cost wearable sEMG system are described. The hardware architecture consists of a two-cascade small-sized bioamplifier with a total gain of 2,000 and band-pass of 3 to 500 Hz. The sampling frequency of the system is 1,000 Hz. Since real measured EMG signals are usually corrupted by various types of noises (motion artifacts, white noise and electromagnetic noise present at 50 Hz and higher harmonics), we have tested several denoising techniques, both on artificial and measured EMG signals. Results showed that a wavelet-based technique implementing Daubechies5 wavelet and soft sqtwolog thresholding is the most appropriate for EMG signals denoising. To test the system performance, EMG activities of six dominant muscles of ten healthy subjects during gait were measured (gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, sartorius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius). The obtained EMG envelopes presented against the duration of gait cycle were compared favourably with the EMG data available in the literature, suggesting that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications in biomechanics.

  2. Design, Development and Testing of a Low-Cost sEMG System and Its Use in Recording Muscle Activity in Human Gait

    PubMed Central

    Supuk, Tamara Grujic; Skelin, Ana Kuzmanic; Cic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Surface electromyography (sEMG) is an important measurement technique used in biomechanical, rehabilitation and sport environments. In this article the design, development and testing of a low-cost wearable sEMG system are described. The hardware architecture consists of a two-cascade small-sized bioamplifier with a total gain of 2,000 and band-pass of 3 to 500 Hz. The sampling frequency of the system is 1,000 Hz. Since real measured EMG signals are usually corrupted by various types of noises (motion artifacts, white noise and electromagnetic noise present at 50 Hz and higher harmonics), we have tested several denoising techniques, both on artificial and measured EMG signals. Results showed that a wavelet—based technique implementing Daubechies5 wavelet and soft sqtwolog thresholding is the most appropriate for EMG signals denoising. To test the system performance, EMG activities of six dominant muscles of ten healthy subjects during gait were measured (gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, sartorius, rectus femoris, tibialis anterior and medial gastrocnemius). The obtained EMG envelopes presented against the duration of gait cycle were compared favourably with the EMG data available in the literature, suggesting that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications in biomechanics. PMID:24811078

  3. Muscle coordination in cycling: effect of surface incline and posture.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Caldwell, G E

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the neuromuscular modifications of cyclists to changes in grade and posture. Eight subjects were tested on a computerized ergometer under three conditions with the same work rate (250 W): pedaling on the level while seated, 8% uphill while seated, and 8% uphill while standing (ST). High-speed video was taken in conjunction with surface electromyography (EMG) of six lower extremity muscles. Results showed that rectus femoris, gluteus maximus (GM), and tibialis anterior had greater EMG magnitude in the ST condition. GM, rectus femoris, and the vastus lateralis demonstrated activity over a greater portion of the crank cycle in the ST condition. The muscle activities of gastrocnemius and biceps femoris did not exhibit profound differences among conditions. Overall, the change of cycling grade alone from 0 to 8% did not induce a significant change in neuromuscular coordination. However, the postural change from seated to ST pedaling at 8% uphill grade was accompanied by increased and/or prolonged muscle activity of hip and knee extensors. The observed EMG activity patterns were discussed with respect to lower extremity joint moments. Monoarticular extensor muscles (GM, vastus lateralis) demonstrated greater modifications in activity patterns with the change in posture compared with their biarticular counterparts. Furthermore, muscle coordination among antagonist pairs of mono- and biarticular muscles was altered in the ST condition; this finding provides support for the notion that muscles within these antagonist pairs have different functions.

  4. An investigation of the application of laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescent dye angiography in pedicle transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous breast reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Martin I; Samson, Michel C; Tamburrino, Joseph F; Swartz, Kimberly A; Brunworth, Louis

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pedicle transverse rectus abdominus myocutaneous (pTRAM) flaps remain the most common method of autologous tissue breast reconstruction. Using pTRAM flaps, complications often arise postoperatively, secondary to inadequate circulation. Tissues from distant angiosomes are associated with poorer perfusion, but this differs among patients. Many modalities have been used to reduce the risk of complications, but none have achieved widespread application. The authors believe that laser-assisted indocyanine green fluorescent dye angiography (LA-ICGA) can potentially reduce the risk of complications. METHODS: In two routine, single-pedicle, ipsilateral pTRAM flaps, LA-ICGA imaging was performed following the division of the distal rectus muscle and deep inferior epigastric pedicle. The resulting images were used to guide design of the flap and debridement. RESULTS: In case 1, good perfusion was observed in zone 1 and part of zone 2. In case 2, good perfusion was observed in zone 1 and 50% of zone 3, with little perfusion in zone 2. In both cases, tissues with poor perfusion were debrided before transfer and inset. In both patients, there were no issues with wound healing, tissue necrosis or fat necrosis. CONCLUSIONS: The variability of perfusion of the pTRAM flap among individuals is well appreciated. LA-ICGA helped to determine the limits of good perfusion and, therefore, the limits of tissue to be preserved for transfer and inset. This helped to avoid harvesting poorly perfused tissue that would have almost certainly experienced necrosis and, ultimately, would have reduced the risk of postoperative complications. PMID:22379372

  5. Acute Medial Plantar Fascia Tear.

    PubMed

    Pascoe, Stephanie C; Mazzola, Timothy J

    2016-06-01

    A 32-year-old man who participated in competitive soccer came to physical therapy via direct access for a chief complaint of plantar foot pain. The clinical examination findings and mechanism of injury raised a concern for a plantar fascia tear, so the patient was referred to the physician and magnetic resonance imaging was obtained. The magnetic resonance image confirmed a high-grade, partial-thickness, proximal plantar fascia tear with localized edema at the location of the medial band. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(6):495. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0409.

  6. Mean individual muscle activities and ratios of total muscle activities in a selective muscle strengthening experiment: the effects of lower limb muscle activity based on mediolateral slope angles during a one-leg stance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for research on selective muscle strengthening by identifying mean muscle activities and calculating muscle ratios for use in developing strengthening methods. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy volunteers were included in this study. Muscle activity was measured during a one-leg stance under 6 conditions of slope angle: 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The data used in the analysis were root mean square and % total muscle activity values. [Results] There were significant differences in the root mean square of the gluteus medius, the hamstring, and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. There were significant differences in % total muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] Future studies aimed at developing selective muscle strengthening methods are likely to yield more effective results by using muscle activity ratios based on electromyography data.

  7. Lower extremity muscle function of front row rugby union scrummaging.

    PubMed

    Yaghoubi, Mostafa; Lark, Sally D; Page, Wyatt H; Fink, Philip W; Shultz, Sarah P

    2018-05-16

    A rugby scrum's front row must act uniformly to transfer maximal horizontal force and improve performance. This study investigated the muscle activation patterns of lower extremity muscles in front row forwards during live and machine scrums at professional and amateur levels. Electromyography was collected bilaterally on vastus lateralis, rectus femoris and gastrocnemius muscles of 75 male rugby prop players during live and machine scrums. ANOVAs compared muscle reaction time, rate of change in muscle amplitude and muscle amplitude between groups and conditions. Cross-correlation analysis explored muscle synchronicity. There were significantly greater rates of change in each muscle amplitude in professional players than amateur players. Additionally, there was significantly quicker muscle reaction time in all muscles, and greater amplitude in vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius, during the live scrum vs. machine condition. The professional props produced more synchronised muscle activation than amateur players and all players produced more synchronised muscle activation against the scrum machine vs. live scrummage. The results indicate a higher skill proficiency and muscle synchronicity in professional players. While scrum machine training is ideally suited for functional muscle strengthening during practice, to truly simulate the requirements of the scrum, training should incorporate the live situation as much as possible.

  8. Effects of age and inactivity due to prolonged bed rest on atrophy of trunk muscles.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Tome; Mori, Natsuko; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of age and inactivity due to being chronically bedridden on atrophy of trunk muscles. The subjects comprised 33 young women (young group) and 41 elderly women who resided in nursing homes or chronic care institutions. The elderly subjects were divided into two groups: independent elderly group who were able to perform activities of daily living involving walking independently (n = 28) and dependent elderly group who were chronically bedridden (n = 13). The thickness of the following six trunk muscles was measured by B-mode ultrasound: the rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transversus abdominis, thoracic erector spinae (longissimus) and lumbar multifidus muscles. All muscles except for the transversus abdominis and lumbar multifidus muscles were significantly thinner in the independent elderly group compared with those in the young group. The thicknesses of all muscles in the dependent elderly group was significantly smaller than that in the young group, whereas there were no differences between the dependent elderly and independent elderly groups in the muscle thicknesses of the rectus abdominis and internal oblique muscles. In conclusion, our results suggest that: (1) age-related atrophy compared with young women was less in the deep antigravity trunk muscles than the superficial muscles in the independent elderly women; (2) atrophy associated with chronic bed rest was more marked in the antigravity muscles, such as the back and transversus abdominis.

  9. The Anatomy of the Medial Patellofemoral Complex.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Miho J

    2017-06-01

    The term "medial patellofemoral complex" (MPFC) was proposed to describe the static medial stabilizer of the patella, typically referred to as the medial patellofemoral ligament. In light of our increasing understanding of the attachment of its fibers to the quadriceps tendon in addition to the patella, the term MPFC is used in this article. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss the anatomy of the MPFC.

  10. Outcome of medial hamstring lengthening in children with spastic paresis: A biomechanical and morphological observational study

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Richard T.; Rutz, Erich; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A.; Witbreuk, Melinda M.; van Hutten, Kim; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Becher, Jules G.

    2018-01-01

    To improve gait in children with spastic paresis due to cerebral palsy or hereditary spastic paresis, the semitendinosus muscle is frequently lengthened amongst other medial hamstring muscles by orthopaedic surgery. Side effects on gait due to weakening of the hamstring muscles and overcorrections have been reported. How these side effects relate to semitendinosus morphology is unknown. This study assessed the effects of bilateral medial hamstring lengthening as part of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) on (1) knee joint mechanics (2) semitendinosus muscle morphology and (3) gait kinematics. All variables were assessed for the right side only. Six children with spastic paresis selected for surgery to counteract limited knee range of motion were measured before and about a year after surgery. After surgery, in most subjects popliteal angle decreased and knee moment-angle curves were shifted towards a more extended knee joint, semitendinosus muscle belly length was approximately 30% decreased, while at all assessed knee angles tendon length was increased by about 80%. In the majority of children muscle volume of the semitendinosus muscle decreased substantially suggesting a reduction of physiological cross-sectional area. Gait kinematics showed more knee extension during stance (mean change ± standard deviation: 34±13°), but also increased pelvic anterior tilt (mean change ± standard deviation: 23±5°). In most subjects, surgical lengthening of semitendinosus tendon contributed to more extended knee joint angle during static measurements as well as during gait, whereas extensibility of semitendinosus muscle belly was decreased. Post-surgical treatment to maintain muscle belly length and physiological cross-sectional area may improve treatment outcome of medial hamstring lengthening. PMID:29408925

  11. Outcome of medial hamstring lengthening in children with spastic paresis: A biomechanical and morphological observational study.

    PubMed

    Haberfehlner, Helga; Jaspers, Richard T; Rutz, Erich; Harlaar, Jaap; van der Sluijs, Johannes A; Witbreuk, Melinda M; van Hutten, Kim; Romkes, Jacqueline; Freslier, Marie; Brunner, Reinald; Becher, Jules G; Maas, Huub; Buizer, Annemieke I

    2018-01-01

    To improve gait in children with spastic paresis due to cerebral palsy or hereditary spastic paresis, the semitendinosus muscle is frequently lengthened amongst other medial hamstring muscles by orthopaedic surgery. Side effects on gait due to weakening of the hamstring muscles and overcorrections have been reported. How these side effects relate to semitendinosus morphology is unknown. This study assessed the effects of bilateral medial hamstring lengthening as part of single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) on (1) knee joint mechanics (2) semitendinosus muscle morphology and (3) gait kinematics. All variables were assessed for the right side only. Six children with spastic paresis selected for surgery to counteract limited knee range of motion were measured before and about a year after surgery. After surgery, in most subjects popliteal angle decreased and knee moment-angle curves were shifted towards a more extended knee joint, semitendinosus muscle belly length was approximately 30% decreased, while at all assessed knee angles tendon length was increased by about 80%. In the majority of children muscle volume of the semitendinosus muscle decreased substantially suggesting a reduction of physiological cross-sectional area. Gait kinematics showed more knee extension during stance (mean change ± standard deviation: 34±13°), but also increased pelvic anterior tilt (mean change ± standard deviation: 23±5°). In most subjects, surgical lengthening of semitendinosus tendon contributed to more extended knee joint angle during static measurements as well as during gait, whereas extensibility of semitendinosus muscle belly was decreased. Post-surgical treatment to maintain muscle belly length and physiological cross-sectional area may improve treatment outcome of medial hamstring lengthening.

  12. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Tissues Compatible with Supernumerary Extraocular Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Khitri, Monica R.; Demer, Joseph L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE To determine by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the prevalence and anatomy of anomalous EOM bands. DESIGN Prospective, observational case series. METHODS High resolution, multi-positional, surface coil orbital MRI was performed using T1 or T2 fast spin echo weighting with target fixation control under a prospective protocol in normal adult subjects and a diverse group of strabismic patients between 1996 and 2009. Images demonstrating anomalous EOM bands were analyzed digitally to evaluate their sizes and paths, correlating findings with complete ophthalmic and motility examinations. RESULTS Among 118 orthotropic and 453 strabismic subjects, one (0.8%) orthotropic and 11 (2.4%) strabismic subjects exhibited unilateral or bilateral orbital bands having MRI signal characteristics identical to EOM. Most bands occurred without other EOM dysplasia and coursed in the retrobulbar space between rectus EOMs such as medial (MR) to lateral rectus (LR), or superior (SR) to inferior rectus (IR), or from one EOM to the globe. In two cases, horizontal bands from MR to LR immediately posterior to the globe apparently limited supraduction by collision with the optic nerve. All bands were too deep to be approached via conventional strabismus surgical approaches. CONCLUSIONS About 2% of humans exhibit on MRI deep orbital bands consistent with supernumerary EOMs. While band anatomy is non-oculorotary, some bands may cause restrictive strabismus. PMID:20801423

  13. Phase reversal of biomechanical functions and muscle activity in backward pedaling.

    PubMed

    Ting, L H; Kautz, S A; Brown, D A; Zajac, F E

    1999-02-01

    Computer simulations of pedaling have shown that a wide range of pedaling tasks can be performed if each limb has the capability of executing six biomechanical functions, which are arranged into three pairs of alternating antagonistic functions. An Ext/Flex pair accelerates the limb into extension or flexion, a Plant/Dorsi pair accelerates the foot into plantarflexion or dorsiflexion, and an Ant/Post pair accelerates the foot anteriorly or posteriorly relative to the pelvis. Because each biomechanical function (i.e., Ext, Flex, Plant, Dorsi, Ant, or Post) contributes to crank propulsion during a specific region in the cycle, phasing of a muscle is hypothesized to be a consequence of its ability to contribute to one or more of the biomechanical functions. Analysis of electromyogram (EMG) patterns has shown that this biomechanical framework assists in the interpretation of muscle activity in healthy and hemiparetic subjects during forward pedaling. Simulations show that backward pedaling can be produced with a phase shift of 180 degrees in the Ant/Post pair. No phase shifts in the Ext/Flex and Plant/Dorsi pairs are then necessary. To further test whether this simple yet biomechanically viable strategy may be used by the nervous system, EMGs from 7 muscles in 16 subjects were measured during backward as well as forward pedaling. As predicted, phasing in vastus medialis (VM), tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and soleus (SL) were unaffected by pedaling direction, with VM and SL contributing to Ext, MG to Plant, and TA to Dorsi. In contrast, phasing in biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) were affected by pedaling direction, as predicted, compatible with their contribution to the directionally sensitive Post function. Phasing of rectus femoris (RF) was also affected by pedaling direction; however, its ability to contribute to the directionally sensitive Ant function may only be expressed in forward pedaling. RF also contributed significantly to

  14. Lower limb muscle activity during forefoot and rearfoot strike running techniques.

    PubMed

    Landreneau, Lindsey L; Watts, Kayla; Heitzman, Jill E; Childers, W Lee

    2014-12-01

    Distance running offers a method to improve fitness but also has a risk of lower limb overuse injuries. Foot strike technique has been suggested as a method to alter loading of the lower limb and possibly minimize injury risk. However, there is a dearth of information regarding neuromuscular response to variations in running techniques. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the EMG activity that occurs during FFS running and RFS running, focusing on the biceps femoris, semitendenosis, rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, tibialis anterior (TA), medial head of gastrocnemeus (MGas), lateral head of gastrocnemius (LGas), and soleus. healthy adults (6 male, 8 female; age, 24.2 ± 0.8 years, height 170.1 ± 7.8 cm; mass 69.8 ±10.9 kg; Body Mass Index 24.1 ± 3.0 kg·m2) participated in the study. All participants performed a RFS and FFS running trial at 8.85 kph. A 3D motion capture system was used to collect kinematic data and electromyography was used to define muscle activity. Two-tailed paired t-tests were used to examine differences in outcomes between RFS and FFS conditions. The ankle was significantly more plantarflexed during FFS running (p = .0001) but there were no significant differences in knee and hip angles (p = .618 & .200, respectively). There was significantly less activity in tibialis anterior (TA) (p < .0001) and greater activity in the MGas (p= .020) during FFS running. The LGas and soleus did not change activity (p = .437 & .490, respectively). FFS running demonstrated lower muscular activity in the TA and increased activation in the MGas. FFS and RFS running have the potential to off-load injury prone tissues by changing between techniques. However, future studies will be necessary to establish more direct mechanistic connections between running technique and injury.

  15. Gait patterns and muscle activity in the lower extremities of elderly women during underwater treadmill walking against water flow.

    PubMed

    Shono, Tomoki; Masumoto, Kenji; Fujishima, Kazutaka; Hotta, Noboru; Ogaki, Tetsuro; Adachi, Takahiro

    2007-11-01

    This study sought to determine the characteristics of gait patterns and muscle activity in the lower extremities of elderly women during underwater treadmill walking against water flow. Eight female subjects (61.4+/-3.9 y) performed underwater and land treadmill walking at varying exercise intensities and velocities. During underwater walking (water level at the xiphoid process) using the Flowmill, which has a treadmill at the base of a water flume, the simultaneous belt and water flow velocities were set to 20, 30 and 4 m.min(-1). Land walking velocities were set to 40, 60 and 80 m.min(-1). Oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured during both walking exercises. Maximum and minimum knee joint angles, and mean angular velocities of knee extension and knee flexion in the swing phase were calculated using two-dimensional motion analysis. Electromyograms were recorded using bipolar surface electrodes for five muscles: the tibialis anterior (TA), medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus medialis (VM), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF). At the same exercise intensity level, cadence was almost half that on land. Step length did not differ significantly because velocity was halved. Compared to land walking, the maximum and minimum knee joint angles were significantly smaller and the mean angular velocity of knee extension was significantly lower. Knee extension in the swing phase was limited by water resistance. While the muscle activity levels of TA, VM and BF were almost the same as during land walking, those of MG and RF were lower. At the same velocity, exercise intensity was significantly higher than during land walking, cadence was significantly lower, and step length significantly larger. The knee joint showed significantly smaller maximum and minimum angles, and the mean angular velocity of knee flexion was significantly larger. The muscle activity levels of TA, VM, and BF increased significantly in comparison with land walking, although those of MG and RF did

  16. Jaw muscles in older overdenture patients.

    PubMed

    Newton, James P; McManus, Frank C; Menhenick, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    To determine, using computer tomography (CT), whether the retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures could affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles. Cross-sectional study of a group of older patients subdivided into dentate, edentulous and those wearing overdentures supported by two to five teeth. The sample consisted of 24 subjects aged 55-68 years. CSA and X-ray density of two jaw closing muscles, masseter and medial pterygoid were measured and evaluated using CT. There were no significant differences between left and right jaw muscles, but the CSA of the masseter muscles were significantly larger than the medial pterygoid muscles. The CSA of the masseter and medial pterygoid muscles was significantly smaller in edentulous subjects compared with dentate subjects but no significant difference was observed between subjects wearing overdentures and those with a natural dentition. No significant differences were observed with the X-ray density between different muscles or dental states. The retention of a small number of teeth in the older adult used to support overdentures appears to sustain the CSA of two jaw closing muscles and therefore could enhance these patients' masticatory ability compared with those who were edentulous.

  17. Outside-In Deep Medial Collateral Ligament Release During Arthroscopic Medial Meniscus Surgery.

    PubMed

    Todor, Adrian; Caterev, Sergiu; Nistor, Dan Viorel

    2016-08-01

    Arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy is a very common orthopaedic procedure performed for symptomatic, irreparable meniscus tears. It is usually associated with a very good outcome and minimal complications. In some patients with tight medial compartment, the posterior horn of the medial meniscus can be difficult to visualize, and access in this area with instruments may be challenging. To increase the opening of the medial compartment, after valgus-extension stress position of the knee, different techniques of deep medial collateral ligament release have been described. The outside-in pie-crusting technique shown in this technical note has documented effectiveness and good outcomes with minimal or no morbidity.

  18. Medial Patella Subluxation: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Mark A.; Bollier, Mathew J.

    2015-01-01

    Medial patella subluxation is a disabling condition typically associated with previous patellofemoral instability surgery. Patients often describe achy pain with painful popping episodes. They often report that the patella shifts laterally, which occurs as the medial subluxed patella dramatically shifts into the trochlear groove during early knee flexion. Physical examination is diagnostic with a positive medial subluxation test. Nonoperative treatment, such as focused physical therapy and patellofemoral stabilizing brace, is often unsuccessful. Primary surgical options include lateral retinacular repair/imbrication or lateral reconstruction. Prevention is key to avoid medial patella subluxation. When considering patellofemoral surgery, important factors include appropriate lateral release indications, consideration of lateral retinacular lengthening vs release, correct MPFL graft placement and tension, and avoiding excessive medialization during tubercle transfer. This review article will analyze patient symptoms, diagnostic exam findings and appropriate treatment options, as well as pearls to avoid this painful clinical entity. PMID:26361441

  19. Biomechanical Analysis of Tasks Involving Manual Materials Handling.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-02-01

    training program designed to relax, limber and tone abdominal and back muscles in order to reduce back pain (Galton, 1978). The importance of training and...in arbitrary units for each incre- mental time period were collected on two muscles: medial deltoid and rectus femoris, quadriceps. The main functions...FACTORS 2 I II h* III IV V ti. Rectus Femoris .20 .11 .05 .09 .00 .00 .01 Medial Deltoid .08 -.02 .01 .20 .02 .01 .04 Frontal Force -.34 -.22 .16 .21

  20. Muscle force output and electromyographic activity in squats with various unstable surfaces.

    PubMed

    Saeterbakken, Atle H; Fimland, Marius S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare force output and muscle activity of leg and trunk muscles in isometric squats executed on stable surface (i.e., floor), power board, BOSU ball, and balance cone. Fifteen healthy men (23.3 ± 2.7 years, mass: 80.5 ± 8.5 kg, height: 1.81 ± 0.09 m) volunteered. The force output and electromyographic (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, soleus, rectus abdominis, oblique external, and erector spinae were assessed. The order of the surfaces was randomized. One familiarization session was executed before the experimental test. Compared with stable surface (749 ± 222 N), the force output using power board was similar (-7%, p = 0.320) but lower for BOSU ball (-19%, p = 0.003) and balance cone (-24%, p ≤ 0.001). The force output using BOSU ball and balance cone was approximately 13% (p = 0.037) and approximately 18% (p = 0.001) less than the power board. There were similar EMG activities between the surfaces in all muscles except for rectus femoris, in which stable squat provided greater EMG activity than did the other exercises (p = 0.004-0.030). Lower EMG activity was observed in the rectus femoris using balance cone compared with the BOSU ball (p = 0.030). In conclusion, increasing the instability of the surface during maximum effort isometric squats usually maintains the muscle activity of lower-limb and superficial trunk muscles although the force output is reduced. This suggests that unstable surfaces in the squat may be beneficial in rehabilitation and as a part of periodized training programs, because similar muscle activity can be achieved with reduced loads.

  1. Influence of exercise training on the oxidative capacity of rat abdominal muscles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uribe, J. M.; Stump, C. S.; Tipton, C. M.; Fregosi, R. F.

    1992-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine if endurance exercise training would increase the oxidative capacity of the abdominal expiratory muscles of the rat. Accordingly, 9 male rats were subjected to an endurance training protocol (1 h/day, 6 days/week, 9 weeks) and 9 litter-mates served as controls. Citrate synthase (CS) activity was used as an index of oxidative capacity, and was determined in the following muscles: soleus, plantaris, costal diaphragm, crural diaphragm, and in all four abdominal muscles: rectus abdominis, transversus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique. Compared to their non-trained litter-mates, the trained rats had higher peak whole body oxygen consumption rates (+ 16%) and CS activities in plantaris (+34%) and soleus (+36%) muscles. Thus, the training program caused substantial systemic and locomotor muscle adaptations. The CS activity of costal diaphragm was 20% greater in the trained animals, but no difference was observed in crural diaphragm. The CS activity in the abdominal muscles was less than one-half of that in locomotor and diaphragm muscles, and there were no significant changes with training except in the rectus abdominis where a 26% increase was observed. The increase in rectus abdominis CS activity may reflect its role in postural support and/or locomotion, as none of the primary expiratory pumping muscles adapted to the training protocol. The relatively low levels of CS activity in the abdominal muscles suggests that they are not recruited frequently at rest, and the lack of an increase with training indicates that these muscles do not contribute significantly to the increased ventilatory activity accompanying exercise in the rat.

  2. Somitic origin of the medial border of the mammalian scapula and its homology to the avian scapula blade.

    PubMed

    Valasek, Petr; Theis, Susanne; Krejci, Eliska; Grim, Milos; Maina, Flavio; Shwartz, Yulia; Otto, Anthony; Huang, Ruijin; Patel, Ketan

    2010-04-01

    The scapula is the main skeletal element of the pectoral girdle allowing muscular fixation of the forelimb to the axial skeleton. The vertebrate limb skeleton has traditionally been considered to develop from the lateral plate mesoderm, whereas the musculature originates from the axial somites. However, in birds, the scapular blade has been shown to develop from the somites. We investigated whether a somitic contribution was also present in the mammalian scapula. Using genetic lineage-tracing techniques, we show that the medial border of the mammalian scapula develops from somitic cells. The medial scapula border serves as the attachment site of girdle muscles (serratus anterior, rhomboidei and levator scapulae). We show that the development of these muscles is independent of the mechanism that controls the formation of all other limb muscles. We suggest that these muscles be specifically referred to as medial girdle muscles. Our results establish the avian scapular blade and medial border of the mammalian scapula as homologous structures as they share the same developmental origin.

  3. Somitic origin of the medial border of the mammalian scapula and its homology to the avian scapula blade

    PubMed Central

    Valasek, Petr; Theis, Susanne; Krejci, Eliska; Grim, Milos; Maina, Flavio; Shwartz, Yulia; Otto, Anthony; Huang, Ruijin; Patel, Ketan

    2010-01-01

    The scapula is the main skeletal element of the pectoral girdle allowing muscular fixation of the forelimb to the axial skeleton. The vertebrate limb skeleton has traditionally been considered to develop from the lateral plate mesoderm, whereas the musculature originates from the axial somites. However, in birds, the scapular blade has been shown to develop from the somites. We investigated whether a somitic contribution was also present in the mammalian scapula. Using genetic lineage-tracing techniques, we show that the medial border of the mammalian scapula develops from somitic cells. The medial scapula border serves as the attachment site of girdle muscles (serratus anterior, rhomboidei and levator scapulae). We show that the development of these muscles is independent of the mechanism that controls the formation of all other limb muscles. We suggest that these muscles be specifically referred to as medial girdle muscles. Our results establish the avian scapular blade and medial border of the mammalian scapula as homologous structures as they share the same developmental origin. PMID:20136669

  4. Reconstruction of total pelvic exenteration defects with rectus abdominus myocutaneous flaps versus primary closure.

    PubMed

    Chokshi, Ravi J; Kuhrt, Maureen P; Arrese, David; Martin, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Total pelvic exenteration (TPE) is reserved for patients with locally invasive and recurrent pelvic malignancies. Complications such as wound infections, dehiscence, hernias, abscesses, and fistulas are common after this procedure. The purpose of this study was to determine whether tissue transfer to the pelvis after TPE decreases wound complications. Fifty-three patients who underwent TPE between 2004 and 2010 were reviewed. Two groups were identified, those who underwent pelvic reconstruction with a vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap (n = 17) and those who underwent primary closure (n = 36). Demographics, clinicopathologic characteristics, and outcomes were compared. The 2 groups were similar in demographics and histopathologic characteristics. Preoperative and surgical factors including comorbidities, nutrition, radiation, surgical times, blood loss, length of stay, and complications were similar between the groups. Of the 17 patients undergoing vertical rectus abdominus myocutaneous flap placement, complications were seen in 11 patients (65%), with most of them stemming from flap dehiscence (n = 7). In our study, the transfer of tissue into the pelvis did not increase surgical times, blood loss, length of stay, or wound complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of rectus sheath catheters for pain relief in patients undergoing major pelvic urological surgery.

    PubMed

    Dutton, Thomas J; McGrath, John S; Daugherty, Mark O

    2014-02-01

    To report on the safety and efficacy of rectus sheath blocks, 'topped-up' using bilateral rectus sheath catheters (RSCs), in patients undergoing major open urological surgery. The RSCs were inserted under ultrasound guidance into 200 patients between April 2008 and August 2011, of whom 106 patients underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) and 94 underwent open radical cystectomy (ORC). A retrospective case-note review was undertaken. Outcomes included technical success and complication rates of the insertion and use of RSC, visual analogue pain scores, additional analgesia requirements and length of hospital stay (LOS). All RSCs were successfully placed without complication and used for a mean of 3.6 days for ORC and 2.1 days for RRP. Early removal occurred in 6.49% of patients. Low overall pain scores were reported in both groups. Patients were more likely to require a patient-controlled analgesia system in the ORC group but the overall need for additional analgesia was low in both groups, reducing significantly after the initial 24 h. In combination with an enhanced recovery programme, LOS reduced from 17.0 to 10.8 days in the ORC group and from 6.2 to 2.8 days in the RRP group. The use of RSCs appears to offer an effective and safe method of peri-operative analgesia in patients undergoing major open urological pelvic surgery. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  6. Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma in a deceased donor renal transplant recipient: a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Sreenivas, Jayaram; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; SampathKumar, Nathee; Umesha, Lingaraju

    2016-02-04

    Rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) is rarely thought of as a cause of abdominal pain in renal transplant recipients. A 36-year-old woman, a post-deceased donor renal allograft transplant recipient for chronic interstitial nephritis, on triple drug immunosuppression (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone) with basiliximab induction, developed acute vascular rejection and acute tubular injury with suspected antibody-mediated rejection. While on plasmapheresis and haemodialysis for delayed graft function, she developed acute left lower abdominal pain on the 16th postoperative day with tender swelling in the left paraumbilical region. CT of the abdomen showed a large haematoma in the left rectus sheath with no extension. The patient underwent haematoma evacuation through a left paramedian incision and had an uneventful recovery. Serum creatinine stabilised at 0.8 mg/dL and she is on regular follow-up with excellent graft function at 6 months. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, and prompt treatment prevents morbidity and can expedite patient recovery. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Novel technique of abdominal wall nerve block for laparoscopic colostomy: Rectus sheath block with transperitoneal approach.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Sawatsubashi, Yusuke; Akiyama, Masaki; Arase, Koichi; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Hamada, Kotaro; Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Hirata, Keiji

    2017-08-27

    A 62-year-old man who had acute rectal obstruction due to a large rectal cancer is presented. He underwent emergency laparoscopic colostomy. We used the laparoscopic puncture needle to inject analgesia with the novel transperitoneal approach. In this procedure, both ultrasound and laparoscopic images assisted with the accurate injection of analgesic to the correct layer. The combination of laparoscopic visualization and ultrasound imaging ensured infiltration of analgesic into the correct layer without causing damage to the bowel. Twenty-four hours postoperatively, the patient's pain intensity as assessed by the numeric rating scale was 0-1 during coughing, and a continuous intravenous analgesic was not needed. Colostomy is often necessary in colon obstruction. Epidural anesthesia for postoperative pain cannot be used in patients with a coagulation disorder. We report the use of a novel laparoscopic rectus sheath block for colostomy. There has been no literature described about the nerve block with transperitoneal approach. The laparoscopic rectus sheath block was performed safely and had enough analgesic efficacy for postoperative pain. This technique could be considered as an optional anesthetic regimen in acute situations.

  8. Spontaneous rectus sheath haematoma in a deceased donor renal transplant recipient: a rare complication

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivas, Jayaram; Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; SampathKumar, Nathee; Umesha, Lingaraju

    2016-01-01

    Rectus sheath haematoma (RSH) is rarely thought of as a cause of abdominal pain in renal transplant recipients. A 36-year-old woman, a post-deceased donor renal allograft transplant recipient for chronic interstitial nephritis, on triple drug immunosuppression (tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone) with basiliximab induction, developed acute vascular rejection and acute tubular injury with suspected antibody-mediated rejection. While on plasmapheresis and haemodialysis for delayed graft function, she developed acute left lower abdominal pain on the 16th postoperative day with tender swelling in the left paraumbilical region. CT of the abdomen showed a large haematoma in the left rectus sheath with no extension. The patient underwent haematoma evacuation through a left paramedian incision and had an uneventful recovery. Serum creatinine stabilised at 0.8 mg/dL and she is on regular follow-up with excellent graft function at 6 months. Diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion, and prompt treatment prevents morbidity and can expedite patient recovery. PMID:26847807

  9. Levator Ani Muscle Stretch Induced by Simulated Vaginal Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Kuo-Cheng; Mooney, Brian; DeLancey, John O. L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a three-dimensional computer model to predict levator ani muscle stretch during vaginal birth. METHODS: Serial magnetic resonance images from a healthy nulliparous 34-year-old woman, published anatomic data, and engineering graphics software were used to construct a structural model of the levator ani muscles along with related passive tissues. The model was used to quantify pelvic floor muscle stretch induced during the second stage of labor as a model fetal head progressively engaged and then stretched the iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles. RESULTS: The largest tissue strain reached a stretch ratio (tissue length under stretch/original tissue length) of 3.26 in medial pubococcygeus muscle, the shortest, most medial and ventral levator ani muscle. Regions of the ileococcygeus, pubococcygeus, and puborectalis muscles reached maximal stretch ratios of 2.73, 2.50, and 2.28, respectively. Tissue stretch ratios were proportional to fetal head size: For example, increasing fetal head diameter by 9% increased medial pubococcygeus stretch by the same amount. CONCLUSION: The medial pubococcygeus muscles undergo the largest stretch of any levator ani muscles during vaginal birth. They are therefore at the greatest risk for stretch-related injury. PMID:14704241

  10. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy breaking new frontiers.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjeev; Gopinath, M

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopy has changed the perspective of rhinologist towards the nose. It has revolutionised the surgical management of sinonasal disorders. Sinus surgeries were the first to get the benefit of endoscope. Gradually the domain of endoscopic surgery extended to the management of sino nasal tumours. Traditionally medial maxillectomy was performed through lateral rhinotomy or mid facial degloving approach. Endoscopic medial maxillectomy has been advocated by a number of authors in the management of benign sino-nasal tumours. We present our experience of endoscopic medial maxillectomy in the management of sinonasal pathologies.

  11. Complex Medial Meniscus Tears Are Associated With a Biconcave Medial Tibial Plateau.

    PubMed

    Barber, F Alan; Getelman, Mark H; Berry, Kathy L

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether an association exists between a biconcave medial tibial plateau and complex medial meniscus tears. A consecutive series of stable knees undergoing arthroscopy were evaluated retrospectively with the use of preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), radiographs, and arthroscopy documented by intraoperative videos. Investigators independently performed blinded reviews of the MRI or videos. Based on the arthroscopy findings, medial tibial plateaus were classified as either biconcave or not biconcave. A transverse coronal plane ridge, separating the front of the tibial plateau from the back near the inner margin of the posterior body of the medial meniscus, was defined as biconcave. The medial plateau slope was calculated with MRI sagittal views. General demographic information, body mass index, and arthroscopically confirmed knee pathology were recorded. A total of 179 consecutive knees were studied from July 2014 through August 2015; 49 (27.2%) biconcave medial tibial plateaus and 130 (72.8%) controls were identified at arthroscopy. Complex medial meniscus tears were found in 103. Patients with a biconcave medial tibial plateau were found to have more complex medial meniscus tears (69.4%) than those without a biconcavity (53.1%) (P = .049) despite having lower body mass index (P = .020). No difference in medial tibial plateau slope was observed for biconcavities involving both cartilage and bone, bone only, or an indeterminate group (P = .47). Biconcave medial tibial plateaus were present in 27.4% of a consecutive series of patients undergoing knee arthroscopy. A biconcave medial tibial plateau was more frequently associated with a complex medial meniscus tear. Level III, case-control study. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises

    PubMed Central

    Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. Design and Setting: 2 × 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. Subjects: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. Measurements: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90° without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. Results: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. Conclusions: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles. PMID:15085209

  13. Surface Electromyographic Activity of the Abdominal Muscles During Pelvic-Tilt and Abdominal-Hollowing Exercises.

    PubMed

    Drysdale, Cheri L.; Earl, Jennifer E.; Hertel, Jay

    2004-03-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate surface electromyographic (EMG) activity of the rectus abdominus and external oblique abdominus muscles during pelvic-tilt and abdominal-hollowing exercises performed in different positions. DESIGN AND SETTING: 2 x 3 (exercise by position) within-subjects design with repeated measures on both factors. All testing was performed in a university laboratory. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six healthy, active young adult females. MEASUREMENTS: Surface EMG activity was recorded from the left and right rectus abdominus and external oblique muscles while the 2 exercises (pelvic tilt and abdominal hollowing) were performed in different positions (standard, legs supported, and legs unsupported). The standard position was supine in the crook-lying position, the supported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees and legs supported on a platform, and the unsupported position was with hips and knees flexed to 90 degrees without external support. Peak EMG activity was normalized to a maximum voluntary isometric contraction for each muscle. RESULTS: For the rectus abdominus, there was an interaction between position and activity. Abdominal hollowing produced significantly less activity than the pelvic tilt in all positions. The difference between the 2 exercises with the legs unsupported was of a greater magnitude than the other 2 positions. For the external obliques, there was significantly lower activity during the abdominal hollowing compared with the pelvic tilting. The greatest muscle activity occurred with the legs-unsupported position during both exercises. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal-hollowing exercises produced less rectus abdominus and external oblique activity than pelvic-tilting exercises. Abdominal hollowing may be performed with minimal activation of the large global abdominal muscles.

  14. The influence of muscles on knee flexion during the swing phase of gait.

    PubMed

    Piazza, S J; Delp, S L

    1996-06-01

    Although the movement of the leg during swing phase is often compared to the unforced motion of a compound pendulum, the muscles of the leg are active during swing and presumably influence its motion. To examine the roles of muscles in determining swing phase knee flexion, we developed a muscle-actuated forward dynamic simulation of the swing phase of normal gait. Joint angles and angular velocities at toe-off were derived from experimental measurements, as were pelvis motions and muscle excitations. Joint angles and joint moments resulting from the simulation corresponded to experimental measurements made during normal gait. Muscular joint moments and initial joint angular velocities were altered to determine the effects of each upon peak knee flexion in swing phase. As expected, the simulation demonstrated that either increasing knee extension moment or decreasing toe-off knee flexion velocity decreased peak knee flexion. Decreasing hip flexion moment or increasing toe-off hip flexion velocity also caused substantial decreases in peak knee flexion. The rectus femoris muscle played an important role in regulating knee flexion; removal of the rectus femoris actuator from the model resulted in hyperflexion of the knee, whereas an increase in the excitation input to the rectus femoris actuator reduced knee flexion. These findings confirm that reduced knee flexion during the swing phase (stiff-knee gait) may be caused by overactivity of the rectus femoris. The simulations also suggest that weakened hip flexors and stance phase factors that determine the angular velocities of the knee and hip at toe-off may be responsible for decreased knee flexion during swing phase.

  15. Muscle glucose metabolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    PubMed

    Sancho-Muñoz, Antonio; Trampal, Carlos; Pascual, Sergi; Martínez-Llorens, Juana; Chalela, Roberto; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Muscle dysfunction is one of the most extensively studied manifestations of COPD. Metabolic changes in muscle are difficult to study in vivo, due to the lack of non-invasive techniques. Our aim was to evaluate metabolic activity simultaneously in various muscle groups in COPD patients. Thirty-nine COPD patients and 21 controls with normal lung function, due to undergo computed axial and positron emission tomography for staging of localized lung lesions were included. After administration of 18-fluordeoxyglucose, images of 2 respiratory muscles (costal and crural diaphragm, and rectus abdominus) and 2 peripheral muscles (brachial biceps and quadriceps) were obtained, using the standard uptake value as the glucose metabolism index. Standard uptake value was higher in both portions of the diaphragm than in the other muscles of all subjects. Moreover, the crural diaphragm and rectus abdominus showed greater activity in COPD patients than in the controls (1.8±0.7 vs 1.4±0.8; and 0.78±0.2 vs 0.58±0.1; respectively, P<.05). A similar trend was observed with the quadriceps. In COPD patients, uptake in the two respiratory muscles and the quadriceps correlated directly with air trapping (r=0.388, 0.427 and 0.361, respectively, P<.05). There is greater glucose uptake and metabolism in the human diaphragm compared to other muscles when the subject is at rest. Increased glucose metabolism in the respiratory muscles (with a similar trend in their quadriceps) of COPD patients is confirmed quantitatively, and is directly related to the mechanical loads confronted. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  17. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  18. Modulating Phonation Through Alteration of Vocal Fold Medial Surface Contour

    PubMed Central

    Mau, Ted; Muhlestein, Joseph; Callahan, Sean; Chan, Roger W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1. To test whether alteration of the vocal fold medial surface contour can improve phonation. 2. To demonstrate that implant material properties affect vibration even when implant is deep to the vocal fold lamina propria. Study Design Induced phonation of excised human larynges. Methods Thirteen larynges were harvested within 24 hours post-mortem. Phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and flow (PTF) were measured before and after vocal fold injections using either calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA) or hyaluronic acid (HA). Small-volume injections (median 0.0625 mL) were targeted to the infero-medial aspect of the thyroarytenoid (TA) muscle. Implant locations were assessed histologically. Results The effect of implantation on PTP was material-dependent. CaHA tended to increase PTP, whereas HA tended to decrease PTP (Wilcoxon test P = 0.00013 for onset). In contrast, the effect of implantation on PTF was similar, with both materials tending to decrease PTF (P = 0.16 for onset). Histology confirmed implant presence in the inferior half of the vocal fold vertical thickness. Conclusions Taken together, these data suggested the implants may have altered the vocal fold medial surface contour, potentially resulting in a less convergent or more rectangular glottal geometry as a means to improve phonation. An implant with a closer viscoelastic match to vocal fold cover is desirable for this purpose, as material properties can affect vibration even when the implant is not placed within the lamina propria. This result is consistent with theoretical predictions and implies greater need for surgical precision in implant placement and care in material selection. PMID:22865592

  19. Trunk muscle activity during bridging exercises on and off a Swissball

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J; Hoda, Wajid; Oliver, Steven

    2005-01-01

    Background A Swiss ball is often incorporated into trunk strengthening programs for injury rehabilitation and performance conditioning. It is often assumed that the use of a Swiss ball increases trunk muscle activity. The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of a Swiss ball to trunk bridging exercises influences trunk muscle activity. Methods Surface electrodes recorded the myoelectric activity of trunk muscles during bridging exercises. Bridging exercises were performed on the floor as well as on a labile surface (Swiss ball). Results and Discussion During the prone bridge the addition of an exercise ball resulted in increased myoelectric activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique. The internal oblique and erector spinae were not influenced. The addition of a swiss ball during supine bridging did not influence trunk muscle activity for any muscles studied. Conclusion The addition of a Swiss ball is capable of influencing trunk muscle activity in the rectus abdominis and external oblique musculature during prone bridge exercises. Modifying common bridging exercises can influence the amount of trunk muscle activity, suggesting that exercise routines can be designed to maximize or minimize trunk muscle exertion depending on the needs of the exercise population. PMID:16053529

  20. The Effect of Muscle Direction on the Predictions of Finite Element Model of Human Lumbar Spine

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-peng; Pei, Xiao-long

    2018-01-01

    The normal physiological loads from muscles experienced by the spine are largely unknown due to a lack of data. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of varying muscle directions on the outcomes predicted from finite element models of human lumbar spine. A nonlinear finite element model of L3–L5 was employed. The force of the erector spinae muscle, the force of the rectus abdominis muscle, follower loads, and upper body weight were applied. The model was fixed in a neural standing position and the direction of the force of the erector spinae muscle and rectus abdominis muscle was varied in three directions. The intradiscal pressure, reaction moments, and intervertebral rotations were calculated. The intradiscal pressure of L4-L5 was 0.56–0.57 MPa, which agrees with the in vivo pressure of 0.5 MPa from the literatures. The models with the erector spinae muscle loaded in anterior-oblique direction showed the smallest reaction moments (less than 0.6 Nm) and intervertebral rotations of L3-L4 and L4-L5 (less than 0.2 degrees). In comparison with loading in the vertical direction and posterior-oblique direction, the erector spinae muscle loaded in the anterior-oblique direction required lower external force or moment to keep the lumbar spine in the neutral position. PMID:29511680

  1. The Effect of Muscle Direction on the Predictions of Finite Element Model of Human Lumbar Spine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Rui; Niu, Wen-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Pei, Xiao-Long; He, Bin; Zeng, Zhi-Li; Cheng, Li-Ming

    2018-01-01

    The normal physiological loads from muscles experienced by the spine are largely unknown due to a lack of data. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of varying muscle directions on the outcomes predicted from finite element models of human lumbar spine. A nonlinear finite element model of L3-L5 was employed. The force of the erector spinae muscle, the force of the rectus abdominis muscle, follower loads, and upper body weight were applied. The model was fixed in a neural standing position and the direction of the force of the erector spinae muscle and rectus abdominis muscle was varied in three directions. The intradiscal pressure, reaction moments, and intervertebral rotations were calculated. The intradiscal pressure of L4-L5 was 0.56-0.57 MPa, which agrees with the in vivo pressure of 0.5 MPa from the literatures. The models with the erector spinae muscle loaded in anterior-oblique direction showed the smallest reaction moments (less than 0.6 Nm) and intervertebral rotations of L3-L4 and L4-L5 (less than 0.2 degrees). In comparison with loading in the vertical direction and posterior-oblique direction, the erector spinae muscle loaded in the anterior-oblique direction required lower external force or moment to keep the lumbar spine in the neutral position.

  2. The effect of core stability and general exercise on abdominal muscle thickness in non-specific chronic low back pain using ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Shamsi, MohammadBagher; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Jamshidi, Aliashraf; Zarabi, Vida; Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-05-01

    There is a controversy regarding whether core stability exercise (CSE) is more effective than general exercise (GE) for chronic LBP. To compare different exercises regarding their effect on improving back strength and stability, performance of abdominal muscles is a useful index. Ultrasound imaging for measuring muscle thickness could be used to assess muscle performance. The aim of this study was to compare CSE and GE in chronic LBP using ultrasound imaging for measurement of thickness of the deep stabilizing and main global trunk muscles in non-specific chronic LBP. Each program included 16 training sessions three times a week. Using ultrasound imaging, four transabdominal muscle thickness were measured before and after the intervention. Disability and pain were measured as secondary outcomes. After the intervention on participants (n = 43), a significant increase in muscle thickness (hypertrophy) was seen only in right and left rectus abdominis in the GE group, but significant difference to the CSE group was only on the right side. Disability and pain reduced within the groups without a significant difference in the change between them. The present results provided evidence that only GE increased right and left rectus muscle thickness. The only significant difference between CSE and GE groups was the right rectus thickness. As rectus is a global muscle, the effect of GE on strength improvement (one side stronger than the other) may have a negative effect on motor control of lumbopelvic muscles and possibly increase the risk of back pain occurring or becoming worse, though this was not observed in the present study.

  3. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: ‘SCOPEX’ a randomised control trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. Methods/design 62 people aged 30–50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. Discussion The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home-based, physiotherapist

  4. The effects of neuromuscular exercise on medial knee joint load post-arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy: 'SCOPEX', a randomised control trial protocol.

    PubMed

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; Wrigley, Tim V; Roos, Ewa M; Hodges, Paul W; Staples, Margaret; Bennell, Kim L

    2012-11-27

    Meniscectomy is a risk factor for knee osteoarthritis, with increased medial joint loading a likely contributor to the development and progression of knee osteoarthritis in this group. Therefore, post-surgical rehabilitation or interventions that reduce medial knee joint loading have the potential to reduce the risk of developing or progressing osteoarthritis. The primary purpose of this randomised, assessor-blind controlled trial is to determine the effects of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee joint load during functional tasks in people who have recently undergone a partial medial meniscectomy. 62 people aged 30-50 years who have undergone an arthroscopic partial medial meniscectomy within the previous 3 to 12 months will be recruited and randomly assigned to a neuromuscular exercise or control group using concealed allocation. The neuromuscular exercise group will attend 8 supervised exercise sessions with a physiotherapist and will perform 6 exercises at home, at least 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The control group will not receive the neuromuscular training program. Blinded assessment will be performed at baseline and immediately following the 12-week intervention. The primary outcomes are change in the peak external knee adduction moment measured by 3-dimensional analysis during normal paced walking and one-leg rise. Secondary outcomes include the change in peak external knee adduction moment during fast pace walking and one-leg hop and change in the knee adduction moment impulse during walking, one-leg rise and one-leg hop, knee and hip muscle strength, electromyographic muscle activation patterns, objective measures of physical function, as well as self-reported measures of physical function and symptoms and additional biomechanical parameters. The findings from this trial will provide evidence regarding the effect of a home-based, physiotherapist-supervised neuromuscular exercise program on medial knee

  5. Validity of real-time ultrasound imaging to measure anterior hip muscle size: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mendis, M Dilani; Wilson, Stephen J; Stanton, Warren; Hides, Julie A

    2010-09-01

    Clinical measurement, criterion standard. To investigate the validity of real-time ultrasound imaging (USI) to measure individual anterior hip muscle cross-sectional area. The hip flexor muscles are important for hip joint function and could be affected by joint pathology or injury. Objectively documenting individual anterior hip muscle size can be useful in identifying muscle size asymmetry and monitoring treatment efficacy for patients with hip problems. USI offers a novel method of measuring individual muscle size in the clinic, but its validity in measuring the anterior hip muscles has not been investigated. Nine healthy participants (5 males, 4 females) underwent imaging of their iliopsoas, sartorius, and rectus femoris muscles with USI and magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral muscle cross-sectional areas were measured on images from both modalities. There was no significant difference (P>.05) in mean cross-sectional area measurements from USI and magnetic resonance imaging for each muscle. Agreement between measurements was high for the iliopsoas (left: intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC3,1] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.97; right: ICC3,1 = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.97), sartorius (left: ICC3,1 = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.96; right: ICC3,1 = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.95), and rectus femoris (left: ICC3,1 = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.96; right: ICC3,1 = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). Reliability of measuring each muscle with USI was high between 2 trials (ICCs3,1 = 0.84 to 0.94). USI is a valid measure of iliopsoas, sartorius, and rectus femoris muscle size in healthy people, as long as a strict measurement protocol is followed.

  6. Medial versus lateral supraspinatus tendon properties: implications for double-row rotator cuff repair.

    PubMed

    Wang, Vincent M; Wang, Fan Chia; McNickle, Allison G; Friel, Nicole A; Yanke, Adam B; Chubinskaya, Susan; Romeo, Anthony A; Verma, Nikhil N; Cole, Brian J

    2010-12-01

    (56.7% ± 3.6%, P < .05). Superior pullout resistance of medially placed sutures may provide a strain shielding effect for the lateral row after double-row repair. Larger diameter collagen fibrils as well as greater fibril area fraction in the medial supraspinatus tendon may provide greater resistance to suture migration. While clinical factors such as musculotendinous integrity warrant strong consideration for surgical decision making, the present ultrastructural and biomechanical results appear to provide a scientific rationale for double-row rotator cuff repair where sutures are placed more medially at the muscle-tendon junction.

  7. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Yo; Williams, Rhiannan H; Agostinelli, Lindsay; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Saper, Clifford B; Scammell, Thomas E

    2013-06-05

    Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy, episodes of profound muscle weakness that are often triggered by strong, positive emotions. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (also known as hypocretin) signaling, but almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy. Using orexin knock-out mice as a model of narcolepsy, we found that palatable foods, especially chocolate, markedly increased cataplexy and activated neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Reversible suppression of mPFC activity using an engineered chloride channel substantially reduced cataplexy induced by chocolate but did not affect spontaneous cataplexy. In addition, neurons in the mPFC innervated parts of the amygdala and lateral hypothalamus that contain neurons active during cataplexy and that innervate brainstem regions known to regulate motor tone. These observations indicate that the mPFC is a critical site through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy.

  8. Role of the medial prefrontal cortex in cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Oishi, Yo; Williams, Rhiannan H.; Agostinelli, Lindsay; Arrigoni, Elda; Fuller, Patrick M.; Mochizuki, Takatoshi; Saper, Clifford B.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    Narcolepsy is characterized by chronic sleepiness and cataplexy - episodes of profound muscle weakness that are often triggered by strong, positive emotions. Narcolepsy with cataplexy is caused by a loss of orexin (also known as hypocretin) signaling, but almost nothing is known about the neural mechanisms through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy. Using orexin knockout mice as a model of narcolepsy, we found that palatable foods, especially chocolate, markedly increased cataplexy and activated neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). Reversible suppression of mPFC activity using an engineered chloride channel substantially reduced cataplexy induced by chocolate but did not affect spontaneous cataplexy. In addition, neurons in the mPFC innervated parts of the amygdala and lateral hypothalamus that contain neurons active during cataplexy, and that innervate brainstem regions known to regulate motor tone. These observations indicate that the mPFC is a critical site through which positive emotions trigger cataplexy. PMID:23739971

  9. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lower extremity muscle functions during full squats.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D G E; Wilson, Jean-Marie J; St Pierre, Taunya A

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the functions of the gluteus maximus, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, soleus, gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles about their associated joints during full (deep-knee) squats. Muscle function was determined from joint kinematics, inverse dynamics, electromyography, and muscle length changes. The subjects were six experienced, male weight lifters. Analyses revealed that the prime movers during ascent were the monoarticular gluteus maximus and vasti muscles (as exemplified by vastus lateralis) and to a lesser extent the soleus muscles. The biarticular muscles functioned mainly as stabilizers of the ankle, knee, and hip joints by working eccentrically to control descent or transferring energy among the segments during scent. During the ascent phase, the hip extensor moments of force produced the largest powers followed by the ankle plantar flexors and then the knee extensors. The hip and knee extensors provided the initial bursts of power during ascent with the ankle extensors and especially a second burst from the hip extensors adding power during the latter half of the ascent.

  11. Rectus sheath block: successful use in the chronic pain management of pediatric abdominal wall pain.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Adam V; Lauder, Gillian R

    2007-12-01

    Seven pediatric patients (aged 11-16 years) with chronic abdominal wall pain are presented who gained significant relief from a rectus sheath block (RSB). We describe the case histories and review the relevant literature for this technique. The etiology of the abdominal wall pain was considered to be abdominal cutaneous nerve entrapment, iatrogenic peripheral nerve injury, myofascial pain syndrome or was unknown. All patients showed significant initial improvement in pain and quality of life. Three patients required only the RSB to enable them to be pain-free and return to normal schooling and physical activities. Two children received complete relief for more than 1 year. In the majority of cases, the procedure was carried out under general anesthesia as a daycase procedure. Local anesthetic and steroids were used. This is the first report of the successful use of this technique in the chronic pain management setting in children.

  12. Direct Trocar Insertion with Elevation of the Rectus Sheath in Bariatric Surgery: A Novel Technique.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Mani; Seyit, Hakan; Kones, Osman; Kartal, Bahadir; Alis, Halil

    2017-12-30

    Initial trocar entry, the first step in laparoscopic surgery, is associated with several complications. In morbidly obese patients, initial trocar placement is associated with a greater number of complications compared to non-obese patients. Materials and Surgical Technique. In this study, we describe our use of an initial trocar entry technique which is direct trocar insertion with elevation of the rectus sheath by a single Backhaus towel clamp and we would like to evaluate the sa fety and efficacy of its administration in bariatric surgery. Our results indicate that gaining initial trocar entry using our technique leads to successful laparoscopic bariatric surgery. Our technique is a safe, effective, and reliable first step in successful laparoscopic surgery for almost all patients, and is only contraindicated in patients with severe hepatomegaly.

  13. Abdominal compartment syndrome due to spontaneous rectus sheath hematoma with extension into the retroperitoneal space

    PubMed Central

    Strain, Jay; Kaplan, Mark J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rectus sheath hematoma (RSH) is an increasingly common clinical condition in our hospitals due to the increasing use of anticoagulant therapies for various purposes among our patients. Treatment of spontaneous RSH is generally conservative. For continued bleeding, interventional radiologic identification and subsequent embolization is an effective option. Surgery usually involves significant morbidity and is considered a technique of last resort. In this case report, we describe the case of middle aged female who developed abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) from a large RSH that had extended into the retroperitoneum. The patient underwent abdominal decompression with removal of the hematoma and subsequently fared very well. Patients with large RSHs extending into the retroperitoneum should undergo constant monitoring of their abdominal pressures for early detection and treatment of potentially deadly condition of ACS. PMID:29181148

  14. The surgical rectus sheath block for post-operative analgesia: a modern approach to an established technique.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Emma J; Massiah, Nadine S; Achiampong, Josephine Y; Dolling, Stuart; Slade, Richard J

    2012-02-01

    To describe the surgical rectus sheath block for post-operative pain relief following major gynaecological surgery. Local anaesthetic (20 ml 0.25% bupivacaine bilaterally) is administered under direct vision to the rectus sheath space at the time of closure of the anterior abdominal wall. We conducted a retrospective case note review of 98 consecutive patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery for benign or malignant disease who received either standard subcutaneous infiltration of the wound with local anaesthetic (LA, n=51) or the surgical rectus sheath block (n=47) for post-operative pain relief. (1) Pain scores on waking, (2) duration of morphine-based patient controlled analgesia (PCA), (3) quantity of morphine used during the first 48 post-operative hours and (4) length of post-operative stay. The groups were similar in age, the range of procedures performed and the type of pathology observed. Patients who received the surgical rectus sheath block had lower pain scores on waking [0 (0-1) vs. 2 (1-3), p<0.001], required less morphine post-operatively [12 mg (9-26) vs. 36 mg (30-48), p<0.001], had their PCAs discontinued earlier [24h (18-34) vs. 37 h (28-48), p<0.001] and went home earlier [4 days (3-4) vs. 5 days post-op (4-8), p<0.001] [median (interquartile range)] than patients receiving standard subcutaneous local anaesthetic into the wound. The surgical rectus sheath block appears to provide effective post-operative analgesia for patients undergoing major gynaecological surgery. A randomised controlled clinical trial is required to assess its efficacy further. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional and morphological variety in trunk muscles of Urodela.

    PubMed

    Omura, Ayano; Anzai, Wataru; Endo, Hideki

    2014-03-01

    Trunk musculature in Urodela species varies by habitat. In this study, trunk musculature was examined in five species of adult salamanders representing three different habitats: aquatic species, Amphiuma tridactylum and Necturus maculosus; semi-aquatic species, Cynops pyrrhogaster; terrestrial species, Hynobius nigrescens and Ambystoma tigrinum. More terrestrial species have heavier dorsal and ventral trunk muscles than more aquatic forms. By contrast, the lateral hypaxial musculature was stronger in more aquatic species. The number of layers of lateral hypaxial musculature varied among Urodela species and did not clearly correlate with their habitats. The M. rectus abdominis was separated from the lateral hypaxial musculature in both terrestrial and semi-aquatic species. In aquatic species, M. rectus abdominis was not separated from lateral hypaxial musculature. Lateral hypaxial musculature differed in thickness among species and was relatively thinner in terrestrial species. In more terrestrial species, dorsal muscles may be used for stabilization and ventral flexing against gravity. Ventral muscle may be used in preventing dorsally concave curvature of the trunk by dorsal muscles and by weight. The lengthy trunk supported by limbs needs muscular forces along the ventral contour line in more terrestrial species. And, the locomotion on well-developed limbs seems to lead to a decrease of the lateral hypaxial musculature.

  16. Skeletal muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  17. Medial Elbow Joint Space Increases With Valgus Stress and Decreases When Cued to Perform A Maximal Grip Contraction.

    PubMed

    Pexa, Brett S; Ryan, Eric D; Myers, Joseph B

    2018-04-01

    Previous research indicates that the amount of valgus torque placed on the elbow joint during overhead throwing is higher than the medial ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) can tolerate. Wrist and finger flexor muscle activity is hypothesized to make up for this difference, and in vitro studies that simulated activity of upper extremity musculature, specifically the flexor digitorum superficialis and flexor carpi ulnaris, support this hypothesis. To assess the medial elbow joint space at rest, under valgus stress, and under valgus stress with finger and forearm flexor contraction by use of ultrasonography in vivo. Controlled laboratory study. Participants were 22 healthy males with no history of elbow dislocation or UCL injury (age, 21.25 ± 1.58 years; height, 1.80 ± 0.08 m; weight, 79.43 ± 18.50 kg). Medial elbow joint space was measured by use of ultrasonography during 3 separate conditions: at rest (unloaded), under valgus load (loaded), and with a maximal grip contraction under a valgus load (loaded-contracted) in both limbs. Participants lay supine with their arm abducted 90° and elbow flexed 30° with the forearm in full supination. A handgrip dynamometer was placed in the participants' hand to grip against during the contracted condition. Images were reduced in ImageJ to assess medial elbow joint space. A 2-way (condition × limb) repeated-measures analysis of variance and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess changes in medial elbow joint space. Post hoc testing was performed with a Bonferroni adjustment to assess changes within limb and condition. The medial elbow joint space was significantly larger in the loaded condition (4.91 ± 1.16 mm) compared with the unloaded condition (4.26 ± 1.23 mm, P < .001, d = 0.712) and the loaded-contracted condition (3.88 ± 0.94 mm, P < .001, d = 1.149). No significant change was found between the unloaded and loaded-contracted conditions ( P = .137). Medial elbow joint space increases under a valgus load and then

  18. Detection of Leishmania spp. and associated inflammation in ocular-associated smooth and striated muscles in dogs with patent leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, Carolina; Fondevila, Dolors; Leiva, Marta; Roura, Xavier; Peña, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    Canine leishmaniosis is a disease characterized by the wide distribution of the parasite throughout the tissues of the host. The purpose of this study was to describe the presence of Leishmania spp. and associated inflammation in ocular-associated muscles of dogs with patent leishmaniosis. Smooth muscles (iris dilator muscle, iris sphincter muscle, ciliary muscle, Müller muscle, smooth muscle of the periorbita and smooth muscle of the nictitating membrane) and striated muscles (orbicularis oculi muscle, obliquus dorsalis muscle and dorsal rectus muscle) were evaluated. Routine staining with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemistry to detect Leishmania spp. were performed on tissue sections. Granulomatous inflammation was seen surrounding muscular fibers and was composed mainly of macrophages with scattered lymphocytes and plasma cells. This infiltrate could be seen in 52/473 (10.99%) samples of smooth muscle and 36/142 (25.35%) samples of striated muscle. Parasites were detected in 43/473 (9.09%) samples of smooth muscle and in 28/142 (19.71%) samples of striated muscle. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report assessing the presence of Leishmania spp. and associated infiltrate in intraocular, extraocular and adnexal smooth and striated muscles. The inflammation present in those muscles could contribute to clinical signs already described, such as blepharitis, uveitis, and orbital cellulitis.

  19. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  20. Successful application of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy to orbital floor trapdoor fracture in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yasunori; Sakaida, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masayoshi; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2016-10-01

    Although surgical treatment of orbital floor fractures can be performed by many different approaches, the application of endoscopic modified medial maxillectomy (EMMM) for this condition has rarely been described in the literature. We report on a case of a 7-year-old boy with a trapdoor orbital floor fracture successfully treated with the application of EMMM. The patient suffered trauma to the right orbit floor and the inferior rectus was entrapped at the orbital floor. Initially, surgical repair via endoscopic endonasal approach was attempted. However, we were unable to adequately access the orbital floor through the maxillary ostium. Therefore, an alternative route of access to the orbital floor was established by EMMM. With sufficient visualization and operating space, the involved orbital content was completely released from the entrapment site and reduced into the orbit. To facilitate wound healing, the orbital floor was supported with a water-inflated urethral balloon catheter for 8 days. At follow-up 8 months later, there was no gaze restriction or complications associated with the EMMM. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of EMMM in endoscopic endonasal repair of orbital floor fracture, particularly for cases with a narrow nasal cavity such as in pediatric patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of using a suspension training system on muscle activation during the performance of a front plank exercise.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Jeannette M; Bishop, Nicole S; Caines, Andrew M; Crane, Kalynn A; Feaver, Ashley M; Pearcey, Gregory E P

    2014-11-01

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of suspension training on muscle activation during performance of variations of the plank exercise. Twenty-one participants took part. All individuals completed 2 repetitions each of 4 different plank exercises that consisted of a floor based plank, or planks with arms suspended, feet suspended, or feet and arms suspended using a TRX Suspension System. During plank performance, muscle activation was recorded from rectus abdominis, external oblique, rectus femoris, and serratus anterior (SA) muscles using electromyography. All planks were performed for a total of 3 seconds. Resulting muscle activation data were amplitude normalized, and root mean square activation was then determined over the full 3 second duration of the exercise. A significant main effect of plank type was found for all muscles. Post hoc analysis and effect size examination indicated that abdominal muscle activation was higher in all suspended conditions compared to the floor based plank. The highest level of abdominal muscle activation occurred in the arms suspended and arms/feet suspended conditions, which did not differ from one another. Rectus femoris activation was greatest during the arms suspended condition, whereas SA activity peaked during normal and feet suspended planks. These results indicate that suspension training as performed in this study seems to be an effective means of increasing muscle activation during the plank exercise. Contrary to expectations, the additional instability created by suspending both the arms and feet did not result in any additional abdominal muscle activation. These findings have implications in prescription and progression of core muscle training programs.

  2. L-acetylcarnitine enhances functional muscle re-innervation.

    PubMed

    Pettorossi, V E; Brunetti, O; Carobi, C; Della Torre, G; Grassi, S

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of L-acetylcarnitine and L-carnitine treatment on motor re-innervation was analyzed by evaluating different muscular parameters describing functional muscle recovery after denervation and re-innervation. The results show that L-acetylcarnitine markedly enhances functional muscle re-innervation, which on the contrary is unaffected by L-carnitine. The medial gastrocnemius muscle was denervated by cutting the nerve at the muscle entry point. After 20 days the sectioned nerve was resutured into the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and the extent of re-innervation was monitored 45 days later. L-acetylcarnitine-treated animals show significantly higher twitch and tetanic tensions of re-innervated muscle. Furthermore the results, obtained by analysing the twitch time to peak and tetanic contraction-relaxation times, suggest that L-acetylcarnitine mostly affects the functional re-innervation of slow motor units. The possible mechanisms by which L-acetylcarnitine facilitates such motor and nerve recovery are discussed.

  3. Posterior medial meniscus detachment: a unique type of medial meniscal tear.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Richard A; DeHaan, Alex; Baldwin, James L

    2009-10-01

    Patients with posterior medial meniscal detachment, as determined at knee arthroscopy, were evaluated retrospectively. Mean follow-up was 5.3 years for 8 men and 20 women (30 knees; mean age, 57 years). Most patients had acute onset of pain with a minor specific incident. Seventeen patients were obese, 9 were overweight, and 2 were normal. Eleven of 22 magnetic resonance imaging evaluations detected a tear at the site of the posterior medial meniscus root. Nine of 16 bone scan evaluations showed moderate uptake medially. Arthroscopic treatment included partial medial meniscectomy or meniscal repair. Twelve knees (40%) showed significant progression of arthritis. Of the 7 patients with severe arthritic knees, 5 have subsequently undergone total knee arthroplasty, 1 is considering total knee arthroplasty, and the other has minimal symptoms. Patients should be counseled about the clinical course of posterior medial meniscus detachment and its potential for progressive arthritis in the joint.

  4. Dendrites of medial olivocochlear neurons in mouse.

    PubMed

    Brown, M C; Levine, J L

    2008-06-12

    Stains for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and retrograde labeling with Fluorogold (FG) were used to study olivocochlear neurons and their dendritic patterns in mice. The two methods gave similar results for location and number of somata. The total number of medial olivocochlear (MOC) neurons in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body (VNTB) is about 170 per side. An additional dozen large olivocochlear neurons are located in the dorsal periolivary nucleus (DPO). Dendrites of all of these neurons are long and extend in all directions from the cell bodies, a pattern that contrasts with the sharp frequency tuning of their responses. For VNTB neurons, there were greater numbers of dendrites directed medially than laterally and those directed medially were longer (on average, 25-50% longer). Dendrite extensions were most pronounced for neurons located in the rostral portion of the VNTB. When each dendrite from a single neuron was represented as a vector, and all the vectors summed, the result was also skewed toward the medial direction. DPO neurons, however, had more symmetric dendrites that projected into more dorsal parts of the trapezoid body, suggesting that this small group of olivocochlear neurons has very different physiological properties. Dendrites of both types of neurons were somewhat elongated rostrally, about 20% longer than those directed caudally. These results can be interpreted as extensions of dendrites of olivocochlear neurons toward their synaptic inputs: medially to meet crossing fibers from the cochlear nucleus that are part of the MOC reflex pathway, and rostrally to meet descending inputs from higher centers.

  5. Age-related differences in muscle activity patterns during walking in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Van Criekinge, Tamaya; Saeys, Wim; Hallemans, Ann; Van de Walle, Patricia; Vereeck, Luc; De Hertogh, Willem; Truijen, Steven

    2018-05-26

    To examine how muscle activity over the entire gait cycle changes with increasing age. Electromyography data of the erector spinae, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles were collected by an instrumented gait analysis during over ground walking in healthy adults aged between 20 and 89 years. Participants were categorized per decade (n = 105, 15 per decade, decades 3-9). Normalized integrated linear envelopes of the electromyographic signal were calculated for one stride. A one way ANOVA using spm1d statistics explored the differences between age groups, followed by a post hoc analysis. While initiation of decline commenced at the age of 60 for erector spinae and tibialis anterior, age-related changes are most pronounced after the age of 80. Concerning timing of muscle activity, subjects in decade 7-9 had prolonged activity and/or early activity of the erector spinae, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius compared to other decades. Regarding amplitude of muscle activity, decreased peak amplitudes of the erector spinae, rectus femoris, vastus lateralis and gastrocnemius were observed in decades 7-9 compared to other decades. Both timing and amplitude of muscle activation patterns need to be considered to understand the aging process. Regarding the erector spinae, tibialis anterior and vastus lateralis, a decrease in muscle activation coincides with prolonged activity, compared to the gastrocnemius where decreased muscle activation is associated with early activation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Resorlu, Mustafa; Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear.

  7. The Relationship between Chondromalacia Patella, Medial Meniscal Tear and Medial Periarticular Bursitis in Patients with Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Doner, Davut; Karatag, Ozan; Toprak, Canan Akgun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigated the presence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee (pes anserine, semimembranosus-tibial collateral ligament, and medial collateral ligament bursa) in osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tears. Patients and methods Radiological findings of 100 patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary diagnosis of knee pain were retrospectively evaluated by two radiologists. The first radiologist assessed all patients in terms of osteoarthritis, chondromalacia patella and medial meniscal tear. The second radiologist was blinded to these results and assessed the presence of bursitis in all patients. Results Mild osteoarthritis (grade I and II) was determined in 55 patients and severe osteoarthritis (grade III and IV) in 45 cases. At retropatellar cartilage evaluation, 25 patients were assessed as normal, while 29 patients were diagnosed with mild chondromalacia patella (grade I and II) and 46 with severe chondromalacia patella (grade III and IV). Medial meniscus tear was determined in 51 patients. Severe osteoarthritis and chondromalacia patella were positively correlated with meniscal tear (p < 0.001 and p = 0.018, respectively). Significant correlation was observed between medial meniscal tear and bursitis in the medial compartment (p = 0.038). Presence of medial periarticular bursitis was positively correlated with severity of osteoarthritis but exhibited no correlation with chondromalacia patella (p = 0.023 and p = 0.479, respectively). Evaluation of lateral compartment bursae revealed lateral collateral ligament bursitis in 2 patients and iliotibial bursitis in 5 patients. Conclusions We observed a greater prevalence of bursitis in the medial compartment of the knee in patients with severe osteoarthritis and medial meniscus tear. PMID:29333118

  8. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle atrophy may include: Burns Long-term corticosteroid therapy Malnutrition Muscular dystrophy and other diseases of the muscle Osteoarthritis Rheumatoid arthritis Home Care An exercise program ...

  9. Locally acting ACE-083 increases muscle volume in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Glasser, Chad E; Gartner, Michael R; Wilson, Dawn; Miller, Barry; Sherman, Matthew L; Attie, Kenneth M

    2018-02-27

    ACE-083 is a locally acting follistatin-based therapeutic that binds myostatin and other muscle regulators and has been shown to increase muscle mass and force in neuromuscular disease mouse models. This first-in-human study examined these effects. In this phase 1, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging study in healthy postmenopausal women, ACE-083 (50-200 mg) or placebo was administered unilaterally into rectus femoris (RF) or tibialis anterior (TA) muscles as 1 or 2 doses 3 weeks apart. Fifty-eight postmenopausal women were enrolled, 42 ACE-083 and 16 placebo. No serious adverse events (AE), dose-limiting toxicities, or discontinuations resulting from AEs occurred. Maximum (mean ± SD) increases in RF and TA muscle volume were 14.5% ± 4.5% and 8.9% ± 4.7%, respectively. No significant changes in mean muscle strength were observed. ACE-083 was well tolerated and resulted in significant targeted muscle growth. ACE-083 may have the potential to increase muscle mass in a wide range of neuromuscular disorders. Muscle Nerve, 2018. © 2018 The Authors Muscle & Nerve Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Trunk muscle recruitment patterns in simulated precrash events.

    PubMed

    Ólafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Fice, Jason B; Mang, Daniel W H; Brolin, Karin; Davidsson, Johan; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2018-02-28

    To quantify trunk muscle activation levels during whole body accelerations that simulate precrash events in multiple directions and to identify recruitment patterns for the development of active human body models. Four subjects (1 female, 3 males) were accelerated at 0.55 g (net Δv = 4.0 m/s) in 8 directions while seated on a sled-mounted car seat to simulate a precrash pulse. Electromyographic (EMG) activity in 4 trunk muscles was measured using wire electrodes inserted into the left rectus abdominis, internal oblique, iliocostalis, and multifidus muscles at the L2-L3 level. Muscle activity evoked by the perturbations was normalized by each muscle's isometric maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) activity. Spatial tuning curves were plotted at 150, 300, and 600 ms after acceleration onset. EMG activity remained below 40% MVC for the three time points for most directions. At the 150- and 300 ms time points, the highest EMG amplitudes were observed during perturbations to the left (-90°) and left rearward (-135°). EMG activity diminished by 600 ms for the anterior muscles, but not for the posterior muscles. These preliminary results suggest that trunk muscle activity may be directionally tuned at the acceleration level tested here. Although data from more subjects are needed, these preliminary data support the development of modeled trunk muscle recruitment strategies in active human body models that predict occupant responses in precrash scenarios.

  11. Refinements in pectus carinatum correction: the pectoralis muscle split technique.

    PubMed

    Schwabegger, Anton H; Jeschke, Johannes; Schuetz, Tanja; Del Frari, Barbara

    2008-04-01

    The standard approach for correction of pectus carinatum deformity includes elevation of the pectoralis major and rectus abdominis muscle from the sternum and adjacent ribs. A postoperative restriction of shoulder activity for several weeks is necessary to allow stable healing of the elevated muscles. To reduce postoperative immobilization, we present a modified approach to the parasternal ribs using a pectoralis muscle split technique. At each level of rib cartilage resection, the pectoralis muscle is split along the direction of its fibers instead of elevating the entire muscle as performed with the standard technique. From July 2000 to May 2007, we successfully used this technique in 33 patients with pectus carinatum deformity. After the muscle split approach, patients returned to full unrestricted shoulder activity as early as 3 weeks postoperatively, compared to 6 weeks in patients treated with muscle flap elevation. Postoperative pain was reduced and the patients were discharged earlier from the hospital than following the conventional approach. The muscle split technique is a modified surgical approach to the parasternal ribs in patients with pectus carinatum deformity. It helps to maintain pectoralis muscle vascularization and function and can reduce postoperative pain, hospitalization, and rehabilitation period.

  12. Muscles that do not cross the knee contribute to the knee adduction moment and tibiofemoral compartment loading during gait.

    PubMed

    Sritharan, Prasanna; Lin, Yi-Chung; Pandy, Marcus G

    2012-10-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate and explain the individual muscle contributions to the medial and lateral knee compartment forces during gait, and to determine whether these quantities could be inferred from their contributions to the external knee adduction moment. Gait data from eight healthy male subjects were used to compute each individual muscle contribution to the external knee adduction moment, the net tibiofemoral joint reaction force, and reaction moment. The individual muscle contributions to the medial and lateral compartment forces were then found using a least-squares approach. While knee-spanning muscles were the primary contributors, non-knee-spanning muscles (e.g., the gluteus medius) also contributed substantially to the medial compartment compressive force. Furthermore, knee-spanning muscles tended to compress both compartments, while most non-knee-spanning muscles tended to compress the medial compartment but unload the lateral compartment. Muscle contributions to the external knee adduction moment, particularly those from knee-spanning muscles, did not accurately reflect their tendencies to compress or unload the medial compartment. This finding may further explain why gait modifications may reduce the knee adduction moment without necessarily decreasing the medial compartment force. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  13. Assessment of muscle fatigue during biking.

    PubMed

    Knaflitz, Marco; Molinari, Filippo

    2003-03-01

    The analysis of the surface myoelectric signal recorded while a muscle is performing a sustained contraction is a valuable tool for assessing the progression of localized fatigue. It is well known that the modifications of the spectral content of the myoelectric signal are mainly related to changes in the interstitial fluid pH, which, in turn, affect the membrane excitability of the active muscle fibers. This paper describes the effects of muscle fatigue on the surface myoelectric signal recorded from three thigh and leg muscles during biking, on a population consisting of 22 young healthy volunteers. The purpose of this study was to obtain normative data relative to an exercise protocol mild enough to be applicable, in the future, to pathological subjects as well. Each subject was asked to exercise 30 min on a cycloergometer at a constant velocity and against a constant torque. While subjects were biking, the surface myoelectric signal was recorded from the rectus femoris, the biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius muscles. In this study, we considered two different aspects of muscle fatigue: first, the localized muscle fatigue as shown by the decrement of the instantaneous frequency of the myoelectric signal during the exercise; second, the modifications of the muscle ON-OFF timing, which could be explained as a strategy for increasing endurance by modifying the role of different muscles during the exercise. The first aspect was studied by obtaining the spectral characteristics of the signals by means of bilinear time-frequency transforms and by applying an original estimator of the instantaneous frequency of stochastic processes based on cross time-frequency transforms. Our results demonstrated that none of the subjects showed significant signs of localized muscle fatigue, since the decrement of the instantaneous frequency during the exercise was always lower than 5% of its initial value. Muscle ON-OFF timing was obtained by applying to the raw myoelectric signal

  14. Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pradeep; Tomer, Ruchi; Menon, Vimla; Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Anudeepa

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT) as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS). Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A) and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B). Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2 Δ (22-35) exotropia for group A and -21.3 Δ (14-30) exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6 Δ esotropia (+20 to -8) for group A and 8 Δ (-2 to -20) exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from -3.8 to -3.6 versus -3.6 to -2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from -1.9 to -0.7 versus -1.5 to -0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields.

  15. Evaluation of periosteal fixation of lateral rectus and partial VRT for cases of exotropic Duane retraction syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pradeep; Tomer, Ruchi; Menon, Vimla; Saxena, Rohit; Sharma, Anudeepa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lateral rectus periosteal fixation and partial vertical rectus transpositioning (VRT) as treatment modalities to correct exotropic Duane retraction syndrome (Exo-DRS). Materials and Methods: Prospective interventional case study of cases of Exo-DRS with limitation of adduction. A total of 13 patients were subdivided into two groups. Six patients underwent only lateral rectus periosteal fixation (group A) and seven patients also underwent partial VRT (group B). Assessment involved prism bar cover test, abduction and adduction range, extent of binocular single visual field and exophthalmometry. These tests were repeated at 1 week, 1 month and 3 months post-operatively and data analyzed. Results: The pre-operative mean values and ranges were 26.2Δ (22-35) exotropia for group A and −21.3Δ (14-30) exotropia for group B. The post-operative mean and range was +0.6Δ esotropia (+20 to −8) for group A and 8Δ (−2 to −20) exotropia for group B. Mean grade of limitation of abduction changed from −3.8 to −3.6 versus −3.6 to −2.8 and mean grade of limitation of adduction changed from −1.9 to −0.7 versus −1.5 to −0.5 in the groups A and B respectively. Mean binocular single visual field changed from 14.7° to 23.3° in group A and 11.8° to 26.4° in the group B respectively. Conclusion: Lateral rectus periosteal fixation is an effective surgery to correct the exodeviation, anomalous head posture and improving adduction in Exo-DRS and partial VRT in addition is effective in improving abduction and binocular single visual fields. PMID:24618490

  16. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided vs. intraoperative rectus sheath block for pediatric umbilical hernia repair: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Litz, Cristen N; Farach, Sandra M; Fernandez, Allison M; Elliott, Richard; Dolan, Jenny; Patel, Nikhil; Zamora, Lillian; Colombani, Paul M; Walford, Nebbie E; Amankwah, Ernest K; Snyder, Christopher W; Danielson, Paul D; Chandler, Nicole M

    2017-06-01

    Regional anesthesia is commonly used in children. Our hypothesis was that percutaneous ultrasound-guided (PERC) rectus sheath blocks would result in lower postoperative pain scores compared to intraoperative (IO) rectus sheath blocks following umbilical hernia repair. A single-institution randomized blinded trial was conducted in pediatric patients undergoing elective umbilical hernia repair. The primary outcome was mean postoperative Wong-Baker pain score. Secondary outcomes included narcotic requirements and length of postoperative stay. Fifty-eight patients were included: 28 PERC and 30 IO. Operating room time was significantly longer in the PERC group (41 vs. 35min, p<0.01). Mean postoperative pain scores (PERC-2.6 vs. IO-3.3, p=0.11), morphine equivalents intraoperatively (PERC-0 vs. IO-0.04mg/kg, p=0.29) and postoperatively (PERC-0.04 vs. IO-0.09mg/kg, p=0.17), time to first postoperative narcotic dose (PERC-30 vs. IO-22min, p=0.33, log-rank test), and postoperative length of stay (PERC-76 vs. IO-80min, p=0.44) were similar. Following umbilical hernia repair in children, percutaneous ultrasound-guided and intraoperative rectus sheath blocks resulted in similar mean postoperative pain scores. There were no differences in secondary outcomes such as time to first narcotic, narcotic requirements, and length of stay. The additional resources required to complete a percutaneous ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block may not be warranted. Randomized controlled trial. Level I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medial elbow injury in young throwing athletes

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Bonnie; Nyland, John

    2013-01-01

    Summary This report reviews the anatomy, overhead throwing biomechanics, injury mechanism and incidence, physical examination and diagnosis, diagnostic imaging and conservative treatment of medial elbow injuries in young throwing athletes. Based on the information a clinical management decision-making algorithm is presented. PMID:23888291

  18. Affective Aprosodia from a Medial Frontal Stroke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Kenneth M.; Leon, Susan A.; Rosenbek, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Background and objectives: Whereas injury to the left hemisphere induces aphasia, injury to the right hemisphere's perisylvian region induces an impairment of emotional speech prosody (affective aprosodia). Left-sided medial frontal lesions are associated with reduced verbal fluency with relatively intact comprehension and repetition…

  19. Transperitoneal rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block for laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair: A novel approach.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Jun; Watanabe, Jun; Nagata, Masato; Sawatsubashi, Yusuke; Akiyama, Masaki; Tajima, Takehide; Arase, Koichi; Minagawa, Noritaka; Torigoe, Takayuki; Nakayama, Yoshifumi; Horishita, Reiko; Kida, Kentaro; Hamada, Kotaro; Hirata, Keiji

    2017-08-01

    A laparoscopic approach for inguinal hernia repair is now considered the gold standard. Laparoscopic surgery is associated with a significant reduction in postoperative pain. Epidural analgesia cannot be used in patients with perioperative anticoagulant therapy because of complications such as epidural hematoma. As such, regional anesthetic techniques, such as ultrasound-guided rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block, have become increasingly popular. However, even these anesthetic techniques have potential complications, such as rectus sheath hematoma, if vessels are damaged. We report the use of a transperitoneal laparoscopic approach for rectus sheath block and transversus abdominis plane block as a novel anesthetic procedure. An 81-year-old woman with direct inguinal hernia underwent laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal inguinal repair. Epidural anesthesia was not performed because anticoagulant therapy was administered. A Peti-needle™ was delivered through the port, and levobupivacaine was injected though the peritoneum. Surgery was performed successfully, and the anesthetic technique did not affect completion of the operative procedure. The patient was discharged without any complications. This technique was feasible, and the procedure was performed safely. Our novel analgesia technique has potential use as a standard postoperative regimen in various laparoscopic surgeries. Additional prospective studies to compare it with other techniques are required. © 2017 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The Efficacy of Bilateral Lateral Rectus Recession According to Secondary Deviation Measurements in Unilateral Exotropic Duane Retraction Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mezad-Koursh, Daphna; Leshno, Ari; Klein, Ainat; Stolovich, Chaim

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the surgical results of asymmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession in exotropic Duane retraction syndrome with abnormal face turn toward the opposite side according to secondary deviation measurements. Retrospective chart review. Seven cases of unilateral exotropic Duane retraction syndrome were reviewed. All cases had globe retraction on adduction and exotropia with limited adduction, five of which also had mild limitation of abduction. Four cases had upshoot/downshoot on adduction and all patients had face turn. Exotropia was measured in forced primary position. The average lateral rectus recession was 6.36 mm (range: 5.5 to 7.5 mm) in the affected eye and 7.36 mm (range: 6.5 to 8.5 mm) in the healthy eye. The mean follow-up period was 282 days. Mean exotropia in the forced primary position improved from 27.9 ± 5.7 prism diopters (PD) preoperatively to 7.9 ± 16.8 PD postoperatively (P = .025). Head position resolved completely in all but one case (P =.031). There were no significant changes in ductions. The results suggest that asymmetric bilateral lateral rectus recession in exotropic Duane retraction syndrome with abnormal head turn posture successfully eliminates abnormal head turn posture and exotropia in most cases. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2018;55(1):47-52.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  1. Proposed technique for open repair of a small umbilical hernia and rectus divarication with self-gripping mesh.

    PubMed

    Privett, B J; Ghusn, M

    2016-08-01

    There are a group of patients in which umbilical or epigastric hernias co-exist with rectus divarication. These patients have weak abdominal musculature and are likely to pose a higher risk of recurrence following umbilical hernia repair. We would like to describe a technique for open repair of small (<4 cm) midline hernias in patients with co-existing rectus divarication using self-adhesive synthetic mesh. The use of a self-adhesive mesh avoids the need for suture fixation of the mesh in the superior portion of the abdomen, allowing for a smaller skin incision. In 173 patients, preperitoneal self-fixating mesh has been used for the repair of midline hernias <4 cm in diameter. In 58 of these patients, the mesh was extended superiorly to reinforce a concurrent divarication. The described technique offers a simple option for open repair of small midline hernias in patients with co-existing rectus divarication, to decrease the risk of upper midline recurrence in an at-risk patient group. This initial case series is able to demonstrate a suitably low rate of recurrence and complications.

  2. Muscle imaging findings in GNE myopathy.

    PubMed

    Tasca, Giorgio; Ricci, Enzo; Monforte, Mauro; Laschena, Francesco; Ottaviani, Pierfrancesco; Rodolico, Carmelo; Barca, Emanuele; Silvestri, Gabriella; Iannaccone, Elisabetta; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Broccolini, Aldobrando

    2012-07-01

    GNE myopathy (MIM 600737) is an autosomal recessive muscle disease caused by mutations in the UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase (GNE) gene. Besides the typical phenotype, characterized by the initial involvement of the distal leg muscles that eventually spreads proximally with sparing of the quadriceps, uncommon presentations with a non-canonical clinical phenotype, unusual muscle biopsy findings or both are increasingly recognized. The aim of our study was to characterize the imaging pattern of pelvic and lower limb muscles in GNE myopathy, thus providing additional diagnostic clues useful in the identification of patients with atypical features. We retrospectively evaluated muscle MRI and CT scans of a cohort of 13 patients heterogeneous for GNE mutations and degree of clinical severity. We found that severe involvement of the biceps femoris short head and, to a lesser extent, of the gluteus minimus, tibialis anterior, extensor hallucis and digitorum longus, soleus and gastrocnemius medialis was consistently present even in patients with early or atypical disease. The vastus lateralis, not the entire quadriceps, was the only muscle spared in advanced stages, while the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius and medialis showed variable signs of fatty replacement. Younger patients showed hyperintensities on T2-weighted sequences in muscles with a normal or, more often, abnormal T1-weighted signal. Our results define a pattern of muscle involvement that appears peculiar to GNE myopathy. Although these findings need to be further validated in a larger cohort, we believe that the recognition of this pattern may be instrumental in the initial clinical assessment of patients with possible GNE myopathy.

  3. Electromyographic analysis of lower limb muscles during the golf swing performed with three different clubs.

    PubMed

    Marta, Sérgio; Silva, Luís; Vaz, João Rocha; Castro, Maria António; Reinaldo, Gustavo; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe and compare the EMG patterns of select lower limb muscles throughout the golf swing, performed with three different clubs, in non-elite middle-aged players. Fourteen golfers performed eight swings each using, in random order, a pitching wedge, 7-iron and 4-iron. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from lower limb muscles: tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, gluteus maximus, vastus medialis, rectus femoris and vastus lateralis. Three-dimensional high-speed video analysis was used to determine the golf swing phases. Results showed that, in average handicap golfers, the highest muscle activation levels occurred during the Forward Swing Phase, with the right semitendinosus and the right biceps femoris muscles producing the highest mean activation levels relative to maximal electromyography (70-76% and 68-73% EMG(MAX), respectively). Significant differences between the pitching wedge and the 4-iron club were found in the activation level of the left semitendinosus, right tibialis anterior, right peroneus longus, right vastus medialis, right rectus femuris and right gastrocnemius muscles. The lower limb muscles showed, in most cases and phases, higher mean values of activation on electromyography when golfers performed shots with a 4-iron club.

  4. Anatomy of the pubovisceral muscle origin: Macroscopic and microscopic findings within the injury zone.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinyong; Betschart, Cornelia; Ramanah, Rajeev; Ashton-Miller, James A; DeLancey, John O L

    2015-11-01

    The levator ani muscle (LA) injury associated with vaginal birth occurs in a characteristic site of injury on the inner surface of the pubic bone to the pubovisceral portion of the levator ani muscle's origin. This study investigated the gross and microscopic anatomy of the pubic origin of the LA in this region. Pubic origin of the levator ani muscle was examined in situ then harvested from nine female cadavers (35-98 years). A combination